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Sample records for resonance imaging study

  1. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of language.

    PubMed

    Small, Steven L; Burton, Martha W

    2002-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging of language builds on almost 150 years of study in neurology, psychology, linguistics, anatomy, and physiology. In recent years, there has been an explosion of research using functional imaging technology, especially positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), to understand the relationship between brain mechanisms and language processing. These methods combine high-resolution anatomic images with measures of language-specific brain activity to reveal neural correlates of language processing. This article reviews some of what has been learned about the neuroanatomy of language from these imaging techniques. We first discuss the normal case, organizing the presentation according to the levels of language, encompassing words (lexicon), sound structure (phonemes), and sentences (syntax and semantics). Next, we delve into some unusual language processing circumstances, including second languages and sign languages. Finally, we discuss abnormal language processing, including developmental and acquired dyslexia and aphasia.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Perfusion Imaging in the Study of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillis, Argye E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a brief review of various uses of magnetic resonance perfusion imaging in the investigation of brain/language relationships. The reviewed studies illustrate how perfusion imaging can reveal areas of brain where dysfunction due to low blood flow is associated with specific language deficits, and where restoration of blood flow…

  3. Magnetic Resonance Perfusion Imaging in the Study of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillis, Argye E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a brief review of various uses of magnetic resonance perfusion imaging in the investigation of brain/language relationships. The reviewed studies illustrate how perfusion imaging can reveal areas of brain where dysfunction due to low blood flow is associated with specific language deficits, and where restoration of blood flow…

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging for the study of mummies.

    PubMed

    Giovannetti, Giulio; Guerrini, Andrea; Carnieri, Emiliano; Salvadori, Piero A

    2016-07-01

    Nondestructive diagnostic imaging for mummies study has a long tradition and high-resolution images of the samples morphology have been extensively acquired by using computed tomography (CT). However, although in early reports no signal or image was obtained because of the low water content, mummy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was demonstrated able to generate images of such ancient specimens by using fast imaging techniques. Literature demonstrated the general feasibility of nonclinical MRI for visualizing historic human tissues, which is particularly interesting for archeology. More recently, multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was demonstrated able to detect numerous organic biochemicals from such remains. Although the quality of these images is not yet comparable to that of clinical magnetic resonance (MR) images, and further research will be needed for determining the full capacity of MR in this topic, the information obtained with MR can be viewed as complementary to the one provided by CT and useful for paleoradiological studies of mummies. This work contains an overview of the state of art of the emerging uses of MRI in paleoradiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Familial Essential Tremor Studied With Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, A.; Salgado, P.; Gil, A.; Barrios, F. A.

    2003-09-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging has become an important analytical tool to study neurodegenerative diseases. We applied the EPI-BOLD functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging technique to acquire functional images of patients with familial essential tremor (FET) disorder and healthy control volunteers, during a motor task activity. Functional and anatomic images were used to produce the brain activation maps of the patients and volunteers. These functional maps of the primary somatosensorial and motor cortexes of patients and control subjects were compared for functional differences per subject. The averaged functional brain images of eight of each case were acquired were, it can be clearly observed the differences in active zones. The results presented in this work show that there are differences in the functional maps during motor task activation between control subjects and FET patients suggesting a cerebral functional reorganization that can be mapped with BOLD-fMRI.

  6. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Procedures Medical Imaging MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging procedure for making ...

  7. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging for the study of fossils.

    PubMed

    Giovannetti, Giulio; Guerrini, Andrea; Salvadori, Piero A

    2016-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has long been used for investigating palaeontological specimens, as it is a nondestructive technique which avoids the need to dissolve or ionize the fossil sample. However, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have recently gained ground as analytical tools for examination of palaeontological samples, by nondestructively providing information about the structure and composition of fossils. While MRI techniques are able to reveal the three-dimensional geometry of the trace fossil, MRS can provide information on the chemical composition of the samples. The multidimensional nature of MR (magnetic resonance) signals has potential to provide rich three-dimensional data on the palaeontological specimens and also to help in elucidating paleopathological and paleoecological questions. In this work the verified applications and the emerging uses of MRI and MRS in paleontology are reviewed, with particular attention to fossil spores, fossil plants, ambers, fossil invertebrates, and fossil vertebrate studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Flow in porous metallic materials: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shoujun; Harel, Elad; Michalak, David J; Crawford, Charles W; Budker, Dmitry; Pines, Alexander

    2008-11-01

    To visualize flow dynamics of analytes inside porous metallic materials with laser-detected magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We examine the flow of nuclear-polarized water in a porous stainless steel cylinder. Laser-detected MRI utilizes a sensitive optical atomic magnetometer as the detector. Imaging was performed in a remote-detection mode: the encoding was conducted in the Earth's magnetic field, and detection is conducted downstream of the encoding location. Conventional MRI (7T) was also performed for comparison. Laser-detected MRI clearly showed MR images of water flowing through the sample, whereas conventional MRI provided no image. We demonstrated the viability of laser-detected MRI at low-field for studying porous metallic materials, extending MRI techniques to a new group of systems that is normally not accessible to conventional MRI. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Using surface plasmon resonance imaging to study bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Abadian, Pegah N; Tandogan, Nil; Jamieson, John J; Goluch, Edgar D

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes the use of Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging (SPRi) as an emerging technique to study bacterial physiology in real-time without labels. The overwhelming majority of bacteria on earth exist in large multicellular communities known as biofilms. Biofilms are especially problematic because they facilitate the survival of pathogens, leading to chronic and recurring infections as well as costly industrial complications. Monitoring biofilm accumulation and removal is therefore critical in these and other applications. SPRi uniquely provides label-free, high-resolution images of biomass coverage on large channel surfaces up to 1 cm(2) in real time, which allow quantitative assessment of biofilm dynamics. The rapid imaging capabilities of this technique are particularly relevant for multicellular bacterial studies, as these cells can swim several body lengths per second and divide multiple times per hour. We present here the first application of SPRi to image Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells moving, attaching, and forming biofilms across a large surface. This is also the first time that biofilm removal has been visualized with SPRi, which has important implications for monitoring the biofouling and regeneration of fluidic systems. Initial images of the removal process show that the biofilm releases from the surface as a wave along the direction of the fluid flow.

  10. The amygdala in schizophrenia: a trimodal magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Kalus, Peter; Slotboom, Johannes; Gallinat, Jürgen; Wiest, Roland; Ozdoba, Christoph; Federspiel, Andrea; Strik, Werner K; Buri, Caroline; Schroth, Gerhard; Kiefer, Claus

    2005-03-03

    In schizophrenic psychoses, structural and functional alterations of the amygdala have been demonstrated by several neuroimaging studies. However, postmortem examinations on the brains of schizophrenics did not confirm the volume changes reported by volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. In order to address these contradictory findings and to further elucidate the possibly underlying pathophysiological process of the amygdala, we employed a trimodal MRI design including high-resolution volumetry, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and quantitative magnetization transfer imaging (qMTI) in a sample of 14 schizophrenic patients and 14 matched controls. Three-dimensional MRI volumetry revealed a significant reduction of amygdala raw volumes in the patient group, while amygdala volumes normalized for intracranial volume did not differ between the two groups. The regional diffusional anisotropy of the amygdala, expressed as inter-voxel coherence (COH), showed a marked and significant reduction in schizophrenics. Assessment of qMTI parameters yielded significant group differences for the T2 time of the bound proton pool and the T1 time of the free proton pool, while the semi-quantitative magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) did not differ between the groups. The application of multimodal MRI protocols is diagnostically relevant for the differentiation between schizophrenic patients and controls and provides a new strategy for the detection and characterization of subtle structural alterations in defined regions of the living brain.

  11. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…

  12. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…

  13. [Diagnosis. Radiological study. Ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Because of its low cost, availability in primary care and ease of interpretation, simple X-ray should be the first-line imaging technique used by family physicians for the diagnosis and/or follow-up of patients with osteoarthritis. Nevertheless, this technique should only be used if there are sound indications and if the results will influence decision-making. Despite the increase of indications in patients with rheumatological disease, the role of ultrasound in patients with osteoarthritis continues to be limited. Computed tomography (CT) is of some -although limited- use in osteoarthritis, especially in the study of complex joints (such as the sacroiliac joint and facet joints). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has represented a major advance in the evaluation of joint cartilage and subchondral bone in patients with osteoarthritis but, because of its high cost and diagnostic-prognostic yield, this technique should only be used in highly selected patients. The indications for ultrasound, CT and MRI in patients with osteoarthritis continue to be limited in primary care and often coincide with situations in which the patient may require hospital referral. Patient safety should be bourne in mind. Patients should be protected from excessive ionizing radiation due to unnecessary repeat X-rays or inadequate views or to requests for tests such as CT, when not indicated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. A magnetic resonance imaging study of double elevator palsy.

    PubMed

    Cadera, W; Bloom, J N; Karlik, S; Viirre, E

    1997-06-01

    The pathophysiology of double elevator palsy is poorly understood. We assessed two patients with this condition using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate the appearance of the extraocular muscles. Cross-sectional study. Radiology department of a university-affiliated hospital in London, Ont. Two patients from a private ophthalmology practice who had undergone complete transpositions of the horizontal rectus muscles to treat hypotropia associated with double elevator palsy. MRI. A volume scanning technique was used to obtain maximum information about the muscles. Appearance of the extraocular muscles. In both patients MRI showed decreased volume of the superior rectus muscle on the affected side. The other rectus muscles were normal. This suggested either congenital hypoplasia or paresis of the involved superior rectus muscle. In addition, the full tendon transpositions of the medial and lateral recti did not appreciably change the middle and deep orbital pathways of the transposed horizontal rectus muscles. MRI may be a useful adjunct to saccadic velocity assessments in differentiating between primary inferior rectus restriction, primary superior rectus paresis and congenital supranuclear elevator deficiency.

  15. Narrow band deformable registration of prostate magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, and computed tomography studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schreibmann, Eduard; Xing Lei . E-mail: lei@reyes.stanford.edu

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: Endorectal (ER) coil-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is often used to obtain anatomic and metabolic images of the prostate and to accurately identify and assess the intraprostatic lesions. Recent advancements in high-field (3 Tesla or above) MR techniques affords significantly enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and makes it possible to obtain high-quality MRI data. In reality, the use of rigid or inflatable endorectal probes deforms the shape of the prostate gland, and the images so obtained are not directly usable in radiation therapy planning. The purpose of this work is to apply a narrow band deformable registration model to faithfully map the acquired information from the ER-based MRI/MRSI onto treatment planning computed tomography (CT) images. Methods and Materials: A narrow band registration, which is a hybrid method combining the advantages of pixel-based and distance-based registration techniques, was used to directly register ER-based MRI/MRSI with CT. The normalized correlation between the two input images for registration was used as the metric, and the calculation was restricted to those points contained in the narrow bands around the user-delineated structures. The narrow band method is inherently efficient because of the use of a priori information of the meaningful contour data. The registration was performed in two steps. First, the two input images were grossly aligned using a rigid registration. The detailed mapping was then modeled by free form deformations based on B-spline. The limited memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm (L-BFGS), which is known for its superior performance in dealing with high-dimensionality problems, was implemented to optimize the metric function. The convergence behavior of the algorithm was studied by self-registering an MR image with 100 randomly initiated relative positions. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, an MR image was

  16. Studies in nonlinear optics and functional magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Tehui

    There are two parts in this thesis. The first part will involve a study in the anomalous dispersion phase matched second-harmonic generation, and the second part will be a study in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a biophysical model of the human muscle. In part I, we report on a series of tricyanovinylaniline chromophores for use as dopants in poled poly(methyl methacrylate) waveguides for anomalous-dispersion phase- matched second-harmonic generation. Second-harmonic generation measurements as a function of mode index confirmed anomalous dispersion phase-matching efficiencies as large as 245%/Wcm2 over a propagation length of ~35 μm. The waveguide coupling technique limited the interaction length. The photostability of the chromophores was measured directly and found to agree qualitatively with second-harmonic measurements over time and was found to be improved over previously reported materials. In part II, we designed a system that could record joint force and surface electromyography (EMG) simultaneously with fMRI data. I-Egh quality force and EMG data were obtained at the same time that excellent fMRI brain images were achieved. Using this system we determined the relationship between the fMRI-measured brain activation and the handgrip force, and between the fMRI-measured brain activation and the EMG of finger flexor muscles. We found that in the whole brain and in the majority of motor function-related cortical fields, the degree of muscle activation is directly proportional to the amplitude of the brain signal determined by the fMRI measurement. The similarity in the relationship between muscle output and fMRI signal in a number of brain areas suggests that multiple cortical fields are involved in controlling muscle force. The factors that may contribute to the fMRI signals are discussed. A biophysical twitch force model was developed to predict force response under electrical stimulation. Comparison between experimental and modeled force

  17. Achromatic synesthesias - a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Melero, H; Ríos-Lago, M; Peña-Melián, A; Álvarez-Linera, J

    2014-09-01

    Grapheme-color synesthetes experience consistent, automatic and idiosyncratic colors associated with specific letters and numbers. Frequently, these specific associations exhibit achromatic synesthetic qualities (e.g. white, black or gray). In this study, we have investigated for the first time the neural basis of achromatic synesthesias, their relationship to chromatic synesthesias and the achromatic congruency effect in order to understand not only synesthetic color but also other components of the synesthetic experience. To achieve this aim, functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments were performed in a group of associator grapheme-color synesthetes and matched controls who were stimulated with real chromatic and achromatic stimuli (Mondrians), and with letters and numbers that elicited different types of grapheme-color synesthesias (i.e. chromatic and achromatic inducers which elicited chromatic but also achromatic synesthesias, as well as congruent and incongruent ones). The information derived from the analysis of Mondrians and chromatic/achromatic synesthesias suggests that real and synesthetic colors/achromaticity do not fully share neural mechanisms. The whole-brain analysis of BOLD signals in response to the complete set of synesthetic inducers revealed that the functional peculiarities of the synesthetic brain are distributed, and reflect different components of the synesthetic experience: a perceptual component, an (attentional) feature binding component, and an emotional component. Additionally, the inclusion of achromatic experiences has provided new evidence in favor of the emotional binding theory, a line of interpretation which constitutes a bridge between grapheme-color synesthesia and other developmental modalities of the phenomenon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiation-induced optic neuropathy: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, J.; Mancuso, A.; Beck, R.; Moster, M.L.; Sedwick, L.A.; Quisling, R.G.; Rhoton, A.L. Jr.; Protzko, E.E.; Schiffman, J. )

    1991-03-01

    Optic neuropathy induced by radiation is an infrequent cause of delayed visual loss that may at times be difficult to differentiate from compression of the visual pathways by recurrent neoplasm. The authors describe six patients with this disorder who experienced loss of vision 6 to 36 months after neurological surgery and radiation therapy. Of the six patients in the series, two had a pituitary adenoma and one each had a metastatic melanoma, multiple myeloma, craniopharyngioma, and lymphoepithelioma. Visual acuity in the affected eyes ranged from 20/25 to no light perception. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed sellar and parasellar recurrence of both pituitary adenomas, but the intrinsic lesions of the optic nerves and optic chiasm induced by radiation were enhanced after gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) administration and were clearly distinguishable from the suprasellar compression of tumor. Repeated MR imaging showed spontaneous resolution of gadolinium-DTPA enhancement of the optic nerve in a patient who was initially suspected of harboring recurrence of a metastatic malignant melanoma as the cause of visual loss. The authors found the presumptive diagnosis of radiation-induced optic neuropathy facilitated by MR imaging with gadolinium-DTPA. This neuro-imaging procedure may help avert exploratory surgery in some patients with recurrent neoplasm in whom the etiology of visual loss is uncertain.

  19. [Study of skin markers for magnetic resonance imaging examinations].

    PubMed

    Takatsu, Yasuo; Umezaki, Yoshie; Miyati, Tosiaki; Yamamura, Kenichirou

    2013-03-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), skin markers are used as a landmark in order to make plans for examinations. However, there isn't a lot of research about the material and shape of skin markers. The skin marker's essential elements are safety, good cost performance, high signal intensity for T1 weighted image (T1WI) and T2 weighted image (T2WI), and durable. In order to get a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of T1WI and T2WI, baby oil, salad oil and olive oil were chosen, because these materials were easy to obtain and safe for the skin. The SNR of baby oil was the best. Baby oil was injected into the infusion tube, and the tube was solvent welded and cut by a heat sealer. In order to make ring shaped skin markers, both ends of the tube were stuck with adhesive tape. Three different diameters of markers were made (3, 5, 10 cmψ). Ring shaped skin markers were put on to surround the examination area, therefore, the edge of the examination area could be seen at every cross section. Using baby oil in the ring shaped infusion tube is simple, easy, and a highly useful skin marker.

  20. Fetal imaging by nuclear magnetic resonance: a study in goats: work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, M.A.; Knight, C.H.; Rimmington, J.E.; Mallard, J.R.

    1983-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance proton imaging was used to obtain images of goat fetuses in utero. The long T1 relaxation time of amniotic fluid makes it appear black on proton density images when examined using the Aberdeen imager, and so allows very good discrimination of the position and structure of the fetus. Some fetal internal tissues can be seen on T1 images. These findings suggest that NMR imaging has great potential in pregnancy studies.

  1. Anthropometric study of the knee in patients with osteoarthritis: intraoperative measurement versus magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Loures, Fabrício Bolpato; Carrara, Renato Janetti; Góes, Rogério Franco de Araújo; Albuquerque, Rodrigo Sattamini Pires E; Barretto, João Maurício; Kinder, André; Gameiro, Vinicius Schott; Marchiori, Edson

    2017-01-01

    To compare intraoperative measurements of the knee with those obtained by magnetic resonance imaging, in order to validate the latter method for use in anthropometric studies. We studied 20 knees in 20 patients with osteoarthritis, all of whom underwent total arthroplasty between August and December of 2013. We took six measurements in the distal femur and two in the proximal tibia. Using the information system of the institution, we made the measurements on magnetic resonance imaging scans that had been obtained in the axial plane. Intraoperative measurements were obtained using a caliper, after the initial cuts made during the arthroplasty. The anatomical parameters determined by magnetic resonance imaging were the same as those determined by intraoperative measurement. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used in order to assess the level of agreement in anthropometric measurements of the knee performed by magnetic resonance imaging and by intraoperative measurement. Statistical analysis revealed a highly significant correlation between the knee anthropometric parameters of the knee determined by intraoperative measurement and those determined by magnetic resonance imaging. The dimensions of osteoarthritic knees measured by magnetic resonance imaging were similar to those measured intraoperatively. Therefore, magnetic resonance imaging can be considered a reliable method for use in large-scale anthropometric studies that will allow the available implants to be adapted and improved.

  2. Anthropometric study of the knee in patients with osteoarthritis: intraoperative measurement versus magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Loures, Fabrício Bolpato; Carrara, Renato Janetti; Góes, Rogério Franco de Araújo; Albuquerque, Rodrigo Sattamini Pires e; Barretto, João Maurício; Kinder, André; Gameiro, Vinicius Schott; Marchiori, Edson

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare intraoperative measurements of the knee with those obtained by magnetic resonance imaging, in order to validate the latter method for use in anthropometric studies. Materials and Methods: We studied 20 knees in 20 patients with osteoarthritis, all of whom underwent total arthroplasty between August and December of 2013. We took six measurements in the distal femur and two in the proximal tibia. Using the information system of the institution, we made the measurements on magnetic resonance imaging scans that had been obtained in the axial plane. Intraoperative measurements were obtained using a caliper, after the initial cuts made during the arthroplasty. The anatomical parameters determined by magnetic resonance imaging were the same as those determined by intraoperative measurement. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used in order to assess the level of agreement in anthropometric measurements of the knee performed by magnetic resonance imaging and by intraoperative measurement. Results: Statistical analysis revealed a highly significant correlation between the knee anthropometric parameters of the knee determined by intraoperative measurement and those determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusion: The dimensions of osteoarthritic knees measured by magnetic resonance imaging were similar to those measured intraoperatively. Therefore, magnetic resonance imaging can be considered a reliable method for use in large-scale anthropometric studies that will allow the available implants to be adapted and improved. PMID:28670028

  3. Preliminary study of diffusion-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging in Kimura disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Tang, Zuohua; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Zeng, Wenjiao; Tang, Weijun; Wu, Lingjie; Jin, Lixin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy imaging (MRSI) combined with computed tomography (CT) and conventional MR imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of Kimura disease (KD). The clinical data and CT and MRI findings of 5 patients with KD proven by histopathologic examination were retrospectively reviewed. Diffusion-weighted imaging and MRSI were performed at 1.5 T in 3 patients with KD. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and the choline/creatine ratio of the lesions were compared with those of the contralateral normal parotid glands. All imaging results were compared with histopathologic findings. The typical features of KD were subcutaneous lesions, continuously infiltrative parotid lesions with or without intraparotid lymphadenopathies, and reactive cervical lymphadenopathies on CT and conventional MRI. On DWI, the ADC values of all subcutaneous and infiltrative parotid lesions were higher compared to those of normal parotid glands, and the ADC values of reactive lymphadenopathies were lower compared to both. The choline/creatine levels of subcutaneous and infiltrative parotid lesions were slightly higher than those of normal parotid glands. In conclusion, DWI and MRSI offer valuable information that may be characteristic of KD, which can highly suggest the diagnosis of KD when combined with morphological imaging.

  4. Moisturization processes in living human skin studied by magnetic resonance imaging microscopy.

    PubMed

    Salter, D C; Hodgson, R J; Hall, L D; Carpenter, T A; Ablett, S

    1993-10-01

    Summary Magnetic resonance imaging is a non-invasive, non-destructive and chemically specific imaging method widely used in medicine to reveal information about both tissue structure and function. It can measure water in tissue, but it has been difficult to achieve the necessary sensitivity and resolution when applying it to studies of the dry, thin stratum corneum. In this paper the use of magnetic resonance imaging to image the outer layers of the skin with a resolution of 0.06 mm is reported. Configuring the magnetic resonance imaging method in this way has made it possible for the first time to actually 'see'directly the moisturization in the stratum corneum. It is no longer necessary to rely upon methods which can only show side-effects of moisturization, such as changes in the appearance of the skin cells. As magnetic resonance imaging is harmless, it can be used repeatedly on the same skin and so produce a series of stills, or a time-lapse video, clearly showing the actual process of moisturization and related phenomena. The behaviour of skin has been observed during both hydration and dehydration; the two processes follow different time courses. Two layers have been observed in the stratum corneum, which appear to be different when the skin is hydrated. For the first time the actual surface of normal skin has been revealed on magnetic resonance images.

  5. Electron spin resonance studies on deuterated nitroxyl spin probes used in Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    David Jebaraj, D; Utsumi, Hideo; Milton Franklin Benial, A

    2017-08-01

    The electron spin resonance studies were carried out for 2 mm concentration of (14) N-labeled and (15) N-labeled 3-carbamoyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine-1-oxyl, 3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine-1-oxyl, 3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine-1-oxyl and their deuterated nitroxyl radicals using X-band electron spin resonance spectrometer. The electron spin resonance line shape analysis was carried out. The electron spin resonance parameters such as linewidth, Lorentzian component, signal intensity ratio, rotational correlation time, hyperfine coupling constant and g-factor were estimated. The deuterated nitroxyl radicals have narrow linewidth and an increase in Lorentzian component, compared with undeuterated nitroxyl radicals. The dynamic nuclear polarization factor was observed for all nitroxyl radicals. Upon (2) H labeling, about 70% and 40% increase in dynamic nuclear polarization factor were observed for (14) N-labeled and (15) N-labeled nitroxyl radicals, respectively. The signal intensity ratio and g-value indicate the isotropic nature of the nitroxyl radicals in pure water. Therefore, the deuterated nitroxyl radicals are suitable spin probes for in vivo/in vitro electron spin resonance and Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging modalities. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, D.D.; Bradley, W.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a review of magnetic resonance imaging. Many topics are explored from instrumentation, spectroscopy, blood flow and sodium imaging to detailed clinical applications such as the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis or adrenal adenoma. The emphasis throughout is on descriptions of normal multiplanar anatomy and pathology as displayed by MRI.

  7. Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Stage I Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer: A Prospective Randomized Study.

    PubMed

    Brück, N; Koskivuo, I; Boström, P; Saunavaara, J; Aaltonen, R; Parkkola, R

    2017-04-01

    Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging has become an important complementary imaging technique in patients with breast cancer, providing additional information for preoperative local staging. Magnetic resonance imaging is recommended selectively in lobular breast cancer and in patients with dense breast tissue in the case when mammography and ultrasound fail to fully evaluate the lesion, but the routine use of magnetic resonance imaging in all patients with invasive ductal carcinoma is controversial. The purpose of this randomized study was to investigate the diagnostic value of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and its impact on short-term surgical outcome in newly diagnosed unifocal stage I invasive ductal carcinoma. A total of 100 patients were randomized to either receive preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging or to be scheduled directly to operation without magnetic resonance imaging on a 1:1 basis. There were 50 patients in both study arms. In 14 patients (28%), breast magnetic resonance imaging detected an additional finding and seven of them were found to be malignant. Six additional cancer foci were found in the ipsilateral breast and one in the contralateral breast. Magnetic resonance imaging findings caused a change in planned surgical management in 10 patients (20%). Mastectomy was performed in six patients (12%) in the magnetic resonance imaging group and in two patients (4%) in the control group ( p = 0.140). The breast reoperation rate was 14% in the magnetic resonance imaging group and 24% in the control group ( p = 0.202). The mean interval between referral and first surgical procedure was 34 days in the magnetic resonance imaging group and 21 days in the control group ( p < 0.001). Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging may be beneficial for some patients with early-stage invasive ductal carcinoma, but its routine use is not recommended without specific indications.

  8. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance tomoangiography: a new imaging technique for studying thoracic great vessels.

    PubMed

    Revel, D; Loubeyre, P; Delignette, A; Douek, P; Amiel, M

    1993-01-01

    The authors propose a new imaging approach for studying thoracic great vessels, using high-speed MR imaging combined with intravenous rapid bolus injection of a paramagnetic contrast media. The decrease of the T1 relaxation time of flowing blood induced by the contrast agent (Gd-DOTA) caused an increased signal intensity within the vessel lumen for a time period allowing multiplanar imaging of various vascular structures. The intraluminal signal enhancement is mainly related to the blood concentration of the contrast agent as in conventional X-ray angiography. Information on the aorta and pulmonary arteries obtained by the so-called contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance tomoangiography appears complementary to that obtained with other vascular MR imaging procedures such as cine-MRI and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA).

  9. A combined post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging and quantitative histological study of multiple sclerosis pathology.

    PubMed

    Kolasinski, James; Stagg, Charlotte J; Chance, Steven A; Deluca, Gabriele C; Esiri, Margaret M; Chang, Eun-Hyuk; Palace, Jacqueline A; McNab, Jennifer A; Jenkinson, Mark; Miller, Karla L; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2012-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory neurological condition characterized by focal and diffuse neurodegeneration and demyelination throughout the central nervous system. Factors influencing the progression of pathology are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that anatomical connectivity influences the spread of neurodegeneration. This predicts that measures of neurodegeneration will correlate most strongly between interconnected structures. However, such patterns have been difficult to quantify through post-mortem neuropathology or in vivo scanning alone. In this study, we used the complementary approaches of whole brain post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging and quantitative histology to assess patterns of multiple sclerosis pathology. Two thalamo-cortical projection systems were considered based on their distinct neuroanatomy and their documented involvement in multiple sclerosis: lateral geniculate nucleus to primary visual cortex and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus to prefrontal cortex. Within the anatomically distinct thalamo-cortical projection systems, magnetic resonance imaging derived cortical thickness was correlated significantly with both a measure of myelination in the connected tract and a measure of connected thalamic nucleus cell density. Such correlations did not exist between these markers of neurodegeneration across different thalamo-cortical systems. Magnetic resonance imaging lesion analysis depicted clearly demarcated subcortical lesions impinging on the white matter tracts of interest; however, quantitation of the extent of lesion-tract overlap failed to demonstrate any appreciable association with the severity of markers of diffuse pathology within each thalamo-cortical projection system. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging metrics in both white matter tracts were correlated significantly with a histologically derived measure of tract myelination. These data demonstrate for the first time the relevance of functional

  10. A combined post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging and quantitative histological study of multiple sclerosis pathology

    PubMed Central

    Kolasinski, James; Chance, Steven A.; DeLuca, Gabriele C.; Esiri, Margaret M.; Chang, Eun-Hyuk; Palace, Jacqueline A.; McNab, Jennifer A.; Jenkinson, Mark; Miller, Karla L.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory neurological condition characterized by focal and diffuse neurodegeneration and demyelination throughout the central nervous system. Factors influencing the progression of pathology are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that anatomical connectivity influences the spread of neurodegeneration. This predicts that measures of neurodegeneration will correlate most strongly between interconnected structures. However, such patterns have been difficult to quantify through post-mortem neuropathology or in vivo scanning alone. In this study, we used the complementary approaches of whole brain post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging and quantitative histology to assess patterns of multiple sclerosis pathology. Two thalamo-cortical projection systems were considered based on their distinct neuroanatomy and their documented involvement in multiple sclerosis: lateral geniculate nucleus to primary visual cortex and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus to prefrontal cortex. Within the anatomically distinct thalamo-cortical projection systems, magnetic resonance imaging derived cortical thickness was correlated significantly with both a measure of myelination in the connected tract and a measure of connected thalamic nucleus cell density. Such correlations did not exist between these markers of neurodegeneration across different thalamo-cortical systems. Magnetic resonance imaging lesion analysis depicted clearly demarcated subcortical lesions impinging on the white matter tracts of interest; however, quantitation of the extent of lesion-tract overlap failed to demonstrate any appreciable association with the severity of markers of diffuse pathology within each thalamo-cortical projection system. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging metrics in both white matter tracts were correlated significantly with a histologically derived measure of tract myelination. These data demonstrate for the first time the relevance of functional

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yuan-Yu; Du, An-Tao; Schuff, Norbert; Weiner, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent studies of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, idiopathic Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and vascular dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy can detect structural alteration and biochemical abnormalities in the brain of demented subjects and may help in the differential diagnosis and early detection of affected individuals, monitoring disease progression, and evaluation of therapeutic effect. PMID:11563438

  12. Anatomy of the cranioencephalic structures of the camel (Camelus dromedarius L.) by imaging techniques: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Arencibia, A; Rivero, M A; Gil, F; Ramírez, J A; Corbera, J A; Ramírez, G; Vázquez, J M

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this study was to define the anatomy of the cranioencephalic structures and associated formations in camel using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MR images were acquired in sagittal, transverse and oblique dorsal planes, using spin-echo techniques, a magnet of 1.5 T and a standard human body coil. MR images were compared with corresponding frozen cross-sections of the head. Different anatomic structures were identified and labelled at each level. The resulting images provided excellent soft tissue contrast and anatomic detail of the brain and associated structures of the camel head. Annotated MR images from this study are intended to be a reference for clinical imaging studies of the head of the dromedary camel.

  13. A comparative study of contact resonance imaging using atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Gayathri, N.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A.K.; Raj, Baldev

    2005-05-23

    We present here a comparative study of atomic force microscope (AFM) imaging in contact mode when either the cantilever carrying the probing tip or the sample is excited at ultrasonic frequencies. The cantilever or the sample can be excited by piezoelectric transducers attached to them. When the AFM tip is in contact with the sample surface the contact resonance curve depends on the local tip-sample contact stiffness. By measuring the contact resonance as a function of position one can image the local stiffness of the sample surface. We will report here imaging carried out on piezoelectric material and thin metal film using both the modes. The comparison shows that both give similar results.

  14. Fusion of structural and functional cardiac magnetic resonance imaging data for studying ventricular fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Magtibay, K; Beheshti, M; Foomany, F H; Balasundaram, K; Masse, S; Lai, P; Asta, J; Zamiri, N; Jaffray, D A; Nanthakumar, K; Krishnan, S; Umapathy, K

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques such as Current Density Imaging (CDI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) provide a complementing set of imaging data that can describe both the functional and structural states of biological tissues. This paper presents a Joint Independent Component Analysis (jICA) based fusion approach which can be utilized to fuse CDI and DTI data to quantify the differences between two cardiac states: Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) and Asystolic/Normal (AS/NM). Such an approach could lead to a better insight on the mechanism of VF. Fusing CDI and DTI data from 8 data sets from 6 beating porcine hearts, in effect, detects the differences between two cardiac states, qualitatively and quantitatively. This initial study demonstrates the applicability of MRI-based imaging techniques and jICA-based fusion approach in studying cardiac arrhythmias.

  15. Virtual electrophysiological study in a 3-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance imaging model of porcine myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jason; Jacobson, Jason T; Ng, Justin K; Gordon, David; Lee, Daniel C; Carr, James C; Goldberger, Jeffrey J

    2012-07-31

    This study sought to test the hypothesis that "virtual" electrophysiological studies (EPS) on an anatomic platform generated by 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging reconstruction of the left ventricle can reproduce the reentrant circuits of induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) in a porcine model of myocardial infarction. Delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging has been used to characterize myocardial infarction and "gray zones," which are thought to reflect heterogeneous regions of viable and nonviable myocytes. Myocardial infarction by coronary artery occlusion was induced in 8 pigs. After a recovery period, 3-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance images were obtained from each pig in vivo. Normal areas, gray zones, and infarct cores were classified based on voxel intensity. In the computer model, gray zones were assigned slower conduction and longer action potential durations than those for normal myocardium. Virtual EPS was performed and compared with results of actual in vivo programmed stimulation and noncontact mapping. The left ventricular volumes ranged from 97.8 to 166.2 cm(3), with 4.9% to 17.5% of voxels classified as infarct zones. Six of the 7 pigs in which VT developed during actual EPS were also inducible with virtual EPS. Four of the 6 pigs that had simulated VT had reentrant circuits that approximated the circuits seen with noncontact mapping, whereas the remaining 2 had similar circuits but propagating in opposite directions. This initial study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a mathematical model to magnetic resonance imaging reconstructions of the left ventricle to predict VT circuits. Virtual EPS may be helpful to plan catheter ablation strategies or to identify patients who are at risk of future episodes of VT. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lengthening temporalis myoplasty and brain plasticity: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Garmi, R; Labbé, D; Coskun, O; Compère, J-F; Bénateau, H

    2013-08-01

    Lengthening temporalis myoplasty (LTM) is a technique developed since ten years for facial paralysis. A spontaneous smile is acquired after this surgery explains by brain plasticity and the aim of the study is to confirm this plasticity by functional magnetic resonance imaging. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed at various time points in ten patients who were operated on LTM during one year. Two different areas were found to be involved in chewing and smiling. We observed changes in the areas involved in smiling and chewing three months after surgery, and these changes persisted for at least one year. Our findings thus confirm that brain plasticity underlies the clinical observation of acquisition of a spontaneous smile. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging processing techniques in stroke studies.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Golrokh; Adeli, Hojjat

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable research interest in the study of brain connectivity using the resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI). Studies have explored the brain networks and connection between different brain regions. These studies have revealed interesting new findings about the brain mapping as well as important new insights in the overall organization of functional communication in the brain network. In this paper, after a general discussion of brain networks and connectivity imaging, the brain connectivity and resting state networks are described with a focus on rsfMRI imaging in stroke studies. Then, techniques for preprocessing of the rsfMRI for stroke patients are reviewed, followed by brain connectivity processing techniques. Recent research on brain connectivity using rsfMRI is reviewed with an emphasis on stroke studies. The authors hope this paper generates further interest in this emerging area of computational neuroscience with potential applications in rehabilitation of stroke patients.

  18. A study on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based radiation treatment planning of intracranial lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanescu, T.; Jans, H.-S.; Pervez, N.; Stavrev, P.; Fallone, B. G.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based treatment planning procedure for intracranial lesions. The method relies on (a) distortion correction of raw magnetic resonance (MR) images by using an adaptive thresholding and iterative technique, (b) autosegmentation of head structures relevant to dosimetric calculations (scalp, bone and brain) using an atlas-based software and (c) conversion of MR images into computed tomography (CT)-like images by assigning bulk CT values to organ contours and dose calculations performed in Eclipse (Philips Medical Systems). Standard CT + MRI-based and MRI-only plans were compared by means of isodose distributions, dose volume histograms and several dosimetric parameters. The plans were also ranked by using a tumor control probability (TCP)-based technique for heterogeneous irradiation, which is independent of radiobiological parameters. For our 3 T Intera MRI scanner (Philips Medical Systems), we determined that the total maximum image distortion corresponding to a typical brain study was about 4 mm. The CT + MRI and MRI-only plans were found to be in good agreement for all patients investigated. Following our clinical criteria, the TCP-based ranking tool shows no significant difference between the two types of plans. This indicates that the proposed MRI-based treatment planning procedure is suitable for the radiotherapy of intracranial lesions.

  19. Gelation Process of Toluene-Based bis-Urea in Cyclohexane Studied with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tritt-Goc, J.; Boguszyńska, J.; Szwaj, M.; Boutellier, L.; Jadżyn, J.

    2006-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used for studies of the gelation and swelling processes of toluene-based bis-urea prepared in a form of cylindrical tablet and immersed in cyclohexane. The processes were investigated with the use of Bruker AVANCE (300 MHz) spectrometer equipped with a micro imaging probe head. The images were taken for cyclohexane protons within the bis-urea gel formed around the sample dry core at different intervals of the immersion. The mobility of the solvent molecules was estimated from the spatially resolved distribution of the spin-spin relaxation time T2 and the spin densities ρ, calculated on the basis of the images obtained. It was shown that the time-evolution of the thickness of the gel layer can be well described by the power equation with an exponent equal to 0.47 (±0.04), indicating the Fickian nature of the diffusion of cyclohexane molecules.

  20. Postmortem cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in fetuses and children: a masked comparison study with conventional autopsy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew M; Sebire, Neil J; Ashworth, Michael T; Schievano, Silvia; Scott, Rosemary J; Wade, Angie; Chitty, Lyn S; Robertson, Nikki; Thayyil, Sudhin

    2014-05-13

    Perinatal and pediatric autopsies have declined worldwide in the past decade. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of postmortem, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging with conventional autopsy and histopathology assessment in fetuses and children. We performed postmortem magnetic resonance imaging in 400 fetuses and children, using a 1.5-T Siemens Avanto magnetic resonance scanner before conventional autopsy. A pediatric CMR imager reported the CMR images, masked to autopsy information. The pathologists were masked to the information from CMR images. The institutional research ethics committee approved the study, and parental consent was obtained. Assuming a diagnostic accuracy of 50%, 400 cases were required for a 5% precision of estimate. Three cases were excluded from analysis, 2 with no conventional autopsy performed and 1 with insufficient CMR sequences performed. Thirty-eight CMR data sets were nondiagnostic (37 in fetuses ≤24 weeks; 1 in a fetus >24 weeks). In the remaining 359 cases, 44 cardiac abnormalities were noted at autopsy. Overall sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) of CMR was 72.7% (58.2-83.7%) and 96.2% (93.5-97.8%) for detecting any cardiac pathology, with positive and negative predictive values of 72.7% (58.2-83.7%) and 96.2% (93.5-97.8%), respectively. Higher sensitivity of 92.6% (76.6-97.9%), specificity of 99.1% (97.4-99.7%), positive predictive value of 89.3% (72.8-96.3%), and negative predictive value of 99.4% (97.8-99.8%) were seen for major structural heart disease. Postmortem CMR imaging may be a useful alternative to conventional cardiac autopsy in fetuses and children for detecting cardiac abnormalities. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01417962.

  1. Possibility Study of Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) Algorithm Application to Spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Do-Wan; Han, Bong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is an application of scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm to stitch the cervical-thoracic-lumbar (C-T-L) spine magnetic resonance (MR) images to provide a view of the entire spine in a single image. All MR images were acquired with fast spin echo (FSE) pulse sequence using two MR scanners (1.5 T and 3.0 T). The stitching procedures for each part of spine MR image were performed and implemented on a graphic user interface (GUI) configuration. Moreover, the stitching process is performed in two categories; manual point-to-point (mPTP) selection that performed by user specified corresponding matching points, and automated point-to-point (aPTP) selection that performed by SIFT algorithm. The stitched images using SIFT algorithm showed fine registered results and quantitatively acquired values also indicated little errors compared with commercially mounted stitching algorithm in MRI systems. Our study presented a preliminary validation of the SIFT algorithm application to MRI spine images, and the results indicated that the proposed approach can be performed well for the improvement of diagnosis. We believe that our approach can be helpful for the clinical application and extension of other medical imaging modalities for image stitching.

  2. Possibility Study of Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) Algorithm Application to Spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Do-Wan; Han, Bong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is an application of scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm to stitch the cervical-thoracic-lumbar (C-T-L) spine magnetic resonance (MR) images to provide a view of the entire spine in a single image. All MR images were acquired with fast spin echo (FSE) pulse sequence using two MR scanners (1.5 T and 3.0 T). The stitching procedures for each part of spine MR image were performed and implemented on a graphic user interface (GUI) configuration. Moreover, the stitching process is performed in two categories; manual point-to-point (mPTP) selection that performed by user specified corresponding matching points, and automated point-to-point (aPTP) selection that performed by SIFT algorithm. The stitched images using SIFT algorithm showed fine registered results and quantitatively acquired values also indicated little errors compared with commercially mounted stitching algorithm in MRI systems. Our study presented a preliminary validation of the SIFT algorithm application to MRI spine images, and the results indicated that the proposed approach can be performed well for the improvement of diagnosis. We believe that our approach can be helpful for the clinical application and extension of other medical imaging modalities for image stitching. PMID:27064404

  3. Gynecologic masses: value of magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Hricak, H; Lacey, C; Schriock, E; Fisher, M R; Amparo, E; Dooms, G; Jaffe, R

    1985-09-01

    Forty-two women with gynecologic abnormalities were studied with the use of magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging correctly assessed the origin of the pelvic mass in all patients. In the evaluation of leiomyoma, magnetic resonance imaging accurately depicted the number, size, and location of the lesion. In the evaluation of endometrial carcinoma, magnetic resonance imaging depicted the location of the lesion, the presence of cervical extension, and the depth of myometrial penetration in the majority of the cases. In the analysis of adnexal cysts, magnetic resonance imaging was sensitive in localizing the lesion and was able to distinguish serous from hemorrhagic fluid. This preliminary report indicates that magnetic resonance imaging may become a valuable imaging modality in the diagnosis of gynecologic abnormalities.

  4. Brain response to visceral aversive conditioning: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Yágüez, Lidia; Coen, Steven; Gregory, Lloyd J; Amaro, Edson; Altman, Christian; Brammer, Michael J; Bullmore, Edward T; Williams, Steven C R; Aziz, Qasim

    2005-06-01

    Brain-imaging studies to date have confounded visceral pain perception with anticipation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging of the human brain to study the neuroanatomic network involved in aversive conditioning of visceral pain and, thus, anticipation. Eight healthy volunteers (5 male) participated in the study. We used a classic conditioning paradigm in which 3 neutral stimuli (differently colored circles) that acted as conditioned stimuli were paired with painful esophageal distention, air puff to the wrist, or nothing, which acted as unconditioned stimuli. Neural activity was measured during learning, anticipation (pairing only 50% of conditioned stimuli with their unconditioned stimuli), and extinction (unpaired conditioned stimuli) phases. For magnetic resonance imaging, axial slices depicting blood oxygen level-dependent contrast were acquired with a 1.5-T system. Neural responses during the learning phase included areas commonly associated with visceral pain (anterior cingulate cortex, insula, and primary and secondary somatosensory cortices) and innocuous somatosensory perception (primary and secondary somatosensory cortices and insula). During the anticipation and extinction phases of aversive stimulation, brain activity resembled that seen during actual painful esophageal stimulation. In contrast, anticipation and extinction of the innocuous somatic stimulus failed to show that effect. We have shown that actual and anticipated visceral pain elicit similar cortical responses. These results have implications for the design and interpretation of brain-imaging studies of visceral pain. They not only contribute to our understanding of the processing of visceral pain, but also have clinical implications for the management of chronic pain states.

  5. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelc, Norbert

    2000-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Early detection of disease can often be used to improved outcomes, either through direct interventions (e.g. surgical corrections) or by causing the patient to modify his or her behavior (e.g. smoking cessation or dietary changes). Ideally, the detection process should be noninvasive (i.e. it should not be associated with significant risk). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) refers to the formation of images by localizing NMR signals, typically from protons in the body. As in other applications of NMR, a homogeneous static magnetic field ( ~0.5 to 4 T) is used to create ``longitudinal" magnetization. A magnetic field rotating at the Larmor frequency (proportional to the static field) excites spins, converting longitudinal magnetization to ``transverse" magnetization and generating a signal. Localization is performed using pulsed gradients in the static field. MRI can produce images of 2-D slices, 3-D volumes, time-resolved images of pseudo-periodic phenomena such as heart function, and even real-time imaging. It is also possible to acquire spatially localized NMR spectra. MRI has a number of advantages, but perhaps the most fundamental is the richness of the contrast mechanisms. Tissues can be differentiated by differences in proton density, NMR properties, and even flow or motion. We also have the ability to introduce substances that alter NMR signals. These contrast agents can be used to enhance vascular structures and measure perfusion. Cardiovascular MRI allows the reliable diagnosis of important conditions. It is possible to image the blood vessel tree, quantitate flow and perfusion, and image cardiac contraction. Fundamentally, the power of MRI as a diagnostic tool stems from the richness of the contrast mechanisms and the flexibility in control of imaging parameters.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging study in a normal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) stifle joint.

    PubMed

    Arencibia, Alberto; Encinoso, Mario; Jáber, José R; Morales, Daniel; Blanco, Diego; Artiles, Alejandro; Vázquez, José M

    2015-08-11

    The purpose of this study was to describe the normal appearance of the bony and soft tissue structures of the stifle joint of a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) by low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the use of gross anatomical dissections performed as anatomical reference. A cadaver of a mature female was imaged by MRI using specific sequences as the Spin-echo (SE) T1-weighting and Gradient-echo (GE) STIR T2-weighting sequences in sagittal, dorsal and transverse planes, with a magnet of 0.2 Tesla. The bony and articular structures were identified and labelled on anatomical dissections, as well as on the magnetic resonance (MR) images. MR images showed the bone, articular cartilage, menisci and ligaments of the normal tiger stifle. SE T1-weighted sequence provided excellent resolution of the subchondral bones of the femur, tibia and patella compared with the GE STIR T2-weighted MR images. Articular cartilage and synovial fluid were visualised with high signal intensity in GE STIR T2-weighted sequence, compared with SE T1-weighted sequence where they appeared with intermediate intensity signal. Menisci and ligaments of the stifle joint were visible with low signal intensity in both sequences. The infrapatellar fat pad was hyperintense on SE T1-weighted images and showed low signal intensity on GE STIR T2-weighted images. MRI provided adequate information of the bony and soft tissues structures of Bengal tiger stifle joints. This information can be used as initial anatomic reference for interpretation of MR stifle images and to assist in the diagnosis of diseases of this region.

  7. Electron spin resonance studies on reduction process of nitroxyl spin radicals used in molecular imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Dhas, M. Kumara; Benial, A. Milton Franklin; Jawahar, A.

    2014-04-24

    The Electron spin resonance studies on the reduction process of nitroxyl spin probes were carried out for 1mM {sup 14}N labeled nitroxyl radicals in pure water and 1 mM concentration of ascorbic acid as a function of time. The electron spin resonance parameters such as signal intensity ratio, line width, g-value, hyperfine coupling constant and rotational correlation time were determined. The half life time was estimated for 1mM {sup 14}N labeled nitroxyl radicals in 1 mM concentration of ascorbic acid. The ESR study reveals that the TEMPONE has narrowest line width and fast tumbling motion compared with TEMPO and TEMPOL. From the results, TEMPONE has long half life time and high stability compared with TEMPO and TEMPOL radical. Therefore, this study reveals that the TEMPONE radical can act as a good redox sensitive spin probe for molecular imaging.

  8. Studying Autism Spectrum Disorder with Structural and Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Marwa M. T.; Keynton, Robert S.; Mostapha, Mahmoud M. M. O.; ElTanboly, Ahmed H.; Casanova, Manuel F.; Gimel'farb, Georgy L.; El-Baz, Ayman

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities have emerged as powerful means that facilitate non-invasive clinical diagnostics of various diseases and abnormalities since their inception in the 1980s. Multiple MRI modalities, such as different types of the sMRI and DTI, have been employed to investigate facets of ASD in order to better understand this complex syndrome. This paper reviews recent applications of structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to study autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Main reported findings are sometimes contradictory due to different age ranges, hardware protocols, population types, numbers of participants, and image analysis parameters. The primary anatomical structures, such as amygdalae, cerebrum, and cerebellum, associated with clinical-pathological correlates of ASD are highlighted through successive life stages, from infancy to adulthood. This survey demonstrates the absence of consistent pathology in the brains of autistic children and lack of research investigations in patients under 2 years of age in the literature. The known publications also emphasize advances in data acquisition and analysis, as well as significance of multimodal approaches that combine resting-state, task-evoked, and sMRI measures. Initial results obtained with the sMRI and DTI show good promise toward the early and non-invasive ASD diagnostics. PMID:27242476

  9. Study of cell-matrix adhesion dynamics using surface plasmon resonance imaging ellipsometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Hwa; Chegal, Won; Doh, Junsang; Cho, Hyun Mo; Moon, Dae Won

    2011-04-06

    The interaction of cells with extracellular matrix, termed cell-matrix adhesions, importantly governs multiple cellular phenomena. Knowledge of the functional dynamics of cell-matrix adhesion could provide critical clues for understanding biological phenomena. We developed surface plasmon resonance imaging ellipsometry (SPRIE) to provide high contrast images of the cell-matrix interface in unlabeled living cells. To improve the contrast and sensitivity, the null-type imaging ellipsometry technique was integrated with an attenuated total reflection coupler. We verified that the imaged area of SPRIE was indeed a cell-matrix adhesion area by confocal microscopy imaging. Using SPRIE, we demonstrated that three different cell types exhibit distinct features of adhesion. SPRIE was applied to diverse biological systems, including during cell division, cell migration, and cell-cell communication. We imaged the cell-matrix anchorage of mitotic cells, providing the first label-free imaging of this interaction to our knowledge. We found that cell-cell communication can alter cell-matrix adhesion, possibly providing direct experimental evidence for cell-cell communication-mediated changes in cell adhesion. We also investigated shear-stress-induced adhesion dynamics in real time. Based on these data, we expect that SPRIE will be a useful methodology for studying the role of cell-matrix adhesion in important biological phenomena.

  10. A feasibility study of hand kinematics for EVA analysis using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickenson, Reuben D.; Lorenz, Christine H.; Peterson, Steven W.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Main, John A.

    1992-01-01

    A new method for analyzing the kinematics of joint motion using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is described. The reconstruction of the metacarpalphalangeal joint of the left index finger into a 3D graphic display is shown. From the reconstructed volumetric images, measurements of the angles of movement of the applicable bones are obtained and processed by analyzing the screw motion of the joint. Landmark positions are chosen at distinctive locations of the joint at fixed image threshold intensity levels to ensure repeatability. The primarily 2D planar motion of this joint is then studied using a method of constructing coordinate systems using three or more points. A transformation matrix based on a world coordinate system describes the location and orientation of the local target coordinate system. The findings show the applicability of MRI to joint kinematics for gaining further knowledge of the hand-glove design for EVA.

  11. A feasibility study of hand kinematics for EVA analysis using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickenson, Reuben D.; Lorenz, Christine H.; Peterson, Steven W.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Main, John A.

    1992-01-01

    A new method for analyzing the kinematics of joint motion using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is described. The reconstruction of the metacarpalphalangeal joint of the left index finger into a 3D graphic display is shown. From the reconstructed volumetric images, measurements of the angles of movement of the applicable bones are obtained and processed by analyzing the screw motion of the joint. Landmark positions are chosen at distinctive locations of the joint at fixed image threshold intensity levels to ensure repeatability. The primarily 2D planar motion of this joint is then studied using a method of constructing coordinate systems using three or more points. A transformation matrix based on a world coordinate system describes the location and orientation of the local target coordinate system. The findings show the applicability of MRI to joint kinematics for gaining further knowledge of the hand-glove design for EVA.

  12. A Pilot Study to Evaluate the Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Prostate Cancer Screening in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Nam, Robert K; Wallis, Christopher J D; Stojcic-Bendavid, Jessica; Milot, Laurent; Sherman, Christopher; Sugar, Linda; Haider, Masoom A

    2016-08-01

    To our knowledge the role of magnetic resonance imaging as a first line screening test for prostate cancer is unknown. We performed a pilot study to evaluate the feasibility of prostate magnetic resonance imaging as the primary screening test for prostate cancer. We recruited unselected men from the general population. Prostate multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and random or targeted biopsies were performed in all patients, in addition to prostate specific antigen testing. We compared the performance of prostate magnetic resonance imaging and prostate specific antigen test results to predict prostate cancer. Of the 47 recruited patients 18 (38.3%) had cancer while 29 (61.7%) had no evidence of cancer. The adjusted OR of prostate cancer was significantly higher for magnetic resonance imaging score than for prostate specific antigen level (2.7, 95% CI 1.4-5.4, p = 0.004 vs 1.1, 95% CI 0.9-1.4, p = 0.21). Among the 30 patients with a normal prostate specific antigen (less than 4.0 ng/ml) the positive predictive value in those with a magnetic resonance imaging score of 4 or more was 66.7% (6 of 9) and the negative predictive value in those with a magnetic resonance imaging score of 3 or less was 85.7% (18 of 21, p = 0.004). In this pilot study we determined the feasibility of using multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging as the primary screening test for prostate cancer. Initial results showed that prostate magnetic resonance imaging was better to predict prostate cancer than prostate specific antigen in an unselected sample of the general population. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hemispheric asymmetries in dorsal language pathway white-matter tracts: A magnetic resonance imaging tractography and functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Guilherme; Citterio, Alberto

    2017-10-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that the arcuate fasciculus has a leftward asymmetry in right-handers that could be correlated with the language lateralisation defined by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Nonetheless, information about the asymmetry of the other fibres that constitute the dorsal language pathway is scarce. Objectives This study investigated the asymmetry of the white-matter tracts involved in the dorsal language pathway through the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique, in relation to language hemispheric dominance determined by task-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods We selected 11 patients (10 right-handed) who had been studied with task-dependent fMRI for language areas and DTI and who had no language impairment or structural abnormalities that could compromise magnetic resonance tractography of the fibres involved in the dorsal language pathway. Laterality indices (LI) for fMRI and for the volumes of each tract were calculated. Results In fMRI, all the right-handers had left hemispheric lateralisation, and the ambidextrous subject presented right hemispheric dominance. The arcuate fasciculus LI was strongly correlated with fMRI LI ( r = 0.739, p = 0.009), presenting the same lateralisation of fMRI in seven subjects (including the right hemispheric dominant). It was not asymmetric in three cases and had opposite lateralisation in one case. The other tracts presented predominance for rightward lateralisation, especially superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) II/III (nine subjects), but their LI did not correlate (directly or inversely) with fMRI LI. Conclusion The fibres that constitute the dorsal language pathway have an asymmetric distribution in the cerebral hemispheres. Only the asymmetry of the arcuate fasciculus is correlated with fMRI language lateralisation.

  14. How to Perform and Interpret Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Seon; Preissl, Hubert; Enck, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed the importance of the role of cognitive and psychological factors and the dysregulation of the brain-gut axis in functional gastrointestinal disorder patients. Although only a small number of neuroimaging studies have been conducted in functional gastrointestinal disorder patients, and despite the fact that the neuroimaging technique requires a high level of knowledge, the technique still has a great deal of potential. The application of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique in functional gastrointestinal disorders should provide novel methods of diagnosing and treating patients. In this review, basic knowledge and technical/practical issues of fMRI will be introduced to clinicians. PMID:28256119

  15. How to Perform and Interpret Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Seon; Preissl, Hubert; Enck, Paul

    2017-04-30

    Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed the importance of the role of cognitive and psychological factors and the dysregulation of the brain-gut axis in functional gastrointestinal disorder patients. Although only a small number of neuroimaging studies have been conducted in functional gastrointestinal disorder patients, and despite the fact that the neuroimaging technique requires a high level of knowledge, the technique still has a great deal of potential. The application of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique in functional gastrointestinal disorders should provide novel methods of diagnosing and treating patients. In this review, basic knowledge and technical/practical issues of fMRI will be introduced to clinicians.

  16. Partially orthogonal resonators for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Malzacher, Matthias; Schad, Lothar R.

    2017-02-01

    Resonators for signal reception in magnetic resonance are traditionally planar to restrict coil material and avoid coil losses. Here, we present a novel concept to model resonators partially in a plane with maximum sensitivity to the magnetic resonance signal and partially in an orthogonal plane with reduced signal sensitivity. Thus, properties of individual elements in coil arrays can be modified to optimize physical planar space and increase the sensitivity of the overall array. A particular case of the concept is implemented to decrease H-field destructive interferences in planar concentric in-phase arrays. An increase in signal to noise ratio of approximately 20% was achieved with two resonators placed over approximately the same planar area compared to common approaches at a target depth of 10 cm at 3 Tesla. Improved parallel imaging performance of this configuration is also demonstrated. The concept can be further used to increase coil density.

  17. Partially orthogonal resonators for magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Malzacher, Matthias; Schad, Lothar R.

    2017-01-01

    Resonators for signal reception in magnetic resonance are traditionally planar to restrict coil material and avoid coil losses. Here, we present a novel concept to model resonators partially in a plane with maximum sensitivity to the magnetic resonance signal and partially in an orthogonal plane with reduced signal sensitivity. Thus, properties of individual elements in coil arrays can be modified to optimize physical planar space and increase the sensitivity of the overall array. A particular case of the concept is implemented to decrease H-field destructive interferences in planar concentric in-phase arrays. An increase in signal to noise ratio of approximately 20% was achieved with two resonators placed over approximately the same planar area compared to common approaches at a target depth of 10 cm at 3 Tesla. Improved parallel imaging performance of this configuration is also demonstrated. The concept can be further used to increase coil density. PMID:28186135

  18. Partially orthogonal resonators for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Malzacher, Matthias; Schad, Lothar R

    2017-02-10

    Resonators for signal reception in magnetic resonance are traditionally planar to restrict coil material and avoid coil losses. Here, we present a novel concept to model resonators partially in a plane with maximum sensitivity to the magnetic resonance signal and partially in an orthogonal plane with reduced signal sensitivity. Thus, properties of individual elements in coil arrays can be modified to optimize physical planar space and increase the sensitivity of the overall array. A particular case of the concept is implemented to decrease H-field destructive interferences in planar concentric in-phase arrays. An increase in signal to noise ratio of approximately 20% was achieved with two resonators placed over approximately the same planar area compared to common approaches at a target depth of 10 cm at 3 Tesla. Improved parallel imaging performance of this configuration is also demonstrated. The concept can be further used to increase coil density.

  19. Pocket atlas of cranial magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Haughton, V.M.; Daniels, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    This atlas illustrates normal cerebral anatomy in magnetic resonance images. From their studies in cerebral anatomy utilizing cryomicrotome and other techniques, the authors selected more than 100 high-resolution images that represent the most clinically useful scans.

  20. Acute hypoxia increases the cerebral metabolic rate – a magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Ulrich; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob; Lisbjerg, Kristian; Christensen, Søren Just; Law, Ian; Rasmussen, Peter; Olsen, Niels V; Larsson, Henrik BW

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine changes in cerebral metabolism by magnetic resonance imaging of healthy subjects during inhalation of 10% O2 hypoxic air. Hypoxic exposure elevates cerebral perfusion, but its effect on energy metabolism has been less investigated. Magnetic resonance imaging techniques were used to measure global cerebral blood flow and the venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal sinus. Global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen was quantified from cerebral blood flow and arteriovenous oxygen saturation difference. Concentrations of lactate, glutamate, N-acetylaspartate, creatine and phosphocreatine were measured in the visual cortex by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Twenty-three young healthy males were scanned for 60 min during normoxia, followed by 40 min of breathing hypoxic air. Inhalation of hypoxic air resulted in an increase in cerebral blood flow of 15.5% (p = 0.058), and an increase in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen of 8.5% (p = 0.035). Cerebral lactate concentration increased by 180.3% (p<10-6), glutamate increased by 4.7% (p<10-4) and creatine and phosphocreatine decreased by 15.2% (p<10-3). The N-acetylaspartate concentration was unchanged (p = 0.36). In conclusion, acute hypoxia in healthy subjects increased perfusion and metabolic rate, which could represent an increase in neuronal activity. We conclude that marked changes in brain homeostasis occur in the healthy human brain during exposure to acute hypoxia. PMID:26661163

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Electrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Arie; Hjouj, Mohammad; Rubinsky, Liel; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can image the process of electrolysis by detecting pH fronts. The study has relevance to real time control of cell ablation with electrolysis. To investigate the hypothesis we compare the following MR imaging sequences: T1 weighted, T2 weighted and Proton Density (PD), with optical images acquired using pH-sensitive dyes embedded in a physiological saline agar solution phantom treated with electrolysis and discrete measurements with a pH microprobe. We further demonstrate the biological relevance of our work using a bacterial E. Coli model, grown on the phantom. The results demonstrate the ability of MRI to image electrolysis produced pH changes in a physiological saline phantom and show that these changes correlate with cell death in the E. Coli model grown on the phantom. The results are promising and invite further experimental research. PMID:25659942

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Electrolysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meir, Arie; Hjouj, Mohammad; Rubinsky, Liel; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-02-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can image the process of electrolysis by detecting pH fronts. The study has relevance to real time control of cell ablation with electrolysis. To investigate the hypothesis we compare the following MR imaging sequences: T1 weighted, T2 weighted and Proton Density (PD), with optical images acquired using pH-sensitive dyes embedded in a physiological saline agar solution phantom treated with electrolysis and discrete measurements with a pH microprobe. We further demonstrate the biological relevance of our work using a bacterial E. Coli model, grown on the phantom. The results demonstrate the ability of MRI to image electrolysis produced pH changes in a physiological saline phantom and show that these changes correlate with cell death in the E. Coli model grown on the phantom. The results are promising and invite further experimental research.

  3. Effect of complete denture wearing on deglutition time: a cine-magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Gokce, H S; Gokce, S M; Akin, E; Bulakbasi, N; Akyol, M

    2012-03-01

    Purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of complete denture wearing on deglutition time (DT), hyoid bone and larynx movements in edentulous patients with real-time balanced turbo field echo cine-magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects were examined by cine-magnetic resonance imaging in supine position during swallowing water. Two sets of images for 23 edentulous (with/without wearing complete dentures) and one for 23 dentulous patients were obtained. Radiographic outputs representing three consecutive deglutition stages (oral, pharyngeal and oesophageal) were provided to perform measurements. Deglutition time significantly increased when edentulous patients wore their dentures (mean 0·75 s increased to 1·17 s), whereas dentulous patients' DT was about 0·91 s (P ≤ 0.05). The duration of deglutition is crucial because prolonged pharyngeal transit times increases the risk of aspiration. Within the limitations of the study, complete denture wearing could increase the shortened DT of the edentulous patients. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Investigating the emotional response to room acoustics: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Lawless, M S; Vigeant, M C

    2015-10-01

    While previous research has demonstrated the powerful influence of pleasant and unpleasant music on emotions, the present study utilizes functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the positive and negative emotional responses as demonstrated in the brain when listening to music convolved with varying room acoustic conditions. During fMRI scans, subjects rated auralizations created in a simulated concert hall with varying reverberation times. The analysis detected activations in the dorsal striatum, a region associated with anticipation of reward, for two individuals for the highest rated stimulus, though no activations were found for regions associated with negative emotions in any subject.

  5. Cranial fixation plates in cerebral magnetic resonance imaging: a 3 and 7 Tesla in vivo image quality study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bixia; Schoemberg, Tobias; Kraff, Oliver; Dammann, Philipp; Bitz, Andreas K; Schlamann, Marc; Quick, Harald H; Ladd, Mark E; Sure, Ulrich; Wrede, Karsten H

    2016-06-01

    This study assesses and quantifies impairment of postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 7 Tesla (T) after implantation of titanium cranial fixation plates (CFPs) for neurosurgical bone flap fixation. The study group comprised five patients who were intra-individually examined with 3 and 7 T MRI preoperatively and postoperatively (within 72 h/3 months) after implantation of CFPs. Acquired sequences included T1-weighted magnetization-prepared rapid-acquisition gradient-echo (MPRAGE), T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo (TSE) imaging, and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Two experienced neurosurgeons and a neuroradiologist rated image quality and the presence of artifacts in consensus reading. Minor artifacts occurred around the CFPs in MPRAGE and T2 TSE at both field strengths, with no significant differences between 3 and 7 T. In SWI, artifacts were accentuated in the early postoperative scans at both field strengths due to intracranial air and hemorrhagic remnants. After resorption, the brain tissue directly adjacent to skull bone could still be assessed. Image quality after 3 months was equal to the preoperative examinations at 3 and 7 T. Image quality after CFP implantation was not significantly impaired in 7 T MRI, and artifacts were comparable to those in 3 T MRI.

