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Sample records for resonance ion source

  1. A simple electron cyclotron resonance ion source (abstract)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welton, R. F.; Moran, T. F.; Feeney, R. K.; Thomas, E. W.

    1996-03-01

    A simple, all permanent magnet, 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been developed for the production of stable beams of low charge state ions from gaseous feed materials. The source can produce ˜1 mA of low energy (3 kV) singly charged ion current in the 10-4 Torr pressure range. The source can also be operated in a more efficient low-pressure mode at an order of magnitude lower pressure. In this latter range, for example, the ionization efficiency of Ar is estimated to be 1% with charge states up to Ar8+ present. Operation in the low-pressure mode requires low power input (˜20 W). These features make the source especially suited for use with small accelerator systems for a number of applications including ion implantation, mass spectrometry, and atomic collision experiments where multiply charged ions are desirable. Design details and performance characteristics of the source are presented.

  2. A resonant ionization laser ion source at ORNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Stracener, D. W.

    2016-06-01

    Multi-step resonance laser ionization has become an essential tool for the production of isobarically pure radioactive ion beams at the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) facilities around the world. A resonant ionization laser ion source (RILIS) has been developed for the former Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The RILIS employs a hot-cavity ion source and a laser system featuring three grating-tuned and individually pumped Ti:Sapphire lasers, especially designed for stable and simple operation. The RILIS has been installed at the second ISOL production platform of former HRIBF and has successfully provided beams of exotic neutron-rich Ga isotopes for beta decay studies. This paper reports the features, advantages, limitations, and on-line and off-line performance of the RILIS.

  3. ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources for cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C.M.

    1986-10-01

    In the last decade ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources have evolved from a single large, power consuming, complex prototype into a variety of compact, simple, reliable, efficient, high performance sources of high charge state ions for accelerators and atomic physics. The coupling of ECR sources to cyclotrons has resulted in significant performance gains in energy, intensity, reliability, and variety of ion species. Seven ECR sources are in regular operation with cyclotrons and numerous other projects are under development or in the planning stag. At least four laboratories have ECR sources dedicated for atomic physics research and other atomic physics programs share ECR sources with cyclotrons. An ECR source is now installed on the injector for the CERN SPS synchrotron to accelerate O/sup 8 +/ to relativistic energies. A project is underway at Argonne to couple an ECR source to a superconducting heavy-ion linac. Although tremendous progress has been made, the field of ECR sources is still a relatively young technology and there is still the potential for further advances both in source development and understanding of the plasma physics. The development of ECR sources is reviewed. The important physics mechanisms which come into play in the operation of ECR Sources are discussed, along with various models for charge state distributions (CSD). The design and performance of several ECR sources are compared. The 88-Inch Cyclotron and the LBL ECR is used as an example of cyclotron+ECR operation. The future of ECR sources is considered.

  4. Plasma ion dynamics and beam formation in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mascali, D.; Neri, L.; Miracoli, R.; Gammino, S.; Celona, L.; Ciavola, G.; Gambino, N.; Chikin, S.

    2010-02-15

    In electron cyclotron resonance ion sources it has been demonstrated that plasma heating may be improved by means of different microwave to plasma coupling mechanisms, including the ''frequency tuning'' and the ''two frequency heating''. These techniques affect evidently the electron dynamics, but the relationship with the ion dynamics has not been investigated in details up to now. Here we will try to outline these relations: through the study of ion dynamics we may try to understand how to optimize the electron cyclotron resonance ion sources brightness. A simple model of the ion confinement and beam formation will be presented, based on particle-in-cell and single particle simulations.

  5. Production of large resonant plasma volumes in microwave electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Alton, G.D.

    1998-11-24

    Microwave injection methods are disclosed for enhancing the performance of existing electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. The methods are based on the use of high-power diverse frequency microwaves, including variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, and broadband microwaves. The methods effect large resonant ``volume`` ECR regions in the ion sources. The creation of these large ECR plasma volumes permits coupling of more microwave power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present ECR ion sources. 5 figs.

  6. Production of large resonant plasma volumes in microwave electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Alton, Gerald D.

    1998-01-01

    Microwave injection methods for enhancing the performance of existing electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. The methods are based on the use of high-power diverse frequency microwaves, including variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, and broadband microwaves. The methods effect large resonant "volume" ECR regions in the ion sources. The creation of these large ECR plasma volumes permits coupling of more microwave power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present ECR ion sources.

  7. Pulsed magnetic field-electron cyclotron resonance ion source operation

    SciTech Connect

    Muehle, C.; Ratzinger, U.; Joest, G.; Leible, K.; Schennach, S.; Wolf, B.H.

    1996-03-01

    The pulsed magnetic field (PuMa)-electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source uses a pulsed coil to improve the peak current by opening the magnetic bottle along the beam axis. After demonstration of the principle of the pulsed magnetic extraction, the ion source was tested with different gases. We received promising results from helium to krypton. The influence of the current in the pulsed coil on the analyzed ion current was measured. With increased current levels within the pulsed coil not only the pulse height of the PuMa pulse, but the pulse length can also be controlled. By using the pulsed coil the maximum of the charge state distribution can be shifted to higher charge states. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Status report on electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, A.; Muramatsu, M.; Sekiguchi, M.; Yamada, S.; Jincho, K.; Okada, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Hattori, T.; Biri, S.; Baskaran, R.; Sakata, T.; Sawada, K.; Uno, K.

    2000-02-01

    The Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) is not only dedicated to cancer therapy, it is also utilized with various ion species for basic experiments of biomedical science, physics, chemistry, etc. Two electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are installed for production of gaseous ions. One of them, the NIRS-ECR, is a 10 GHz ECR ion source, and is mainly operated to produce C4+ ions for daily clinical treatment. This source realizes good reproducibility and reliability and it is easily operated. The other source, the NIRS-HEC, is an 18 GHz ECR ion source that is expected to produce heavier ion species. The output ion currents of the NIRS-ECR and the NIRS-HEC are 430e μA for C4+ and 1.1e mA for Ar8+, respectively.

  9. Glow plasma trigger for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    PubMed

    Vodopianov, A V; Golubev, S V; Izotov, I V; Nikolaev, A G; Oks, E M; Savkin, K P; Yushkov, G Yu

    2010-02-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs) are particularly useful for nuclear, atomic, and high energy physics, as unique high current generators of multicharged ion beams. Plasmas of gas discharges in an open magnetic trap heated by pulsed (100 micros and longer) high power (100 kW and higher) high-frequency (greater than 37.5 GHz) microwaves of gyrotrons is promising in the field of research in the development of electron cyclotron resonance sources for high charge state ion beams. Reaching high ion charge states requires a decrease in gas pressure in the magnetic trap, but this method leads to increases in time, in which the microwave discharge develops. The gas breakdown and microwave discharge duration becomes greater than or equal to the microwave pulse duration when the pressure is decreased. This makes reaching the critical plasma density initiate an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge during pulse of microwave gyrotron radiation with gas pressure lower than a certain threshold. In order to reduce losses of microwave power, it is necessary to shorten the time of development of the ECR discharge. For fast triggering of ECR discharge under low pressure in an ECRIS, we initially propose to fill the magnetic trap with the plasmas of auxiliary pulsed discharges in crossed ExB fields. The glow plasma trigger of ECR based on a Penning or magnetron discharge has made it possible not only to fill the trap with plasma with density of 10(12) cm(-3), required for a rapid increase in plasma density and finally for ECR discharge ignition, but also to initially heat the plasma electrons to T(e) approximately = 20 eV.

  10. Accessibility condition of wave propagation and multicharged ion production in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Yushi Yano, Keisuke; Nishiokada, Takuya; Nagaya, Tomoki; Kimura, Daiju; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu

    2016-02-15

    A new tandem type source of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas has been constructing for producing synthesized ion beams in Osaka University. Magnetic mirror field configuration with octupole magnets can be controlled to various shape of ECR zones, namely, in the 2nd stage plasma to be available by a pair mirror and a supplemental coil. Noteworthy correlations between these magnetic configurations and production of multicharged ions are investigated in detail, as well as their optimum conditions. We have been considering accessibility condition of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves propagating in ECR ion source plasma, and then investigated their correspondence relationships with production of multicharged ions. It has been clarified that there exits efficient configuration of ECR zones for producing multicharged ion beams experimentally, and then has been suggested from detail accessibility conditions on the ECR plasma that new resonance, i.e., upper hybrid resonance, must have occurred.

  11. Accessibility condition of wave propagation and multicharged ion production in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yushi; Yano, Keisuke; Nishiokada, Takuya; Nagaya, Tomoki; Kimura, Daiju; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu

    2016-02-01

    A new tandem type source of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas has been constructing for producing synthesized ion beams in Osaka University. Magnetic mirror field configuration with octupole magnets can be controlled to various shape of ECR zones, namely, in the 2nd stage plasma to be available by a pair mirror and a supplemental coil. Noteworthy correlations between these magnetic configurations and production of multicharged ions are investigated in detail, as well as their optimum conditions. We have been considering accessibility condition of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves propagating in ECR ion source plasma, and then investigated their correspondence relationships with production of multicharged ions. It has been clarified that there exits efficient configuration of ECR zones for producing multicharged ion beams experimentally, and then has been suggested from detail accessibility conditions on the ECR plasma that new resonance, i.e., upper hybrid resonance, must have occurred.

  12. ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) ion sources and applications with heavy-ion linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source has been developed in the last few years into a reliable source of high charge-state heavy ions. The availability of heavy ions with relatively large charge-to-mass ratios (0.1--0.5) has made it possible to contemplate essentially new classes of heavy-ion linear accelerators. In this talk, I shall review the state-of-the-art in ECR source performance and describe some of the implications this performance level has for heavy-ion linear accelerator design. The present linear accelerator projects using ECR ion sources will be noted and the performance requirements of the ECR source for these projects will be reviewed. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Model for the description of ion beam extraction from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    PubMed

    Spädtke, P

    2010-02-01

    The finite difference method trajectory code KOBRA3-INP has been developed now for 25 years to perform the simulation of ion beam extraction in three dimensions. Meanwhile, the code has been validated for different applications: high current ion beam extraction from plasma sources for ion implantation technology, neutral gas heating in fusion devices, or ion thrusters for space propulsion. One major issue of the development of this code was to improve the flexibility of the applied model for the simulation of different types of particle sources. Fixed emitter sources might be simulated with that code as well as laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs), or H(-) sources, which require the simulation of negative ions, negative electrons, and positive charges simultaneously. The model which has been developed for ECRIS has now been used to explore the conditions for the ion beam extraction from a still nonexisting ion source, a so called ARC-ECRIS [P. Suominen and F. Wenander, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A305 (2008)]. It has to be shown whether the plasma generator has similar properties like regular ECRIS. However, the emittance of the extracted beam seems to be much better compared to an ECRIS equipped with a hexapole.

  14. Production of molecular ion beams using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Draganić, I. N.; Bannister, M. E.; Meyer, F. W.; Vane, C. R.; Havener, C. C.

    2011-06-01

    An all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is tuned to create a variety of intense molecular ion beams for basic energy research. Based on simultaneous injection of several gases with spectroscopic high purity or enriched isotope content (e.g., H2, D2, N2, O2, or CO) and lower power microwave heating, the ECR ion source produces diatomic molecular ion beams of H2+, D2+, HD+, HO+, DO+, NH+, ND+, and more complex polyatomic molecular ions such as H3+, D3+, HD2+, H2O+, D2O+, H3O+, D3O+, and NHn+, NDn+ with n=2,3,4 and possibly higher. Molecular ion beams have been produced with very high current intensities compared to other molecular beam sources. The recorded molecular ion beam spectra are discussed.

  15. Anion formation in sputter ion sources by neutral resonant ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J. S.

    2016-02-15

    Focused Cs{sup +} beams in sputter ion sources create mm-diameter pits supporting small plasmas that control anionization efficiencies. Sputtering produces overwhelmingly neutral products that the plasma can ionize as in a charge-change vapor. Electron capture between neutral atoms rises as the inverse square of the difference between the ionization potential of the Cs state and the electron affinity of the sputtered atom, allowing resonant ionization at very low energies. A plasma collision-radiation model followed electronic excitation up to Cs(7d). High modeled Cs(7d) in a 0.5 mm recess explains the 80 μA/mm{sup 2} C{sup −} current density compared to the 20 μA/mm{sup 2} from a 1 mm recess.

  16. Production of a highly charged uranium ion beam with RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Higurashi, Y.; Ohnishi, J.; Nakagawa, T.; Haba, H.; Fujimaki, M.; Komiyama, M.; Kamigaito, O.; Tamura, M.; Aihara, T.; Uchiyama, A.

    2012-02-15

    A highly charged uranium (U) ion beam is produced from the RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source using 18 and 28 GHz microwaves. The sputtering method is used to produce this U ion beam. The beam intensity is strongly dependent on the rod position and sputtering voltage. We observe that the emittance of U{sup 35+} for 28 GHz microwaves is almost the same as that for 18 GHz microwaves. It seems that the beam intensity of U ions produced using 28 GHz microwaves is higher than that produced using 18 GHz microwaves at the same Radio Frequency (RF) power.

  17. New tandem type ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance for universal source of synthesized ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Yushi Kurisu, Yosuke; Nozaki, Dai; Yano, Keisuke; Kimura, Daiju; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Nishiokada, Takuya; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2014-02-15

    A new tandem type source has been constructed on the basis of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma for producing synthesized ion beams. We investigate feasibility and hope to realize the device which has wide range operation window in a single device to produce many kinds of ion beams based on ECR ion source (ECRIS). It is considered that ECR plasmas are necessary to be available to individual operations with different plasma parameters. Both of analysis of ion beams and investigation of plasma parameters are conducted on produced plasmas. We describe construction of the new tandem type ion source based on ECRIS with wide operation window for aiming at producing synthesized ion beams as this new source can be a universal source.

  18. New tandem type ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance for universal source of synthesized ion beams.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yushi; Kurisu, Yosuke; Nozaki, Dai; Yano, Keisuke; Kimura, Daiju; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Nishiokada, Takuya; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2014-02-01

    A new tandem type source has been constructed on the basis of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma for producing synthesized ion beams. We investigate feasibility and hope to realize the device which has wide range operation window in a single device to produce many kinds of ion beams based on ECR ion source (ECRIS). It is considered that ECR plasmas are necessary to be available to individual operations with different plasma parameters. Both of analysis of ion beams and investigation of plasma parameters are conducted on produced plasmas. We describe construction of the new tandem type ion source based on ECRIS with wide operation window for aiming at producing synthesized ion beams as this new source can be a universal source.

  19. An all permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy ion therapy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yun; Li, Jia Qing; Sun, Liang Ting; Zhang, Xue Zhen; Feng, Yu Cheng; Wang, Hui; Ma, Bao Hua; Li, Xi Xia

    2014-02-01

    A high charge state all permanent Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source no. 3-LAPECR3, has been successfully built at IMP in 2012, which will serve as the ion injector of the Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. As a commercial device, LAPECR3 features a compact structure, small size, and low cost. According to HIMM scenario more than 100 eμA of C(5+) ion beam should be extracted from the ion source, and the beam emittance better than 75 π*mm*mrad. In recent commissioning, about 120 eμA of C(5+) ion beam was got when work gas was CH4 while about 262 eμA of C(5+) ion beam was obtained when work gas was C2H2 gas. The design and construction of the ion source and its low-energy transportation beam line, and the preliminary commissioning results will be presented in detail in this paper.

  20. An all permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy ion therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yun; Li, Jia Qing; Sun, Liang Ting; Zhang, Xue Zhen; Feng, Yu Cheng; Wang, Hui; Ma, Bao Hua; Li, Xi Xia

    2014-02-01

    A high charge state all permanent Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source no. 3-LAPECR3, has been successfully built at IMP in 2012, which will serve as the ion injector of the Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. As a commercial device, LAPECR3 features a compact structure, small size, and low cost. According to HIMM scenario more than 100 eμA of C5+ ion beam should be extracted from the ion source, and the beam emittance better than 75 π*mm*mrad. In recent commissioning, about 120 eμA of C5+ ion beam was got when work gas was CH4 while about 262 eμA of C5+ ion beam was obtained when work gas was C2H2 gas. The design and construction of the ion source and its low-energy transportation beam line, and the preliminary commissioning results will be presented in detail in this paper.

  1. Experiment study of an electron cyclotron resonant ion source based on a tapered resonance cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Juan; Shi, Feng; Jin, Yizhou; Wang, Yunmin; Komurasaki, Kimiya

    2013-12-15

    Electron cyclotron resonant plasma is one type of magnetised plasma generated by continuous microwave energy. It has the property of high degree of ionization and large volume at low gas pressure, which makes it useful for space propulsion and material processing. This article presents the experiment study of the plasma properties and ion beam extraction from an electron cyclotron resonant ion source based on a tapered resonance cavity. Optical emission spectroscopy based on a simple collisional radiation model was used for plasma diagnosis. Experiment results show that, at microwave power setting ranging from 7.06 to 17.40 W and mass flow rate ranging from 1 to 10 sccm, argon gas can be ionized. Ion beam of 109.1 mA from the ion source can be extracted at microwave power of 30 W, mass flow rate of 10 sccm, and accel voltage of 800 V. The diagnosed plasma temperature and density are 2.4–5.2 eV and 2 × 10{sup 16}–4.8 × 10{sup 17} m{sup −3}, respectively.

  2. Optimization of a hot-cavity type resonant ionization laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Henares, J. L. Lecesne, N.; Hijazi, L.; Bastin, B.; Leroy, R.; Osmond, B.; Vignet, J. L.; Kron, T.; Naubereit, P.; Wendt, K.; Lassen, J.; Le Blanc, F.

    2016-02-15

    Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is nowadays an important technique in many Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facilities for its reliability and ability to ionize efficiently and element selectively. Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds (GANIL) Ion Source using Electron Laser Excitation (GISELE) is an off-line test bench for RILIS developed to study a fully operational resonant laser ion source at GANIL facility. The ion source body has been designed as a modular system to investigate different experimental approaches by varying the design parameters, to develop the future on-line laser ion source. The aim of this project is to determine the best technical solution which combines high selectivity and ionization efficiency with small ion beam emittance and stable long term operation. Latest results concerning emittance and time profile development as a function of the temperature for different ion source versions will be presented.

  3. Review of highly charged heavy ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, T.

    2014-02-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plays an important role in the advancement of heavy ion accelerators and other ion beam applications worldwide, thanks to its remarkable ability to produce a great variety of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. Great efforts over the past decade have led to significant ECRIS performance improvements in both the beam intensity and quality. A number of high-performance ECRISs have been built and are in daily operation or are under construction to meet the continuously increasing demand. In addition, comprehension of the detailed and complex physical processes in high-charge-state ECR plasmas has been enhanced experimentally and theoretically. This review covers and discusses the key components, leading-edge developments, and enhanced ECRIS performance in the production of highly charged heavy ion beams.

  4. Wall-loss distribution of charge breeding ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, S. C.; Oyaizu, M.; Imai, N.; Hirayama, Y.; Ishiyama, H.; Miyatake, H.; Niki, K.; Okada, M.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Otokawa, Y.; Osa, A.; Ichikawa, S.

    2011-03-15

    The ion loss distribution in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) was investigated to understand the element dependence of the charge breeding efficiency in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) charge breeder. The radioactive {sup 111}In{sup 1+} and {sup 140}Xe{sup 1+} ions (typical nonvolatile and volatile elements, respectively) were injected into the ECR charge breeder at the Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex to breed their charge states. Their respective residual activities on the sidewall of the cylindrical plasma chamber of the source were measured after charge breeding as functions of the azimuthal angle and longitudinal position and two-dimensional distributions of ions lost during charge breeding in the ECRIS were obtained. These distributions had different azimuthal symmetries. The origins of these different azimuthal symmetries are qualitatively discussed by analyzing the differences and similarities in the observed wall-loss patterns. The implications for improving the charge breeding efficiencies of nonvolatile elements in ECR charge breeders are described. The similarities represent universal ion loss characteristics in an ECR charge breeder, which are different from the loss patterns of electrons on the ECRIS wall.

  5. Fast neutral beam ion source coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, N.C.; Limbach, P.A.; Shomo, R.E. II; Marshall, A.G. ); Appelhans, A.D.; Delmore, J.E. )

    1991-11-01

    The coupling of an autoneutralizing SF{sup {minus}}{sub 6} fast ion-beam gun to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT/ICR) mass spectrometer is described. The fast neutral beam provides for secondary-ion-type FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., production of abundant pseudomolecular (M+H){sup +} ions) of involatile samples without the need for external ion injection, since ions are formed at the entrance to the ICR ion trap. The design, construction, and testing of the hybrid instrument are described. The feasibility of the experiment (for both broadband and high-resolution FT/ICR positive-ion mass spectra) is demonstrated with {ital tetra}-butylammonium bromide and a Tylenol{sup ( )} sample. The ability to analyze high molecular weight polymers with high mass resolution is demonstrated for Teflon{sup ( )}. All of the advantages of the fast neutral beam ion source previously demonstrated with quadrupole mass analysis are preserved, and the additional advantages of FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., high mass resolving power, ion trapping) are retained.

  6. Fast neutral beam ion source coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Nicholas C.; Limbach, Patrick A.; Shomo, Ronald E., II; Marshall, Alan G.; Appelhans, Anthony D.; Delmore, James E.

    1991-11-01

    The coupling of an autoneutralizing SF-6 fast ion-beam gun to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT/ICR) mass spectrometer is described. The fast neutral beam provides for secondary-ion-type FT/ICR mass analysis [e.g., production of abundant pseudomolecular (M+H)+ ions] of involatile samples without the need for external ion injection, since ions are formed at the entrance to the ICR ion trap. The design, construction, and testing of the hybrid instrument are described. The feasibility of the experiment (for both broadband and high-resolution FT/ICR positive-ion mass spectra) is demonstrated with tetra-butylammonium bromide and a Tylenol■ sample. The ability to analyze high molecular weight polymers with high mass resolution is demonstrated for Teflon■. All of the advantages of the fast neutral beam ion source previously demonstrated with quadrupole mass analysis are preserved, and the additional advantages of FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., high mass resolving power, ion trapping) are retained.

  7. Nitrogen ion implantation into various materials using 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang Seouk; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Lee, Seung Wook; Won, Mi-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The installation of the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) ion implantation beamline was recently completed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The apparatus contains a beam monitoring system and a sample holder for the ion implantation process. The new implantation system can function as a multipurpose tool since it can implant a variety of ions, ranging hydrogen to uranium, into different materials with precise control and with implantation areas as large as 1-10 mm(2). The implantation chamber was designed to measure the beam properties with a diagnostic system as well as to perform ion implantation with an in situ system including a mass spectrometer. This advanced implantation system can be employed in novel applications, including the production of a variety of new materials such as metals, polymers, and ceramics and the irradiation testing and fabrication of structural and functional materials to be used in future nuclear fusion reactors. In this investigation, the first nitrogen ion implantation experiments were conducted using the new system. The 28 GHz ECRIS implanted low-energy, multi-charged nitrogen ions into copper, zinc, and cobalt substrates, and the ion implantation depth profiles were obtained. SRIM 2013 code was used to calculate the profiles under identical conditions, and the experimental and simulation results are presented and compared in this report. The depths and ranges of the ion distributions in the experimental and simulation results agree closely and demonstrate that the new system will enable the treatment of various substrates for advanced materials research.

  8. Nitrogen ion implantation into various materials using 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Chang Seouk; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Lee, Seung Wook; Won, Mi-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The installation of the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) ion implantation beamline was recently completed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The apparatus contains a beam monitoring system and a sample holder for the ion implantation process. The new implantation system can function as a multipurpose tool since it can implant a variety of ions, ranging hydrogen to uranium, into different materials with precise control and with implantation areas as large as 1-10 mm2. The implantation chamber was designed to measure the beam properties with a diagnostic system as well as to perform ion implantation with an in situ system including a mass spectrometer. This advanced implantation system can be employed in novel applications, including the production of a variety of new materials such as metals, polymers, and ceramics and the irradiation testing and fabrication of structural and functional materials to be used in future nuclear fusion reactors. In this investigation, the first nitrogen ion implantation experiments were conducted using the new system. The 28 GHz ECRIS implanted low-energy, multi-charged nitrogen ions into copper, zinc, and cobalt substrates, and the ion implantation depth profiles were obtained. SRIM 2013 code was used to calculate the profiles under identical conditions, and the experimental and simulation results are presented and compared in this report. The depths and ranges of the ion distributions in the experimental and simulation results agree closely and demonstrate that the new system will enable the treatment of various substrates for advanced materials research.

  9. Nitrogen ion implantation into various materials using 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Chang Seouk; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Seung Wook

    2016-02-15

    The installation of the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) ion implantation beamline was recently completed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The apparatus contains a beam monitoring system and a sample holder for the ion implantation process. The new implantation system can function as a multipurpose tool since it can implant a variety of ions, ranging hydrogen to uranium, into different materials with precise control and with implantation areas as large as 1–10 mm{sup 2}. The implantation chamber was designed to measure the beam properties with a diagnostic system as well as to perform ion implantation with an in situ system including a mass spectrometer. This advanced implantation system can be employed in novel applications, including the production of a variety of new materials such as metals, polymers, and ceramics and the irradiation testing and fabrication of structural and functional materials to be used in future nuclear fusion reactors. In this investigation, the first nitrogen ion implantation experiments were conducted using the new system. The 28 GHz ECRIS implanted low-energy, multi-charged nitrogen ions into copper, zinc, and cobalt substrates, and the ion implantation depth profiles were obtained. SRIM 2013 code was used to calculate the profiles under identical conditions, and the experimental and simulation results are presented and compared in this report. The depths and ranges of the ion distributions in the experimental and simulation results agree closely and demonstrate that the new system will enable the treatment of various substrates for advanced materials research.

  10. Advanced light ion source extraction system for a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source geometry at Saclay.

    PubMed

    Delferrière, O; Gobin, R; Harrault, F; Nyckees, S; Sauce, Y; Tuske, O

    2012-02-01

    One of the main goal of intense light ion injector projects such as IPHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2, is to produce high current beams while keeping transverse emittance as low as possible. To prevent emittance growth induced in a dual solenoid low energy transfer line, its length has to be minimized. This can be performed with the advanced light ion source extraction system concept that we are developing: a new ECR 2.45 GHz type ion source based on the use of an additional low energy beam transport (LEBT) short length solenoid close to the extraction aperture to create the resonance in the plasma chamber. The geometry of the source has been considerably modified to allow easy maintenance of each component and to save space in front of the extraction. The source aims to be very flexible and to be able to extract high current ion beams at energy up to 100 kV. A specific experimental setup for this source is under installation on the BETSI test bench, to compare its performances with sources developed up to now in the laboratory, such as SILHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2 ECR sources. This original extraction source concept is presented, as well as electromagnetic simulations with OPERA-2D code. Ion beam extraction in space charge compensation regime with AXCEL, and beam dynamics simulation with SOLMAXP codes show the beam quality improvement at the end of the LEBT.

  11. Advanced light ion source extraction system for a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source geometry at Saclaya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delferrière, O.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.; Nyckees, S.; Sauce, Y.; Tuske, O.

    2012-02-01

    One of the main goal of intense light ion injector projects such as IPHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2, is to produce high current beams while keeping transverse emittance as low as possible. To prevent emittance growth induced in a dual solenoid low energy transfer line, its length has to be minimized. This can be performed with the advanced light ion source extraction system concept that we are developing: a new ECR 2.45 GHz type ion source based on the use of an additional low energy beam transport (LEBT) short length solenoid close to the extraction aperture to create the resonance in the plasma chamber. The geometry of the source has been considerably modified to allow easy maintenance of each component and to save space in front of the extraction. The source aims to be very flexible and to be able to extract high current ion beams at energy up to 100 kV. A specific experimental setup for this source is under installation on the BETSI test bench, to compare its performances with sources developed up to now in the laboratory, such as SILHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2 ECR sources. This original extraction source concept is presented, as well as electromagnetic simulations with OPERA-2D code. Ion beam extraction in space charge compensation regime with AXCEL, and beam dynamics simulation with SOLMAXP codes show the beam quality improvement at the end of the LEBT.

  12. Grating monochromator for electron cyclotron resonance ion source operation

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, Hideshi; Ohshiro, Yukimitsu; Yamaka, Shouichi; Watanabe, Shin-ichi; Yamaguchi, Hidetoshi; Shimoura, Susumu; Oyaizu, Michihiro; Kase, Masayuki; Kubono, Shigeru; Hattori, Toshiyuki

    2013-07-15

    Recently, we started to observe optical line spectra from an ECR plasma using a grating monochromator with a photomultiplier. The light intensity of line spectrum from the ECR plasma had a strong correlation with ion beam intensity measured by a magnetic mass analyzer. This correlation is a significant information for beam tuning because it allows the extraction of the desired ion species from the ECR plasma. Separation of ion species of the same charge to mass ratio with an electromagnetic mass analyzer is known to be an exceptionally complex process, but this research gives new insights into its simplification. In this paper, the grating monochromator method for beam tuning of a Hyper-ECR ion source as an injector for RIKEN azimuthal varying field (AVF) cyclotron is described.

  13. Investigations on the structure of the extracted ion beam from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Spaedtke, P.; Lang, R.; Maeder, J.; Rossbach, J.; Tinschert, K.; Maimone, F.