  6. The Capabilities and Limitations of Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Detecting Kidney Stones: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Mellena D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the performance of currently available magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting kidney stones, compared to computed tomography (CT) results, and to determine the characteristics of successfully detected stones. Patients who had undergone both abdominal/pelvic CT and MRI exams within 30 days were studied. The images were reviewed by two expert radiologists blinded to the patients' respective radiological diagnoses. The study consisted of four steps: (1) reviewing the MRI images and determining whether any kidney stone(s) are identified; (2) reviewing the corresponding CT images and confirming whether kidney stones are identified; (3) reviewing the MRI images a second time, armed with the information from the corresponding CT, noting whether any kidney stones are positively identified that were previously missed; (4) for all stones MRI-confirmed on previous steps, the radiologist experts being asked to answer whether in retrospect, with knowledge of size and location on corresponding CT, these stones would be affirmed as confidently identified on MRI or not. In this best-case scenario involving knowledge of stones and their locations on concurrent CT, radiologist experts detected 19% of kidney stones on MRI, with stone size being a major factor for stone identification. PMID:27980535

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging outcomes from a comprehensive magnetic resonance study of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Astley, Susan J; Aylward, Elizabeth H; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Kerns, Kimberly; Brooks, Allison; Coggins, Truman E; Davies, Julian; Dorn, Susan; Gendler, Beth; Jirikowic, Tracy; Kraegel, Paul; Maravilla, Kenneth; Richards, Todd

    2009-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) technology offers noninvasive methods for in vivo assessment of neuroabnormalities. A comprehensive neuropsychological/psychiatric battery, coupled with MR imaging, (MRI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), and functional MRI (fMRI) assessments, were administered to children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) to determine if global and/or focal abnormalities could be identified, and distinguish diagnostic subclassifications across the spectrum. The 4 study groups included: (i) fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)/partial FAS (PFAS); (ii) static encephalopathy/alcohol exposed (SE/AE); (iii) neurobehavioral disorder/alcohol exposed (ND/AE) as diagnosed with the FASD 4-Digit Code; and (iv) healthy peers with no prenatal alcohol exposure. Presented here are the MRI assessments that were used to compare the sizes of brain regions between the 4 groups. The neuropsychological/behavioral, MRS, and fMRI outcomes are reported separately. Progressing across the 4 study groups from Controls to ND/AE to SE/AE to FAS/PFAS, the mean absolute size of the total brain, frontal lobe, caudate, putamen, hippocampus, cerebellar vermis, and corpus callosum length decreased incrementally and significantly. The FAS/PFAS group (the only group with the 4-Digit FAS facial phenotype) had disproportionately smaller frontal lobes relative to all other groups. The FAS/PFAS and SE/AE groups [the 2 groups with the most severe central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction] had disproportionately smaller caudate regions relative to the ND/AE and Control groups. The prevalence of subjects in the FAS/PFAS, SE/AE, and ND/AE groups that had 1 or more brain regions, 2 or more SDs below the mean size observed in the Control group was 78, 58, and 43%, respectively. Significant correlations were observed between size of brain regions and level of prenatal alcohol exposure, magnitude of FAS facial phenotype, and level of CNS dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging provided further validation that ND

  8. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Pediatric Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Peterson, Bradley S.; Gerber, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging in investigating pediatric anxiety disorders is studied. Functional magnetic resonance imaging can be utilized in demonstrating parallels between the neural architecture of difference in anxiety of humans and the neural architecture of attention-orienting behavior in nonhuman primates or rodents.…

  9. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Pediatric Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Peterson, Bradley S.; Gerber, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging in investigating pediatric anxiety disorders is studied. Functional magnetic resonance imaging can be utilized in demonstrating parallels between the neural architecture of difference in anxiety of humans and the neural architecture of attention-orienting behavior in nonhuman primates or rodents.…

  10. Understanding disease processes in multiple sclerosis through magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal models.

    PubMed

    Nathoo, Nabeela; Yong, V Wee; Dunn, Jeff F

    2014-01-01

    There are exciting new advances in multiple sclerosis (MS) resulting in a growing understanding of both the complexity of the disorder and the relative involvement of grey matter, white matter and inflammation. Increasing need for preclinical imaging is anticipated, as animal models provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the key imaging tool used to diagnose and to monitor disease progression in MS, and thus will be a cornerstone for future research. Although gadolinium-enhancing and T2 lesions on MRI have been useful for detecting MS pathology, they are not correlative of disability. Therefore, new MRI methods are needed. Such methods require validation in animal models. The increasing necessity for MRI of animal models makes it critical and timely to understand what research has been conducted in this area and what potential there is for use of MRI in preclinical models of MS. Here, we provide a review of MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies that have been carried out in animal models of MS that focus on pathology. We compare the MRI phenotypes of animals and patients and provide advice on how best to use animal MR studies to increase our understanding of the linkages between MR and pathology in patients. This review describes how MRI studies of animal models have been, and will continue to be, used in the ongoing effort to understand MS.

  11. Understanding disease processes in multiple sclerosis through magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Nathoo, Nabeela; Yong, V. Wee; Dunn, Jeff F.

    2014-01-01

    There are exciting new advances in multiple sclerosis (MS) resulting in a growing understanding of both the complexity of the disorder and the relative involvement of grey matter, white matter and inflammation. Increasing need for preclinical imaging is anticipated, as animal models provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the key imaging tool used to diagnose and to monitor disease progression in MS, and thus will be a cornerstone for future research. Although gadolinium-enhancing and T2 lesions on MRI have been useful for detecting MS pathology, they are not correlative of disability. Therefore, new MRI methods are needed. Such methods require validation in animal models. The increasing necessity for MRI of animal models makes it critical and timely to understand what research has been conducted in this area and what potential there is for use of MRI in preclinical models of MS. Here, we provide a review of MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies that have been carried out in animal models of MS that focus on pathology. We compare the MRI phenotypes of animals and patients and provide advice on how best to use animal MR studies to increase our understanding of the linkages between MR and pathology in patients. This review describes how MRI studies of animal models have been, and will continue to be, used in the ongoing effort to understand MS. PMID:24936425

  12. [Sedation with sevoflurane for magnetic resonance imaging in pediatrics: retrospective study of 5864 cases].

    PubMed

    De Sanctis Briggs, V

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the use of sevoflurane for sedating pediatric patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging studies. Data were extracted retrospectively from the records of 5864 pediatric patients (aged 0-18 years) who had undergone magnetic resonance imaging studies in our hospital from 1999 to 2004. Sevoflurane was usually administered at high concentrations of up to 7% on induction; after 2 minutes the concentration was reduced. The patient, breathing spontaneously, was kept sedated with a sevoflurane concentration of 1.5% to 2% in a mixture of 50% nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen. Optimal sedation was achieved in 5789 (98.72%) of the cases treated. Complications included 11 episodes of vomiting, 53 cases (0.9%) of mild respiratory depression, 6 cases of severe respiratory depression on induction, and 5 cases of agitation. There were no cases of prolonged sedation. Sevoflurane is useful for sedating pediatric patients in the setting of this study. Induction is rapid and gentle, and maintained sedation is constant, stable and homogeneous. Awakening and recovery are rapid, and the incidence of complications low.

  13. Identification of Calcification with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhen; Mittal, Sandeep; Kish, Karl; Yu, Yingjian; Hu, J.; Haacke, E. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a new MRI technique that can identify calcification by using phase images. We present a single case with a partially calcified oligodendroglioma, multiple calcified cysticercosis lesions, and multiple physiologic calcifications in the same patient. SWI phase images and computed tomography (CT) images are compared. SWI phase images showed the same calcified lesions as shown on CT and sometimes some new calcifications. Our conclusion is that SWI filtered phase images can identify calcifications as well as CT in this case. PMID:19097156

  14. Nerves on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, J. D.; Shaver, M. L.; Batra, P.; Brown, K.

    1989-01-01

    Nerves are often visualized on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the soft tissues on the chest and shoulder girdle. To learn the reasons for the contrast between the nerves and adjacent tissues, the authors obtained a fresh specimen containing part of the brachial plexus nerves from the left axilla and compared MRI with x-ray projections and photomicrographs of histologic sections. The results suggest that the high signals from the nerves stand out in contrast to the low signals from their rich vascular supply. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6A Figure 6B Figure 7 PMID:2733051

  15. A study of the comparative anatomy of the brain of domestic ruminants using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M J; Langen, N; Klumpp, S; Nasirimanesh, F; Shirvanchi, P; Ondreka, N; Kramer, M

    2012-01-01

    Although magnetic resonance imaging has been used to examine the brain of domestic ruminants, detailed information relating the precise anatomical features in these species is lacking. In this study the brain structures of calves (Bos taurus domesticus), sheep (Ovis aries), goats (Capra hircus) and a mesaticephalic dog (Canis lupis familiaris) were examined using T2-weighed Turbo Spin Echo sequences; three-dimensional models based on high-resolution gradient echo scans were used to identify brain sulci and gyri in two-dimensional images. The ruminant brains examined were similar in structure and organisation to those of other mammals but particular features included the deep depression of the insula and the pronounced gyri of the cortices, the dominant position of the visual (optic nerve, optic chiasm and rostral colliculus) and olfactory (olfactory bulb, olfactory tracts and piriform lobe) systems, and the relatively large size of the diencephalon.

  16. Clinical relevance of magnetic resonance imaging in cervical spine clearance: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Shelby; Inaba, Kenji; Karamanos, Efstathios; Pham, Martin; Byerly, Saskya; Talving, Peep; Reddy, Sravanthi; Linnebur, Megan; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2014-09-01

    A missed cervical spine (CS) injury can have devastating consequences. When CS injuries cannot be ruled out clinically using the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study low-risk criteria because of either a neurologic deficit or pain, the optimal imaging modality for CS clearance remains controversial. To investigate the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for CS clearance. A prospective observational study was conducted from January 1, 2010, through May 31, 2011, at a level I trauma center. Participants included 830 adults who were awake, alert, and able to be examined who experienced blunt trauma with resultant midline CS tenderness and/or neurologic deficits and were undergoing CT of the CS. Initial examinations, all CS imaging results, interventions, and final CS diagnoses were documented. The criterion standard for the sensitivity and specificity calculations was final diagnosis of CS injury at the time of discharge. Clinically significant CS injuries, defined as injuries requiring surgical stabilization or halo placement. Overall, 164 CS injuries (19.8%) were diagnosed, and 23 of these (2.8%) were clinically significant. All clinically significant injuries were detected by CT. Fifteen of 681 patients (2.2%) with a normal CT scan had a newly identified finding on MRI; however, none of the injuries required surgical intervention or halo placement. There was no change in management on the basis of MRI findings. The sensitivity and specificity of CT for detecting CS injury was 90.9% and 100%, respectively. For clinically significant CS injuries, the sensitivity was 100% and specificity was 100%. Computed tomography is effective in the detection of clinically significant CS injuries in adults deemed eligible for evaluation who had a neurologic deficit or CS pain. Magnetic resonance imaging does not provide any additional clinically relevant information.

  17. Magnetic-resonance-imaging-coupled broadband near-infrared tomography system for small animal brain studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Heng; Springett, Roger; Dehghani, Hamid; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Dunn, Jeff F.

    2005-04-01

    A novel magnetic-resonance-coupled broadband near-infrared (NIR) tomography system for small animal brain studies is described. Several features of the image formation approach are new in NIR tomography and represent major advances in the path to recovering high-resolution hemoglobin and oxygen saturation images of tissue. The NIR data were broadband and continuous wave and were used along with a second-derivative-based estimation of the path length from water absorption. The path length estimation from water was then used along with the attenuation spectrum to recover absorption and reduced scattering coefficient images at multiple wavelengths and then to recover images of total hemoglobin and oxygen saturation. Going beyond these basics of NIR tomography, software has been developed to allow inclusion of structures derived from MR imaging (MRI) for the external and internal tissue boundaries, thereby improving the accuracy and spatial resolution of the properties in each tissue type. The system has been validated in both tissue-simulating phantoms, with 10% accuracy observed, and in a rat cranium imaging experiment. The latter experiment used variation in inspired oxygen (FiO2) to vary the observed hemoglobin and oxygen saturation images. Quantitative agreement was observed between the changes in deoxyhemoglobin values derived from NIR and the changes predicted with blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) MRI. This system represents the initial stage in what will likely be a larger role for NIR tomography, coupled to MRI, and illustrates that the technological challenges of using continuous-wave broadband data and inclusion of a priori structural information can be met with careful phantom studies.

  18. The study of pain with blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibinson, James W.

    Using blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD FMRI), the brain areas activated by pain were studied. These initial studies led to interesting new findings about the body's response to pain and to the refinement of one method used in FMRI analysis for correction of physiologic noise (signal fluctuations caused by the cyclic and non-cyclic changes in the cardiovascular and respiratory status of the body). In the first study, evidence was provided suggesting that the multiple painful stimulations used in typical pain FMRI block designs may cause attenuation over time of the BOLD signal within activated areas. The effect this may have on pain investigations using multiple tasks has not been previously investigated. The demonstrated BOLD attenuation seems unique to pain studies. Several possible explanations exist, but two of the most likely are neural activity modulation by descending pain inhibitory mechanisms and changing hemodynamics caused by a physiologic response to pain. The second study began the investigation of hemodynamics by monitoring the physiologic response to pain for eight subjects in two phases. Phase one used a combination of standard operating suite monitors and research equipment to characterizing the physiologic response to pain. Phase two collected magnetic resonance quantitative flow images during painful nerve stimulation to test for changes in global cerebral blood flow. It is well established that changes in respiration and global blood flow can affect the BOLD response, leading to the final investigation of this dissertation. The brain activation induced by pain for the same eight subjects used in the physiologic response experiments described above was then studied by BOLD FMRI. By including the respiration signal and end-tidal carbon dioxide levels in the analysis of the images, the quantification and removal of image intensity variations correlated to breathing and end-tidal carbon dioxide changes could be

  19. Feasibility of Real-Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Catheter Guidance in Electrophysiology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nazarian, Saman; Kolandaivelu, Aravindan; Zviman, Menekhem M.; Meininger, Glenn R.; Kato, Ritsushi; Susil, Robert C.; Roguin, Ariel; Dickfeld, Timm L.; Ashikaga, Hiroshi; Calkins, Hugh; Berger, Ronald D.; Bluemke, David A.; Lardo, Albert C.; Halperin, Henry R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Compared with fluoroscopy, the current imaging standard of care for guidance of electrophysiology procedures, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides improved soft-tissue resolution and eliminates radiation exposure. However, because of inherent magnetic forces and electromagnetic interference, the MRI environment poses challenges for electrophysiology procedures. In this study, we sought to test the feasibility of performing electrophysiology studies with real-time MRI guidance. Methods and Results An MRI-compatible electrophysiology system was developed. Catheters were targeted to the right atrium, His bundle, and right ventricle of 10 mongrel dogs (23 to 32 kg) via a 1.5-T MRI system using rapidly acquired fast gradient-echo images (≈5 frames per second). Catheters were successfully positioned at the right atrial, His bundle, and right ventricular target sites of all animals. Comprehensive electrophysiology studies with recording of intracardiac electrograms and atrial and ventricular pacing were performed. Postprocedural pathological evaluation revealed no evidence of thermal injury to the myocardium. After proof of safety in animal studies, limited real-time MRI-guided catheter mapping studies were performed in 2 patients. Adequate target catheter localization was confirmed via recording of intracardiac electrograms in both patients. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the feasibility of real-time MRI-guided electrophysiology procedures. This technique may eliminate patient and staff radiation exposure and improve real-time soft tissue resolution for procedural guidance. PMID:18574048

  20. Feasibility of real-time magnetic resonance imaging for catheter guidance in electrophysiology studies.

    PubMed

    Nazarian, Saman; Kolandaivelu, Aravindan; Zviman, Menekhem M; Meininger, Glenn R; Kato, Ritsushi; Susil, Robert C; Roguin, Ariel; Dickfeld, Timm L; Ashikaga, Hiroshi; Calkins, Hugh; Berger, Ronald D; Bluemke, David A; Lardo, Albert C; Halperin, Henry R

    2008-07-15

    Compared with fluoroscopy, the current imaging standard of care for guidance of electrophysiology procedures, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides improved soft-tissue resolution and eliminates radiation exposure. However, because of inherent magnetic forces and electromagnetic interference, the MRI environment poses challenges for electrophysiology procedures. In this study, we sought to test the feasibility of performing electrophysiology studies with real-time MRI guidance. An MRI-compatible electrophysiology system was developed. Catheters were targeted to the right atrium, His bundle, and right ventricle of 10 mongrel dogs (23 to 32 kg) via a 1.5-T MRI system using rapidly acquired fast gradient-echo images (approximately 5 frames per second). Catheters were successfully positioned at the right atrial, His bundle, and right ventricular target sites of all animals. Comprehensive electrophysiology studies with recording of intracardiac electrograms and atrial and ventricular pacing were performed. Postprocedural pathological evaluation revealed no evidence of thermal injury to the myocardium. After proof of safety in animal studies, limited real-time MRI-guided catheter mapping studies were performed in 2 patients. Adequate target catheter localization was confirmed via recording of intracardiac electrograms in both patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the feasibility of real-time MRI-guided electrophysiology procedures. This technique may eliminate patient and staff radiation exposure and improve real-time soft tissue resolution for procedural guidance.

  1. Function Biomedical Informatics Research Network Recommendations for Prospective Multi-Center Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Gary H.; Mueller, Bryon A.; Turner, Jessica A.; van Erp, Theo G.M.; Liu, Thomas T.; Greve, Douglas N.; Voyvodic, James T.; Rasmussen, Jerod; Brown, Gregory G.; Keator, David B.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Lee, Hyo Jong; Ford, Judith M.; Mathalon, Daniel H.; Diaz, Michele; O’Leary, Daniel S.; Gadde, Syam; Preda, Adrian; Lim, Kelvin O.; Wible, Cynthia G.; Stern, Hal S.; Belger, Aysenil; McCarthy, Gregory; Ozyurt, Burak; Potkin, Steven G.

    2011-01-01

    This report provides practical recommendations for the design and execution of Multi-Center functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MC-fMRI) studies based on the collective experience of the Function Biomedical Informatics Research Network (FBIRN). The paper was inspired by many requests from the fMRI community to FBIRN group members for advice on how to conduct MC-fMRI studies. The introduction briefly discusses the advantages and complexities of MC-fMRI studies. Prerequisites for MC-fMRI studies are addressed before delving into the practical aspects of carefully and efficiently setting up a MC-fMRI study. Practical multi-site aspects include: (1) establishing and verifying scan parameters including scanner types and magnetic fields, (2) establishing and monitoring of a scanner quality program, (3) developing task paradigms and scan session documentation, (4) establishing clinical and scanner training to ensure consistency over time, (5) developing means for uploading, storing, and monitoring of imaging and other data, (6) the use of a traveling fMRI expert and (7) collectively analyzing imaging data and disseminating results. We conclude that when MC-fMRI studies are organized well with careful attention to unification of hardware, software and procedural aspects, the process can be a highly effective means for accessing a desired participant demographics while accelerating scientific discovery. PMID:22314879

  2. Contactless Abdominal Fat Reduction With Selective RF™ Evaluated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Case Study.

    PubMed

    Downie, Jeanine; Kaspar, Miroslav

    2016-04-01

    Noninvasive body shaping methods seem to be an ascending part of the aesthetics market. As a result, the pressure to develop reliable methods for the collection and presentation of their results has also increased. The most used techniques currently include ultrasound measurements of fat thickness in the treated area, caliper measurements, bioimpedance-based scale measurements or circumferential tape measurements. Although these are the most used techniques, almost all of them have some limitations in reproducibility and/or accuracy. This study shows Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as the new method for the presentation of results in the body shaping industry. Six subjects were treated by a contactless selective radiofrequency device (BTL Vanquish ME, BTL Industries Inc., Boston, MA). The MRI fat thickness was measured at the baseline and at 4-weeks following the treatment. In addition to MRI images and measurements, digital photographs and anthropometric evaluations such as weight, abdominal circumference, and caliper fat thickness measurements were recorded. Abdominal fat thickness measurements from the MRI were performed from the same slices determined by the same tissue artefacts. The MRI fat thickness difference between the baseline measurement and follow up visit showed an average reduction of 5.36 mm as calculated from the data of 5 subjects. One subject dropped out of study due to non-study related issues. The results were statistically significant based on the Student's T-test evaluation. Magnetic resonance imaging abdominal fat thickness measurements seems to be the best method for the evaluation of fat thickness reduction after non-invasive body shaping treatments. In this study, this method shows average fat thickness reduction of 5.36 mm while the weight of the subjects didn't change significantly. A large spot size measuring 1317 cm(2) (204 square inches) covers the abdomen flank to flank. The average thickness of 5.36 mm of the fat layer reduced

  3. STUDY ON THE PATELLOFEMORAL JOINT USING MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING: MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION OF THE MEDIAL PATELLOFEMORAL LIGAMENT

    PubMed Central

    Netto, Alfredo dos Santos; de Brito, Marcelo Botelho Soares; Severino, Fabrício Roberto; Campos, Leila Rodrigues Andrade; Nico, Marcelo Astolfi Caetano; de Oliveira, Victor Marques; Severino, Nilson Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To study the measurements and anatomical relationships of the patellofemoral joint using magnetic resonance imaging, and to evaluate the variation in the morphology of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) according to patients' heights and ages and the variation in measurements on other structures that are known to be involved in predisposition to patellar instability. Method: Twenty-three knees (18 patients) underwent magnetic resonance imaging and their interepicondylar distance, patellar height, trochlear depth, ventral trochlear prominence, trochlear groove angle, lateral facet tilt, lateral patellar tilt and size of the lateral and medial facets and their ratio were measured. These measurements were compared with the length and thickness of the MPFL. Results: The average length of the MPFL was 46.4 mm, while the average thicknesses of its patellar insertion, middle third and femoral insertion were, respectively, 1.7 mm, 1.4 mm and 1.2 mm. The thickness of the MPFL correlated positively with the lateral condyle and interepicondylar distance measurements, and negatively with the patients' ages. Conclusion: The morphology of the MPFL varies with the interepicondylar distance and the lateral condyle distance, and with patients' ages. PMID:27042622

  4. Paraspinal muscle morphology and composition: a 15-yr longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Maryse; Videman, Tapio; Gibbons, Laura E; Battié, Michele C

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to define the natural progression of age-related changes of the lumbar paraspinal muscles during adulthood and to investigate the influence of lifestyle and individual factors (e.g., physical activity levels at work and leisure, body mass index, and low back pain [LBP]). This population-based longitudinal study included a sample of 99 adult male twins. Data were collected through a structured interview, physical examination, and magnetic resonance imaging. Measurements of the lumbar multifidus and erector spinae muscles were obtained from T2-weighted axial images at L3-L4 and L5-S1 at baseline and 15-yr follow-up. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), functional CSA (FCSA) (fat-free mass), and FCSA/CSA (composition) as well as CSA and FCSA asymmetry and FCSA/CSA side-to-side differences were measured. Subjects' mean ± SD age was 47.3 ± 7.4 yr at baseline and 62.3 ± 8.0 yr at follow-up. During the 15-yr period, both muscles exhibited a decrease in CSA and FCSA and an increase in fatty infiltration and side-to-side differences in size and composition at both spinal levels. Both muscles displayed greater changes at L5-S1 than L3-L4. Age and BMI were found to be significantly associated with the degree of paraspinal muscle changes over time. However, there was no association between the change in paraspinal muscle size, composition, or asymmetry with the level of physical demands at work or leisure or LBP history. The present longitudinal study suggests that over adulthood, the multifidus and erector spinae undergo similar morphological changes. Moreover, our findings suggest that the long-term progression of lumbar paraspinal muscle changes evaluated through magnetic resonance imaging are not associated with the range of physical demand levels as were typical of Finnish men or LBP history.

  5. Randomized controlled trial for intermittent versus continuous propofol sedation for pediatric brain and spine magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Nabil E; Betz, Bradford W; Cole, Morgan R; Wincek, Jeni; Reischman, Diann; Sanfilippo, Dominic J; Winterhalter-Rzeszutko, Kim M; Kopec, John S

    2011-11-01

    Intermittent bolus propofol is an effective agent for pediatric magnetic resonance imaging sedation but requires constant vigilance and dose titration. Magnetic resonance imaging-compatible infusion pumps may make it possible to continuously infuse propofol, achieving a steady level of sedation at a lower total dose. This study investigates total propofol dose, recovery time, and magnetic resonance image quality in children receiving intermittent vs. continuously infused propofol sedation in children undergoing brain and spine magnetic resonance imaging studies. An open-label, prospective, randomized, controlled study. A single-blinded radiologist rated the quality of magnetic resonance images. Children's hospital pediatric radiology sedation center. One hundred seventy children age 1 month to 18 yrs undergoing deep sedation for brain, spine, or both brain and spine magnetic resonance imaging. After informed consent, patients were randomly assigned to two groups: group 1 (intermittent) received a propofol bolus of 2-4 mg/kg, followed by repeat boluses of 0.5-2 mg/kg/dose as needed. Group C (continuous) received a bolus of propofol 2-4 mg/kg, followed by a continuous infusion of 100 μg/kg/min with 1-mg/kg/dose boluses with drip titration to effect. Patient demographics, sedation risk assessment, propofol dose, sedation recovery times, incidence of complications, and quality of the magnetic resonance imaging studies were measured. A total of 170 children were enrolled in the study, with 75 in group C and 95 in group I. Both groups were similar with regard to age, weight, gender, and magnetic resonance imaging study type. Group C required a lesser dose of propofol (132 ± 54 μg/kg/min) compared to (162 ± 74 μg/kg/min) in that required in group I (p = .018). There were no differences between the two groups with regard to quality of the imaging study, recovery time, or incidence of complications. Compared to intermittent bolus dosing, continuous propofol infusion

  6. Comparing diffuse optical tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging signals during a cognitive task: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martin, Estefania; Marcano, Francisco; Casanova, Oscar; Modroño, Cristian; Plata-Bello, Julio; González-Mora, Jose Luis

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) measures concentration changes in both oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin providing three-dimensional images of local brain activations. A pilot study, which compares both DOT and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) volumes through t-maps given by canonical statistical parametric mapping (SPM) processing for both data modalities, is presented. The DOT series were processed using a method that is based on a Bayesian filter application on raw DOT data to remove physiological changes and minimum description length application index to select a number of singular values, which reduce the data dimensionality during image reconstruction and adaptation of DOT volume series to normalized standard space. Therefore, statistical analysis is performed with canonical SPM software in the same way as fMRI analysis is done, accepting DOT volumes as if they were fMRI volumes. The results show the reproducibility and ruggedness of the method to process DOT series on group analysis using cognitive paradigms on the prefrontal cortex. Difficulties such as the fact that scalp-brain distances vary between subjects or cerebral activations are difficult to reproduce due to strategies used by the subjects to solve arithmetic problems are considered. T-images given by fMRI and DOT volume series analyzed in SPM show that at the functional level, both DOT and fMRI measures detect the same areas, although DOT provides complementary information to fMRI signals about cerebral activity.

  7. Functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Bradley R

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) maps the spatiotemporal distribution of neural activity in the brain under varying cognitive conditions. Since its inception in 1991, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI has rapidly become a vital methodology in basic and applied neuroscience research. In the clinical realm, it has become an established tool for presurgical functional brain mapping. This chapter has three principal aims. First, we review key physiologic, biophysical, and methodologic principles that underlie BOLD fMRI, regardless of its particular area of application. These principles inform a nuanced interpretation of the BOLD fMRI signal, along with its neurophysiologic significance and pitfalls. Second, we illustrate the clinical application of task-based fMRI to presurgical motor, language, and memory mapping in patients with lesions near eloquent brain areas. Integration of BOLD fMRI and diffusion tensor white-matter tractography provides a road map for presurgical planning and intraoperative navigation that helps to maximize the extent of lesion resection while minimizing the risk of postoperative neurologic deficits. Finally, we highlight several basic principles of resting-state fMRI and its emerging translational clinical applications. Resting-state fMRI represents an important paradigm shift, focusing attention on functional connectivity within intrinsic cognitive networks.

  8. 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging study of the normal canine femoral and sciatic nerves.

    PubMed

    Sievert, Christine; Richter, Henning; Gascho, Dominic; Kircher, Patrick R; Carrera, Inés

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the normal course and optimizing visualization of the canine peripheral nerves of the lumbar plexus, in particular the sciatic and the femoral nerves, is essential when interpreting images of patients with suspected peripheral neuropathies such as inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The purpose of this prospective, anatomic study was to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) anatomy of the normal canine femoral and sciatic nerves and to define the sequences in which the nerves are best depicted. A preliminary postmortem cadaver study was performed to determine optimal sequences and imaging protocol. In a second step the optimized technique was implemented on 10 healthy Beagle dogs, included in the study. The applied protocol included the following sequences: T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T2-Spectral Attenuated Inversion Recovery, T1-weighted postcontrast and T1-Spectral Presaturated Inversion Recovery postcontrast. All sequences had satisfactory signal-to-noise ratio and contrast resolution in all patients. The sciatic and femoral nerves were seen in all images. They were symmetric and of homogeneous signal intensity, being iso- to mildly hyperintense to muscle on T2-weighted, mildly hyperintense in T2-Spectral Attenuated Inversion Recovery, and iso- to mildly hypointense in T1-weighted images. No evidence of contrast enhancement in T1-weighted and T1-Spectral Presaturated Inversion Recovery postcontrast sequences was observed. The anatomic landmarks helpful to identify the course of the femoral and sciatic nerves are described in detail. This study may be used as an anatomical reference, depicting the normal canine femoral and sciatic nerves at 3 Tesla MRI. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  9. Application of neural network to liver magnetic-resonance-imaging study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Chin-Sing; Chu, Wei-Kom; Anderson, Joseph C.; Syh, Hon-Wei

    1992-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver has demonstrated to be quite sensitive in showing Hepatic Hemangioma as high intensity lesions in T2 weighted imaging sequence. Hepatic Hemangioma is a non-malignant tumor and has relative high occurrence rate among the general population. It is of importance to differentiate this benign abnormality from other high intensity malignant lesions, such as hepatoma, adenocarcinoma, or metastasis. The objective of our study was to investigate the feasibility of applying neural network to assist in the differentiation of the liver MRI lesions. Thirty-seven liver MRI studies were collected, this including twenty-three cases of hepatic hemangioma and fourteen cases of malignant tumors. all cases were clinically proven with the diagnosed pathological condition and verified by biopsy. Four quantitative features, adopted from published literatures and used clinically on a routine basis, were measured from MRI images. In this study, a multilayer and two layer backpropagation networks were used for performance comparison. By attempting various training methods, the accuracy of the two layer network had been improved from 74% to 83% by selecting the proper boundary set based on the euclidean distance for each data set in both classes when training the network.

  10. Interactions between spin transport and dynamics studied using spatially resolved imaging and magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Michael Roy

    In this dissertation, I explore the interactions that occur between transported spins and magnetization dynamics using spatially resolved imaging and magnetic resonance. The integration of spin transport and dynamics will be a crucial aspect of realizing spintronic devices, which seek to improve upon current charge based electronics. Rather than focusing on the charge degree of freedom as in traditional electronics, spintronics seeks to utilize the properties of the electron spin degree of freedom to revolutionize the fundamental operating principles of data processing and storage devices. Spintronics promises greater functionality and energy efficiency in devices based on electron spin. However, improved understanding and control of the spin degree of freedom is required for spintronics to reach its full potential. The work in this dissertation represents efforts towards addressing these requirements. I discuss my work relating to the development of a custom scanned probe microscope allowing simultaneous spatially resolved imaging while imposing transport in electrically active spintronic devices. Using this microscope, I correlate the switching of magnetic electrodes in a graphene spin valve to the resistance states by directly imaging the electrode magnetization configuration while simultaneously measuring the non-local magnetoresistance. I investigate interactions between a ferromagnet driven into resonance and proximal nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond. Spinwaves generated during the decay of the uniform mode driven to ferromagnetic resonance relax the diamond nitrogen vacancy center spins resulting in a change in the fluorescence intensity. This technique allows the study of transport of angular momentum between two separated spin systems, as well as the possibility for the nanoscale imaging of magnetization dynamics. I demonstrate Heusler alloy ferromagnetic materials as high spin polarization spin injectors for device applications by studying their

  11. A new method for the study of velopharyngeal function using gated magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kane, Alex A; Butman, John A; Mullick, Rakesh; Skopec, Marlene; Choyke, Peter

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this project was to assess the feasibility of imaging the velopharynx of adult volunteers during repetitive speech, using gated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although a number of investigators have used conventional MRI in the study of the human vocal tract, the mismatch between the lengthy time necessary to acquire sufficiently detailed images and the rapidity of movement of the vocal tract during speech has forced investigators to acquire images either while the subject is at rest or during sustained utterances. The technique used here acquired a portion of each image during repetitive utterances, building the full image over multiple utterance cycles. The velopharyngeal portal was imaged on a 1.5-Tesla GE Signa LX 8.2 platform with gated fast spoiled gradient echo protocol. An external 1-Hertz trigger was fed to the cardiac gate. Subjects synchronized utterance of consonant-vowel syllables to a flashing light synchronized with the external trigger. Each acquisition of 30 phases per second at a single-slice location took 22 to 29 seconds. Four consonant-vowel syllables (/pa/, /ma/, /sa/, and /ka/) were evaluated. Subjects vocalized throughout the acquisition, beginning 5 to 6 seconds beforehand to establish a regular rhythm. Imaging of the velopharyngeal portal was performed for sagittal, velopharyngeal axial (aligned perpendicular to the "knee" of the velum), axial, and coronal planes. Volumes were obtained by sequential acquisition of six to 10 slices (each with 30 phases) in the axial or sagittal planes during repetition of the /pa/ syllable. Spatiotemporal volumes of the single-slice data were sectioned to provide time-motion images (analogous to M-mode echocardiograms). Three-dimensional dynamic volume renderings of palate motion were displayed interactively (Vortex; CieMed, Singapore). A method suitable for the collection and visualization of four-dimensional information regarding monosyllabic speech using gated MRI was developed. These

  12. A feasibility study of hand kinematics for EVA analysis using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickenson, Rueben D.; Lorenz, Christine H.; Peterson, Steven W.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Main, John A.

    1992-01-01

    A new method of analyzing the kinematics of joint motion is developed. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) offers several distinct advantages. Past methods of studying anatomic joint motion have usually centered on four approaches. These methods are x-ray projection, goniometric linkage analysis, sonic digitization, and landmark measurement of photogrammetry. Of these four, only x-ray is applicable for in vivo studies. The remaining three methods utilize other types of projections of inter-joint measurements, which can cause various types of error. MRI offers accuracy in measurement due to its tomographic nature (as opposed to projection) without the problems associated with x-ray dosage. Once the data acquisition of MR images was complete, the images were processed using a 3D volume rendering workstation. The metacarpalphalangeal (MCP) joint of the left index finger was selected and reconstructed into a three-dimensional graphic display. From the reconstructed volumetric images, measurements of the angles of movement of the applicable bones were obtained and processed by analyzing the screw motion of the MCP joint. Landmark positions were chosen at distinctive locations of the joint at fixed image threshold intensity levels to ensure repeatability. The primarily two dimensional planar motion of this joint was then studied using a method of constructing coordinate systems using three (or more) points. A transformation matrix based on a world coordinate system described the location and orientation of a local target coordinate system. Future research involving volume rendering of MRI data focusing on the internal kinematics of the hand's individual ligaments, cartilage, tendons, etc. will follow. Its findings will show the applicability of MRI to joint kinematics for gaining further knowledge of the hand-glove (power assisted) design for extravehicular activity (EVA).

  13. Retrospective study comparing model-based deformation correction to intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging for image-guided neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ma; Frisken, Sarah F; Weis, Jared A; Clements, Logan W; Unadkat, Prashin; Thompson, Reid C; Golby, Alexandra J; Miga, Michael I

    2017-07-01

    Brain shift during tumor resection compromises the spatial validity of registered preoperative imaging data that is critical to image-guided procedures. One current clinical solution to mitigate the effects is to reimage using intraoperative magnetic resonance (iMR) imaging. Although iMR has demonstrated benefits in accounting for preoperative-to-intraoperative tissue changes, its cost and encumbrance have limited its widespread adoption. While iMR will likely continue to be employed for challenging cases, a cost-effective model-based brain shift compensation strategy is desirable as a complementary technology for standard resections. We performed a retrospective study of [Formula: see text] tumor resection cases, comparing iMR measurements with intraoperative brain shift compensation predicted by our model-based strategy, driven by sparse intraoperative cortical surface data. For quantitative assessment, homologous subsurface targets near the tumors were selected on preoperative MR and iMR images. Once rigidly registered, intraoperative shift measurements were determined and subsequently compared to model-predicted counterparts as estimated by the brain shift correction framework. When considering moderate and high shift ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] measurements per case), the alignment error due to brain shift reduced from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text], representing [Formula: see text] correction. These first steps toward validation are promising for model-based strategies.

  14. Amide proton transfer magnetic resonance imaging in detecting intracranial hemorrhage at different stages: a comparative study with susceptibility weighted imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoyue; Bai, Yan; Lin, Yusong; Hong, Xiaohua; Liu, Taiyuan; Ma, Lun; Haacke, E Mark; Zhou, Jinyuan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Meiyun

    2017-01-01

    Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging is a noninvasive molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique based on the chemical exchange-dependent saturation transfer mechanism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of APT MRI in detecting intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) at hyperacute, acute and subacute stages by comparing with susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI). APT MRI and SWI were performed on 33 included patients with ICH by using a 3-T MRI unit. A two-sided Mann-Whitney U test was used to detect differences in APT-weighted (APTw) and SWI signal intensities of ICH at hyperacute, acute and subacute stages. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the diagnostic utilities of APT MRI and SWI. Our results showed that APT MRI could detect ICH at hyperacute, acute and subacute stages. Therefore, APTw signal intensity may serve as a reliable, noninvasive imaging biomarker for detecting ICH at hyperacute, acute and subacute stages. Moreover, APT MRI could provide additional information for the ICH compared with SWI. PMID:28374764

  15. Compatibility of temporary pacemaker myocardial pacing leads with magnetic resonance imaging: an ex vivo tissue study.

    PubMed

    Pfeil, Alexander; Drobnik, Stefanie; Rzanny, Reinhard; Aboud, Anas; Böttcher, Joachim; Schmidt, Peter; Ortmann, Christian; Mall, Gita; Hekmat, Khosro; Brehm, Bernhard; Reichenbach, Juergen; Mayer, Thomas E; Wolf, Gunter; Hansch, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    The presence of temporary myocardial pacing leads is considered a safety contraindication for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this ex vivo tissue study was to measure the heating effects at the tip of the leads using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)HMRS) thermometry. The tissue effects were verified by histological analyses. Pig hearts with implanted temporary pacemaker myocardial pacing leads were examined by whole-body MRI at 1.5 Tesla. The tests were performed either by a sequence with high specific absorption rate (SAR) or by standard clinical sequences with lower SAR. Temperature changes were detected via (1)HMRS thermometry, by monitoring the frequency difference between water protons and the reference signals of N-methyl protons of creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr/PCr) and trimethylamine (TMA). Histology was performed using several staining techniques. Standard low-SAR and high-SAR sequences did not cause significant temperature increases in the myocardial tissue surrounding the implanted leads. There were no histopathological signs of thermal damage around the tips of the leads in any of the hearts or in a control implanted heart not subjected to MRI. The present data suggest that temporary pacemaker myocardial pacing leads may be compatible with MR scanning at 1.5 Tesla. However, further in vivo studies and carefully monitored patient studies are needed before final safety recommendations can be made.

  16. The effect of musical training on music processing: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in humans.

    PubMed

    Schmithorst, Vincent J; Holland, Scott K

    2003-09-11

    Previous studies have demonstrated changes in neuronal activity in trained musicians relative to controls while performing various music processing tasks. In this study the neural correlates of the effect of music training on two aspects of music processing, melody and harmony, are investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fifteen subjects, seven with continuous musical training from early childhood to adulthood and eight without, underwent a passive fMRI listening paradigm designed to test the effects of melodic and harmonic processing. Melodic processing activated the most anterior part of the superior temporal gyrus for both musicians and non-musicians, while harmonic processing activated different visual association areas for musicians relative to non-musicians. The inferior parietal lobules were recruited only by musicians for both tasks. We conclude that musical training results in the recruitment of different neural networks for these aspects of music processing.

  17. Complementary role of magnetic resonance imaging in the study of the fetal urinary system.

    PubMed

    Gómez Huertas, M; Culiañez Casas, M; Molina García, F S; Carrillo Badillo, M P; Pastor Pons, E

    2016-01-01

    Urinary system birth defects represent the abnormality most often detected in prenatal studies, accounting for 30% to 50% of all structural anomalies present at birth. The most common disorders are urinary tract dilation, developmental variants, cystic kidney diseases, kidney tumors, and bladder defects. These anomalies can present in isolation or in association with various syndromes. They are normally evaluated with sonography, and the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered only in inconclusive cases. In this article, we show the potential of fetal MRI as a technique to complement sonography in the study of fetal urinary system anomalies. We show the additional information that MRI can provide in each entity, especially in the evaluation of kidney function through diffusion-weighted sequences.

  18. An anatomic study of the inferior oblique nerve with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Satoshi; Nakamura, Masanobu; Tabuchi, Takashi; Yasumoto, Yukimasa; Ito, Masanori

    2013-07-01

    To investigate anatomic features of the inferior oblique nerve (IObN) by high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and cadaveric dissection. This study enrolled 100 consecutive outpatients, who underwent 3.0 T MR imaging equipped by the 32-channel head coil. The T2-weighted imaging data of IObN were extracted for analysis and compared with the findings of microsurgical dissection in 14 orbits. 50 male and 50 female subjects allotted to the imaging study were aged from 11 to 78 years. In 94 % sides, the IObN was found to separate from the inferior rectus muscle (IRM) at the level just behind to the posterior pole of the bulb. At the midpoint of the IObN part coursing along the orbital floor and above or adjacent to the infraorbital nerve and artery complex, the mean distance from the lateral margin of the IRM was 1.0 mm on the right and 0.9 mm on the left. The IObN showed upward direction change just below the belly of the inferior oblique muscle and innervated to it at the equator level in 78 sides on the right and 89 on the left. Dissected specimens revealed the consistent morphological findings of the IObN. The IObN seems to be a relatively consistent structure. Anatomic information on the IObN and surrounding structures that are provided by high-resolution MR imaging can be a help for safe surgery.

  19. Comparative in vivo mucoadhesion studies of thiomer formulations using magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, K; Greindl, M; Kremser, C; Wolf, C; Debbage, P; Bernkop-Schnürch, A

    2006-09-28

    The aim of this study was to compare different oral delivery systems based on the thiolated polymer polycarbophil-cysteine (PCP-Cys) and to provide evidence for the validity of the hypothesis that unhydrated polymers provide better mucoadhesion in vivo. To achieve dry polymer application, a new, experimental dosage form named Eutex (made of Eudragit L100-55 and latex) capsule has been developed. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to localize the point of release of the thiolated polymer from the application forms via the positive magnetic resonance signal from a gadolinium complex (Gd-DTPA). In vivo mucoadhesion was determined by ascertaining the residence time of the fluorescence-tagged thiomer on intestinal mucosa after 3 h. Results showed that in comparison to conventional application forms the Eutex capsules led to 1.9-fold higher mucoadhesive properties of PCP-Cys when compared to application with a conventional enteric-coated capsule, and to 1.4-fold higher mucoadhesion when compared to administration with an enteric-coated tablet of the thiomer. The findings of this study should contribute to the understanding of mucoadhesion and mucoadhesion influencing parameters in vivo and should therefore be of considerable interest for the development of future mucoadhesive oral drug delivery dosage forms.

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Does Neuroimaging Support the DSM-5 Proposal for a Symptom Dyad? A Systematic Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Fraguas, David; Boada, Leticia; Janssen, Joost; Navas-Sanchez, Francisco J.; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of 208 studies comprising functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging data in patients with "autism spectrum disorder" (ASD) was conducted, in order to determine whether these data support the forthcoming DSM-5 proposal of a social communication and behavioral symptom dyad. Studies consistently reported…

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Does Neuroimaging Support the DSM-5 Proposal for a Symptom Dyad? A Systematic Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Fraguas, David; Boada, Leticia; Janssen, Joost; Navas-Sanchez, Francisco J.; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of 208 studies comprising functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging data in patients with "autism spectrum disorder" (ASD) was conducted, in order to determine whether these data support the forthcoming DSM-5 proposal of a social communication and behavioral symptom dyad. Studies consistently reported…

  2. Reinterpretation of Electrodiagnostic Studies and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scans in Patients with Nontraumatic "Isolated" Anterior Interosseous Nerve Palsy.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Andrés A; Amrami, Kimberly K; Mauermann, Michelle L; Spinner, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Different hypotheses have been proposed for the pathophysiology of anterior interosseous nerve palsy: compression, fascicular constriction, or nerve inflammation (Parsonage-Turner syndrome). The authors hypothesized that critical reinterpretation of electrodiagnostic studies and magnetic resonance imaging scans of patients with a diagnosis of anterior interosseous nerve palsy could provide insight into the pathophysiology and treatment. A retrospective review was performed of all patients with a diagnosis of nontraumatic anterior interosseous nerve palsy and an upper extremity magnetic resonance imaging scan. The original electrodiagnostic study and magnetic resonance imaging scan reports were reinterpreted by a neuromuscular neurologist and musculoskeletal radiologist, respectively, both blinded to the authors' hypothesis. Sixteen patients met the inclusion criteria as having "isolated" anterior interosseous nerve palsy. Physical examination revealed weakness in muscles not innervated by the anterior interosseous nerve in five cases (31 percent), and electrodiagnostic studies showed abnormalities not related to the anterior interosseous nerve in nine of 15 cases (60 percent). In all cases, reinterpretation of the magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated atrophy in at least one muscle not innervated by the anterior interosseous nerve and did not reveal any evidence of compression of the anterior interosseous nerve. All patients in the authors' series with presumed isolated anterior interosseous nerve palsy had magnetic resonance imaging evidence of a more diffuse muscle involvement pattern, without any radiologic signs of nerve compression of the anterior interosseous nerve branch itself. These data strongly support an inflammatory pathophysiology.

  3. A magnetic resonance imaging study on the articulatory and acoustic speech parameters of Malay vowels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The phonetic properties of six Malay vowels are investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the vocal tract in order to obtain dynamic articulatory parameters during speech production. To resolve image blurring due to the tongue movement during the scanning process, a method based on active contour extraction is used to track tongue contours. The proposed method efficiently tracks tongue contours despite the partial blurring of MRI images. Consequently, the articulatory parameters that are effectively measured as tongue movement is observed, and the specific shape of the tongue and its position for all six uttered Malay vowels are determined. Speech rehabilitation procedure demands some kind of visual perceivable prototype of speech articulation. To investigate the validity of the measured articulatory parameters based on acoustic theory of speech production, an acoustic analysis based on the uttered vowels by subjects has been performed. As the acoustic speech and articulatory parameters of uttered speech were examined, a correlation between formant frequencies and articulatory parameters was observed. The experiments reported a positive correlation between the constriction location of the tongue body and the first formant frequency, as well as a negative correlation between the constriction location of the tongue tip and the second formant frequency. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is an effective tool for the dynamic study of speech production. PMID:25060583

  4. A magnetic resonance imaging study on the articulatory and acoustic speech parameters of Malay vowels.

    PubMed

    Zourmand, Alireza; Mirhassani, Seyed Mostafa; Ting, Hua-Nong; Bux, Shaik Ismail; Ng, Kwan Hoong; Bilgen, Mehmet; Jalaludin, Mohd Amin

    2014-07-25

    The phonetic properties of six Malay vowels are investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the vocal tract in order to obtain dynamic articulatory parameters during speech production. To resolve image blurring due to the tongue movement during the scanning process, a method based on active contour extraction is used to track tongue contours. The proposed method efficiently tracks tongue contours despite the partial blurring of MRI images. Consequently, the articulatory parameters that are effectively measured as tongue movement is observed, and the specific shape of the tongue and its position for all six uttered Malay vowels are determined.Speech rehabilitation procedure demands some kind of visual perceivable prototype of speech articulation. To investigate the validity of the measured articulatory parameters based on acoustic theory of speech production, an acoustic analysis based on the uttered vowels by subjects has been performed. As the acoustic speech and articulatory parameters of uttered speech were examined, a correlation between formant frequencies and articulatory parameters was observed. The experiments reported a positive correlation between the constriction location of the tongue body and the first formant frequency, as well as a negative correlation between the constriction location of the tongue tip and the second formant frequency. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is an effective tool for the dynamic study of speech production.

  5. Lumbar muscle activity during common lifts: a preliminary study using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mayer, John M; Graves, James E; Manini, Todd M; Nuzzo, James L; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess lumbar multifidus, erector spinae, and quadratus lumborum muscle activity during lifts as measured by changes in transverse relaxation time (T2) from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirteen healthy adults performed dynamic squat, stoop, and asymmetric stoop lifts at a standard load, with each lift followed by MRI. Increase in T2 for the multifidus and erector spinae was greater for the stoop than squat. No difference in T2 increase was noted between the multifidus and erector spinae for the squat or stoop. Increase in T2 for the contralateral multifidus was less for the asymmetric stoop than stoop. Future research using MRI and other biomechanical techniques is needed to fully characterize lumbar muscle activity during lifts for various populations, settings, postures, and loads.

  6. Studies of chinese original quiet sitting by using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Liou, Chien-Hui; Hsieh, Chang-Wei; Hsieh, Chao-Hsien; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Wang, Chi-Hong; Lee, Si-Chen

    2005-01-01

    Since different meditations may activate different regions in brain, we can use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate it. Chinese original quiet sitting is mainly one kind of traditional Chinese meditation. It contains two different parts: a short period of keeping phrase and intake spiritual energy, and a long period of relaxation with no further action. In this paper, both those two stages were studied by fMRI. We performed two different paradigms and found the accurate positions in the brain. The pineal gland and the hypothalamus showed positive activation during the first and second stages of this meditation. The BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent) signal changes had also been found.

  7. Alterations in pituitary gland volume in polycystic ovary syndrome: a structural magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Unlu, Ebru; Unlu, Bekir Serdar; Turamanlar, Ozan; Acay, Mehtap Beker; Kacar, Emre; Yıldız, Yunus; Verim, Ozgur; Okur, Nazan; Balcik, Cinar; Tasgetiren, Suleyman; Yucel, Aylin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this prospectively designed cross-sectional observational study was to evaluate the effect of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on pituitary gland volume (PGV) under the hypothesis that endocrinologic changes may lead to morphologic changes of the pituitary gland. Twenty-six PCOS patients and 31 control subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects. PGV was significantly larger in PCOS patients than in control subjects. Luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone ratio was the only predictor of PGV. The association between pituitary gland enlargement and PCOS should be kept in mind when pituitary hypertrophy is detected on MRI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Stray Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of the Drying of Sodium Silicate Films.

    PubMed

    Hughes; McDonald; Rhodes; Rockliffe; Smith; Wills

    1996-01-15

    Stray field magnetic resonance imaging (STRAFI) is shown to be highly suited to the study of drying processes in thin films. Sodium silicate films have been chosen as a model system exhibiting many of the properties of film drying in general. Films have been dried, as a function of temperature in the range 22 to 62 degrees C, down to water contents of order 28% by weight, at which stage the film is glassy. The experimental results have been quantitatively analyzed by treating the drying film as a colloidal solution. The results suggest that the localized hydrogen spin-spin relaxation time, and hence the mobility of the water in the films is independent of the drying regime and depends primarily on the local water concentration.

  9. Studying microstructure and microstructural changes in plant tissues by advanced diffusion magnetic resonance imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Darya; Tal, Iris; Pisanty, Odelia; Shani, Eilon; Cohen, Yoram

    2017-04-08

    As sessile organisms, plants must respond to the environment by adjusting their growth and development. Most of the plant body is formed post-embryonically by continuous activity of apical and lateral meristems. The development of lateral adventitious roots is a complex process, and therefore the development of methods that can visualize, non-invasively, the plant microstructure and organ initiation that occur during growth and development is of paramount importance. In this study, relaxation-based and advanced diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods including diffusion tensor (DTI), q-space diffusion imaging (QSI), and double-pulsed-field-gradient (d-PFG) MRI, at 14.1 T, were used to characterize the hypocotyl microstructure and the microstructural changes that occurred during the development of lateral adventitious roots in tomato. Better contrast was observed in relaxation-based MRI using higher in-plane resolution but this also resulted in a significant reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio of the T2-weighted MR images. Diffusion MRI revealed that water diffusion is highly anisotropic in the vascular cylinder. QSI and d-PGSE MRI showed that in the vascular cylinder some of the cells have sizes in the range of 6-10 μm. The MR images captured cell reorganization during adventitious root formation in the periphery of the primary vascular bundles, adjacent to the xylem pole that broke through the cortex and epidermis layers. This study demonstrates that MRI and diffusion MRI methods allow the non-invasive study of microstructural features of plants, and enable microstructural changes associated with adventitious root formation to be followed.

  10. Neural interface of mirror therapy in chronic stroke patients: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, Ashu; Padma Srivastava, M V; Kumaran, Senthil S; Bhatia, Rohit; Mohanty, Sujata

    2012-01-01

    Recovery in stroke is mediated by neural plasticity. Neuro-restorative therapies improve recovery after stroke by promoting repair and function. Mirror neuron system (MNS) has been studied widely in humans in stroke and phantom sensations. Study subjects included 20 patients with chronic stroke and 10 healthy controls. Patients had clinical disease-severity scores, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffuse tensor imaging (DTI) at baseline, 8 and at 24 weeks. Block design with alternate baseline and activation cycles was used with a total of 90 whole brain echo planar imaging (EPI) measurements (timed repetition (TR) = 4520 ms, timed echo (TE) = 44 ms, slices = 31, slice thickness = 4 mm, EPI factor 127, matrix = 128 × 128, FOV = 230 mm). Whole brain T1-weighted images were acquired using 3D sequence (MPRage) with 120 contiguous slices of 1.0 mm thickness. The mirror therapy was aimed via laptop system integrated with web camera, mirroring the movement of the unaffected hand. This therapy was administered for 5 days in a week for 60-90 min for 8 weeks. All the patients showed statistical significant improvement in Fugl Meyer and modified Barthel Index (P < 0.05) whereas the change in Medical Research Council (MRC) power grade was not significant post-therapy (8 weeks). There was an increase in the laterality index (LI) of ipsilesional BA 4 and BA 6 at 8 weeks exhibiting recruitment and focusing principles of neural plasticity. Mirror therapy simulated the "action-observation" hypothesis exhibiting recovery in patients with chronic stroke. Therapy induced cortical reorganization was also observed from our study.

  11. Cervical varicosities may predict placenta accreta in posterior placenta previa: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Hiroki; Miyamoto, Morikazu; Shinnmoto, Hiroshi; Murakami, Wakana; Soyama, Hiroaki; Nakatsuka, Masaya; Natsuyama, Takahiro; Yoshida, Masashi; Takano, Masashi; Furuya, Kenichi

    2017-07-14

    The aim of this study was to prenatally predict placenta accreta in posterior placenta previa using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of our hospital. We identified 81 patients with singleton pregnancy who had undergone cesarean section due to posterior placenta previa at our hospital between January 2012 and December 2016. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of several well-known findings, and of cervical varicosities quantified using magnetic resonance imaging, in predicting placenta accreta in posterior placenta previa. To quantify cervical varicosities, we calculated the A/B ratio, where "A" was the minimum distance from the most dorsal cervical varicosity to the deciduous placenta, and "B" was the minimum distance from the most dorsal cervical varicosity to the amniotic placenta. The appropriate cut-off value of the A/B ratio was determined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Three patients (3.7%) were diagnosed as having placenta accreta. The sensitivity and specificity of the well-known findings were 0 and 97.4%, respectively. Furthermore, the A/B ratio ranged from 0.02 to 0.79. ROC curve analysis revealed that the area under the combined placenta accreta and A/B ratio curve was 0.96. When the cutoff value of the A/B ratio was set 0.18, the sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 91%, respectively. It was difficult to diagnose placenta accreta in the posterior placenta previa using the well-known findings. The quantification of cervical varicosities could effectively predict placenta accreta.

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety What is MRI and how does ... the area being scanned include: Metallic spinal rod Plates, pins, screws, or metal mesh used to repair ...

  13. Advances in breast imaging: magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Bartella, Lia; Morris, Elizabeth A

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast is rapidly becoming incorporated into clinical practice. Indications for breast MRI include staging of known breast cancer, monitoring response to chemotherapy, assessing recurrence, problem solving, and high-risk screening. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a promising technique that may decrease the number of benign biopsies generated by breast MRI in the clinical setting.

  14. Accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging for measuring maturing cartilage: A phantom study.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Jennifer R; Sussman, Marshall S; Moineddin, Rahim; Amirabadi, Afsaneh; Rayner, Tammy; Doria, Andrea S

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging measurements of cartilage tissue-mimicking phantoms and to determine a combination of magnetic resonance imaging parameters to optimize accuracy while minimizing scan time. Edge dimensions from 4 rectangular agar phantoms ranging from 10.5 to 14.5 mm in length and 1.25 to 5.5 mm in width were independently measured by two readers using a steel ruler. Coronal T1 spin echo (T1 SE), fast spoiled gradient-recalled echo (FSPGR) and multiplanar gradient-recalled echo (GRE MPGR) sequences were used to obtain phantom images on a 1.5-T scanner. Inter- and intra-reader reliability were high for both direct measurements and for magnetic resonance imaging measurements of phantoms. Statistically significant differences were noted between the mean direct measurements and the mean magnetic resonance imaging measurements for phantom 1 when using a GRE MPGR sequence (512x512 pixels, 1.5-mm slice thickness, 5:49 min scan time), while borderline differences were noted for T1 SE sequences with the following parameters: 320x320 pixels, 1.5-mm slice thickness, 6:11 min scan time; 320x320 pixels, 4-mm slice thickness, 6:11 min scan time; and 512x512 pixels, 1.5-mm slice thickness, 9:48 min scan time. Borderline differences were also noted when using a FSPGR sequence with 512x512 pixels, a 1.5-mm slice thickness and a 3:36 min scan time. FSPGR sequences, regardless of the magnetic resonance imaging parameter combination used, provided accurate measurements. The GRE MPGR sequence using 512x512 pixels, a 1.5-mm slice thickness and a 5:49 min scan time and, to a lesser degree, all tested T1 SE sequences produced suboptimal accuracy when measuring the widest phantom.

  15. Systematic analysis of functional and structural changes after coronary microembolization: a cardiac magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Breuckmann, Frank; Nassenstein, Kai; Bucher, Christina; Konietzka, Ina; Kaiser, Gernot; Konorza, Thomas; Naber, Christoph; Skyschally, Andreas; Gres, Petra; Heusch, Gerd; Erbel, Raimund; Barkhausen, Jörg

    2009-02-01

    Our study aimed to detect the morphological und functional effects of coronary microembolization (ME) in vivo by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in an established experimental animal model. Post-mortem morphological alterations of coronary ME include perifocal inflammatory edema and focal microinfarcts. Clinically, the detection of ME after successful coronary interventions identifies a population with a worse long-term prognosis. In 18 minipigs, ME was performed by intracoronary infusion of microspheres followed by repetitive in vivo imaging on a 1.5-T MR system from 30 min to 8 h after ME. Additionally, corresponding ex vivo CMR imaging and histomorphology were performed. Cine CMR imaging demonstrated a time-dependent increase of wall motion abnormalities from 9 of 18 animals after 30 min to all animals after 8 h (0.5 h, 50%; 2 h, 78%; 4 h, 75%; 8 h, 100%). Whereas T2 images were negative 30 min after ME, 4 of 18 animals showed myocardial edema at follow-up (0.5 h, 0%; 2 h, 6%; 4 h, 25%; 8 h, 17%). In vivo late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was observed in none of the animals after 30 min, but in 33%, 50%, and 83% of animals at 2 h, 4 h, and 8 h, respectively, after ME. Ex vivo CMR imaging showed patchy areas of LGE in all but 1 animal (2 h, 83%; 4 h, 100%; 8 h, 100%). A significant correlation was seen between the maximum troponin I level and LGE in vivo (r = 0.63) and the spatial extent of ex vivo LGE (r = 0.76). Our results show that in vivo contrast-enhanced CMR imaging allows us to detect functional and structural myocardial changes after ME with a high sensitivity. Ex vivo, the pattern of LGE of high-resolution, contrast-enhanced CMR imaging is different from the well-known pattern of LGE in compact myocardial damage. Thus, improvements in spatial resolution are thought to be necessary to improve its ability to visualize ME-induced structural alterations even in vivo.

  16. Preclinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy Studies of Memory, Aging, and Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Febo, Marcelo; Foster, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging provides for non-invasive evaluation of brain structure and activity and has been employed to suggest possible mechanisms for cognitive aging in humans. However, these imaging procedures have limits in terms of defining cellular and molecular mechanisms. In contrast, investigations of cognitive aging in animal models have mostly utilized techniques that have offered insight on synaptic, cellular, genetic, and epigenetic mechanisms affecting memory. Studies employing magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy (MRI and MRS, respectively) in animal models have emerged as an integrative set of techniques bridging localized cellular/molecular phenomenon and broader in vivo neural network alterations. MRI methods are remarkably suited to longitudinal tracking of cognitive function over extended periods permitting examination of the trajectory of structural or activity related changes. Combined with molecular and electrophysiological tools to selectively drive activity within specific brain regions, recent studies have begun to unlock the meaning of fMRI signals in terms of the role of neural plasticity and types of neural activity that generate the signals. The techniques provide a unique opportunity to causally determine how memory-relevant synaptic activity is processed and how memories may be distributed or reconsolidated over time. The present review summarizes research employing animal MRI and MRS in the study of brain function, structure, and biochemistry, with a particular focus on age-related cognitive decline. PMID:27468264

  17. The accuracy of prostate volume measurement from ultrasound images: a quasi-Monte Carlo simulation study using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Azulay, David-Olivier D; Murphy, Philip; Graham, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Prostate volume is an important parameter to guide management of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and to deliver clinical trial endpoints. Generally, simple 2D ultrasound (US) approaches are favoured despite the potential for greater accuracy afforded by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or complex US procedures. In this study, different approaches to estimate prostate size are evaluated with a simulation to select multiple organ cross-sections and diameters from 22 MRI-defined prostate shapes. A quasi-Monte Carlo (qMC) approach is used to simulate multiple probe positions and angles within prescribed limits resulting in a range of dimensions. The basic ellipsoid calculation which uses two scanning planes compares well to the MRI volume across the range of prostate shapes and sizes (R=0.992). However, using an appropriate linear regression model, accurate volume estimates can be made using prostate diameters calculated from a single scanning plane.

  18. Psychological impact and acceptability of magnetic resonance imaging and X-ray mammography: the MARIBS Study

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, J; Walker, L G; Gilbert, F J; Evans, D G; Eeles, R; Kwan-Lim, G E; Thompson, D; Pointon, L J; Sharp, D M; Leach, M O

    2011-01-01

    Background: As part of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Breast Screening (MARIBS), Study women with a family history of breast cancer were assessed psychologically to determine the relative psychological impact and acceptability of annual screening using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and conventional X-ray mammography (XRM). Methods: Women were assessed psychologically at baseline (4 weeks before MRI and XRM), immediately before, and immediately after, both MRI and XRM, and at follow-up (6 weeks after the scans). Results: Overall, both procedures were found to be acceptable with high levels of satisfaction (MRI, 96.3% and XRM, 97.7% NS) and low levels of psychological morbidity throughout, particularly at 6-week follow-up. Low levels of self-reported distress were reported for both procedures (MRI, 13.5% and XRM, 7.8%), although MRI was more distressing (P=0.005). Similarly, higher anticipatory anxiety was reported before MRI than before XRM (P=0.003). Relative to XRM, MRI-related distress was more likely to persist at 6 weeks after the scans in the form of intrusive MRI-related thoughts (P=0.006) and total MRI-related distress (P=0.014). More women stated that they intended to return for XRM (96.3%) than for MRI (88% P<0.0005). These effects were most marked for the first year of screening, although they were also statistically significant in subsequent years. Conclusion: Given the proven benefits of MRI in screening for breast cancer in this population, these data point to the urgent need to provide timely information and support to women undergoing MRI. PMID:21326245

  19. Psychological impact and acceptability of magnetic resonance imaging and X-ray mammography: the MARIBS Study.

    PubMed

    Hutton, J; Walker, L G; Gilbert, F J; Evans, D G; Eeles, R; Kwan-Lim, G E; Thompson, D; Pointon, L J; Sharp, D M; Leach, M O

    2011-02-15

    As part of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Breast Screening (MARIBS), Study women with a family history of breast cancer were assessed psychologically to determine the relative psychological impact and acceptability of annual screening using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and conventional X-ray mammography (XRM). Women were assessed psychologically at baseline (4 weeks before MRI and XRM), immediately before, and immediately after, both MRI and XRM, and at follow-up (6 weeks after the scans). Overall, both procedures were found to be acceptable with high levels of satisfaction (MRI, 96.3% and XRM, 97.7%; NS) and low levels of psychological morbidity throughout, particularly at 6-week follow-up. Low levels of self-reported distress were reported for both procedures (MRI, 13.5% and XRM, 7.8%), although MRI was more distressing (P=0.005). Similarly, higher anticipatory anxiety was reported before MRI than before XRM (P=0.003). Relative to XRM, MRI-related distress was more likely to persist at 6 weeks after the scans in the form of intrusive MRI-related thoughts (P=0.006) and total MRI-related distress (P=0.014). More women stated that they intended to return for XRM (96.3%) than for MRI (88%; P<0.0005). These effects were most marked for the first year of screening, although they were also statistically significant in subsequent years. Given the proven benefits of MRI in screening for breast cancer in this population, these data point to the urgent need to provide timely information and support to women undergoing MRI.