    2012-02-15

    Using improved beam diagnostic tools, the structure of an ion beam extracted from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) becomes visible. Especially viewing targets to display the beam profile and pepper pot devices for emittance measurements turned out to be very useful. On the contrary, diagnostic tools integrating over one space coordinate like wire harps for profile measurements or slit-slit devices, respectively slit-grid devices to measure the emittance might be applicable for beam transport investigations in a quadrupole channel, but are not very meaningful for investigations regarding the given ECRIS symmetry. Here we try to reproduce the experimentally found structure on the ion beam by simulation. For the simulation, a certain model has to be used to reproduce the experimental results. The model is also described in this paper.

  14. Solid-State Laser, Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source (Rilis) and Laser Beam Transport at Radioactive Ion Beam Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassen, J.; Bricault, P.; Dombsky, M.; Izdebski, F.; Lavoie, J. P.; Gillner, M.; Gottwald, T.; Hellbusch, F.; Teigelhöfer, A.; Voss, A.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    2009-03-01

    The inception of laser resonance ionization spectroscopy and its application as a resonant ionization laser ion source (RILIS) took place merely 20 years ago with pulsed dye lasers [1-5]. By now next generation radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities are being planned or built. Understanding and considering the unique RILIS requirements in the layout of next generation RIB facilities will allow for cost-effective implementation of this versatile ion source. This discussion touches on laser beam transport and RILIS requirements not necessarily obvious to experts in conventional ion sources.

  15. Effect of pulse-modulated microwaves on fullerene ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Asaji, T; Uchida, T; Minezaki, H; Oshima, K; Racz, R; Muramatsu, M; Biri, S; Kitagawa, A; Kato, Y; Yoshida, Y

    2012-02-01

    Fullerene plasmas generated by pulse-modulated microwaves have been investigated under typical conditions at the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source. The effect of the pulse modulation is distinct from that of simply structured gases, and then the density of the fullerene plasmas increased as decreasing the duty ratio. The density for a pulse width of 10 μs at the period of 100 μs is 1.34 times higher than that for CW mode. We have studied the responses of fullerene and argon plasmas to pulsed microwaves. After the turnoff of microwave power, fullerene plasmas lasted ∼30 times longer than argon plasmas.

  16. Ion Extraction from a Toroidal Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source: a Numerical Feasibility Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliri, Claudia; Volpe, Francesco; Gammino, Santo; Mascali, David

    2013-10-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) are magnetic mirror plasmas of microwave-heated electrons and cold multi-charged ions. The ions are extracted from one end of the mirror and injected in accelerators for nuclear and particle physics studies, hadrontherapy, or neutral beam injection in fusion plasmas. ECRIS devices progressed to higher and higher ion currents and charge states by adopting stronger magnetic fields (beneficial for confinement) and proportionally higher ECR frequencies. Further improvements would require the attainment of ``triple products'' comparable with major fusion experiments. For this, we propose a new, toroidal rather than linear, ECRIS geometry, which would at the same time improve confinement and make better use of the magnetic field. Ion extraction is more complicated than from a linear device, but feasible, as our modeling indicates. Possible techniques involve charge-dependent drifts, divertors, specially designed magnetic fields and associated loss-cones, electrostatic and/or magnetic deflectors, or techniques used in accelerators to transfer particles from one storage ring or accelerator to the next. Here we present single-particle tracings assessing and comparing these extraction techniques.

  17. Simulation and beamline experiments for the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source VENUS

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, Damon S.; Leitner, Daniela; Lyneis, Claude M.; Grote, David P.

    2008-02-15

    The particle-in-cell code WARP has been enhanced to incorporate both two- and three-dimensional sheath extraction models giving WARP the capability of simulating entire ion beam transport systems including the extraction of beams from plasma sources. In this article, we describe a method of producing initial ion distributions for plasma extraction simulations in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources based on experimentally measured sputtering on the source biased disk. Using this initialization method, we present preliminary results for extraction and transport simulations of an oxygen beam and compare them with experimental beam imaging on a quartz viewing plate for the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS.

  18. Development of an 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at RCNP.

    PubMed

    Yorita, Tetsuhiko; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kibayashi, Mitsuru; Morinobu, Shunpei; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Tamii, Atsushi

    2008-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source has recently been developed and installed in order to extend the variety and the intensity of ions at the RCNP coupled cyclotron facility. Production of several ions such as O, N, Ar, Kr, etc., is now under development and some of them have already been used for user experiments. For example, highly charged heavy ion beams like (86)Kr(21+,23+) and intense (16)O(5+,6+) and (15)N(6+) ion beams have been provided for experiments. The metal ion from volatile compounds method for boron ions has been developed as well.

  19. A preliminary study of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the RAON injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, I. S.; Kim, Y.; Choi, S. J.; Heo, J. I.; Jin, H. C.; Park, B. S.

    2016-09-01

    We have built and tested an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source for the Rare Isotope Accelerator of Newness (RAON) injector. Fully superconducting magnets were developed for the ECR ion source. First, an oxygen plasma was ignited, and a preliminary highly-charged oxygen beam was extracted. Next, a 100 μA beam current of oxygen 5+ was extracted when a 1 kW microwave power was injected using a 28 GHz gyrotron. Finally, an off-site test facility was proposed to test the components of the injector by using heavy-ion beams generated by the ECR ion source.

  20. Wall-loss distribution of charge breeding ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, S. C.; Oyaizu, M.; Imai, N.; Hirayama, Y.; Ishiyama, H.; Miyatake, H.; Niki, K.; Okada, M.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Otokawa, Y.; Osa, A.; Ichikawa, S.

    2012-02-15

    We investigated the ion-loss distribution on the sidewall of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma chamber using the 18-GHz ECR charge breeder at the Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex (TRIAC). Similarities and differences between the ion-loss distributions (longitudinal and azimuthal) of different ion species (i.e., radioactive {sup 111}In{sup 1+} and {sup 140}Xe{sup 1+} ions that are typical volatile and nonvolatile elements) was qualitatively discussed to understand the element dependence of the charge breeding efficiency. Especially, the similarities represent universal ion loss characteristics in an ECR charge breeder, which are different from the loss patterns of electrons on the ECRIS wall.

  1. The third generation superconducting 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source VENUS (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C.; Leitner, D.; Leitner, M.; Taylor, C.; Abbott, S.

    2010-02-15

    VENUS is a third generation electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, which incorporates a high field superconducting NbTi magnet structure, a 28 GHz gryotron microwave source and a state of the art closed cycle cryosystem. During the decade from initial concept to regular operation, it has demonstrated both the feasibility and the performance levels of this new generation of ECR ion sources and required innovation on magnet construction, plasma chamber design, and beam transport. In this paper, the development, performance, and major innovations are described as well as a look to the potential to construct a fourth generation ECR ion source.

  2. Study of ion beam transport from the SECRAL electron cyclotron resonance ion source at the Institute of Modern Physics.

    PubMed

    Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, W H; Sha, S; Yang, Y; Ma, B H; Wang, H; Zhu, Y H; Guo, J W; Fang, X; Lin, S H; Li, X X; Feng, Y C; Li, J Y; Zhao, H Y; Ma, H Y; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Wu, Q; Sun, L T; Zhao, H W; Xie, D Z

    2012-02-01

    Ion beam transport from the Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) electron cyclotron resonance ion source was studied at the Institute of Modern Physics during 2010. Particle-in-cell simulations and experimental results have shown that both space charge and magnetic aberrations lead to a larger beam envelope and emittance growth. In the existing SECRAL extraction beam line, it has been shown that raising the solenoid lens magnetic field reduces aberrations in the subsequent dipole and results in lower emittance. Detailed beam emittance measurements are presented in this paper.

  3. Studies on a Q/A selector for the SECRAL electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Sun, L. T.; Feng, Y. C.; Fang, X.; Lu, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Cao, Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-08-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators in the world because they are capable of producing high current beams of highly charged ions. However, the design of the Q/A selector system for these devices is challenging, because it must have a sufficient ion resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, this system has to be matched for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities. In this paper, research on the Q/A selector system at the SECRAL (Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) platform both in experiment and simulation is presented. Based on this study, a new Q/A selector system has been designed for SECRAL II. The features of the new design including beam simulations are also presented.

  4. Studies on a Q/A selector for the SECRAL electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Sun, L T; Feng, Y C; Fang, X; Lu, W; Zhang, W H; Cao, Y; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-08-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators in the world because they are capable of producing high current beams of highly charged ions. However, the design of the Q/A selector system for these devices is challenging, because it must have a sufficient ion resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, this system has to be matched for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities. In this paper, research on the Q/A selector system at the SECRAL (Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) platform both in experiment and simulation is presented. Based on this study, a new Q/A selector system has been designed for SECRAL II. The features of the new design including beam simulations are also presented.

  5. Molecular and negative ion production by a standard electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Rácz, R; Biri, S; Juhász, Z; Sulik, B; Pálinkás, J

    2012-02-01

    Molecular and negative ion beams, usually produced in special ion sources, play an increasingly important role in fundamental and applied atomic physics. The ATOMKI-ECRIS is a standard ECR ion source, designed to provide highly charged ion (HCI) plasmas and beams. In the present work, H(-), O(-), OH(-), O(2)(-), C(-), C(60)(-) negative ions and H(2)(+), H(3)(+), OH(+), H(2)O(+), H(3)O(+), O(2)(+) positive molecular ions were generated in this HCI-ECRIS. Without any major modification in the source and without any commonly applied tricks (such as usage of cesium or magnetic filter), negative ion beams of several μA and positive molecular ion beams in the mA range were successfully obtained.

  6. Molecular and negative ion production by a standard electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Racz, R.; Biri, S.; Juhasz, Z.; Sulik, B.

    2012-02-15

    Molecular and negative ion beams, usually produced in special ion sources, play an increasingly important role in fundamental and applied atomic physics. The ATOMKI-ECRIS is a standard ECR ion source, designed to provide highly charged ion (HCI) plasmas and beams. In the present work, H{sup -}, O{sup -}, OH{sup -}, O{sub 2}{sup -}, C{sup -}, C{sub 60}{sup -} negative ions and H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +}, OH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, H{sub 3}O{sup +}, O{sub 2}{sup +} positive molecular ions were generated in this HCI-ECRIS. Without any major modification in the source and without any commonly applied tricks (such as usage of cesium or magnetic filter), negative ion beams of several {mu}A and positive molecular ion beams in the mA range were successfully obtained.

  7. Bio-Nano ECRIS: An electron cyclotron resonance ion source for new materials production

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, T.; Minezaki, H.; Tanaka, K.; Asaji, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Kato, Y.; Biri, S.

    2010-02-15

    We developed an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for new materials production on nanoscale. Our main target is the endohedral fullerenes, which have potential in medical care, biotechnology, and nanotechnology. In particular, iron-encapsulated fullerene can be applied as a contrast material for magnetic resonance imaging or microwave heat therapy. Thus, our new ECRIS is named the Bio-Nano ECRIS. In this article, the recent progress of the development of the Bio-Nano ECRIS is reported: (i) iron ion beam production using induction heating oven and (ii) optimization of singly charged C{sub 60} ion beam production.

  8. Bio-Nano ECRIS: An electron cyclotron resonance ion source for new materials productiona)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, T.; Minezaki, H.; Tanaka, K.; Muramatsu, M.; Asaji, T.; Kato, Y.; Kitagawa, A.; Biri, S.; Yoshida, Y.

    2010-02-01

    We developed an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for new materials production on nanoscale. Our main target is the endohedral fullerenes, which have potential in medical care, biotechnology, and nanotechnology. In particular, iron-encapsulated fullerene can be applied as a contrast material for magnetic resonance imaging or microwave heat therapy. Thus, our new ECRIS is named the Bio-Nano ECRIS. In this article, the recent progress of the development of the Bio-Nano ECRIS is reported: (i) iron ion beam production using induction heating oven and (ii) optimization of singly charged C60 ion beam production.

  9. Improved charge breeding efficiency of light ions with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondrasek, R.; Delahaye, P.; Kutsaev, Sergey; Maunoury, L.

    2012-11-01

    The Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade is a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). The facility utilizes a 252Cf fission source coupled with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source to provide radioactive beam species for the ATLAS experimental program. The californium fission fragment distribution provides nuclei in the mid-mass range which are difficult to extract from production targets using the isotope separation on line technique and are not well populated by low-energy fission of uranium. To date the charge breeding program has focused on optimizing these mid-mass beams, achieving high charge breeding efficiencies of both gaseous and solid species including 14.7% for the radioactive species 143Ba27+. In an effort to better understand the charge breeding mechanism, we have recently focused on the low-mass species sodium and potassium which up to present have been difficult to charge breed efficiently. Unprecedented charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for 23Na7+ and 17.9% for 39K10+ were obtained injecting stable Na+ and K+ beams from a surface ionization source.

  10. Improved charge breeding efficiency of light ions with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Vondrasek, R.; Kutsaev, Sergey; Delahaye, P.; Maunoury, L.

    2012-11-15

    The Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade is a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). The facility utilizes a {sup 252}Cf fission source coupled with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source to provide radioactive beam species for the ATLAS experimental program. The californium fission fragment distribution provides nuclei in the mid-mass range which are difficult to extract from production targets using the isotope separation on line technique and are not well populated by low-energy fission of uranium. To date the charge breeding program has focused on optimizing these mid-mass beams, achieving high charge breeding efficiencies of both gaseous and solid species including 14.7% for the radioactive species {sup 143}Ba{sup 27+}. In an effort to better understand the charge breeding mechanism, we have recently focused on the low-mass species sodium and potassium which up to present have been difficult to charge breed efficiently. Unprecedented charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for {sup 23}Na{sup 7+} and 17.9% for {sup 39}K{sup 10+} were obtained injecting stable Na{sup +} and K{sup +} beams from a surface ionization source.

  11. The development of a room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source (Lanzhou electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 4) with evaporative cooling technology at Institute of Modern Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, W.; Sun, L. T.; Qian, C.; Guo, J. W.; Fang, X.; Feng, Y. C.; Yang, Y.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Ma, B. H.; Xiong, B.; Guo, S. Q.; Ruan, L.; Zhao, H. W.

    2015-04-01

    LECR4 (Lanzhou electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 4) has been successfully constructed at IMP and has also been connected with the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) and Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) systems. These source magnet coils are cooled through evaporative cooling technology, which is the first attempt with an ECR ion source in the world. The maximum mirror field is 2.5 T (with iron plug) and the effective plasma chamber volume is 1.2 l. It was designed to be operated at 18 GHz and aimed to produce intense multiple charge state heavy ion beams for the linear injector project SSC-Linac at IMP. In February 2014, the first analyzed beam at 18 GHz was extracted. During about three months' commissioning, some outstanding results have been achieved, such as 1.97 emA of O6+, 1.7 emA of Ar8+, 1.07 emA of Ar9+, and 118 euA of Bi28+. The source has also successfully delivered O5+ and Ar8+ ion beams for RFQ commissioning in April 2014. This paper will give a brief overview of the design of LECR4. Then, the latest results of this source at 18 GHz will be presented.

  12. The development of a room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source (Lanzhou electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 4) with evaporative cooling technology at Institute of Modern Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, W. Sun, L. T.; Qian, C.; Feng, Y. C.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Ma, B. H.; Zhao, H. W.; Guo, J. W.; Fang, X.; Yang, Y.; Xiong, B.; Guo, S. Q.; Ruan, L.

    2015-04-15

    LECR4 (Lanzhou electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 4) has been successfully constructed at IMP and has also been connected with the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) and Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) systems. These source magnet coils are cooled through evaporative cooling technology, which is the first attempt with an ECR ion source in the world. The maximum mirror field is 2.5 T (with iron plug) and the effective plasma chamber volume is 1.2 l. It was designed to be operated at 18 GHz and aimed to produce intense multiple charge state heavy ion beams for the linear injector project SSC-Linac at IMP. In February 2014, the first analyzed beam at 18 GHz was extracted. During about three months’ commissioning, some outstanding results have been achieved, such as 1.97 emA of O{sup 6+}, 1.7 emA of Ar{sup 8+}, 1.07 emA of Ar{sup 9+}, and 118 euA of Bi{sup 28+}. The source has also successfully delivered O{sup 5+} and Ar{sup 8+} ion beams for RFQ commissioning in April 2014. This paper will give a brief overview of the design of LECR4. Then, the latest results of this source at 18 GHz will be presented.

  13. The development of a room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source (Lanzhou electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 4) with evaporative cooling technology at Institute of Modern Physics.

    PubMed

    Lu, W; Sun, L T; Qian, C; Guo, J W; Fang, X; Feng, Y C; Yang, Y; Ma, H Y; Zhang, X Z; Ma, B H; Xiong, B; Guo, S Q; Ruan, L; Zhao, H W

    2015-04-01

    LECR4 (Lanzhou electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 4) has been successfully constructed at IMP and has also been connected with the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) and Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) systems. These source magnet coils are cooled through evaporative cooling technology, which is the first attempt with an ECR ion source in the world. The maximum mirror field is 2.5 T (with iron plug) and the effective plasma chamber volume is 1.2 l. It was designed to be operated at 18 GHz and aimed to produce intense multiple charge state heavy ion beams for the linear injector project SSC-Linac at IMP. In February 2014, the first analyzed beam at 18 GHz was extracted. During about three months' commissioning, some outstanding results have been achieved, such as 1.97 emA of O(6+), 1.7 emA of Ar(8+), 1.07 emA of Ar(9+), and 118 euA of Bi(28+). The source has also successfully delivered O(5+) and Ar(8+) ion beams for RFQ commissioning in April 2014. This paper will give a brief overview of the design of LECR4. Then, the latest results of this source at 18 GHz will be presented.

  14. Charge breeding results and future prospects with electron cyclotron resonance ion source and electron beam ion source (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Vondrasek, R.; Levand, A.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Scott, R.

    2012-02-15

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility will provide low-energy and reaccelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams for the nuclear physics program. A 70 mCi {sup 252}Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The final CARIBU configuration will utilize a 1 Ci {sup 252}Cf source to produce radioactive beams with intensities up to 10{sup 6} ions/s for use in the ATLAS facility. The ECR charge breeder has been tested with stable beam injection and has achieved charge breeding efficiencies of 3.6% for {sup 23}Na{sup 8+}, 15.6% for {sup 84}Kr{sup 17+}, and 13.7% for {sup 85}Rb{sup 19+} with typical breeding times of 10 ms/charge state. For the first radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for {sup 143}Cs{sup 27+} and 14.7% for {sup 143}Ba{sup 27+}. The project has been commissioned with a radioactive beam of {sup 143}Ba{sup 27+} accelerated to 6.1 MeV/u. In order to take advantage of its lower residual contamination, an EBIS charge breeder will replace the ECR charge breeder in the next two years. The advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are compared taking into account the requirements of the next generation radioactive beam facilities.

  15. Charge breeding results and future prospects with electron cyclotron resonance ion source and electron beam ion source (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondrasek, R.; Levand, A.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Scott, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility will provide low-energy and reaccelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams for the nuclear physics program. A 70 mCi 252Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The final CARIBU configuration will utilize a 1 Ci 252Cf source to produce radioactive beams with intensities up to 106 ions/s for use in the ATLAS facility. The ECR charge breeder has been tested with stable beam injection and has achieved charge breeding efficiencies of 3.6% for 23Na8+, 15.6% for 84Kr17+, and 13.7% for 85Rb19+ with typical breeding times of 10 ms/charge state. For the first radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for 143Cs27+ and 14.7% for 143Ba27+. The project has been commissioned with a radioactive beam of 143Ba27+ accelerated to 6.1 MeV/u. In order to take advantage of its lower residual contamination, an EBIS charge breeder will replace the ECR charge breeder in the next two years. The advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are compared taking into account the requirements of the next generation radioactive beam facilities.

  16. Status of the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Toyo University.

    PubMed

    Uchida, T; Minezaki, H; Ishihara, S; Muramatsu, M; Rácz, R; Asaji, T; Kitagawa, A; Kato, Y; Biri, S; Drentje, A G; Yoshida, Y

    2014-02-01

    In the paper, the material science experiments, carried out recently using the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) at Toyo University, are reported. We have investigated several methods to synthesize endohedral C60 using ion-ion and ion-molecule collision reaction in the ECRIS. Because of the simplicity of the configuration, we can install a large choice of additional equipment in the ECRIS. The Bio-Nano ECRIS is suitable not only to test the materials production but also to test technical developments to improve or understand the performance of an ECRIS.

  17. Development of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source for Synthesis of Endohedral Metallofullerenes

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, K.; Muramatsu, M.; Uchida, T.; Hanajiri, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Biri, S.; Kitagawa, A.; Kato, Y.

    2008-11-03

    A new electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been constructed for synthesis of endohedral metallofullerenes. The main purpose of the ion source is to produce new biological and medical materials. The design is based on ECRIS for production of multicharged ion beams with a traditional minimum-B magnetic field. An 8-10 GHz traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier and a 2.45 GHz magnetron have been applied as microwave sources. Fullerene and metal vapor are introduced with a filament heating micro-oven and an induction heating oven, respectively. In preliminary ion-extraction test, Ar{sup +} is 54 {mu}A. Many broken fullerenes such as C{sub 58} and C{sub 56} are observed in fullerene ion beams.

  18. Progress of superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at Institute of Modern Physics (IMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L. Feng, Y. C.; Zhang, W. H.; Zhang, X. Z.; Cao, Y.; Wu, W.; Yang, T. J.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, H. W.; Ma, L. Z.; Xia, J. W.; Lu, W.; Zhao, Y. Y.; Xie, D.

    2014-02-15

    Superconducting ECR ion sources can produce intense highly charged ion beams for the application in heavy ion accelerators. Superconducting Electron Resonance ion source with Advanced Design (SECRAL) is one of the few fully superconducting ECR ion sources that has been successfully built and put into routine operation for years. With enormous efforts and R and D work, promising results have been achieved with the ion source. Heated by the microwave power from a 7 kW/24 GHz gyrotron microwave generator, very intense highly charged gaseous ion beams have been produced, such as 455 eμA Xe{sup 27+}, 236 eμA Xe{sup 30+}, and 64 eμA Xe{sup 35+}. Since heavy metallic ion beams are being more and more attractive and important for many accelerator projects globally, intensive studies have been made to produce highly charged heavy metal ion beams, such as those from bismuth and uranium. Recently, 420 eμA Bi{sup 30+} and 202 eμA U{sup 33+} have been produced with SECRAL source. This paper will present the latest results with SECRAL, and the operation status will be discussed as well. An introduction of recently started SECRAL II project will also be given in the presentation.

  19. Progress of superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at Institute of Modern Physics (IMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Lu, W.; Feng, Y. C.; Zhang, W. H.; Zhang, X. Z.; Cao, Y.; Zhao, Y. Y.; Wu, W.; Yang, T. J.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, H. W.; Ma, L. Z.; Xia, J. W.; Xie, D.

    2014-02-01

    Superconducting ECR ion sources can produce intense highly charged ion beams for the application in heavy ion accelerators. Superconducting Electron Resonance ion source with Advanced Design (SECRAL) is one of the few fully superconducting ECR ion sources that has been successfully built and put into routine operation for years. With enormous efforts and R&D work, promising results have been achieved with the ion source. Heated by the microwave power from a 7 kW/24 GHz gyrotron microwave generator, very intense highly charged gaseous ion beams have been produced, such as 455 eμA Xe27+, 236 eμA Xe30+, and 64 eμA Xe35+. Since heavy metallic ion beams are being more and more attractive and important for many accelerator projects globally, intensive studies have been made to produce highly charged heavy metal ion beams, such as those from bismuth and uranium. Recently, 420 eμA Bi30+ and 202 eμA U33+ have been produced with SECRAL source. This paper will present the latest results with SECRAL, and the operation status will be discussed as well. An introduction of recently started SECRAL II project will also be given in the presentation.

  20. Progress of superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at Institute of Modern Physics (IMP).

    PubMed

    Sun, L; Lu, W; Feng, Y C; Zhang, W H; Zhang, X Z; Cao, Y; Zhao, Y Y; Wu, W; Yang, T J; Zhao, B; Zhao, H W; Ma, L Z; Xia, J W; Xie, D

    2014-02-01

    Superconducting ECR ion sources can produce intense highly charged ion beams for the application in heavy ion accelerators. Superconducting Electron Resonance ion source with Advanced Design (SECRAL) is one of the few fully superconducting ECR ion sources that has been successfully built and put into routine operation for years. With enormous efforts and R&D work, promising results have been achieved with the ion source. Heated by the microwave power from a 7 kW/24 GHz gyrotron microwave generator, very intense highly charged gaseous ion beams have been produced, such as 455 eμA Xe(27+), 236 eμA Xe(30+), and 64 eμA Xe(35+). Since heavy metallic ion beams are being more and more attractive and important for many accelerator projects globally, intensive studies have been made to produce highly charged heavy metal ion beams, such as those from bismuth and uranium. Recently, 420 eμA Bi(30+) and 202 eμA U(33+) have been produced with SECRAL source. This paper will present the latest results with SECRAL, and the operation status will be discussed as well. An introduction of recently started SECRAL II project will also be given in the presentation.

  1. Design of a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Asaji, T. Hirabara, N.; Izumihara, T.; Nakamizu, T.; Ohba, T.; Nakamura, T.; Furuse, M.; Hitobo, T.; Kato, Y.

    2014-02-15

    A new electron cyclotron resonance ion/plasma source has been designed and will be built at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology by early 2014. We have developed an ion source that allows the control of the plasma parameters over a wide range of electron temperatures for material research. A minimum-B magnetic field composed of axial mirror fields and radial cusp fields was designed using mainly Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. The axial magnetic field can be varied by three solenoid coils. The apparatus has 2.45 GHz magnetron and 2.5–6.0 GHz solid-state microwave sources.

  2. Kinetic instabilities in pulsed operation mode of a 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Tarvainen, O. Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Laulainen, J.; Izotov, I.; Mansfeld, D.; Skalyga, V.

    2016-02-15

    The occurrence of kinetic plasma instabilities is studied in pulsed operation mode of a 14 GHz A-electron cyclotron resonance type electron cyclotron resonance ion source. It is shown that the temporal delay between the plasma breakdown and the appearance of the instabilities is on the order of 10-100 ms. The most important parameters affecting the delay are magnetic field strength and neutral gas pressure. It is demonstrated that kinetic instabilities limit the high charge state ion beam production in the unstable operating regime.

  3. Radiofrequency and 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance H- volume production ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvainen, O.; Peng, S. X.

    2016-10-01

    The volume production of negative hydrogen ions ({{{H}}}-) in plasma ion sources is based on dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to rovibrationally excited hydrogen molecules (H2), which is a two-step process requiring both, hot electrons for ionization, and vibrational excitation of the H2 and cold electrons for the {{{H}}}- formation through DEA. Traditionally {{{H}}}- ion sources relying on the volume production have been tandem-type arc discharge sources equipped with biased filament cathodes sustaining the plasma by thermionic electron emission and with a magnetic filter separating the main discharge from the {{{H}}}- formation volume. The main motivation to develop ion sources based on radiofrequency (RF) or electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma discharges is to eliminate the apparent limitation of the cathode lifetime. In this paper we summarize the principles of {{{H}}}- volume production dictating the ion source design and highlight the differences between the arc discharge and RF/ECR ion sources from both, physics and technology point-of-view. Furthermore, we introduce the state-of-the-art RF and ECR {{{H}}}- volume production ion sources and review the challenges and future prospects of these yet developing technologies.

  4. Results of RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with 28 GHz.

    PubMed

    Higurashi, Y; Ohnishi, J; Nakagawa, T; Haba, H; Tamura, M; Aihara, T; Fujimaki, M; Komiyama, M; Uchiyama, A; Kamigaito, O

    2012-02-01

    We measured the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions and x-ray heat load for RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with 28 GHz microwaves under the various conditions. The beam intensity of Xe(20+) became maximum at B(min) ∼ 0.65 T, which was ∼65% of the magnetic field strength of electron cyclotron resonance (B(ECR)) for 28 GHz microwaves. We observed that the heat load of x-ray increased with decreasing gas pressure and field gradient at resonance zone. It seems that the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions with 28 GHz is higher than that with 18 GHz at same RF power.

  5. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, Z M; Yuan, P; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Jin, T; Shang, Y; Zhan, W L; Wei, B W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28 GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28 GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6 T at injection, 2.2 T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0 T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18 GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5 kW by two 18 GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810 e microA of O(7+), 505 e microA of Xe(20+), 306 e microA of Xe(27+), and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007.

  6. Status of the pulsed magnetic field electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühle, C.; Ratzinger, U.; Bleuel, W.; Jöst, G.; Leible, K.; Schennach, S.; Wolf, B. H.

    1994-04-01

    Synchrotrons like the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS at GSI need an efficient low duty cycle injector (typical 1-pulse/s and 200-μs pulse length). To improve the peak current, an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source has been designed using a pulsed magnetic field (PuMa) to force ion extraction. We replaced the hexapole of a 10-GHz Minimafios ECR ion source by a vacuum chamber containing a water-cooled bilayered solenoid coil and a decapole permanent magnetic structure. A pulse line feeds the solenoid with a 250-μs pulse which increases the magnetic field in the minimum B region by 0.3 T. This process opens the magnetic bottle along the beam axis resulting in an extracted ion pulse. First tests of the PuMa ECR configuration in cw and pulsed operation are presented and analyzed.

  7. Note: Production of a mercury beam with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Vondrasek, R.; Pardo, R.; Scott, R.

    2013-11-15

    An electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been utilized to produce mercury beams with intensities of 4.5 eμA of {sup 202}Hg{sup 29+} and 3.0 eμA of {sup 202}Hg{sup 31+} from natural abundance mercury metal. The production technique relies on the evaporation of liquid mercury into the source plasma vacuum region and utilizes elemental mercury instead of a volatile organic compound as the neutral feed material.