  20. Association Between Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque Calcification and Intraplaque Hemorrhage: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ruolan; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Gaifen; Xue, Yunjing; Zhao, Xihai

    2017-06-01

    Carotid intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) is associated with cardiovascular events. Calcification, which frequently accompanies IPH, may play a role in IPH occurrence. In this study, we aimed to investigate the associations between calcification characteristics and IPH in carotid plaques. One hundred seventeen patients with cerebrovascular symptoms and carotid plaques detected by ultrasound were recruited and underwent multicontrast magnetic resonance imaging. Advanced carotid plaques with composition measured by magnetic resonance imaging were included in the analysis. Carotid calcifications were divided into the following categories: surface, mixed, and deep calcification. They were also classified into single and multiple calcifications according to quantity. Logistic regression models utilizing generalized estimating equations were performed to evaluate the relationship between calcification and IPH. Of 117 subjects, 85 with 142 plaques were included in the final analysis, whereas 32 were excluded because of lack of plaque compositions. Of the 142 plaques, 40 (28.2%) had IPH. Plaques with IPH showed greater prevalence of calcification than those without (87.5% versus 55.9%; P=0.005). After adjusting for age, low-density lipoprotein, maximum wall thickness, and maximum soft plaque thickness, multiple calcifications (odd ratio, 10.1; 95% confidence interval, 3.3-30.4), surface calcification (odd ratio, 29.4; 95% confidence interval, 4.1-210.8), and mixed calcifications (odd ratio, 27.9; 95% confidence interval, 7.3-107.1) were found to be strongly associated with the presence of IPH (all P<0.05). Surface calcification and multiple calcifications in carotid atherosclerotic plaques are independently associated with the presence of IPH, suggesting that both quantity and location of calcification may play important roles in the occurrence of IPH. These findings may provide novel insights for understanding mechanisms of IPH. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Numerical study of remote detection outside the magnet with travelling wave Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, M.; Vázquez, F.; Solís-Nájera, S.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2015-01-01

    The use of the travelling wave approach for high magnetic field magnetic resonance imaging has been used recently with very promising results. This approach offer images one with greater field-of-view and a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio using a circular waveguide. This scheme has been proved to be successful at 7 T and 9.4 T with whole-body imager. Images have also been acquired with clinical magnetic resonance imaging systems whose resonant frequencies were 64 MHz and 128 MHz. These results motivated the use of remote detection of the magnetic resonance signal using a parallel-plate waveguide together with 3 T clinical scanners, to acquired human leg images. The cut-off frequency of this waveguide is zero for the principal mode, allowing us to overcome the barrier of transmitting waves at lower frequency than 300 MHz or 7 T for protons. These motivated the study of remote detection outside the actual magnet. We performed electromagnetic field simulations of a parallel-plate waveguide and a phantom. The signal transmission was done at 128 MHz and using a circular surface coil located almost 200 cm away for the magnet isocentre. Numerical simulations demonstrated that the magnetic field of the principal mode propagate inside a waveguide outside the magnet. Numerical results were compared with previous experimental-acquired image data under similar conditions.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging outcomes from a comprehensive magnetic resonance study of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Astley, Susan J.; Aylward, Elizabeth H.; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Kerns, Kimberly; Brooks, Allison; Coggins, Truman E.; Davies, Julian; Dorn, Susan; Gendler, Beth; Jirikowic, Tracy; Kraegel, Paul; Maravilla, Kenneth; Richards, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance (MR) technology offers non-invasive methods for in vivo assessment of neuroabnormalities. Methods A comprehensive neuropsychological/psychiatric battery, coupled with MR imaging, (MRI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), and functional MRI (fMRI) assessments, were administered to children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) to determine if global and/or focal abnormalities could be identified, and distinguish diagnostic subclassifications across the spectrum. The four study groups included: 1. FAS/Partial FAS; 2. Static Encephalopathy/Alcohol Exposed (SE/AE); 3. Neurobehavioral Disorder/Alcohol Exposed (ND/AE) as diagnosed with the FASD 4-Digit Code; and 4. healthy peers with no prenatal alcohol exposure. Presented here are the MRI assessments used to compare the sizes of brain regions between the four groups. The neuropsychological/behavioral, MRS, and fMRI outcomes are reported separately. Results Progressing across the four study groups from Controls to ND/AE to SE/AE to FAS/PFAS, the mean absolute size of the total brain, frontal lobe, caudate, putamen, hippocampus, cerebellar vermis, and corpus callosum length decreased incrementally and significantly. The FAS/PFAS group (the only group with the 4-Digit FAS facial phenotype) had disproportionately smaller frontal lobes relative to all other groups. The FAS/PFAS and SE/AE groups (the two groups with the most severe CNS dysfunction) had disproportionately smaller caudate regions relative to the ND/AE and Control groups. The prevalence of subjects in the FAS/PFAS, SE/AE, and ND/AE groups that had one or more brain regions, two or more standard deviations below the mean size observed in the Control group was78%, 58%, and 43%, respectively . Significant correlations were observed between size of brain regions and level of prenatal alcohol exposure, magnitude of FAS facial phenotype, and level of CNS dysfunction. Conclusions MRI provided further validation that ND/AE, SE/AE, and FAS

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging in patellar lateral femoral friction syndrome (PLFFS): prospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Barbier-Brion, B; Lerais, J-M; Aubry, S; Lepage, D; Vidal, C; Delabrousse, E; Runge, M; Kastler, B

    2012-03-01

    To describe morphologic abnormalities and signs of patellar lateral femoral friction syndrome (PLFFS) detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Prospective study of 56 knees (21 patients and 30 controls) studied by 3Tesla MRI. Comparative analysis of clinical data, quantitative and qualitative imaging criteria in a population of patients with anterior knee pain associated with an abnormal MRI signal along the lateral alar folds of the infrapatellar fat pad, a characteristic sign of PLFFS, and a control population with no anterior knee pain or abnormal signal from the infrapatellar fat pad. Patients with PLFFS have anterior and/or lateral knee pain. Their knee has anatomical predispositions for instability, primarily with patella alta (P<0.0001), patellar tilt more than 13.5° (P<0.0001), a patellar nose length less than 9 mm (P=0.0037), a patellar nose ratio less than 0.25 (P<0.0001), a TT-TG distance more than 10 mm (P<0.0001), and a trochlear prominence more than 4 mm (P=0.0056). In 35% of patients, patellar chondropathy is visible, and 48% of patients have patellar or trochlear subchondral abnormalities. Anterior, lateral, and medial knee pain may be related to PLFFS. Anatomical predispositions contributing to instability are found in these patients. There may be associated chondropathies and osteochondropathies. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Neural correlates of attachment trauma in borderline personality disorder: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Buchheim, Anna; Erk, Susanne; George, Carol; Kächele, Horst; Kircher, Tilo; Martius, Philipp; Pokorny, Dan; Ruchsow, Martin; Spitzer, Manfred; Walter, Henrik

    2008-08-30

    Functional imaging studies have shown that individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) display prefrontal and amygdala dysfunction while viewing or listening to emotional or traumatic stimuli. The study examined for the first time the functional neuroanatomy of attachment trauma in BPD patients using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the telling of individual stories. A group of 11 female BPD patients and 17 healthy female controls, matched for age and education, told stories in response to a validated set of seven attachment pictures while being scanned. Group differences in narrative and neural responses to "monadic" pictures (characters facing attachment threats alone) and "dyadic" pictures (interaction between characters in an attachment context) were analyzed. Behavioral narrative data showed that monadic pictures were significantly more traumatic for BPD patients than for controls. As hypothesized BPD patients showed significantly more anterior midcingulate cortex activation in response to monadic pictures than controls. In response to dyadic pictures patients showed more activation of the right superior temporal sulcus and less activation of the right parahippocampal gyrus compared to controls. Our results suggest evidence for potential neural mechanisms of attachment trauma underlying interpersonal symptoms of BPD, i.e. fearful and painful intolerance of aloneness, hypersensitivity to social environment, and reduced positive memories of dyadic interactions.

  5. Characteristics of magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers in a natural history study of golden retriever muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zheng; Wang, Jiahui; Ahn, Mihye; Shiloh-Malawsky, Yael; Chahin, Nizar; Elmore, Sandra; Bagnell, C Robert; Wilber, Kathy; An, Hongyu; Lin, Weili; Zhu, Hongtu; Styner, Martin; Kornegay, Joe N

    2014-02-01

    The goal of this study was to assess whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers can quantify disease progression in golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) via a natural history study. The proximal pelvic limbs of ten GRMD and eight normal dogs were scanned at 3, 6, and 9-12 months of age. Several MRI imaging and texture analysis biomarkers were quantified in seven muscles. Almost all MRI biomarkers readily distinguished GRMD from control dogs; however, only selected biomarkers tracked with longitudinal disease progression. The biomarkers that performed best were full-length muscle volume and a texture analysis biomarker, termed heterogeneity index. The biceps femoris, semitendinosus and cranial sartorius muscles showed differential progression in GRMD versus control dogs. MRI features in GRMD dogs showed dynamic progression that was most pronounced over the 3- to 6-month period. Volumetric biomarkers and water map values correlated with histopathological features of necrosis/regeneration at 6-months. In conclusion, selected MRI biomarkers (volume and heterogeneity index) in particular muscles (biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and cranial sartorius) adjusted for age effect allow distinction of differential longitudinal progression in GRMD dogs. These biomarkers may be used as surrogate outcome measures in preclinical GRMD trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Calvarial diploic venous channels: an anatomic study using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Satoshi; Nakamura, Masanobu; Tabuchi, Takashi; Yasumoto, Yukimasa; Ito, Masanori

    2013-12-01

    The calvarial diploic venous channels (CDVCs) are well-known intraosseous structures, but their distribution and anatomofunctional implications are not fully understood. To investigate the architecture of CDVCs using high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. This prospective study enrolled 43 male and 37 female outpatients who underwent a 3.0-T MR imaging equipped by a 32-channel head coil. T1-weighted imaging covering the whole cranial vault was performed after gadolinium injection. In addition, one-piece orbitozygomatic craniotomy was performed in three cadaveric heads to observe the interruption of the CDVCs. The CDVCs showed irregular contours and peculiar branching patterns with four common major pathways: the pteriofrontparietal (PFP), frontoorbital (FO), occipitoparietal (OP), and occipitocervical (OC) routes. The proximal PFP coursed as a single trunk and divided into several branches at the level of the frontal eminence. The orbital part of the FO continued to the subcutaneous vein via the supraorbital rim. The PFP and the pterional part of the FO fused proximally with the sphenoparietal sinus and descended as the middle meningeal vein. The OP coursed in the superoinferior direction and connected the junction part of the transverse-sigmoid sinus to the parietal superior sagittal sinus. The OC occurred as a single trunk in the median occipital bone, drained extracranially, and joined the suboccipital venous channels. The CDVCs seem to be a relatively consistent network functioning not only as conduits connecting the intracranial dural sinuses but also as pathways to the extracranial venous systems. High-resolution MR imaging is useful for investigating the CDVCs.

  7. How I report breast magnetic resonance imaging studies for breast cancer staging and screening.

    PubMed

    Vinnicombe, Sarah

    2016-07-25

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast is the most sensitive imaging technique for the diagnosis and local staging of primary breast cancer and yet, despite the fact that it has been in use for 20 years, there is little evidence that its widespread uncritical adoption has had a positive impact on patient-related outcomes.This has been attributed previously to the low specificity that might be expected with such a sensitive modality, but with modern techniques and protocols, the specificity and positive predictive value for malignancy can exceed that of breast ultrasound and mammography. A more likely explanation is that historically, clinicians have acted on MRI findings and altered surgical plans without prior histological confirmation. Furthermore, modern adjuvant therapy for breast cancer has improved so much that it has become a very tall order to show a an improvement in outcomes such as local recurrence rates.In order to obtain clinically useful information, it is necessary to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the technique and the physiological processes reflected in breast MRI. An appropriate indication for the scan, proper patient preparation and good scan technique, with rigorous quality assurance, are all essential prerequisites for a diagnostically relevant study.The use of recognised descriptors from a standardised lexicon is helpful, since assessment can then dictate subsequent recommendations for management, as in the American College of Radiology BI-RADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) lexicon (Morris et al., ACR BI-RADS® Atlas, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, 2013). It also enables audit of the service. However, perhaps the most critical factor in the generation of a meaningful report is for the reporting radiologist to have a thorough understanding of the clinical question and of the findings that will influence management. This has never been more important than at present, when we are in the throes of a

  8. Assessment of rotator cuff repair integrity using ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Codsi, Michael J; Rodeo, Scott A; Scalise, Jason J; Moorehead, Tara McDonnell; Ma, C Benjamin

    2014-10-01

    This study compared ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of the repaired rotator cuff to determine concordance between these imaging studies. We performed a concordance study using the data from a prospective nonrandomized multicenter study at 13 centers. A suture bridge technique was used to repair 113 rotator cuff tears that were between 1 and 4 cm wide. Repairs were evaluated with MRI and ultrasound at multiple time points after surgery. The MRI scans were read by a central radiologist and the surgeon, and the ultrasounds were read by a local radiologist or the surgeon who performed the ultrasound. The concordance between the central radiologist's MRI reading and the investigator's MRI readings at all time points was 89%, with a κ coefficient of 0.60. The concordance between the central radiologist's MRI and ultrasound readings at all time points was 85%, with a κ coefficient of 0.40. The concordance between the investigator's MRI and ultrasound readings was 92%, with a κ coefficient of 0.70. In the community setting, ultrasound may be used to evaluate the integrity of a repaired rotator cuff tendon and constitutes a comparable alternative to MRI when evaluating the integrity of a rotator cuff repair. Clinical investigators should compare their postoperative ultrasound results with their postoperative MRI results for a certain time period to establish the accuracy of ultrasound before relying solely on ultrasound imaging to evaluate the integrity of their rotator cuff repairs. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Maturation of limbic regions in Asperger syndrome: a preliminary study using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and structural magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Finian M; Page, Lisa; O'Gorman, Ruth L; Bolton, Patrick; Sharma, Ajay; Baird, Gillian; Daly, Eileen; Hallahan, Brian; Conroy, Ronán M; Foy, Catherine; Curran, Sarah; Robertson, Dene; Murphy, Kieran C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2010-11-30

    People with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD, including Asperger syndrome) may have developmental abnormalities in the amygdala-hippocampal complex (AHC). However, in vivo, age-related comparisons of both volume and neuronal integrity of the AHC have not yet been carried out in people with Asperger syndrome (AS) versus controls. We compared structure and metabolic activity of the right AHC of 22 individuals with AS and 22 healthy controls aged 10-50 years and examined the effects of age between groups. We used structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) to measure the volume of the AHC, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to measure concentrations of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine+phosphocreatine (Cr+PCr), myo-inositol (mI) and choline (Cho). The bulk volume of the amygdala and the hippocampus did not differ significantly between groups, but there was a significant difference in the effect of age on the hippocampus in controls. Compared with controls, young (but not older) people with AS had a significantly higher AHC concentration of NAA and a significantly higher NAA/Cr ratio. People with AS, but not controls, had a significant age-related reduction in NAA and the NAA/Cr ratio. Also, in people with AS, but not controls, there was a significant relationship between concentrations of choline and age so that choline concentrations reduced with age. We therefore suggest that people with AS have significant differences in neuronal and lipid membrane integrity and maturation of the AHC.

  10. Functional imaging of plants: a nuclear magnetic resonance study of a cucumber plant.

    PubMed Central

    Scheenen, Tom; Heemskerk, Anneriet; de Jager, Andrie; Vergeldt, Frank; Van As, Henk

    2002-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to study transients of biophysical parameters in a cucumber plant in response to environmental changes. Detailed flow imaging experiments showed the location of xylem and phloem in the stem and the response of the following flow characteristics to the imposed environmental changes: the total amount of water, the amount of stationary and flowing water, the linear velocity of the flowing water, and the volume flow. The total measured volume flow through the plant stem was in good agreement with the independently measured water uptake by the roots. A separate analysis of the flow characteristics for two vascular bundles revealed that changes in volume flow of the xylem sap were accounted for by a change in linear-flow velocities in the xylem vessels. Multiple-spin echo experiments revealed two water fractions for different tissues in the plant stem; the spin-spin relaxation time of the larger fraction of parenchyma tissue in the center of the stem and the vascular tissue was down by 17% in the period after cooling the roots of the plant. This could point to an increased water permeability of the tonoplast membrane of the observed cells in this period of quick recovery from severe water loss. PMID:11751335

  11. Brain metastases from breast cancer: lessons from experimental magnetic resonance imaging studies and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Murrell, Donna H; Foster, Paula J; Chambers, Ann F

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer that has metastasized to the brain presents difficult clinical challenges. This diagnosis comes with high mortality rates, largely due to complexities in early detection and ineffective therapies associated with both dormancy and impermeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the current gold standard for diagnosis and assessment of brain tumors. It has been used clinically to investigate metastatic development as well as monitor response to therapy. Here, we describe preclinical imaging strategies that we have used to study the development of brain metastases due to breast cancer. Using this approach, we have identified three subsets of metastatic disease: permeable metastases, nonpermeable metastases, and solitary, dormant cancer cells, which likely have very different biology and responses to therapy. The ability to simultaneously monitor the spatial and temporal distribution of dormant cancer cells, metastatic growth, and associated tumor permeability can provide great insight into factors that contribute to malignant proliferation. Our preclinical findings suggest that standard clinical detection strategies may underestimate the true metastatic burden of breast cancer that has metastasized to the brain. A better understanding of true metastatic burden in brains will be important to assist in the development of more effective chemotherapeutics-particularly those targeted to cross the BBB-as well as detection of small nonpermeable metastases.

  12. Transperineal prostate biopsy under magnetic resonance image guidance: a needle placement accuracy study.

    PubMed

    Blumenfeld, Philip; Hata, Nobuhiko; DiMaio, Simon; Zou, Kelly; Haker, Steven; Fichtinger, Gabor; Tempany, Clare M C

    2007-09-01

    To quantify needle placement accuracy of magnetic resonance image (MRI)-guided core needle biopsy of the prostate. A total of 10 biopsies were performed with 18-gauge (G) core biopsy needle via a percutaneous transperineal approach. Needle placement error was assessed by comparing the coordinates of preplanned targets with the needle tip measured from the intraprocedural coherent gradient echo images. The source of these errors was subsequently investigated by measuring displacement caused by needle deflection and needle susceptibility artifact shift in controlled phantom studies. Needle placement error due to misalignment of the needle template guide was also evaluated. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of errors in targeted biopsies was 6.5 +/- 3.5 mm. Phantom experiments showed significant placement error due to needle deflection with a needle with an asymmetrically beveled tip (3.2-8.7 mm depending on tissue type) but significantly smaller error with a symmetrical bevel (0.6-1.1 mm). Needle susceptibility artifacts observed a shift of 1.6 +/- 0.4 mm from the true needle axis. Misalignment of the needle template guide contributed an error of 1.5 +/- 0.3 mm. Needle placement error was clinically significant in MRI-guided biopsy for diagnosis of prostate cancer. Needle placement error due to needle deflection was the most significant cause of error, especially for needles with an asymmetrical bevel. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Studying Dynamic Myofiber Aggregate Reorientation in Dilated Cardiomyopathy Using In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    von Deuster, Constantin; Sammut, Eva; Asner, Liya; Nordsletten, David; Lamata, Pablo; Stoeck, Christian T.; Razavi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background— The objective of this study is to assess the dynamic alterations of myocardial microstructure and strain between diastole and systole in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy relative to healthy controls using the magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging, myocardial tagging, and biomechanical modeling. Methods and Results— Dual heart-phase diffusion tensor imaging was successfully performed in 9 patients and 9 controls. Tagging data were acquired for the diffusion tensor strain correction and cardiac motion analysis. Mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, and myocyte aggregate orientations were compared between both cohorts. Cardiac function was assessed by left ventricular ejection fraction, torsion, and strain. Computational modeling was used to study the impact of cardiac shape on fiber reorientation and how fiber orientations affect strain. In patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, a more longitudinal orientation of diastolic myofiber aggregates was measured compared with controls. Although a significant steepening of helix angles (HAs) during contraction was found in the controls, consistent change in HAs during contraction was absent in patients. Left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiac torsion, and strain were significantly lower in the patients compared with controls. Computational modeling revealed that the dilated heart results in reduced HA changes compared with a normal heart. Reduced torsion was found to be exacerbated by steeper HAs. Conclusions— Diffusion tensor imaging revealed reduced reorientation of myofiber aggregates during cardiac contraction in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy relative to controls. Left ventricular remodeling seems to be an important factor in the changes to myocyte orientation. Steeper HAs are coupled with a worsening in strain and torsion. Overall, the findings provide new insights into the structural alterations in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:27729361

  14. Detection of 100% oxygen induced changes in retina using magnetic resonance imaging: a human study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing-Gang; Chen, Qing-Hua; Xian, Jun-Fang; Wang, Zhen-Chang

    2010-11-01

    Inner retinal oxygenation response (ΔPO(2)) is a worldwide study focus. However, the relevant reports on its radiological measurements are limited. In this study, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), employing T1 weighted image (T1WI), was used to detect changes in ΔPO(2) following 100% oxygen inhalation in human subjects. MRI was performed on a 1.5-T GE scanner system. After obtaining ophthalmologic data, eleven healthy individuals were given room air and 100% oxygen inhalation in order with different intervals. The MRI T1WI data were collected for 50 minutes. Data were analyzed with NIH IMAGE software. ΔPO(2) was not panretinally uniform, and changes in oxygenation response were spatially inhomogeneous. During the initial phase (before 5 minutes) of 100% oxygen inhalation, preretinal vitreous water signals in the region of papilla optica increased rapidly. On the contrary, in other regions signals declined. In a later period (35 minutes), ΔPO(2) was panretinally fluctuated and increased slowly and attained homeostasis. After hyperoxia (45 minutes), delayed-enhancement of preretinal vitreous water signals in regions other than the papilla optica occurred, and then dropped down. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) at any consecutive time point during and after hyperoixa. These results reveal that hyperoxia can induce region-specific signal changes in preretinal vitreous water. Regulatory activity of the retinal vessel network may be the mechanism during 100% oxygen inhalation. Moreover, MRI is a valuable tool for investigating ΔPO(2) and exploring the mechanism of retinal oxygenation response physiologically or pathologically in vivo.

  15. Combination of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Electrophysiological Studies in Lumbar Disc Herniation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wenxiang; Wang, Jichao; Zhang, Wenchuan; Liu, Pengfei; Visocchi, Massimiliano; Li, Shi-Ting

    2017-01-01

    Objective We aimed to study the clinical value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electrophysiological studies in the diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation and in the evaluation of the therapeutic effect of discectomy. Methods In this study, 265 patients with LDH were treated with discectomy after assessment by the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score, MRI, and electrophysiological studies. All the patients were followed-up for 6 years. The effects of the operation were assessed by determining the angle between the nerve root canal and disc protrusion (AN value), the stenotic ratio of the spinal canal, the width of the lateral recess, motor conduction velocity (MCV), sensory conduction velocity (SCV), and nerve action potential (NAP) before and after operation. Results The AN value, stenotic ratio of the spinal canal, and the width of the lateral recess of protruding intervertebral discs showed significant differences from these values for the patients' unaffected intervertebral discs (P < 0.05). The MCV, SCV, and NAP of the affected limb showed significant differences from these values for the patients' unaffected limbs (P < 0.05). In all the patients the values for these indicators showed significant differences before and after operation (P < 0.05). Conclusion MRI and electrophysiological studies can be used in the diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation, and in the evaluation of the effect of surgery.

  16. Reward pathway dysfunction in gambling disorder: A meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ya-jing; Deng, Wei; Wang, Hui-yao; Guo, Wan-jun; Li, Tao; Lam, Chaw; Lin, Xia

    2014-12-15

    Recent emerging functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified many brain regions in which gambling cues or rewards elicit activation and may shed light upon the ongoing disputes regarding the diagnostic and neuroscientific issues of gambling disorder (GD). However, no studies to date have systemically reviewed fMRI studies of GD to analyze the brain areas activated by gambling-related cues and examine whether these areas were differentially activated between cases and healthy controls (HC). This study reviewed 62 candidate articles and ultimately selected 13 qualified voxel-wise whole brain analysis studies to perform a comprehensive series of meta-analyses using the effect size-signed differential mapping approach. Compared with HC, GD patients showed significant activation in right lentiform nucleus and left middle occipital gyrus. The increased activities in the lentiform nucleus compared to HC were also found in both GD subgroups, regardless of excluding or not excluding any kind of substance use disorder. In addition, the South Oaks Gambling Screen scores were associated with hyperactivity in right lentiform nucleus and bilateral parahippocampus, but negatively related to right middle frontal gyrus. These results suggest dysfunction within the frontostriatal cortical pathway in GD, which could contribute to our understanding of the categories and definition of GD and provide evidence for the reclassification of GD as a behavioral addiction in the DSM-5. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cardiac Structure and Function in Cushing's Syndrome: A Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Charles; Salenave, Sylvie; Kachenoura, Nadjia; Raissouni, Zainab; Macron, Laurent; Guignat, Laurence; Jublanc, Christel; Azarine, Arshid; Brailly, Sylvie; Young, Jacques; Mousseaux, Elie; Chanson, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with Cushing's syndrome have left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and dysfunction on echocardiography, but echo-based measurements may have limited accuracy in obese patients. No data are available on right ventricular (RV) and left atrial (LA) size and function in these patients. Objectives: The objective of the study was to evaluate LV, RV, and LA structure and function in patients with Cushing's syndrome by means of cardiac magnetic resonance, currently the reference modality in assessment of cardiac geometry and function. Methods: Eighteen patients with active Cushing's syndrome and 18 volunteers matched for age, sex, and body mass index were studied by cardiac magnetic resonance. The imaging was repeated in the patients 6 months (range 2–12 mo) after the treatment of hypercortisolism. Results: Compared with controls, patients with Cushing's syndrome had lower LV, RV, and LA ejection fractions (P < .001 for all) and increased end-diastolic LV segmental thickness (P < .001). Treatment of hypercortisolism was associated with an improvement in ventricular and atrial systolic performance, as reflected by a 15% increase in the LV ejection fraction (P = .029), a 45% increase in the LA ejection fraction (P < .001), and an 11% increase in the RV ejection fraction (P = NS). After treatment, the LV mass index and end-diastolic LV mass to volume ratio decreased by 17% (P < .001) and 10% (P = .002), respectively. None of the patients had late gadolinium myocardial enhancement. Conclusion: Cushing's syndrome is associated with subclinical biventricular and LA systolic dysfunctions that are reversible after treatment. Despite skeletal muscle atrophy, Cushing's syndrome patients have an increased LV mass, reversible upon correction of hypercortisolism. PMID:25093618

  18. Optically detected magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, Aharon; Shapiro, Guy; Fischer, Ran; London, Paz; Gershoni, David

    2015-01-19

    Optically detected magnetic resonance provides ultrasensitive means to detect and image a small number of electron and nuclear spins, down to the single spin level with nanoscale resolution. Despite the significant recent progress in this field, it has never been combined with the power of pulsed magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Here, we demonstrate how these two methodologies can be integrated using short pulsed magnetic field gradients to spatially encode the sample. This result in what we denote as an 'optically detected magnetic resonance imaging' technique. It offers the advantage that the image is acquired in parallel from all parts of the sample, with well-defined three-dimensional point-spread function, and without any loss of spectroscopic information. In addition, this approach may be used in the future for parallel but yet spatially selective efficient addressing and manipulation of the spins in the sample. Such capabilities are of fundamental importance in the field of quantum spin-based devices and sensors.

  19. Multicenter study of subjective acceptance during magnetic resonance imaging at 7 and 9.4 T.

    PubMed

    Rauschenberg, Jaane; Nagel, Armin M; Ladd, Susanne C; Theysohn, Jens M; Ladd, Mark E; Möller, Harald E; Trampel, Robert; Turner, Robert; Pohmann, Rolf; Scheffler, Klaus; Brechmann, André; Stadler, Jörg; Felder, Jörg; Shah, N Jon; Semmler, Wolfhard

    2014-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the subjective discomfort and sensory side effects during ultrahigh field (UHF) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations in a large-scale study and to evaluate differences between magnetic resonance (MR) sites. Four MR sites with a 7-T MR system and 2 MR sites with a 9.4-T MR system participated in this multicenter study with a total number of 3457 completed questionnaires on causes of discomfort and sensations during the examination. For a pooled retrospective analysis of the results from the partially different questionnaires, all data were adapted to an answer option with a 4-point scale (0 = no discomfort/side effect, 3 = very unpleasant/very strong sensation). To differentiate effects evoked by the low-frequency time-varying magnetic fields due to movement through the static magnetic field, most questionnaires separated the manifestation of sensory side effects during movement on the patient table from manifestation while lying still in the isocenter. In general, a high acceptance of UHF examinations was found, where in 82% of the completed questionnaires, the subjects stated the examination to be at least tolerable. Although in 7.6% of the questionnaires, subjects felt discomfort during the examination, only 0.9% of the image acquisitions had to be terminated prematurely. No adverse events occurred in any of the examinations. Only 1% of the subjects were unwilling to undergo further UHF MRI examinations. Examination duration was the most complained cause of discomfort, followed by acoustic noise and lying still. All magnetic-field-related sensations were more pronounced when moving the patient table versus the isocenter position (19%/2% of the subjects felt unpleasant vertigo during the moving/stationary state). In general, vertigo was the most often stated sensory side effect and was more pronounced at 9.4 T compared with 7 T. However, the results varied substantially among the different sites. The high levels

  20. Four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI) using image-based respiratory surrogate: A feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jing; Chang, Zheng; Wang, Zhiheng; Paul Segars, William; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) has been widely used in radiation therapy to assess patient-specific breathing motion for determining individual safety margins. However, it has two major drawbacks: low soft-tissue contrast and an excessive imaging dose to the patient. This research aimed to develop a clinically feasible four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI) technique to overcome these limitations. Methods: The proposed 4D-MRI technique was achieved by continuously acquiring axial images throughout the breathing cycle using fast 2D cine-MR imaging, and then retrospectively sorting the images by respiratory phase. The key component of the technique was the use of body area (BA) of the axial MR images as an internal respiratory surrogate to extract the breathing signal. The validation of the BA surrogate was performed using 4D-CT images of 12 cancer patients by comparing the respiratory phases determined using the BA method to those determined clinically using the Real-time position management (RPM) system. The feasibility of the 4D-MRI technique was tested on a dynamic motion phantom, the 4D extended Cardiac Torso (XCAT) digital phantom, and two healthy human subjects. Results: Respiratory phases determined from the BA matched closely to those determined from the RPM: mean (±SD) difference in phase: −3.9% (±6.4%); mean (±SD) absolute difference in phase: 10.40% (±3.3%); mean (±SD) correlation coefficient: 0.93 (±0.04). In the motion phantom study, 4D-MRI clearly showed the sinusoidal motion of the phantom; image artifacts observed were minimal to none. Motion trajectories measured from 4D-MRI and 2D cine-MRI (used as a reference) matched excellently: the mean (±SD) absolute difference in motion amplitude: −0.3 (±0.5) mm. In the 4D-XCAT phantom study, the simulated “4D-MRI” images showed good consistency with the original 4D-XCAT phantom images. The motion trajectory of the hypothesized “tumor” matched

  1. Usefulness of data from magnetic resonance imaging to improve prediction of dementia: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Blossom C M; Tzourio, Christophe; Auriacombe, Sophie; Amieva, Hélène; Dufouil, Carole; Alpérovitch, Annick

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the addition of data derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain to a model incorporating conventional risk variables improves prediction of dementia over 10 years of follow-up. Design Population based cohort study of individuals aged ≥65. Setting The Dijon magnetic resonance imaging study cohort from the Three-City Study, France. Participants 1721 people without dementia who underwent an MRI scan at baseline and with known dementia status over 10 years’ follow-up. Main outcome measure Incident dementia (all cause and Alzheimer’s disease). Results During 10 years of follow-up, there were 119 confirmed cases of dementia, 84 of which were Alzheimer’s disease. The conventional risk model incorporated age, sex, education, cognition, physical function, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol use), health (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, systolic blood pressure), and the apolipoprotein genotype (C statistic for discrimination performance was 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.82). No significant differences were observed in the discrimination performance of the conventional risk model compared with models incorporating data from MRI including white matter lesion volume (C statistic 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.72 to 0.82; P=0.48 for difference of C statistics), brain volume (0.77, 0.72 to 0.82; P=0.60), hippocampal volume (0.79, 0.74 to 0.84; P=0.07), or all three variables combined (0.79, 0.75 to 0.84; P=0.05). Inclusion of hippocampal volume or all three MRI variables combined in the conventional model did, however, lead to significant improvement in reclassification measured by using the integrated discrimination improvement index (P=0.03 and P=0.04) and showed increased net benefit in decision curve analysis. Similar results were observed when the outcome was restricted to Alzheimer’s disease. Conclusions Data from MRI do not significantly improve discrimination performance in prediction of all cause dementia

  2. Love-related changes in the brain: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hongwen; Zou, Zhiling; Kou, Juan; Liu, Yang; Yang, Lizhuang; Zilverstand, Anna; d’Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2015-01-01

    Romantic love is a motivational state associated with a desire to enter or maintain a close relationship with a specific other person. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have found activation increases in brain regions involved in the processing of reward, motivation and emotion regulation, when romantic lovers view photographs of their partners. However, not much is known about whether romantic love affects the brain’s functional architecture during rest. In the present study, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data was collected to compare the regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC) across an “in-love” group (LG, N = 34, currently intensely in love), an “ended-love” group (ELG, N = 34, ended romantic relationship recently), and a “single” group (SG, N = 32, never fallen in love). Results show that: (1) ReHo of the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) was significantly increased in the LG (in comparison to the ELG and the SG); (2) ReHo of the left dACC was positively correlated with length of time in love in the LG, and negatively correlated with the lovelorn duration since breakup in the ELG; (3) FC within the reward, motivation, and emotion regulation network (dACC, insula, caudate, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens) as well as FC in the social cognition network [temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), inferior parietal, precuneus, and temporal lobe] was significantly increased in the LG (in comparison to the ELG and SG); (4) in most regions within both networks FC was positively correlated with the duration of love in the LG but negatively correlated with the lovelorn duration of time since breakup in the ELG. This study provides first empirical evidence of love-related alterations in brain functional architecture. Furthermore, the results shed light on the underlying neural mechanisms of romantic love, and demonstrate

  3. Love-related changes in the brain: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Song, Hongwen; Zou, Zhiling; Kou, Juan; Liu, Yang; Yang, Lizhuang; Zilverstand, Anna; d'Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2015-01-01

    Romantic love is a motivational state associated with a desire to enter or maintain a close relationship with a specific other person. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have found activation increases in brain regions involved in the processing of reward, motivation and emotion regulation, when romantic lovers view photographs of their partners. However, not much is known about whether romantic love affects the brain's functional architecture during rest. In the present study, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data was collected to compare the regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC) across an "in-love" group (LG, N = 34, currently intensely in love), an "ended-love" group (ELG, N = 34, ended romantic relationship recently), and a "single" group (SG, N = 32, never fallen in love). Results show that: (1) ReHo of the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) was significantly increased in the LG (in comparison to the ELG and the SG); (2) ReHo of the left dACC was positively correlated with length of time in love in the LG, and negatively correlated with the lovelorn duration since breakup in the ELG; (3) FC within the reward, motivation, and emotion regulation network (dACC, insula, caudate, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens) as well as FC in the social cognition network [temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), inferior parietal, precuneus, and temporal lobe] was significantly increased in the LG (in comparison to the ELG and SG); (4) in most regions within both networks FC was positively correlated with the duration of love in the LG but negatively correlated with the lovelorn duration of time since breakup in the ELG. This study provides first empirical evidence of love-related alterations in brain functional architecture. Furthermore, the results shed light on the underlying neural mechanisms of romantic love, and demonstrate the

  4. Clinical Impact of Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Hepatoma Management: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Houng; Chen, Tai-Yi; Ou, Hsin-You; Wang, Chih-Chi; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Hung, Chao-Hung; Chen, Chien-Hung; Kuo, Chung-Huang; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Cheng, Yu-Fan; Lu, Sheng-Nan

    2016-04-01

    For patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI) improved the diagnosis, migrated Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage, and changed therapeutic decision in retrospective analysis. This prospective study was to evaluate the clinical impact of EOB-MRI on HCC management. From September 2012 to February 2014, consecutive patients with suspicion of HCC in BCLC early stage by multidetector computed tomography or dynamic MRI with non-specific gadolinium, well liver function reserve, and admitted for resection evaluation were enrolled prospectively. Additional EOB-MRI was performed. The HCC diagnosis, BCLC staging, and treatment decision were obtained in a liver cancer conference. EOB-MRI impact on HCC management was analyzed. One hundred and three patients including 68 with typical and 35 with atypical HCC nodules in dynamic imaging studies were enrolled. EOB-MRI characterized 3 (4.4 %) benign and 33 (94.3 %) HCC for patients with typical and atypical HCC nodules, respectively. For 90 HCC patients, additional EOB-MRI changed BCLC stage in 25 (27.8 %) and treatment decision in 17 (18.9 %) patients. There were 66 patients with 78 resected nodules including 65 HCCs, 4 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, and 9 benign nodules. Dynamic study and EOB-MRI detected and characterized 69 and 77 nodules, respectively. The sensitivity and accuracy in HCC diagnosis were 98.5 and 85.7 % for EOB-MRI, which were better than those of dynamic study (p < 0.001). Additional EOB-MRI improved HCC diagnosis in sensitivity, accuracy but not specificity. It changed BCLC staging and treatment decision in 27.8 and 18.9 % of early-stage HCC patients.

  5. Left Ventricular Mass, Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Cognitive Performance: Results From the Strong Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Haring, Bernhard; Omidpanah, Adam; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M; Best, Lyle G; Verney, Steven P; Shibata, Dean K; Cole, Shelley A; Ali, Tauqeer; Howard, Barbara V; Buchwald, Dedra; Devereux, Richard B

    2017-09-11

    Left ventricular mass (LVM) has been shown to serve as a measure of target organ damage resulting from chronic exposure to several risk factors. Data on the association of midlife LVM with later cognitive performance are sparse. We studied 721 adults (mean age 56 years at baseline) enrolled in the Strong Heart Study (SHS, 1993-1995) and the ancillary CDCAI (Cerebrovascular Disease and Its Consequences in American Indians) Study (2010-2013), a study population with high prevalence of cardiovascular disease. LVM was assessed with transthoracic echocardiography at baseline in 1993 to 1995. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive testing were undertaken between 2010 and 2013. Generalized estimating equations were used to model associations between LVM and later imaging and cognition outcomes. The mean follow-up period was 17 years. A difference of 25 g in higher LVM was associated with marginally lower hippocampal volume (0.01%; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.00; P=0.001) and higher white matter grade (0.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.18; P=0.014). Functionally, participants with higher LVM tended to have slightly lower scores on the modified mini-mental state examination (0.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-0.08; P=0.024). The main results persisted after adjusting for blood pressure levels or vascular disease. The small overall effect sizes are partly explained by survival bias because of the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease in our population. Our findings emphasize the role of cardiovascular health in midlife as a target for the prevention of deleterious cognitive and functional outcomes in later life. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, R. R.

    1996-05-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Imaging, now more commonly referred to as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), developed into an important clinical modality between the years of 1978 and 1985. In 1945 it was demonstrated independently by Bloch(F. Bloch, The Principle of Nuclear Induction, Nobel Lectures in Physics: 1946-1962 New York, Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. 1964.) and Purcell(E.M. Purcell, Research in Nuclear Magnetism, Nobel Lectures in Physics: 1946-1962, New York. Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. 1964.) that magnetic nuclei in a sample when placed in a static magnetic field exhibit a characteristic resonance frequency which is proportional to the field strength and unique to nuclei of the same type and same environment. The net magnetization of the sample when irradiated by an RF wave at the resonance frequency could thus be manipulated to produce an induced "NMR signal" in a conducting loop placed near the sample. In the early 1970's, methods were developed whereby the NMR signal could be spatially encoded in both frequency and phase by means of superimposed linear magnetic field gradients to produce NMR images. NMR image contrast is a function of nuclear concentration and magnetic relaxation times (T1 and T2). MRI became the first medical imaging modality to provide both high resolution and high contrast images of soft tissue. Current clinical MRI systems produce images of the distribution of ^1H nuclei (primarily water) within the body. Other biologically important nuclei (^13C, ^23N, ^31P), as well as the imaging of hyperpolarized inert gases (^3He, ^129Xe) are under investigation. Recent developments in ^1H-MRI have included chemical shift imaging (hydrogen containing metabolites), blood flow imaging (MR angiography), ultra high-speed imaging (Echo Planar), and imaging of brain function based upon magnetic susceptibility differences resulting from blood oxygenation changes during brain activity.

  7. Kidney stone imaging with 3D ultra-short echo time (UTE) magnetic resonance imaging. A phantom study.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, El-Sayed H; Pooley, Robert A; Bridges, Mellena D; Cernigliaro, Joseph G; Haley, William E

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is the current gold standard for imaging kidney stones, albeit at the cost of radiation exposure. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences are insensitive to detecting the stones because of their appearance as a signal void. With the development of 2D ultra-short echo-time (UTE) MRI sequences, it becomes possible to image kidney stones in vitro. In this work, we optimize and implement a modified 3D UTE MRI sequence for imaging kidney stones embedded in agarose phantoms mimicking the kidney tissue and in urine phantoms at 3.0T. The proposed technique is capable of imaging the stones with high spatial resolution in a short scan time.

  8. Further studies on the effects of magnetic resonance imaging fields on middle ear implants.

    PubMed

    Applebaum, E L; Valvassori, G E

    1990-10-01

    We investigated the effects of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fields on 21 stapedectomy prostheses and other middle ear implants and two different receiver-stimulator modules from 22-channel cochlear implants. None of the middle ear implants was displaced by the magnetic field, except for one platinum-stainless steel stapedectomy piston. Magnetism was not induced in any of the middle ear implants subjected to prolonged exposure in the MRI scanner. We conclude that MRI could pose a hazard to patients who have had stapedectomy using certain platinum-stainless steel piston prostheses and to patients with cochlear implants. Magnetic resonance imaging should pose no hazard to patients who have had the other middle ear implants reported on in this and our previous investigation.

  9. Brain iron deposition in essential tremor: a quantitative 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Novellino, Fabiana; Cherubini, Andrea; Chiriaco, Carmelina; Morelli, Maurizio; Salsone, Maria; Arabia, Gennarina; Quattrone, Aldo

    2013-02-01

    Studies have demonstrated brain iron deposition in neurodegenerative disease and in normal aging. Data on this topic are lacking in essential tremor (ET). The aim of our study was to investigate brain iron content in patients with ET, using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2*-relaxometry. We enrolled 24 patients with ET and 25 age-matched healthy controls. Subjects were examined using a 3T MRI scanner. The protocol included conventional MRI sequences and quantitative T2*-relaxometry. Whole-brain voxel-based analyses showed significant differences in T2* values in bilateral globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and in right dentate nucleus (P < .001 uncorrected). In the bilateral pallidum, differences survived family-wise-error (FWE) correction for multiple comparisons (P < .05). The present study provides the first evidence of increased brain iron accumulation in ET patients. Our results are suggestive of a possible involvement of motor systems outside of the cerebellum/cerebellar pathway and, more specifically, of the globus pallidus. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorders Society.

  10. Computer-controlled stimulation for functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of the neonatal olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Arichi, T; Gordon-Williams, R; Allievi, A; Groves, A M; Burdet, E; Edwards, A D

    2013-09-01

    Olfactory sensation is highly functional early in human neonatal life, with studies suggesting that odours can influence behaviour and infant-mother bonding. Due to its good spatial properties, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contrast functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has the potential to rapidly advance our understanding of the neural activity which underlies the development of olfactory perception in this key period. We aimed to design an 'olfactometer' specifically for use with neonatal subjects for fMRI studies of odour perception. We describe a fully automated and programmable, fMRI compatible system capable of presenting odorant liquids. To prevent contamination of the system and minimize between-subject infective risk, the majority of the olfactometer is constructed from single-use, readily available clinical equipment. The system was used to present the odour of infant formula milk in a validation group of seven neonatal subjects at term equivalent postmenstrual age (median age 40 weeks). A safe, reliable and reproducible pattern of stimulation was delivered leading to well-localized positive BOLD functional responses in the piriform cortex, amygdala, thalamus, insular cortex and cerebellum. The described system is therefore suitable for detailed studies of the ontology of olfactory sensation and perception during early human brain development. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Precentral Corticospinal System Asymmetry and Handedness: A Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Longchuan; Preuss, Todd M.; Rilling, James K.; Hopkins, William D.; Glasser, Matthew F.; Kumar, Bhargav; Nana, Roger; Zhang, Xiaodong; Hu, Xiaoping

    2010-01-01

    Background Most humans are right handed, and most humans exhibit left-right asymmetries of the precentral corticospinal system. Recent studies indicate that chimpanzees also show a population-level right-handed bias, although it is less strong than in humans. Methodology/Principal Findings We used in vivo diffusion-weighted and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study the relationship between the corticospinal tract (CST) and handedness in 36 adult female chimpanzees. Chimpanzees exhibited a hemispheric bias in fractional anisotropy (FA, left>right) and mean diffusivity (MD, right>left) of the CST, and the left CST was centered more posteriorly than the right. Handedness correlated with central sulcus depth, but not with FA or MD. Conclusions/Significance These anatomical results are qualitatively similar to those reported in humans, despite the differences in handedness. The existence of a left>right FA, right>left MD bias in the corticospinal tract that does not correlate with handedness, a result also reported in some human studies, suggests that at least some of the structural asymmetries of the corticospinal system are not exclusively related to laterality of hand preference. PMID:20877630

  12. Computer-controlled stimulation for functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of the neonatal olfactory system

    PubMed Central

    Arichi, T; Gordon-Williams, R; Allievi, A; Groves, AM; Burdet, E; Edwards, AD

    2013-01-01

    Aim Olfactory sensation is highly functional early in human neonatal life, with studies suggesting that odours can influence behaviour and infant–mother bonding. Due to its good spatial properties, blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) contrast functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has the potential to rapidly advance our understanding of the neural activity which underlies the development of olfactory perception in this key period. We aimed to design an ‘olfactometer’ specifically for use with neonatal subjects for fMRI studies of odour perception. Methods We describe a fully automated and programmable, fMRI compatible system capable of presenting odorant liquids. To prevent contamination of the system and minimize between-subject infective risk, the majority of the olfactometer is constructed from single-use, readily available clinical equipment. The system was used to present the odour of infant formula milk in a validation group of seven neonatal subjects at term equivalent postmenstrual age (median age 40 weeks). Results A safe, reliable and reproducible pattern of stimulation was delivered leading to well-localized positive BOLD functional responses in the piriform cortex, amygdala, thalamus, insular cortex and cerebellum. Conclusions The described system is therefore suitable for detailed studies of the ontology of olfactory sensation and perception during early human brain development. PMID:23789919

  13. Alterations in vascular function in primary aldosteronism: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Mark, P B; Boyle, S; Zimmerli, L U; McQuarrie, E P; Delles, C; Freel, E M

    2014-02-01

    Excess aldosterone is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Aldosterone has a permissive effect on vascular fibrosis. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) allows study of vascular function by measuring aortic distensibility. We compared aortic distensibility in primary aldosteronism (PA), essential hypertension (EH) and normal controls and explored the relationship between aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity (PWV). We studied PA (n=14) and EH (n=33) subjects and age-matched healthy controls (n=17) with CMR, including measurement of aortic distensibility, and measured PWV using applanation tonometry. At recruitment, PA and EH patients had similar blood pressure and left ventricular mass. Subjects with PA had significantly lower aortic distensibility and higher PWV compared with EH and healthy controls. These changes were independent of other factors associated with reduced aortic distensibility, including ageing. There was a significant relationship between increasing aortic stiffness and age in keeping with physical and vascular ageing. As expected, aortic distensibility and PWV were closely correlated. These results demonstrate that PA patients display increased arterial stiffness compared with EH, independent of vascular ageing. The implication is that aldosterone invokes functional impairment of arterial function. The long-term implications of arterial stiffening in aldosterone excess require further study.

  14. Four dimensional magnetic resonance imaging with retrospective k-space reordering: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yilin; Yin, Fang-Fang; Cai, Jing; Chen, Nan-kuei; Chu, Mei-Lan

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Current four dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI) techniques lack sufficient temporal/spatial resolution and consistent tumor contrast. To overcome these limitations, this study presents the development and initial evaluation of a new strategy for 4D-MRI which is based on retrospective k-space reordering. Methods: We simulated a k-space reordered 4D-MRI on a 4D digital extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) human phantom. A 2D echo planar imaging MRI sequence [frame rate (F) = 0.448 Hz; image resolution (R) = 256 × 256; number of k-space segments (N{sub KS}) = 4] with sequential image acquisition mode was assumed for the simulation. Image quality of the simulated “4D-MRI” acquired from the XCAT phantom was qualitatively evaluated, and tumor motion trajectories were compared to input signals. In particular, mean absolute amplitude differences (D) and cross correlation coefficients (CC) were calculated. Furthermore, to evaluate the data sufficient condition for the new 4D-MRI technique, a comprehensive simulation study was performed using 30 cancer patients’ respiratory profiles to study the relationships between data completeness (C{sub p}) and a number of impacting factors: the number of repeated scans (N{sub R}), number of slices (N{sub S}), number of respiratory phase bins (N{sub P}), N{sub KS}, F, R, and initial respiratory phase at image acquisition (P{sub 0}). As a proof-of-concept, we implemented the proposed k-space reordering 4D-MRI technique on a T2-weighted fast spin echo MR sequence and tested it on a healthy volunteer. Results: The simulated 4D-MRI acquired from the XCAT phantom matched closely to the original XCAT images. Tumor motion trajectories measured from the simulated 4D-MRI matched well with input signals (D = 0.83 and 0.83 mm, and CC = 0.998 and 0.992 in superior–inferior and anterior–posterior directions, respectively). The relationship between C{sub p} and N{sub R} was found best represented by an exponential function

  15. Utility of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Satija, Bhawna; Kumar, Sanyal; Wadhwa, Leena; Gupta, Taru; Kohli, Supreethi; Chandoke, Rajkumar; Gupta, Pratibha

    2015-01-01

    Context: Placenta accreta is the abnormal adherence of the placenta to the uterine wall and the most common cause for emergency postpartum hysterectomy. Accurate prenatal diagnosis of affected pregnancies allows optimal obstetric management. Aims: To summarize our experience in the antenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta on imaging in a tertiary care setup. To compare the accuracy of ultrasound (USG) with color Doppler (CDUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta. Settings and Design: Prospective study in a tertiary care setup. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted on pregnant females with high clinical risk of placenta accreta. Antenatal diagnosis was established based on CDUS and MRI. The imaging findings were compared with final diagnosis at the time of delivery and/or pathologic examination. Statistical Analysis Used: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for both CDUS and MRI. The sensitivity and specificity values of USG and MRI were compared by the McNemar test. Results: Thirty patients at risk of placenta accreta underwent both CDUS and MRI. Eight cases of placenta accreta were identified (3 vera, 4 increta, and 1 percreta). All patients had history of previous cesarean section. Placenta previa was present in seven out of eight patients. USG correctly identified the presence of placenta accreta in seven out of eight patients (87.5% sensitivity) and the absence of placenta accreta in 19 out of 22 patients (86.4% specificity). MRI correctly identified the presence of placenta accreta in 6 out of 8 patients (75.0% sensitivity) and absence of placenta accreta in 17 out of 22 patients (77.3% specificity). There were no statistical differences in sensitivity (P = 1.00) and specificity (P = 0.687) between USG and MRI. Conclusions: Both USG and MRI have fairly good sensitivity for prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta; however

  16. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: Insights from Combined Recording Studies

    PubMed Central

    Scarapicchia, Vanessa; Brown, Cassandra; Mayo, Chantel; Gawryluk, Jodie R.

    2017-01-01

    Although blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a widely available, non-invasive technique that offers excellent spatial resolution, it remains limited by practical constraints imposed by the scanner environment. More recently, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has emerged as an alternative hemodynamic-based approach that possesses a number of strengths where fMRI is limited, most notably in portability and higher tolerance for motion. To date, fNIRS has shown promise in its ability to shed light on the functioning of the human brain in populations and contexts previously inaccessible to fMRI. Notable contributions include infant neuroimaging studies and studies examining full-body behaviors, such as exercise. However, much like fMRI, fNIRS has technical constraints that have limited its application to clinical settings, including a lower spatial resolution and limited depth of recording. Thus, by combining fMRI and fNIRS in such a way that the two methods complement each other, a multimodal imaging approach may allow for more complex research paradigms than is feasible with either technique alone. In light of these issues, the purpose of the current review is to: (1) provide an overview of fMRI and fNIRS and their associated strengths and limitations; (2) review existing combined fMRI-fNIRS recording studies; and (3) discuss how their combined use in future research practices may aid in advancing modern investigations of human brain function. PMID:28867998

  17. Pineal gland volume in primary insomnia and healthy controls: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Bumb, Jan M; Schilling, Claudia; Enning, Frank; Haddad, Leila; Paul, Franc; Lederbogen, Florian; Deuschle, Michael; Schredl, Michael; Nolte, Ingo

    2014-06-01

    Little is known about the relation between pineal volume and insomnia. Melatonin promotes sleep processes and, administered as a drug, it is suitable to improve primary and secondary sleep disorders in humans. Recent magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that human plasma and saliva melatonin levels are partially determined by the pineal gland volume. This study compares the pineal volume in a group of patients with primary insomnia to a group of healthy people without sleep disturbance. Pineal gland volume (PGV) was measured on the basis of high-resolution 3 Tesla MRI (T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo) in 23 patients and 27 controls, matched for age, gender and educational status. Volume measurements were performed conventionally by manual delineation of the pineal borders in multi-planar reconstructed images. Pineal gland volume was significantly smaller (P < 0.001) in patients (48.9 ± 26.6 mm(3) ) than in controls (79 ± 30.2 mm(3) ). In patients PGV correlated negatively with age (r = -0.532; P = 0.026). Adjusting for the effect of age, PGV and rapid eye movement (REM) latency showed a significant positive correlation (rS  = 0.711, P < 0.001) in patients. Pineal volume appears to be reduced in patients with primary insomnia compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to clarify whether low pineal volume is the basis or the consequence of functional sleep changes to elucidate the molecular pathology for the pineal volume loss in primary insomnia.

  18. Brain Morphometry Using Anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansal, Ravi; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in studying the morphological features of various regions of the brain is described, also providing the steps used in the processing and studying of the images. The ability to correlate these features with several clinical and psychological measures can help in using anatomical MRI to…

  19. Brain Morphometry Using Anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansal, Ravi; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in studying the morphological features of various regions of the brain is described, also providing the steps used in the processing and studying of the images. The ability to correlate these features with several clinical and psychological measures can help in using anatomical MRI to…

  20. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Methods

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingyuan E.; Glover, Gary H.

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in 1992, Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has become an indispensible tool for studying cognition in both the healthy and dysfunctional brain. FMRI monitors changes in the oxygenation of brain tissue resulting from altered metabolism consequent to a task-based evoked neural response or from spontaneous fluctuations in neural activity in the absence of conscious mentation (the “resting state”). Task-based studies have revealed neural correlates of a large number of important cognitive processes, while fMRI studies performed in the resting state have demonstrated brain-wide networks that result from brain regions with synchronized, apparently spontaneous activity. In this article, we review the methods used to acquire and analyze fMRI signals. PMID:26248581

  1. Numerical Study of a Crossed Loop Coil Array for Parallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, J.; Solis, S. E.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2008-08-11

    A coil design has been recently proposed by Temnikov (Instrum Exp Tech. 2005;48;636-637), with higher experimental signal-to-noise ratio than that of the birdcage coil. It is also claimed that it is possible to individually tune it with a single chip capacitor. This coil design shows a great resemble to the gradiometer coil. These results motivated us to numerically simulate a three-coil array for parallel magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy with multi nuclear capability. The magnetic field was numerical simulated by solving Maxwell's equations with the finite element method. Uniformity profiles were calculated at the midsection for one single coil and showed a good agreement with the experimental data. Then, two more coils were added to form two different coil arrays: coil elements were equally distributed by an angle of a 30 deg. angle. Then, uniformity profiles were calculated again for all cases at the midsection. Despite the strong interaction among all coil elements, very good field uniformity can be achieved. These numerical results indicate that this coil array may be a good choice for magnetic resonance imaging parallel imaging.

  2. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of the tradeoff between semantics and phonology in reading aloud.

    PubMed

    Frost, Stephen J; Mencl, W Einar; Sandak, Rebecca; Moore, Dina L; Rueckl, Jay G; Katz, Leonard; Fulbright, Robert K; Pugh, Kenneth R

    2005-04-25

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we explored the role of semantics in mediating orthographic-to-phonological processing in reading aloud, focusing on the interaction of imageability with spelling-to-sound consistency for low-frequency words. Behaviorally, high-imageable words attenuate the standard latency and accuracy disadvantage for low-frequency inconsistent words relative to their consistent counterparts. Neurobiologically, high-imageable words reduced consistency-related activation in the inferior frontal gyrus but increased posterior activation in the angular and middle temporal gyri, representing a possible neural signature of the tradeoff between semantics and phonology in reading aloud. We discuss implications for neurobiological models of reading in terms of understanding the interplay among areas associated with component processes and suggest that the results constitute an important step toward integrating neurobiological and computational models of reading.

  3. Use of Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Breast Cancer: A Canadian Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Arnaout, Angel; Catley, Christina; Booth, Christopher M; McInnes, Matthew; Graham, Ian; Kumar, Vikaash; Simos, Demetrios; Van Walraven, Carl; Clemons, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Contrary to practice guidelines, breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used in the preoperative evaluation of women with breast cancer. While existing literature has found little benefit to MRI in most patients, potential downstream consequences associated with breast MRI are not well described. To describe patterns of preoperative breast MRI utilization in a health care system with universal insurance and its association with downstream investigations and clinical outcomes. This was a population-based retrospective cohort study using administrative heath care databases in Ontario, Canada (2012 population, 13.5 million) over 14 geographic regions were evaluated within the data set. Participants comprised 53 015 patients with primary operable breast cancer treated from 2003 to 2012. Use of preoperative breast MRI by year, geographic region, and breast cancer stage. Postdiagnosis imaging, biopsy, and short-term surgical outcomes were also evaluated between those who did and did not receive MRI. Overall, 14.8% of patients (7824 of 53 015) had a preoperative MRI. During the 10-year study period, MRI use increased across all stages by 8-fold (from 3% to 24%; P < .001 for trend). Factors associated with MRI use were younger age, higher socioeconomic status, higher Charlson comorbidity score, surgery performed in a teaching hospital, and fewer years of surgeon experience. Multivariate analyses showed that preoperative breast MRI was associated with higher likelihood of the following: postdiagnosis breast imaging (odds ratio [OR], 2.09; 95% CI, 1.92-2.28), postdiagnosis breast biopsies (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.57-1.93), postdiagnosis imaging to assess for distant metastatic disease (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.42-1.61), mastectomy (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.62-1.85), contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.23-1.77), and a greater than 30-day wait to surgery (OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 2.36-2.70) (all ORs are adjusted). Preoperative breast MRI use has increased

  4. Myelination of the brain in Major Depressive Disorder: An in vivo quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Sacchet, Matthew D; Gotlib, Ian H

    2017-05-19

    Evidence from post-mortem, genetic, neuroimaging, and non-human animal research suggests that Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is associated with abnormalities in brain myelin content. Brain regions implicated in this research, and in MDD more generally, include the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), insula, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We examined whether MDD is characterized by reduced myelin at the whole-brain level and in NAcc, LPFC, insula, sgACC, and mPFC. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) permits the assessment of myelin content, in vivo, in the human brain through the measure of R1. In this study we used qMRI to measure R1 in 40 MDD and 40 healthy control (CTL) participants. We found that the MDD participants had lower levels of myelin than did the CTL participants at the whole-brain level and in the NAcc, and that myelin in the LPFC was reduced in MDD participants who had experienced a greater number of depressive episodes. Although further research is needed to elucidate the role of myelin in affecting emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and clinical aspects of MDD, the current study provides important new evidence that a fundamental property of brain composition, myelin, is altered in this disorder.

  5. Neural substrates of shared attention as social memory: A hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Koike, Takahiko; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Okazaki, Shuntaro; Nakagawa, Eri; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Shimada, Koji; Sugawara, Sho K; Takahashi, Haruka K; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Bosch-Bayard, Jorge; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-15

    During a dyadic social interaction, two individuals can share visual attention through gaze, directed to each other (mutual gaze) or to a third person or an object (joint attention). Shared attention is fundamental to dyadic face-to-face interaction, but how attention is shared, retained, and neutrally represented in a pair-specific manner has not been well studied. Here, we conducted a two-day hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging study in which pairs of participants performed a real-time mutual gaze task followed by a joint attention task on the first day, and mutual gaze tasks several days later. The joint attention task enhanced eye-blink synchronization, which is believed to be a behavioral index of shared attention. When the same participant pairs underwent mutual gaze without joint attention on the second day, enhanced eye-blink synchronization persisted, and this was positively correlated with inter-individual neural synchronization within the right inferior frontal gyrus. Neural synchronization was also positively correlated with enhanced eye-blink synchronization during the previous joint attention task session. Consistent with the Hebbian association hypothesis, the right inferior frontal gyrus had been activated both by initiating and responding to joint attention. These results indicate that shared attention is represented and retained by pair-specific neural synchronization that cannot be reduced to the individual level. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Altered executive function in the welders: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeehye; Chang, Yongmin; Jang, Kyung Eun; Park, Jang Woo; Kim, Yang-Tae; Park, Sin-Jae; Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Kim, Ahro; Kim, Suk Hwan; Kim, Yangho

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to manganese (Mn) can lead to impairments in motor and cognitive functions. Several recent studies reported Mn-induced executive dysfunction. The present study compared the neural correlates of ongoing executive function of welders and healthy controls. Fifty-three welders and 44 healthy controls were enrolled. Participants were given functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans and performed two modified versions of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) that differed in cognitive demand, and a task that established a high-level baseline (HLB) condition. Card Sorting Test and Word-Color Test were also used to assess executive performance. Neural activation of the bilateral superior-frontal cortex, right-inferior parietal cortex, and bilateral insula cortex were greater in healthy controls than in welders when contrasting the difficult version of the WCST with the HLB. There were also correlations between executive functions by the Card Sorting Test and Word-Color Test, and brain activation in the insula cortex using the WCST. Our results indicated that welders had altered neural processing related to executive function in the prefrontal cortex under conditions of high cognitive demand. Welders also had less activation of the insula cortex, a part of a larger network comprising the lateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bilateral transfer phenomenon: A functional magnetic resonance imaging pilot study of healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ausenda, Carlo D; Squarza, Silvia; Cadioli, Marcello; Grimoldi, Ludovico; Cerri, Cesare; Cariati, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background The bilateral transfer of a motor skill is a physiological phenomenon: the development of a motor skill with one hand can trigger the development of the same ability of the other hand. Objective The purpose of this study was to verify whether bilateral transfer is associated with a specific brain activation pattern using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods The motor task was implemented as the execution of the Nine Hole Peg Test. Fifteen healthy subjects (10 right-handers and five left-handers) underwent two identical fMRI runs performing the motor task with the non-dominant hand. Between the first and the second run, each subject was intensively trained for five minutes to perform the same motor task with the dominant hand. Results Comparing the two functional scans across the pool of subjects, a change of the motor activation pattern was observed. In particular, we observed, in the second run, a change in the activation pattern both in the cerebellum and in the cerebral cortex. We found activations in cortical areas involved in somatosensory integration, areas involved in procedural memory. Conclusions Our study shows, in a small group of healthy subjects, the modification of the fMRI activation pathway of a motor task performed by the non-dominant hand after intensive exercise performing the same task with the dominant hand. PMID:27033094

  8. Marked effects of Pilates on the abdominal muscles: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Dorado, Cecilia; Calbet, Jose A L; Lopez-Gordillo, Ana; Alayon, Santiago; Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin

    2012-08-01

    The study's purpose was to analyze the effects of Pilates on the volume of the rectus abdominis (RA), obliques, and transversus abdominis, with the last two considered conjointly (OT). The volume of OT and RA were determined using magnetic resonance imaging in nine nonactive healthy women, before and after 36 wk of a standardized Pilates training program (Modern Pilates). The volume of the dominant OT was increased by 8% (P < 0.05) with training, whereas the nondominant OT volume remained unchanged (+2%, P = 0.58). The total volume of RA increased by 21% after Pilates (P < 0.05) because of a similar increase of dominant and nondominant RA volume (21% and 20%, respectively, P < 0.05). Before Pilates, the volume of the OT was 8% greater in the nondominant compared with the dominant side (P < 0.01). This asymmetry was compensated by Pilates training (2%, P = 0.43). No side-to-side asymmetries in RA muscle volumes were observed either before (2%, P = 0.51) or after (1%, P = 0.81) Pilates. The present study reveals the existence of asymmetries in the muscles of the abdominal wall in nonactive healthy women. Pilates practice twice a week for 9 months elicits hypertrophy of the abdominal wall muscles, particularly of the RA, and eliminates preexisting asymmetries of the OT. Modern Pilates can be recommended as an effective method to reinforce the muscles of the abdominal wall and to compensate preexisting asymmetric developments.

  9. Does collagenase injection disrupt or digest the Dupuytren's cord: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Crivello, K M; Potter, H G; Moon, E S; Rancy, S K; Wolfe, Scott W

    2016-07-01

    Collagenase clostridium histolyticum has been extensively studied as a treatment modality for Dupuytren's contracture. Its mechanism of action has been documented. It is unknown whether injected collagenase weakens the Dupuytren's cord sufficiently to cause failure during manipulation or if there is digestion and reduction in cord volume. We examined five patients with isolated contractures of the ring or middle metacarpalphalangeal (MP) joint using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to injection with collagenase and again 1 month following injection. All patients had full correction after manipulation which was maintained at follow-up. The Dupuytren's cord was evaluated with respect to volume, signal intensity, inflammatory changes and continuity. Additionally, signal intensity changes of the flexor tendons and neurovascular structures were recorded. MRI demonstrated cord discontinuity, significant reduction of cord volume and a significant increase in cord signal intensity after treatment with collagenase. There was a slight increase in flexor tendon signal intensity that was not significant. These findings suggest that there may be local chemical dissolution of the cord. Future studies may establish whether or not this will have prognostic implications in terms of correction and recurrence following collagenase injection. IV. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Brain and Cerebellum in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Maciorkowska, Elżbieta; Gościk, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are rarely used in the diagnosis of patients with cerebral palsy. The aim of present study was to assess the relationships between the volumetric MRI and clinical findings in children with cerebral palsy compared to control subjects. Materials and Methods. Eighty-two children with cerebral palsy and 90 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were collected. Results. The dominant changes identified on MRI scans in children with cerebral palsy were periventricular leukomalacia (42%) and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (21%). The total brain and cerebellum volumes in children with cerebral palsy were significantly reduced in comparison to controls. Significant grey matter volume reduction was found in the total brain in children with cerebral palsy compared with the control subjects. Positive correlations between the age of the children of both groups and the grey matter volumes in the total brain were found. Negative relationship between width of third ventricle and speech development was found in the patients. Positive correlations were noted between the ventricles enlargement and motor dysfunction and mental retardation in children with cerebral palsy. Conclusions. By using the voxel-based morphometry, the total brain, cerebellum, and grey matter volumes were significantly reduced in children with cerebral palsy. PMID:27579318

  11. Bilateral transfer phenomenon: A functional magnetic resonance imaging pilot study of healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Uggetti, Carla; Ausenda, Carlo D; Squarza, Silvia; Cadioli, Marcello; Grimoldi, Ludovico; Cerri, Cesare; Cariati, Maurizio

    2016-08-01

    The bilateral transfer of a motor skill is a physiological phenomenon: the development of a motor skill with one hand can trigger the development of the same ability of the other hand. The purpose of this study was to verify whether bilateral transfer is associated with a specific brain activation pattern using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The motor task was implemented as the execution of the Nine Hole Peg Test. Fifteen healthy subjects (10 right-handers and five left-handers) underwent two identical fMRI runs performing the motor task with the non-dominant hand. Between the first and the second run, each subject was intensively trained for five minutes to perform the same motor task with the dominant hand. Comparing the two functional scans across the pool of subjects, a change of the motor activation pattern was observed. In particular, we observed, in the second run, a change in the activation pattern both in the cerebellum and in the cerebral cortex. We found activations in cortical areas involved in somatosensory integration, areas involved in procedural memory. Our study shows, in a small group of healthy subjects, the modification of the fMRI activation pathway of a motor task performed by the non-dominant hand after intensive exercise performing the same task with the dominant hand. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Brain and Cerebellum in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Kułak, Piotr; Maciorkowska, Elżbieta; Gościk, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are rarely used in the diagnosis of patients with cerebral palsy. The aim of present study was to assess the relationships between the volumetric MRI and clinical findings in children with cerebral palsy compared to control subjects. Materials and Methods. Eighty-two children with cerebral palsy and 90 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were collected. Results. The dominant changes identified on MRI scans in children with cerebral palsy were periventricular leukomalacia (42%) and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (21%). The total brain and cerebellum volumes in children with cerebral palsy were significantly reduced in comparison to controls. Significant grey matter volume reduction was found in the total brain in children with cerebral palsy compared with the control subjects. Positive correlations between the age of the children of both groups and the grey matter volumes in the total brain were found. Negative relationship between width of third ventricle and speech development was found in the patients. Positive correlations were noted between the ventricles enlargement and motor dysfunction and mental retardation in children with cerebral palsy. Conclusions. By using the voxel-based morphometry, the total brain, cerebellum, and grey matter volumes were significantly reduced in children with cerebral palsy.