  8. Note: Production of a mercury beam with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Vondrasek, R; Pardo, R; Scott, R

    2013-11-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been utilized to produce mercury beams with intensities of 4.5 eμA of (202)Hg(29+) and 3.0 eμA of (202)Hg(31+) from natural abundance mercury metal. The production technique relies on the evaporation of liquid mercury into the source plasma vacuum region and utilizes elemental mercury instead of a volatile organic compound as the neutral feed material.

  9. Ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

  10. Diagnostics of a charge breeder electron cyclotron resonance ion source helium plasma with the injection of 23Na1+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvainen, O.; Koivisto, H.; Galatà, A.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.; Thuillier, T.; Delahaye, P.; Maunoury, L.; Mascali, D.; Neri, L.

    2016-05-01

    This work describes the utilization of an injected 23Na1+ ion beam as a diagnostics of the helium plasma of a charge breeder electron cyclotron resonance ion source. The obtained data allows estimating the upper limit for the ion-ion collision mean-free path of the incident sodium ions, the lower limit of ion-ion collision frequencies for all charge states of the sodium ions and the lower limit of the helium plasma density. The ion-ion collision frequencies of high charge state ions are shown to be at least on the order of 1-10 MHz and the plasma density is estimated to be on the order of 1011 cm-3 or higher. The experimental results are compared to simulations of the 23Na1+ capture into the helium plasma. The results indicate that the lower breeding efficiency of light ions in comparison to heavier elements is probably due to different capture efficiencies in which the in-flight ionization of the incident 1 + ions plays a vital role.

  11. Development of DRAGON electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Institute of Modern Physics.

    PubMed

    Lu, W; Xie, D Z; Zhang, X Z; Xiong, B; Ruan, L; Sha, S; Zhang, W H; Cao, Y; Lin, S H; Guo, J W; Fang, X; Guo, X H; Li, X X; Ma, H Y; Yang, Y; Wu, Q; Zhao, H Y; Ma, B H; Wang, H; Zhu, Y H; Feng, Y C; Li, J Y; Li, J Q; Sun, L T; Zhao, H W

    2012-02-01

    A new room temperature electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, DRAGON, is under construction at IMP. DRAGON is designed to operate at microwaves of frequencies of 14.5-18 GHz. Its axial solenoid coils are cooled with evaporative medium to provide an axial magnetic mirror field of 2.5 T at the injection and 1.4 T at the extraction, respectively. In comparison to other conventional room temperature ECR ion sources, DRAGON has so far the largest bore plasma chamber of inner diameter of 126 mm with maximum radial fields of 1.4-1.5 T produced by a non-Halbach permanent sextupole magnet.

  12. Numerical simulations of gas mixing effect in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, V.; Bogomolov, S.; Bondarchenko, A.; Efremov, A.; Loginov, V.

    2017-01-01

    The particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions code nam-ecris is used to simulate the electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plasma sustained in a mixture of Kr with O2 , N2 , Ar, Ne, and He. The model assumes that ions are electrostatically confined in the ECR zone by a dip in the plasma potential. A gain in the extracted krypton ion currents is seen for the highest charge states; the gain is maximized when oxygen is used as a mixing gas. The special feature of oxygen is that most of the singly charged oxygen ions are produced after the dissociative ionization of oxygen molecules with a large kinetic energy release of around 5 eV per ion. The increased loss rate of energetic lowly charged ions of the mixing element requires a building up of the retarding potential barrier close to the ECR surface to equilibrate electron and ion losses out of the plasma. In the mixed plasmas, the barrier value is large (˜1 V ) compared to pure Kr plasma (˜0.01 V ), with longer confinement times of krypton ions and with much higher ion temperatures. The temperature of the krypton ions is increased because of extra heating by the energetic oxygen ions and a longer time of ion confinement. In calculations, a drop of the highly charged ion currents of lighter elements is observed when adding small fluxes of krypton into the source. This drop is caused by the accumulation of the krypton ions inside plasma, which decreases the electron and ion confinement times.

  13. Studies of emittance of multiply charged ions extracted from high temperature superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source, PKDELIS

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, G.; Lakshmy, P. S.; Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A.; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.; Baskaran, R.

    2010-02-15

    For the high current injector project at Inter University Accelerator Centre, a high temperature superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, PKDELIS, would provide the high charge state ions. The emittance of the ECR ion source is an important parameter to design further beam transport system and to match the acceptances of the downstream radio frequency quadrupole and drift tube linac accelerators of the high current injector. The emittance of the analyzed beam of PKDELIS ECR source has been measured utilizing the three beam size technique. A slit and two beam profile monitors positioned at fixed distances from each other were used to measure the beam size. The digitized beam profiles have been analyzed to determine the emittance of various multiply charged ions. The variation of emittance with gas mixing, ultrahigh frequency power, and extraction energy are discussed in this presentation.

  14. Hot-cavity studies for the Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henares, J. L.; Lecesne, N.; Hijazi, L.; Bastin, B.; Kron, T.; Lassen, J.; Le Blanc, F.; Leroy, R.; Osmond, B.; Raeder, S.; Schneider, F.; Wendt, K.

    2016-09-01

    The Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) has emerged as an important technique in many Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facilities for its reliability, and ability to ionize target elements efficiently and element selectively. GISELE is an off-line RILIS test bench to study the implementation of an on-line laser ion source at the GANIL separator facility. The aim of this project is to determine the best technical solution which combines high selectivity and ionization efficiency with small ion beam emittance and stable long term operation. The ion source geometry was tested in several configurations in order to find a solution with optimal ionization efficiency and beam emittance. Furthermore, a low work function material was tested to reduce the contaminants and molecular sidebands generated inside the ion source. First results with ZrC ionizer tubes will be presented. Furthermore, a method to measure the energy distribution of the ion beam as a function of the time of flight will be discussed.

  15. First results of the 2.45 GHz Oshima electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Asaji, T.; Nakamura, T.; Furuse, M.; Hitobo, T.; Uchida, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Kato, Y.

    2016-02-15

    A new electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been constructed at Oshima College with a 2.45 GHz magnetron microwave source and permanent magnets employed as the main components. In addition, a solid-state power amplifier with a frequency range of 2.5–6.0 GHz was installed to study two-frequency plasma heating. Three solenoid coils were set up for adjusting the axial magnetic fields. Argon plasma generation and ion beam production have been conducted during the first year of operation. Ion current densities in the ECR plasma were measured using a biased disk. For 2.45 and 4.65 GHz two-frequency plasma heating, the ion density was approximately 1.5 times higher than that of 2.45 GHz single-frequency heating.

  16. Control system renewal for efficient operation in RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, A.; Ozeki, K.; Higurashi, Y.; Kidera, M.; Komiyama, M.; Nakagawa, T.

    2016-02-01

    A RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (18 GHz ECRIS) is used as an external ion source at the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory (RIBF) accelerator complex to produce an intense beam of medium-mass heavy ions (e.g., Ca and Ar). In most components that comprise the RIBF, the control systems (CSs) are integrated by the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). On the other hand, a non-EPICS-based system has hardwired controllers, and it is used in the 18 GHz ECRIS CS as an independent system. In terms of efficient and effective operation, the 18 GHz ECRIS CS as well as the RIBF CS should be renewed using EPICS. Therefore, we constructed an 18 GHz ECRIS CS by using programmable logic controllers with embedded EPICS technology. In the renewed system, an operational log system was developed as a new feature, for supporting of the 18 GHz ECRIS operation.

  17. Control system renewal for efficient operation in RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Uchiyama, A. Ozeki, K.; Higurashi, Y.; Kidera, M.; Komiyama, M.; Nakagawa, T.

    2016-02-15

    A RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (18 GHz ECRIS) is used as an external ion source at the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory (RIBF) accelerator complex to produce an intense beam of medium-mass heavy ions (e.g., Ca and Ar). In most components that comprise the RIBF, the control systems (CSs) are integrated by the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). On the other hand, a non-EPICS-based system has hardwired controllers, and it is used in the 18 GHz ECRIS CS as an independent system. In terms of efficient and effective operation, the 18 GHz ECRIS CS as well as the RIBF CS should be renewed using EPICS. Therefore, we constructed an 18 GHz ECRIS CS by using programmable logic controllers with embedded EPICS technology. In the renewed system, an operational log system was developed as a new feature, for supporting of the 18 GHz ECRIS operation.

  18. Langmuir probe diagnostics of plasma in high current electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Roychowdhury, P.; Kewlani, H.; Mishra, L.; Mittal, K. C.; Patil, D. S.

    2013-07-15

    A high current Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) proton ion source has been developed for low energy high intensity proton accelerator at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. Langmuir probe diagnostics of the plasma generated in this proton ion source is performed using Langmuir probe. The diagnostics of plasma in the ion source is important as it determines beam parameters of the ion source, i.e., beam current, emittance, and available species. The plasma parameter measurement in the ion source is performed in continuously working and pulsed mode using hydrogen as plasma generation gas. The measurement is performed in the ECR zone for operating pressure and microwave power range of 10{sup −4}–10{sup −3} mbar and 400–1000 W. An automated Langmuir probe diagnostics unit with data acquisition system is developed to measure these parameters. The diagnostics studies indicate that the plasma density and plasma electron temperature measured are in the range 5.6 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} to 3.8 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3} and 4–14 eV, respectively. Using this plasma, ion beam current of tens of mA is extracted. The variations of plasma parameters with microwave power, gas pressure, and radial location of the probe have been studied.

  19. Broadband frequency ECR ion source concepts with large resonant plasma volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    New techniques are proposed for enhancing the performances of ECR ion sources. The techniques are based on the use of high-power, variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, or broadband microwave radiation, derived from standard TWT technology, to effect large resonant ``volume`` ECR sources. The creation of a large ECR plasma ``volume`` permits coupling of more power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present forms of the ECR ion source. If successful, these developments could significantly impact future accelerator designs and accelerator-based, heavy-ion-research programs by providing multiply-charged ion beams with the energies and intensities required for nuclear physics research from existing ECR ion sources. The methods described in this article can be used to retrofit any ECR ion source predicated on B-minimum plasma confinement techniques.

  20. A study on vacuum aspects of electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.; Taki, G. S.; Mallick, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2008-05-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is special type hot plasma machine where the high temperature electrons co-exist with multiply charge state ions and neutrals. A few years ago 6.4 GHz. ECR ion source (VEC-ECR) was developed indigenously at VECC. This multiply charged ion source is being used continuously to inject heavy ion beams into the cyclotron. Vacuum plays the major role in ECR ion source. The water cooled plasma chamber is made from an oxygen free high conductivity copper billet to meet the suitable surface condition for vacuum purpose. The entire volume of the ion source is pumped by two 900 1/s special type oil diffusion pumps to achieve 5×10-8 Torr. Usually main plasma chamber is pumped by the plasma itself. Moreover a few 1/s additional pumping speed is provided through extraction hole and pumping slot on the extraction electrode. A study has been carried out to understand the role of vacuum on the multiply charged heavy ion production process. Considering the ion production and loss criteria, it is seen that for getting Ar18+ better vacuum is essential for lower frequency operation. So, an ECR ion source can give better charge state current output operating at higher frequency and stronger confining magnetic field under a specific vacuum condition. The low pressure condition is essential to minimize charge exchange loss due to recombination of multiply charged ions with the neutral atoms. A fixed ratio of neutral to electron density must be maintained for optimizing a particular charge state in the steady state condition. As the electron density is proportional to square of the injected microwave frequency (nevpropf2) a particular operating pressure is essential for a specific charge state. From the study, it has been obtained that the production of Ar18+ ions needs a pressure ~ 9.6×10-8 Torr for 6.4 GHz. ECR ion source. It is also obtained that an ECR ion source, works at a particular vacuum level, can give better charge state

  1. Roadmap for the design of a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for Spiral2

    SciTech Connect

    Thuillier, T.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.; Peaucelle, C.

    2012-02-15

    A review of today achieved A/Q = 3 heavy ions beams is proposed. The daily operation A/Q = 3 ion beam intensities expected at Spiral2 are at the limit or above best record 3rd generation electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) intensities. The necessity to build a new fully superconducting to fulfill these requirements is outlined. A discussion on the volume of the future source is proposed and the minimum value of 12 liters is derived. An analysis of the x-ray absorption superconducting ECRIS is presented based on VENUS experimental data and geometry. This study underlines the necessity to include a complete x-ray study at the time of source conception. The specifications foreseen for the new ECRIS are presented, followed with the roadmap for the design.

  2. First results of 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for KBSI accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jin Yong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Shin, Chang Seouk; Hong, Jonggi; Bahng, Jungbae; Won, Mi-Sook

    2016-02-15

    The 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source has been developed to produce a high current heavy ion for the linear accelerator at KBSI (Korea Basic Science Institute). The objective of this study is to generate fast neutrons with a proton target via a p(Li,n)Be reaction. The design and fabrication of the essential components of the ECR ion source, which include a superconducting magnet with a liquid helium re-condensed cryostat and a 10 kW high-power microwave, were completed. The waveguide components were connected with a plasma chamber including a gas supply system. The plasma chamber was inserted into the warm bore of the superconducting magnet. A high voltage system was also installed for the ion beam extraction. After the installation of the ECR ion source, we reported the results for ECR plasma ignition at ECRIS 2014 in Russia. Following plasma ignition, we successfully extracted multi-charged ions and obtained the first results in terms of ion beam spectra from various species. This was verified by a beam diagnostic system for a low energy beam transport system. In this article, we present the first results and report on the current status of the KBSI accelerator project.

  3. First results of 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for KBSI accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin Yong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Shin, Chang Seouk; Hong, Jonggi; Bahng, Jungbae; Won, Mi-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source has been developed to produce a high current heavy ion for the linear accelerator at KBSI (Korea Basic Science Institute). The objective of this study is to generate fast neutrons with a proton target via a p(Li,n)Be reaction. The design and fabrication of the essential components of the ECR ion source, which include a superconducting magnet with a liquid helium re-condensed cryostat and a 10 kW high-power microwave, were completed. The waveguide components were connected with a plasma chamber including a gas supply system. The plasma chamber was inserted into the warm bore of the superconducting magnet. A high voltage system was also installed for the ion beam extraction. After the installation of the ECR ion source, we reported the results for ECR plasma ignition at ECRIS 2014 in Russia. Following plasma ignition, we successfully extracted multi-charged ions and obtained the first results in terms of ion beam spectra from various species. This was verified by a beam diagnostic system for a low energy beam transport system. In this article, we present the first results and report on the current status of the KBSI accelerator project.

  4. Gamma ray sources based on resonant backscattering of laser beams with relativistic heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bessonov, E.G.; Kim, Kwang-Je

    1995-04-01

    Resonant backscattering of high-power laser beam with non-fully stripped, ultra-relativistic ion beams in storage rings is studied as a source for {gamma}-ray beams for elementary particle physics experiments. The laser frequency is chosen to be resonant with one of the transition frequencies of the moving ions, and the bandwidth is chosen to cover the full Doppler broadening of the ions in the beam. Due to the resonance, the scattering cross section is enhanced by a large factor compared to the Thomson cross section, of the order 10{sup 8} for some examples considered here. The performance of the LHC as a possible {gamma}-generator or a {gamma} {minus} {gamma} collider is estimated. We study the case where hydrogen-like Pb ions with 2.8 TeV per nucleon are scattered by a train of 1100 {Angstrom}, 20 mg laser pulses with the same pulse time format as the ion beam. A free electron laser can be designed satisfying the requirements. It is estimated that {gamma}-rays of maximum quantum energy of 0.4 give at an average rate of 0.67 10{sup 18} are generated in this scheme. The luminosity of the corresponding {gamma} {minus} {gamma} collider will be about 0.9 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}.

  5. A simulation of X-ray shielding for a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jin Yong; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Choi, Seyong; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Byoung-Chul

    2014-02-15

    It is generally assumed that large amounts of x-rays are emitted from the ion source of an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) instrument. The total amount of x-rays should be strictly limited to avoid the extra heat load to the cryostat of the superconducting ECR ion source, since they are partly absorbed by the cold mass into the cryostat. A simulation of x-ray shielding was carried out to determine the effective thickness of the x-ray shield needed via the use of Geant4. X-ray spectra of the 10 GHz Nanogan ECR ion source were measured as a function of the thickness variation in the x-ray shield. The experimental results were compared with Geant4 results to verify the effectiveness of the x-ray shield. Based on the validity in the case of the 10 GHz ECR ion source, the x-ray shielding results are presented by assuming the spectral temperature of the 28 GHz ECR ion source.

  6. Fullerene-rare gas mixed plasmas in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Asaji, T. Ohba, T.; Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Minezaki, H.; Ishihara, S.; Racz, R.; Biri, S.; Kato, Y.

    2014-02-15

    A synthesis technology of endohedral fullerenes such as Fe@C{sub 60} has developed with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. The production of N@C{sub 60} was reported. However, the yield was quite low, since most fullerene molecules were broken in the ECR plasma. We have adopted gas-mixing techniques in order to cool the plasma and then reduce fullerene dissociation. Mass spectra of ion beams extracted from fullerene-He, Ar or Xe mixed plasmas were observed with a Faraday cup. From the results, the He gas mixing technique is effective against fullerene destruction.

  7. Nb3Sn superconducting magnets for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ferracin, P.; Caspi, S.; Felice, H.; Leitner, D.; Lyneis, C. M.; Prestemon, S.; Sabbi, G. L.; Todd, D. S.

    2009-05-04

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are an essential component of heavy-ion accelerators. Over the past few decades advances in magnet technology and an improved understanding of the ECR ion source plasma physics have led to remarkable performance improvements of ECR ion sources. Currently third generation high field superconducting ECR ion sources operating at frequencies around 28 GHz are the state of the art ion injectors and several devices are either under commissioning or under design around the world. At the same time, the demand for increased intensities of highly charged heavy ions continues to grow, which makes the development of even higher performance ECR ion sources a necessity. To extend ECR ion sources to frequencies well above 28 GHz, new magnet technology will be needed in order to operate at higher field and force levels. The superconducting magnet program at LBNL has been developing high field superconducting magnets for particle accelerators based on Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting technology for several years. At the moment, Nb{sub 3}Sn is the only practical conductor capable of operating at the 15 T field level in the relevant configurations. Recent design studies have been focused on the possibility of using Nb{sub 3}Sn in the next generation of ECR ion sources. In the past, LBNL has worked on the VENUS ECR, a 28 GHz source with solenoids and a sextupole made with NbTi operating at fields of 6-7 T. VENUS has now been operating since 2004. We present in this paper the design of a Nb{sub 3}Sn ECR ion source optimized to operate at an rf frequency of 56 GHz with conductor peak fields of 13-15 T. Because of the brittleness and strain sensitivity of Nb{sub 3}Sn- , particular care is required in the design of the magnet support structure, which must be capable of providing support to the coils without overstressing the conductor. In this paper, we present the main features of the support structure, featuring an external aluminum shell

  8. Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting magnets for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ferracin, P.; Caspi, S.; Felice, H.; Leitner, D.; Lyneis, C. M.; Prestemon, S.; Sabbi, G. L.; Todd, D. S.

    2010-02-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are an essential component of heavy-ion accelerators. Over the past few decades advances in magnet technology and an improved understanding of the ECR ion source plasma physics have led to remarkable performance improvements of ECR ion sources. Currently third generation high field superconducting ECR ion sources operating at frequencies around 28 GHz are the state of the art ion injectors and several devices are either under commissioning or under design around the world. At the same time, the demand for increased intensities of highly charged heavy ions continues to grow, which makes the development of even higher performance ECR ion sources a necessity. To extend ECR ion sources to frequencies well above 28 GHz, new magnet technology will be needed in order to operate at higher field and force levels. The superconducting magnet program at LBNL has been developing high field superconducting magnets for particle accelerators based on Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting technology for several years. At the moment, Nb{sub 3}Sn is the only practical conductor capable of operating at the 15 T field level in the relevant configurations. Recent design studies have been focused on the possibility of using Nb{sub 3}Sn in the next generation of ECR ion sources. In the past, LBNL has worked on the VENUS ECR, a 28 GHz source with solenoids and a sextupole made with NbTi operating at fields of 6-7 T. VENUS has now been operating since 2004. We present in this paper the design of a Nb{sub 3}Sn ECR ion source optimized to operate at an rf frequency of 56 GHz with conductor peak fields of 13-15 T. Because of the brittleness and strain sensitivity of Nb{sub 3}Sn, particular care is required in the design of the magnet support structure, which must be capable of providing support to the coils without overstressing the conductor. In this paper, we present the main features of the support structure, featuring an external aluminum shell

  9. Nb3Sn superconducting magnets for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    PubMed

    Ferracin, P; Caspi, S; Felice, H; Leitner, D; Lyneis, C M; Prestemon, S; Sabbi, G L; Todd, D S

    2010-02-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are an essential component of heavy-ion accelerators. Over the past few decades advances in magnet technology and an improved understanding of the ECR ion source plasma physics have led to remarkable performance improvements of ECR ion sources. Currently third generation high field superconducting ECR ion sources operating at frequencies around 28 GHz are the state of the art ion injectors and several devices are either under commissioning or under design around the world. At the same time, the demand for increased intensities of highly charged heavy ions continues to grow, which makes the development of even higher performance ECR ion sources a necessity. To extend ECR ion sources to frequencies well above 28 GHz, new magnet technology will be needed in order to operate at higher field and force levels. The superconducting magnet program at LBNL has been developing high field superconducting magnets for particle accelerators based on Nb(3)Sn superconducting technology for several years. At the moment, Nb(3)Sn is the only practical conductor capable of operating at the 15 T field level in the relevant configurations. Recent design studies have been focused on the possibility of using Nb(3)Sn in the next generation of ECR ion sources. In the past, LBNL has worked on the VENUS ECR, a 28 GHz source with solenoids and a sextupole made with NbTi operating at fields of 6-7 T. VENUS has now been operating since 2004. We present in this paper the design of a Nb(3)Sn ECR ion source optimized to operate at an rf frequency of 56 GHz with conductor peak fields of 13-15 T. Because of the brittleness and strain sensitivity of Nb(3)Sn, particular care is required in the design of the magnet support structure, which must be capable of providing support to the coils without overstressing the conductor. In this paper, we present the main features of the support structure, featuring an external aluminum shell pretensioned with water

  10. First results from the new RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited).

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, T; Higurashi, Y; Ohnishi, J; Aihara, T; Tamura, M; Uchiyama, A; Okuno, H; Kusaka, K; Kidera, M; Ikezawa, E; Fujimaki, M; Sato, Y; Watanabe, Y; Komiyama, M; Kase, M; Goto, A; Kamigaito, O; Yano, Y

    2010-02-01

    The next generation heavy ion accelerator facility, such as the RIKEN radio isotope (RI) beam factory, requires an intense beam of high charged heavy ions. In the past decade, performance of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources has been dramatically improved with increasing the magnetic field and rf frequency to enhance the density and confinement time of plasma. Furthermore, the effects of the key parameters (magnetic field configuration, gas pressure, etc.) on the ECR plasma have been revealed. Such basic studies give us how to optimize the ion source structure. Based on these studies and modern superconducting (SC) technology, we successfully constructed the new 28 GHz SC-ECRIS, which has a flexible magnetic field configuration to enlarge the ECR zone and to optimize the field gradient at ECR point. Using it, we investigated the effect of ECR zone size, magnetic field configuration, and biased disk on the beam intensity of the highly charged heavy ions with 18 GHz microwaves. In this article, we present the structure of the ion source and first experimental results with 18 GHz microwave in detail.

  11. Beam extraction and high stability operation of high current electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Roychowdhury, P. Mishra, L.; Kewlani, H.; Mittal, K. C.; Patil, D. S.

    2014-03-15

    A high current electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source is designed and developed for the low energy high intensity proton accelerator at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The plasma discharge in the ion source is stabilized by minimizing the reflected microwave power using four stub auto tuner and magnetic field. The optimization of extraction geometry is performed using PBGUNS code by varying the aperture, shape, accelerating gap, and the potential on the electrodes. While operating the source, it was found that the two layered microwave window (6 mm quartz plate and 2 mm boron nitride plate) was damaged (a fine hole was drilled) by the back-streaming electrons after continuous operation of the source for 3 h at beam current of 20–40 mA. The microwave window was then shifted from the line of sight of the back-streaming electrons and located after the water-cooled H-plane bend. In this configuration the stable operation of the high current ion source for several hours is achieved. The ion beam is extracted from the source by biasing plasma electrode, puller electrode, and ground electrode to +10 to +50 kV, −2 to −4 kV, and 0 kV, respectively. The total ion beam current of 30–40 mA is recorded on Faraday cup at 40 keV of beam energy at 600–1000 W of microwave power, 800–1000 G axial magnetic field and (1.2–3.9) × 10{sup −3} mbar of neutral hydrogen gas pressure in the plasma chamber. The dependence of beam current on extraction voltage, microwave power, and gas pressure is investigated in the range of operation of the ion source.

  12. Beam extraction and high stability operation of high current electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, P; Mishra, L; Kewlani, H; Patil, D S; Mittal, K C

    2014-03-01

    A high current electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source is designed and developed for the low energy high intensity proton accelerator at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The plasma discharge in the ion source is stabilized by minimizing the reflected microwave power using four stub auto tuner and magnetic field. The optimization of extraction geometry is performed using PBGUNS code by varying the aperture, shape, accelerating gap, and the potential on the electrodes. While operating the source, it was found that the two layered microwave window (6 mm quartz plate and 2 mm boron nitride plate) was damaged (a fine hole was drilled) by the back-streaming electrons after continuous operation of the source for 3 h at beam current of 20-40 mA. The microwave window was then shifted from the line of sight of the back-streaming electrons and located after the water-cooled H-plane bend. In this configuration the stable operation of the high current ion source for several hours is achieved. The ion beam is extracted from the source by biasing plasma electrode, puller electrode, and ground electrode to +10 to +50 kV, -2 to -4 kV, and 0 kV, respectively. The total ion beam current of 30-40 mA is recorded on Faraday cup at 40 keV of beam energy at 600-1000 W of microwave power, 800-1000 G axial magnetic field and (1.2-3.9) × 10(-3) mbar of neutral hydrogen gas pressure in the plasma chamber. The dependence of beam current on extraction voltage, microwave power, and gas pressure is investigated in the range of operation of the ion source.

  13. Time evolution of endpoint energy of Bremsstrahlung spectra and ion production from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Tarvainen, Ollie; Ropponen, Tommi; Jones, Peter; Kalvas, Taneli

    2008-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) are used to produce high charge state heavy ion beams for the use of nuclear and materials science, for instance. The most powerful ECR ion sources today are superconducting. One of the problems with superconducting ECR ion sources is the use of high radio frequency (RF) power which results in bremsstrahlung radiation adding an extra heat load to the cryostat. In order to understand the electron heating process and timescales in the ECR plasma, time evolution measurement of ECR bremsstrahlung was carried out. In the measurements JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS was operated in a pulsed mode and bremsstrahlung data from several hundred RF pulses was recorded. Time evolution of ion production was also studied and compared to one of the electron heating theories. To analyze the measurement data at C++ program was developed. Endpoint energies of the bremsstrahlung spectra as a function of axial magnetic field strength, pressure and RF power are presented and ion production timescales obtained from the measurements are compared to bremsstrahlung emission timescales and one of the stochastic heating theories.

  14. A single-frequency ECR ion source with a large uniformly distributed resonant plasma volume

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.; Smithe, D.N.

    1995-12-01

    An innovative technique for increasing ion source intensity is described which, in principle, could lead to significant advances in ECR ion source technology for multiply charged ion beam formation. The advanced concept design uses a minimum-B magnetic mirror geometry which consists of a multi-cusp, magnetic field, to assist in confining the plasma radially, a flat central field for tuning to the ECR resonant condition, and specially tailored mirror fields in the end zones to confine the plasma in the axial direction. The magnetic field is designed to achieve an axially symmetric plasma {open_quotes}volume{close_quotes} with constant mod-B, which extends over the length of the central field region. This design, which strongly contrasts with the ECR {open_quotes}surfaces{close_quotes} characteristic of conventional ECR ion sources, results in dramatic increases in the absorption of RF power, thereby increasing the electron temperature and {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} electron population within the ionization volume of the source.

  15. Progress towards the development of a realistic electron cyclotron resonance ion source extraction model

    SciTech Connect

    Winklehner, D.; Leitner, D.; Benitez, J. Y.; Lyneis, C. M.; Strohmeier, M. M.

    2012-02-15

    In this paper, an ongoing effort to provide a simulation and design tool for electron cyclotron resonance ion source extraction and low energy beam transport is described and benchmarked against experimental results. Utilizing the particle-in-cell code WARP, a set of scripts has been developed: A semiempirical method of generating initial conditions, a 2D-3D hybrid method of plasma extraction and a simple beam transport deck. Measured emittances and beam profiles of uranium and helium beams are shown and the influence of the sextupole part of the plasma confinement field is investigated. The results are compared to simulations carried out using the methods described above. The results show that the simulation model (with some additional refinements) represents highly charged, well-confined ions well, but that the model is less applicable for less confined, singly charged ions.

  16. Ultracompact/ultralow power electron cyclotron resonance ion source for multipurpose applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sortais, P.; Lamy, T.; Medard, J.; Angot, J.; Latrasse, L.; Thuillier, T.