  13. Mapping orbitofrontal-limbic maturation in non-human primates: A longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Akiko; Hata, Junichi; Komaki, Yuji; Seki, Fumiko; Yamada, Chihoko; Okahara, Norio; Kurotaki, Yoko; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki

    2017-09-18

    Brain development involves spatiotemporally complex microstructural changes. A number of neuropsychiatric disorders are linked to the neural processes of development and aging. Thus, it is important to understanding the typical developmental patterns of various brain structures, which will help to define critical periods of vulnerability for neural maturation, as well as anatomical mechanisms of brain structure-related neuropathology. In this study, we used magnetic resonance imaging to assess development of the orbitofrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus in a non-human primate species, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). We collected a total of 114 T2-weighted and 91 diffusion-weighted scans from 23 animals from infancy to early adulthood. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of age-related brain growth patterns showed non-linear structural developmental changes in all measured brain regions, consistent with reported human data. Overall, robust volumetric growth was observed from 1 to 3 months of age (from infancy to the early juvenile period). This rapid brain growth was associated with the largest decrease in mean, axial, and radial diffusivities of diffusion tensor imaging in all brain regions, suggesting an increase in the number and size of cells, dendrites, and spines during this period. After this developmental period, the volume of various brain regions steadily increased until adolescence (7-13 months of age, depending on the region). Further, structural connectivity derived from tractography data in various brain regions continuously changed from infancy to adolescence, suggesting that the increase in brain volume was related to continued axonal myelination during adolescence. Thereafter, the volume of the cortical regions decreased considerably, while there was no change in subcortical regions. Familial factors, rather than sex, contributed the development of the front-limbic brain regions. Overall, this study provides

  14. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study mapping the episodic memory encoding network in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Meneka K.; Stretton, Jason; Winston, Gavin P.; Bonelli, Silvia; Centeno, Maria; Vollmar, Christian; Symms, Mark; Thompson, Pamela J.; Koepp, Matthias J.

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging has demonstrated reorganization of memory encoding networks within the temporal lobe in temporal lobe epilepsy, but little is known of the extra-temporal networks in these patients. We investigated the temporal and extra-temporal reorganization of memory encoding networks in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy and the neural correlates of successful subsequent memory formation. We studied 44 patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis (24 left) and 26 healthy control subjects. All participants performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging memory encoding paradigm of faces and words with subsequent out-of-scanner recognition assessments. A blocked analysis was used to investigate activations during encoding and neural correlates of subsequent memory were investigated using an event-related analysis. Event-related activations were then correlated with out-of-scanner verbal and visual memory scores. During word encoding, control subjects activated the left prefrontal cortex and left hippocampus whereas patients with left hippocampal sclerosis showed significant additional right temporal and extra-temporal activations. Control subjects displayed subsequent verbal memory effects within left parahippocampal gyrus, left orbitofrontal cortex and fusiform gyrus whereas patients with left hippocampal sclerosis activated only right posterior hippocampus, parahippocampus and fusiform gyrus. Correlational analysis showed that patients with left hippocampal sclerosis with better verbal memory additionally activated left orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and left posterior hippocampus. During face encoding, control subjects showed right lateralized prefrontal cortex and bilateral hippocampal activations. Patients with right hippocampal sclerosis showed increased temporal activations within the superior temporal gyri bilaterally and no increased extra-temporal areas of activation compared with

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... an image. Repeated exposure can be harmful.An MRI scan takes longer to perform (30 to 60 minutes, ... a treatment plan.Depending on your symptoms, an MRI will scan a specific portion of your body to diagnose: ...

  16. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of structural magnetic resonance imaging data in a two-center study.

    PubMed

    Chalavi, Sima; Simmons, Andrew; Dijkstra, Hildebrand; Barker, Gareth J; Reinders, A A T Simone

    2012-08-06

    Multi-center magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies present an opportunity to advance research by pooling data. However, brain measurements derived from MR-images are susceptible to differences in MR-sequence parameters. It is therefore necessary to determine whether there is an interaction between the sequence parameters and the effect of interest, and to minimise any such interaction by careful choice of acquisition parameters. As an exemplar of the issues involved in multi-center studies, we present data from a study in which we aimed to optimize a set of volumetric MRI-protocols to define a protocol giving data that are consistent and reproducible across two centers and over time. Optimization was achieved based on data quality and quantitative measures, in our case using FreeSurfer and Voxel Based Morphometry approaches. Our approach consisted of a series of five comparisons. Firstly, a single-center dataset was collected, using a range of candidate pulse-sequences and parameters chosen on the basis of previous literature. Based on initial results, a number of minor changes were implemented to optimize the pulse-sequences, and a second single-center dataset was collected. FreeSurfer data quality measures were compared between datasets in order to determine the best performing sequence(s), which were taken forward to the next stage of testing. We subsequently acquired short-term and long-term two-center reproducibility data, and quantitative measures were again assessed to determine the protocol with the highest reproducibility across centers. Effects of a scanner software and hardware upgrade on the reproducibility of the protocols at one of the centers were also evaluated. Assessing the quality measures from the first two datasets allowed us to define artefact-free protocols, all with high image quality as assessed by FreeSurfer. Comparing the quantitative test and retest measures, we found high within-center reproducibility for all protocols, but lower

  17. Constraint-induced therapy versus control intervention in patients with stroke: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Keh-Chung; Chung, Hsin-Ying; Wu, Ching-Yi; Liu, Ho-Ling; Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Chen, I-Hsuan; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chuang, Li-Ling; Liu, Jung-Sen; Wai, Yau-Yau

    2010-03-01

    This study compared the effects of a distributed form of constraint-induced therapy with control intervention in motor recovery and brain reorganization after stroke. A two-group randomized controlled trial with pretreatment and posttreatment measures was conducted. Thirteen patients with stroke were randomly assigned to the distributed form of constraint-induced therapy (n = 5) or the control intervention group (n = 8). Outcome measures included the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, the Motor Activity Log, and functional magnetic resonance imaging examination. The number of activation voxels and laterality index were determined from the functional magnetic resonance imaging data for the study of brain reorganization. The distributed form of constraint-induced therapy group exhibited significantly greater improvements in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Motor Activity Log than the control intervention group. The functional magnetic resonance imaging data showed that distributed form of constraint-induced therapy significantly increased activation in the contralesional hemisphere during movement of the affected and unaffected hand. The control intervention group showed a decrease in primary sensorimotor cortex activation of the ipsilesional hemisphere during movement of the affected hand. The preliminary findings indicate that brain adaptation may be modulated by specific rehabilitation practices, although generalization of the functional magnetic resonance imaging findings is limited by sample size. Further research is needed to identify the specific neural correlates of the behavioral gains achieved after rehabilitation therapies.

  18. Quantification of Absolute Fat Mass by Magnetic Resonance Imaging: a Validation Study against Chemical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Houchun H.; Li, Yan; Nagy, Tim R.; Goran, Michael I.; Nayak, Krishna S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based approach for quantifying absolute fat mass in organs, muscles, and adipose tissues, and to validate its accuracy against reference chemical analysis (CA). Methods Chemical-shift imaging can accurately decompose water and fat signals from the acquired MRI data. A proton density fat fraction (PDFF) can be computed from the separated images, and reflects the relative fat content on a voxel-by-voxel basis. The PDFF is mathematically closely related to the fat mass fraction and can be converted to absolute fat mass in grams by multiplying by the voxel volume and the mass density of fat. In this validation study, 97 freshly excised and unique samples from four pigs, comprising of organs, muscles, and adipose and lean tissues were imaged by MRI and then analyzed independently by CA. Linear regression was used to assess correlation, agreement, and measurement differences between MRI and CA. Results Considering all 97 samples, a strong correlation and agreement was obtained between MRI and CA-derived fat mass (slope = 1.01, intercept = 1.99g, r2 = 0.98, p < 0.01). The mean difference d between MRI and CA was 2.17±3.40g. MRI did not exhibit any tendency to under or overestimate CA (p > 0.05). When considering samples from each pig separately, the results were (slope = 1.05, intercept = 1.11g, r2 = 0.98, d = 2.66±4.36g), (slope = 0.99, intercept = 2.33g, r2 = 0.99, d = 1.88±2.68g), (slope = 1.07, intercept = 1.52g, r2 = 0.96, d = 2.73±2.50g), and (slope=0.92, intercept=2.84g, r2 = 0.97, d = 1.18±3.90g), respectively. Conclusion Chemical-shift MRI and PDFF provides an accurate means of determining absolute fat mass in organs, muscles, and adipose and lean tissues. PMID:23204926

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance zeugmatographic imaging of the heart: application to the study of ventricular septal defect. [Lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Heneghan, M.A.; Biancaniello, T.M.; Heidel, E.; Peterson, S.B.; Marsh, M.J.; Lauterbur, P.C.

    1982-04-01

    The present work was undertaken to determine the applicability of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging to the study of congenital heart disease. Three-dimensional proton density images of preserved lamb hearts with and without an artificially created ventricular septal defect were reconstructed and displayed in multiple planes. Sections obtained in the sagittal plane through the ventricular septum clearly showed the size, shape, and location of the defect. Results of these experiments suggest that NMR zeugmatography will become a valuable addition to existing imaging techniques for the study of congenital heart disease.

  20. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies of Two-Phase Flow Phenomena: Application to Suspension Rheology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, Joseph Daniel

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, a non -invasive spectroscopic technique, is used to measure velocity in the fluid phase of suspensions in tube flow by a position encode pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) technique. The mean velocity of an ensemble of nuclei within a discrete volume element (voxel) of the sample, localized by the NMR experiment, causes a residual phase shift in nuclei precession and random displacements due to Brownian motion of the nuclei and fluctuations about the mean velocity cause attenuation of signal. The average macroscopic and fluctuating velocity distributions in suspensions of spheres and fibers at concentrations from the dilute to concentrated regimes are measured. The fluctuational motion in low Reynolds number flow is due to the many body hydrodynamic interactions of the non-colloidal particles. The fluctuational motion measured depends on the length and time scales of the NMR experiment and it is the stationary Gaussian Markov statistics of the fluctuation in motion that is measured. Interpretation of the signal in NMR PGSE experiments depends on a model of the motion and the fluctuations are modelled as a colored noise stochastic process. The stochastic model is connected to the averaged theory of two-phase flow through formulation of the averaged theory as an equivalent stochastic differential equation. Tube flow is studied to increase understanding of NMR measurements in two-phase solid-liquid systems and provide data on systems inaccessible to standard velocity measurement techniques. Macroscopic rheological characterization of materials by NMR imaging is possible using 1-D and 2 -D NMR velocity phase encoded data. 1-D velocity probability distribution data is used to characterize the macroscopic material flow behavior of a Newtonian standard, a 3% polyacrylamide solution, tomato juice and paper pulp. The measurement of yield stress rheological behavior using 2-D position dependent velocity data is presented and used to

  1. A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Head Movements in Cervical Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Prudente, Cecília N.; Stilla, Randall; Singh, Shivangi; Buetefisch, Cathrin; Evatt, Marian; Factor, Stewart A.; Freeman, Alan; Hu, Xiaoping Philip; Hess, Ellen J.; Sathian, K.; Jinnah, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Cervical dystonia (CD) is a neurological disorder characterized by abnormal movements and postures of the head. The brain regions responsible for these abnormal movements are not well understood, because most imaging techniques for assessing regional brain activity cannot be used when the head is moving. Recently, we mapped brain activation in healthy individuals using functional magnetic resonance imaging during isometric head rotation, when muscle contractions occur without actual head movements. In the current study, we used the same methods to explore the neural substrates for head movements in subjects with CD who had predominantly rotational abnormalities (torticollis). Isometric wrist extension was examined for comparison. Electromyography of neck and hand muscles ensured compliance with tasks during scanning, and any head motion was measured and corrected. Data were analyzed in three steps. First, we conducted within-group analyses to examine task-related activation patterns separately in subjects with CD and in healthy controls. Next, we directly compared task-related activation patterns between participants with CD and controls. Finally, considering that the abnormal head movements in CD occur in a consistently patterned direction for each individual, we conducted exploratory analyses that involved normalizing data according to the direction of rotational CD. The between-group comparisons failed to reveal any significant differences, but the normalization procedure in subjects with CD revealed that isometric head rotation in the direction of dystonic head rotation was associated with more activation in the ipsilateral anterior cerebellum, whereas isometric head rotation in the opposite direction was associated with more activity in sensorimotor cortex. These findings suggest that the cerebellum contributes to abnormal head rotation in CD, whereas regions in the cerebral cortex are involved in opposing the involuntary movements. PMID:27895619

  2. Radiation-Induced Liver Damage: Correlation of Histopathology with Hepatobiliary Magnetic Resonance Imaging, a Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Seidensticker, Max; Burak, Miroslaw; Kalinski, Thomas; Garlipp, Benjamin; Koelble, Konrad; Wust, Peter; Antweiler, Kai; Seidensticker, Ricarda; Mohnike, Konrad; Pech, Maciej; Ricke, Jens

    2015-02-15

    PurposeRadiotherapy of liver malignancies shows promising results (radioembolization, stereotactic irradiation, interstitial brachytherapy). Regardless of the route of application, a certain amount of nontumorous liver parenchyma will be collaterally damaged by radiation. The functional reserve may be significantly reduced with an impact on further treatment planning. Monitoring of radiation-induced liver damage by imaging is neither established nor validated. We performed an analysis to correlate the histopathological presence of radiation-induced liver damage with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizing hepatobiliary contrast media (Gd-BOPTA).MethodsPatients undergoing local high-dose-rate brachytherapy for whom a follow-up hepatobiliary MRI within 120 days after radiotherapy as well as an evaluable liver biopsy from radiation-exposed liver tissue within 7 days before MRI were retrospectively identified. Planning computed tomography (CT)/dosimetry was merged to the CT-documentation of the liver biopsy and to the MRI. Presence/absence of radiation-induced liver damage (histopathology) and Gd-BOPTA uptake (MRI) as well as the dose applied during brachytherapy at the site of tissue sampling was determined.ResultsFourteen biopsies from eight patients were evaluated. In all cases with histopathological evidence of radiation-induced liver damage (n = 11), no uptake of Gd-BOPTA was seen. In the remaining three, cases no radiation-induced liver damage but Gd-BOPTA uptake was seen. Presence of radiation-induced liver damage and absence of Gd-BOPTA uptake was correlated with a former high-dose exposition.ConclusionsAbsence of hepatobiliary MRI contrast media uptake in radiation-exposed liver parenchyma may indicate radiation-induced liver damage. Confirmatory studies are warranted.

  3. Fat obliteration in paranasal sinuses: a comparative magnetic resonance imaging and histopathologic study.

    PubMed

    Constantinidis, Jannis; Bohr, Cristopher; Greess, Holger; Aigner, Thomas; Zenk, Johannes; Prokopakis, Emmanuel; Iro, Heinrich

    2005-04-01

    To assess postoperative changes after fat tissue obliteration of the paranasal sinuses with the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and correlate the findings with correspondent histology. By using an animal model with fat obliteration of the maxillary paranasal sinus. We correlated postoperative changes of the fatty tissues by means of histopathologic analysis and MRI. The study group included 15 rabbits undergoing autologous fat tissue obliteration of their maxillary paranasal sinus. After 1 month (n = 5), 3 months (n = 5), and 6 months (n = 5), both MRI and histopathologic evaluations of the fatty tissue status were performed. Contrast enhanced MRI was used to identify vital fat tissue. Subsequently, MRI findings were compared with a correspondent histologic status and proliferative factors such as angio- and osteogenesis and presence of abundant granulocytes, macrophages, and giant cells. After a period of 6 months, the obliteration sites in all animals showed vital fat tissues, whereas at 1 month after surgery, vital fat tissue was rarely observed. The microscopic appearance of the obliteration tissue after 1 month was characterized by fat tissue necrosis and distinct tissue reactions including blood vessel dilatation, abundant macrophages, granulocytes, and lymphocytes. MRI after 1 month showed a clear contrast enhancement because of the hyperemia and inflammation reaction. Fat tissue transplants used for obliteration of paranasal sinuses are almost completely degraded after transplantation and replaced by vital fat tissue over a period of at least 6 months. Contrast enhanced MRI is a well-suited technique for follow-up imaging and assessing the transplant vascularization and tissue remodeling status.

  4. Efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of penile fracture: A controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Tarhan, Fatih; Hamarat, Mustafa B.; Can, Utku; Coskun, Alper; Camur, Emre; Sarica, Kemal

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with suspected penile fracture. Materials and Methods A total of 122 patients admitted to our inpatient clinic with a suspicion of penile fracture following a recent history of penile trauma and who underwent surgical exploration were included this study. A thorough physical examination, a detailed medical history, description of the trauma, and preoperative International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores were obtained for each patient prior to surgery. Thirty-eight of these patients were evaluated with MRI before the surgical exploration. Intraoperative findings were also recorded. Physical findings and IIEF scores were also recorded at postoperative 6 months. Results The mean age of our patient group was 36.5±12.3 years. Penile fracture was detected in 105 of 122 patients in whom surgical exploration was performed owing to a suspected diagnosis. The mean time interval from penile trauma to hospital admittance was 9.9±15.1 hours. No cavernosal defect was detected in 9 of 84 patients (10.7%) who were not evaluated with MRI prior to surgery. Compared with surgical exploration, MRI findings showed 100% (30 of 30) sensitivity and 87.5% (7 of 8) specificity in the diagnosis of penile fracture. MRI had a high negative predictive value of 100% (7 of 7) and a positive predictive value of 96.7% (30 of 31) with just 1 misdiagnosed patient. Conclusions MRI is a reliable diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of penile fractures. Compared to history and physical findings taken all together, the high sensitivity and specificity of this imaging technique can decrease the number of unnecessary surgical explorations. PMID:28681035

  5. Study of atrial arrhythmias in a computer model based on magnetic resonance images of human atria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virag, N.; Jacquemet, V.; Henriquez, C. S.; Zozor, S.; Blanc, O.; Vesin, J.-M.; Pruvot, E.; Kappenberger, L.

    2002-09-01

    The maintenance of multiple wavelets appears to be a consistent feature of atrial fibrillation (AF). In this paper, we investigate possible mechanisms of initiation and perpetuation of multiple wavelets in a computer model of AF. We developed a simplified model of human atria that uses an ionic-based membrane model and whose geometry is derived from a segmented magnetic resonance imaging data set. The three-dimensional surface has a realistic size and includes obstacles corresponding to the location of major vessels and valves, but it does not take into account anisotropy. The main advantage of this approach is its ability to simulate long duration arrhythmias (up to 40 s). Clinically relevant initiation protocols, such as single-site burst pacing, were used. The dynamics of simulated AF were investigated in models with different action potential durations and restitution properties, controlled by the conductance of the slow inward current in a modified Luo-Rudy model. The simulation studies show that (1) single-site burst pacing protocol can be used to induce wave breaks even in tissue with uniform membrane properties, (2) the restitution-based wave breaks in an atrial model with realistic size and conduction velocities are transient, and (3) a significant reduction in action potential duration (even with apparently flat restitution) increases the duration of AF.

  6. Vocal tract length development during the first two decades of life: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorperian, Houri K.; Chung, Moo K.; Gentry, Lindell R.; Kent, Ray D.; Choih, Celia S.; Durtschi, Reid B.; Ziegert, Andrew J.

    2005-09-01

    As the vocal tract length (VTL) increases more than twofold from infancy to adulthood, its geometric proportions change. This study assesses the developmental changes of the various hard and soft tissue structures in the vicinity of the vocal tract (VT), and evaluates the relational growth of the various structures with VTL. Magnetic resonance images from 327 cases, ages birth to age 20, were used to secure quantitative measurements of the various soft, cartilaginous and bony structures in the oral and pharyngeal regions using established procedures [Vorperian et al. (1999), (2005)]. Structures measured include: lip thickness, hard- and soft-palate length, tongue length, naso-oro-pharyngeal length, mandibular length and depth, and distance of the hyoid bone and larynx from the posterior nasal spine. Findings indicate: (a) ongoing growth of all oral and pharyngeal structures with changes in growth rate as a function of age; (b) a strong interdependency between structure orientation and its growth curve; and (c) developmental changes in the relational growth of the different VT structures with VTL. Findings provide normative data on the anatomic changes of the supra-laryngeal speech apparatus, and can be used to model the development of the VT. [Work supported by NIH-NIDCD Grants R03-DC4362 R01-DC006282, and NIH-NICHHD P30-HK03352.

  7. Childhood multiple sclerosis (MS): multimodal evoked potentials (EP) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) comparative study.

    PubMed

    Scaioli, V; Rumi, V; Cimino, C; Angelini, L

    1991-02-01

    We compared the diagnostic sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and evoked potential (EP) studies in a series of 19 children affected by clinically definite (16 cases) and laboratory supported (3 cases) multiple sclerosis (MS). MRI revealed abnormal areas consistent with demyelinating plaques in 18 out of 19 cases: multiple lesions in 16 and an isolated lesion in 2 cases. Abnormal areas were more frequently found in supratentorial regions than in other areas of the central nervous system. In all patients, the distribution, form and topography of the lesions were typical of MS and similar to those found in the adult form of the disease. Multimodal EP were abnormal in 16 out of 19 cases. Visual (VEP) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) abnormalities were frequently asymptomatic and VEPs were particularly sensitive in ascertaining childhood MS. MRI was slightly more sensitive than multimodal EP in confirming the clinical diagnosis of childhood MS. However, in suspected or probable MS with normal MRI, VEPs and SEPs may contribute to the definition of clinical diagnosis because of their capacity to demonstrate asymptomatic involvement in central nervous system (CNS) the optic nerve and central somatosensory pathways).

  8. Abnormal affective decision making revealed in adolescent binge drinkers using a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine; Gong, Qiyong; Huang, Xiaoqi; Li, Xiangrui; Xue, Gui; Wong, Savio; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Palmer, Paula; Wei, Yonglan; Jia, Yong; Johnson, C Anderson

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the neural correlates of affective decision making, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), which are associated with adolescent binge drinking. Fourteen adolescent binge drinkers (16-18 years of age) and 14 age-matched adolescents who had never consumed alcohol--never drinkers--were recruited from local high schools in Chengdu, China. Questionnaires were used to assess academic performance, drinking experience, and urgency. Brain regions activated by the IGT performance were identified with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results showed that, compared to never drinkers, binge drinkers performed worse on the IGT and showed higher activity in the subcomponents of the decision-making neural circuitry implicated in the execution of emotional and incentive-related behaviors, namely, the left amygdala and insula bilaterally. Moreover, measures of the severity of drinking problems in real life, as well as high urgency scores, were associated with increased activity within the insula, combined with decreased activity within the orbitofrontal cortex. These results suggest that hyperreactivity of a neural system implicated in the execution of emotional and incentive-related behaviors can be associated with socially undesirable behaviors, such as binge drinking, among adolescents. These findings have social implications because they potentially reveal underlying neural mechanisms for making poor decisions, which may increase an individual's risk and vulnerability for alcoholism. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Attentional modulation of source attribution in first-episode psychosis: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Lana; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Benetti, Stefania; Kambeitz, Joseph; Pettersson-Yeo, William; O'Daly, Owen; McGuire, Philip; Allen, Paul

    2013-09-01

    In patients with schizophrenia, the misattribution of self-generated events to an external source is associated with the presence of psychotic symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate how this misattribution is influenced by dysfunction of attentional processing, which is also impaired in schizophrenia. Participants underwent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) while listening to prerecorded speech. Their expectancies were manipulated using visual cues that were either congruent (valid) or incongruent (invalid) with the speech. The source (self/other) and the acoustic quality (undistorted/distorted) of the speech were also manipulated. Twenty patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 20 matched healthy controls (HC) were tested. When listening to self-generated speech preceded by an invalid (other speech) cue, relative to HC, FEP patients showed a trend to misidentify their own speech as that of another person. Analysis of fMRI data showed that FEP patients had reduced activation in the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and left precuneus (Pc) relative to HC. Within the FEP group, the level of activation in the right MTG was negatively correlated with the severity of their positive psychotic symptoms. Impaired attentional modulation in schizophrenia may contribute to the tendency for FEP patients to misattribute the source of self-generated material, and this may be mediated by the right MTG and Pc, regions that are involved in both self-referential processing and the integration of sensory information.

  10. Development of vocal tract length during early childhood: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorperian, Houri K.; Kent, Ray D.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Kalina, Cliff M.; Gentry, Lindell R.; Yandell, Brian S.

    2005-01-01

    Speech development in children is predicated partly on the growth and anatomic restructuring of the vocal tract. This study examines the growth pattern of the various hard and soft tissue vocal tract structures as visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and assesses their relational growth with vocal tract length (VTL). Measurements on lip thickness, hard- and soft-palate length, tongue length, naso-oro-pharyngeal length, mandibular length and depth, and distance of the hyoid bone and larynx from the posterior nasal spine were used from 63 pediatric cases (ages birth to 6 years and 9 months) and 12 adults. Results indicate (a) ongoing growth of all oral and pharyngeal vocal tract structures with no sexual dimorphism, and a period of accelerated growth between birth and 18 months; (b) vocal tract structure's region (oral/anterior versus pharyngeal/posterior) and orientation (horizontal versus vertical) determine its growth pattern; and (c) the relational growth of the different structures with VTL changes with development-while the increase in VTL throughout development is predominantly due to growth of pharyngeal/posterior structures, VTL is also substantially affected by the growth of oral/anterior structures during the first 18 months of life. Findings provide normative data that can be used for modeling the development of the vocal tract. .

  11. Cognitive Modules Utilized for Narrative Comprehension in Children: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Holland, Scott K.; Plante, Elena

    2005-01-01

    The ability to comprehend narratives constitutes an important component of human development and experience. The neural correlates of auditory narrative comprehension in children were investigated in a large-scale functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study involving 313 subjects ages 5–18. Using group Independent Component Analysis (ICA), bilateral task-related components were found comprising the primary auditory cortex, the mid-superior temporal gyrus, the hippocampus, the angular gyrus and medial aspect of the parietal lobule (precuneus/posterior cingulate). In addition, a right-lateralized component was found involving the most posterior aspect of the superior temporal gyrus, and a left-lateralized component was found comprising the inferior frontal gyrus (including Broca’s area), the inferior parietal lobule, and the medial temporal gyrus. Using a novel data-driven analysis technique, increased task-related activity related to age was found in the components comprising the mid-superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke’s area) and the posterior aspect of the superior temporal gyrus, while decreased activity related to age was found in the component comprising the angular gyrus. The results are discussed in light of recent hypotheses involving the functional segregation of Wernicke’s area and the specific role of the mid-superior temporal gyrus in speech comprehension. PMID:16109491

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of clinical treatment of otospongiosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Vicente, Andy; Chandrasekhar, Sujana S; Yamashita, Helio K; Cruz, Oswaldo Laercio M; Barros, Flavia A; Penido, Norma O

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a method for monitoring the activity of otospongiotic lesions before and after clinical treatment. Prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind study. One single tertiary care institution in a large, cosmopolitan city. Twenty-six patients (n = 42 ears) with clinical, audiometric, and tomographic diagnosis of otosclerosis were enrolled. If computed tomography (CT) demonstrated active lesions, these patients underwent MRI to detect otospongiotic foci, seen as areas of gadolinium enhancement. Patients were divided into 3 groups and received treatment with placebo, sodium alendronate, or sodium fluoride for 6 months. After this period, clinical and audiometric evaluations and a second MRI were performed. Each MRI was evaluated by both a neuroradiologist and an otolaryngologist in a subjective (visual) and objective (using specific eFilm Workstation software) manner. Otospongiosis was most predominantly identified in the region anterior to the oval window, and this site was reliable for comparing pre- and posttreatment scans. The patients in the alendronate and sodium fluoride groups had MRI findings that suggested a decrease in activity of otospongiotic lesions, more relevant in the alendronate group. These findings were statistically significant for both subjective and objective MRI evaluations. MRI shows higher sensitivity than clinical or audiometric assessment for detecting reduction in activity of otospongiosis. The objective MRI evaluation based on software analysis was the most accurate method of monitoring clinical treatment response in otospongiosis. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  13. How pain empathy depends on ingroup/outgroup decisions: A functional magnet resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Ruckmann, Judith; Bodden, Maren; Jansen, Andreas; Kircher, Tilo; Dodel, Richard; Rief, Winfried

    2015-10-30

    Showing empathy is crucial for social functioning and empathy is related to group membership. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of experimentally generated groups on empathy for pain in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm. Thirty healthy participants underwent a minimal group paradigm to create two groups. While BOLD contrast was measured using fMRI, subjects were instructed to empathize with ingroup and outgroup members, who were depicted in a picture paradigm of painful and neutral situations. Behavioral measure of state empathy was measured using a visual analog scale. Furthermore, self-reported trait empathy measures were obtained. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were conducted for fMRI and behavioral data. In addition to a main effect of pain in pain-related areas, a main effect of group in areas belonging to the visual cortex was found. Although there was no ingroup bias for empathy ratings, subjects showed altered neural activation in regions of the right fusiform gyrus, the cerebellum, the hippocampal and amygdala region during the pain×group interaction. Activation in the preceding structures, revealed by the interaction of pain by group, suggests that activation in the pallidum might reflect specific empathy for pain-related regulation processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Deficient fear conditioning in psychopathy: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Birbaumer, Niels; Veit, Ralf; Lotze, Martin; Erb, Michael; Hermann, Christiane; Grodd, Wolfgang; Flor, Herta

    2005-07-01

    Psychopaths belong to a larger group of persons with antisocial personality disorder and are characterized by an inability to have emotional involvement and by the repeated violation of the rights of others. It was hypothesized that this behavior might be the consequence of deficient fear conditioning. To study the cerebral, peripheral, and subjective correlates of fear conditioning in criminal psychopaths and healthy control subjects. An aversive differential pavlovian delay conditioning paradigm with slides of neutral faces serving as conditioned and painful pressure as unconditioned stimuli. The Department of Medical Psychology at the University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. Ten male psychopaths as defined by the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and 10 age- and education-matched healthy male controls. The psychopaths were criminal offenders on bail and waiting for their trial or were on parole. The healthy controls were recruited from the community. Brain activation based on functional magnetic resonance imaging, electrodermal responses, emotional valence, arousal, and contingency ratings. The healthy controls showed enhanced differential activation in the limbic-prefrontal circuit (amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, insula, and anterior cingulate) during the acquisition of fear and successful verbal and autonomic conditioning. The psychopaths displayed no significant activity in this circuit and failed to show conditioned skin conductance and emotional valence ratings, although contingency and arousal ratings were normal. This dissociation of emotional and cognitive processing may be the neural basis of the lack of anticipation of aversive events in criminal psychopaths.

  15. Atherosclerotic Biomarkers and Aortic Atherosclerosis by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Susie N.; Gona, Philimon; Fontes, Joao D.; Oyama, Noriko; Chan, Raymond H.; Kenchaiah, Satish; Tsao, Connie W.; Yeon, Susan B.; Schnabel, Renate B.; Keaney, John F.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Manning, Warren J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The relations between subclinical atherosclerosis and inflammatory biomarkers have generated intense interest but their significance remains unclear. We sought to determine the association between a panel of biomarkers and subclinical aortic atherosclerosis in a community‐based cohort. Methods and Results We evaluated 1547 participants of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort who attended the 7th examination cycle and underwent both cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and assays for 10 biomarkers associated with atherosclerosis: high‐sensitivity C‐reactive protein, fibrinogen, intercellular adhesion molecule‐1, interleukin‐6, interleukin‐18, lipoprotein‐associated phospholipase‐A2 activity and mass, monocyte chemoattractant protein‐1, P‐selectin, and tumor necrosis factor receptor‐2. In logistic regression analysis, we found no significant association between the biomarker panel and the presence of aortic plaque (global P=0.53). Using Tobit regression with aortic plaque as a continuous variable, we noted a modest association between biomarker panel and aortic plaque volume in age‐ and sex‐adjusted analyses (P=0.003). However, this association was attenuated after further adjustment for clinical covariates (P=0.09). Conclusions In our community‐based cohort, we found no significant association between our multibiomarker panel and aortic plaque. Our results underscore the strengths and limitations of the use of biomarkers for the identification of subclinical atherosclerosis and the importance of traditional risk factors. PMID:24242683

  16. Age assessment by magnetic resonance imaging of the knee: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Dedouit, Fabrice; Auriol, Julien; Rousseau, Hervé; Rougé, Daniel; Crubézy, Eric; Telmon, Norbert

    2012-04-10

    The authors developed an original magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) staging system for epiphyseal fusion of growth plate maturation of the knee and evaluated its reliability and validity for age assessment of living individuals. A total of 290 MRI scans of the knee were reviewed retrospectively in patients aged from 10 to 30 years old (138 males, 152 females). Five original MRI stages were defined to assess the degree of maturation of the distal femoral and proximal tibial epiphyses. Intra-observer variability was excellent and inter-observer variability was good, demonstrating the reliability and the validity of this original MRI staging system. In both sexes, the changes of growth plates (proximal tibial or distal femoral) were associated with age (p<0.001). Our results agreed with classic data on skeletal maturation of the knee, with globally earlier maturation in females than in males, and also earlier maturation of the proximal tibial epiphysis than of the distal femoral epiphysis. MRI of the knee is an efficient non-invasive method of age assessment, without the disadvantage of X-ray exposure. Further studies with larger groups are needed to support our results.

  17. Sleep stabilizes visuomotor adaptation memory: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Albouy, Genevieve; Vandewalle, Gilles; Sterpenich, Virginie; Rauchs, Geraldine; Desseilles, Martin; Balteau, Evelyne; Degueldre, Christian; Phillips, Christophe; Luxen, Andre; Maquet, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    The beneficial effect of sleep on motor memory consolidation is well known for motor sequence memory, but remains unsettled for visuomotor adaptation in humans. The aim of this study was to characterize more clearly the influence of sleep on consolidation of visuomotor adaptation using a between-subjects functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design contrasting sleep to total sleep deprivation. Our behavioural results, based on seven different parameters, show that sleep stabilizes performance whereas sleep deprivation deteriorates it. During training, while a set of cerebellar, striatal and cortical areas is activated in proportion to performance improvement, the recruitment of the hippocampus and frontal cortex protects motor memory against the detrimental effects of sleep deprivation. During retest after sleep loss a cerebello-cortical network, usually involved in the earliest stage of learning, was recruited to perform the task. In contrast, no changes in cerebral activity were observed after sleep, suggesting that it may only support the stabilization of the visuomotor adaptation memory trace.

  18. Serial magnetic resonance imaging and neurophysiological studies in multiple sulphatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Zafeiriou, Dimitrios I; Vargiami, Euthymia; Papadopoulou, Kyriaki; Dimitriou, Evangelia; Mavridou, Irene; Santamaria, Raul; Canals, Isaak; Michelakakis, Helen

    2008-05-01

    We present serial clinical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurophysiological findings of a patient with multiple sulphatase deficiency (MSD), who was first admitted at the age of 9 months, because of psychomotor retardation. MRI demonstrated extensive diffuse symmetrical high signal in the deep white matter of both cerebral hemispheres, as well as of the subcortical white matter and the brainstem, while there was additional enlargement of sulci and subdural spaces and mild atrophy. Assay of arylsulphatase A activity in white blood cell homogenates at the age of 29 months disclosed a marked deficiency of the enzyme, compatible with the diagnosis of early-infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy. During the course of a later admission, the presence of ichthyosis pointed out to the possible diagnosis of MSD; further assays of sulphatases in plasma, leukocytes as well as in cultured fibroblasts, combined with an abnormal excretion of mucopolysaccharides and sulphatides in urine confirmed the diagnosis. Molecular analysis identified a homozygous disease-causing mutation (R349W) of the SUMF1 gene. Serial neurophysiological and MRI studies demonstrated the progressive nature of the disorder (regarding both central and peripheral nervous system), correlating with the clinical deterioration (spastic quadriplegia, optic atrophy and epilepsy) with subsequent death at the age of 4 years.

  19. Cross-modal integration during vowel identification in audiovisual speech: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Murase, Mika; Saito, Daisuke N; Kochiyama, Takanori; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Tanaka, Satoshi; Harada, Tokiko; Aramaki, Yu; Honda, Manabu; Sadato, Norihiro

    2008-03-21

    To investigate the neural substrates of the perception of audiovisual speech, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study with 28 normal volunteers. We hypothesized that the constraint provided by visually-presented articulatory speech (mouth movements) would lessen the workload for speech identification if the two were concordant, but would increase the workload if the two were discordant. In auditory attention sessions, subjects were required to identify vowels based on auditory speech. Auditory vowel stimuli were presented with concordant or discordant visible articulation movements, unrelated lip movements, and without visual input. In visual attention sessions, subjects were required to identify vowels based on the visually-presented vowel articulation movements. The movements were presented with concordant or discordant uttered vowels and noise, and without sound. Irrespective of the attended modality, concordant conditions significantly shortened the reaction time, whereas discordant conditions lengthened the reaction time. Within the neural substrates that were commonly activated by auditory and visual tasks, the mid superior temporal sulcus showed greater activity for discordant stimuli than concordant stimuli. These findings suggest that the mid superior temporal sulcus plays an important role in the auditory-visual integration process underlying vowel identification.

  20. Cavity- and waveguide-resonators in electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance, and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Webb, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Cavity resonators are widely used in electron paramagnetic resonance, very high field magnetic resonance microimaging and also in high field human imaging. The basic principles and designs of different forms of cavity resonators including rectangular, cylindrical, re-entrant, cavity magnetrons, toroidal cavities and dielectric resonators are reviewed. Applications in EPR and MRI are summarized, and finally the topic of traveling wave MRI using the magnet bore as a waveguide is discussed.

  1. Pediatric Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Goyal, Ankur; Sharma, Raju; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a radiation-free imaging modality with excellent contrast resolution and multiplanar capabilities. Since ionizing radiation is an important concern in the pediatric population, MRI serves as a useful alternative to computed tomography (CT) and also provides additional clues to diagnosis, not discernible on other investigations. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), urography, angiography, enterography, dynamic multiphasic imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging provide wealth of information. The main limitations include, long scan time, need for sedation/anesthesia, cost and lack of widespread availability. With the emergence of newer sequences and variety of contrast agents, MRI has become a robust modality and may serve as a one-stop shop for both anatomical and functional information.

  2. Long-range ordering in the lyotropic lamellar phase studied by high-resolution magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Szutkowski, Kosma; Jurga, Stefan

    2010-01-14

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW MRI) was applied to the lyotropic lamellar phase of the dodecylammonium chloride/water system (DDACl/H(2)O). In the course of employing a well-known medical imaging method, namely, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), the system morphology was assessed accurately in the most straightforward way by two-dimensional visualization of eigenvectors associated with planar distribution of effective diffusion tensors throughout the whole slice with 40 microm in-plane resolution. Long-range order was observed in the studied lamellar phase, and morphology was best described by a combination of three- and one-dimensional diffusion.

  3. Coronary magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Manning, Warren J; Nezafat, Reza; Appelbaum, Evan; Danias, Peter G; Hauser, Thomas H; Yeon, Susan B

    2007-02-01

    This article highlights the technical challenges and general imaging strategies for coronary MRI. This is followed by a review of the clinical results for the assessment of anomalous CAD, coronary artery aneurysms, native vessel integrity, and coronary artery bypass graft disease using the more commonly applied MRI methods. It concludes with a brief discussion of the advantages/disadvantages and clinical results comparing coronary MRI with multidetector CT (MDCT) coronary angiography.

  4. Cobalt Zinc Ferrite Nanoparticles as a Potential Magnetic Resonance Imaging Agent: An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemian, Zeinab; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Manouchehri, Sohrab

    2015-01-01

    Background: Magnetic Nanoparticles (MNP) have been used for contrast enhancement in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In recent years, research on the use of ferrite nanoparticles in T2 contrast agents has shown a great potential application in MR imaging. In this work, Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4-DMSA magnetic nanoparticles, CZF-MNPs and CZF-MNPs-DMSA, were investigated as MR imaging contrast agents. Methods: Cobalt zinc ferrite nanoparticles and their suitable coating, DMSA, were investigated under in vitro condition. Human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145 and PC3) with bare (uncoated) and coated magnetic nanoparticles were investigated as nano-contrast MR imaging agents. Results: Using T2-weighted MR images identified that signal intensity of bare and coated MNPs was enhanced with increasing concentration of MNPs in water. The values of 1/T2 relaxivity (r2) for bare and coated MNPs were found to be 88.46 and 28.80 (mM−1 s−1), respectively. Conclusion: The results show that bare and coated MNPs are suitable as T2-weighted MR imaging contrast agents. Also, the obtained r2/r1 values (59.3 and 50) for bare and coated MNPs were in agreement with the results of other previous relevant works. PMID:26140183

  5. Cobalt Zinc Ferrite Nanoparticles as a Potential Magnetic Resonance Imaging Agent: An In vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Ghasemian, Zeinab; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Manouchehri, Sohrab

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Nanoparticles (MNP) have been used for contrast enhancement in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In recent years, research on the use of ferrite nanoparticles in T2 contrast agents has shown a great potential application in MR imaging. In this work, Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4-DMSA magnetic nanoparticles, CZF-MNPs and CZF-MNPs-DMSA, were investigated as MR imaging contrast agents. Cobalt zinc ferrite nanoparticles and their suitable coating, DMSA, were investigated under in vitro condition. Human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145 and PC3) with bare (uncoated) and coated magnetic nanoparticles were investigated as nano-contrast MR imaging agents. Using T2-weighted MR images identified that signal intensity of bare and coated MNPs was enhanced with increasing concentration of MNPs in water. The values of 1/T2 relaxivity (r2) for bare and coated MNPs were found to be 88.46 and 28.80 (mM (-1) s(-1)), respectively. The results show that bare and coated MNPs are suitable as T2-weighted MR imaging contrast agents. Also, the obtained r2/r1 values (59.3 and 50) for bare and coated MNPs were in agreement with the results of other previous relevant works.

  6. Improved dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy using high resolution contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Morancy, Tye; Kaplan, Irving; Qureshi, Muhammad M.; Hirsch, Ariel E.; Rofksy, Neil M.; Holupka, Edward; Oismueller, Renee; Hawliczek, Robert; Helbich, Thomas H.; Bloch, B. Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess detailed dosimetry data for prostate and clinical relevant intra- and peri-prostatic structures including neurovascular bundles (NVB), urethra, and penile bulb (PB) from postbrachytherapy computed tomography (CT) versus high resolution contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (HR-CEMRI). Material and methods Eleven postbrachytherapy prostate cancer patients underwent HR-CEMRI and CT imaging. Computed tomography and HR-CEMRI images were randomized and 2 independent expert readers created contours of prostate, intra- and peri-prostatic structures on each CT and HR-CEMRI scan for all 11 patients. Dosimetry data including V100, D90, and D100 was calculated from these contours. Results Mean V100 values from CT and HR-CEMRI contours were as follows: prostate (98.5% and 96.2%, p = 0.003), urethra (81.0% and 88.7%, p = 0.027), anterior rectal wall (ARW) (8.9% and 2.8%, p < 0.001), left NVB (77.9% and 51.5%, p = 0.002), right NVB (69.2% and 43.1%, p = 0.001), and PB (0.09% and 11.4%, p = 0.005). Mean D90 (Gy) derived from CT and HR-CEMRI contours were: prostate (167.6 and 150.3, p = 0.012), urethra (81.6 and 109.4, p = 0.041), ARW (2.5 and 0.11, p = 0.003), left NVB (98.2 and 58.6, p = 0.001), right NVB (87.5 and 55.5, p = 0.001), and PB (11.2 and 12.4, p = 0.554). Conclusions Findings of this study suggest that HR-CEMRI facilitates accurate and meaningful dosimetric assessment of prostate and clinically relevant structures, which is not possible with CT. Significant differences were seen between CT and HR-CEMRI, with volume overestimation of CT derived contours compared to HR-CEMRI. PMID:25834576

  7. Impact of magnetic resonance imaging on ventricular tachyarrhythmia sensing: Results of the Evera MRI Study.

    PubMed

    Gold, Michael R; Sommer, Torsten; Schwitter, Juerg; Kanal, Emanuel; Bernabei, Matthew A; Love, Charles J; Surber, Ralf; Ramza, Brian; Cerkvenik, Jeffrey; Merkely, Béla

    2016-08-01

    Studies have shown that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) conditional pacemakers experience no significant effect from MRI on device function, sensing, or pacing. More recently, similar safety outcomes were demonstrated with MRI conditional defibrillators (implantable cardioverter-defibrillator [ICD]), but the impact on ventricular arrhythmias has not been assessed. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of MRI on ICD sensing and treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The Evera MRI Study was a worldwide trial of 156 patients implanted with an ICD designed to be MRI conditional. Device-detected spontaneous and induced ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) episodes occurring before and after whole body MRI were evaluated by a blinded episode review committee. Detection delay was computed as the sum of RR intervals of undersensed beats. A ≥5-second delay in detection due to undersensing was prospectively defined as clinically significant. Post-MRI, there were 22 polymorphic VT/VF episodes in 21 patients, with 16 of these patients having 17 VT/VF episodes pre-MRI. Therapy was successful for all episodes, with no failures to treat or terminate arrhythmias. The mean detection delay due to undersensing pre- and post-MRI was 0.60 ± 0.59 and 0.33 ± 0.63 seconds, respectively (P = .17). The maximum detection delay was 2.19 seconds pre-MRI and 2.87 seconds post-MRI. Of the 17 pre-MRI episodes, 14 (82%) had some detection delay as compared with 11 of 22 (50%) post-MRI episodes (P = .03); no detection delay was clinically significant. Detection and treatment of VT/VF was excellent, with no detection delays or significant impact of MRI observed. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Depressive symptoms and brain volumes in older adults: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, Vonetta M.; Davatzikos, Christos; Kraut, Michael A.; Resnick, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Late-life depression is associated with decreased brain volumes, particularly in frontal and temporal areas. Evidence suggests that depressive symptoms at a subclinical level are also associated with brain atrophy in these regions, but most of these associations are based on cross-sectional data. Our objective was to investigate both cross-sectional and longitudinal relations between sub-threshold depressive symptoms and brain volumes in older adults and to examine whether these associations are modified by age. Methods In total, 110 dementia-free adults from the neuroimaging substudy of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging aged 56 years and older at baseline participated in this study. Participants received annual evaluations for up to 9 years, during which structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired and depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Results Mean depressive symptom scores over time were associated with grey matter volume reductions in the left temporal lobe. Depressive symptoms were associated with brain volume reductions with advancing age in the cingulate gyrus and orbitofrontal cortex. Moreover, individuals with higher mean depressive symptom scores showed a faster rate of volume decline in left frontal white matter. Depressive symptoms were not associated with hippocampus volumes. Limitations Limitations include the relative homogeneity of our primarily white and highly educated sample, the lack of information about age at onset of depressive symptoms and potential limitations of the automated brain volume registration. Conclusion Our results suggest that depressive symptoms, even at a subthreshold level, are associated with volume reductions in specific frontal and temporal brain regions, particularly with advancing age. PMID:19721847

  9. Emotional numbing in posttraumatic stress disorder: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Frewen, Paul A; Dozois, David J A; Neufeld, Richard W J; Lane, Richard D; Densmore, Maria; Stevens, Todd K; Lanius, Ruth A

    2012-04-01

    To explore the functional neural correlates of emotional numbing symptoms in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The study was conducted between September 2006 and June 2008 at the University of Western Ontario. Women with (n = 14) and without (n = 16) PTSD (based on DSM-IV criteria) completed a standardized emotional imagery task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, in addition to an assessment for emotional numbing symptoms. The study design was correlational, with primary outcome measures being blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response to emotional imagery task and self-reported severity of emotional numbing symptoms. Women without PTSD were not trauma exposed. In women with PTSD, emotional numbing symptoms predicted less positive affect in response to positive-valence scripts (P < .05) and less BOLD response within the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex during imagery of positive and negative scripts that were explicitly socially relevant (P < .001). In contrast, in women without PTSD, emotional numbing symptoms, while unrelated to subjective emotional responses, predicted greater response within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during positive and negative scripts, in addition to scripts that elicited fear anxiety by nonsocial means (all P values < .001). The findings could not be attributed to dysphoria. These findings are consistent with previous research regarding emotional numbing and emotional awareness. Less response within the medial prefrontal cortex during emotional imagery in individuals with high emotional numbing may indicate deficient conscious and reflective emotional processing. Further study is required to elucidate associations between state and trait emotional numbing and the neural correlates of psychological treatments specific to emotional numbing. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  10. Body posture and backpack loading: an upright magnetic resonance imaging study of the adult lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Shymon, Stephen; Hargens, Alan R; Minkoff, Lawrence A; Chang, Douglas G

    2014-07-01

    Axial loading of the spine while supine, simulating upright posture, decreases intervertebral disc (IVD) height and lumbar length and increases lumbar lordosis. The purpose of this study is to measure the adult lumbar spine's response to upright posture and a backpack load using upright magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We hypothesize that higher spinal loads, while upright and with a backpack, will compress lumbar length and IVD height as well as decrease lumbar lordosis. Six volunteers (45 ± 6 years) underwent 0.6 T MRI scans of the lumbar spine while supine, upright, and upright with a 10 % body weight (BW) backpack. Main outcomes were IVD height, lumbar spinal length (distance between anterior-superior corners of L1 and S1), and lumbar lordosis (Cobb angle between the superior endplates of L1 and S1). The 10 % BW load significantly compressed the L4-L5 and L5-S1 IVDs relative to supine (p < 0.05). The upright and upright plus 10 % BW backpack conditions significantly compressed the anterior height of L5-S1 relative to supine (p < 0.05), but did not significantly change the lumbar length or lumbar lordosis. The L4-L5 and L5-S1 IVDs compress, particularly anteriorly, when transitioning from supine to upright position with a 10 % BW backpack. This study is the first radiographic analysis to describe the adult lumbar spine wearing common backpack loads. The novel upright MRI protocol described allows for functional, in vivo, loaded measurements of the spine that enables the study of spinal biomechanics and therapeutic interventions.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Tee, L Mf; Kan, E Yl; Cheung, J Cy; Leung, W C

    2016-06-01

    This review covers the recent literature on fetal brain magnetic resonance imaging, with emphasis on techniques, advances, common indications, and safety. We conducted a search of MEDLINE for articles published after 2010. The search terms used were "(fetal OR foetal OR fetus OR foetus) AND (MR OR MRI OR [magnetic resonance]) AND (brain OR cerebral)". Consensus statements from major authorities were also included. As a result, 44 relevant articles were included and formed the basis of this review. One major challenge is fetal motion that is largely overcome by ultra-fast sequences. Currently, single-shot fast spin-echo T2-weighted imaging remains the mainstay for motion resistance and anatomical delineation. Recently, a snap-shot inversion recovery sequence has enabled robust T1-weighted images to be obtained, which is previously a challenge for standard gradient-echo acquisitions. Fetal diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy are also being developed. With multiplanar capabilities, superior contrast resolution and field of view, magnetic resonance imaging does not have the limitations of sonography, and can provide additional important information. Common indications include ventriculomegaly, callosum and posterior fossa abnormalities, and twin complications. There are safety concerns about magnetic resonance-induced heating and acoustic damage but current literature showed no conclusive evidence of deleterious fetal effects. The American College of Radiology guideline states that pregnant patients can be accepted to undergo magnetic resonance imaging at any stage of pregnancy if risk-benefit ratio to patients warrants that the study be performed. Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal brain is a safe and powerful adjunct to sonography in prenatal diagnosis. It can provide additional information that aids clinical management, prognostication, and counselling.

  12. Experimental study on acoustic subwavelength imaging of holey-structured metamaterials by resonant tunneling.

    PubMed

    Su, Haijing; Zhou, Xiaoming; Xu, Xianchen; Hu, Gengkai

    2014-04-01

    A holey-structured metamaterial is proposed for near-field acoustic imaging beyond the diffraction limit. The structured lens consists of a rigid slab perforated with an array of cylindrical holes with periodically modulated diameters. Based on the effective medium approach, the structured lens is characterized by multilayered metamaterials with anisotropic dynamic mass, and an analytic model is proposed to evaluate the transmission properties of incident evanescent waves. The condition is derived for the resonant tunneling, by which evanescent waves can completely transmit through the structured lens without decaying. As an advantage of the proposed lens, the imaging frequency can be modified by the diameter modulation of internal holes without the change of the lens thickness in contrast to the lens due to the Fabry-Pérot resonant mechanism. In this experiment, the lens is assembled by aluminum plates drilled with cylindrical holes. The imaging experiment demonstrates that the designed lens can clearly distinguish two sources separated in the distance below the diffraction limit at the tunneling frequency.

  13. The effect of backpacks on the lumbar spine in children: a standing magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Neuschwander, Timothy B; Cutrone, John; Macias, Brandon R; Cutrone, Samantha; Murthy, Gita; Chambers, Henry; Hargens, Alan R

    2010-01-01

    This study is a repeated measures design to measure the lumbar spine response to typical school backpack loads in healthy children. The lumbar spine in this setting was measured for the first time by an upright magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. The purpose of this study is to measure the lumbar spine response to typical school backpack loads in healthy children. We hypothesize that backpack loads significantly increase disc compression and lumbar curvature. Children commonly carry school backpacks of 10% to 22% bodyweight. Despite growing concern among parents about safety, there are no imaging studies which describe the effect of backpack loads on the spine in children. Three boys and 5 girls, age 11 +/- 2 years (mean +/- SD) underwent T2 weighted sagittal and coronal MRI scans of the lumbar spine while standing. Scans were repeated with 4, 8, and 12 kg backpack loads, which represented approximately 10%, 20%, and 30% body weight for our sample. Main outcome measures were disc compression, defined as post- minus preloading disc height, and lumbar asymmetry, defined as the coronal Cobb angle between the superior endplates of S1 and L1. Increasing backpack loads significantly compressed lumbar disc heights measured in the midline sagittal plane (P < 0.05, repeated-measures analysis of variance [ANOVA]). Lumbar asymmetry was: 2.23 degrees +/- 1.07 degrees standing, 5.46 degrees +/- 2.50 degrees with 4 kg, 9.18 degrees +/- 2.25 degrees with 8 kg, and 5.68 degrees +/- 1.76 degrees with 12 kg (mean +/- SE). Backpack loads significantly increased lumbar asymmetry (P < 0.03, one-way ANOVA). Four of the 8 subjects had Cobb angles greater than 10 degrees during 8-kg backpack loads. Using a visual-analogue scale to rate their pain (0-no pain, 10-worst pain imaginable), subjects reported significant increases in back pain associated with backpack loads of 4, 8, and 12 kg (P < 0.001, 1-way ANOVA). Backpack loads are responsible for a significant amount of back pain in

  14. Low field magnetic resonance imaging

    DOEpatents

    Pines, Alexander; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Meriles, Carlos A.; Trabesinger, Andreas H.

    2010-07-13

    A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

  15. Sex differences in brain activation pattern during a visuospatial cognitive task: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Weiss, E; Siedentopf, C M; Hofer, A; Deisenhammer, E A; Hoptman, M J; Kremser, C; Golaszewski, S; Felber, S; Fleischhacker, W W; Delazer, M

    2003-07-03

    Sex differences in mental rotation tasks, favoring men, have been noted in behavioral studies and functional imaging studies. In the present study ten female and ten male volunteers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging in a conventional block design. Regions of activation were detected after performance of a mental rotation task inside the scanner. In contrast to previous studies, confounding factors such as performance differences between genders or high error rates were excluded. Men showed significantly stronger parietal activation, while women showed significantly greater right frontal activation. Our results point to gender specific differences in the neuropsychological processes involved in mental rotation tasks.

  16. A salty-congruent odor enhances saltiness: functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Seo, Han-Seok; Iannilli, Emilia; Hummel, Cornelia; Okazaki, Yoshiro; Buschhüter, Dorothee; Gerber, Johannes; Krammer, Gerhard E; van Lengerich, Bernhard; Hummel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Excessive intake of dietary salt (sodium chloride) may increase the risk of chronic diseases. Accordingly, various strategies to reduce salt intake have been conducted. This study aimed to investigate whether a salty-congruent odor can enhance saltiness on the basis of psychophysical (Experiment 1) and neuroanatomical levels (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, after receiving one of six stimulus conditions: three odor conditions (odorless air, congruent, or incongruent odor) by two concentrations (low or high) of either salty or sweet taste solution, participants were asked to rate taste intensity and pleasantness. In Experiment 2, participants received the same stimuli during the functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. In Experiment 1, compared with an incongruent odor and/or odorless air, a congruent odor enhanced not only taste intensity but also either pleasantness of sweetness or unpleasantness of saltiness. In Experiment 2, a salty-congruent combination of odor and taste produced significantly higher neuronal activations in brain regions associated with odor-taste integration (e.g., insula, frontal operculum, anterior cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex) than an incongruent combination and/or odorless air with taste solution. In addition, the congruent odor-induced saltiness enhancement was more pronounced in the low-concentrated tastant than in the high-concentrated one. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the congruent odor-induced saltiness enhancement on the basis of psychophysical and neuroanatomical results. These findings support an alternative strategy to reduce excessive salt intake by adding salty-congruent aroma to sodium reduced food. However, there are open questions regarding the salty-congruent odor-induced taste unpleasantness.

  17. Neural correlates of emotional personality: a structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan; Skouras, Stavros; Jentschke, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Studies addressing brain correlates of emotional personality have remained sparse, despite the involvement of emotional personality in health and well-being. This study investigates structural and functional brain correlates of psychological and physiological measures related to emotional personality. Psychological measures included neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness scores, as assessed using a standard personality questionnaire. As a physiological measure we used a cardiac amplitude signature, the so-called E κ value (computed from the electrocardiogram) which has previously been related to tender emotionality. Questionnaire scores and E κ values were related to both functional (eigenvector centrality mapping, ECM) and structural (voxel-based morphometry, VBM) neuroimaging data. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were obtained from 22 individuals (12 females) while listening to music (joy, fear, or neutral music). ECM results showed that agreeableness scores correlated with centrality values in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens). Individuals with higher E κ values (indexing higher tender emotionality) showed higher centrality values in the subiculum of the right hippocampal formation. Structural MRI data from an independent sample of 59 individuals (34 females) showed that neuroticism scores correlated with volume of the left amygdaloid complex. In addition, individuals with higher E κ showed larger gray matter volume in the same portion of the subiculum in which individuals with higher E κ showed higher centrality values. Our results highlight a role of the amygdala in neuroticism. Moreover, they indicate that a cardiac signature related to emotionality (E κ) correlates with both function (increased network centrality) and structure (grey matter volume) of the subiculum of the hippocampal formation, suggesting a role of the hippocampal formation for

  18. A preliminary study of functional magnetic resonance imaging response during verbal encoding among adolescent binge drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; McQueeny, Tim; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Eyler, Lisa T.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2010-01-01

    Binge alcohol use is common among teenagers with 28% of 12th graders reporting getting drunk in the past month. Chronic heavy drinking has been associated with verbal learning and memory deficits in adolescents and adults, yet verbal encoding in less frequently drinking teens has not yet been studied. Here, we examined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response during verbal encoding among adolescent binge drinkers. Participants recruited from local high schools were of ages 16–18 and consisted of 12 binge drinkers and 12 demographically similar nondrinkers. Participants were all nonsmokers, and drinkers were abstinent from alcohol for an average of 33 days at the time of scanning. Participants performed a verbal paired associates learning task during fMRI acquisition. Drinkers recalled marginally fewer words than nondrinkers (P = .07). Compared with nondrinkers, bingers showed more response in right superior frontal and bilateral posterior parietal cortices but less response in occipital cortex during novel encoding (Ps < .05, clusters > 1,512 µL). In addition, controls showed significant activation in the left hippocampus during novel encoding, whereas binge drinkers did not. Adolescent binge drinkers demonstrated (1) more response than nondrinkers in frontal and parietal regions, which could suggest greater engagement of working memory systems during encoding; (2) no hippocampal activation to novel word pairs; and (3) slightly poorer word pair recall, which could indicate disadvantaged processing of novel verbal information and a slower learning slope. Longitudinal studies will be needed to ascertain the degree to which emergence of binge drinking is linked temporally to these brain response patterns. PMID:20113879

  19. Association between amygdala volume and anxiety level: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Juranek, Jenifer; Filipek, Pauline A; Berenji, Gholam R; Modahl, Charlotte; Osann, Kathryn; Spence, M Anne

    2006-12-01

    Our objective was to evaluate brain-behavior relationships between amygdala volume and anxious/depressed scores on the Child Behavior Checklist in a well-characterized population of autistic children. Volumes for the amygdala, hippocampus, and whole brain were obtained from three-dimensional magnetic resonance images (MRIs) captured from 42 children who met the criteria for autistic disorder. Anxious/depressed symptoms were assessed in these children by the Anxious/Depressed subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist. To investigate the association between anxious/depressed scores on the Child Behavior Checklist and amygdala volume, data were analyzed using linear regression methods with Pearson correlation coefficients. A multivariate model was used to adjust for potential covariates associated with amygdala volume, including age at MRI and total brain size. We found that anxious/depressed symptoms were significantly correlated with increased total amygdala volume (r = .386, P = .012) and right amygdala volume (r = .469, P = .002). The correlation between anxious/depressed symptoms and left amygdala volume did not reach statistical significance (r = .249, P = .112). Child Behavior Checklist anxious/depressed scores were found to be a significant predictor of amygdala total (P = .014) and right amygdala (P = .002) volumes. In conclusion, we have identified a significant brain-behavior relationship between amygdala volume and anxious/depressed scores on the Child Behavior Checklist in our autistic cohort. This specific relationship has not been reported in autism. However, the existing literature on human psychiatry and behavior supports our reported evidence for a neurobiologic relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression with amygdala structure and function. Our results highlight the importance of characterizing comorbid psychiatric symptomatology in autism. The abundance of inconsistent findings in the published literature on autism might reflect

  20. A Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in Transgender Persons on Cross-Sex Hormone Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sven C; Landré, Lionel; Wierckx, Katrien; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2017-01-01

    To date, research findings are inconsistent about whether the neuroanatomy in transgender persons resembles that of their natal sex or their gender identity. Moreover, few studies have examined the effects of long-term cross-sex hormonal treatment on neuroanatomy in this cohort. The purpose of the present study was to examine neuroanatomical differences in transgender persons after prolonged cross-sex hormone therapy. Eighteen transgender men (female-to-male), 17 transgender women (male-to-female), 30 nontransgender men (natal men), and 27 nontransgender women (natal women) completed a high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scan at 3 T. Eligibility criteria for transgender persons were gender-affirming surgery and at least 2 years of cross-sex hormone therapy. Exclusion criteria for nontransgender persons were presence of psychiatric or neurological disorders. The mean neuroanatomical volume for the amygdala, putamen, and corpus callosum differed between transgender women and natal women but not between transgender women and natal men. Differences between transgender men and natal men were found in several brain structures, including the medial temporal lobe structures and cerebellum. Differences between transgender men and natal women were found in the medial temporal lobe, nucleus accumbens, and 3rd ventricle. Sexual dimorphism between nontransgender men and women included larger cerebellar volumes and a smaller anterior corpus callosum in natal men than in natal women. The results remained stable after correcting for additional factors including age, total intracranial volume, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Neuroanatomical differences were region specific between transgender persons and their natal sex as well as their gender identity, raising the possibility of a localized influence of sex hormones on neuroanatomy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Specific Shoulder Pathoanatomy in Semiprofessional Water Polo Players: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Klein, Maria; Tarantino, Ignazio; Warschkow, René; Berger, Claus Joachim; Zdravkovic, Vilijam; Jost, Bernhard; Badulescu, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Shoulders of throwing and swimming athletes are highly stressed joints that often show structural abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, while water polo players exhibit a combination of throwing and swimming movements, a specific pattern of pathological findings has not been described. To assess specific MRI abnormalities in shoulders of elite water polo players and to compare these findings with a healthy control group. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. After performing a power analysis, volunteers were recruited for this study. Both shoulders of 28 semiprofessional water polo players and 15 healthy volunteers were assessed clinically (based on the Constant score) and had bilateral shoulder MRIs. The shoulders were clustered into 3 groups: 28 throwing and 28 nonthrowing shoulders of water polo athletes and 30 shoulders of healthy control subjects. Twenty-eight male water polo players with an average age of 24 years and 15 healthy subjects (30 shoulders) with an average age of 31 years were examined. Compared with controls, significantly more MRI abnormalities in the water polo players' throwing shoulders could be found in the subscapularis, infraspinatus, and posterior labrum (P = .001, P = .024, and P = .041, respectively). Other structures showed no statistical differences between the 3 groups, including the supraspinatus tendon, which had abnormalities in 36% of throwing versus 32% of nonthrowing shoulders and 33% of control shoulders. All throwing shoulders showed abnormal findings in the MRI, but only 8 (29%) were symptomatic. The shoulders of semiprofessional water polo players demonstrated abnormalities in subscapularis and infraspinatus tendons that were not typical abnormalities for swimmers or throwing athletes. The throwing shoulders of water polo players have specific MRI changes. Clinical symptoms do not correlate with the MRI findings.