    2010-02-15

    In order to drastically reduce the power consumption of a microwave ion source, we have studied some specific discharge cavity geometries in order to reduce the operating point below 1 W of microwave power (at 2.45 GHz). We show that it is possible to drive an electron cyclotron resonance ion source with a transmitter technology similar to those used for cellular phones. By the reduction in the size and of the required microwave power, we have developed a new type of ultralow cost ion sources. This microwave discharge system (called COMIC, for COmpact MIcrowave and Coaxial) can be used as a source of light, plasma or ions. We will show geometries of conductive cavities where it is possible, in a 20 mm diameter chamber, to reduce the ignition of the plasma below 100 mW and define typical operating points around 5 W. Inside a simple vacuum chamber it is easy to place the source and its extraction system anywhere and fully under vacuum. In that case, current densities from 0.1 to 10 mA/cm{sup 2} (Ar, extraction 4 mm, 1 mAe, 20 kV) have been observed. Preliminary measurements and calculations show the possibility, with a two electrodes system, to extract beams within a low emittance. The first application for these ion sources is the ion injection for charge breeding, surface analyzing system and surface treatment. For this purpose, a very small extraction hole is used (typically 3/10 mm for a 3 {mu}A extracted current with 2 W of HF power). Mass spectrum and emittance measurements will be presented. In these conditions, values down to 1 {pi} mm mrad at 15 kV (1{sigma}) are observed, thus very close to the ones currently observed for a surface ionization source. A major interest of this approach is the possibility to connect together several COMIC devices. We will introduce some new on-going developments such as sources for high voltage implantation platforms, fully quartz radioactive ion source at ISOLDE or large plasma generators for plasma immersion, broad or ribbon

  17. Status report of the 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source VENUS (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, D.; Lyneis, C.M.; Loew, T.; Todd, D.S.; Virostek, S.; Tarvainen, O.

    2006-03-15

    The superconducting versatile electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source for nuclear science (VENUS) is a next generation superconducting ECR ion source designed to produce high-current, high-charge-state ions for the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. VENUS also serves as the prototype ion source for the rare isotope accelerator (RIA) front end, where the goal is to produce intense beams of medium-charge-state ions. Example beams for the RIA accelerator are 15 p {mu}A of Kr{sup 17+}(260 e {mu}A), 12 p {mu}A of Xe{sup 20+} (240 e {mu}A of Xe{sup 20+}), and 8 p {mu}A of U{sup 28+}(230 e {mu}A). To achieve these high currents, VENUS has been optimized for operation at 28 GHz, reaching maximal confinement fields of 4 and 3 T axially and over 2.2 T on the plasma chamber wall radially. After a commissioning phase at 18 GHz, the source started the 28 GHz operation in the summer of 2004. During that ongoing 28 GHz commissioning process, record ion-beam intensities have been extracted. For instance, measured extracted currents for the low to medium charge states were 270 e {mu}A of Xe{sup 27+} and 245 e {mu}A of Bi{sup 29+}, while for the higher charge states 15 e {mu}A of Xe{sup 34+}, 15 e {mu}A of Bi{sup 41+}, and 0.5 e {mu}A of Bi{sup 50+} could be produced. Results from the ongoing 28 GHz commissioning as well as results using double-frequency heating with 18 and 28 GHz for oxygen and xenon are presented. The effect of the minimum B field on the ion source performance has been systematically measured for 18 and 28 GHz. In both cases the performance peaked at a minimum B field of about 80% of the resonance field. In addition, a strong dependence of the x-ray flux and energy on the minimum B field value was found.

  18. An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron as metal vapor supply for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Weichsel, T. Hartung, U.; Kopte, T.; Zschornack, G.; Kreller, M.; Silze, A.

    2014-05-15

    An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron device has been developed. The magnetron is acting as a metal vapor supply for an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. FEM simulation of magnetic flux density was used to ensure that there is no critical interaction between both magnetic fields of magnetron and ECR ion source. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy measurements show an increase in electron density by one order of magnitude from 1 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} to 1 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3}, when the magnetron plasma is exposed to the magnetic mirror field of the ECR ion source. Electron density enhancement is also indicated by magnetron plasma emission photography with a CCD camera. Furthermore, photographs visualize the formation of a localized loss-cone - area, when the magnetron is operated at magnetic mirror field conditions. The inverted cylindrical magnetron supplies a metal atom load rate of R > 1 × 10{sup 18} atoms/s for aluminum, which meets the demand for the production of a milliampere Al{sup +} ion beam.

  19. An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron as metal vapor supply for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    PubMed

    Weichsel, T; Hartung, U; Kopte, T; Zschornack, G; Kreller, M; Silze, A

    2014-05-01

    An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron device has been developed. The magnetron is acting as a metal vapor supply for an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. FEM simulation of magnetic flux density was used to ensure that there is no critical interaction between both magnetic fields of magnetron and ECR ion source. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy measurements show an increase in electron density by one order of magnitude from 1 × 10(10) cm(-3) to 1 × 10(11) cm(-3), when the magnetron plasma is exposed to the magnetic mirror field of the ECR ion source. Electron density enhancement is also indicated by magnetron plasma emission photography with a CCD camera. Furthermore, photographs visualize the formation of a localized loss-cone - area, when the magnetron is operated at magnetic mirror field conditions. The inverted cylindrical magnetron supplies a metal atom load rate of R > 1 × 10(18) atoms/s for aluminum, which meets the demand for the production of a milliampere Al(+) ion beam.

  20. Ion cyclotron resonance cell

    DOEpatents

    Weller, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    An ion cyclotron resonance cell having two adjacent sections separated by a center trapping plate. The first section is defined by the center trapping plate, a first end trapping plate, and excitation and detector electrodes. The second section includes a second end trapping plate spaced apart from the center plate, a mirror, and an analyzer. The analyzer includes a wavelength-selective light detector, such as a detector incorporating an acousto-optical device (AOD) and a photodetector. One or more ion guides, grounded plates with holes for the ion beam, are positioned within the vacuum chamber of the mass spectrometer between the ion source and the cell. After ions are trapped and analyzed by ion cyclotron resonance techniques in the first section, the ions of interest are selected according to their mass and passed into the second section for optical spectroscopic studies. The trapped ions are excited by light from a laser and caused thereby to fluoresce. The fluorescent light emitted by the excited ions is reflected by the mirror and directed onto the detector. The AOD is scanned, and the photodetector output is recorded and analyzed. The ions remain in the second section for an extended period, enabling multiple studies to be carried out on the same ensemble of ions.

  1. Ion cyclotron resonance cell

    DOEpatents

    Weller, R.R.

    1995-02-14

    An ion cyclotron resonance cell is disclosed having two adjacent sections separated by a center trapping plate. The first section is defined by the center trapping plate, a first end trapping plate, and excitation and detector electrodes. The second section includes a second end trapping plate spaced apart from the center plate, a mirror, and an analyzer. The analyzer includes a wavelength-selective light detector, such as a detector incorporating an acousto-optical device (AOD) and a photodetector. One or more ion guides, grounded plates with holes for the ion beam, are positioned within the vacuum chamber of the mass spectrometer between the ion source and the cell. After ions are trapped and analyzed by ion cyclotron resonance techniques in the first section, the ions of interest are selected according to their mass and passed into the second section for optical spectroscopic studies. The trapped ions are excited by light from a laser and caused thereby to fluoresce. The fluorescent light emitted by the excited ions is reflected by the mirror and directed onto the detector. The AOD is scanned, and the photodetector output is recorded and analyzed. The ions remain in the second section for an extended period, enabling multiple studies to be carried out on the same ensemble of ions. 5 figs.

  2. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Martina, E.F.

    1958-04-22

    An improved ion source particularly adapted to provide an intense beam of ions with minimum neutral molecule egress from the source is described. The ion source structure includes means for establishing an oscillating electron discharge, including an apertured cathode at one end of the discharge. The egress of ions from the source is in a pencil like beam. This desirable form of withdrawal of the ions from the plasma created by the discharge is achieved by shaping the field at the aperture of the cathode. A tubular insulator is extended into the plasma from the aperture and in cooperation with the electric fields at the cathode end of the discharge focuses the ions from the source,

  3. Experiments with biased side electrodes in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    PubMed

    Drentje, A G; Kitagawa, A; Uchida, T; Rácz, R; Biri, S

    2014-02-01

    The output of highly charged ions from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) consists of ionic losses from a highly confined plasma. Therefore, an increase of the output of the ions of interest always is a compromise between an increase in the confinement and an increase of the losses. One route towards a solution consists of attacking the losses in directions - i.e., radial directions - that do not contribute to the required output. This was demonstrated in an experiment (using the Kei ECRIS at NIRS, Japan) where radial losses were electrostatically reduced by positively biasing one set of six "side" electrodes surrounding the plasma in side-ward directions attached (insulated) to the cylindrical wall of the plasma chamber. Recently new studies were performed in two laboratories using two essentially different ion sources. At the BioNano ECRIS (Toyo University, Japan) various sets of electrodes were used; each of the electrodes could be biased individually. At the Atomki ECRIS (Hungary), one movable, off-axis side electrode was applied in technically two versions. The measurements show indeed a decrease of ionic losses but different effectivities as compared to the biased disk.

  4. Experiments with biased side electrodes in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Drentje, A. G. Kitagawa, A.; Uchida, T.; Rácz, R.; Biri, S.

    2014-02-15

    The output of highly charged ions from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) consists of ionic losses from a highly confined plasma. Therefore, an increase of the output of the ions of interest always is a compromise between an increase in the confinement and an increase of the losses. One route towards a solution consists of attacking the losses in directions – i.e., radial directions – that do not contribute to the required output. This was demonstrated in an experiment (using the Kei ECRIS at NIRS, Japan) where radial losses were electrostatically reduced by positively biasing one set of six “side” electrodes surrounding the plasma in side-ward directions attached (insulated) to the cylindrical wall of the plasma chamber. Recently new studies were performed in two laboratories using two essentially different ion sources. At the BioNano ECRIS (Toyo University, Japan) various sets of electrodes were used; each of the electrodes could be biased individually. At the Atomki ECRIS (Hungary), one movable, off-axis side electrode was applied in technically two versions. The measurements show indeed a decrease of ionic losses but different effectivities as compared to the biased disk.

  5. Limitations of electron cyclotron resonance ion source performances set by kinetic plasma instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Tarvainen, O. Laulainen, J.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Izotov, I.; Mansfeld, D.; Skalyga, V.

    2015-02-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plasmas are prone to kinetic instabilities due to anisotropy of the electron energy distribution function stemming from the resonant nature of the electron heating process. Electron cyclotron plasma instabilities are related to non-linear interaction between plasma waves and energetic electrons resulting to strong microwave emission and a burst of energetic electrons escaping the plasma, and explain the periodic oscillations of the extracted beam currents observed in several laboratories. It is demonstrated with a minimum-B 14 GHz ECRIS operating on helium, oxygen, and argon plasmas that kinetic instabilities restrict the parameter space available for the optimization of high charge state ion currents. The most critical parameter in terms of plasma stability is the strength of the solenoid magnetic field. It is demonstrated that due to the instabilities the optimum B{sub min}-field in single frequency heating mode is often ≤0.8B{sub ECR}, which is the value suggested by the semiempirical scaling laws guiding the design of modern ECRISs. It is argued that the effect can be attributed not only to the absolute magnitude of the magnetic field but also to the variation of the average magnetic field gradient on the resonance surface.

  6. Two-chamber configuration of Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source for fullerene modification

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, T.; Rácz, R.; Biri, S.; Kato, Y.; Yoshida, Y.

    2016-02-15

    We report on the modification of fullerenes with iron and chlorine using two individually controllable plasmas in the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). One of the plasmas is composed of fullerene and the other one is composed of iron and chlorine. The online ion beam analysis allows one to investigate the rate of the vapor-phase collisional modification process in the ECRIS, while the offline analyses (e.g., liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) of the materials deposited on the plasma chamber can give information on the surface-type process. Both analytical methods show the presence of modified fullerenes such as fullerene-chlorine, fullerene-iron, and fullerene-chlorine-iron.

  7. Two-chamber configuration of Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source for fullerene modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, T.; Rácz, R.; Muramatsu, M.; Kato, Y.; Kitagawa, A.; Biri, S.; Yoshida, Y.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the modification of fullerenes with iron and chlorine using two individually controllable plasmas in the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). One of the plasmas is composed of fullerene and the other one is composed of iron and chlorine. The online ion beam analysis allows one to investigate the rate of the vapor-phase collisional modification process in the ECRIS, while the offline analyses (e.g., liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) of the materials deposited on the plasma chamber can give information on the surface-type process. Both analytical methods show the presence of modified fullerenes such as fullerene-chlorine, fullerene-iron, and fullerene-chlorine-iron.

  8. Two-chamber configuration of Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source for fullerene modification.

    PubMed

    Uchida, T; Rácz, R; Muramatsu, M; Kato, Y; Kitagawa, A; Biri, S; Yoshida, Y

    2016-02-01

    We report on the modification of fullerenes with iron and chlorine using two individually controllable plasmas in the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). One of the plasmas is composed of fullerene and the other one is composed of iron and chlorine. The online ion beam analysis allows one to investigate the rate of the vapor-phase collisional modification process in the ECRIS, while the offline analyses (e.g., liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) of the materials deposited on the plasma chamber can give information on the surface-type process. Both analytical methods show the presence of modified fullerenes such as fullerene-chlorine, fullerene-iron, and fullerene-chlorine-iron.

  9. Electron cyclotron resonance heating by magnetic filter field in a negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, June Young Cho, Won-Hwi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Chung, Kyoung-Jae Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-02-15

    The influence of magnetic filter field on plasma properties in the heating region has been investigated in a planar-type inductively coupled radio-frequency (RF) H{sup −} ion source. Besides filtering high energy electrons near the extraction region, the magnetic filter field is clearly observed to increase the electron temperature in the heating region at low pressure discharge. With increasing the operating pressure, enhancement of electron temperature in the heating region is reduced. The possibility of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating in the heating region due to stray magnetic field generated by a filter magnet located at the extraction region is examined. It is found that ECR heating by RF wave field in the discharge region, where the strength of an axial magnetic field is approximately ∼4.8 G, can effectively heat low energy electrons. Depletion of low energy electrons in the electron energy distribution function measured at the heating region supports the occurrence of ECR heating. The present study suggests that addition of axial magnetic field as small as several G by an external electromagnet or permanent magnets can greatly increase the generation of highly ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules in the heating region, thus improving the performance of H{sup −} ion generation in volume-produced negative hydrogen ion sources.