  2. Neural Correlates of Emotional Personality: A Structural and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Koelsch, Stefan; Skouras, Stavros; Jentschke, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Studies addressing brain correlates of emotional personality have remained sparse, despite the involvement of emotional personality in health and well-being. This study investigates structural and functional brain correlates of psychological and physiological measures related to emotional personality. Psychological measures included neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness scores, as assessed using a standard personality questionnaire. As a physiological measure we used a cardiac amplitude signature, the so-called Eκ value (computed from the electrocardiogram) which has previously been related to tender emotionality. Questionnaire scores and Eκ values were related to both functional (eigenvector centrality mapping, ECM) and structural (voxel-based morphometry, VBM) neuroimaging data. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were obtained from 22 individuals (12 females) while listening to music (joy, fear, or neutral music). ECM results showed that agreeableness scores correlated with centrality values in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens). Individuals with higher Eκ values (indexing higher tender emotionality) showed higher centrality values in the subiculum of the right hippocampal formation. Structural MRI data from an independent sample of 59 individuals (34 females) showed that neuroticism scores correlated with volume of the left amygdaloid complex. In addition, individuals with higher Eκ showed larger gray matter volume in the same portion of the subiculum in which individuals with higher Eκ showed higher centrality values. Our results highlight a role of the amygdala in neuroticism. Moreover, they indicate that a cardiac signature related to emotionality (Eκ) correlates with both function (increased network centrality) and structure (grey matter volume) of the subiculum of the hippocampal formation, suggesting a role of the hippocampal formation for emotional

  3. A magnetic resonance imaging study of the upshoot-downshoot phenomenon of Duane's retraction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bloom, J N; Graviss, E R; Mardelli, P G

    1991-05-15

    Patients with Duane's retraction syndrome may have an associated upshoot or downshoot of the involved eye in adduction. This vertical movement has been attributed to the lateral rectus muscle slipping over or under the globe and acting as an elevator or depressor, respectively ("bridle-effect"). We used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate this phenomenon in two patients, one with an overshoot and the other with an undershoot. Minimal vertical displacement of the lateral rectus muscle in relation to the orbit was noted both on upshoot and downshoot. The bridle-effect theory must be modified to account for this finding.

  4. Brain regions sensitive to the face inversion effect: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in humans.

    PubMed

    Leube, Dirk T; Yoon, Hyo Woon; Rapp, Alexander; Erb, Michael; Grodd, Wolfgang; Bartels, Mathias; Kircher, Tilo T J

    2003-05-22

    Perception of upright faces relies on configural processing. Therefore recognition of inverted, compared to upright faces is impaired. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment we investigated the neural correlate of a face inversion task. Thirteen healthy subjects were presented with a equal number of upright and inverted faces alternating with a low level baseline with an upright and inverted picture of an abstract symbol. Brain activation was calculated for upright minus inverted faces. For this differential contrast, we found a signal change in the right superior temporal sulcus and right insula. Configural properties are processed in a network comprising right superior temporal and insular cortex.

  5. Tomographic study of helical modes in bifurcating Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille flow using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Kevin W.; Raguin, L. Guy; Georgiadis, John G.

    2001-07-01

    The quantitative visualization of flow in a wide-gap annulus (radius ratio 0.5) between concentric cylinders with the inner cylinder rotating and a superimposed axial flow reveals a novel mixed-mode state at relatively high flow rates. A fast magnetic resonance imaging sequence allows the cinematographic dissection and three-dimensional reconstruction of supercritical nonaxisymmetric modes in a regime where stationary helical and propagating toroidal vortices coexist. The findings shed light on symmetry-breaking instabilities, flow pattern selection, and their consequences for hydrodynamic mixing in a complex laminar flow that constitutes a celebrated prototype of many mixing or fractionation processes.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of multiple sclerosis: a study of pulse-technique efficacy

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M.; Price, A.C.; Kirshner, H.S.; Allen, J.H.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1984-11-01

    Forty-two patients with the clinical diagnosis of multiple sclerosis were examined by proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 0.5 T. An extensive protocol was used to facilitate a comparison of the efficacy of different pulse techniques. Results were also compared in 39 cases with high-resolution x-ray computed tomography (CT). MRI revealed characteristic abnormalities in each case, whereas CT was positive in only 15 of 33 patients. Cerebral abnormalities were best shown with the T2-weighted spin-echo sequence: brainstem lesions were best defined on the inversion-recovery sequence.

  7. Neurovascular abnormalities in brain disorders: highlights with angiogenesis and magnetic resonance imaging studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The coupling between neuronal activity and vascular responses is controlled by the neurovascular unit (NVU), which comprises multiple cell types. Many different types of dysfunction in these cells may impair the proper control of vascular responses by the NVU. Magnetic resonance imaging, which is the most powerful tool available to investigate neurovascular structures or functions, will be discussed in the present article in relation to its applications and discoveries. Because aberrant angiogenesis and vascular remodeling have been increasingly reported as being implicated in brain pathogenesis, this review article will refer to this hallmark event when suitable. PMID:23829868

  8. Apparatus for investigating resonance with application to magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Sytil; Jones, Dyan L.; Gross, Josh; Zollman, Dean

    2015-11-01

    Resonance is typically studied in the context of either a pendulum or a mass on a spring. We have developed an apparatus that enables beginning students to investigate resonant behavior of changing magnetic fields, in addition to the properties of the magnetic field due to a wire and the superposition of magnetic fields. In this resonant system, a compass oscillates at a frequency determined by the compass's physical properties and an external magnetic field. While the analysis is mathematically similar to that of the pendulum, this apparatus has an advantage that the magnetic field is easily controlled, while it is difficult to control the strength of gravity. This apparatus has been incorporated into a teaching module on magnetic resonance imaging.

  9. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson's disease: magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Ford, Andrew H; Duncan, Gordon W; Firbank, Michael J; Yarnall, Alison J; Khoo, Tien K; Burn, David J; O'Brien, John T

    2013-06-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder has poor prognostic implications for Parkinson's disease. The authors recruited 124 patients with early Parkinson's disease to compare clinical and neuroimaging findings based on the presence of this sleep disorder. The presence of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder was assessed with the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire. Magnetic resonance imaging sequences were obtained for voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging. Patients with sleep disorder had more advanced disease, but groups had similar clinical characteristics and cognitive performance. Those with sleep disorder had areas of reduced cortical grey matter volume and white matter changes compared with those who did not have sleep disorder. However, differences were slight and were not significant when the analyses were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder was associated with subtle changes in white matter integrity and grey matter volume in patients with early Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  10. Study of ocular transport of drugs released from an intravitreal implant using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyuncheol; Lizak, Martin J; Tansey, Ginger; Csaky, Karl G; Robinson, Michael R; Yuan, Peng; Wang, Nam Sun; Lutz, Robert J

    2005-02-01

    Ensuring optimum delivery of therapeutic agents in the eye requires detailed information about the transport mechanisms and elimination pathways available. This knowledge can guide the development of new drug delivery devices. In this study, we investigated the movement of a drug surrogate, Gd-DTPA (Magnevist) released from a polymer-based implant in rabbit vitreous using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Intensity values in the MRI data were converted to concentration by comparison with calibration samples. Concentration profiles approaching pseudosteady state showed gradients from the implant toward the retinal surface, suggesting that diffusion was occurring into the retinal-choroidal-scleral (RCS) membrane. Gd-DTPA concentration varied from high values near the implant to lower values distal to the implant. Such regional concentration differences throughout the vitreous may have clinical significance when attempting to treat ubiquitous eye diseases using a single positional implant. We developed a finite element mathematical model of the rabbit eye and compared the MRI experimental concentration data with simulation concentration profiles. The model utilized a diffusion coefficient of Gd-DTPA in the vitreous of 2.8 x 10(-6) cm2 s(-1) and yielded a diffusion coefficient for Gd-DTPA through the simulated composite posterior membrane (representing the retina-choroidsclera membrane) of 6.0 x 10(-8) cm2 s(-1). Since the model membrane was 0.03-cm thick, this resulted in an effective membrane permeability of 2.0 x 10(-6) cm s(-1). Convective movement of Gd-DTPA was shown to have minimal effect on the concentration profiles since the Peclet number was 0.09 for this system.

  11. The cavernous sinus in cluster headache - a quantitative structural magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Arkink, Enrico B; Schoonman, Guus G; van Vliet, Jorine A; Bakels, Hannah S; Sneeboer, Marjolein Am; Haan, Joost; van Buchem, Mark A; Ferrari, Michel D; Kruit, Mark C

    2017-03-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that a constitutionally narrow cavernous sinus might predispose individuals to cluster headache. Cavernous sinus dimensions, however, have never been assessed. Methods In this case-control study, we measured the dimensions of the cavernous sinus, skull base, internal carotid and pituitary gland with high-resolution T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in 25 episodic, 24 chronic and 13 probable cluster headache patients, 8 chronic paroxysmal hemicrania patients and 22 headache-free controls. Dimensions were compared between groups, correcting for age, sex and transcranial diameter. Results On qualitative inspection, no relevant pathology or anatomic variants that were previously associated with cluster headache or chronic paroxysmal hemicranias were observed in the cavernous sinus or paracavernous structures. The left-to-right transcranial diameter at the temporal fossa level (mean ± SD) was larger in the headache groups (episodic cluster headache: 147.5 ± 7.3 mm, p = 0.044; chronic cluster headache: 150.2 ± 7.3 mm, p < 0.001; probable cluster headache: 146.0 ± 5.3 mm, p = 0.012; and chronic paroxysmal hemicrania: 145.2 ± 9.4 mm, p = 0.044) compared with controls (140.2 ± 8.0 mm). After adjusting for transcranial diameter and correcting for multiple comparisons, there were no differences in the dimensions of the cavernous sinus and surrounding structures between headache patients and controls. Conclusion Patients with cluster headache or chronic paroxysmal hemicrania had wider skulls than headache-free controls, but the proportional dimensions of the cavernous sinus were similar.

  12. Illusory vowels resulting from perceptual continuity: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Antje; Carlyon, Robert P; Davis, Matthew H; Johnsrude, Ingrid S

    2008-10-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the neural processing of vowels whose perception depends on the continuity illusion. Participants heard sequences of two-formant vowels under a number of listening conditions. In the "vowel conditions," both formants were always present simultaneously and the stimuli were perceived as speech-like. Contrasted with a range of nonspeech sounds, these vowels elicited activity in the posterior middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and superior temporal sulcus (STS). When the two formants alternated in time, the "speech-likeness" of the sounds was reduced. It could be partially restored by filling the silent gaps in each formant with bands of noise (the "Illusion" condition) because the noise induced an illusion of continuity in each formant region, causing the two formants to be perceived as simultaneous. However, this manipulation was only effective at low formant-to-noise ratios (FNRs). When the FNR was increased, the illusion broke down (the "illusion-break" condition). Activation in vowel-sensitive regions of the MTG was greater in the illusion than in the illusion-break condition, consistent with the perception of Illusion stimuli as vowels. Activity in Heschl's gyri (HG), the approximate location of the primary auditory cortex, showed the opposite pattern, and may depend instead on the number of perceptual onsets in a sound. Our results demonstrate that speech-sensitive regions of the MTG are sensitive not to the physical characteristics of the stimulus but to the perception of the stimulus as speech, and also provide an anatomically distinct, objective physiological correlate of the continuity illusion in human listeners.

  13. Using 4D Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Validate Computational Fluid Dynamics: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Biglino, Giovanni; Cosentino, Daria; Steeden, Jennifer A.; De Nova, Lorenzo; Castelli, Matteo; Ntsinjana, Hopewell; Pennati, Giancarlo; Taylor, Andrew M.; Schievano, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can have a complementary predictive role alongside the exquisite visualization capabilities of 4D cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. In order to exploit these capabilities (e.g., for decision-making), it is necessary to validate computational models against real world data. In this study, we sought to acquire 4D CMR flow data in a controllable, experimental setup and use these data to validate a corresponding computational model. We applied this paradigm to a case of congenital heart disease, namely, transposition of the great arteries (TGA) repaired with arterial switch operation. For this purpose, a mock circulatory loop compatible with the CMR environment was constructed and two detailed aortic 3D models (i.e., one TGA case and one normal aortic anatomy) were tested under realistic hemodynamic conditions, acquiring 4D CMR flow. The same 3D domains were used for multi-scale CFD simulations, whereby the remainder of the mock circulatory system was appropriately summarized with a lumped parameter network. Boundary conditions of the simulations mirrored those measured in vitro. Results showed a very good quantitative agreement between experimental and computational models in terms of pressure (overall maximum % error = 4.4% aortic pressure in the control anatomy) and flow distribution data (overall maximum % error = 3.6% at the subclavian artery outlet of the TGA model). Very good qualitative agreement could also be appreciated in terms of streamlines, throughout the cardiac cycle. Additionally, velocity vectors in the ascending aorta revealed less symmetrical flow in the TGA model, which also exhibited higher wall shear stress in the anterior ascending aorta. PMID:26697416

  14. Intrahepatic fat, abdominal adipose tissues, and metabolic state: magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Tene, Lilac; Cohen, Noa; Shelef, Ilan; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Gepner, Yftach; Zelicha, Hila; Rein, Michal; Bril, Nitzan; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Sarusy, Benjamin; Dicker, Dror; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-07-01

    Intrahepatic fat (IHF) is best known to associate with waist circumference (WC) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), but its relation to abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue is controversial. While IHF ≥ 5% dichotomously defines fatty liver, %IHF is rarely considered as a continuous variable that includes the normal range. In this study, we aimed to evaluate %IHF association with abdominal fat subdepots, pancreatic, and renal-sinus fats. We evaluated %IHF, abdominal fat subdepots, %pancreatic, and renal-sinus fats, among individuals with moderate abdominal obesity, using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Among 275 participants, %IHF widely ranged (0.01%-50.4%) and was lower in women (1.6%) than men (7.3%; P < .001). In an age, sex, and WC-adjusted models, VAT area (P < .006) was directly associated with %IHF, while superficial-subcutaneous adipose tissue proportion was inversely associated with %IHF (P < .006). In these models, renal-sinus fat was positively associated with %IHF (P = .005). In an age, sex, WC, and VAT-adjusted models, elevated liver enzymes, glycemic, lipid, and inflammatory biomarkers were associated with increased %IHF (P < .003 for all). In these models, the associations remained robust even within the normal range strata of IHF < 5% for triglycerides and chemerin (P ≤ .004 for all). For the diagnosis of fatty liver, the joint area under the curve of WC, alanine-aminotransferase, triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was 0.84(95% CI, 0.79-0.89). Intrahepatic fat is differentially associated with abdominal fat subdepots. Intrahepatic-fat as a continuous variable could be predicted by specific traditional parameters, even within the current normal range, and partially independent of VAT. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Modulation of activity in swallowing motor cortex following esophageal acidification: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Paine, Peter A; Hamdy, Shaheen; Chitnis, Xavier; Gregory, Lloyd J; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Mick; Williams, Steve; Aziz, Qasim

    2008-06-01

    Esophageal acid exposure induces sensory and motility changes in the upper gastrointestinal tract; however, the mechanisms involved and the effects on activity in the brain regions that control swallowing are unknown. The aim of this study was to examine functional changes in the cortical swallowing network as a result of esophageal acidification using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Seven healthy volunteers (3 female, age range=20-30 years) were randomized to receive either a 0.1 M hydrochloric acid or (control) saline infusion for 30 min into the distal esophagus. Postinfusion, subjects underwent four 8 min blocks of fMRI over 1 h. These alternated between 1 min swallowing water boluses and 1 min rest. Three-dimensional cluster analysis for group brain activation during swallowing was performed together with repeated-measures ANOVA for differences between acid and saline. After acid infusion, swallowing-induced activation was seen predominantly in postcentral gyrus (p<0.004). ANOVA comparison of acid with saline showed a significant relative reduction in activation during swallowing of the precentral gyrus (M1) BA 4 (p<0.008) in response to acid infusion. No areas of increased cortical activation were identified with acid vs. saline during swallowing. Esophageal acidification inhibits motor and association cortical areas during a swallowing task, probably via changes in vagal afferent or nociceptive input from the esophagus. This mechanism may play a protective role, facilitating acid clearance by reduced descending central motor inhibition of enteric/spinal reflexes, or by preventing further ingestion of injurious agents.

  16. Ruptured disc after arthroscopic repositioning in the temporomandibular joint: a retrospective magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Cai, Xieyi; Yang, Chi; Wang, Shaoyi; Huang, Linjian

    2014-07-01

    Our aim was to explore the incidence of rupture after arthroscopic repositioning of the disc of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) by reviewing magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the TMJ taken before and after operation, and to investigate correlations retrospectively. We studied 247 patients with anterior disc displacement of the TMJ, and categorised them into 3 groups based on the postoperative MRI. The first group comprised those whose disc ruptured after repositioning, the second those who had a possible rupture of the disc after repositioning, and the third had no rupture of the disc after repositioning. Age, sex, duration of symptoms, maximum incisal mouth opening, whether the anterior disc displacement was unilateral or bilateral, and the Wilkes stage, were included in the analysis. The incidence of rupture (5/247) was 2%. Weak points at the intermediate zone of the disc were found in 4 of the 5 joints. The patients whose discs ruptured were significantly younger than the other 2 groups (p=0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in preoperative duration of symptoms and mouth opening among the groups. The proportions of unilateral and bilateral disc displacement (p=0.047) and Wilkes stage (p=0.027) differed among the 3 groups. The Wilkes stages was significantly more advanced in the ruptured group than in the other 2 groups (p=0.027) with 4/5 being bilateral. The weak point in the intermediate zone of the disc on MRI could be a sign of rupture. Teenagers and young adults with anterior disc displacement without reduction, particularly those in whom it is bilateral, are at a higher risk of a rupture after repositioning of the disc by arthroscopy.

  17. Reproducibility of Activation Maps for Longitudinal Studies of Visual Function by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Jing; Thulborn, Keith R.; Szlyk, Janet P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To test the intra- and intersubject reproducibility of brain activation patterns that underlie visually guided saccades and word recognition in normally sighted subjects and patients with macular degeneration using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods. Ten normally sighted subjects and five patients with macular degeneration were asked to perform two visually guided saccade tasks and two word-recognition tasks during fMRI with behavioral monitoring. The fMRI measurements were repeated three times at intervals of at least 4 weeks between sessions. The intrasubject reproducibility of the brain activation patterns was examined in a model-independent manner by comparing the distributions of activation across the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital brain lobes using Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs). Intersubject reproducibility was examined by repeated-measure ANOVA. Results. Control subjects showed overall higher intrasubject reproducibility of brain activation patterns (75% ICCs > 0.5) than that of patients with macular degeneration (56% ICCs > 0.5). The intrasubject reproducibility for the patients improved when the target location was fixed, as in the word-recognition tasks (75% ICCs > 0.5), compared with the visually saccade tasks (37% ICCs > 0.5). Intersubject variability of brain activation patterns was strikingly high for both the control and patient groups. Conclusions. The fMRI method can serve as a reliable within-subjects measure of brain activation that has potential for measuring longitudinal changes in brain networks associated with rehabilitation training. Striking intersubject variability reflected at the level of lobes of the brain among control subjects with similar behavioral performance, suggests individual analysis is necessary when implementing longitudinal brain activation studies. PMID:22879425

  18. Using 4D Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Validate Computational Fluid Dynamics: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Biglino, Giovanni; Cosentino, Daria; Steeden, Jennifer A; De Nova, Lorenzo; Castelli, Matteo; Ntsinjana, Hopewell; Pennati, Giancarlo; Taylor, Andrew M; Schievano, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can have a complementary predictive role alongside the exquisite visualization capabilities of 4D cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. In order to exploit these capabilities (e.g., for decision-making), it is necessary to validate computational models against real world data. In this study, we sought to acquire 4D CMR flow data in a controllable, experimental setup and use these data to validate a corresponding computational model. We applied this paradigm to a case of congenital heart disease, namely, transposition of the great arteries (TGA) repaired with arterial switch operation. For this purpose, a mock circulatory loop compatible with the CMR environment was constructed and two detailed aortic 3D models (i.e., one TGA case and one normal aortic anatomy) were tested under realistic hemodynamic conditions, acquiring 4D CMR flow. The same 3D domains were used for multi-scale CFD simulations, whereby the remainder of the mock circulatory system was appropriately summarized with a lumped parameter network. Boundary conditions of the simulations mirrored those measured in vitro. Results showed a very good quantitative agreement between experimental and computational models in terms of pressure (overall maximum % error = 4.4% aortic pressure in the control anatomy) and flow distribution data (overall maximum % error = 3.6% at the subclavian artery outlet of the TGA model). Very good qualitative agreement could also be appreciated in terms of streamlines, throughout the cardiac cycle. Additionally, velocity vectors in the ascending aorta revealed less symmetrical flow in the TGA model, which also exhibited higher wall shear stress in the anterior ascending aorta.

  19. Writing affects the brain network of reading in Chinese: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fan; Vu, Marianne; Chan, Derek Ho Lung; Lawrence, Jason M; Harris, Lindsay N; Guan, Qun; Xu, Yi; Perfetti, Charles A

    2013-07-01

    We examined the hypothesis that learning to write Chinese characters influences the brain's reading network for characters. Students from a college Chinese class learned 30 characters in a character-writing condition and 30 characters in a pinyin-writing condition. After learning, functional magnetic resonance imaging collected during passive viewing showed different networks for reading Chinese characters and English words, suggesting accommodation to the demands of the new writing system through short-term learning. Beyond these expected differences, we found specific effects of character writing in greater activation (relative to pinyin writing) in bilateral superior parietal lobules and bilateral lingual gyri in both a lexical decision and an implicit writing task. These findings suggest that character writing establishes a higher quality representation of the visual-spatial structure of the character and its orthography. We found a greater involvement of bilateral sensori-motor cortex (SMC) for character-writing trained characters than pinyin-writing trained characters in the lexical decision task, suggesting that learning by doing invokes greater interaction with sensori-motor information during character recognition. Furthermore, we found a correlation of recognition accuracy with activation in right superior parietal lobule, right lingual gyrus, and left SMC, suggesting that these areas support the facilitative effect character writing has on reading. Finally, consistent with previous behavioral studies, we found character-writing training facilitates connections with semantics by producing greater activation in bilateral middle temporal gyri, whereas pinyin-writing training facilitates connections with phonology by producing greater activation in right inferior frontal gyrus.

  20. A resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study of concussion in collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Czerniak, Suzanne M; Sikoglu, Elif M; Liso Navarro, Ana A; McCafferty, Joseph; Eisenstock, Jordan; Stevenson, J Herbert; King, Jean A; Moore, Constance M

    2015-06-01

    Sports-related concussions are currently diagnosed through multi-domain assessment by a medical professional and may utilize neurocognitive testing as an aid. However, these tests have only been able to detect differences in the days to week post-concussion. Here, we investigate a measure of brain function, namely resting state functional connectivity, which may detect residual brain differences in the weeks to months after concussion. Twenty-one student athletes (9 concussed within 6 months of enrollment; 12 non-concussed; between ages 18 and 22 years) were recruited for this study. All participants completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task and the Color-Word Interference Test. Neuroimaging data, specifically resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging data, were acquired to examine resting state functional connectivity. Two sample t-tests were used to compare the neurocognitive scores and resting state functional connectivity patterns among concussed and non-concussed participants. Correlations between neurocognitive scores and resting state functional connectivity measures were also determined across all subjects. There were no significant differences in neurocognitive performance between concussed and non-concussed groups. Concussed subjects had significantly increased connections between areas of the brain that underlie executive function. Across all subjects, better neurocognitive performance corresponded to stronger brain connectivity. Even at rest, brains of concussed athletes may have to 'work harder' than their healthy peers to achieve similar neurocognitive results. Resting state brain connectivity may be able to detect prolonged brain differences in concussed athletes in a more quantitative manner than neurocognitive test scores.

  1. A Resting State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Concussion in Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Czerniak, Suzanne M; Sikoglu, Elif M; Navarro, Ana A Liso; McCafferty, Joseph; Eisenstock, Jordan; Stevenson, J Herbert; King, Jean A; Moore, Constance M

    2015-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are currently diagnosed through multi-domain assessment by a medical professional and may utilize neurocognitive testing as an aide. However, these tests have only been able to detect differences in the days to week post-concussion. Here, we investigate a measure of brain function, namely resting state functional connectivity, which may detect residual brain differences in the weeks to months after concussion. Twenty-one student athletes (9 concussed within 6 months of enrollment; 12 non-concussed; between ages 18 to 22 years) were recruited for this study. All participants completed the Wisconsin Card Sort Task and the Color-Word Interference Test. Neuroimaging data, specifically resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging data, were acquired to examine resting state functional connectivity. Two sample t-tests were used to compare the neurocognitive scores and resting state functional connectivity patterns among concussed and non-concussed participants. Correlations between neurocognitive scores and resting state functional connectivity measures were also determined across all subjects. There were no significant differences in neurocognitive performance between concussed and non-concussed groups. Concussed subjects had significantly increased connections between areas of the brain that underlie executive function. Across all subjects, better neurocognitive performance corresponded to stronger brain connectivity. Even at rest, brains of concussed athletes may have to ‘work harder’ than their healthy peers to achieve similar neurocognitive results. Resting state brain connectivity may be able to detect prolonged brain differences in concussed athletes in a more quantitative manner than neurocognitive test scores. PMID:25112544

  2. Stress and reward processing in bipolar disorder: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Berghorst, Lisa H; Kumar, Poornima; Greve, Doug N; Deckersbach, Thilo; Ongur, Dost; Dutra, Sunny J; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2016-11-01

    A link between negative life stress and the onset of mood episodes in bipolar disorder (BD) has been established, but processes underlying such a link remain unclear. Growing evidence suggests that stress can negatively affect reward processing and related neurobiological substrates, indicating that a dysregulated reward system may provide a partial explanation. The aim of this study was to test the impact of stress on reward-related neural functioning in BD. Thirteen euthymic or mildly depressed individuals with BD and 15 controls performed a Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging during no-stress and stress (negative psychosocial stressor involving poor performance feedback and threat of monetary deductions) conditions. In hypothesis-driven region-of-interest analyses, a significant group-by-condition interaction emerged in the amygdala during reward anticipation. Relative to controls, while anticipating a potential reward, subjects with BD were characterized by amygdalar hyperactivation in the no-stress condition but hypoactivation during stress. Moreover, relative to controls, subjects with BD had significantly larger amygdala volumes. After controlling for structural differences, the effects of stress on amygdalar function remained, whereas groups no longer differed during the no-stress condition. During reward consumption, a group-by-condition interaction emerged in the putamen due to increased putamen activation in response to rewards in participants with BD during stress, but an opposite pattern in controls. Overall, findings highlight possible impairments in using reward-predicting cues to adaptively engage in goal-directed actions in BD, combined with stress-induced hypersensitivity to reward consumption. Potential clinical implications are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Diffusion of responsibility attenuates altruistic punishment: A functional magnetic resonance imaging effective connectivity study.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chunliang; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Liu, Chao; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yue-Jia; Krueger, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Humans altruistically punish violators of social norms to enforce cooperation and pro-social behaviors. However, such altruistic behaviors diminish when others are present, due to a diffusion of responsibility. We investigated the neural signatures underlying the modulations of diffusion of responsibility on altruistic punishment, conjoining a third-party punishment task with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivariate Granger causality mapping. In our study, participants acted as impartial third-party decision-makers and decided how to punish norm violations under two different social contexts: alone (i.e., full responsibility) or in the presence of putative other third-party decision makers (i.e., diffused responsibility). Our behavioral results demonstrated that the diffusion of responsibility served as a mediator of context-dependent punishment. In the presence of putative others, participants who felt less responsible also punished less severely in response to norm violations. Our neural results revealed that underlying this behavioral effect was a network of interconnected brain regions. For unfair relative to fair splits, the presence of others led to attenuated responses in brain regions implicated in signaling norm violations (e.g., AI) and to increased responses in brain regions implicated in calculating values of norm violations (e.g., vmPFC, precuneus) and mentalizing about others (dmPFC). The dmPFC acted as the driver of the punishment network, modulating target regions, such as AI, vmPFC, and precuneus, to adjust altruistic punishment behavior. Our results uncovered the neural basis of the influence of diffusion of responsibility on altruistic punishment and highlighted the role of the mentalizing network in this important phenomenon. Hum Brain Mapp 37:663-677, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Visuotopic organization of macaque posterior parietal cortex: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Arcaro, Michael J; Pinsk, Mark A; Li, Xin; Kastner, Sabine

    2011-02-09

    Macaque anatomy and physiology studies have revealed multiple visual areas in posterior parietal cortex (PPC). While many response properties of PPC neurons have been probed, little is known about PPC's large-scale functional topography-specifically related to visuotopic organization. Using high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T with a phase-encoded retinotopic mapping paradigm in the awake macaque, a large-scale visuotopic organization along lateral portions of PPC anterior to area V3a and extending into the lateral intraparietal sulcus (LIP) was found. We identify two new visual field maps anterior to V3a within caudal PPC, referred to as caudal intraparietal-1 (CIP-1) and CIP-2. The polar angle representation in CIP-1 extends from regions near the upper vertical meridian (that is the shared border with V3a and dorsal prelunate) to those within the lower visual field (that is the shared border with CIP-2). The polar angle representation in CIP-2 is a mirror reversal of the CIP-1 representation. CIP-1 and CIP-2 share a representation of central space on the lateral border. Anterior to CIP-2, a third polar angle representation was found within LIP, referred to as visuotopic LIP. The polar angle representation in LIP extends from regions near the upper vertical meridian (that is the shared border with CIP-2) to those near the lower vertical meridian. Representations of central visual space were identified within dorsal portions of LIP with peripheral representations in ventral portions. We also consider the topographic large-scale organization found within macaque PPC relative to that observed in human PPC.

  5. Central pain processing in chronic chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Boland, Elaine G; Selvarajah, Dinesh; Hunter, Mike; Ezaydi, Yousef; Tesfaye, Solomon; Ahmedzai, Sam H; Snowden, John A; Wilkinson, Iain D

    2014-01-01

    Life expectancy in multiple myeloma has significantly increased. However, a high incidence of chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) can negatively influence quality of life during this period. This study applied functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare areas associated with central pain processing in patients with multiple myeloma who had chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (MM-CIPN) with those from healthy volunteers (HV). Twenty-four participants (n = 12 MM-CIPN, n = 12 HV) underwent Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent (BOLD) fMRI at 3T whilst noxious heat-pain stimuli were applied to the foot and then thigh. Patients with MM-CIPN demonstrated greater activation during painful stimulation in the precuneus compared to HV (p = 0.014, FWE-corrected). Patients with MM-CIPN exhibited hypo-activation of the right superior frontal gyrus compared to HV (p = 0.031, FWE-corrected). Significant positive correlation existed between the total neuropathy score (reduced version) and activation in the frontal operculum (close to insular cortex) during foot stimulation in patients with MM-CIPN (p = 0.03, FWE-corrected; adjusted R2 = 0.87). Painful stimuli delivered to MM-CIPN patients evoke differential activation of distinct cortical regions, reflecting a unique pattern of central pain processing compared with healthy volunteers. This characteristic activation pattern associated with pain furthers the understanding of the pathophysiology of painful chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy. Functional MRI provides a tool for monitoring cerebral changes during anti-cancer and analgesic treatment.

  6. Intrinsic Foot Muscle Activation During Specific Exercises: A T2 Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Thomas M; Feger, Mark A; Hart, Joseph M; Hertel, Jay

    2016-08-01

    The intrinsic foot muscles maintain the medial longitudinal arch and aid in force distribution and postural control during gait. Impaired intrinsic foot-muscle function has been linked to various foot conditions. Several rehabilitative exercises have been proposed to improve it; however, literature that identifies which individual muscles are activated during specific intrinsic foot-muscle exercises is lacking. To describe changes in activation of the intrinsic plantar foot muscles after 4 exercises as measured with T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Descriptive laboratory study. Research laboratory. Eight healthy National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate cross-country and track athletes (5 men and 3 women: age = 20 ± 0.93 years, height = 180.98 ± 10.84 cm, mass = 70.91 ± 7.82 kg). Participants underwent T2 MRI before and after each exercise. They completed 1 set of 40 repetitions of each exercise (short-foot exercise, toes spread out, first-toe extension, second- to fifth-toes extension). Percentage increases in muscle activation of the abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, abductor digiti minimi, quadratus plantae, flexor digiti minimi, adductor hallucis oblique, flexor hallucis brevis, and interossei and lumbricals (analyzed together) after each exercise were assessed using T2 MRI. All muscles showed increased activation after all exercises. The mean percentage increase in activation ranged from 16.7% to 34.9% for the short-foot exercise, 17.3% to 35.2% for toes spread out, 13.1% to 18.1% for first-toe extension, and 8.9% to 22.5% for second- to fifth-toes extension. All increases in activation had associated 95% confidence intervals that did not cross zero. Each of the 4 exercises was associated with increased activation in all of the plantar intrinsic foot muscles evaluated. These results may have clinical implications for the prescription of specific exercises to target individual intrinsic foot muscles.

  7. Antenatal factors in the development of the lumbar vertebral canal: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Janet E; Campbell, Doris M; Golden, Michael H N; Smith, Francis W; Porter, Richard W

    2003-07-01

    The lumbar vertebral canal was measured in two cohorts of 10-year-old children (n = 161) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and compared with obstetric records. To investigate whether there are identifiable obstetric factors that determine the size of the lumbar vertebral canal. The most rapid period growth for the lumbar vertebral canal is between 12 and 32 weeks in utero, with the midsagittal diameter of L1-L4 already 70% of adult dimension at birth. Therefore, adverse antenatal factors during this critical growth period may be expected to affect the size of the canal. The canal size was measured from axial MRI sections taken through each lumbar vertebra (L1-L5) at the pedicular level of 84 children. Relations with obstetric data, prospectively collected in a neonatal database, were sought. The relation of low birthweight and canal size was further investigated in a second cohort of children (n = 77). The canal size, particularly the midsagittal diameter and the cross-sectional area, was found to be significantly reduced by low birthweight (with growth retardation in utero being a more important factor than length of gestation), low placenta weight, and lower socioeconomic class. Smoking during pregnancy significantly reduced the perimeter at L3 (P = 0.032) and L5 (P = 0.031), and also the cross-sectional area at L3 (P = 0.030) and L5 (P = 0.016). This study showed that, for this group of children, the size of the lumbar vertebral canal was reduced by low birthweight, with maternal smoking as an added adverse factor. Therefore, good antenatal care and maternal education may help to reduce the risk of spinal stenosis in adult life.

  8. Investigating silent strokes in hypertensives: a magnetic resonance imaging study (ISSYS): rationale and protocol design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Silent brain infarcts are detected by neuroimaging in up to 20% of asymptomatic patients based on population studies. They are five times more frequent than stroke in general population, and increase significantly both with advancing age and hypertension. Moreover, they are independently associated with the risk of future stroke and cognitive decline. Despite these numbers and the clinical consequences of silent brain infarcts, their prevalence in Mediterranean populations is not well known and their role as predictors of future cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events in hypertensive remains to be determined. ISSYS (Investigating Silent Strokes in Hypertensives: a magnetic resonance imaging study) is an observational cross-sectional and longitudinal study aimed to: 1- determine the prevalence of silent cerebrovascular infarcts in a large cohort of 1000 hypertensives and to study their associated factors and 2-to study their relationship with the risk of future stroke and cognitive decline. Methods/Design Cohort study in a randomly selected sample of 1000 participants, hypertensive aged 50 to 70 years old, with no history of previous stroke or dementia. On baseline all participants will undergo a brain MRI to determine the presence of brain infarcts and other cerebrovascular lesions (brain microbleeds, white matter changes and enlarged perivascular spaces) and will be also tested to determine other than brain organ damage (heart-left ventricular hypertrophy, kidney-urine albumin to creatinine ratio, vessels-pulse wave velocity, ankle brachial index), in order to establish the contribution of other subclinical conditions to the risk of further vascular events. Several sub-studies assessing the role of 24 hour ambulatory BP monitoring and plasma or genetic biomarkers will be performed. Follow-up will last for at least 3 years, to assess the rate of further stroke/transient ischemic attack, other cardiovascular events and cognitive decline, and their

  9. Effect of antenatal corticosteroid treatment on the fetal lung: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Schmid, M; Kasprian, G; Kuessel, L; Messerschmidt, A; Brugger, P C; Prayer, D

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the effect of antenatal corticosteroid treatment on the fetal lung using magnetic resonance imaging. Prospective evaluation of 30 consecutive singleton pregnancies that received antenatal corticosteroid treatment (12 mg betamethasone i.m. on admission and 24 h later) because of threatened preterm birth. Fetal lungs were assessed using T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo images of a whole-body 1.5-T superconducting unit twice: less than 24 h and more than 48 h after the first course of betamethasone. Lung volumes and lung-liver signal-intensity ratios were compared between the two time points. Nine patients had to be excluded from the analysis because they did not complete the study protocol as required. Ten female and 11 male fetuses with a gestational age between 23.4 and 32.6 weeks were included in the final analysis. The mean gestational age of included fetuses was 27.5 ± 2.8 weeks. Using a linear regression model, a significant influence of gestational age on ln fetal lung volume (r(2)=0.414; P<0.0001) and lung-liver signal-intensity ratios (r(2)=0.271, P<0.0001) was found. Between the two evaluated time points, a significant increase in lung-liver signal-intensity ratios (2.34 ± 0.72 vs. 3.22 ± 1.12, P<0.0001), but not in mean lung volumes (46.6 ± 20.7 cm(3) vs. 48.8 ± 16.0 cm(3) , P=0.292), was observed. We demonstrate a significant increase in lung-liver signal-intensity ratios after antenatal corticosteroid treatment for induction of lung maturation which most likely reflects changing properties of the fetal lung parenchyma. This could potentially be useful in non-invasively assessing the effect of antenatal corticosteroid treatment on the lungs of fetuses at risk for preterm birth. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging DTI-FT study on schizophrenic patients with typical negative first symptoms.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chengyu; Zhang, Ying; Wei, Fuquan; Cheng, Yougen; Cao, Yulin; Hou, Hongtao

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) together with a white matter fiber tracking (FT) technique was used to assess different brain white matter structures and functionalities in schizophrenic patients with typical first negative symptoms. In total, 30 schizophrenic patients with typical first negative symptoms, comprising an observation group were paired 1:1 according to gender, age, right-handedness, and education, with 30 healthy individuals in a control group. Individuals in each group underwent routine MRI and DTI examination of the brain, and diffusion-tensor tractography (DTT) data were obtained through whole brain analysis based on voxel and tractography. The results were expressed by fractional anisotropy (FA) values. The schizophrenic patients were evaluated using a positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) as well as a Global Assessment Scale (GAS). The results of the study showed that routine MRIs identified no differences between the two groups. However, compared with the control group, the FA values obtained by DTT from the deep left prefrontal cortex, the right deep temporal lobe, the white matter of the inferior frontal gyrus and part of the corpus callosum were significantly lower in the observation group (P<0.05). The PANSS positive scale value in the observation group averaged 7.7±1.5, and the negative scale averaged 46.6±5.9, while the general psychopathology scale averaged 65.4±10.3, and GAS averaged 53.8±19.2. The Pearson statistical analysis, the left deep prefrontal cortex, the right deep temporal lobe, the white matter of the inferior frontal gyrus and the FA value of part of the corpus callosum in the observation group was negatively correlated with the negative scale (P<0.05), and positively correlated with GAS (P<0.05). In conclusion, a decrease in the FA values of the left deep prefrontal cortex, the right deep temporal lobe, the white matter of the inferior frontal gyrus and part of the corpus

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging DTI-FT study on schizophrenic patients with typical negative first symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Chengyu; Zhang, Ying; Wei, Fuquan; Cheng, Yougen; Cao, Yulin; Hou, Hongtao

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) together with a white matter fiber tracking (FT) technique was used to assess different brain white matter structures and functionalities in schizophrenic patients with typical first negative symptoms. In total, 30 schizophrenic patients with typical first negative symptoms, comprising an observation group were paired 1:1 according to gender, age, right-handedness, and education, with 30 healthy individuals in a control group. Individuals in each group underwent routine MRI and DTI examination of the brain, and diffusion-tensor tractography (DTT) data were obtained through whole brain analysis based on voxel and tractography. The results were expressed by fractional anisotropy (FA) values. The schizophrenic patients were evaluated using a positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) as well as a Global Assessment Scale (GAS). The results of the study showed that routine MRIs identified no differences between the two groups. However, compared with the control group, the FA values obtained by DTT from the deep left prefrontal cortex, the right deep temporal lobe, the white matter of the inferior frontal gyrus and part of the corpus callosum were significantly lower in the observation group (P<0.05). The PANSS positive scale value in the observation group averaged 7.7±1.5, and the negative scale averaged 46.6±5.9, while the general psychopathology scale averaged 65.4±10.3, and GAS averaged 53.8±19.2. The Pearson statistical analysis, the left deep prefrontal cortex, the right deep temporal lobe, the white matter of the inferior frontal gyrus and the FA value of part of the corpus callosum in the observation group was negatively correlated with the negative scale (P<0.05), and positively correlated with GAS (P<0.05). In conclusion, a decrease in the FA values of the left deep prefrontal cortex, the right deep temporal lobe, the white matter of the inferior frontal gyrus and part of the corpus

  12. Interventional Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Saikus, Christina E.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) combines excellent soft-tissue contrast, multiplanar views, and dynamic imaging of cardiac function without ionizing radiation exposure. Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance (iCMR) leverages these features to enhance conventional interventional procedures or to enable novel ones. Although still awaiting clinical deployment, this young field has tremendous potential. We survey promising clinical applications for iCMR. Next, we discuss the technologies that allow CMR-guided interventions and, finally, what still needs to be done to bring them to the clinic. PMID:19909937

  13. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of language function in international adoptees.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Akila; Holland, Scott K; Walz, Nicolay C; Staat, Mary Allen; Altaye, Mekibib; Wade, Shari

    2013-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that international adoption of Chinese and Eastern European girls after 9 months of age results in long-term changes in the neural circuitry supporting monolingual English in later childhood. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to test this hypothesis by comparison with a control group of American-born English speakers (n = 13). Girls now aged 6-10 years adopted from China (n = 13) and Eastern Europe (n = 12) by English-speaking families were recruited through a pediatric hospital-based international adoption center after spending more than 6 months in an orphanage or other institution, a measure of early environmental deprivation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed on a 3 Tesla MRI scanner using a verb generation language fluency task. Composite activation maps were computed for each group using a general linear model with random effects analysis. Chinese born adoptees demonstrate atypical lateralization of language function with an apparent shift of temporal-parietal and frontal areas of brain activity toward the right hemisphere. Eastern European adoptees exhibited a rightward shift relative to controls in both frontal and temporal-parietal brain regions. Significant differences in lateralization between the Chinese and American-born groups in temporal-parietal language areas highlight the possible impact of early tonal Asian language exposure on neural circuitry. Findings suggest that exposure to an Asian language during infancy can leave a long-term imprint on the neural circuitry supporting English language development. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of midazolam on memory: a study of process dissociation procedure and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Tian, S Y; Zou, L; Quan, X; Zhang, Y; Xue, F S; Ye, T H

    2010-06-01

    To assess the effects of midazolam on explicit and implicit memories, 12 volunteers were randomly divided into the two groups: one with an Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation score of 3 (mild sedation) and one with a score of 1 (deep sedation). Blood oxygen-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging was measured before and during an auditory stimulus, then with midazolam sedation, and then during a second auditory stimulus with continuous midazolam sedation. After 4 h, explicit and implicit memories were assessed. There was no evidence of explicit memory at the two levels of midazolam sedation. Implicit memory was retained at a mild level of midazolam sedation but absent at a deep level of midazolam sedation. At a mild level of midazolam sedation, activation of all brain areas by auditory stimulus (as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging) was uninhibited. However, a deep level of midazolam sedation depressed activation of the superior temporal gyrus by auditory stimulus. We conclude that midazolam does not abolish implicit memory at a mild sedation level, but can abolish both explicit and implicit memories at a deep sedation level. The superior temporal gyrus may be one of the target areas.

  15. Role of Genetic Variation in Collateral Circulation in the Evolution of Acute Stroke: A Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Chieh Jill; Oyarzabal, Esteban A; Zhang, Hua; Faber, James E; Shih, Yen-Yu Ian

    2017-03-01

    No studies have determined the effect of differences in pial collateral extent (number and diameter), independent of differences in environmental factors and unknown genetic factors, on severity of stroke. We examined ischemic tissue evolution during acute stroke, as measured by magnetic resonance imaging and histology, by comparing 2 congenic mouse strains with otherwise identical genetic backgrounds but with different alleles of the Determinant of collateral extent-1 (Dce1) genetic locus. We also optimized magnetic resonance perfusion and diffusion-deficit thresholds by using histological measures of ischemic tissue. Perfusion, diffusion, and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were performed on collateral-poor (congenic-Bc) and collateral-rich (congenic-B6) mice at 1, 5, and 24 hours after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Magnetic resonance imaging-derived penumbra and ischemic core volumes were confirmed by histology in a subset of mice at 5 and 24 hours after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Although perfusion-deficit volumes were similar between strains 1 hour after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, diffusion-deficit volumes were 32% smaller in collateral-rich mice. At 5 hours, collateral-rich mice had markedly restored perfusion patterns showing reduced perfusion-deficit volumes, smaller infarct volumes, and smaller perfusion-diffusion mismatch volumes compared with the collateral-poor mice (P<0.05). At 24 hours, collateral-rich mice had 45% smaller T2-weighted lesion volumes (P<0.005) than collateral-poor mice, with no difference in perfusion-diffusion mismatch volumes because of penumbral death occurring 5 to 24 hours after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in collateral-poor mice. Variation in collateral extent significantly alters infarct volume expansion, transiently affects perfusion and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging signatures, and impacts salvage of ischemic penumbra after stroke onset. © 2017

  16. A Study of Epiphyses in the Young Prepubescent Knee Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Derik L.; Chen, Lina; Ehinger, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Questions have been raised concerning the safety of intra-articular anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in prepubescent children aged <7 years. However, normal values for the width of the lateral femoral condylar epiphysis and height of the tibial epiphysis have yet to be established through the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Purpose: To determine normal values for the width of the lateral femoral condylar epiphysis and height of the tibial epiphysis at the knee in prepubescent children aged <7 years by use of MRI and to compare this age group with an older cohort of prepubescent children aged <10 years. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: An electronic search was conducted for pediatric knee MRI examinations at the authors’ institution from March 2003 to March 2013. The total and ossified lateral femoral condylar widths were determined on coronal proton density–weighted images. The total and ossified tibial epiphyseal heights were recorded on the sagittal T1-weighted image best containing the ACL footplate. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to determine interobserver agreement. Knees were stratified by age into 2 groups: children between the ages of 3 and 6 years (group 1) and children between the ages of 7 and 9 years (group 2). Each cohort was further stratified by sex. Results: Group 1 consisted of 10 children (mean age, 4.3 years) and group 2 consisted of 10 children (mean age, 8.5 years). There were a total of 20 knees. There was a statistically significant difference between groups 1 and 2 for the ossified lateral femoral condylar width where femoral tunnel location would be expected (20.00 ± 4.20 vs 26.27 ± 4.12 mm, respectively; P = .0035) and for total lateral femoral condylar width (25.57 ± 3.47 vs 29.43 ± 4.04 mm, respectively; P = .0339). No difference was found for total tibial epiphyseal height between the 2 groups. However, there was a difference

  17. Factors associated with false-negative cardiovascular magnetic resonance perfusion studies: A Clinical evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging in coronary artery disease (CE-MARC) substudy.

    PubMed

    Kidambi, Ananth; Sourbron, Steven; Maredia, Neil; Motwani, Manish; Brown, Julia M; Nixon, Jane; Everett, Colin C; Plein, Sven; Greenwood, John P

    2016-03-01

    To examine factors associated with false-negative cardiovascular magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion studies within the large prospective Clinical Evaluation of MR imaging in Coronary artery disease (CE-MARC) study population. Myocardial perfusion MR has excellent diagnostic accuracy to detect coronary heart disease (CHD). However, causes of false-negative MR perfusion studies are not well understood. CE-MARC prospectively recruited patients with suspected CHD and mandated MR, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, and invasive angiography. This subanalysis identified all patients with significant coronary stenosis by quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and MR perfusion (1.5T, T1 -weighted gradient echo), using the original blinded image read. We explored patient and imaging characteristics related to false-negative or true-positive MR perfusion results, with reference to QCA. Multivariate regression analysis assessed the likelihood of false-negative MR perfusion according to four characteristics: poor image quality, triple-vessel disease, inadequate hemodynamic response to adenosine, and Duke jeopardy score (angiographic myocardium-at-risk score). In all, 265 (39%) patients had significant angiographic disease (mean age 62, 79% male). Thirty-five (5%) had false-negative and 230 (34%) true-positive MR perfusion. Poor MR perfusion image quality, triple-vessel disease, and inadequate hemodynamic response were similar between false-negative and true-positive groups (odds ratio, OR [95% confidence interval, CI]: 4.1 (0.82-21.0), P = 0.09; 1.2 (0.20-7.1), P = 0.85, and 1.6 (0.65-3.8), P = 0.31, respectively). Mean Duke jeopardy score was significantly lower in the false-negative group (2.6 ± 1.7 vs. 5.4 ± 3.0, OR 0.34 (0.21-0.53), P < 0.0001). False-negative cardiovascular MR perfusion studies are uncommon, and more common in patients with lower angiographic myocardium-at-risk. In CE-MARC, poor image quality, triple-vessel disease, and inadequate

  18. Visual Imagery and False Memory for Pictures: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Stephan-Otto, Christian; Siddi, Sara; Senior, Carl; Muñoz-Samons, Daniel; Ochoa, Susana; Sánchez-Laforga, Ana María; Brébion, Gildas

    2017-01-01

    Background Visual mental imagery might be critical in the ability to discriminate imagined from perceived pictures. Our aim was to investigate the neural bases of this specific type of reality-monitoring process in individuals with high visual imagery abilities. Methods A reality-monitoring task was administered to twenty-six healthy participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging. During the encoding phase, 45 words designating common items, and 45 pictures of other common items, were presented in random order. During the recall phase, participants were required to remember whether a picture of the item had been presented, or only a word. Two subgroups of participants with a propensity for high vs. low visual imagery were contrasted. Results Activation of the amygdala, left inferior occipital gyrus, insula, and precuneus were observed when high visual imagers encoded words later remembered as pictures. At the recall phase, these same participants activated the middle frontal gyrus and inferior and superior parietal lobes when erroneously remembering pictures. Conclusions The formation of visual mental images might activate visual brain areas as well as structures involved in emotional processing. High visual imagers demonstrate increased activation of a fronto-parietal source-monitoring network that enables distinction between imagined and perceived pictures. PMID:28046076

  19. Visual Imagery and False Memory for Pictures: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in Healthy Participants.

    PubMed

    Stephan-Otto, Christian; Siddi, Sara; Senior, Carl; Muñoz-Samons, Daniel; Ochoa, Susana; Sánchez-Laforga, Ana María; Brébion, Gildas

    2017-01-01

    Visual mental imagery might be critical in the ability to discriminate imagined from perceived pictures. Our aim was to investigate the neural bases of this specific type of reality-monitoring process in individuals with high visual imagery abilities. A reality-monitoring task was administered to twenty-six healthy participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging. During the encoding phase, 45 words designating common items, and 45 pictures of other common items, were presented in random order. During the recall phase, participants were required to remember whether a picture of the item had been presented, or only a word. Two subgroups of participants with a propensity for high vs. low visual imagery were contrasted. Activation of the amygdala, left inferior occipital gyrus, insula, and precuneus were observed when high visual imagers encoded words later remembered as pictures. At the recall phase, these same participants activated the middle frontal gyrus and inferior and superior parietal lobes when erroneously remembering pictures. The formation of visual mental images might activate visual brain areas as well as structures involved in emotional processing. High visual imagers demonstrate increased activation of a fronto-parietal source-monitoring network that enables distinction between imagined and perceived pictures.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain KidsHealth > For Parents > Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain ... child may be given headphones to listen to music or earplugs to block the noise, and will ...

  1. Early Rivaroxaban Use After Cardioembolic Stroke May Not Result in Hemorrhagic Transformation: A Prospective Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Laura C; Kate, Mahesh; Sivakumar, Leka; Hussain, Dulara; Kalashyan, Hayrapet; Buck, Brian; Bussiere, Miguel; Jeerakathil, Thomas; Shuaib, Ashfaq; Emery, Derek; Butcher, Ken

    2016-07-01

    Early anticoagulation after cardioembolic stroke remains controversial because of the potential for hemorrhagic transformation (HT). We tested the safety and feasibility of initiating rivaroxaban ≤14 days after cardioembolic stroke/transient ischemic attack. A prospective, open-label study of patients with atrial fibrillation treated with rivaroxaban ≤14 days of transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale <9). All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging <24 hours of rivaroxaban initiation and day 7. The primary end point was symptomatic HT at day 7. Sixty patients (mean±SD age 71±19 years, 82% stroke/18% transient ischemic attack) were enrolled. Median (interquartile range) time from onset to rivaroxaban was 3 (5) days. At treatment initiation, median National Institute of Health Stroke Scale was 2 (4), and median diffusion-weighted imaging volume was 7.9 (13.7) mL. At baseline, HT was present in 25 (42%) patients (hemorrhagic infarct [HI]1=19, HI2=6). On follow-up magnetic resonance imaging, no patients developed symptomatic HT. New asymptomatic HI1 developed in 3 patients, and asymptomatic progression from HI1 to HI2 occurred in 5 patients; otherwise, HT remained unchanged at day 7. These data support the safety of rivaroxaban initiation ≤14 days of mild-moderate cardioembolic stroke/transient ischemic attack. Magnetic resonance imaging evidence of petechial HT, which is common, does not appear to increase the risk of symptomatic HT. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Translational Approaches for Studying Neurodevelopmental Disorders Utilizing in Vivo Proton (+H) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine complications have been implicated in the etiology of neuripsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, autism and ADHD. This presentation will describe new translational studies derived from in vivo magnetic resonance imaging of developing and adult brain following perinatal asphyxia (PA). Our findings reveal significant effects of PA on neurometabolic profiles at one week of age, and significant relationships between early metabolites and later life phenotypes including behavior and brain morphometry

  3. Assessment of competence in surgical skills using functional magnetic resonance imaging: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Morris, Marie C; Frodl, Thomas; D'Souza, Arun; Fagan, Andrew J; Ridgway, Paul F

    2015-01-01

    Patient safety is fundamental to modern medical practice; safe surgery saves lives. Ensuring surgical competence is becoming more difficult at a time when surgeons are being trained in fewer hours. Accurate objective assessment of technical skills ability is lacking in standardization. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has a long history in neuroscience, psychiatry, and cognitive studies. Many studies have explored levels of perceived expertise in sports and musical ability. Little has been published on actual rather than perceived motor skills. This study sought to assess the feasibility of utilizing a novel assessment method by measuring blood oxygen level-dependent signal changes (BOLD) in specific brain regions via fMRI during a surgical skills task. Images were acquired using fMRI in a pilot study of 9 subjects (3 experts, 3 intermediates, and 3 novices) when performing and imagining performing a basic surgical procedure: hand tying of surgical knots. Level of expertise was based on years of experience and clinical grade. The quality and quantity of knots were assessed objectively by 2 experts who were independent of the study and blinded to the ability of the candidate. The effect of subject head motion caused by the task itself was assessed. The efficacy of fMRI data analyses in removing artifacts caused by this noise source in the data was explored. Shifts of less than 1 voxel (3 × 3 × 3.55 mm(3)) were recorded in all participants and were successfully corrected in all cases in the fMRI preprocessing step. Decreased BOLD activity was observed in experts compared to novices when "knot tying" was compared with the control "finger tap." Increased BOLD activity was observed in experts compared with novices when "imagining a task" in the primary visual cortex, an area important in perceptual learning. Experts and intermediates performed consistently with 100% square knots. Novices had an average of 2 slip knots. Regarding knot quantity, the number

  4. Use of fusion images of I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine, SPECT, and magnetic resonance studies to identify a malignant pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Fujita, A; Hyodoh, H; Kawamura, Y; Kanegae, K; Furuse, M; Kanazawa, K

    2000-06-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a chromaffin tumor in which 10% are extra-adrenal and 10% are malignant. I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy has an important role in the identification of these tumors and investigation of metastatic lesions. The authors describe a 36-year-old woman who underwent resection of a malignant left adrenal pheochromocytoma who was thought to have metastases in the liver and para-aortic lymph nodes. Fusion images of I-131 MIBG SPECT and magnetic resonance studies were obtained to properly identify the metastatic lesions. These fusion images helped greatly in subsequent surgery.

  5. Basics of magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Oldendorf, W.; Oldendorf, W. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Beginning with the behavior of a compass needle in a magnetic field, this text uses analogies from everyday experience to explain the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance and how it is used for imaging. Using a minimum of scientific abbreviations and symbols, the basics of tissue visualization and characterization are presented. A description of the various types of magnets and scanners is followed by the practical advantages and limitations of MRI relative to x-ray CT scanning.

  6. Fast fetal magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan; Lall, Chandana; Aisen, Alex A; Rajesh, Arumugam; Cohen, Mervyn D

    2005-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used as a problem-solving tool when ultrasonic findings are equivocal. The role of fetal MRI has increased as obstetricians become aware of its potential and in utero therapy for anomalies becomes increasingly sophisticated. In this pictorial essay, we present a wide range of anomalies diagnosed or confirmed using MRI and discuss findings that help in the differential diagnosis.

  7. Micro-magnetic resonance imaging study of live quail embryos during embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Duce, Suzanne; Morrison, Fiona; Welten, Monique; Baggott, Glenn; Tickle, Cheryll

    2011-01-01

    Eggs containing live Japanese quail embryos were imaged using micro-magnetic resonance imaging (μMRI) at 24-h intervals from Day 0 to 8, the period during which the main body axis is being laid down and organogenesis is taking place. Considerable detail of non-embryonic structures such as the latebra was revealed at early stages but the embryo could only be visualized around Day 3. Three-dimensional (3D) changes in embryo length and volume were quantified and also changes in volume in the extra- and non-embryonic components. The embryo increased in length by 43% and nearly trebled in volume between Day 4 and Day 5. Although the amount of yolk remained fairly constant over the first 5 days, the amount of albumen decreases significantly and was replaced by extra-embryonic fluid (EEF). ¹H longitudinal (T₁) and transverse (T₂) relaxation times of different regions within the eggs were determined over the first 6 days of development. The T₂ measurements mirrored the changes in image intensity observed, which can be related to the aqueous protein concentrations. In addition, a comparison of the development of Day 0 to 3 quail embryos exposed to radiofrequency (rf) pulses, 7 T static magnetic fields and magnetic field gradients for an average of 7 h with the development of control embryos did not reveal any gross changes, thus confirming that μMRI is a suitable tool for following the development of live avian embryos over time from the earliest stages.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging technology in transtibial socket research: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Buis, Arjan W P; Condon, Barrie; Brennan, Dave; McHugh, Brendan; Hadley, Donald

    2006-01-01

    Investigations into the shape and volume of transtibial prosthetic sockets are complicated because of the difficulty in establishing an accurate reference grid. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) presents a possible solution to this problem. However, the reliability of MRI in defining the residual-limb/cast interface depends on the scanned image not being distorted by the materials present. We investigated the potential of MRI technology to establish the desired reference grid. Distortion from the so-called "chemical shift" may influence the MRI when certain materials are used during the casting process. These materials include plaster of paris (POP) and silicone (in the form of an interface liner). POP is commonly used to capture the shape of the residual limb. However, if the casting technique requires the use of a silicone liner, the liner is placed over the residual limb first and then the POP is applied over the liner. Experimental results indicate that the materials used do not distort or interfere with the scanned image. The object segmentation process that extracts the bone and skin from an MRI scan and enables the establishment of the required reference grid was explored. Results show that extracting the bone structure and using it as the reference grid to quantify the differences in volume and shape of the soft tissues of the residual limb is feasible.

  9. Imaging based magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) localization for quantitative neurochemical analysis and cerebral metabolism studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Phil; Adany, Peter; Choi, In-Young

    2017-01-10

    Accurate quantitative metabolic imaging of the brain presents significant challenges due to the complexity and heterogeneity of its structures and compositions with distinct compartmentations of brain tissue types (e.g., gray and white matter). The brain is compartmentalized into various regions based on their unique functions and locations. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) techniques allow non-invasive measurements of neurochemicals in either single voxel or multiple voxels, yet the spatial resolution and detection sensitivity of MRS are significantly lower compared with MRI. A fundamentally different approach, namely spectral localization by imaging (SLIM) provides a new framework that overcomes major limitations of conventional MRS techniques. Conventional MRS allows only rectangular voxel shapes that do not conform to the shapes of brain structures or lesions, while SLIM allows compartments with arbitrary shapes. However, the restrictive assumption proposed in the original concept of SLIM, i.e., compartmental homogeneity, led to spectral localization errors, which have limited its broad applications. This review focuses on the recent technical frontiers of image-based MRS localization techniques that overcome the limitations of SLIM through the development and implementation of various new strategies, including incorporation of magnetic field inhomogeneity corrections, the use of multiple receiver coils, and prospective optimization of data acquisition.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging study of the dissolution kinetics of octanol in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, M.L.; Gladden, L.F.

    1999-02-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to visualize the dissolution of entrapped ganglia or blobs of octanol within the pore space of a randomly packed bed of glass ballotini, by a mobile aqueous phase. MRI provides three dimensional images, able to distinguish the solid, hydrocarbon, and aqueous phases, as well as velocity maps of the mobile aqueous phase. Dissolution of the hydrocarbon phase has been modeled using a one dimensional advection-dispersion description incorporating a mass transfer term between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases. Essential to this mass transfer term is a description of the interfacial area between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases which is actively involved in dissolution and which can be determined directly from the images. The experimental data are best modeled by evaluating an effective interfacial area term characterizing the hydrocarbon/water boundary which excludes the narrowest constrictions within the interparticle space. MRI visualizations of the structure of the pore space and the flow processes occurring within it, demonstrate that heterogeneities in the flow at the length-scale of individual pores within the interparticle space cause significant heterogeneity in the dissolution process which becomes significant at low hydrocarbon saturations.

  11. Optimal magnetic resonance imaging of the brain.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Quality magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is complex and requires optimization of many technical factors. The most important factors are: magnet field and gradient strengths, coil selection, receiver bandwidth, field of view and image matrix size, number of excitations, slice thickness, image weighting and contrast, imaging planes and the direction of the phase, and frequency gradients. The ability to augment a standard MR study with additional sequences, and the need to ensure the completed study is comprehensive and robust must be balanced against the time the patient spends under anesthesia in the magnet.

  12. Chronic antiepileptic drug use and functional network efficiency: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    van Veenendaal, Tamar M; IJff, Dominique M; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Lazeron, Richard H C; Hofman, Paul A M; de Louw, Anton J A; Backes, Walter H; Jansen, Jacobus F A

    2017-06-28

    To increase our insight in the neuronal mechanisms underlying cognitive side-effects of antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment. The relation between functional magnetic resonance-acquired brain network measures, AED use, and cognitive function was investigated. Three groups of patients with epilepsy with a different risk profile for developing cognitive side effects were included: A "low risk" category (lamotrigine or levetiracetam, n = 16), an "intermediate risk" category (carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, or valproate, n = 34) and a "high risk" category (topiramate, n = 5). Brain connectivity was assessed using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph theoretical network analysis. The Computerized Visual Searching Task was used to measure central information processing speed, a common cognitive side effect of AED treatment. Central information processing speed was lower in patients taking AEDs from the intermediate and high risk categories, compared with patients from the low risk category. The effect of risk category on global efficiency was significant (P < 0.05, ANCOVA), with a significantly higher global efficiency for patient from the low category compared with the high risk category (P < 0.05, post-hoc test). Risk category had no significant effect on the clustering coefficient (ANCOVA, P > 0.2). Also no significant associations between information processing speed and global efficiency or the clustering coefficient (linear regression analysis, P > 0.15) were observed. Only the four patients taking topiramate show aberrant network measures, suggesting that alterations in functional brain network organization may be only subtle and measureable in patients with more severe cognitive side effects.

  13. Granular convection observed by magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrichs, E. E.; Jaeger, H. M.; Karczmar, Greg S.; Knight, James B.; Kuperman, Vadim Yu.; Nagel, Sidney R.

    1995-03-01

    Vibrations in a granular material can spontaneously produce convection rolls reminiscent of those seen in fluids. Magnetic resonance imaging provides a sensitive and noninvasive probe for the detection of these convection currents, which have otherwise been difficult to observe. A magnetic resonance imaging study of convection in a column of poppy seeds yielded data about the detailed shape of the convection rolls and the depth dependence of the convection velocity. The velocity was found to decrease exponentially with depth; a simple model for this behavior is presented here.

  14. Granular convection observed by magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrichs, E.E.; Jaeger, H.M.; Knight, J.B.; Nagel, S.R.; Karczmar, G.S.; Kuperman, V.Yu.

    1995-03-17

    Vibrations in a granular material can spontaneously produce convection rolls reminiscent of those seen in fluids. Magnetic resonance imaging provides a sensitive and noninvasive probe for the detection of these convection currents, which have otherwise been difficult to observe. A magnetic resonance imaging study of convection in a column of poppy seeds yielded data about the detailed shape of the convection rolls and the depth dependence of the convection velocity. The velocity was found to decrease exponentially with depth; a simple model for this behavior is presented here. 31 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging in Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Giovanni; Tortora, Fabio; Baldelli, Roberto; Cocchiara, Francesco; Paragliola, Rosa Maria; Sbardella, Emilia; Simeoli, Chiara; Caranci, Ferdinando; Pivonello, Rosario; Colao, Annamaria

    2017-03-01

    Adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary tumor represents about 10 % of pituitary adenomas and at the time of diagnosis most of them are microadenomas. Transsphenoidal surgery is the first-line treatment of Cushing's disease and accurate localization of the tumor within the gland is essential for selectively removing the lesion and preserving normal pituitary function. Magnetic resonance imaging is the best imaging modality for the detection of pituitary tumors, but adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary microadenomas are not correctly identified in 30-50 % of cases, because of their size, location, and enhancing characteristics. Several recent studies were performed with the purpose of better localizing the adrenocorticotropin-secreting microadenomas through the use in magnetic resonance imaging of specific sequences, reduced contrast medium dose and high-field technology. Therefore, an improved imaging technique for pituitary disease is mandatory in the suspect of Cushing's disease. The aims of this paper are to present an overview of pituitary magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of Cushing's disease and to provide a magnetic resonance imaging protocol to be followed in case of suspicion adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma.

  16. Cortical gyrification in autistic and Asperger disorders: a preliminary magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Jou, Roger J; Minshew, Nancy J; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Hardan, Antonio Y

    2010-12-01

    The validity of Asperger disorder as a distinct syndrome from autism is unclear partly because of the paucity of differentiating neurobiological evidence. Frontal lobe cortical folding between these disorders was compared using the gyrification index. Twenty-three boys underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging: 6 with high-functioning autism, 9 with Asperger disorder, and 8 controls. Using the first coronal slice anterior to the corpus callosum, total and outer cortical contours were traced to calculate the gyrification index. This index was also calculated for superior and inferior regions to examine dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, respectively. Analysis of variance revealed differences in the left inferior gyrification index, which was higher in the autism group compared with Asperger and control groups. There were no differences in age, intelligence quotient, and brain volume. These preliminary findings suggest that cortical folding may be abnormally high in the frontal lobe in autism but not Asperger disorder, suggesting distinct frontal lobe neuropathology.

  17. Mapping brain region activity during chewing: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Onozuka, M; Fujita, M; Watanabe, K; Hirano, Y; Niwa, M; Nishiyama, K; Saito, S

    2002-11-01

    Mastication has been suggested to increase neuronal activities in various regions of the human brain. However, because of technical difficulties, the fine anatomical and physiological regions linked to mastication have not been fully elucidated. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging during cycles of rhythmic gum-chewing and no chewing, we therefore examined the interaction between chewing and brain regional activity in 17 subjects (aged 20-31 years). In all subjects, chewing resulted in a bilateral increase in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the sensorimotor cortex, supplementary motor area, insula, thalamus, and cerebellum. In addition, in the first three regions, chewing of moderately hard gum produced stronger BOLD signals than the chewing of hard gum. However, the signal was higher in the cerebellum and not significant in the thalamus, respectively. These results suggest that chewing causes regional increases in brain neuronal activities which are related to biting force.

  18. Somatotopical relationships between cortical activity and reflex areas in reflexology: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Nakamaru, Tomomi; Miura, Naoki; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2008-12-19

    We examined the somatotopical relationship between cortical activity and sensory stimulation of reflex areas in reflexology using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Three reflex areas on the left foot, relating to the eye, shoulder, and small intestine were stimulated during the experiment. A statistical analysis showed that reflexological stimulation of the foot reflex areas corresponding to the eye, shoulder, and small intestine activated not only the somatosensory areas corresponding to the foot, but also the somatosensory areas corresponding to the eye, shoulder, and small intestine or neighboring body parts. Thus, the findings showed that reflexological stimulation induced a somatosensory process corresponding to the stimulated reflex area and that a neuroimaging approach can be used to examine the basis of reflexology effects.

  19. Cortical Gyrification in Autistic and Asperger Disorders: A Preliminary Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Jou, Roger J.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2011-01-01

    The validity of Asperger disorder as a distinct syndrome from autism is unclear partly due to the paucity of differentiating neurobiological evidence. Frontal lobe cortical folding between these disorders was compared using the gyrification index. Twenty-three boys underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging: six with high-functioning autism, nine with Asperger disorder, and eight controls. Using the first coronal slice anterior to the corpus callosum, total and outer cortical contours were traced to calculate the gyrification index. This index was also calculated for superior and inferior regions to examine dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, respectively. Analysis of variance revealed differences in the left inferior gyrification index, which was higher in the autism group compared to Asperger and control groups. There were no differences in age, intelligence quotient, and brain volume. These preliminary findings suggest that cortical folding may be abnormally high in the frontal lobe in autism but not Asperger disorder, suggesting distinct frontal lobe neuropathology. PMID:20413799

  20. Tablet disintegration studied by high-resolution real-time magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Quodbach, Julian; Moussavi, Amir; Tammer, Roland; Frahm, Jens; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The present work employs recent advances in high-resolution real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the disintegration process of tablets containing disintegrants. A temporal resolution of 75 ms and a spatial resolution of 80 × 80 µm with a section thickness of only 600 µm were achieved. The histograms of MRI videos were quantitatively analyzed with MATLAB. The mechanisms of action of six commercially available disintegrants, the influence of relative tablet density, and the impact of disintegrant concentration were examined. Crospovidone seems to be the only disintegrant acting by a shape memory effect, whereas the others mainly swell. A higher relative density of tablets containing croscarmellose sodium leads to a more even distribution of water within the tablet matrix but hardly impacts the disintegration kinetics. Increasing the polacrilin potassium disintegrant concentration leads to a quicker and more thorough disintegration process. Real-time MRI emerges as valuable tool to visualize and investigate the process of tablet disintegration.

  1. Featural and configural face processing strategies: evidence from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Lobmaier, Janek S; Klaver, Peter; Loenneker, Thomas; Martin, Ernst; Mast, Fred W

    2008-02-12

    We explored the processing mechanisms of featural and configural face information using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Featural information describes the information contained in the facial parts; configural information conveys the spatial interrelationship between parts. In a delayed matching-to-sample task, participants decided whether an intact test face matched a precedent scrambled or blurred cue face. Scrambled faces primarily contain featural information whereas blurred faces preserve configural information. Scrambled cue faces evoked enhanced activation in the left fusiform gyrus, left parietal lobe, and left lingual gyrus when viewing intact test faces. Following blurred cue faces, test faces enhanced activation bilaterally in the middle temporal gyrus. The results suggest that featural and configural information is processed by following distinct neural pathways.

  2. The Location of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears: A Prevalence Study Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    van der List, Jelle P.; Mintz, Douglas N.; DiFelice, Gregory S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Over the past decade, there has been a resurgence of interest in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) preservation. Proximal and distal avulsion tears have been treated with arthroscopic primary repair, while augmented repair, remnant tensioning, primary repair with biological scaffold, and remnant preservation have been proposed for different types of midsubstance tears. Currently, the incidence of these different tear types is unknown. Purpose: To propose a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) classification system for different tear types based on clinical relevance and to assess the distribution of these different ACL tear types. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A retrospective search in an institutional radiographic database was performed for patients who underwent knee MRI at our institution between June 2014 and June 2016. Patients younger than 18 years and those with reports of chronic tears, partial tears, multiligamentous injuries, were excluded. Tear types were graded as proximal avulsion (distal remnant length >90% of total ligament length, type I), proximal (75%-90%, type II), midsubstance (25%-75%, type III), distal (10%-25%, type IV), and distal avulsion (<10%, type V). An orthopaedic surgeon, a radiologist, and a research fellow graded the tear type on 30 MRIs to determine reliability, and the research fellow graded all MRIs. Inter- and intraobserver reliability were measured using kappa statistics. Results: A total of 353 patients (57% male; mean age, 37.1 years; range, 18.1-81.2 years) were included. Interobserver reliability was 0.670 (95% confidence interval, 0.505-0.836), and intraobserver reliability ranged from 0.741 to 0.934. Incidence of type I tears was 16%, type II tears 27%, type III tears 52%, type IV tears 1%, and type V tears 3% (2.5% with bony avulsion). Type I tears were more common in patients older than 35 years compared with those younger than 35 years (23% vs 8%; P < .001). Conclusion: This

  3. Intrinsic Foot Muscle Activation During Specific Exercises: A T2 Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Thomas M.; Feger, Mark A.; Hart, Joseph M.; Hertel, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Context: The intrinsic foot muscles maintain the medial longitudinal arch and aid in force distribution and postural control during gait. Impaired intrinsic foot-muscle function has been linked to various foot conditions. Several rehabilitative exercises have been proposed to improve it; however, literature that identifies which individual muscles are activated during specific intrinsic foot-muscle exercises is lacking. Objective: To describe changes in activation of the intrinsic plantar foot muscles after 4 exercises as measured with T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eight healthy National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate cross-country and track athletes (5 men and 3 women: age = 20 ± 0.93 years, height = 180.98 ± 10.84 cm, mass = 70.91 ± 7.82 kg). Intervention(s): Participants underwent T2 MRI before and after each exercise. They completed 1 set of 40 repetitions of each exercise (short-foot exercise, toes spread out, first-toe extension, second- to fifth-toes extension). Main Outcome Measure(s): Percentage increases in muscle activation of the abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, abductor digiti minimi, quadratus plantae, flexor digiti minimi, adductor hallucis oblique, flexor hallucis brevis, and interossei and lumbricals (analyzed together) after each exercise were assessed using T2 MRI. Results: All muscles showed increased activation after all exercises. The mean percentage increase in activation ranged from 16.7% to 34.9% for the short-foot exercise, 17.3% to 35.2% for toes spread out, 13.1% to 18.1% for first-toe extension, and 8.9% to 22.5% for second- to fifth-toes extension. All increases in activation had associated 95% confidence intervals that did not cross zero. Conclusions: Each of the 4 exercises was associated with increased activation in all of the plantar intrinsic foot muscles evaluated. These results may have

  4. Working memory network plasticity after anterior temporal lobe resection: a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Stretton, Jason; Sidhu, Meneka K.; Winston, Gavin P.; Bartlett, Philippa; McEvoy, Andrew W.; Symms, Mark R.; Koepp, Matthias J.; Thompson, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is a crucial cognitive function that is disrupted in temporal lobe epilepsy. It is unclear whether this impairment is a consequence of temporal lobe involvement in working memory processes or due to seizure spread to extratemporal eloquent cortex. Anterior temporal lobe resection controls seizures in 50–80% of patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy and the effect of surgery on working memory are poorly understood both at a behavioural and neural level. We investigated the impact of temporal lobe resection on the efficiency and functional anatomy of working memory networks. We studied 33 patients with unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy (16 left) before, 3 and 12 months after anterior temporal lobe resection. Fifteen healthy control subjects were also assessed in parallel. All subjects had neuropsychological testing and performed a visuospatial working memory functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm on these three separate occasions. Changes in activation and deactivation patterns were modelled individually and compared between groups. Changes in task performance were included as regressors of interest to assess the efficiency of changes in the networks. Left and right temporal lobe epilepsy patients were impaired on preoperative measures of working memory compared to controls. Working memory performance did not decline following left or right temporal lobe resection, but improved at 3 and 12 months following left and, to a lesser extent, following right anterior temporal lobe resection. After left anterior temporal lobe resection, improved performance correlated with greater deactivation of the left hippocampal remnant and the contralateral right hippocampus. There was a failure of increased deactivation of the left hippocampal remnant at 3 months after left temporal lobe resection compared to control subjects, which had normalized 12 months after surgery. Following right anterior temporal lobe resection there was a

  5. Motor activation in patients with Pantothenate-Kinase Associated Neurodegeneration: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Stoeter, P; Rodriguez-Raecke, R; Vilchez, C; Perez-Then, E; Speckter, H; Oviedo, J; Roa-Sanchez, P

    2012-11-01

    In a variety of dystonias, functional magnetic resonance imaging has shown deviations of cortical and basal ganglia activations within the motor network, which might cause the movement disturbances. Because these investigations have never been performed in secondary dystonia due to Pantothenate-Kinase Associated Neurodegeneration, we report our results in a small group of such patients from the Dominican Republic. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was carried out in 7 patients with a genetically confirmed mutation of the PANK2 gene and a non-affected control group (matched pairs) using an event-related motor activation paradigm (hand movements). Compared to the control group (p ≤ 0.01), patients showed a larger amount of activated voxels starting in the contralateral cerebellum and contralateral premotor cortex 2 s before the actual hand movement. Whereas these "hyperactivations" gradually diminished over time, activations in the contralateral primary motor cortex and the supplementary motor area peaked during the next second and those of the contralateral putamen at the time of the actual hand movement. In a multiple regression analysis, all these areas correlated positively with the degree of dystonia of the contralateral arm as judged by the Burke-Fahn-Marsden-scale (p ≤ 0.001). As in other forms of dystonia, the increased activations of the motor system found in our patients could be related to the origin of the dystonic movements. Because in this condition the primary lesion affects the pallidum, a defect of the feed-back control mechanism between basal ganglia and cortex might be the responsible factor. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Multidimensionally encoded magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically achieves spatial encoding by measuring the projection of a q-dimensional object over q-dimensional spatial bases created by linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs). Recently, imaging strategies using nonlinear SEMs have demonstrated potential advantages for reconstructing images with higher spatiotemporal resolution and reducing peripheral nerve stimulation. In practice, nonlinear SEMs and linear SEMs can be used jointly to further improve the image reconstruction performance. Here, we propose the multidimensionally encoded (MDE) MRI to map a q-dimensional object onto a p-dimensional encoding space where p > q. MDE MRI is a theoretical framework linking imaging strategies using linear and nonlinear SEMs. Using a system of eight surface SEM coils with an eight-channel radiofrequency coil array, we demonstrate the five-dimensional MDE MRI for a two-dimensional object as a further generalization of PatLoc imaging and O-space imaging. We also present a method of optimizing spatial bases in MDE MRI. Results show that MDE MRI with a higher dimensional encoding space can reconstruct images more efficiently and with a smaller reconstruction error when the k-space sampling distribution and the number of samples are controlled. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Psoriatic Arthritis: A Descriptive Study of Indications, Features and Effect on Treatment Change.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Ficco, Hernán; Sheane, Barry J; Thavaneswaran, Arane; Chandran, Vinod; Gladman, Dafna D

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the indications for, and features of, axial/peripheral joint magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and to examine the influence of MRI findings on clinical practice. All axial and peripheral (hand and/or foot) MRI scans on patients attending the Toronto PsA clinic l between 2003 and 2014 were included. Scan details were garnered from the radiologist's official report. A chart review was performed to determine if MRI findings contributed to a change of treatment. One hundred sixty-eight scans were performed on 125 patients (135 axial and 33 peripheral). The mean age was 50.5 (SD, 11.5) years, with 51.2% being female. Mean duration of PsA was 11.2 (SD, 10.9) years. Of the axial scans, the majority were performed on the whole spine (excluding the sacrum) (27.4%) or the sacroiliac joints and spine together (45.2%). The predominant indications were for suspected inflammatory (51.1%) or degenerative (24.4%) disease. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed inflammatory and/or structural change in 34.1% versus 54.8% with degenerative changes. In MRI axial inflammation (n = 25), the majority (48%) had sacroiliac joint involvement, whereas 28% had inflammation at 2 or more sites.Of the periphery, 60.6% of scans were on hands and 21.2% were on feet alone. The main indications were for suspected subclinical synovitis (78.8%). Inflammatory arthritis was the MRI diagnosis in 72.7%. Magnetic resonance imaging findings influenced treatment change (n = 32) in 56.3%, but were insufficient to effect treatment change without clinical findings (100%). Magnetic resonance imaging is useful in evaluating patients with active PsA, particularly when suspecting inflammation and radiographic findings are unhelpful. In some cases, it can be used as an adjunct to clinical examination in determining treatment change.

  8. How Doctors Generate Diagnostic Hypotheses: A Study of Radiological Diagnosis with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Marcio; Scarpin, Daniel J.; Amaro, Edson; Passos, Rodrigo B. D.; Sato, João R.; Friston, Karl J.; Price, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    Background In medical practice, diagnostic hypotheses are often made by physicians in the first moments of contact with patients; sometimes even before they report their symptoms. We propose that generation of diagnostic hypotheses in this context is the result of cognitive processes subserved by brain mechanisms that are similar to those involved in naming objects or concepts in everyday life. Methodology and Principal Findings To test this proposal we developed an experimental paradigm with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using radiological diagnosis as a model. Twenty-five radiologists diagnosed lesions in chest X-ray images and named non-medical targets (animals) embedded in chest X-ray images while being scanned in a fMRI session. Images were presented for 1.5 seconds; response times (RTs) and the ensuing cortical activations were assessed. The mean response time for diagnosing lesions was 1.33 (SD ±0.14) seconds and 1.23 (SD ±0.13) seconds for naming animals. 72% of the radiologists reported cogitating differential diagnoses during trials (3.5 seconds). The overall pattern of cortical activations was remarkably similar for both types of targets. However, within the neural systems shared by both stimuli, activation was significantly greater in left inferior frontal sulcus and posterior cingulate cortex for lesions relative to animals. Conclusions Generation of diagnostic hypotheses and differential diagnoses made through the immediate visual recognition of clinical signs can be a fast and automatic process. The co-localization of significant brain activation for lesions and animals suggests that generating diagnostic hypotheses for lesions and naming animals are served by the same neuronal systems. Nevertheless, diagnosing lesions was cognitively more demanding and associated with more activation in higher order cortical areas. These results support the hypothesis that medical diagnoses based on prompt visual recognition of clinical signs and

  9. Review: Magnetic resonance imaging techniques in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Imaging the eye with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved difficult due to the eye’s propensity to move involuntarily over typical imaging timescales, obscuring the fine structure in the eye due to the resulting motion artifacts. However, advances in MRI technology help to mitigate such drawbacks, enabling the acquisition of high spatiotemporal resolution images with a variety of contrast mechanisms. This review aims to classify the MRI techniques used to date in clinical and preclinical ophthalmologic studies, describing the qualitative and quantitative information that may be extracted and how this may inform on ocular pathophysiology. PMID:23112569

  10. Brain activation during manipulation of the myoelectric prosthetic hand: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Maruishi, Masaharu; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Muranaka, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Toshio; Ozawa, Yoshiaki; Imaizumi, Satoshi; Miyatani, Makoto; Kawahara, Junichiro

    2004-04-01

    Neuroimaging data, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings, have not been reported in users of the myoelectric or electromyographic (EMG) prosthetic hand. We developed a virtual EMG prosthetic hand system to eliminate mutual signal noise interference between fMRI imaging and the EMG prosthesis. We used fMRI to localize activation in the human brain during manipulation of the virtual EMG prosthetic hand. Fourteen right-handed normal subjects were instructed to perform repetitive grasping with the right hand with eyes closed (CEG); repetitive grasping with the right hand with eyes open to obtain visual feedback of their own hand movement (OEG); and repetitive grasping with the virtual EMG prosthetic hand with the eyes open to obtain visual feedback of the prosthetic hand movement (VRG). The specific site activated during manipulation of the EMG prosthetic hand was the right ventral premotor cortex. Both paradigms with visual feedback also (OEG and VRG) demonstrated activation in the right posterior parietal cortex. The center of activation of the right posterior parietal cortex shifted laterally for visual feedback with the virtual EMG prosthetic hand compared to a subject's own hand. The results suggest that the EMG prosthetic hand might be recognized in the brain as a high-performance alternative to a real hand, being controlled through a "mirror system" in the brain.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Studying Schizophrenia, Negative Symptoms, and the Glutamate System

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Oliver; Chadha Santuccione, Antonella; Aach, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms. While positive symptoms occur periodically during psychotic exacerbations, negative and cognitive symptoms often emerge before the first psychotic episode and persist with low functional outcome and poor prognosis. This review article outlines the importance of modern functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques for developing a stratified therapy of schizophrenic disorders. Functional neuroimaging evidence on the neural correlates of positive and particularly negative symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenic disorders is briefly reviewed. Acute dysregulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission is crucially involved in the occurrence of psychotic symptoms. However, increasing evidence also implicates glutamatergic pathomechanisms, in particular N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor dysfunction in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and in the appearance of negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions. In line with this notion, several gene variants affecting the NMDA receptor’s pathway have been reported to increase susceptibility for schizophrenia, and have been investigated using the imaging genetics approach. In recent years, several attempts have been made to develop medications modulating the glutamatergic pathway with modest evidences for efficacy. The most successful approaches were those that aimed at influencing this pathway using compounds that enhance NMDA receptor function. More recently, the selective glycine reuptake inhibitor bitopertin has been shown to improve NMDA receptor hypofunction by increasing glycine concentrations in the synaptic cleft. Further research is required to test whether pharmacological agents with effects on the glutamatergic system can help to improve the treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenic disorders. PMID:24765078

  12. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging in patients with cirrhosis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Grover, Vijay P B; Crossey, Mary M E; Fitzpatrick, Julie A; Saxby, Brian K; Shaw, Roberta; Waldman, Adam D; Morgan, Marsha Y; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2016-12-01

    Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging was undertaken, at 3 Tesla field strength, employing magnetization transfer (MT) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequences, in 26 patients with well-compensated cirrhosis, free of overt hepatic encephalopathy. Results were compared to those from 18 aged-matched healthy volunteers. Cerebral magnetization transfer ratios (MTR) were reduced in the frontal white matter, caudate, putamen and globus pallidus in patients with cirrhosis, compared to healthy controls, while the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) on DWI were significantly increased in the genu and body of the corpus callosum. An association between previous excessive alcohol consumption and both MTR and ADCs was noted, but this association was lost when controls were exercised for the severity of liver disease and psychometric impairment on multivariate analysis. Eight (31 %) of the 26 patients had impaired psychometric performance consistent with a diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy. No statistically significant difference in regional cerebral MTRs or ADCs was found in relation to neuropsychiatric status, although there was a trend towards lower MTRs in patients with impaired psychometric performance. The alterations in MTR and ADC in the patients with functionally compensated cirrhosis are compatible with theories governing the genesis of hepatic encephalopathy, including changes in astrocyte membrane permeability, with subsequent redistribution of macromolecules.

  13. Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Incident Small Vessel Disease on Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Dearborn, Jennifer L; Schneider, Andrea L C; Sharrett, A Richey; Mosley, Thomas H; Bezerra, Daniel C; Knopman, David S; Selvin, Elizabeth; Jack, Clifford R; Coker, Laura H; Alonso, Alvaro; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Windham, Beverly G; Gottesman, Rebecca F

    2015-11-01

    The term metabolic syndrome describes the clustering of risk factors found in many individuals with obesity. Because of their pathophysiology, we hypothesized that 2 features of metabolic syndrome, central obesity and insulin resistance (IR), would be associated with cerebrovascular changes on magnetic resonance imaging, and specifically with incident lacunar disease and not white matter hyperintensity (WMH) progression. Risk factors were defined at study baseline in 934 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, who completed 2 brain magnetic resonance imagings≈10 years apart. WMH progression and incident lacunes between the 2 magnetic resonance imagings were determined. An IR score for each participant was created using principal component analysis of 11 risk factors, including (among others): insulin, homeostatic model assessment-IR, body mass index, and waist circumference. Metabolic syndrome (presence/absence), using standard clinical definitions, and IR score at the first magnetic resonance imaging, were independent variables, evaluated in multivariate logistic regression to determine odds of WMH progression (Q5 versus Q1-Q4) and incident lacunes. Metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-3.05) and IR score (adjusted odds ratio per 1-SD increase, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.68) were associated with incident lacunes but not with WMH progression. Insulin, homeostatic model assessment-IR, and body mass index were not associated with incident lacunes or WMH progression in separate models. The IR score and central obesity are associated with incident lacunar disease but not WMH progression in individuals. Central obesity and IR may be important risk factors to target to prevent lacunar disease. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keevil, Stephen F.

    2001-11-01

    Over the past twenty years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become one of the most important imaging modalities available to clinical medicine. It offers great technical flexibility, and is free of the hazards associated with ionizing radiation. In addition to its role as a routine imaging technique with a growing range of clinical applications, the pace of development in MRI methodology remains high, and new ideas with significant potential emerge on a regular basis. MRI is a prime example of the spin-off benefits of basic science, and is an area of medicine in which physical science continues to play a major role, both in supporting clinical applications and in developing new techniques. This article presents a brief history of MRI and an overview of the underlying physics, followed by a short survey of current and emerging clinical applications.

  15. Magnetic resonance image enhancement using stochastic resonance in Fourier domain.

    PubMed

    Rallabandi, V P Subramanyam; Roy, Prasun Kumar

    2010-11-01

    In general, low-field MRI scanners such as the 0.5- and 1-T ones produce images that are poor in quality. The motivation of this study was to lessen the noise and enhance the signal such that the image quality is improved. Here, we propose a new approach using stochastic resonance (SR)-based transform in Fourier space for the enhancement of magnetic resonance images of brain lesions, by utilizing an optimized level of Gaussian fluctuation that maximizes signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We acquired the T1-weighted MR image of the brain in DICOM format. We processed the original MR image using the proposed SR procedure. We then tested our approach on about 60 patients of different age groups with different lesions, such as arteriovenous malformation, benign lesion and malignant tumor, and illustrated the image enhancement by using just-noticeable difference visually as well as by utilizing the relative enhancement factor quantitatively. Our method can restore the original image from noisy image and optimally enhance the edges or boundaries of the tissues, clarify indistinct structural brain lesions without producing ringing artifacts, as well as delineate the edematous area, active tumor zone, lesion heterogeneity or morphology, and vascular abnormality. The proposed technique improves the enhancement factor better than the conventional techniques like the Wiener- and wavelet-based procedures. The proposed method can readily enhance the image fusing a unique constructive interaction of noise and signal, and enables improved diagnosis over conventional methods. The approach well illustrates the novel potential of using a small amount of Gaussian noise to improve the image quality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Autism spectrum disorder: does neuroimaging support the DSM-5 proposal for a symptom dyad? A systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Fraguas, David; Boada, Leticia; Janssen, Joost; Navas-Sánchez, Francisco J; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-07-01

    A systematic review of 208 studies comprising functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging data in patients with 'autism spectrum disorder' (ASD) was conducted, in order to determine whether these data support the forthcoming DSM-5 proposal of a social communication and behavioral symptom dyad. Studies consistently reported abnormal function and structure of fronto-temporal and limbic networks with social and pragmatic language deficits, of temporo-parieto-occipital networks with syntactic-semantic language deficits, and of fronto-striato-cerebellar networks with repetitive behaviors and restricted interests in ASD patients. Therefore, this review partially supports the DSM-5 proposal for the ASD dyad.

  17. Incremental value of magnetic resonance neurography of Lumbosacral plexus over non-contributory lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging in radiculopathy: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Farahani, Sahar J; Thawait, Gaurav K; Wadhwa, Vibhor; Belzberg, Allan J; Carrino, John A

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To test the incremental value of 3T magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) in a series of unilateral radiculopathy patients with non-contributory magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Ten subjects (3 men, 7 women; mean age 54 year and range 22-74 year) with unilateral lumbar radiculopathy and with previous non-contributory lumbar spine MRI underwent lumbosacral (LS) plexus MRN over a period of one year. Lumbar spine MRI performed as part of the MRN LS protocol as well as bilateral L4-S1 nerves, sciatic, femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves were evaluated in each subject for neuropathy findings on both anatomic (nerve signal, course and caliber alterations) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tensor maps (nerve signal and caliber alterations). Minimum fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean apparent diffusion coeffcient (ADC) of L4-S2 nerve roots, sciatic and femoral nerves were recorded. RESULTS: All anatomic studies and 80% of DTI imaging received a good-excellent imaging quality grading. In a blinded evaluation, all 10 examinations demonstrated neural and/or neuromuscular abnormality corresponding to the site of radiculopathy. A number of contributory neuropathy findings including double crush syndrome were observed. On DTI tensor maps, nerve signal and caliber alterations were more conspicuous. Although individual differences were observed among neuropathic appearing nerve (lower FA and increased ADC) as compared to its contralateral counterpart, there were no significant mean differences on statistical comparison of LS plexus nerves, femoral and sciatic nerves (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: MRN of LS plexus is useful modality for the evaluation of patients with non-contributory MRI of lumbar spine as it can incrementally delineate the etiology and provide direct objective and non-invasive evidence of neuromuscular pathology. PMID:26834949

  18. [Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children and adolescents – study design of a feasibility study concerning examination related emotions].

    PubMed

    Jaite, Charlotte; Bachmann, Christian; Dewey, Marc; Weschke, Bernhard; Spors, Birgit; von Moers, Arpad; Napp, Adriane; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Kappel, Viola

    2013-11-01

    Numerous research centres apply magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for research purposes in children. In view of this practical research, ethical concerns regarding the strains the study participants are exposed to during the MRI examination are discussed. The study evaluates whether an MRI examination induces negative emotions in children and adolescents which are more intense than the ones caused by electroencephalography (EEG), an examination method currently classified as causing "minimal stress." Furthermore, the emotional stress induced by the MRI examination in children and adolescents is compared with that induced in adults. The study gathers data on examination-related emotions in children (age 8-17;11, male and female) who undergo an MRI examination of the cerebrum with a medical indication. The comparison group is a sample of children and adolescents examined with EEG (age 8-17;11, male and female) as well as a sample of adults (age 18-65, male and female) examined with MRI. At present, the study is in the stage of data collection. This article presents the study design of the MRI research project.

  19. Dynamic nuclear polarization studies of nitroxyl spin probes in agarose gel using Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Meenakumari, V; Utsumi, Hideo; Hyodo, Fuminori; Jawahar, A; Milton Franklin Benial, A

    2017-11-01

    Agarose is a tissue-equivalent material and its imaging characteristics similar to those of real tissues. Hence, the dynamic nuclear polarization studies of 3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine-1-oxyl (carboxy-PROXYL) in agarose gel were carried out. The dynamic nuclear polarization parameters such as spin lattice relaxation time, longitudinal relaxivity, leakage factor, saturation parameter and coupling parameter were estimated for 2 mM carboxy-PROXYL in phosphate-buffered saline solution and water/agarose mixture (99 : 1). From these results, the spin probe concentration was optimized as 2 mM, and the reduction in enhancement was observed for carboxy-PROXYL in water/agarose mixture (99 : 1) compared with phosphate-buffered saline solution. Phantom imaging was also performed with 2 mM concentration of carboxy-PROXYL in various concentrations of agarose gel at various radio frequency power levels. The results from the dynamic nuclear polarization measurements agree well with the phantom imaging results. These results pave the way for designing model system for human tissues suited to the biological applications of electron spin resonance/Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Susceptibility to Hamstring Injuries in Soccer: A Prospective Study Using Muscle Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Schuermans, Joke; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Danneels, Lieven; Witvrouw, Erik

    2016-05-01

    Running-related hamstring strain injuries remain a delicate issue in several sports such as soccer. Their unremittingly high incidence and recurrence rates indicate that the underlying risk has not yet been fully identified. Among other factors, the importance of neuromuscular coordination and the quality of interplay between the different hamstring muscle bellies is thought to be a key determinant within the intrinsic injury risk. Muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI) is one of the tools that has been proven to be valid for evaluating intermuscular coordination. To investigate the risk of sustaining an index or recurring soccer-related hamstring injury by exploring metabolic muscle characteristics using mfMRI. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 27 healthy male soccer players and 27 soccer players with a history of hamstring injuries underwent standardized mfMRI. The mfMRI protocol consisted of a resting scan, a strenuous bilateral eccentric hamstring exercise, and a postexercise scan. The exercise-related T2 change, or the signal intensity shift between both scans, was used to detect differences in metabolic characteristics between (1) the different hamstring muscle bellies and (2) the prospective cohorts based on the (re)occurrence of hamstring injuries during a follow-up period of 18 months. The risk of sustaining a first hamstring injury was associated with alterations in the intermuscular hierarchy in terms of the magnitude of the metabolic response after a heavy eccentric effort, with the dominant role of the semitendinosus set aside for a higher contribution of the biceps femoris (P = .017). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated that this variable was significantly able to predict the occurrence of index injuries with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 70% when the metabolic activity of the biceps femoris exceeded 10%. The risk of sustaining a reinjury was associated with a substantial deficit

  1. A magnetic resonance imaging study on changes in rat mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue after high-dose irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung-Do; Lee, Kang-Kyoo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is appropriate for detecting early changes in the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of rats after high-dose irradiation. Materials and Methods The right mandibles of Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with 10 Gy (Group 1, n=5) and 20 Gy (Group 2, n=5). Five non-irradiated animals were used as controls. The MR images of rat mandibles were obtained before irradiation and once a week until week 4 after irradiation. From the MR images, the signal intensity (SI) of the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of the incisor was interpreted. The MR images were compared with the histopathologic findings. Results The SI of the mandibular bone marrow had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. There was little difference between Groups 1 and 2. The SI of the irradiated groups appeared to be lower than that of the control group. The histopathologic findings showed that the trabecular bone in the irradiated group had increased. The SI of the irradiated pulp tissue had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. However, the SI of the MR images in Group 2 was high in the atrophic pulp of the incisor apex at week 2 after irradiation. Conclusion These patterns seen on MRI in rat bone marrow and pulp tissue were consistent with histopathologic findings. They may be useful to assess radiogenic sclerotic changes in rat mandibular bone marrow. PMID:24701458

  2. A magnetic resonance imaging study of abnormalities of the patella and patellar tendon that predispose children to acute patellofemoral dislocation.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Barış; Çiçek, Esin Derin; Şirin, Evrim; Özdemir, Güzelali; Karakuş, Özgün; Muratlı, Hasan Hilmi

    This study compared 20 children hospitalised with acute patellofemoral dislocation with an age-matched healthy control group with no history of knee problems or patellar dislocation. The following morphological parameters were significantly different between the groups: the mean patellar width and length, mean sulcus depth, mean patellar tendon width and total patellar volume. The magnetic resonance imaging findings of this study suggested that structurally smaller than normal patella and patellar tendon volumes are predisposing factors for acute patellofemoral dislocation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Abdominal fat sub-depots and energy expenditure: Magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Serfaty, Dana; Rein, Michal; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shelef, Ilan; Gepner, Yftach; Bril, Nitzan; Cohen, Noa; Shemesh, Elad; Sarusi, Benjamin; Kovsan, Julia; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Golan, Rachel; Witkow, Shula; Henkin, Yaakov; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to assess the association between the distinct abdominal sub-depots and resting energy expenditure (REE). We performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify abdominal visceral-adipose-tissue (VAT), deep-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue (deep-SAT), and superficial-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue (superficial-SAT). We measured REE by indirect-calorimetry. Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) [1-3 metabolic equivalents (METs)] and exercise thermogenesis (activities of 4+METS) were estimated based on 6-days of accelerometry to assess total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). We studied 282 participants: 249 men [mean age = 47.4 years, body-mass-index (BMI) = 31 kg/m(2), mean VAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 34.5%, mean superficial-SAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 24.3%] and 33 women (mean age = 51.2 years, BMI = 30.1 kg/m(2), mean VAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 22.8%, mean superficial-SAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 37.8%). As expected, women had lower REE [by 32.4% (1488 ± 234 kcal/day vs. 1971 ± 257 kcal/day; p < 0.01)] and lower REE/kg [by 8% (19.6 ± 3 kcal/kg vs. 21.2 ± 2 kcal/kg; p < 0.01)] than men. Exercise and total PAEE were positively associated with REE/kg (p < 0.01 for both) and a positive correlation between NEAT and REE/kg was borderline (p = 0.056). Participants, in whom abdominal VAT was the dominant proportional depot, had higher REE (1964 ± 297 kcal/day vs. 1654 ± 352 kcal/day; p < 0.01) and higher REE∖kg (22.2 ± 2.3 kcal/kg/day vs. 19.6 ± 2.5 kcal/kg/day; p < 0.01) than participants in whom superficial-SAT was the largest proportional depot. In multivariate models, adjusted for age, gender and residual BMI, increased VAT proportion was independently associated with higher REE (β = 0.181; p = 0.05). Likewise, increased VAT proportion (β = 0.482; p < 0.01) remained independently associated with higher REE/kg. In this

  4. Urgency urinary incontinence and the interoceptive network: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Ketai, Loren H; Komesu, Yuko M; Dodd, Andrew B; Rogers, Rebecca G; Ling, Josef M; Mayer, Andrew R

    2016-10-01

    Treatment of urgency urinary incontinence has focused on pharmacologically treating detrusor overactivity. Recent recognition that altered perception of internal stimuli (interoception) plays a role in urgency urinary incontinence suggests that exploration of abnormalities of brain function in this disorder could lead to better understanding of urgency incontinence and its treatment. We sought to: (1) evaluate the relationship between bladder filling, perceived urgency, and activation at brain sites within the interoceptive network in urgency urinary incontinence; (2) identify coactivation of other brain networks that could affect interoception during bladder filling in urgency incontinence; and (3) demonstrate interaction between these sites prior to bladder filling by evaluating their resting-state connectivity. We performed an observational cohort study using functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare brain function in 53 women with urgency urinary incontinence and 20 controls. Whole-brain voxelwise analyses of covariance were performed to examine differences in functional brain activation between groups during a task consisting of bladder filling, hold (static volume), and withdrawal phases. The task was performed at 3 previously established levels of baseline bladder volume, the highest exceeding strong desire to void volume. All women continuously rated their urge on a 0- to 10-point Likert scale throughout the task and a mixed measures analysis of variance was used to test for differences in urge ratings. Empirically derived regions of interest from analysis of activation during the task were used as seeds for examining group differences in resting-state functional connectivity. In both urgency urinary incontinent participants and controls, changes in urge ratings were greatest during bladder filling initiated from a high baseline bladder volume and urgency incontinent participants' rating changes were greater than controls. During this bladder

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging--cardiac ejection fraction measurements. Phantom study comparing four different methods.

    PubMed

    Debatin, J F; Nadel, S N; Sostman, H D; Spritzer, C E; Evans, A J; Grist, T M

    1992-03-01

    The accuracy of cardiac ejection fraction (EF) measurements with thin, contiguous cine-magnetic resonance imaging (MR) sections is well established. Still, faster imaging and measurement techniques would be desirable. The authors evaluated the accuracy of four different MR EF measurements methods in a biventricular, anthropomorphic, foam-latex rubber phantom which was connected via noncompliant fluid-filled tubing to a pulsatile flow pump. Nine contiguous 10 mm cine-MR sections (TR/TE, 25/13; flip angle, 45 degrees) were obtained through the heart in long and short cardiac axes at 16 frames per cardiac cycle at a pump rate of 60 beats/minute. EF measurements were based on either the multi-slice summation technique (nine contiguous 10-mm sections versus four 10-mm sections spaced 10 mm apart) or the area-length method (single largest long section versus combination of largest long- and short-axis section). Three replications were performed for each of the tested EFs (40.8%, 29.4%, and 13.4%), which were compared with actual EFs. EF measurements based on contiguous 1-cm sections correlated best with the actual EFs. Average relative errors ranged from 3.2% to 6.0%. EF measurements based on every other section were less accurate; average relative errors were between 5.2% and 10.2%. Single and biplane area-length algorithm EF measurements were significantly less accurate; average relative errors were as high as 59%. EF measurements based on multi-slice summation are more accurate than those based on the area-length algorithm. Contiguous 1-cm section acquisitions are most accurate and most time consuming. With slight decrease of accuracy, acquisition and processing times can be halved by skipping every other slice.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features of Solitary Hypothalamitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Wang, Jing; Wu, Yue; Tang, Ying; Tao, Ran; Ye, Hongying; Yao, Zhenwei

    The study aimed to characterize magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of solitary hypothalamitis and evaluate their clinical value in diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging scans, including T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, of 8 biopsy-proven hypothalamitis lesions were retrospectively analyzed along with MRI features including size, shape, signal intensity, enhancement pattern, correlation with adjacent tissues, and changes in infundibular stalk and sella turcica. Of 8 patients, 5 were diagnosed with lymphoplasmacytic proliferative inflammation, 2 with Langerhans cell histocytosis, and 1 with Rosai-Dorfman disease. Solitary hypothalamitis predominantly demonstrated mild hypointensity/isointensity in T1WI and mild hyperintensity in T2-weighted imaging. In contrast-enhanced T1WI, all lesions showed heterogeneous but primarily peripheral enhancement patterns. Seven cases showed the polygon sign. In T1WI, the normal high signal intensity of neurohypophysis was absent from all patients, with no infundibular stalk thickening. Seven patients presented with optic chiasma edema, and 5 with edema-like changes along the optic tract (OTE), but most showed no visual impairment (n = 7). Magnetic resonance imaging, particularly postcontrast MRI, is the optimal modality for assessment of hypothalamic lesions. Peripheral enhancement with polygon sign and optic tract or chiasm edema without visual impairment are highly suggestive of hypothalamitis.

  7. Do calendrical savants use calculation to answer date questions? A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Richard; Frith, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Calendrical savants can name the weekdays for dates from different years with remarkable speed and accuracy. Whether calculation rather than just memory is involved is disputed. Grounds for doubting whether they can calculate are reviewed and criteria for attributing date calculation skills to them are discussed. At least some calendrical savants possess date calculation skills. A behavioural characteristic observed in many calendrical savants is increased response time for questions about more remote years. This may be because more remote years require more calculation or because closer years are more practised. An experiment is reported that used functional magnetic resonance imaging to attempt to discriminate between these explanations. Only two savants could be scanned and excessive head movement corrupted one savant's mental arithmetic data. Nevertheless, there was increased parietal activation during both mental arithmetic and date questions and this region showed increased activity with more remote dates. These results suggest that the calendrical skills observed in savants result from intensive practice with calculations used in solving mental arithmetic problems. The mystery is not how they solve these problems, but why. PMID:19528025

  8. Neural substrates of sarcasm: a functional magnetic-resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Kageyama, Hiroko; Saito, Daisuke N; Koeda, Tatsuya; Ohno, Kousaku; Sadato, Norihiro

    2006-12-08

    The understanding of sarcasm reflects a complex process, which involves recognizing the beliefs of the speaker. There is a clear association between deficits in mentalizing, which is the ability to understand other people's behavior in terms of their mental state, and the understanding of sarcasm in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. This suggests that mentalizing is important in pragmatic non-literal language comprehension. To highlight the neural substrates of sarcasm, 20 normal adult volunteers underwent functional magnetic-resonance imaging. We used scenario-reading tasks, in which sentences describing a certain situation were presented, followed by the protagonist's comments regarding that situation. Depending on the situation, the semantic content of the comments was classified as sarcastic, non-sarcastic, or contextually unconnected. As the combination of the first and second sentences represented discourse-level information that was not encoded in the individual sentences, sarcasm detection was represented as the differential activation induced by the second sentences. Sarcasm detection activated the left temporal pole, the superior temporal sulcus, the medial prefrontal cortex, and the inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area [BA] 47). The left BA 47 was activated more prominently by sarcasm detection than by the first sentence. These findings indicate that the detection of sarcasm recruits the medial prefrontal cortex, which is part of the mentalizing system, as well as the neural substrates involved in reading sentences. The left BA 47 might therefore be where mentalizing and language processes interact during sarcasm detection.

  9. Abnormal fear circuitry in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A controlled magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Andrea E; Marin, Marie-France; Milad, Mohammed R; Spencer, Thomas J; Bogucki, Olivia E; Pope, Amanda L; Plasencia, Natalie; Hughes, Brittany; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Fitzgerald, Maura; Uchida, Mai; Biederman, Joseph

    2017-04-30

    We examined whether non-traumatized subjects with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have dysfunctional activation in brain structures mediating fear extinction, possibly explaining the statistical association between ADHD and other disorders characterized by aberrant fear processing such as PTSD. Medication naïve, non-traumatized young adult subjects with (N=27) and without (N=20) ADHD underwent a 2-day fear conditioning and extinction protocol in a 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner. Skin conductance response (SCR) was recorded as a measure of conditioned response. Compared to healthy controls, ADHD subjects had significantly greater insular cortex activation during early extinction, lesser dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activation during late extinction, lesser ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) activation during late extinction learning and extinction recall, and greater hippocampal activation during extinction recall. Hippocampal and vmPFC deficits were similar to those documented in PTSD subjects compared to traumatized controls without PTSD. Non-traumatized, medication naive adults with ADHD had abnormalities in fear circuits during extinction learning and extinction recall, and some findings were consistent with those previously documented in subjects with PTSD compared to traumatized controls without PTSD. These findings could explain the significant association between ADHD and PTSD as well as impaired emotion regulation in ADHD.

  10. Visual cortex in dementia with Lewy bodies: magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, John-Paul; Firbank, Michael J.; He, Jiabao; Barnett, Nicola; Pearce, Sarah; Livingstone, Anthea; Vuong, Quoc; McKeith, Ian G.; O’Brien, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Visual hallucinations and visuoperceptual deficits are common in dementia with Lewy bodies, suggesting that cortical visual function may be abnormal. Aims To investigate: (1) cortical visual function using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); and (2) the nature and severity of perfusion deficits in visual areas using arterial spin labelling (ASL)-MRI. Method In total, 17 participants with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB group) and 19 similarly aged controls were presented with simple visual stimuli (checkerboard, moving dots, and objects) during fMRI and subsequently underwent ASL-MRI (DLB group n = 15, control group n = 19). Results Functional activations were evident in visual areas in both the DLB and control groups in response to checkerboard and objects stimuli but reduced visual area V5/MT (middle temporal) activation occurred in the DLB group in response to motion stimuli. Posterior cortical perfusion deficits occurred in the DLB group, particularly in higher visual areas. Conclusions Higher visual areas, particularly occipito-parietal, appear abnormal in dementia with Lewy bodies, while there is a preservation of function in lower visual areas (V1 and V2/3). PMID:22500014

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging and histological studies of corpus callosal and hippocampal abnormalities linked to doublecortin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kappeler, Caroline; Dhenain, Marc; Phan Dinh Tuy, Françoise; Saillour, Yoann; Marty, Serge; Fallet-Bianco, Catherine; Souville, Isabelle; Souil, Evelyne; Pinard, Jean-Marc; Meyer, Gundela; Encha-Razavi, Ferechté; Volk, Andreas; Beldjord, Cherif; Chelly, Jamel; Francis, Fiona

    2007-01-10

    Mutated doublecortin (DCX) gives rise to severe abnormalities in human cortical development. Adult Dcx knockout mice show no major neocortical defects but do have a disorganized hippocampus. We report here the developmental basis of these hippocampal abnormalities. A heterotopic band of neurons was identified starting at E17.5 in the CA3 region and progressing throughout the CA1 region by E18.5. At neonatal stages, the CA1 heterotopic band was reduced, but the CA3 band remained unchanged, continuing into adulthood. Thus, in mouse, migration of CA3 neurons is arrested during development, whereas CA1 cell migration is retarded. On the Sv129Pas background, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also suggested abnormal dorsal hippocampal morphology, displaced laterally and sometimes rostrally and associated with medial brain structure abnormalities. MRI and cryosectioning showed agenesis of the corpus callosum in Dcx knockout mice on this background and an intermediate, partial agenesis in heterozygote mice. Wild-type littermates showed no callosal abnormalities. Hippocampal and corpus callosal abnormalities were also characterized in DCX-mutated human patients. Severe hippocampal hypoplasia was identified along with variable corpus callosal defects ranging from total agenesis to an abnormally thick or thin callosum. Our data in the mouse, identifying roles for Dcx in hippocampal and corpus callosal development, might suggest intrinsic roles for human DCX in the development of these structures.

  12. White matter integrity in Asperger syndrome: a preliminary diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging study in adults.

    PubMed

    Bloemen, Oswald J N; Deeley, Quinton; Sundram, Fred; Daly, Eileen M; Barker, Gareth J; Jones, Derek K; van Amelsvoort, Therese A M J; Schmitz, Nicole; Robertson, Dene; Murphy, Kieran C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2010-10-01

    Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), including Asperger syndrome and autism, is a highly genetic neurodevelopmental disorder. There is a consensus that ASD has a biological basis, and it has been proposed that it is a "connectivity" disorder. Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DT-MRI) allows measurement of the microstructural integrity of white matter (a proxy measure of "connectivity"). However, nobody has investigated the microstructural integrity of whole brain white matter in people with Asperger syndrome. We measured the fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD) and radial diffusivity (RD) of white matter, using DT-MRI, in 13 adults with Asperger syndrome and 13 controls. The groups did not differ significantly in overall intelligence and age. FA, MD and RD were assessed using whole brain voxel-based techniques. Adults with Asperger syndrome had a significantly lower FA than controls in 13 clusters. These were largely bilateral and included white matter in the internal capsule, frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes, cingulum and corpus callosum. Adults with Asperger syndrome have widespread significant differences from controls in white matter microstructural integrity.

  13. Thigh rotation and the anterior approach to the sciatic nerve: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Moore, Colin Scott; Sheppard, Declan; Wildsmith, John Anthony W

    2004-01-01

    The anterior approach to the sciatic nerve block may be associated with a high failure rate because the nerve lies posterior to the lesser trochanter of the femur at the level of needle insertion. However, previous work using cadavers demonstrated that internal rotation of the leg renders the nerve more accessible to the anterior approach. Ten volunteers consented to undergo magnetic resonance imaging. Markers were placed on the surface where a needle would have been inserted for an anterior approach to the sciatic nerve. Three scans were then performed: the first with both legs in the neutral position, the second with maximal bilateral internal rotation at the hip, and the third with maximal bilateral external rotation at the hip. Examination of the scans by a consultant radiologist showed that, as the thigh is rotated, the number of scans showing an unobstructed needle passage from the skin marker to the sciatic nerve rate increased from 5% in external rotation to 85% in internal rotation. The number of times the needle path passed through femoral neurovascular bundle also fell from 55% in external rotation to 15% in internal rotation. The results confirm that, as the thigh is moved from an externally to an internally rotated position, the sciatic nerve becomes more accessible by the anterior approach at the level of the lesser trochanter, and the risk of femoral artery or nerve puncture is reduced but not eliminated.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging studies of spontaneous capillary water imbibition in aerated gypsum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kyung-Min; Mitchell, Jonathan; Jaffel, Hamouda; Gladden, Lynn F.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we investigate both capillary water imbibition and the sorptivity of aerated gypsum plaster, and how these sorption characteristics are related to the pore structure of the material. These characteristics are examined by monitoring mass change using the conventional gravimetric method and by obtaining water content profiles using non-destructive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques during capillary imbibition of water. Here, three different gypsum samples are investigated: one non-aerated reference gypsum sample and two aerated gypsum samples produced with different volumetric air fractions. The capillary water absorption into the reference sample follows t1/2 kinetics (Fickian diffusion), where t is the time of ingress. However, in the aerated gypsum samples there are deviations from t1/2 kinetics. The MRI results show unambiguously that two wetting fronts advance through the aerated structure; an observation that cannot be made from the gravimetric data alone. The water content profiles of the aerated gypsum samples are therefore analysed by treating them as the sum of two separate absorption processes using sharp front analysis. The capillary water absorption properties of this material are well described as a parallel combination of fast absorption into fine matrix pores and slow absorption into a modified structure of matrix pores inter-connected to air voids introduced into the slurry by aeration.

  15. Reward Abnormalities Among Women with Full and Subthreshold Bulimia Nervosa: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that women with full and subthreshold bulimia nervosa show abnormal neural activation in response to food intake and anticipated food intake relative to healthy control women. Method Females with and without full/subthreshold bulimia nervosa recruited from the community (N = 26) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless control solution. Results Women with bulimia nervosa showed trends for less activation than healthy controls in the right anterior insula in response to anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake (versus tasteless solution) and in the left middle frontal gyrus, right posterior insula, right precentral gyrus, and right mid dorsal insula in response to consumptions of milkshake (versus tasteless solution). Discussion Bulimia nervosa may be related to potential hypo-functioning of the brain reward system, which may lead these individuals to binge eat to compensate for this reward deficit, though the hypo-responsivity might be a result of a history of binge eating highly palatable foods. PMID:21997421

  16. ANATOMICAL STUDY OF CRANIAL NERVE EMERGENCE AND SKULL FORAMINA IN THE HORSE USING MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Rita; Malalana, Fernando; McConnell, James Fraser; Maddox, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    For accurate interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR) images of the equine brain, knowledge of the normal cross-sectional anatomy of the brain and associated structures (such as the cranial nerves) is essential. The purpose of this prospective cadaver study was to describe and compare MRI and computed tomography (CT) anatomy of cranial nerves' origins and associated skull foramina in a sample of five horses. All horses were presented for euthanasia for reasons unrelated to the head. Heads were collected posteuthanasia and T2-weighted MR images were obtained in the transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes. Thin-slice MR sequences were also acquired using transverse 3D-CISS sequences that allowed mutliplanar reformatting. Transverse thin-slice CT images were acquired and multiplanar reformatting was used to create comparative images. Magnetic resonance imaging consistently allowed visualization of cranial nerves II, V, VII, VIII, and XII in all horses. The cranial nerves III, IV, and VI were identifiable as a group despite difficulties in identification of individual nerves. The group of cranial nerves IX, X, and XI were identified in 4/5 horses although the region where they exited the skull was identified in all cases. The course of nerves II and V could be followed on several slices and the main divisions of cranial nerve V could be distinguished in all cases. In conclusion, CT allowed clear visualization of the skull foramina and occasionally the nerves themselves, facilitating identification of the nerves for comparison with MRI images. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  17. Neural Correlates of Symptom Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Andrew R.; Akkal, Dalila; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Mataix-Cols, David; Kalas, Catherine; Devlin, Bernie; Birmaher, Boris; Phillips, Mary L.

    2009-01-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging on a group of pediatric subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder reveals that this group has reduced activity in neural regions underlying emotional processing, cognitive processing, and motor performance as compared to control subjects.

  18. Neural Correlates of Symptom Dimensions in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Andrew R.; Akkal, Dalila; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Mataix-Cols, David; Kalas, Catherine; Devlin, Bernie; Birmaher, Boris; Phillips, Mary L.

    2009-01-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging on a group of pediatric subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder reveals that this group has reduced activity in neural regions underlying emotional processing, cognitive processing, and motor performance as compared to control subjects.

  19. Functional magnetic resonance imaging study on dysphagia after unilateral hemispheric stroke: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Luo, C; Yu, B; Yan, B; Gong, Q; He, C; He, L; Huang, X; Yao, D; Lui, S; Tang, H; Chen, Q; Zeng, Y; Zhou, D

    2009-12-01

    Swallowing dysfunction is common and disabling after acute stroke; however, the mechanism of dysphagia or recovery of swallowing from dysphagia remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to explore cerebral activation of swallowing in dysphagia using functional MRI (fMRI) to compare the functional anatomy of swallowing in unilateral hemispheric stroke patients and healthy adults. In total, five left hemispheric stroke patients with dysphagia, five right hemispheric stroke patients with dysphagia and 10 healthy controls were examined with event related fMRI while laryngeal swallow related movements were recorded. Data were processed using the general linear model. A multifocal cerebral representation of swallowing was identified predominantly in the left hemisphere, in a bilateral and asymmetrical manner. Cerebral activation during swallowing tasks was localised to the precentral, postcentral and anterior cingulate gyri, insula and thalamus in all groups. Activation of volitional swallowing in dysphagic unilateral hemispheric stroke patients might require reorganisation of the dominant hemispheric motor cortex, or a compensatory shift in activation to unaffected areas of the hemisphere. The results indicate that unilateral stroke of either cerebral hemisphere can produce dysphagia. Effective recovery is associated with cerebral activation related to cortical swallowing representation in the compensating or recruited areas of the intact hemisphere. Functional MRI is a useful method for exploring the spatial localisation of changes in neuronal activity during tasks that may be related to recovery. Therefore, the subsequent information gleaned from changes in neural plasticity could be useful for assessing the prognosis of dysphagic stroke.

  20. Novel application of imaging surface plasmon resonance for in situ studies of the surface exploration of marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Olof; Ekblad, Tobias; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S; Liedberg, Bo

    2009-12-01

    The surface interactions of exploring cyprids of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides were studied in situ using imaging surface plasmon resonance. It was demonstrated how the deposition of a proteinaceous adhesive could be followed in real time as the cyprids explored and temporarily attached to a surface. Furthermore, the amount of protein left on the surface when the cyprids moved on could be quantified. Clear differences were demonstrated between an oligo(ethyleneglycol) coated surface and a bare gold substrate. It is anticipated that this technique will be a valuable tool in the development of novel surface chemistries that can prevent biofouling.

  1. [Presurgical functional magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Stippich, C

    2010-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an important and novel neuroimaging modality for patients with brain tumors. By non-invasive measurement, localization and lateralization of brain activiation, most importantly of motor and speech function, fMRI facilitates the selection of the most appropriate and sparing treatment and function-preserving surgery. Prerequisites for the diagnostic use of fMRI are the application of dedicated clinical imaging protocols and standardization of the respective imaging procedures. The combination with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) also enables tracking and visualization of important fiber bundles such as the pyramidal tract and the arcuate fascicle. These multimodal MR data can be implemented in computer systems for functional neuronavigation or radiation treatment. The practicability, accuracy and reliability of presurgical fMRI have been validated by large numbers of published data. However, fMRI cannot be considered as a fully established modality of diagnostic neuroimaging due to the lack of guidelines of the responsible medical associations as well as the lack of medical certification of important hardware and software components. This article reviews the current research in the field and provides practical information relevant for presurgical fMRI.

  2. Near field imaging with resonant cavity lens.

    PubMed

    Li, Guixin; Li, Jensen; Tam, H L; Chan, C T; Cheah, K W

    2010-02-01

    We showed that a Ag-SiO(2)-Ag Fabry-Pérot cavity can be used in near-field imaging based on omnidirectional resonance tunneling. The omnidirectional resonance was experimentally demonstrated in the Ag-SiO(2)-Ag resonant cavity working at a wavelength of 365 nm. The resonant cavity lens with high transmittance and high image fidelity was fabricated using standard photolithography method. Grating source with 190 nm line resolution was imaged through the resonant cavity lens with a total thickness of 128 nm.

  3. Near-Resonant Imaging of Trapped Cold Atomic Samples

    PubMed Central

    You, L.; Lewenstein, Maciej

    1996-01-01

    We study the formation of diffraction patterns in the near-resonant imaging of trapped cold atomic samples. We show that the spatial imaging can provide detailed information on the trapped atomic clouds. PMID:27805110

  4. Implications for psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy: functional magnetic resonance imaging study with psilocybin.

    PubMed

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Leech, R; Williams, T M; Erritzoe, D; Abbasi, N; Bargiotas, T; Hobden, P; Sharp, D J; Evans, J; Feilding, A; Wise, R G; Nutt, D J

    2012-03-01

    Psilocybin is a classic psychedelic drug that has a history of use in psychotherapy. One of the rationales for its use was that it aids emotional insight by lowering psychological defences. To test the hypothesis that psilocybin facilitates access to personal memories and emotions by comparing subjective and neural responses to positive autobiographical memories under psilocybin and placebo. Ten healthy participants received two functional magnetic resonance imaging scans (2 mg intravenous psilocybin v. intravenous saline), separated by approximately 7 days, during which they viewed two different sets of 15 positive autobiographical memory cues. Participants viewed each cue for 6 s and then closed their eyes for 16 s and imagined re-experiencing the event. Activations during this recollection period were compared with an equivalent period of eyes-closed rest. We split the recollection period into an early phase (first 8 s) and a late phase (last 8 s) for analysis. Robust activations to the memories were seen in limbic and striatal regions in the early phase and the medial prefrontal cortex in the late phase in both conditions (P<0.001, whole brain cluster correction), but there were additional visual and other sensory cortical activations in the late phase under psilocybin that were absent under placebo. Ratings of memory vividness and visual imagery were significantly higher after psilocybin (P<0.05) and there was a significant positive correlation between vividness and subjective well-being at follow-up (P<0.01). Evidence that psilocybin enhances autobiographical recollection implies that it may be useful in psychotherapy either as a tool to facilitate the recall of salient memories or to reverse negative cognitive biases.

  5. Atypical Learning in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Transitive Inference

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Marjorie; Ragland, J. Daniel; Niendam, Tara A.; Lesh, Tyler A.; Beck, Jonathan S.; Matter, John C.; Frank, Michael J.; Carter, Cameron S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying impairments in generalizing learning shown by adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method Twenty-one high-functioning individuals with ASD aged 12–18 years, and 23 gender, IQ, and age-matched adolescents with typical development (TYP) completed a transitive inference (TI) task implemented using rapid event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). They were trained on overlapping pairs in a stimulus hierarchy of colored ovals where A>B>C>D>E>F and then tested on generalizing this training to new stimulus pairings (AF, BD, BE) in a “Big Game.” Whole-brain univariate, region of interest, and functional connectivity analyses were used. Results During training, TYP exhibited increased recruitment of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), while the group with ASD showed greater functional connectivity between the PFC and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Both groups recruited the hippocampus and caudate comparably; however, functional connectivity between these regions was positively associated with TI performance for only the group with ASD. During the Big Game, TYP showed greater recruitment of the PFC, parietal cortex, and the ACC. Recruitment of these regions increased with age in the group with ASD. Conclusion During TI, TYP recruited cognitive control-related brain regions implicated in mature problem solving/reasoning including the PFC, parietal cortex, and ACC, while the group with ASD showed functional connectivity of the hippocampus and the caudate that was associated with task performance. Failure to reliably engage cognitive control-related brain regions may produce less integrated flexible learning in those with ASD unless they are provided with task support that in essence provides them with cognitive control, but this pattern may normalize with age. PMID:26506585

  6. Amphetamine sensitisation and memory in healthy human volunteers: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    O'Daly, Owen G; Joyce, Daniel; Tracy, Derek K; Stephan, Klaas E; Murray, Robin M; Shergill, Sukhwinder

    2014-09-01

    Amphetamine sensitisation (AS) is an established animal model of the hypersensitivity to psychostimulants seen in patients with schizophrenia. AS also models the dysregulation of mesolimbic dopamine signalling which has been implicated in the development of psychotic symptoms. Recent data suggest that the enhanced excitability of mesolimbic dopamine neurons in AS is driven by a hyperactivity of hippocampal (subiculum) neurons, consistent with a strong association between hippocampal dysfunction and schizophrenia. While AS can be modelled in human volunteers, its functional consequences on dopaminoceptive brain regions (i.e. striatum and hippocampus) remains unclear. Here we describe the effects of a sensitising dosage pattern of dextroamphetamine on the neural correlates of motor sequence learning in healthy volunteers, within a randomised, double-blind, parallel-groups design. Behaviourally, sensitisation was characterised by enhanced subjective responses to amphetamine but did not change performance (i.e. learning rate) during an explicit sequence learning task. In contrast, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements showed that repeated intermittent amphetamine exposure was associated with increased blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal within the medial temporal lobe (MTL) (subiculum/entorhinal cortex) and midbrain, in the vicinity of the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA) during sequence encoding. Importantly, MTL hyperactivity correlated with the sensitisation of amphetamine-induced attentiveness. The MTL-midbrain hyperactivity reported here mirrors observations in sensitised rodents and is consistent with contemporary models of schizophrenia and behavioural sensitisation. These findings of meso-hippocampal hyperactivity during AS thus link pathophysiological concepts of dopamine dysregulation to cognitive models of psychosis.

  7. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Scar Development Following Pulmonary Vein Isolation: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Benjamin R.; Manning, Warren J.; Josephson, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (MR) provides non-invasive assessment of early (24-hour) edema and injury following pulmonary vein isolation (by ablation) and subsequent scar formation. We hypothesize that 24-hours after ablation, cardiovascular MR would demonstrate a pattern of edema and injury due to ablation and the severity would correlate with subsequent scar. Methods Fifteen atrial fibrillation patients underwent cardiovascular MR prior to pulmonary vein isolation, 24-hours post (N = 11) and 30-days post (N = 7) ablation, with T2-weighted (T2W) and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging. Left atrial wall thickness, edema enhancement ratio and LGE enhancement were assessed at each time point. Volumes of LGE and edema enhancement were measured, and the circumferential presence of injury was assessed at 24-hours, including comparison with LGE enhancement at 30 days. Results Left atrial wall thickness was increased 24-hours post-ablation (10.7±4.1 mm vs. 7.0±1.8 mm pre-PVI, p<0.05). T2W enhancement at 24-hours showed increased edema enhancement ratio (1.5±0.4 for post-ablation, vs. 0.9±0.2 pre-ablation, p<0.001). Edema and LGE volumes at 24-hours were correlated with 30-day LGE volume (R = 0.76, p = 0.04, and R = 0.74, p = 0.09, respectively). Using a 16 segment model for assessment, 24-hour T2W had sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 82%, 63%, and 79% respectively, for predicting 30-day LGE. 24-hour LGE had sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 91%, 47%, and 84%. Conclusions Increased left atrial wall thickening and edema were characterized on cardiovascular MR early post-ablation, and found to correlate with 30-day LGE scar. PMID:25251403

  8. Neural networks for action representation: a functional magnetic-resonance imaging and dynamic causal modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Akihiro T.; Kochiyama, Takanori; Sugiura, Motoaki; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Sadato, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    Automatic mimicry is based on the tight linkage between motor and perception action representations in which internal models play a key role. Based on the anatomical connection, we hypothesized that the direct effective connectivity from the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) to the ventral premotor area (PMv) formed an inverse internal model, converting visual representation into a motor plan, and that reverse connectivity formed a forward internal model, converting the motor plan into a sensory outcome of action. To test this hypothesis, we employed dynamic causal-modeling analysis with functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-four normal participants underwent a change-detection task involving two visually-presented balls that were either manually rotated by the investigator's right hand (“Hand”) or automatically rotated. The effective connectivity from the pSTS to the PMv was enhanced by hand observation and suppressed by execution, corresponding to the inverse model. Opposite effects were observed from the PMv to the pSTS, suggesting the forward model. Additionally, both execution and hand observation commonly enhanced the effective connectivity from the pSTS to the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), the IPL to the primary sensorimotor cortex (S/M1), the PMv to the IPL, and the PMv to the S/M1. Representation of the hand action therefore was implemented in the motor system including the S/M1. During hand observation, effective connectivity toward the pSTS was suppressed whereas that toward the PMv and S/M1 was enhanced. Thus, the action-representation network acted as a dynamic feedback-control system during action observation. PMID:22912611

  9. The Multisensory Attentional Consequences of Tool Use: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Nicholas P.; Spence, Charles; Hansen, Peter C.; Mackay, Clare E.; Calvert, Gemma A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Tool use in humans requires that multisensory information is integrated across different locations, from objects seen to be distant from the hand, but felt indirectly at the hand via the tool. We tested the hypothesis that using a simple tool to perceive vibrotactile stimuli results in the enhanced processing of visual stimuli presented at the distal, functional part of the tool. Such a finding would be consistent with a shift of spatial attention to the location where the tool is used. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested this hypothesis by scanning healthy human participants' brains using functional magnetic resonance imaging, while they used a simple tool to discriminate between target vibrations, accompanied by congruent or incongruent visual distractors, on the same or opposite side to the tool. The attentional hypothesis was supported: BOLD response in occipital cortex, particularly in the right hemisphere lingual gyrus, varied significantly as a function of tool position, increasing contralaterally, and decreasing ipsilaterally to the tool. Furthermore, these modulations occurred despite the fact that participants were repeatedly instructed to ignore the visual stimuli, to respond only to the vibrotactile stimuli, and to maintain visual fixation centrally. In addition, the magnitude of multisensory (visual-vibrotactile) interactions in participants' behavioural responses significantly predicted the BOLD response in occipital cortical areas that were also modulated as a function of both visual stimulus position and tool position. Conclusions/Significance These results show that using a simple tool to locate and to perceive vibrotactile stimuli is accompanied by a shift of spatial attention to the location where the functional part of the tool is used, resulting in enhanced processing of visual stimuli at that location, and decreased processing at other locations. This was most clearly observed in the right hemisphere lingual gyrus. Such

  10. Reduced medial temporal lobe functionality in stroke patients: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Snaphaan, Liselore; Rijpkema, Mark; van Uden, Inge; Fernández, Guillén; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2009-07-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability, not only because of motor limitations, but also because of the frequent occurrence of post-stroke cognitive impairment. This is illustrated by the fact that the risk of post-stroke dementia is reportedly higher than a recurrent stroke. The loss of subcortical and cortical functions in the post-stroke cognitive dysfunction spectrum is usually well explained by the size and location of the infarction. However, this does not apply for post-stroke memory dysfunction (especially episodic memory dysfunction), as there is almost never an infarction in the medial temporal lobe. Involvement of the medial temporal lobe in post-stroke memory dysfunction seems likely since this structure is essential for memory encoding and retrieval. For a proper episodic memory function, the medial temporal lobe depends on intact connections with virtually the whole brain. Disconnection from other brain areas due to the infarction could lead to a reduced medial temporal lobe function and the attendant reduced episodic memory function. We investigated medial temporal lobe functionality in 28 'first-ever' stroke patients and 22 healthy controls with the aid of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Stroke patients with a reduced episodic memory function 6-8 weeks after infarction had reduced medial temporal lobe functionality. Post-stroke reduced medial temporal lobe functionality may be responsible for the frequent observation of impaired post-stroke episodic memory function. Insight into this mechanism could be helpful in identifying which stroke patients may be at increased risk for developing post-stroke dementia and those who could benefit from early cognitive rehabilitation.

  11. a Study of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Variations in Vivo Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuder, Michelle Sandy

    We have measured non-invasively the transcapillary transport of water and an extracellular marker, gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (Gd-DTPA) in the living brain using conventional and rapid NMR imaging strategies. Detection of water exchange post-contrast and of Gd-DTPA leakage across an intact and hyperosmotically-disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB) were investigated in animal models. The development of high speed magnetic resonance imaging methods provides a tool for measuring short-term variations in BBB permeability in vivo over relatively short experimental time periods, and for determining the influence of these permeability changes on other physiologic parameters. The overall aims of this thesis have been to exploit the high temporal resolution available with a fast scanning technique, echo-planar imaging, to (1) quantitate the permeability of the BBB to water before and after altering the exchange capacity of the capillary bed, (2) use these measurements to model small, reversible changes in permeability to Gd-DTPA in terms of the post -contrast relaxation characteristics of the blood and tissue spaces during the first- and multiple-pass phases of transport, and (3) explore the influence of an increased permeability on the first-pass kinetic behavior. We initially present the theory of two-site water exchange, a modification of the Bloch equations used to examine time-dependent changes in the nuclear spin magnetization with time. The solutions of these equations for our particular imaging experiment were initially validated in a well-characterized dialysis chamber in order to demonstrate the sensitivity of the experiment to detecting biexponential signal decay. Upon validating the theory, we measured water exchange times in vivo in rodent and canine brain. A biexponential model of NMR signal decay was used to determine both the intravascular blood volume and intravascular water lifetime. Mannitol, a hyperosmotic solution, which can increase BBB

  12. Role of pyruvate dehydrogenase inhibition in the development of hypertrophy in the hyperthyroid rat heart: a combined magnetic resonance imaging and hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Helen J; Dodd, Michael S; Heather, Lisa C; Schroeder, Marie A; Griffin, Julian L; Radda, George K; Clarke, Kieran; Tyler, Damian J

    2011-06-07

    Hyperthyroidism increases heart rate, contractility, cardiac output, and metabolic rate. It is also accompanied by alterations in the regulation of cardiac substrate use. Specifically, hyperthyroidism increases the ex vivo activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, thereby inhibiting glucose oxidation via pyruvate dehydrogenase. Cardiac hypertrophy is another effect of hyperthyroidism, with an increase in the abundance of mitochondria. Although the hypertrophy is initially beneficial, it can eventually lead to heart failure. The aim of this study was to use hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate the rate and regulation of in vivo pyruvate dehydrogenase flux in the hyperthyroid heart and to establish whether modulation of flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase would alter cardiac hypertrophy. Hyperthyroidism was induced in 18 male Wistar rats with 7 daily intraperitoneal injections of freshly prepared triiodothyronine (0.2 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)). In vivo pyruvate dehydrogenase flux, assessed with hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopy, was reduced by 59% in hyperthyroid animals (0.0022 ± 0.0002 versus 0.0055 ± 0.0005 second(-1); P=0.0003), and this reduction was completely reversed by both short- and long-term delivery of dichloroacetic acid, a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitor. Hyperpolarized [2-(13)C]pyruvate was also used to evaluate Krebs cycle metabolism and demonstrated a unique marker of anaplerosis, the level of which was significantly increased in the hyperthyroid heart. Cine magnetic resonance imaging showed that long-term dichloroacetic acid treatment significantly reduced the hypertrophy observed in hyperthyroid animals (100 ± 20 versus 200 ± 30 mg; P=0.04) despite no change in the increase observed in cardiac output. This work has demonstrated that inhibition of glucose oxidation in the hyperthyroid heart in vivo is mediated by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. Relieving this inhibition can increase the metabolic

  13. Reduction process of nitroxyl spin probes used in Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: An ESR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meenakumari, V.; Jawahar, A.; Premkumar, S.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2016-05-01

    The Electron spin resonance studies on the reduction process of nitroxyl spin probes were carried out for 1mM 14N- labeled nitroxyl radicals in pure water and 1 mM concentration of ascorbic acid as a function of time. The electron spin resonance parameters, such as line width, hyperfine coupling constant, g-factor, signal intensity ratio and rotational correlation time were estimated. The 3-carbamoyl-PROXYL radical has narrowest line width and fast tumbling motion compared with 3-carboxy-PROXYL, 4-methoxy-TEMPO, and 4-acetamido-TEMPO radicals. The half life time and decay rate were estimated for 1mM concentration of 14N- labeled nitroxyl radicals in 1 mM concentration of ascorbic acid. From the results, the 3-carbamoyl-PROXYL has long half life time and high stability compared with 3-carboxy-PROXYL, 4-methoxy-TEMPO and 4-acetamido-TEMPO radicals. Therefore, this study reveals that the 3-carbamoyl-PROXYL radical can act as a good redox sensitive spin probe for Overhauser-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

  14. Reduction process of nitroxyl spin probes used in Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: An ESR study

    SciTech Connect

    Meenakumari, V.; Premkumar, S.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin; Jawahar, A.

    2016-05-23

    The Electron spin resonance studies on the reduction process of nitroxyl spin probes were carried out for 1mM {sup 14}N- labeled nitroxyl radicals in pure water and 1 mM concentration of ascorbic acid as a function of time. The electron spin resonance parameters, such as line width, hyperfine coupling constant, g-factor, signal intensity ratio and rotational correlation time were estimated. The 3-carbamoyl-PROXYL radical has narrowest line width and fast tumbling motion compared with 3-carboxy-PROXYL, 4-methoxy-TEMPO, and 4-acetamido-TEMPO radicals. The half life time and decay rate were estimated for 1mM concentration of {sup 14}N- labeled nitroxyl radicals in 1 mM concentration of ascorbic acid. From the results, the 3-carbamoyl-PROXYL has long half life time and high stability compared with 3-carboxy-PROXYL, 4-methoxy-TEMPO and 4-acetamido-TEMPO radicals. Therefore, this study reveals that the 3-carbamoyl-PROXYL radical can act as a good redox sensitive spin probe for Overhauser-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

  15. Off-resonance frequency filtered magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Medic, Jure; Tomazic, Saso

    2010-05-01

    One of the main problems with rapid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques is the artifacts that result from off-resonance effects. The proposed off-resonance frequency filtered MRI (OFF-MRI) method focuses on the elimination of off-resonance components from the image of the observed object. To maintain imaging speed and simultaneously achieve good frequency selectivity, MRI is divided into two steps: signal acquisition and post-processing. After the preliminary phase in which we determine imaging parameters, MRI takes place; the signal from the same object is successively acquired M times. As a result, we obtain M partial signals in k-space, from which we form the image of the observed object in the post-processing phase, after signal acquisition has been completed. This paper demonstrates that with proper selection of acquisition parameters and weighting coefficients in the post-processing phase, OFF-MRI is equivalent to filtering the signal by finite impulse response filter of length M. It is shown that with M successive acquisitions M-1 off-resonance components can be eliminated (filtered-out) from images, and therefore, only two acquisitions are needed to eliminate one off-resonance components. On the other hand, with OFF-MRI, it is also possible to form the image of an arbitrary off-resonance component by eliminating all other off-resonance components, including the on-resonance component. The proposed OFF-MRI method is suitable for MRI where rapid acquisition is required and elimination of off-resonance components can improve reliability of measurements. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Hayt, M W; Abrahams, J J; Blair, J

    2000-04-01

    The spectrum of disease that affects the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) can be varied. To differentiate among the diseases that cause pain and dysfunction, an intimate knowledge of the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of this region is necessary. Due to the joint's complex anatomy and relationship to the skin, it has been difficult to image in the past. Magnetic resonance imaging is ideally suited for visualizing TMJ because of its superb contrast resolution when imaging soft tissues. Magnetic resonance imaging allows simultaneous bilateral visualization of both joints. The ability to noninvasively resolve anatomic detail can be performed easily and quickly using magnetic resonance imaging. The development of magnetic resonance imaging has greatly aided the diagnosis of TMJ disorders. An understanding of TMJ anatomy and pathogenesis of TMJ pain is crucial for interpretation of magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent treatment.

  17. Molecular and Integrative Physiological Effects of Isoflurane Anesthesia: The Paradigm of Cardiovascular Studies in Rodents using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Constantinides, Christakis; Murphy, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    To-this-date, the exact molecular, cellular, and integrative physiological mechanisms of anesthesia remain largely unknown. Published evidence indicates that anesthetic effects are multifocal and occur in a time-dependent and coordinated manner, mediated via central, local, and peripheral pathways. Their effects can be modulated by a range of variables, and their elicited end-effect on the integrative physiological response is highly variable. This review summarizes the major cellular and molecular sites of anesthetic action with a focus on the paradigm of isoflurane (ISO) – the most commonly used anesthetic nowadays – and its use in prolonged in vivo rodent studies using imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It also presents established evidence for normal ranges of global and regional physiological cardiac function under ISO, proposes optimal, practical methodologies relevant to the use of anesthetic protocols for MRI and outlines the beneficial effects of nitrous oxide supplementation. PMID:27525256

  18. A feasibility study of carotid elastography for risk assessment of atherosclerotic plaques validated by magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaochang; Huang, Lingyun; Huang, Manwei; Zhao, Xihai; He, Le; Yuan, Chun; Bai, Jing; Luo, Jianwen

    2014-03-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. One of its main reasons is rupture of carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Conventional B-mode ultrasound images and Doppler/color flow measurements are mostly used to evaluate degree of stenosis, which underestimates plaque vulnerability. Alternatively, the correspondence between multi-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, plaque composition and histology has been well established. In this study, the feasibility of ultrasound carotid elastography in risk assessment of carotid atherosclerotic plaques is investigated. Preliminarily in-vivo results on a small number of human subjects are initially validated by multi-contrast, highresolution MRI, and it shows that maximum strain rate might be feasible to evaluate the plaque vulnerability.

  19. Neural substrates for depth perception of the Necker cube; a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Inui, T; Tanaka, S; Okada, T; Nishizawa, S; Katayama, M; Konishi, J

    2000-03-24

    We have studied the cerebral activity for the depth perception of the Necker cube by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Three types of line drawing figures were used as stimuli, the Necker cube, hidden line elimination cube and overlapping squares. Subjects were instructed to perceive both orientations of the depth of the Necker cube. They were instructed to shift their attention voluntarily during viewing overlapping squares to obtain a control for the attentional shift in perceiving the Necker cube. A hidden line elimination cube was used as a control for monocular stereopsis. The results showed a clear symmetrical activation in premotor and parietal areas during the Necker cube perception compared with other conditions. The present result suggests that a neural process similar to mental image manipulation occurs during depth perception of the Necker cube.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging: Principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kean, D.; Smith, M.

    1986-01-01

    This text covers the physics underlying magnetic resonance (MR) imaging; pulse sequences; image production; equipment; aspects of clinical imaging; and the imaging of the head and neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis, and musculoskeletal system; and MR imaging. The book provides about 150 examples of MR images that give an overview of the pathologic conditions imaged. There is a discussion of the physics of MR imaging and also on the spin echo.

  1. Breast density quantification using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with bias field correction: A postmortem study

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Huanjun; Johnson, Travis; Lin, Muqing; Le, Huy Q.; Ducote, Justin L.; Su, Min-Ying; Molloi, Sabee

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of breast density based on three-dimensional breast MRI may provide useful information for the early detection of breast cancer. However, the field inhomogeneity can severely challenge the computerized image segmentation process. In this work, the effect of the bias field in breast density quantification has been investigated with a postmortem study. Methods: T1-weighted images of 20 pairs of postmortem breasts were acquired on a 1.5 T breast MRI scanner. Two computer-assisted algorithms were used to quantify the volumetric breast density. First, standard fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering was used on raw images with the bias field present. Then, the coherent local intensity clustering (CLIC) method estimated and corrected the bias field during the iterative tissue segmentation process. Finally, FCM clustering was performed on the bias-field-corrected images produced by CLIC method. The left–right correlation for breasts in the same pair was studied for both segmentation algorithms to evaluate the precision of the tissue classification. Finally, the breast densities measured with the three methods were compared to the gold standard tissue compositions obtained from chemical analysis. The linear correlation coefficient, Pearson's r, was used to evaluate the two image segmentation algorithms and the effect of bias field. Results: The CLIC method successfully corrected the intensity inhomogeneity induced by the bias field. In left–right comparisons, the CLIC method significantly improved the slope and the correlation coefficient of the linear fitting for the glandular volume estimation. The left–right breast density correlation was also increased from 0.93 to 0.98. When compared with the percent fibroglandular volume (%FGV) from chemical analysis, results after bias field correction from both the CLIC the FCM algorithms showed improved linear correlation. As a result, the Pearson's r increased from 0.86 to 0.92 with the bias field correction

  2. Breast density quantification using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with bias field correction: A postmortem study

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Huanjun; Johnson, Travis; Lin, Muqing; Le, Huy Q.; Ducote, Justin L.; Su, Min-Ying; Molloi, Sabee

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Quantification of breast density based on three-dimensional breast MRI may provide useful information for the early detection of breast cancer. However, the field inhomogeneity can severely challenge the computerized image segmentation process. In this work, the effect of the bias field in breast density quantification has been investigated with a postmortem study. Methods: T1-weighted images of 20 pairs of postmortem breasts were acquired on a 1.5 T breast MRI scanner. Two computer-assisted algorithms were used to quantify the volumetric breast density. First, standard fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering was used on raw images with the bias field present. Then, the coherent local intensity clustering (CLIC) method estimated and corrected the bias field during the iterative tissue segmentation process. Finally, FCM clustering was performed on the bias-field-corrected images produced by CLIC method. The left–right correlation for breasts in the same pair was studied for both segmentation algorithms to evaluate the precision of the tissue classification. Finally, the breast densities measured with the three methods were compared to the gold standard tissue compositions obtained from chemical analysis. The linear correlation coefficient, Pearson'sr, was used to evaluate the two image segmentation algorithms and the effect of bias field. Results: The CLIC method successfully corrected the intensity inhomogeneity induced by the bias field. In left–right comparisons, the CLIC method significantly improved the slope and the correlation coefficient of the linear fitting for the glandular volume estimation. The left–right breast density correlation was also increased from 0.93 to 0.98. When compared with the percent fibroglandular volume (%FGV) from chemical analysis, results after bias field correction from both the CLIC the FCM algorithms showed improved linear correlation. As a result, the Pearson'sr increased from 0.86 to 0.92 with the bias field correction

  3. 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and 2H-magnetic resonance imaging studies of a panel of early-generation transplanted murine tumour models.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, S. P.; van den Boogaart, A.; Maxwell, R. J.; Griffiths, J. R.; Hamilton, E.; Waterton, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was first to determine whether three slowly growing early-generation murine transplantable tumours, the T40 fibrosarcoma, T115 mammary carcinoma and T237 lung carcinoma, exhibit patterns of energetics and blood flow during growth that are different from those of the faster growing RIF-1 fibrosarcoma. Serial measurements were made with 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), relating to nutritive blood flow and 2H-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is sensitive to both nutritive and large-vessel (non-nutritive) flow. All four tumour lines showed a decrease in betaNTP/Pi and pH with growth; however, each line showed a different pattern of blood flow that did not correlate with the decrease in energetics. Qualitative histological analysis strongly correlated with the 2H-MRI. Second, their response to 5 mg kg(-1) hydralazine i.v. was monitored by 31P-MRS. A marked decrease in betaNTP/Pi and pH was observed in both the RIF-1 fibrosarcoma and the third-generation T115 mammary carcinoma after hydralazine challenge. In contrast, the fourth generation T40 fibrosarcoma and T237 lung carcinoma showed no change in 31P-MRS parameters. However, a fifth-generation T237 cohort, which grew approximately three times faster than fourth-generation T237 cohorts, exhibited a significant deterioration in betaNTP/Pi and pH in response to hydralazine. These data are consistent with a decoupling between large-vessel and nutritive blood flow and indicate that early-generation transplants that have a slow growth rate and vascular tone are more appropriate models of human tumour vasculature than more rapidly growing, repeatedly transplanted tumours. Images Figure 2 PMID:9667643

  4. Surgical anatomy of the penis in hypospadias: magnetic resonance imaging study of the tissue planes, vessels, and collaterals.

    PubMed

    Kureel, Shiv Narain; Gupta, Archika; Sunil, Kanoujia; Dheer, Yadvendra; Kumar, Manoj; Tomar, Vinod Kumar

    2015-05-01

    To report the surgical anatomy of the penis in hypospadias with study of vessels in relation to fascial planes, glans, corpora cavernosa, and corpus spongiosum using magnetic resonance imaging. Twelve hypospadias presenting at older age (8-20 years) were studied with 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging scanner and a 3-inch surface coil. Precontrast and postcontrast images were acquired using fast-spin echo sequences in sagittal, coronal, and transverse planes. The findings were processed in Volume Share 4.5, version Workstation, of General Electric Healthcare. Anatomic findings were verified during surgery. With imaging and surgical findings, a 3-dimensional conceptual diagram of surgical anatomy was created. Distinct layers of the skin, dartos fascia, Buck fascia, tunica albuginea, glans urothelium, lamina propria of glans, and corpus spongiosum were delineated with their spatial relationship. Axial pattern vessels of the dartos and its anastomosis with branches of dorsal penile vessels at the coronal sulcus, perforators along the corpus spongiosum, subglanular extension of the fascia, and intraglanular branches of the dorsal penile artery forming an arcade were visualized. Dorsomedial and dorsolateral axial pattern vessels are present in penile dartos with relative avascularity at dorsal midline in most cases. Subglanular extension of Buck fascia fused with the basal lamina propria of glans forms a barrier between the tip of corpora and the intraglanular arcade of vessels. Collaterals are present at coronal sulcus, along the bifurcated corpus spongiosum, and the dartos enabling blood flow between the terminal most branches of the external and internal pudendal vessels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensory information processing in neuroleptic-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Braus, Dieter F; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Tost, Heike; Ruf, Matthias; Henn, Fritz A

    2002-08-01

    Schizophrenic disorders are thought to involve widespread abnormalities in information processing. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a simple and robust paradigm that involved auditory and visual activation to examine basic sensory input circuits. Our aim was to determine which stages of the input processing network are disturbed in first-episode schizophrenic patients. Twelve neuroleptic-naive inpatients (paranoid subtype) were compared with 11 healthy subjects by means of echo-planar functional magnetic resonance imaging. In a block design, the paradigm included the simultaneous presentation of a moving 6-Hz checkerboard and auditory stimuli in the form of drumbeats. The subjects were asked to simply look and listen. In comparison with control subjects, patients showed reduced activation in the right thalamus, the right prefrontal cortex, and the parietal lobe (restricted to the dorsal visual pathway) bilaterally. There were no notable differences in the primary visual cortex or the object-specific occipitotemporal pathway. In addition, patients presented with a reduced signal change to auditory stimulation in the left acoustic cortex. The present study supports the concept of widespread cortical and subcortical deficits in schizophrenia. Our findings suggest abnormal functioning early in the information processing and in high-order association cortices already at illness onset, before the administration of medication or the most confounding effects of illness duration. The main regions have been implicated in visual motion perception and discrimination as well as in attention to sensorial events and perceptual synthesis.

  6. Compressive neuropathy of the first branch of the lateral plantar nerve: a study by magnetic resonance imaging*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Rogéria Nobre; Lopes, Alexia Abuhid; Torres, Jardélio Mendes; Mundim, Marina Franco; Silva, Lênio Lúcio Gavio; Silva, Breno Rabelo de Carvalho e

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of isolated findings of abnormalities leading to entrapment of the lateral plantar nerve and respective branches in patients complaining of chronic heel pain, whose magnetic resonance imaging exams have showed complete selective fatty atrophy of the abductor digiti quinti muscle. Materials and Methods Retrospective, analytical, and cross-sectional study. The authors selected magnetic resonance imaging of hindfoot of 90 patients with grade IV abductor digiti quinti muscle atrophy according to Goutallier and Bernageau classification. Patients presenting with minor degrees of fatty muscle degeneration (below grade IV) and those who had been operated on for nerve decompression were excluded. Results A female prevalence (78.8%) was observed, and a strong correlation was found between fatty muscle atrophy and plantar fasciitis in 21.2%, and ankle varices, in 16.8% of the patients. Conclusion Fatty atrophy of the abductor digiti quinti muscle is strongly associated with neuropathic alterations of the first branch of the lateral plantar nerve. The present study showed a significant association between plantar fasciitis and ankle varices with grade IV atrophy of the abductor digiti quinti muscle. PMID:26811554

  7. Terahertz imaging system with resonant tunneling diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Mukai, Toshikazu

    2016-03-01

    We report a feasibility study of a terahertz imaging system with resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) that oscillate at 0.30 THz. A pair of RTDs acted as an emitter and a detector in the system. Terahertz reflection images of opaque samples were acquired with our RTD imaging system. A spatial resolution of 1 mm, which is equal to the wavelength of the RTD emitter, was achieved. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the reflection image was improved by 6 dB by using polarization optics that reduced interference effects. Additionally, the coherence of the RTD enabled a depth resolution of less than 3 µm to be achieved by an interferometric technique. Thus, RTDs are an attractive candidate for use in small THz imaging systems.

  8. Anatomical study of cranial nerve emergence and skull foramina in the dog using magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Laurent; Degueurce, Christophe; Ruel, Yannick; Dennis, Ruth; Begon, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain studies of different breeds of dogs were reviewed to assess the anatomy of cranial nerve (CN) origins and associated skull foramina. These included five anatomic studies of normal brains using 2-mm-thick slices and 17 studies using conventional clinical protocols with 3- or 4-mm slices on both normal and abnormal brains. Images were obtained in transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes to allow a thorough comparison between studies. CNs II, III, V (and its divisions), and VIII were observed consistently on conventional studies. On the thin-slice studies, the origins and proximal portions of CNN IV, VII, and the group of IX, X, and XI could be seen. The origins of CNN VI and XII were not observed with certainty. In parallel, a computed tomography study of an isolated skull was performed with a thin copper wire within each of the skull foramina to determine precisely each CN exit and to facilitate recognition of the course of CNs when exiting the skull on MRI images.

  9. First magenetic resonance imaging studies on aluminium maltolate-treated aged New Zealand rabbits: an Alzheimer's animal model.

    PubMed

    Magisetty, Obulesu; Dowlathabad, Muralidhara Rao; Raichurkar, Keshav P; Mannar, Shamasundar N

    2016-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder. To date, there has been no animal model that could unravel the complete disease pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging has played a pivotal role in the quantitative assessment of brain tissue atrophy for a few decades. In particular, temporal lobe atrophy and ventricular dilatation have been found to be sensitive in Alzheimer's disease. The present study focused on the replication of these crucial pathological events to enable disease progression to be diagnosed at an early stage and stopped through the use of potential therapeutic strategies. The objective of this study was to show temporal lobe atrophy and ventricular dilatation in aluminium maltolate-treated aged New Zealand rabbit, and our study was able to demonstrate this for the first time. The present study makes this animal model a substantial one for further molecular level studies and opens up new targets for potential therapeutic strategies. © 2015 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2015 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  10. The Value of Neurosurgical and Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography in Clinically Integrated Neuroanatomy Modules: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Familiari, Giuseppe; Relucenti, Michela; Heyn, Rosemarie; Baldini, Rossella; D'Andrea, Giancarlo; Familiari, Pietro; Bozzao, Alessandro; Raco, Antonino

    2013-01-01

    Neuroanatomy is considered to be one of the most difficult anatomical subjects for students. To provide motivation and improve learning outcomes in this area, clinical cases and neurosurgical images from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractographies produced using an intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging apparatus (MRI/DTI) were presented and…

  11. The Value of Neurosurgical and Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography in Clinically Integrated Neuroanatomy Modules: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Familiari, Giuseppe; Relucenti, Michela; Heyn, Rosemarie; Baldini, Rossella; D'Andrea, Giancarlo; Familiari, Pietro; Bozzao, Alessandro; Raco, Antonino

    2013-01-01

    Neuroanatomy is considered to be one of the most difficult anatomical subjects for students. To provide motivation and improve learning outcomes in this area, clinical cases and neurosurgical images from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractographies produced using an intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging apparatus (MRI/DTI) were presented and…

  12. Simulation study of magnetic resonance imaging-guided cortically constrained diffuse optical tomography of human brain function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boas, David A.; Dale, Anders M.

    2005-04-01

    Diffuse optical imaging can measure brain activity noninvasively in humans through the scalp and skull by measuring the light intensity modulation arising from localized-activity-induced absorption changes within the cortex. Spatial resolution and localization accuracy are currently limited by measurement geometry to approximately 3 cm in the plane parallel to the scalp. Depth resolution is a more significant challenge owing to the limited angle tomography permitted by reflectance-only measurements. We combine previously established concepts for improving image quality and demonstrate, through simulation studies, their application for improving the image quality of adult human brain function. We show in a three-dimensional human head model that localization accuracy is significantly improved by the addition of measurements that provide overlapping samples of brain tissue. However, the reconstructed absorption contrast is significantly underestimated because its depth is underestimated. We show that the absorption contrast amplitude accuracy can be significantly improved by providing a cortical spatial constraint in the image reconstruction to obtain a better depth localization. The cortical constraint makes physiological sense since the brain-activity-induced absorption changes are occurring in the cortex and not in the scalp, skull, and cerebral spinal fluid. This spatial constraint is provided by segmentation of coregistered structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the absorption contrast deep within the cortex is reconstructed superficially, resulting in an underestimation of the absorption contrast. The synthesis of techniques described here indicates that multimodality imaging of brain function with diffuse optical imaging and MRI has the potential to provide more quantitative estimates of the total and deoxyhemoglobin response to brain activation, which is currently not provided by either method independently. However, issues of depth resolution

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging in neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Rosa Delia Delgado; Durán, Bernando Boleaga; Lujambio, Perla Salgado

    2014-06-01

    Cysticercosis in one of the most common parasitic infections in the central nervous system. The complex and unpredictable nature of the host immune reaction against cysticercosis as well as the pleomorphism of your injuries make the disease neurocysticercosis interesting and fascinating to study. Imaging studies play an important role in the diagnosis of this disease. Advanced imaging techniques have improved detection and visualization of scolex cysts extraparenchymal spaces.

  14. Diagnostic imaging of psoriatic arthritis. Part II: magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Pracoń, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Plain radiography reveals specific, yet late changes of advanced psoriatic arthritis. Early inflammatory changes are seen both on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound within peripheral joints (arthritis, synovitis), tendons sheaths (tenosynovitis, tendovaginitis) and entheses (enthesitis, enthesopathy). In addition, magnetic resonance imaging enables the assessment of inflammatory features in the sacroiliac joints (sacroiliitis), and the spine (spondylitis). In this article, we review current opinions on the diagnostics of some selective, and distinctive features of psoriatic arthritis concerning magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound and present some hypotheses on psoriatic arthritis etiopathogenesis, which have been studied with the use of magnetic resonance imaging. The following elements of the psoriatic arthritis are discussed: enthesitis, extracapsular inflammation, dactylitis, distal interphalangeal joint and nail disease, and the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate undifferentiated arthritis, the value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:27446601

  15. Diagnostic imaging of psoriatic arthritis. Part II: magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Pracoń, Grzegorz

    2016-06-01

    Plain radiography reveals specific, yet late changes of advanced psoriatic arthritis. Early inflammatory changes are seen both on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound within peripheral joints (arthritis, synovitis), tendons sheaths (tenosynovitis, tendovaginitis) and entheses (enthesitis, enthesopathy). In addition, magnetic resonance imaging enables the assessment of inflammatory features in the sacroiliac joints (sacroiliitis), and the spine (spondylitis). In this article, we review current opinions on the diagnostics of some selective, and distinctive features of psoriatic arthritis concerning magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound and present some hypotheses on psoriatic arthritis etiopathogenesis, which have been studied with the use of magnetic resonance imaging. The following elements of the psoriatic arthritis are discussed: enthesitis, extracapsular inflammation, dactylitis, distal interphalangeal joint and nail disease, and the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate undifferentiated arthritis, the value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

  16. A comparison of magnetic resonance imaging with electrodiagnostic findings in the evaluation of clinical radiculopathy: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Reza Soltani, Zahra; Sajadi, Simin; Tavana, Behrooz

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement of magnetic resonance imaging and electrodiagnostic studies by comparing their findings in patients with clinically suspected radiculopathy. The agreements between these two procedures and clinical findings were also examined. In a 2-year cross-sectional study, a total of 114 patients with clinically suspected cervical or lumbosacral radiculopathy were included. The total agreements between clinical with MRI and EDX findings were 72 and 52%, respectively while their agreements were similar in group definite (89 vs. 82%). The agreement between EDX and MRI was 59.6 in total and 49% with respect to clinical findings. This study further supports that these two methods are complementary in general. It is reasonable to add EDX when there is discrepancy between MRI and clinical findings or when MRI neurologic findings are not visible.

  17. Effects of distraction task on driving: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Soon-Cheol; Choi, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Sik; You, Na-Rae; Hong, Sang-Pyo; Lee, Jung-Chul; Park, Sung-Jun; Baek, Ji-Hye; Jeong, Ul-Ho; You, Ji-Hye; Lim, Dae-Woon; Kim, Hyun-Jun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated neuronal activation differences under two conditions: driving only and distracted driving. Driving and distraction tasks were performed using a Magnetic Resonance (MR)-compatible driving simulator with a driving wheel and pedal. The experiment consisted of three blocks, and each block had both a Rest phase (1 min) and a Driving phase (2 min). During the Rest phase, drivers were instructed to simply look at the stop screen without performing any driving tasks. During the Driving phase, each driver was required to drive at 110 km/h under two conditions: driving only and driving while performing additional distraction tasks. The results show that the precuneus, inferior parietal lobule, supramarginal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, cuneus, and declive are less activated in distracted driving than in driving only. These regions are responsible for spatial perception, spatial attention, visual processing and motor control. However, the cingulate gyrus and sub-lobar regions (lentiform nucleus and caudate), which are responsible for error monitoring and control of unnecessary movement, show increased activation during distracted driving compared with driving only.

  18. Structure-function relationships in the context of reinforcement-related learning: a combined diffusion tensor imaging-functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Koch, K; Wagner, G; Dahnke, R; Schachtzabel, C; Güllmar, D; Reichenbach, J R; Schlösser, R G M

    2010-06-16

    In the context of probabilistic learning, previous functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown decreasing uncertainty accompanying decreasing neuronal activation in task-relevant networks. Moreover, initial evidence points to a relationship between white matter structure and cognitive performance. Little is known, however, about the structural correlates underlying individual differences in activation and performance in the context of probabilistic learning. This combined functional magnetic resonance imaging-diffusion tensor imaging study aimed at investigating the individual ability to reduce processing resources with decreasing uncertainty in direct relation to individual characteristics in white matter brain structure. Results showed that more successful learners, as compared with less successful learners, exhibited stronger activation decreases with decreasing uncertainty. An increased mean and axial diffusivity in, among others, the inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculus, the posterior part of the cingulum bundle, and the corpus callosum were detectable in less successful learners compared with more successful learners. Most importantly, there was a negative correlation between uncertainty-related activation and diffusivity in a fronto-parieto-striatal network in less successful learners only, indicating a direct relation between diffusivity and the ability to reduce processing resources with decreasing uncertainty. These findings indicate that interindividual variations in white matter characteristics within the normal population might be linked to neuronal activation and critically influence individual learning performance.

  19. Targeted-ROI imaging in electron paramagnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaochuan; Xia, Dan; Halpern, Howard

    2007-07-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) is a technique that has been used for in vivo oxygen imaging of small animals. In continuous wave (CW) EPRI, the measurement can be interpreted as a sampled 4D Radon transform of the image function. The conventional filtered-backprojection (FBP) algorithm has been used widely for reconstructing images from full knowledge of the Radon transform acquired in CW EPRI. In practical applications of CW EPRI, one often is interested in information only in a region of interest (ROI) within the imaged subject. It is desirable to accurately reconstruct an ROI image only from partial knowledge of the Radon transform because acquisition of the partial data set can lead to considerable reduction of imaging time. The conventional FBP algorithm cannot, however, reconstruct accurate ROI images from partial knowledge of the Radon transform of even dimension. In this work, we describe two new algorithms, which are referred to as the backprojection filtration (BPF) and minimum-data filtered-backprojection (MDFBP) algorithms, for accurate ROI-image reconstruction from a partial Radon transform (or, truncated Radon transform) in CW EPRI. We have also performed numerical studies in the context of ROI-image reconstruction of a synthetic 2D image with density similar to that found in a small animal EPRI. This demonstrates both the inadequacy of the conventional FBP algorithm and the success of BPF and MDFBP algorithms in ROI reconstruction. The proposed ROI imaging approach promises a means to substantially reduce image acquisition time in CW EPRI.

  20. Magnetic resonance image guided brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Tanderup, Kari; Viswanathan, Akila N; Kirisits, Christian; Frank, Steven J

    2014-07-01

    The application of magnetic resonance image (MRI)-guided brachytherapy has demonstrated significant growth during the past 2 decades. Clinical improvements in cervix cancer outcomes have been linked to the application of repeated MRI for identification of residual tumor volumes during radiotherapy. This has changed clinical practice in the direction of individualized dose administration, and resulted in mounting evidence of improved clinical outcome regarding local control, overall survival as well as morbidity. MRI-guided prostate high-dose-rate and low-dose-rate brachytherapies have improved the accuracy of target and organs-at-risk delineation, and the potential exists for improved dose prescription and reporting for the prostate gland and organs at risk. Furthermore, MRI-guided prostate brachytherapy has significant potential to identify prostate subvolumes and dominant lesions to allow for dose administration reflecting the differential risk of recurrence. MRI-guided brachytherapy involves advanced imaging, target concepts, and dose planning. The key issue for safe dissemination and implementation of high-quality MRI-guided brachytherapy is establishment of qualified multidisciplinary teams and strategies for training and education.

  1. A comparative study of brachial plexus sonography and magnetic resonance imaging in chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy and multifocal motor neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Goedee, H S; Jongbloed, B A; van Asseldonk, J-T H; Hendrikse, J; Vrancken, A F J E; Franssen, H; Nikolakopoulos, S; Visser, L H; van der Pol, W L; van den Berg, L H

    2017-10-01

    To compare the performance of neuroimaging techniques, i.e. high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), when applied to the brachial plexus, as part of the diagnostic work-up of chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). Fifty-one incident, treatment-naive patients with CIDP (n = 23) or MMN (n = 28) underwent imaging of the brachial plexus using (i) a standardized MRI protocol to assess enlargement or T2 hyperintensity and (ii) bilateral HRUS to determine the extent of nerve (root) enlargement. We found enlargement of the brachial plexus in 19/51 (37%) and T2 hyperintensity in 29/51 (57%) patients with MRI and enlargement in 37/51 (73%) patients with HRUS. Abnormal results were only found in 6/51 (12%) patients with MRI and 12/51 (24%) patients with HRUS. A combination of the two imaging techniques identified 42/51 (83%) patients. We found no association between age, disease duration or Medical Research Council sum-score and sonographic nerve size, MRI enlargement or presence of T2 hyperintensity. Brachial plexus sonography could complement MRI in the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected CIDP and MMN. Our results indicate that combined imaging studies may add value to the current diagnostic consensus criteria for chronic inflammatory neuropathies. © 2017 EAN.

  2. Recovery from mild head injury in sports: evidence from serial functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in male athletes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jen-Kai; Johnston, Karen M; Petrides, Michael; Ptito, Alain

    2008-05-01

    To examine functional brain activation patterns before and after postconcussive symptoms (PCS) resolution. Prospective serial study with male athletes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Hospital laboratory and imaging facility. 9 symptomatic concussed athletes who experienced persisting PCS at least 1 month postinjury and 6 healthy athletes. All athletes filled out a PCS checklist and underwent an fMRI session during which they performed a working-memory task. Behavioral outcomes were response speed and accuracy on the working memory tasks performed during the fMRI session. Functional imaging outcomes were blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI activation patterns associated with a working memory task. : There was no difference in behavioral performance between the groups. Despite normal structural MRI findings, all symptomatic concussed athletes initially showed atypical brain activation patterns in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPC). Compared to the initial postinjury evaluation, those athletes at follow-up with PCS resolved showed significant increases in activation in the left DLPC. Concussed athletes whose PCS status remained unchanged at follow-up continued to show atypical activation in DLPC. Healthy athletes showed remarkably clear and consistent brain activations in DLPC initially as well as in follow-up, highlighting the test-retest reliability of fMRI. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using fMRI to detect an underlying pathology in symptomatic concussed athletes with normal structural imaging results and its potential to document recovery. Such information may be of considerable value for clinical judgment and patient management.

  3. Acoustic noise during functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ravicz, M E; Melcher, J R; Kiang, N Y

    2000-10-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enables sites of brain activation to be localized in human subjects. For studies of the auditory system, acoustic noise generated during fMRI can interfere with assessments of this activation by introducing uncontrolled extraneous sounds. As a first step toward reducing the noise during fMRI, this paper describes the temporal and spectral characteristics of the noise present under typical fMRI study conditions for two imagers with different static magnetic field strengths. Peak noise levels were 123 and 138 dB re 20 microPa in a 1.5-tesla (T) and a 3-T imager, respectively. The noise spectrum (calculated over a 10-ms window coinciding with the highest-amplitude noise) showed a prominent maximum at 1 kHz for the 1.5-T imager (115 dB SPL) and at 1.4 kHz for the 3-T imager (131 dB SPL). The frequency content and timing of the most intense noise components indicated that the noise was primarily attributable to the readout gradients in the imaging pulse sequence. The noise persisted above background levels for 300-500 ms after gradient activity ceased, indicating that resonating structures in the imager or noise reverberating in the imager room were also factors. The gradient noise waveform was highly repeatable. In addition, the coolant pump for the imager's permanent magnet and the room air-handling system were sources of ongoing noise lower in both level and frequency than gradient coil noise. Knowledge of the sources and characteristics of the noise enabled the examination of general approaches to noise control that could be applied to reduce the unwanted noise during fMRI sessions.

  4. Neural Responses to Visual Food Cues According to Weight Status: A Systematic Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pursey, Kirrilly M.; Stanwell, Peter; Callister, Robert J.; Brain, Katherine; Collins, Clare E.; Burrows, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence from recent neuroimaging studies suggests that specific food-related behaviors contribute to the development of obesity. The aim of this review was to report the neural responses to visual food cues, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in humans of differing weight status. Published studies to 2014 were retrieved and included if they used visual food cues, studied humans >18 years old, reported weight status, and included fMRI outcomes. Sixty studies were identified that investigated the neural responses of healthy weight participants (n = 26), healthy weight compared to obese participants (n = 17), and weight-loss interventions (n = 12). High-calorie food images were used in the majority of studies (n = 36), however, image selection justification was only provided in 19 studies. Obese individuals had increased activation of reward-related brain areas including the insula and orbitofrontal cortex in response to visual food cues compared to healthy weight individuals, and this was particularly evident in response to energy dense cues. Additionally, obese individuals were more responsive to food images when satiated. Meta-analysis of changes in neural activation post-weight loss revealed small areas of convergence across studies in brain areas related to emotion, memory, and learning, including the cingulate gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and precuneus. Differential activation patterns to visual food cues were observed between obese, healthy weight, and weight-loss populations. Future studies require standardization of nutrition variables and fMRI outcomes to enable more direct comparisons between studies. PMID:25988110

  5. Neural responses to visual food cues according to weight status: a systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Pursey, Kirrilly M; Stanwell, Peter; Callister, Robert J; Brain, Katherine; Collins, Clare E; Burrows, Tracy L

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence from recent neuroimaging studies suggests that specific food-related behaviors contribute to the development of obesity. The aim of this review was to report the neural responses to visual food cues, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in humans of differing weight status. Published studies to 2014 were retrieved and included if they used visual food cues, studied humans >18 years old, reported weight status, and included fMRI outcomes. Sixty studies were identified that investigated the neural responses of healthy weight participants (n = 26), healthy weight compared to obese participants (n = 17), and weight-loss interventions (n = 12). High-calorie food images were used in the majority of studies (n = 36), however, image selection justification was only provided in 19 studies. Obese individuals had increased activation of reward-related brain areas including the insula and orbitofrontal cortex in response to visual food cues compared to healthy weight individuals, and this was particularly evident in response to energy dense cues. Additionally, obese individuals were more responsive to food images when satiated. Meta-analysis of changes in neural activation post-weight loss revealed small areas of convergence across studies in brain areas related to emotion, memory, and learning, including the cingulate gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and precuneus. Differential activation patterns to visual food cues were observed between obese, healthy weight, and weight-loss populations. Future studies require standardization of nutrition variables and fMRI outcomes to enable more direct comparisons between studies.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of radiation optic neuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, C.F.; Schatz, N.J.; Glaser, J.S. )

    1990-10-15

    Three patients with delayed radiation optic neuropathy after radiation therapy for parasellar neoplasms underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The affected optic nerves and chiasms showed enlargement and focal gadopentetate dimeglumine enhancement. The magnetic resonance imaging technique effectively detected and defined anterior visual pathway changes of radionecrosis and excluded the clinical possibility of visual loss because of tumor recurrence.

  7. Cardiovascular risks and brain function: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of executive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yi-Fang; Eldreth, Dana; Erickson, Kirk I; Varma, Vijay; Harris, Gregory; Fried, Linda P; Rebok, George W; Tanner, Elizabeth K; Carlson, Michelle C

    2014-06-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia are associated with cognitive impairment and risk of dementia in older adults. However, the mechanisms linking them are not clear. This study aims to investigate the association between aggregate CV risk, assessed by the Framingham general cardiovascular risk profile, and functional brain activation in a group of community-dwelling older adults. Sixty participants (mean age: 64.6 years) from the Brain Health Study, a nested study of the Baltimore Experience Corps Trial, underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging using the Flanker task. We found that participants with higher CV risk had greater task-related activation in the left inferior parietal region, and this increased activation was associated with poorer task performance. Our results provide insights into the neural systems underlying the relationship between CV risk and executive function. Increased activation of the inferior parietal region may offer a pathway through which CV risk increases risk for cognitive impairment.

  8. Common bile duct diameter in an asymptomatic population: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Rong; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Chen, Tian-Wu; Yang, Lin; Huang, Xiao-Hua; Zhang, Ze-Ming

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To measure the common bile duct (CBD) diameter by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in a large asymptomatic population and analyze its some affecting factors. METHODS: This study included 862 asymptomatic subjects who underwent MRCP. The CBD diameter was measured at its widest visible portion on regular end-expiration MRCP for all subjects. Among these 862 subjects, 221 volunteers also underwent end-inspiration MRCP to study the effect of respiration on the CBD diameter. The age, sex, respiration, body length, body weight, body mass index (BMI), portal vein diameter (PVD), length of the extrahepatic duct and CBD, cystic junction radial orientation and location were recorded. The subjects were divided into 7 groups according to age. All of the above factors were compared with the CBD diameter on end-expiration MRCP. RESULTS: Among the 862 subjects, the CBD diameter was 4.13 ± 1.11 mm (range, 1.76-9.45 mm) and was correlated with age (r = 0.484; P < 0.05), with a dilation of 0.033 mm per year. The upper limit of the 95% reference range was 5.95 mm, resulting in a reasonable upper limit of 6 mm for the asymptomatic population. Respiration and other factors, including sex, body length, body weight, BMI, PVD, length of the extrahepatic duct and CBD, cystic junction radial orientation and location, were not related to the CBD diameter. CONCLUSION: We established a reference range for the CBD diameter on MRCP for an asymptomatic population. The CBD diameter is correlated with age. Respiration did not affect the non-dilated CBD diameter. PMID:26753065

  9. Study protocol: multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging for therapeutic response prediction in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Pham, Trang Thanh; Liney, Gary; Wong, Karen; Rai, Robba; Lee, Mark; Moses, Daniel; Henderson, Christopher; Lin, Michael; Shin, Joo-Shik; Barton, Michael Bernard

    2017-07-04

    Response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) of rectal cancer is variable. Accurate imaging for prediction and early assessment of response would enable appropriate stratification of management to reduce treatment morbidity and improve therapeutic outcomes. Use of either diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) or dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) imaging alone currently lacks sufficient sensitivity and specificity for clinical use to guide individualized treatment in rectal cancer. Multi-parametric MRI and analysis combining DWI and DCE may have potential to improve the accuracy of therapeutic response prediction and assessment. This protocol describes a prospective non-interventional single-arm clinical study. Patients with locally advanced rectal cancer undergoing preoperative CRT will prospectively undergo multi-parametric MRI pre-CRT, week 3 CRT, and post-CRT. The protocol consists of DWI using a read-out segmented sequence (RESOLVE), and DCE with pre-contrast T1-weighted (VIBE) scans for T1 calculation, followed by 60 phases at high temporal resolution (TWIST) after gadoversetamide injection. A 3-dimensional voxel-by-voxel technique will be used to produce colour-coded ADC and K(trans) histograms, and data evaluated in combination using scatter plots. MRI parameters will be correlated with surgical histopathology. Histopathology analysis will be standardized, with chemoradiotherapy response defined according to AJCC 7th Edition Tumour Regression Grade (TRG) criteria. Good response will be defined as TRG 0-1, and poor response will be defined as TRG 2-3. The combination of DWI and DCE can provide information on physiological tumour factors such as cellularity and perfusion that may affect radiotherapy response. If validated, multi-parametric MRI combining DWI and DCE can be used to stratify management in rectal cancer patients. Accurate imaging prediction of patients with a complete response to CRT would enable a 'watch and wait' approach, avoiding surgical morbidity

  10. Feasibility study of reduced field of view diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in head and neck tumors.

    PubMed

    Vidiri, Antonello; Minosse, Silvia; Piludu, Francesca; Curione, Davide; Pichi, Barbara; Spriano, Giuseppe; Marzi, Simona

    2017-03-01

    Background Reduced field of view (rFOV) imaging may be used to improve the quality of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the head and neck (HN) region. Purpose To evaluate the feasibility of rFOV-DWI in patients affected by HN tumors, through a comparison with conventional full FOV (fFOV) DWI. Material and Methods Twenty-two patients with histologically-proven malignant or benign tumors of the head and neck were included in a retrospective study. All patients underwent pre-treatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies including rFOV-DWI and fFOV-DWI. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value distributions inside tumor and muscle were derived and the mean, standard deviation (SD), and kurtosis were calculated. Image distortion was quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated, as well as the capability of lesion identification. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare all variables. Agreements between the ADC estimations were assessed by Bland-Altman plots. Results Image distortion and lesion identification scores were both higher for rFOV-DWI compared to fFOV-DWI. A reduction in ADC values with rFOV-DWI emerged for both lesion and muscle, with a mean percentage difference in ADC of 6.2% in the lesions and 24.9% in the muscle. The difference in SD of ADC was statistically significant in the lesions, indicating a higher ADC homogeneity for rFOV DWI ( P = 0.005). Conclusion The application of rFOV DWI in patients affected by HN tumors is feasible and promising, based on both qualitative and quantitative analyses. This technique has potential for improving the diagnostic accuracy of fFOV-DWI for the study of specific tumoral areas.

  11. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, A.

    1986-01-01

    During the past year the Woodlands Baylor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) facility became fully operational. A detailed description of this facility is given. One significant instrument addition this year was the 100 MHz, 40cm bore superconducting imaging spectrometer. This instrument gives researchers the capability to acquire high energy phosphate spectra. This will be used to investigate ATP, phosphocreatinine and inorganic phosphate changes in normal and atrophied muscle before, during and after exercise. An exercise device for use within the bore of the imaging magnet is under design/construction. The results of a study of T sub 1 and T sub 2 changes in atrophied muscle in animals and human subjects are given. The imaging and analysis of the lower leg of 15 research subjects before and after 5 weeks of complete bedrest was completed. A compilation of these results are attached.

  12. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion*

    PubMed Central

    Hochhegger, Bruno; de Souza, Vinícius Valério Silveira; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Souza Jr., Arthur Soares; Elias Junior, Jorge; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Araujo Neto, César Augusto; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation. PMID:26811555

  13. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, A.

    1986-05-01

    During the past year the Woodlands Baylor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) facility became fully operational. A detailed description of this facility is given. One significant instrument addition this year was the 100 MHz, 40cm bore superconducting imaging spectrometer. This instrument gives researchers the capability to acquire high energy phosphate spectra. This will be used to investigate ATP, phosphocreatinine and inorganic phosphate changes in normal and atrophied muscle before, during and after exercise. An exercise device for use within the bore of the imaging magnet is under design/construction. The results of a study of T sub 1 and T sub 2 changes in atrophied muscle in animals and human subjects are given. The imaging and analysis of the lower leg of 15 research subjects before and after 5 weeks of complete bedrest was completed. A compilation of these results are attached.

  14. Brain activity during bladder filling and pelvic floor muscle contractions: a study using functional magnetic resonance imaging and synchronous urodynamics.

    PubMed

    Krhut, Jan; Holy, Petr; Tintera, Jaroslav; Zachoval, Roman; Zvara, Peter

    2014-02-01

    To map the brain activity during bladder filling by functional magnetic resonance imaging using a refined scanning protocol including synchronous urodynamics and pelvic floor muscle contractions. A total of 23 healthy female volunteers (age 20-68 years) were enrolled. Participants were asked to contract their pelvic floor muscles. This was followed by a urodynamic examination consisting of repeated filling cycles. Brain activity was measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging using a 3T magnetic resonance system. Measurements of brain activity consisted of 120 functional scans during pelvic floor contractions and 210 scans during bladder filling. Each functional magnetic resonance imaging scan covered the brain with 35 slices. Statistical analyses used the general linear model and independent component analysis. Areas of activation were visualized using group statistics. The following main clusters of activation were observed during pelvic floor muscle contractions: medial surface of the frontal lobe (primary motor area), bilaterally; supplementary motor area, bilaterally; and left gyrus precentralis. During bladder filling, activation was detected in the inferior frontal lobe bordering the frontal cingulum, left gyrus parietalis superior, left central area, right insula, brainstem and thalamus with subcortical gray matter nuclei. Our work extends an existing functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol for researching the neural control of the lower urinary tract. The present results are consistent with the available literature and agree with the present hypothetical functional model of lower urinary tract neural control. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  15. Evidence for Altered Hippocampal Volume and Brain Metabolites in Workers Occupationally Exposed to Lead: A Study by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yue-Ming; Long, Li-Ling; Zhu, Xia-Yan; Zheng, Hong; Fu, Xue; Ou, Shi-Yan; Wei, Dong-Lu; Zhou, Hai-Lin; Zheng, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to lead (Pb) remains to be a major public health issue. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to use non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) techniques to investigate whether chronic exposure to Pb in an occupational setting altered brain structure and function of Pb-exposed workers. The Pb-exposed group consisted of 15 workers recruited from either a Pb-smelting factory or a Pb-battery manufacturer. The control group had 19 healthy volunteers who had no history of Pb exposure in working environment or at home. The average airborne Pb concentrations in fume and dust were 0.43 mg/m3 and 0.44 mg/m3, respectively in the smeltery, and 0.10 mg/m3 and 1.06 mg/m3, respectively in the Pb battery workshop. The average blood Pb concentrations (BPb) in Pb-exposed and control workers were 63.5 µg/dL and 8.7 µg/dL, respectively. The MRI examination showed that brain hippocampal volume among Pb-exposed workers was significantly diminished in comparison to age-matched control subjects (p<0.01), although the extent of this reduction was relatively small (5–6% of the control values). Linear regression analyses revealed significant inverse associations between BPb and the decreased hippocampal volume on both sides of brain hemisphere. Among five brain metabolites investigated by MRS, i.e., N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho), inosine (mI), glutamate/glutamine (Glx) and lipids (Lip), a significant decrease in NAA/Cr ratio (7% of controls, p<0.05) and a remarkable increase in Lip/Cr ratio (40%, p<0.01) were observed in the brains of Pb-exposed workers as compared to controls. Furthermore, the increased Lip/Cr ratio was significantly associated with BPb (r = 0.46, p<0.01). Taken together, this study suggests that occupational exposure to Pb may cause subtle structural and functional alteration in human brains. The MRI and MRS brain imaging techniques can be

  16. Neural correlates of anxiety sensitivity in panic disorder: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Sara; Radaelli, Daniele; Cucchi, Michele; Ricci, Liana; Vai, Benedetta; Smeraldi, Enrico; Benedetti, Francesco

    2015-08-30

    Panic disorder has been associated with dysfunctional neuropsychological dimensions, including anxiety sensitivity. Brain-imaging studies of the neural correlates of emotional processing have identified a network of structures that constitute the neural circuitry for emotions. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and insula, which are part of this network, are also involved in the processing of threat-related stimuli. The aim of the study was to investigate if neural activity in response to emotional stimuli in the cortico-limbic network is associated to anxiety sensitivity in panic disorder. In a sample of 18 outpatients with panic disorder, we studied neural correlates of implicit emotional processing of facial affect expressions with a face-matching paradigm; correlational analyses were performed between brain activations and anxiety sensitivity. The correlational analyses performed showed a positive correlation between anxiety sensitivity and brain activity during emotional processing in regions encompassing the PFC, ACC and insula. Our data seem to confirm that anxiety sensitivity is an important component of panic disorder. Accordingly, the neural underpinnings of anxiety sensitivity could be an interesting focus for treatment and further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Possible structural abnormality of the brainstem in unipolar depressive illness: a transcranial ultrasound and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Steele, J D; Bastin, M E; Wardlaw, J M; Ebmeier, K P

    2005-11-01

    Most empirically derived antidepressants increase monoamine levels. The nuclei of cells synthesising these monoamines are located in the brainstem, and projection tracts such as the medial forebrain bundle reach virtually all other brain areas. Two studies of unipolar depressive illness using transcranial ultrasound have reported reduced echogenicity of the brainstem midline in unipolar depressed patients. This may be consistent with disruption of white matter tracts, including the medial forebrain bundle, and it has been suggested that the effect of such disruption could be reversed by antidepressants. To replicate these findings in a group of unipolar depressed patients and controls. Fifteen unipolar depressed patients and 15 controls were studied using transcranial ultrasound imaging and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI). No difference in echogenicity of the brainstem midline of unipolar depressed patients was found. A possible trend (Cohen's d = 0.39) in the direction of previous studies was found. Although the echogenicity of the brainstem midline of the control group was found to be similar to previous reports, there was no reduction in the patient group. Additionally, no structural abnormality of the brainstem was identified using DT-MRI. While these data do not replicate the findings of previous studies reporting a significant reduction in the echogenicity of the brainstem midline in unipolar depressed patients, the ultrasound investigation indicated that there may be a trend in this direction. Given the importance of identifying the causes of depressive illness, it is important that other groups attempt similar studies.

  18. Combination of magnetic resonance imaging and diffuse optical spectroscopy to predict radiation response in the breast: an exploratory pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klifa, C.; Hattangadi, J.; Watkins, M.; Li, A.; Sakata, T.; Tromberg, B.; Hylton, N.; Park, C.

    2007-02-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is a standard treatment after lumpectomy for breast cancer, involving a typical course of approximately 6-7 weeks of daily treatment. Many women find this cumbersome and costly, and therefore many are left with the option of mastectomy. Many groups are now investigating novel ways to deliver RT, by using different techniques and shortening the course of treatment. However, the efficacy and side effects of these strategies are not known. In this project, we wish to develop noninvasive imaging tools that would allow us to measure radiation dose effects in women with breast cancer. We hope this will lead to new ways to identify individuals who may not need radiation therapy, who may safely be treated with new accelerated techniques, or who should be treated with the standard radiation therapy approach. We propose to study the effect of radiation therapy using a combination of two imaging modalities: 1) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which will provide detailed information on breast structures and blood vessels and 2) near infra-red diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS), which measures local biologic properties of breast tissue. Our hypothesis is that by using a combination of modalities we will be able to better characterize radiation effects in breast tissue, by measuring differences between the radiated and non-irradiated breast. The development of novel non-invasive tools providing information about how individuals respond to radiation therapy can lead to important improvement of radiation treatment, and ultimately help guide individualized treatment programs in the future.

  19. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2I: a multinational cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Willis, Tracey A; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Coombs, Anna; Sveen, Marie-Louise; Andersen, Soren; Stojkovic, Tanya; Eagle, Michelle; Mayhew, Anna; de Sousa, Paulo Loureiro; Dewar, Liz; Morrow, Jasper M; Sinclair, Christopher D J; Thornton, John S; Bushby, Kate; Lochmuller, Hanns; Hanna, Michael G; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Carlier, Pierre G; Vissing, John; Straub, Volker

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a prospective multinational study of muscle pathology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2I (LGMD2I). Thirty eight adult ambulant LGMD2I patients (19 male; 19 female) with genetically identical mutations (c.826C>A) in the fukutin-related protein (FKRP) gene were recruited. In each patient, T1-weighted (T1w) imaging was assessed by qualitative grading for 15 individual lower limb muscles and quantitative Dixon imaging was analysed on 14 individual lower limb muscles by region of interest analysis. We described the pattern and appearance of muscle pathology and gender differences, not previously reported for LGMD2I. Diffuse fat infiltration of the gastrocnemii muscles was demonstrated in females, whereas in males fat infiltration was more prominent in the medial than the lateral gastrocnemius (p = 0.05). In the anterior thigh of males, in contrast to females, median fat infiltration in the vastus medialis muscle (45.7%) exceeded that in the vastus lateralis muscle (11.2%) (p<0.005). MRI is non-invasive, objective and does not rely on patient effort compared to clinical and physical measures that are currently employed. We demonstrated (i) that the quantitative Dixon technique is an objective quantitative marker of disease and (ii) new observations of gender specific patterns of muscle involvement in LGMD2I.

  20. The severity of anaemia depletes cerebrovascular dilatory reserve in children with sickle cell disease: a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Kosinski, Przemyslaw D; Croal, Paula L; Leung, Jackie; Williams, Suzan; Odame, Isaac; Hare, Gregory M T; Shroff, Manohar; Kassner, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Overt ischaemic stroke is one of the most devastating complications in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). The compensatory response to anaemia in SCD includes an increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) by accessing cerebrovascular dilatory reserve. Exhaustion of dilatory reserve secondary to anaemic stress may lead to cerebral ischaemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with SCD and to correlate these with haematological markers of anaemia. Baseline CBF was measured using arterial spin labelling. Blood-oxygen level-dependent MRI in response to a CO2 stimulus was used to acquire CVR. In total, 28 children with SCD (23 not on any disease-modifying treatment, 5 on chronic transfusion) and 22 healthy controls were imaged using MRI. Transfusion patients were imaged at two time points to assess the effect of changes in haematocrit after a transfusion cycle. In children with SCD, CBF was significantly elevated compared to healthy controls, while CVR was significantly reduced. Both measures were significantly correlated with haematocrit. For transfusion patients, CBF decreased and CVR increased following a transfusion cycle. Lastly, a significant correlation was observed between CBF and CVR in both children with SCD and healthy controls. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy 2I: A Multinational Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, Anna; Sveen, Marie-Louise; Andersen, Soren; Stojkovic, Tanya; Eagle, Michelle; Mayhew, Anna; de Sousa, Paulo Loureiro; Dewar, Liz; Morrow, Jasper M.; Sinclair, Christopher D. J.; Thornton, John S.; Bushby, Kate; Lochmuller, Hanns; Hanna, Michael G.; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Carlier, Pierre G.; Vissing, John; Straub, Volker

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a prospective multinational study of muscle pathology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2I (LGMD2I). Thirty eight adult ambulant LGMD2I patients (19 male; 19 female) with genetically identical mutations (c.826C>A) in the fukutin-related protein (FKRP) gene were recruited. In each patient, T1-weighted (T1w) imaging was assessed by qualitative grading for 15 individual lower limb muscles and quantitative Dixon imaging was analysed on 14 individual lower limb muscles by region of interest analysis. We described the pattern and appearance of muscle pathology and gender differences, not previously reported for LGMD2I. Diffuse fat infiltration of the gastrocnemii muscles was demonstrated in females, whereas in males fat infiltration was more prominent in the medial than the lateral gastrocnemius (p = 0.05). In the anterior thigh of males, in contrast to females, median fat infiltration in the vastus medialis muscle (45.7%) exceeded that in the vastus lateralis muscle (11.2%) (p<0.005). MRI is non-invasive, objective and does not rely on patient effort compared to clinical and physical measures that are currently employed. We demonstrated (i) that the quantitative Dixon technique is an objective quantitative marker of disease and (ii) new observations of gender specific patterns of muscle involvement in LGMD2I. PMID:24587344

  2. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) study of cue-induced smoking craving in virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang-Han; Lim, Youngsik; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Graham, Simon J

    2005-09-01

    Smokers who are exposed to smoking-related cues show cardiovascular reactivity and smoking craving compared with their responses to neutral cues, and increased cue reactivity predicts decreased likelihood of successful cessation. Several brain imaging studies suggested four candidate brain regions that might differ in gray matter volumes and densities between smokers and nonsmokers. However, in these studies, smokers were only exposed to smoking-related objects. In our pilot study utilizing a virtual reality (VR) technique, virtual environments (VEs) were more immersive and evoked smoking craving more effectively than traditionally used methods. In this study, we sought to test whether smokers could experience cue-induced smoking craving inside the MRI scanner by using the VR system. The smoking cue reactivity scenario was based in part on our preliminary task and consisted of 2D and 3D (or VE) conditions. The group mean of participants had increased activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), left anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC), left supplementary motor area, left uncus, right inferior temporal gyrus, right lingual gyrus, and right precuneus in the 2D condition. Areas of differential activation in the 3D condition were as follows: left superior temporal gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and left inferior occipital gyrus in the 3D condition. This finding is consistent with those of previous studies of nicotine craving showing PFC and ACC activation. However, in the 3D condition, the PFC including the superior frontal gyrus as well as the superior temporal gyrus, inferior occipital gyrus, and cerebellum were activated. Therefore, in the 3D condition, participants seemed to have more attention, visual balance, and coordinating movement than in the 2D condition.

  3. Using magnetic resonance imaging as a means to study chronic cerebral spinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Utriainen, David; Feng, Wei; Elias, Saba; Latif, Zahid; Hubbard, David; Haacke, Ewart Mark

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this work is to present a broad magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol for use in the study of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI). The CCSVI MRI protocol includes the following sequences: time-resolved contrast-enhanced 3D MR angiography, 2D time-of-flight MR venography, and 3D volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination to assess venous structural abnormalities; phase-contrast MR imaging at different levels in the neck and thoracic cavity to quantify flow through the veins, arteries, and cerebrospinal fluid; T2-weighted imaging, T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted imaging of the brain for examinations of parenchymal lesions; and finally, susceptibility-weighted imaging for quantification of iron deposition in the brain. Data from 111 clinically definite multiple sclerosis patients were assessed for potential structural and flow CCSVI risk criteria, including stenosis, atresia, aplasia, dominant to subdominant venous flow ratio (D:sD), and the sum of their flow rates. Of the 111 patients, 50 (45%) were determined to be nonstenotic (NST) with no stenosis or atresia in their internal jugular veins (IJV), and the rest 61 (55%) were stenotic (ST) having at least one internal jugular vein stenosis or atresia. No occurrence of aplasia was observed. A D:sD of greater than 3:1 was observed in 15 (24.6%) patients of the ST group and 2 (4.0%) patients of the NST group. A sum of dominant and subdominant venous flow rate of <8 mL/s was observed in 22 (36.1%) patients of the ST group and 6 (12.0%) patients of the NST group. MRI provides valuable information in the observation of potential CCSVI risk factors. Low total flow in the 2 dominant veins seemed to be the strongest indicator for risk of having stenoses in the multiple sclerosis population.

  4. Concentration-dependent diffusivity and anomalous diffusion: a magnetic resonance imaging study of water ingress in porous zeolite.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, Eduardo N; de Sousa, Paulo L; de Souza, Ricardo E; Engelsberg, M; Miranda, Mirla de N do N; Silva, Maria Aparecida

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is employed to study water ingress in fine zeolite powders compacted by high pressure. The experimental conditions are chosen such that the applicability of Boltzmann's transformation of the one-dimensional diffusion equation is approximately satisfied. The measured moisture profiles indicate subdiffusive behavior with a spatiotemporal scaling variable eta=x/t(gamma/2) (0

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging study of the transport phenomena of solvent into the gel layer of hypromellose matrices containing tetracycline hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Tritt-Goc, Jadwiga; Kowalczuk, Joanna; Pislewski, Narcyz

    2003-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the diffusion of a water solution of hydrochloric acid into hypromellose (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose) matrices. Spatially resolved information was obtained about the self-diffusion coefficient and spin-spin relaxation time of solvent protons in the gel layer of hypromellose matrices loaded with different amounts of tetracycline hydrochloride. The data showed the influence of the drug concentration on the diffusion and spin-spin relaxation. Higher drug concentrations in the hypromellose matrix led to greater swelling of the matrix and faster diffusion of the water molecules inside the gel layer of the polymer. The observed differences between the radial and axial diffusion were interpreted in terms of the stresses imposed in the axial direction during the compression of the samples. The spin-spin and diffusion profiles indicated that the diffusion of a water solution of hydrochloric acid into hypromellose, pure and loaded with different amounts of tetracycline hydrochloride, was characterized as a Case II mechanism.

  6. Detection and Evaluation of Early Breast Cancer via Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Studies of Mouse Models and Clinical Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    5 Feb 2007 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Detection and Evaluation of Early Breast Cancer via Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Studies of...Page Introduction…………………………………………………………….………..….. 4 Body………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 Key Research Accomplishments...11 Appendices…………………………………………………………………………… 12 4 INTRODUCTION Women diagnosed with breast cancer today have significantly better

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the bone conduction implant – a pilot study at 1.5 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, Karl-Johan Fredén; Håkansson, Bo; Reinfeldt, Sabine; Rigato, Cristina; Eeg-Olofsson, Måns

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this pilot study was to investigate if an active bone conduction implant (BCI) used in an ongoing clinical study withstands magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 1.5 Tesla. In particular, the MRI effects on maximum power output (MPO), total harmonic distortion (THD), and demagnetization were investigated. Implant activation and image artifacts were also evaluated. Methods and materials One implant was placed on the head of a test person at the position corresponding to the normal position of an implanted BCI and applied with a static pressure using a bandage and scanned in a 1.5 Tesla MRI camera. Scanning was performed both with and without the implant, in three orthogonal planes, and for one spin-echo and one gradient-echo pulse sequence. Implant functionality was verified in-between the scans using an audio processor programmed to generate a sequence of tones when attached to the implant. Objective verification was also carried out by measuring MPO and THD on a skull simulator as well as retention force, before and after MRI. Results It was found that the exposure of 1.5 Tesla MRI only had a minor effect on the MPO, ie, it decreased over all frequencies with an average of 1.1±2.1 dB. The THD remained unchanged above 300 Hz and was increased only at lower frequencies. The retention magnet was demagnetized by 5%. The maximum image artifacts reached a distance of 9 and 10 cm from the implant in the coronal plane for the spin-echo and the gradient-echo sequence, respectively. The test person reported no MRI induced sound from the implant. Conclusion This pilot study indicates that the present BCI may withstand 1.5 Tesla MRI with only minor effects on its performance. No MRI induced sound was reported, but the head image was highly distorted near the implant. PMID:26604836

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the bone conduction implant - a pilot study at 1.5 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Karl-Johan Fredén; Håkansson, Bo; Reinfeldt, Sabine; Rigato, Cristina; Eeg-Olofsson, Måns

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate if an active bone conduction implant (BCI) used in an ongoing clinical study withstands magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 1.5 Tesla. In particular, the MRI effects on maximum power output (MPO), total harmonic distortion (THD), and demagnetization were investigated. Implant activation and image artifacts were also evaluated. One implant was placed on the head of a test person at the position corresponding to the normal position of an implanted BCI and applied with a static pressure using a bandage and scanned in a 1.5 Tesla MRI camera. Scanning was performed both with and without the implant, in three orthogonal planes, and for one spin-echo and one gradient-echo pulse sequence. Implant functionality was verified in-between the scans using an audio processor programmed to generate a sequence of tones when attached to the implant. Objective verification was also carried out by measuring MPO and THD on a skull simulator as well as retention force, before and after MRI. It was found that the exposure of 1.5 Tesla MRI only had a minor effect on the MPO, ie, it decreased over all frequencies with an average of 1.1±2.1 dB. The THD remained unchanged above 300 Hz and was increased only at lower frequencies. The retention magnet was demagnetized by 5%. The maximum image artifacts reached a distance of 9 and 10 cm from the implant in the coronal plane for the spin-echo and the gradient-echo sequence, respectively. The test person reported no MRI induced sound from the implant. This pilot study indicates that the present BCI may withstand 1.5 Tesla MRI with only minor effects on its performance. No MRI induced sound was reported, but the head image was highly distorted near the implant.

  9. Effect of chronic antipsychotic treatment on brain structure: a serial magnetic resonance imaging study with ex vivo and postmortem confirmation.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Anthony C; Natesan, Sridhar; Modo, Mike; Kapur, Shitij

    2011-05-15

    There is increasing evidence that antipsychotic (APD) may affect brain structure directly. To examine this, we developed a rodent model that uses clinically relevant doses and serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), followed by postmortem histopathological analysis to study the effects of APD on brain structures. Antipsychotic , haloperidol, and olanzapine were continuously administered to rats via osmotic minipumps to maintain clinic-like steady state levels for 8 weeks. Longitudinal in vivo MRI scanning (T₂-weighted) was carried out at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks, after which animals were perfused and their brains preserved for ex vivo MRI scanning. Region of interest analyses were performed on magnetic resonance images (both in vivo as well as ex vivo) along with postmortem stereology using the Cavalieri estimator probe. Chronic (8 weeks) exposure to both haloperidol and olanzapine resulted in significant decreases in whole-brain volume (6% to 8%) compared with vehicle-treated control subjects, driven mainly by a decrease in frontal cerebral cortex volume (8% to 12%). Hippocampal, corpus striatum, lateral ventricles, and corpus callosum volumes were not significantly different from control subjects, suggesting a differential effect of APD on the cortex. These results were corroborated by ex vivo MRI scans and decreased cortical volume was confirmed postmortem by stereology. This is the first systematic whole-brain MRI study of the effects of APD, which highlights significant effects on the cortex. Although caution needs to be exerted when extrapolating results from animals to patients, the approach provides a tractable method for linking in vivo MRI findings to their histopathological origins. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cerebral activation during unilateral clenching in patients with temporomandibular joint synovitis and biting pain: an functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-ping; Ma, Xu-chen; Jin, Zhen; Li, Ke; Liu, Gang; Zeng, Ya-wei

    2011-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance is a non-invasive method that can examine brain activity and has been widely used in various fields including jaw movement and pain processing. Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is one of the most frequent facial pain problems. The objective of this study was to investigate the brain activities using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during unilateral maximal voluntary clenching tasks in the TMD synovitis patients with biting pain. Fourteen TMD synovitis patients with unilateral biting pain and 14 controls were included in the study. Contralateral biting pain was defined as right molar clenching causing left temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain. Ipsilateral biting pain was defined as right molar clenching causing right TMJ pain. Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90) was administered to the patients and controls. Independent sample t-test was used to compare the SCL-90 subscales between the two groups. Unilateral clenching tasks were performed by the patients and controls. Imaging data were analyzed using SPM99. Patients were divided into contralateral TMD biting pain group (n = 8) and ipsilateral TMD biting pain group (n = 6). The SCL-90 subscales were significantly different between the two groups for somatization, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, and paranoid ideation. Group analysis of the controls demonstrated brain activations in the inferior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and insular. The areas of activation were different between right and left clenching task. In TMJ synovitis patients with contralateral or ipsilateral biting pain, the group analysis showed activations in the inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, medium frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex. The inferior frontal gyrus and precentral gyrus play essential roles during the unilateral clenching task. Activation of anterior cingulate cortex in the synovitis patients with biting

  11. The prevalence and combined prevalences of anatomic factors associated with recurrent patellar dislocation: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Steensen, Robert N; Bentley, Jared C; Trinh, Thai Q; Backes, Jeffrey R; Wiltfong, Roger E

    2015-04-01

    Anatomic factors, including patella alta, increased tibial tubercle-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance, rotational deformities, and trochlear dysplasia, are associated with dislocation of the patella. Identifying the presence of these anatomic factors both in isolation and in combination may influence treatment in patients with patellar dislocation. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and combined prevalences of these anatomic factors using magnetic resonance imaging in a group of patients with and without histories of recurrent dislocation of the patella. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. The prevalence and combined prevalences of patella alta, increased TT-TG distance, rotational deformity, and trochlear dysplasia on magnetic resonance imaging were reported and compared in 60 patients (60 knees) with and 120 patients (120 knees) without histories of recurrent patellar dislocation. Patients with recurrent patellar dislocation possessed higher rates of patella alta (60.0% vs. 20.8%), increased TT-TG distance (42.0% vs. 3.2%), rotational deformity (26.7% vs. 2.5%), and trochlear dysplasia (68.3% vs. 5.8%) compared with patients without histories of patellar dislocation. Multiple anatomic factors were identified in 58.3% of patients (35/60) with recurrent dislocation compared with only 1.7% of controls (2/120). Recurrent patellar dislocation is associated with an increased prevalence of patella alta, increased TT-TG distance, rotational deformity, and trochlear dysplasia compared with patients with no histories of patellar dislocation. Multiple anatomic factors were identified in the majority of patients with recurrent dislocation. Further research may identify which factors play a greater role in patellar stability and may allow physicians to predict which first-time dislocation patients are more likely to sustain recurrence. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Therapeutic imaging window of cerebral infarction revealed by multisequence magnetic resonance imaging: An animal and clinical study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong; Hu, Hui; He, Zhanping; Han, Xiangjun; Chen, Jing; Tu, Rong

    2012-11-05

    In this study, we established a Wistar rat model of right middle cerebral artery occlusion and observed pathological imaging changes (T2-weighted imaging [T2WI], T2FLAIR, and diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI]) following cerebral infarction. The pathological changes were divided into three phases: early cerebral infarction, middle cerebral infarction, and late cerebral infarction. In the early cerebral infarction phase (less than 2 hours post-infarction), there was evidence of intracellular edema, which improved after reperfusion. This improvement was defined as the ischemic penumbra. In this phase, a high DWI signal and a low apparent diffusion coefficient were observed in the right basal ganglia region. By contrast, there were no abnormal T2WI and T2FLAIR signals. For the middle cerebral infarction phase (2-4 hours post-infarction), a mixed edema was observed. After reperfusion, there was a mild improvement in cell edema, while the angioedema became more serious. A high DWI signal and a low apparent diffusion coefficient signal were observed, and some rats showed high T2WI and T2FLAIR signals. For the late cerebral infarction phase (4-6 hours post-infarction), significant angioedema was visible in the infarction site. After reperfusion, there was a significant increase in angioedema, while there was evidence of hemorrhage and necrosis. A mixed signal was observed on DWI, while a high apparent diffusion coefficient signal, a high T2WI signal, and a high T2FLAIR signal were also observed. All 86 cerebral infarction patients were subjected to T2WI, T2FLAIR, and DWI. MRI results of clinic data similar to the early infarction phase of animal experiments were found in 51 patients, for which 10 patients (10/51) had an onset time greater than 6 hours. A total of 35 patients had MRI results similar to the middle and late infarction phase of animal experiments, of which eight patients (8/35) had an onset time less than 6 hours. These data suggest that defining the

  13. Quantitative Pulmonary Imaging Using Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Washko, George R.; Parraga, Grace; Coxson, Harvey O.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of lung function, including spirometry and body plethesmography, are easy to perform and are the current clinical standard for assessing disease severity. However, these lung functional techniques do not adequately explain the observed variability in clinical manifestations of disease and offer little insight into the relationship of lung structure and function. Lung imaging and the image based assessment of lung disease has matured to the extent that it is common for clinical, epidemiologic, and genetic investigation to have a component dedicated to image analysis. There are several exciting imaging modalities currently being used for the non-invasive study of lung anatomy and function. In this review we will focus on two of them, x-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Following a brief introduction of each method we detail some of the most recent work being done to characterize smoking-related lung disease and the clinical applications of such knowledge. PMID:22142490

  14. Electron nuclear double resonance study of photostimulated luminescence active centers in CsBr:Eu{sup 2+} medical imaging plates

    SciTech Connect

    Vrielinck, H.; Loncke, F.; Matthys, P.; Callens, F.; Tahon, J.-P.; Leblans, P.

    2011-02-01

    CsBr:Eu{sup 2+} needle image plates exhibit an electron-paramagnetic-resonance (EPR) spectrum at room temperature (RT), whose intensity is correlated with the photostimulated luminescence sensitivity of the plate. This EPR spectrum shows a strong temperature dependence: At RT it is owing to a single Eu{sup 2+} (S =7/2) center with axial symmetry, whereas at T<35 K the spectra can only be explained when two distinct centers are assumed to be present, a minority axial center and a majority center with nearly extremely rhombic symmetry. In this paper these low-temperature centers are studied with electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy, which reveals the presence of {sup 1}H nuclei close to the central Eu{sup 2+} ions in the centers. Analysis of the angular dependence of the ENDOR spectra allows to propose models for these centers, providing an explanation for the observed difference in intensity between the spectral components and for their temperature dependence.

  15. A magnetic resonance imaging-based articulatory and acoustic study of "retroflex" and "bunched" American English /r/.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinhui; Espy-Wilson, Carol Y; Boyce, Suzanne; Tiede, Mark; Holland, Christy; Choe, Ann

    2008-06-01

    Speakers of rhotic dialects of North American English show a range of different tongue configurations for /r/. These variants produce acoustic profiles that are indistinguishable for the first three formants [Delattre, P., and Freeman, D. C., (1968). "A dialect study of American English r's by x-ray motion picture," Linguistics 44, 28-69; Westbury, J. R. et al. (1998), "Differences among speakers in lingual articulation for American English /r/," Speech Commun. 26, 203-206]. It is puzzling why this should be so, given the very different vocal tract configurations involved. In this paper, two subjects whose productions of "retroflex" /r/ and "bunched" /r/ show similar patterns of F1-F3 but very different spacing between F4 and F5 are contrasted. Using finite element analysis and area functions based on magnetic resonance images of the vocal tract for sustained productions, the results of computer vocal tract models are compared to actual speech recordings. In particular, formant-cavity affiliations are explored using formant sensitivity functions and vocal tract simple-tube models. The difference in F4/F5 patterns between the subjects is confirmed for several additional subjects with retroflex and bunched vocal tract configurations. The results suggest that the F4/F5 differences between the variants can be largely explained by differences in whether the long cavity behind the palatal constriction acts as a half- or a quarter-wavelength resonator.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided balloon angioplasty of coarctation of the aorta: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Julia J; Ewert, Peter; Yilmaz, Sevim; Gelernter, Dinah; Peters, Björn; Pietzner, Klaus; Bornstedt, Axel; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim; Fleck, Eckart; Nagel, Eike; Berger, Felix; Kuehne, Titus

    2006-02-28

    MRI guidance of percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA) of aortic coarctation (CoA) would be desirable for continuous visualization of anatomy and to eliminate x-ray exposure. The aim of this study was (1) to determine the suitability of MRI-controlled PTA using the iron oxide-based contrast medium Resovist (ferucarbotran) for catheter visualization and (2) to subsequently apply this technique in a pilot study with patients with CoA. The MRI contrast-to-noise ratio and artifact behavior of Resovist-treated balloon catheters was optimized in in vitro and animal experiments (pigs). In 5 patients, anatomy of the CoA was evaluated before and after intervention with high-resolution respiratory-navigated 3D MRI and multiphase cine MRI. Position monitoring of Resovist-treated catheters was realized with interactive real-time MRI. Aortic pressures were continuously recorded. Conventional catheterization was performed before and after MRI to confirm interventional success. During MRI, catheters filled with 25 micromol of iron particles per milliliter of Resovist produced good signal contrast between catheters and their background anatomy but no image distortion due to susceptibility artifacts. All MRI procedures were performed successfully in the patient study. There was excellent agreement between the diameters of CoA and pressure gradients as measured during MRI and conventional catheterization. In 4 patients, PTA resulted in substantial widening of the CoA and a decrease in pressure gradients. In 1 patient, PTA was ineffective. The MRI method described represents a potential alternative to conventional x-ray fluoroscopy for catheter-based treatment of patients with CoA.

  17. Claustrophobia during magnetic resonance imaging: cohort study in over 55,000 patients.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Marc; Schink, Tania; Dewey, Charles F

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate whether MR scanners with acoustic noise reduction and a short magnetic bore reduce the rate of claustrophobic reactions. We performed a cohort study in an outpatient setting, enrolling a total of 55,734 consecutive patients referred for MRI of any part of the body based on a clinical indication. Imaging was performed using a conventional MR scanner (42,998 patients) and a recently developed MR scanner (12,736 patients) with 97% acoustic noise reduction and a short bore. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for the nonrandomized design. In addition to those undergoing head-first examinations, female and middle-aged patients were significantly more likely to develop claustrophobia in the logistic regression analysis (P < 0.001). The rate of claustrophobic reactions was significantly lower with the recent MR scanner (0.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6-0.9%) than with the conventional scanner (2.1%; 95% CI, 2.0-2.3%; P < 0.001) with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 3.1 (95% CI, 2.5-3.9) and a number needed to treat of 72 (95% CI, 63-85). The incidence of claustrophobia may be reduced by a factor of 3 when recently-developed MR scanners are used.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of the water content and transport in rat lenses.

    PubMed

    Dobretsov, Egor A; Snytnikova, Olga A; Koptyug, Igor V; Kaptein, Robert; Tsentalovich, Yuri P

    2013-08-01

    NMR micro-imaging technique has been used for the measurement of the water content distribution in lenses of senescence-accelerated OXYS rats and age-matched Wistar rats, as well as for the study of water and phosphate transport in rat lenses. The water content in the lens cortex is significantly higher than in the nucleus; the spatial gradient of the water content becomes steeper with age. No difference in the water content distribution has been found between Wistar and OXYS rat lenses of matching ages, although cataract onset in the OXYS rat lens occurs much earlier due to the enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species associated with oxidative stress. This finding implies that cataract development does not lead to significant changes in water content distribution inside the lens. The water transport in rat lenses slows down with age, and in OXYS lenses it is somewhat faster than in lenses of Wistar rats, probably due to the compensatory response to oxidative stress. The application of (31)P MRI for the monitoring of phosphate penetration into a lens has been performed for the first time. It is found that phosphate transport in a lens is significantly slower than that of water.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Lumbar Spine (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... If You Have Questions en español Resonancia magnética: columna lumbar What It Is Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Cervical Spine Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap) Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  20. Cavity resonator coil for high field magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Solis, S E; Tomasi, D; Rodriguez, A O

    2007-01-01

    A variant coil of the high frequency cavity resonator coil was experimentally developed according to the theoretical frame proposed by Mansfield in 1990. This coil design is similar to the popular birdcage coil but it has the advantage that it can be easily built following the physical principles of the cavity resonators [1]. The equivalent circuit approach was used to compute the resonant frequency of this coil design, and compared the results with those frequency values obtained with theory. A transceiver coil composed of 4 cavities with a rod length of 4.5 cm, and a resonant frequency of 170.29 MHz was built. Phantom images were then acquired to test its viability using standard imaging sequences. The theory facilitates its development for high frequency MRI applications of animal models.

  1. Stepped Impedance Resonators for High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Akgun, Can E.; DelaBarre, Lance; Yoo, Hyoungsuk; Sohn, Sung-Min; Snyder, Carl J.; Adriany, Gregor; Ugurbil, Kamil; Gopinath, Anand; Vaughan, J. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Multi-element volume radio-frequency (RF) coils are an integral aspect of the growing field of high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In these systems, a popular volume coil of choice has become the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) multi-element transceiver coil consisting of microstrip resonators. In this paper, to further advance this design approach, a new microstrip resonator strategy in which the transmission line is segmented into alternating impedance sections referred to as stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) is investigated. Single element simulation results in free space and in a phantom at 7 tesla (298 MHz) demonstrate the rationale and feasibility of the SIR design strategy. Simulation and image results at 7 tesla in a phantom and human head illustrate the improvements in transmit magnetic field, as well as, RF efficiency (transmit magnetic field versus SAR) when two different SIR designs are incorporated in 8-element volume coil configurations and compared to a volume coil consisting of microstrip elements. PMID:23508243

  2. Stepped impedance resonators for high-field magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Akgun, Can E; DelaBarre, Lance; Yoo, Hyoungsuk; Sohn, Sung-Min; Snyder, Carl J; Adriany, Gregor; Ugurbil, Kamil; Gopinath, Anand; Vaughan, J Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Multi-element volume radio-frequency (RF) coils are an integral aspect of the growing field of high-field magnetic resonance imaging. In these systems, a popular volume coil of choice has become the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) transceiver coil consisting of microstrip resonators. In this paper, to further advance this design approach, a new microstrip resonator strategy in which the transmission line is segmented into alternating impedance sections, referred to as stepped impedance resonators (SIRs), is investigated. Single-element simulation results in free space and in a phantom at 7 T (298 MHz) demonstrate the rationale and feasibility of the SIR design strategy. Simulation and image results at 7 T in a phantom and human head illustrate the improvements in a transmit magnetic field, as well as RF efficiency (transmit magnetic field versus specific absorption rate) when two different SIR designs are incorporated in 8-element volume coil configurations and compared to a volume coil consisting of microstrip elements.

  3. Registration of knee joint surfaces for the in vivo study of joint injuries based on magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Rita W. T.; Habib, Ayman F.; Frayne, Richard; Ronsky, Janet L.

    2006-03-01

    In-vivo quantitative assessments of joint conditions and health status can help to increase understanding of the pathology of osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease that affects a large population each year. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a non-invasive and accurate means to assess and monitor joint properties, and has become widely used for diagnosis and biomechanics studies. Quantitative analyses and comparisons of MR datasets require accurate alignment of anatomical structures, thus image registration becomes a necessary procedure for these applications. This research focuses on developing a registration technique for MR knee joint surfaces to allow quantitative study of joint injuries and health status. It introduces a novel idea of translating techniques originally developed for geographic data in the field of photogrammetry and remote sensing to register 3D MR data. The proposed algorithm works with surfaces that are represented by randomly distributed points with no requirement of known correspondences. The algorithm performs matching locally by identifying corresponding surface elements, and solves for the transformation parameters relating the surfaces by minimizing normal distances between them. This technique was used in three applications to: 1) register temporal MR data to verify the feasibility of the algorithm to help monitor diseases, 2) quantify patellar movement with respect to the femur based on the transformation parameters, and 3) quantify changes in contact area locations between the patellar and femoral cartilage at different knee flexion angles. The results indicate accurate registration and the proposed algorithm can be applied for in-vivo study of joint injuries with MRI.

  4. Relationship between Class III malocclusion and hyoid bone displacement during swallowing: a cine-magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Hasan Suat; Gorgulu, Serkan; Karacay, Seniz; Akca, Eralp; Olmez, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    Objective The displacement of the hyoid bone (HB) is a critical biomechanical component of the swallowing function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the swallowing-induced vertical and horizontal displacements of the HB in subjects with 2 different magnitudes of skeletal Class III malocclusion, by means of real-time, balanced turbo-field-echo (B-TFE) cine-magnetic resonance imaging. Methods The study population comprised 19 patients with mild skeletal Class III malocclusion, 16 with severe skeletal Class III malocclusion, and 20 with a skeletal Class I relationship. Before the commencement of the study, all subjects underwent cephalometric analysis to identify the nature of skeletal malformations. B-TFE images were obtained for the 4 consecutive stages of deglutition as each patient swallowed 10 mL of water, and the vertical and horizontal displacements of the HB were measured at each stage. Results At all stages of swallowing, the vertical position of the HB in the severe Class III malocclusion group was significantly lower than those in the mild Class III and Class I malocclusion groups. Similarly, the horizontal displacement of the HB was found to be significantly associated with the severity of malocclusion, i.e., the degree of Class III malocclusion, while the amount of anterior displacement of the HB decreased with an increase in the severity of the Class III deformity. Conclusions Our findings indicate the existence of a relationship between the magnitude of Class III malocclusion and HB displacement during swallowing. PMID:23112950

  5. Quantitative correlational study of microbubble-enhanced ultrasound imaging and magnetic resonance imaging of glioma and early response to radiotherapy in a rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chen; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Zhang, Kai; Li, Wenxiao; Zhou, Jinyuan; Mangraviti, Antonella; Tyler, Betty; Su, Lin; Zhang, Yin; Zhang, Bin; Wong, John; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Velarde, Esteban; Ding, Kai

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Radiotherapy remains a major treatment method for malignant tumors. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the standard modality for assessing glioma treatment response in the clinic. Compared to MRI, ultrasound imaging is low-cost and portable and can be used during intraoperative procedures. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively compare contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging and MRI of irradiated gliomas in rats and to determine which quantitative ultrasound imaging parameters can be used for the assessment of early response to radiation in glioma. Methods: Thirteen nude rats with U87 glioma were used. A small thinned skull window preparation was performed to facilitate ultrasound imaging and mimic intraoperative procedures. Both CEUS and MRI with structural, functional, and molecular imaging parameters were performed at preradiation and at 1 day and 4 days postradiation. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the correlations between MRI and CEUS parameters and the changes between pre- and postradiation imaging. Results: Area under the curve (AUC) in CEUS showed significant difference between preradiation and 4 days postradiation, along with four MRI parameters, T{sub 2}, apparent diffusion coefficient, cerebral blood flow, and amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) (all p < 0.05). The APTw signal was correlated with three CEUS parameters, rise time (r = − 0.527, p < 0.05), time to peak (r = − 0.501, p < 0.05), and perfusion index (r = 458, p < 0.05). Cerebral blood flow was correlated with rise time (r = − 0.589, p < 0.01) and time to peak (r = − 0.543, p < 0.05). Conclusions: MRI can be used for the assessment of radiotherapy treatment response and CEUS with AUC as a new technique and can also be one of the assessment methods for early response to radiation in glioma.

  6. Effects of Pitavastatin on Lipid-rich Carotid Plaques Studied Using High-resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tao; Huang, Xiaoxing; Liang, Qundi; Liang, Yun; Yuan, Yong; Feng, Li; Wu, Wenjun; Xiao, Xuehong; Han, Ying

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of pitavastatin in patients with atherosclerosis. Sixty patients with atherosclerosis with lipid-rich carotid plaques were included and allocated into low-dose (2 mg/d) and high-dose (4 mg/d) pitavastatin groups with 48 weeks of treatment. Total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein (a), and the inflammation-related factors interleukin 6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and homocysteine were determined. High-resolution (3.0-T) magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate the lipid core area, plaque thickness, total vessel area, lumen area, wall area, and normalized wall index. After the treatment period, the blood serum values were improved in both groups, but the improvement was significantly better for total cholesterol (P < 0.009), HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein (a), and homocysteine (all P < 0.001) in the high-dose group. The high-resolution magnetic resonance images revealed great improvements in both groups, although significantly better for the lipid core area (P < 0.001), plaque thickness (P < 0.001), wall area (P < 0.05), normalized wall index (P < 0.001), and lumen area (P < 0.05) in the HD group. Further analyses revealed a close correlation between lipid-rich plaques and changes in blood lipid components. Pitavastatin had significant lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects in patients with atherosclerosis. It also reduced the lipid components and plaques of lipid rich carotid plaques. The effect was obviously stronger in the high-dose than in the low-dose group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Betel Quid Dependence: A Resting-state Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Li, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Zhong-Yan; Yang, Guo-Shuai; Pan, Meng-Jie; Li, Chang-Qing; Pan, Su-Yue; Chen, Feng

    2016-02-01

    It has been suggested by the first voxel-based morphometry investigation that betel quid dependence (BQD) individuals are presented with brain structural changes in previous reports, and there may be a neurobiological basis for BQD individuals related to an increased risk of executive dysfunction and disinhibition, subjected to the reward system, cognitive system, and emotion system. However, the effects of BQD on neural activity remain largely unknown. Individuals with impaired cognitive control of behavior often reveal altered spontaneous cerebral activity in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and those changes are usually earlier than structural alteration.Here, we examined BQD individuals (n = 33) and age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy control participants (n = 32) in an resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study to observe brain function alterations associated with the severity of BQD. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) values were both evaluated to stand for spontaneous cerebral activity. Gray matter volumes of these participants were also calculated for covariate.In comparison with healthy controls, BQD individuals demonstrated dramatically decreased ALFF and ReHo values in the prefrontal gurus along with left fusiform, and increased ALFF and ReHo values in the primary motor cortex area, temporal lobe as well as some regions of occipital lobe. The betel quid dependence scores (BQDS) were negatively related to decreased activity in the right anterior cingulate.The abnormal spontaneous cerebral activity revealed by ALFF and ReHo calculation excluding the structural differences in patients with BQD may help us probe into the neurological pathophysiology underlying BQD-related executive dysfunction and disinhibition. Diminished spontaneous brain activity in the right anterior cingulate cortex may, therefore, represent a biomarker of BQD individuals.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stannarius, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has become one of the most important tools to screen humans in medicine; virtually every modern hospital is equipped with a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) tomograph. The potential of NMR in 3D imaging tasks is by far greater, but there is only "a handful" of MRI studies of particulate matter. The method is expensive, time-consuming, and requires a deep understanding of pulse sequences, signal acquisition, and processing. We give a short introduction into the physical principles of this imaging technique, describe its advantages and limitations for the screening of granular matter, and present a number of examples of different application purposes, from the exploration of granular packing, via the detection of flow and particle diffusion, to real dynamic measurements. Probably, X-ray computed tomography is preferable in most applications, but fast imaging of single slices with modern MRI techniques is unmatched, and the additional opportunity to retrieve spatially resolved flow and diffusion profiles without particle tracking is a unique feature.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of granular materials.

    PubMed

    Stannarius, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has become one of the most important tools to screen humans in medicine; virtually every modern hospital is equipped with a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) tomograph. The potential of NMR in 3D imaging tasks is by far greater, but there is only "a handful" of MRI studies of particulate matter. The method is expensive, time-consuming, and requires a deep understanding of pulse sequences, signal acquisition, and processing. We give a short introduction into the physical principles of this imaging technique, describe its advantages and limitations for the screening of granular matter, and present a number of examples of different application purposes, from the exploration of granular packing, via the detection of flow and particle diffusion, to real dynamic measurements. Probably, X-ray computed tomography is preferable in most applications, but fast imaging of single slices with modern MRI techniques is unmatched, and the additional opportunity to retrieve spatially resolved flow and diffusion profiles without particle tracking is a unique feature.

  10. Imaging agents for in vivo magnetic resonance and scintigraphic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Engelstad, B.L.; Raymond, K.N.; Huberty, J.P.; White, D.L.

    1991-04-23

    Methods are provided for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and/or scintigraphic imaging of a subject using chelated transition metal and lanthanide metal complexes. Novel ligands for these complexes are provided. No Drawings

  11. Imaging agents for in vivo magnetic resonance and scintigraphic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Engelstad, Barry L.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Huberty, John P.; White, David L.

    1991-01-01

    Methods are provided for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and/or scintigraphic imaging of a subject using chelated transition metal and lanthanide metal complexes. Novel ligands for these complexes are provided.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of experimental cerebral oedema.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, D; McDonald, W I; Tofts, P S; Johnson, G; Landon, D N

    1986-01-01

    Triethyl tin(TET)-induced cerebral oedema has been studied in cats by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the findings correlated with the histology and fine structure of the cerebrum following perfusion-fixation. MRI is a sensitive technique for detecting cerebral oedema, and the distribution and severity of the changes correlate closely with the morphological abnormalities. The relaxation times, T1 and T2 increase progressively as the oedema develops, and the proportional increase in T2 is approximately twice that in T1. Analysis of the magnetisation decay curves reveals slowly-relaxing and rapidly-relaxing components which probably correspond to oedema fluid and intracellular water respectively. The image appearances taken in conjunction with relaxation data provide a basis for determining the nature of the oedema in vivo. Images PMID:3806109

  13. Acute first-time hamstring strains during high-speed running: a longitudinal study including clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Askling, Carl M; Tengvar, Magnus; Saartok, Tönu; Thorstensson, Alf

    2007-02-01

    Hamstring muscle strain is one of the most common injuries in sports. Still, knowledge is limited about the progression of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and their association with recovery time in athletes. Knowing the anatomical location and extent of an acute first-time hamstring strain in athletes is critical for the prognosis of recovery time. Case series (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Eighteen elite sprinters with acute first-time hamstring strains were prospectively included in the study. All subjects were examined, clinically and with magnetic resonance imaging, on 4 occasions after injury: at day 2 to 4, 10, 21, and 42. The clinical follow-up period was 2 years. All sprinters were injured during competitive sprinting, and the primary injuries were all located in the long head of the biceps femoris muscle. There was an association between the time to return to pre-injury level (median, 16; range, 6-50 weeks) and the extent of the injury, as indicated by the magnetic resonance imaging parameters. Involvement of the proximal free tendon, as estimated by MRI, and proximity to the ischial tuberosity, as estimated both by palpation and magnetic resonance imaging, were associated with longer time to return to pre-injury level. Careful palpation during the first 3 weeks after injury and magnetic resonance imaging investigation performed during the first 6 weeks after injury provide valuable information that can be used to predict the time to return to pre-injury level of performance in elite sprinting.

  14. Three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography used as a "one-stop shop'' imaging procedure for venous thromboembolism: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Obernosterer, Andrea; Aschauer, Manuela; Portugaller, Horst; Köppel, Herwig; Lipp, Rainer W

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis are individual manifestations of a single entity, venous thromboembolic disease. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of 3-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography used as an "one-stop shop'' imaging procedure visualizing both the pulmonary arteries and the deep lower venous system within a single investigation. The inclusion criterion was a proven or excluded venous thromboembolism. Diagnosis was based on an imaging work-up for pulmonary embolism including either perfusion lung scan or contrast-enhanced spiral computed tomography, or both, and an imaging work-up for deep venous thrombosis including either venous color-coded duplex sonography or ascending phlebography, or both. A gadolinium-enhanced "one-stop shop'' magnetic resonance angiography was performed within 24 hours of completed diagnostic imaging work-up for pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis in 20 patients. Results of pulmonary magnetic resonance angiography were concordant with perfusion lung scan and/or computed tomography in 90% of patients. Magnetic resonance angiography results of the deep lower venous system were concordant with venous duplex sonography and/or phlebography in 75% of patients and seemed to be more precise in 25% of patients. The "one-stop shop'' imaging procedure using gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography was feasible and proved to offer a reliable and rapid diagnostic approach in thromboembolic disease, sparing patients' exposure to ionizing radiation and iodinated contrast media.

  15. Effects of acupuncture therapy on abdominal fat and hepatic fat content in obese children: a magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Peng, Yun; Liu, ZuXiang; Li, Shilian; Lv, Zhongli; Tian, LiFang; Zhu, Jie; Zhao, XuNa; Chen, Min

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) together with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to study the influence of acupuncture therapy on abdominal fat and hepatic fat content in obese children. The design was a longitudinal, clinical intervention study of acupuncture therapy. SUBJECTS were 10 healthy, obese children (age: 11.4 ± 1.65 years, body-mass index [BMI]: 29.03 ± 4.81 kg/m(2)). Measurements included various anthropometric parameters, abdominal fat (assessed by MRI) and hepatic fat content (assessed by (1)H-MRS) at baseline and after 1 month of acupuncture therapy. One (1) month of acupuncture therapy significantly reduced the subjects' BMI by 3.5% (p = 0.005), abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume by 16.04% (p < 0.0001), abdominal total adipose tissue volume by 10.45% (p = 0.001), and abdominal visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio by 10.59% (p = 0.007). Decreases in body weight (-2.13%), waist circumference (-1.44%), hip circumference (-0.33%), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (-0.99%), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume (-5.63%), and intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content (-9.03%) were also observed, although these were not significant (p > 0.05). There was a significant correlation between the level of abdominal fat (SAT, VAT) and anthropometric parameters (weight, BMI, waist circumferences, hip circumferences). There was no statistically significant correlation between IHTG and anthropometric parameters or abdominal fat content. The first direct experimental evidence is provided demonstrating that acupuncture therapy significantly reduces BMI and abdominal adipose tissue by reducing abdominal VAT content without significant changes in body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, abdominal SAT, or IHTG content. Thus, the use of acupuncture therapy to selectively target a reduction in abdominal VAT content should become more important and more popular in

  16. Noninvasive multimodality imaging of the tumor microenvironment: registered dynamic magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies of a preclinical tumor model of tumor hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Cho, HyungJoon; Ackerstaff, Ellen; Carlin, Sean; Lupu, Mihaela E; Wang, Ya; Rizwan, Asif; O'Donoghue, Joseph; Ling, C Clifton; Humm, John L; Zanzonico, Pat B; Koutcher, Jason A

    2009-03-01

    In vivo knowledge of the spatial distribution of viable, necrotic, and hypoxic areas can provide prognostic information about the risk of developing metastases and regional radiation sensitivity and may be used potentially for localized dose escalation in radiation treatment. In this study, multimodality in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using stereotactic fiduciary markers in the Dunning R3327-AT prostate tumor were performed, focusing on the relationship between dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI using Magnevist (Gd-DTPA) and dynamic (18)F-fluoromisonidazole ((18)F-Fmiso) PET. The noninvasive measurements were verified using tumor tissue sections stained for hematoxylin/eosin and pimonidazole. To further validate the relationship between (18)F-Fmiso and pimonidazole uptake, (18)F digital autoradiography was performed on a selected tumor and compared with the corresponding pimonidazole-stained slices. The comparison of Akep values (kep = rate constant of movement of Gd-DTPA between the interstitial space and plasma and A = amplitude in the two-compartment model (Hoffmann U, Brix G, Knopp MV, Hess T and Lorenz WJ (1995). Magn Reson Med 33, 506-514) derived from DCE-MRI studies and from early (18)F-Fmiso uptake PET studies showed that tumor vasculature is a major determinant of early (18)F-Fmiso uptake. A negative correlation between the spatial map of Akep and the slope map of late (last 1 hour of the dynamic PET scan) (18)F-Fmiso uptake was observed. The relationships between DCE-MRI and hematoxylin/eosin slices and between (18)F-Fmiso PET and pimonidazole slices confirm the validity of MRI/PET measurements to image the tumor microenvironment and to identify regions of tumor necrosis, hypoxia, and well-perfused tissue.

  17. Noninvasive Multimodality Imaging of the Tumor Microenvironment: Registered Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Positron Emission Tomography Studies of a Preclinical Tumor Model of Tumor Hypoxia12

    PubMed Central

    Cho, HyungJoon; Ackerstaff, Ellen; Carlin, Sean; Lupu, Mihaela E; Wang, Ya; Rizwan, Asif; O'Donoghue, Joseph; Ling, C Clifton; Humm, John L; Zanzonico, Pat B; Koutcher, Jason A

    2009-01-01

    In vivo knowledge of the spatial distribution of viable, necrotic, and hypoxic areas can provide prognostic information about the risk of developing metastases and regional radiation sensitivity and may be used potentially for localized dose escalation in radiation treatment. In this study, multimodality in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using stereotactic fiduciary markers in the Dunning R3327-AT prostate tumor were performed, focusing on the relationship between dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI using Magnevist (Gd-DTPA) and dynamic 18F-fluoromisonidazole (18F-Fmiso) PET. The noninvasive measurements were verified using tumor tissue sections stained for hematoxylin/eosin and pimonidazole. To further validate the relationship between 18F-Fmiso and pimonidazole uptake, 18F digital autoradiography was performed on a selected tumor and compared with the corresponding pimonidazole-stained slices. The comparison of Akep values (kep = rate constant of movement of Gd-DTPA between the interstitial space and plasma and A = amplitude in the two-compartment model (Hoffmann U, Brix G, Knopp MV, Hess T and Lorenz WJ (1995). Magn Reson Med 33, 506–514) derived from DCE-MRI studies and from early 18F-Fmiso uptake PET studies showed that tumor vasculature is a major determinant of early 18F-Fmiso uptake. A negative correlation between the spatial map of Akep and the slope map of late (last 1 hour of the dynamic PET scan) 18F-Fmiso uptake was observed. The relationships between DCE-MRI and hematoxylin/eosin slices and between 18F-Fmiso PET and pimonidazole slices confirm the validity of MRI/PET measurements to image the tumor microenvironment and to identify regions of tumor necrosis, hypoxia, and well-perfused tissue. PMID:19242606

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of diabetic foot complications

    PubMed Central

    Low, Keynes TA; Peh, Wilfred CG

    2015-01-01

    This pictorial review aims to illustrate the various manifestations of the diabetic foot on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The utility of MR imaging and its imaging features in the diagnosis of pedal osteomyelitis are illustrated. There is often difficulty encountered in distinguishing osteomyelitis from neuroarthropathy, both clinically and on imaging. By providing an accurate diagnosis based on imaging, the radiologist plays a significant role in the management of patients with complications of diabetic foot. PMID:25640096

  19. The effect of macronutrients on gastric volume responses and gastric emptying in humans: A magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Oliver; Steingoetter, Andreas; Menne, Dieter; van der Voort, Ivo R; Kwiatek, Monika A; Boesiger, Peter; Weishaupt, Dominik; Thumshirn, Miriam; Fried, Michael; Schwizer, Werner

    2007-01-01

    The effects of macronutrients on gastric volume changes, emptying, and gastrointestinal symptoms are incompletely understood. Three liquid meals of 500 ml (fat emulsion, 375 kcal; protein solution, 375 kcal; glucose solution, 400 kcal) were infused into the stomach of 12 healthy volunteers on three occasions. Studies were performed in seated body position using an open-configuration magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. MRI imaging sequences, assessing stomach and meal volumes, were performed prior to and at times t = 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 25, 35, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min after meal administration. Areas under the curve for the early emptying phase (0-15 and 0-45 min) were calculated, and characteristics of the volume curves were analyzed by a gastric emptying model. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed by a self-report scale. Initial (t = 0 min) and early postprandial gastric volumes were highest for glucose because of lower initial emptying. However, in the early emptying phase the characteristics of the volume curves for stomach and meal were uniform for all macronutrients. Perceptions of fullness and satiety were linearly associated with postprandial gastric volumes, but not with macronutrient composition. Isovolumic macronutrient meals modulate gastric volume response by initial meal emptying patterns. Macronutrient specific accommodation responses, as shown in barostat studies, are not reflected as gastric volume responses under noninvasive conditions.

  20. [Preparation of and study on magnetic resonance imaging performance of metal porphyrin modified by low molecular weight chitosan].

    PubMed

    Yu, Dong-Jun; Li, Min-Zhi; Huang, Xian-Zhu; Zhu, Wei-Hua; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Qing

    2013-10-01

    The functional complex Mn-TCPP-CS20 as a potential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent was synthesized through tetra(4-carboxyphenyl) Mn(II)-porphyrin (Mn-TCPP) modified by CS20, which was low degree of polymerization and narrow distribution. The results showed that Mn-TCPP-CS20 had good water-solubility and structural stability. The chemical structures of the products were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), UV-Vis spectra, mass spectrum (MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results showed that Mn-TCPP was successfully linked to CS20 by an amide function. The relaxation properties in vitro of the functional complex Mn-TCPP-CS20 as the potential MRI contrast agent were preliminarily studied. It was found that the longitudinal relaxivity (r1) of the synthesized Mn-TCPP-CS20 (6.11 mmol(-1) x L x s(-1)) was higher than that of the commercial contrast agent Gd-DTPA (r1 = 3.59 mmol(-1) x L x s(-1)). Besides, the imaging effect of Mn-TCPP-CS20 was superior to that of Gd-DTPA in the same condition. These studies suggested that Mn-TCPP-CS20 has the advantage of becoming a potential tissue-targeting contrast agent.

  1. Endocardial Remodeling in Heart Failure Patients with Impaired and Preserved Left Ventricular Systolic Function--A Magnetic Resonance Image Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Su, Mao-Yuan M; Pham, Van-Truong; Tran, Thi-Thao; Wang, Yung-Hung; Tseng, Wen-Yih I; Lo, Men-Tzung; Lin, Jiunn-Lee

    2016-02-15

    Left ventricular (LV) trabeculation has been studied in certain forms of cardiomyopathy. However, the changes of LV endocardial trabeculation during the remodeling process leading to heart failure (HF) are unclear. Seventy-four patients with systolic heart failure (SHF), 65 with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and 61 without HF were prospectively enrolled. All subjects received magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study including cine, T1 and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images. Trabecular-papillary muscle (TPM) mass, fractal dimension (FD) and extracellular volume (ECV) were derived. The results showed that TPM mass index was higher in patients with SHF than that in patients with HFpEF and non-HF. The TPM mass-LV mass ratio (TPMm/LVM) was higher in SHF group than that in HFpEF and non-HF. FD was not different among groups. The presence of LGE was inversely associated with TPM mass index and TPMm/LVM while the ECV were positively associated with TPMm/LVM. The FD was positively associated with LV chamber size. In conclusion, TPM increases in patients with SHF and are probably related to myocardial cell hypertrophy and fibrotic repair during remodeling. The FD increases with the dilatation of LV chamber but remain unchanged with the deterioration of LV function.

  2. Correlation of brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging of spontaneously lead poisoned bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) with histological lesions: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    de Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Feeney, Daniel; Armién, Anibal G; Wuenschmann, Arno; Redig, Patrick T

    2016-04-01

    Six bald eagles with severe, acute lead poisoning based on blood lead values were analyzed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain and histopathology. The aims of the study were to use MRI to locate brain lesions and correlate the changes in MRI signal with the histological character of the lesions at necropsy. All of the bald eagles presented with neurologic and non-neurologic signs suggestive of severe lead poisoning and had blood lead levels in excess of 1.0 ppm. Areas of change in image intensity in the brainstem, midbrain and cerebellum were detected in the MRI scans. Histopathology confirmed the presence of all suspected lesions. The character of the lesions suggested vascular damage as the primary insult. MRI was useful for detecting lesions and defining their three-dimensional distribution and extent. Future studies are needed to evaluate the utility of MRI for detection of lesions in less severely lead poisoned eagles and determining prognosis for treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Brain activity for tactile allodynia: a longitudinal awake rat functional magnetic resonance imaging study tracking emergence of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pei-Ching; Centeno, Maria Virginia; Procissi, Daniel; Baria, Alex; Apkarian, A Vania

    2017-03-01

    Tactile allodynia, a condition in which innocuous mechanical stimuli are perceived as painful, is a common feature of chronic pain. However, how the brain reorganizes in relation to the emergence of tactile allodynia is still largely unknown. This may stem from the fact that experiments in humans are cross-sectional in nature, whereas animal brain imaging studies typically require anaesthesia rendering the brain incapable of consciously sensing or responding to pain. In this longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study in awake rats, we tracked brain activity with the development of tactile allodynia. Before injury, innocuous air-puff stimuli evoked a distributed sensory network of activations, including contralateral somatosensory cortices, thalamus, insula, and cingulate cortex. Moreover, the primary somatosensory cortex displayed a graded response tracking air-puff stimulus intensities. After neuropathic injury, and for stimuli in which the intensity exceeded the paw withdrawal threshold (evoking tactile allodynia), the blood oxygenation level-dependent response in the primary somatosensory cortex was equivalent to that evoked by the identical stimulus before injury. In contrast, nucleus accumbens and prefrontal brain areas displayed abnormal activity to normally innocuous stimuli when such stimuli induced tactile allodynia at 28 days after peripheral nerve injury, which had not been the case at 5 days after injury. Our data indicate that tactile allodynia-related nociceptive inputs are not observable in the primary somatosensory cortex BOLD response. Instead, our data suggest that, in time, tactile allodynia differentially engages neural circuits that regulate the affective and motivational components of pain.

  4. Child Psychiatry Branch of the National Institute of Mental Health Longitudinal Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Human Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Giedd, Jay N; Raznahan, Armin; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron; Schmitt, Eric; Gogtay, Nitin; Rapoport, Judith L

    2015-01-01

    The advent of magnetic resonance imaging, which safely allows in vivo quantification of anatomical and physiological features of the brain, has revolutionized pediatric neuroscience. Longitudinal studies are useful for the characterization of developmental trajectories (ie, changes in imaging measures by age). Developmental trajectories (as opposed to static measures) have proven to have greater power in discriminating healthy from clinical groups and in predicting cognitive/behavioral measures, such as IQ. Here we summarize results from an ongoing longitudinal pediatric neuroimaging study that has been conducted at the Child Psychiatry Branch of the National Institute of Mental Health since 1989. Developmental trajectories of structural MRI brain measures from healthy youth are compared and contrasted with trajectories in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and childhood-onset schizophrenia. Across ages 5–25 years, in both healthy and clinical populations, white matter volumes increase and gray matter volumes follow an inverted U trajectory, with peak size occurring at different times in different regions. At a group level, differences related to psychopathology are seen for gray and white matter volumes, rates of change, and for interconnectedness among disparate brain regions. PMID:25195638

  5. Fate of the native aorta after repair of acute type A dissection: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, N. R.; Parry, A. J.; Trottman-Dickenson, B.; Pillai, R.; Westaby, S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine late patency of the aortic false lumen and propensity for aneurysm formation after repair of type A dissection. DESIGN--Retrospective follow up study. SETTING--Regional cardiac surgical unit. PATIENTS--28 patients after repair of type A dissection. METHODS--Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed between 6 weeks and 12 months after operation. RESULTS--A patent distal false lumen with demonstrable blood flow was found in 22 patients (78%). Only six patients had complete obliteration of the false lumen by thrombus. The conduct of operation did not influence this. Nine patients (32%) showed aneurysmal dilatation of the false lumen and three had a repeat operation. CONCLUSIONS--So-called "successful repair" of aortic dissection does not obliterate the distal false lumen. MRI is a safe and effective radiological procedure for determining patency and dilatation in the false lumen. Patients with type A dissection with blood flow in the false lumen should be studied every 6 months to look for aneurysmal dilatation. Images PMID:8624875

  6. Levels of biomarkers correlate with magnetic resonance imaging progression of knee cartilage degeneration: a study on canine.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chang; Changlin, Huang

    2007-07-01

    To examine the association between levers of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), matrix metalloproteinases-1 (MMP-1), matrix metalloproteinases-3 (MMP-3), tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) in serum and synovial fluid, and MR imaging of cartilage degeneration in knee joint, and to understand the effects of movement training with different intensity on cartilage of knee joint. 20 adult canines were randomly divided into three groups (8 in the light training group; 8 in the intensive training group; 4 in the control group), and canines of the two training groups were trained daily at different intensity. The training lasted for 10 weeks in all. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were performed regularly (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 week) to investigate the changes of articular cartilage in the canine knee, while concentrations of COMP, MMP-1, MMP-3, TIMP-1 in serum and synovial fluid were measured by ELISA assays. We could find imaging changes of cartilage degeneration in both the training groups by MRI examination during training period, compared with the control group. However, there was no significant difference between these two training groups. Elevations of levels of COMP, MMP-1, MMP-3, TIMP-1, MMP-3/TIMP-1 were seen in serum and synovial fluid after training, and their levels had obvious association with knee MRI grades of cartilage lesion. Furthermore, there were statistically significant associations between biomarkers levels in serum and in synovial fluid. Long-time and high-intensity movement training induces cartilage degeneration in knee joint. Within the intensity extent applied in this study, knee cartilage degeneration caused by light training or intensive training has no difference in MR imaging, but has a comparatively obvious difference in biomarkers level. To detect articular cartilage degeneration in early stage and monitor pathological process, the associated application of several biomarkers has a very good practical

  7. The value of neurosurgical and intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging tractography in clinically integrated neuroanatomy modules: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Familiari, Giuseppe; Relucenti, Michela; Heyn, Rosemarie; Baldini, Rossella; D'Andrea, Giancarlo; Familiari, Pietro; Bozzao, Alessandro; Raco, Antonino

    2013-01-01

    Neuroanatomy is considered to be one of the most difficult anatomical subjects for students. To provide motivation and improve learning outcomes in this area, clinical cases and neurosurgical images from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractographies produced using an intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging apparatus (MRI/DTI) were presented and discussed during integrated second-year neuroanatomy, neuroradiology, and neurosurgery lectures over the 2008-2011 period. Anonymous questionnaires, evaluated according to the Likert scale, demonstrated that students appreciated this teaching procedure. Academic performance (examination grades for neuroanatomy) of the students who attended all integrated lectures of neuroanatomy, was slightly though significantly higher compared to that of students who attended these lectures only occasionally or not at all (P=0.04). Significantly better results were obtained during the national progress test (focusing on morphology) by students who attended the MRI/DTI-assisted lectures, compared to those who did so only in part or not at all, compared to the average student participating in the national test. These results were obtained by students attending the second, third and, in particular, the fourth year (P≤0.0001) courses during the three academic years mentioned earlier. This integrated neuroanatomy model can positively direct students in the direction of their future professional careers without any extra expense to the university. In conclusion, interactive learning tools, such as lectures integrated with intraoperative MRI/DTI images, motivate students to study and enhance their neuroanatomy education.

  8. Association of 3.0-T brain magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers with cognitive function in the Dallas Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mohit; King, Kevin S; Srinivasa, Rajiv; Weiner, Myron F; Hulsey, Keith; Ayers, Colby R; Whittemore, Anthony; McColl, Roderick W; Rossetti, Heidi C; Peshock, Ronald M

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the relationships between age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive function has been limited by inconsistent methods for assessing brain imaging, small sample sizes, and racially/ethnically homogeneous cohorts with biased selection based on risk factors. These limitations have prevented the generalizability of results from brain morphology studies. To determine the association of 3.0-T structural brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging measurements with cognitive function in the multiracial/multiethnic, population-based Dallas Heart Study. Whole-brain, 2-dimensional, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and 3-dimensional, magnetization-prepared, rapid acquisition with gradient echo MR imaging at 3.0 T was performed in 1645 Dallas Heart Study participants (mean [SD] age, 49.9 [10.5] years; age range, 19-85 years) who received both brain MR imaging and cognitive screening with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment between September 18, 2007, and December 28, 2009. Measurements were obtained for white matter hyperintensity volume, total brain volume, gray matter volume, white matter volume, cerebrospinal fluid volume, and hippocampal volume. Linear regression and a best predictive model were developed to determine the association of MR imaging biomarkers with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment total score and domain-specific questions. High-resolution anatomical MR imaging was used to quantify brain volumes. Scores on the screening Montreal Cognitive Assessment were used for cognitive assessment in participants. After adjustment for demographic variables, total brain volume (P < .0001, standardized estimate [SE] = .1069), gray matter volume (P < .0001, SE = .1156), white matter volume (P = .008, SE = .0687), cerebrospinal fluid volume (P = .012, SE = -.0667), and hippocampal volume (P < .0001) were significantly associated with cognitive performance. A best predictive model identified gray matter volume (P

  9. Achilles Impingement Tendinopathy on Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Mark J; Mourelatos, Jan; Mar, Alice

    2017-02-28

    Haglund's syndrome is impingement of the retrocalcaneal bursa and Achilles tendon caused by a prominence of the posterosuperior calcaneus. Radiographic measurements are not sensitive or specific for diagnosing Haglund's deformity. Localization of a bone deformity and tendinopathy in the same sagittal section of a magnetic resonance imaging scan can assist with the diagnosis in equivocal cases. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of Haglund's syndrome in patients presenting with Achilles tendinopathy and note any associated findings to determine the criteria for a diagnosis of Haglund's syndrome. We reviewed 40 magnetic resonance imaging scans with Achilles tendinopathy and 19 magnetic resonance imaging scans with Achilles high-grade tears and/or ruptures. Achilles tendinopathy was often in close proximity to the superior aspect of the calcaneal tuberosity, consistent with impingement (67.5%). Patients with Achilles impingement tendinopathy were more often female (p < .04) and were significantly heavier than patients presenting with noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy (p = .014) or Achilles tendon rupture (p = .010). Impingement tendinopathy occurred medially (8 of 20) and centrally (10 of 20) more often than laterally (2 of 20) and was associated with a posterior prominence or hyperconvexity with a loss of calcaneal recess more often than a superior projection (22 of 27 versus 8 of 27; p < .001). Haglund's deformity should be reserved for defining a posterior prominence or hyperconvexity with loss of calcaneal recess because this corresponds with impingement. Achilles impingement tendinopathy might be more appropriate terminology for Haglund's syndrome, because the bone deformity is often subtle. Of the 27 images with Achilles impingement tendinopathy, 10 (37.0%) extended to a location prone to Achilles tendon rupture. Given these findings, insertional and noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy are not mutually

  10. The association between cerebral developmental venous anomaly and concomitant cavernous malformation: an observational study using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Meng, Guolu; Bai, Chuanfeng; Yu, Tengfei; Wu, Zhen; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Junting; zhao, Jizong

    2014-03-15

    Some studies reported that cerebral developmental venous anomaly (DVA) is often concurrent with cavernous malformation (CM). But there is lack of statistical evidence and study of bulk cases. The factors associated with concurrency are still unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of concomitant DVA and CM using observational data on Chinese patients and analyze the factors associated with the concurrency. The records of all cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed between January 2001 and December 2012 in Beijing Tiantan Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. The DVA and CM cases were selected according to imaging reports that met diagnostic criteria. Statistical analysis was performed using the Pearson chi-square statistic for binary variables and multivariable logistic regression analysis for predictors associated with the concurrent CM. We reviewed a total of 165,230 cranial MR images performed during the previous 12 year period, and identified 1,839 cases that met DVA radiographic criteria. There were 205 patients who presented concomitant CM among the 1,839 DVAs. The CM prevalence in DVA cases (11.1%) was significantly higher than that in the non-DVA cases (2.3%) (P<0.01). In the multivariate analysis, we found that DVAs with three or more medullary veins in the same MRI section (adjusted OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.73-3.24), infratentorial DVAs (adjusted OR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.26-2.33) and multiple DVAs (adjusted OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.04-4.16) have a higher likelihood of being concomitant with CM. CM are prone to coexisting with DVA. There is a higher chance of concurrent CM with DVA when the DVA has three or more medullary veins in the same MRI scanning section, when the DVA is infratentorial, and when there are multiple DVAs. When diagnosing DVA cases, physicians should be alerted to the possibility of concurrent CM.

  11. Serum Neuron-Specific Enolase Is Related to Cerebellar Connectivity: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Schroeter, Matthias L; Mueller, Karsten; Arelin, Katrin; Sacher, Julia; Holiga, Štefan; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Luck, Tobias; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Villringer, Arno

    2015-09-01

    Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) has been suggested as a prognostic biomarker for neuronal alterations resulting from conditions such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), neurodegenerative disease, or cardiac arrest. To validate serum NSE (sNSE) as a brain-specific biomarker, we related it to functional brain imaging data in 38 healthy adults to create a physiological framework for future studies in neuropsychiatric diseases. sNSE was measured by monoclonal two-site immunoluminometric assays, and functional connectivity was investigated with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI). To identify neural hubs most essentially related to sNSE, we applied graph theory approaches, namely, the new data-driven and parameter-free approach, eigenvector centrality mapping. sNSE and eigenvector centrality were negatively correlated in the female cerebellum, without any effects in male subjects. In cerebellar cortex, NSE expression was significantly higher than whole-brain expression as investigated in the whole brain and whole genome-wide atlas of the Allen Institute for Brain Sciences (Seattle, WA). Our study shows a specific linkage between the neuronal marker protein, sNSE, and cerebellar connectivity as measured with rfMRI in the female human brain, although this finding shall be proven in future studies including more subjects. Results suggest that the inclusion of sNSE in the analysis of imaging data is a useful approach to obtain more-specific information on the neuronal mechanisms that underlie functional connectivity at rest. Establishing such a baseline resting-state pattern that is tied to a neuronal serum marker opens new perspectives in the characterization of neuropsychiatric disorders as disconnective syndromes or nexopathies, in particular, resulting from TBI, neurodegenerative disease, or cardiac arrest, in the future.

  12. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pregnancy: Insights from the cardiac hemodynamic imaging and remodeling in pregnancy (CHIRP) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy is the leading cause of maternal mortality in North America. Although transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the most widely used imaging modality for the assessment of cardiovascular function during pregnancy, little is known on the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). The objective of the Cardiac Hemodynamic Imaging and Remodeling in Pregnancy (CHIRP) study was to compare TTE and CMR in the non-invasive assessment of maternal cardiac remodeling during the peripartum period. Methods Between 2010–2012, healthy pregnant women aged 18 to 35 years were prospectively enrolled. All women underwent TTE and CMR during the third trimester and at least 3 months postpartum (surrogate for non-pregnant state). Results The study population included a total of 34 women (mean age 29 ± 3 years). During the third trimester, TTE and CMR demonstrated an increase in left ventricular end-diastolic volume from 95 ± 11 mL to 115 ± 14 mL and 98 ± 6 mL to 125 ± 5 mL, respectively (p < 0.05). By TTE and CMR, there was also an increase in left ventricular (LV) mass during pregnancy from 111 ± 10 g to 163 ± 11 g and 121 ± 5 g to 179 ± 5 g, respectively (p < 0.05). Although there was good correlation between both imaging modalities for LV mass, stroke volume, and cardiac output, the values were consistently underestimated by TTE. Conclusion This CMR study provides reference values for cardiac indices during normal pregnancy and the postpartum state. PMID:24387349

  13. Characterization and optimization of peptide arrays for the study of epitope-antibody interactions using surface plasmon resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Greta J; Lee, Hye Jin; Corn, Robert M

    2002-10-15

    The characterization of peptide arrays on gold surfaces designed for the study of peptide-antibody interactions using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging is described. A two-step process was used to prepare the peptide arrays: (i) a set of parallel microchannels was used to deliver chemical reagents to covalently attach peptide probes to the surface by a thiol-disulfide exchange reaction; (ii) a second microchannel with a wraparound design was used as a small-volume flow cell (5 microL) to introduce antibody solutions to the peptide surface. As a demonstration, the interactions of the FLAG epitope tag and monoclonal anti-FLAG M2 were monitored by SPR imaging using a peptide array. This peptide-antibody pair was studied because of its importance as a means to purify fusion proteins. The surface coverage of the FLAG peptide was precisely controlled by creating the peptide arrays on mixed monolayers of alkanethiols containing an amine-terminated surface and an inert alkanethiol. The mole fraction of peptide epitopes was also controlled by reacting solutions containing FLAG peptide and the non-interacting peptide HA or cysteine. By studying variants based on the FLAG binding motif, it was possible to distinguish peptides differing by a single amino acid substitution using SPR imaging. In addition, quantitative analysis of the signal was accomplished using the peptide array to simultaneously determine the binding constants of the antibody-peptide interactions for four peptides. The binding constant, K(ads), for the FLAG peptide was measured and found to be 1.5 x 10(8) M(-1) while variants made by the substitution of alanine for residues based on the binding motif had binding constants of 2.8 x 10(7), 5.0 x 10(6), and 2.0 x 10(6) M(-1).

  14. Potential role of bile duct collaterals in the recovery of the biliary obstruction: experimental study in rats using microcholangiography, histology, serology and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ni, Y; Lukito, G; Marchal, G; Cresens, E; Yu, J; Petré, C; Baert, A L; Fevery, J

    1994-12-01

    Obstructive cholestasis induced in animals at the level of the lobar and common bile ducts is known to be reversible with time. This study was conducted not only to test the hypothesis that formation of bile duct collaterals is responsible for the recovery of biliary obstruction but also to assess the potential of hepatobiliary agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for visualizing cholestasis. A total of 52 rats were divided into three groups with selective biliary obstruction, total biliary obstruction and sham surgery. We studied the evolution of cholestasis by correlating microcholangiographic, histological findings with the results of liver tests and hepatobiliary agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Lobar cholestasis undetected by liver tests but seen on magnetic resonance imaging as a difference between ligated and unligated lobes, occurred in 15 out of 20 rats subjected to selective biliary obstruction within 48 hr after ligation, and recovered later on as a result of the development of bile duct collaterals. Five rats failed to show local cholestasis as a result of the existence of interlobar accessory bile channels. All 18 total biliary obstruction-treated rats were cholestatic soon after ligation, as confirmed by high serum bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase levels and as documented by poor liver enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging. Cholestasis recovered within 4 wk with normalization of liver enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging as a result of the formation of bile duct collaterals (as demonstrated by microcholangiographic and histological study). Bile duct collateral formation is responsible for the recovery from obstructive cholestasis in rats. A similar mechanism might be present in conditions of bile duct obstruction without cholestasis. Hepatobiliary agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive than blood tests in detecting local cholestasis and can be used to monitor noninvasively the evolution of biliary

  15. Reliability of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Rotator Cuff: The ROW Study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nitin B.; Collins, Jamie; Newman, Joel S.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Losina, Elena; Higgins, Laurence D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Physiatrists encounter patients with rotator cuff disorders and imaging is frequently an important component of their diagnostic assessment. However, there is paucity of literature on reliability of MRI assessment between shoulder specialists and musculoskeletal radiologists. Objective We assessed inter- and intra-rater reliability of MRI characteristics of the rotator cuff. Design Cross-sectional secondary analyses in a prospective cohort study Setting Academic tertiary care centers Patients Subjects with shoulder pain recruited from orthopedic and physiatry clinics Methods Two shoulder fellowship trained physicians (a physiatrist and a shoulder surgeon) jointly performed a blinded composite MRI review by consensus on 31 subjects with shoulder pain. Subsequently, MRI was reviewed by one fellowship trained musculoskeletal radiologist. Main Outcome Measures We calculated Cohen’s kappa coefficients and percent agreement among the two reviews (composite review of two shoulder specialists versus that of the musculoskeletal radiologist). Intra-rater reliability was assessed among the shoulder specialists by performing a repeat blinded composite MRI review. In addition to this repeat composite review, only one of the physiatry shoulder specialists performed an additional review. Results Inter-rater reliability (shoulder specialists versus musculoskeletal radiologist) was substantial for the presence or absence of tear (kappa=0.90; 95% CI=0.72, 1.00), tear-thickness (kappa=0.84;95% CI=0.70, 0.99), longitudinal size of tear (kappa=0.75;95% CI=0.44, 1.00), fatty infiltration (kappa=0.62; 95% CI=0.45, 0.79), and muscle atrophy (kappa=0.68; 95% CI=0.50, 0.86). There was only fair inter-rater reliability of transverse size of tear (kappa=0.20; 95% CI=0.00, 0.51). The kappa for intra-rater reliability was high for tear thickness (0.88; 95% CI=0.72, 1.00), longitudinal tear size (0.61; 95% CI=0.22, 0.99), fatty infiltration (0.89; 95% CI=0.80, 0.98), and muscle

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging study of the morphometry of cervical extensor muscles in chronic tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, C; Bueno, A; Ferrando, J; Elliott, J M; Cuadrado, M L; Pareja, J A

    2007-04-01

    This study analyses the differences in the relative cross-sectional area (rCSA) of several cervical extensor muscles, assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), between patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) and healthy controls. MRI of the cervical spine was performed on 15 CTTH females and 15 matched controls. The rCSA values for the rectus capitis posterior minor (RCPmin), rectus capitis posterior major (RCPmaj), semispinalis capitis and splenius capitis muscles were measured from axial T1-weighted images using axial MR slices aligned parallel to the C2/3 intervertebral disc. A headache diary was kept for 4 weeks in order to