  10. Development of a novel mass spectrometer equipped with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Kidera, Masanori; Takahashi, Kazuya; Enomoto, Shuichi; Mitsubori, Youhei; Goto, Akira; Yano, Yasushige

    2007-01-01

    The ionization efficiency of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) is generally high, and all elements can be fundamentally ionized by the high-temperature plasma. We focused our attention on the high potentiality of ECRIS as an ion source for mass spectrometers and attempted to customize the mass spectrometer equipped with an ECRIS. Precise measurements were performed by using an ECRIS that was specialized and customized for elemental analysis. By using the charge-state distribution and the isotope ratio, the problem of overlap such as that observed in the spectra of isobars could be solved without any significant improvement in the mass resolution. When the isotope anomaly (or serious mass discrimination effect) was not observed in ECR plasma, the system was found to be very effective for isotope analysis. In this paper, based on the spectrum (ion current as a function of an analyzing magnet current) results of low charged state distributions (2+, 3+, 4+, ...) of noble gases, we discuss the feasibility of an elemental analysis system employing an ECRIS, particularly for isotopic analysis. The high-performance isotopic analysis obtained for ECRIS mass spectrometer in this study suggests that it can be widely applied to several fields of scientific study that require elemental or isotopic analyses with high sensitivity.

  11. Improvement of efficiency and temperature control of induction heating vapor source on electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, T; Kiriyama, R; Muramatsu, M; Kitagawa, A; Uchida, T; Kurisu, Y; Nozaki, D; Yano, K; Yoshida, Y; Sato, F; Kato, Y; Iida, T

    2012-02-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) is used to generate multicharged ions for many kinds of the fields. We have developed an evaporator by using induction heating method that can generate pure vapor from solid state materials in ECRIS. We develop the new matching and protecting circuit by which we can precisely control the temperature of the induction heating evaporator. We can control the temperature within ±15 °C around 1400 °C under the operation pressure about 10(-4) Pa. We are able to use this evaporator for experiment of synthesizing process to need pure vapor under enough low pressure, e.g., experiment of generation of endohedral Fe-fullerene at the ECRIS.

  12. A double-layer based model of ion confinement in electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Mascali, D. Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Castro, G.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Torrisi, G.; Sorbello, G.

    2014-02-15

    The paper proposes a new model of ion confinement in ECRIS, which can be easily generalized to any magnetic configuration characterized by closed magnetic surfaces. Traditionally, ion confinement in B-min configurations is ascribed to a negative potential dip due to superhot electrons, adiabatically confined by the magneto-static field. However, kinetic simulations including RF heating affected by cavity modes structures indicate that high energy electrons populate just a thin slab overlapping the ECR layer, while their density drops down of more than one order of magnitude outside. Ions, instead, diffuse across the electron layer due to their high collisionality. This is the proper physical condition to establish a double-layer (DL) configuration which self-consistently originates a potential barrier; this “barrier” confines the ions inside the plasma core surrounded by the ECR surface. The paper will describe a simplified ion confinement model based on plasma density non-homogeneity and DL formation.

  13. Current density distributions and sputter marks in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Panitzsch, Lauri; Peleikis, Thies; Boettcher, Stephan; Stalder, Michael; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2013-01-15

    Most electron cyclotron resonance ion sources use hexapolar magnetic fields for the radial confinement of the plasma. The geometry of this magnetic structure is then-induced by charged particles-mapped onto the inner side of the plasma electrode via sputtering and deposition. The resulting structures usually show two different patterns: a sharp triangular one in the central region which in some cases is even sputtered deep into the material (referred to as thin groove or sharp structure), and a blurred but still triangular-like one in the surroundings (referred to as broad halo). Therefore, both patterns seem to have different sources. To investigate their origins we replaced the standard plasma electrode by a custom-built plasma electrode acting as a planar, multi-segment current-detector. For different biased disc voltages, detector positions, and source biases (referred to the detector) we measured the electrical current density distributions in the plane of the plasma electrode. The results show a strong and sharply confined electron population with triangular shape surrounded by less intense and spatially less confined ions. Observed sputter- and deposition marks are related to the analysis of the results. Our measurements suggest that the two different patterns (thin and broad) indeed originate from different particle populations. The thin structures seem to be caused by the hot electron population while the broad marks seem to stem from the medium to highly charged ions. In this paper we present our measurements together with theoretical considerations and substantiate the conclusions drawn above. The validity of these results is also discussed.

  14. Current density distributions and sputter marks in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    PubMed

    Panitzsch, Lauri; Peleikis, Thies; Böttcher, Stephan; Stalder, Michael; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Most electron cyclotron resonance ion sources use hexapolar magnetic fields for the radial confinement of the plasma. The geometry of this magnetic structure is then--induced by charged particles--mapped onto the inner side of the plasma electrode via sputtering and deposition. The resulting structures usually show two different patterns: a sharp triangular one in the central region which in some cases is even sputtered deep into the material (referred to as thin groove or sharp structure), and a blurred but still triangular-like one in the surroundings (referred to as broad halo). Therefore, both patterns seem to have different sources. To investigate their origins we replaced the standard plasma electrode by a custom-built plasma electrode acting as a planar, multi-segment current-detector. For different biased disc voltages, detector positions, and source biases (referred to the detector) we measured the electrical current density distributions in the plane of the plasma electrode. The results show a strong and sharply confined electron population with triangular shape surrounded by less intense and spatially less confined ions. Observed sputter- and deposition marks are related to the analysis of the results. Our measurements suggest that the two different patterns (thin and broad) indeed originate from different particle populations. The thin structures seem to be caused by the hot electron population while the broad marks seem to stem from the medium to highly charged ions. In this paper we present our measurements together with theoretical considerations and substantiate the conclusions drawn above. The validity of these results is also discussed.

  15. Refractory rf ovens and sputter probes for electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Cavenago, M.; Galata, A.; Kulevoy, T.; Petrenko, S.; Sattin, M.; Facco, A.

    2008-02-15

    Beams from electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) with radio frequency ovens for refractory material (using a Mo coil) were recently demonstrated; results for Ti and V are here discussed, with temperature T{sub s}{>=}2300 K stably maintained and extracted current of about 1000 nA for V{sup 8+} and V{sup 9+}. The status of sputter probes is also reported, and the reason why trapping efficiency may be lower than in the oven case are investigated. The simple tubular probe concept show typical currents of Sn{sup 18+} about 250 nA, for the most abundant isotopes, but an operating pressure of about 300 {mu}Pa may be required. Some preliminary experiments were performed with Penning probes, showing that transmission of Sn or Pr from Penning cathode to ECRIS plasma is limited. Placement of tin onto anticathode and use of collimator between Penning and ECRIS are also discussed.

  16. Progress in high-temperature oven development for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, J. Higurashi, Y.; Nakagawa, T.

    2016-02-15

    We have been developing a high-temperature oven using UO{sub 2} in the 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at RIKEN since 2013. A total of eleven on-line tests were performed. The longest operation time in a single test was 411 h, and the consumption rate of UO{sub 2} was approximately 2.4 mg/h. In these tests, we experienced several problems: the ejection hole of a crucible was blocked with UO{sub 2} and a crucible was damaged because of the reduction of tungsten strength at high temperature. In order to solve these problems, improvements to the crucible shape were made by simulations using ANSYS.

  17. Prospects for advanced electron cyclotron resonance and electron beam ion source charge breeding methods for EURISOL

    SciTech Connect

    Delahaye, P.; Jardin, P.; Maunoury, L.; Traykov, E.; Varenne, F.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.; Ban, G.; Celona, L.; Lunney, D.; Choinski, J.; Gmaj, P.; Jakubowski, A.; Steckiewicz, O.; Kalvas, T.; and others

    2012-02-15

    As the most ambitious concept of isotope separation on line (ISOL) facility, EURISOL aims at producing unprecedented intensities of post-accelerated radioactive isotopes. Charge breeding, which transforms the charge state of radioactive beams from 1+ to an n+ charge state prior to post-acceleration, is a key technology which has to overcome the following challenges: high charge states for high energies, efficiency, rapidity and purity. On the roadmap to EURISOL, a dedicated R and D is being undertaken to push forward the frontiers of the present state-of-the-art techniques which use either electron cyclotron resonance or electron beam ion sources. We describe here the guidelines of this R and D.

  18. A proposal for a novel H ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance heating and surface ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Tarvainen, Ollie A; Kurennoy, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    A design for a novel H{sup -} ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance plasma heating and surface ionization is presented. The plasma chamber of the source is an rf-cavity designed for TE{sub 111} eigenmode at 2.45 GHz. The desired mode is excited with a loop antenna. The ionization process takes place on a cesiated surface of a biased converter electrode. The H{sup -} ion beam is further 'self-extracted' through the plasma region. The magnetic field of the source is optimized for plasma generation by electron cyclotron resonance heating, and beam extraction. The design features of the source are discussed in detail and the attainable H{sup -} ion current, beam emittance and duty factor of the novel source are estimated.

  19. A Proposal for a Novel H{sup -} Ion Source Based on Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Heating and Surface Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Tarvainen, O.; Kurennoy, S.

    2009-03-12

    A design for a novel H{sup -} ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance plasma heating and surface ionization is presented. The plasma chamber of the source is an rf-cavity designed for TE{sub 111} eigenmode at 2.45 GHz. The desired mode is excited with a loop antenna. The ionization process takes place on a cesiated surface of a biased converter electrode. The H{sup -} ion beam is further ''self-extracted'' through the plasma region. The magnetic field of the source is optimized for plasma generation by electron cyclotron resonance heating, and beam extraction. The design features of the source are discussed in detail and the attainable H{sup -} ion current, beam emittance and duty factor of the novel source are estimated.

  20. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Leland, W.T.

    1960-01-01

    The ion source described essentially eliminater the problem of deposits of nonconducting materials forming on parts of the ion source by certain corrosive gases. This problem is met by removing both filament and trap from the ion chamber, spacing them apart and outside the chamber end walls, placing a focusing cylinder about the filament tip to form a thin collimated electron stream, aligning the cylinder, slits in the walls, and trap so that the electron stream does not bombard any part in the source, and heating the trap, which is bombarded by electrons, to a temperature hotter than that in the ion chamber, so that the tendency to build up a deposit caused by electron bombardment is offset by the extra heating supplied only to the trap.

  1. Induction heating pure vapor source of high temperature melting point materials on electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Kutsumi, Osamu; Kato, Yushi; Matsui, Yuuki; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Uchida, Takashi; Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2010-02-01

    Multicharged ions that are needed are produced from solid pure material with high melting point in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. We develop an evaporator by using induction heating (IH) with multilayer induction coil, which is made from bare molybdenum or tungsten wire without water cooling and surrounding the pure vaporized material. We optimize the shapes of induction coil and vaporized materials and operation of rf power supply. We conduct experiment to investigate the reproducibility and stability in the operation and heating efficiency. IH evaporator produces pure material vapor because materials directly heated by eddy currents have no contact with insulated materials, which are usually impurity gas sources. The power and the frequency of the induction currents range from 100 to 900 W and from 48 to 23 kHz, respectively. The working pressure is about 10(-4)-10(-3) Pa. We measure the temperature of the vaporized materials with different shapes, and compare them with the result of modeling. We estimate the efficiency of the IH vapor source. We are aiming at the evaporator's higher melting point material than that of iron.

  2. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Blue, C.W.; Luce, J.S.

    1960-07-19

    An ion source is described and comprises an arc discharge parallel to the direction of and inside of a magnetic field. an accelerating electrode surrounding substantially all of the discharge except for ion exit apertures, and means for establishing an electric field between that electrode and the arc discharge. the electric field being oriented at an acute angle to the magnetic field. Ions are drawn through the exit apertures in the accelrating electrcde in a direction substantially divergent to the direction of the magnetic field and so will travel in a spiral orbit along the magnetic field such that the ions will not strike the source at any point in their orbit within the magnetic field.

  3. Status of a compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source for National Institute of Radiological Sciences-930 cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Hojo, S; Katagiri, K; Nakao, M; Sugiura, A; Muramatsu, M; Noda, A; Okada, T; Takahashi, Y; Komiyama, A; Honma, T; Noda, K

    2014-02-01

    The Kei-source is a compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source using only permanent magnets and a frequency of 10 GHz. It was developed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) for producing C(4+) ions oriented for high-energy carbon therapy. It has also been used as an ion source for the NIRS-930 cyclotron. Its microwave band region for the traveling-wave-tube amplifier and maximum output power are 8-10 GHz and 350 W, respectively. Since 2006, it has provided various ion beams such as proton, deuteron, carbon, oxygen, and neon with sufficient intensity (200 μA for proton and deuteron, 50 μA for C(4+), for example) and good stability for radioisotope production, tests of radiation damage, and basic research experiments. Its horizontal and vertical emittances were measured using a screen monitor and waist-scan. The present paper reports the current status of the Kei-source.

  4. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Bell, W.A. Jr.; Love, L.O.; Prater, W.K.

    1958-01-28

    An ion source is presented capable of producing ions of elements which vaporize only at exceedingly high temperatures, i.e.,--1500 degrees to 3000 deg C. The ion source utilizes beams of electrons focused into a first chamber housing the material to be ionized to heat the material and thereby cause it to vaporize. An adjacent second chamber receives the vaporized material through an interconnecting passage, and ionization of the vaporized material occurs in this chamber. The ionization action is produced by an arc discharge sustained between a second clectron emitting filament and the walls of the chamber which are at different potentials. The resultant ionized material egresses from a passageway in the second chamber. Using this device, materials which in the past could not be processed in mass spectometers may be satisfactorily ionized for such applications.

  5. First operation and effect of a new tandem-type ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Yushi; Kimura, Daiju; Yano, Keisuke; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Nishiokada, Takuya; Nagaya, Tomoki; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu

    2016-02-01

    A new tandem type source has been constructed on the basis of electron cyclotron resonance plasma for producing synthesized ion beams in Osaka University. Magnetic field in the first stage consists of all permanent magnets, i.e., cylindrically comb shaped one, and that of the second stage consists of a pair of mirror coil, a supplemental coil and the octupole magnets. Both stage plasmas can be individually operated, and produced ions in which is energy controlled by large bore extractor also can be transported from the first to the second stage. We investigate the basic operation and effects of the tandem type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). Analysis of ion beams and investigation of plasma parameters are conducted on produced plasmas in dual plasmas operation as well as each single operation. We describe construction and initial experimental results of the new tandem type ion source based on ECRIS with wide operation window for aiming at producing synthesized ion beams as this new source can be a universal source in future.

  6. First operation and effect of a new tandem-type ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Yushi Kimura, Daiju; Yano, Keisuke; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Nishiokada, Takuya; Nagaya, Tomoki; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu

    2016-02-15

    A new tandem type source has been constructed on the basis of electron cyclotron resonance plasma for producing synthesized ion beams in Osaka University. Magnetic field in the first stage consists of all permanent magnets, i.e., cylindrically comb shaped one, and that of the second stage consists of a pair of mirror coil, a supplemental coil and the octupole magnets. Both stage plasmas can be individually operated, and produced ions in which is energy controlled by large bore extractor also can be transported from the first to the second stage. We investigate the basic operation and effects of the tandem type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). Analysis of ion beams and investigation of plasma parameters are conducted on produced plasmas in dual plasmas operation as well as each single operation. We describe construction and initial experimental results of the new tandem type ion source based on ECRIS with wide operation window for aiming at producing synthesized ion beams as this new source can be a universal source in future.

  7. Dynamic regimes of cyclotron instability in the afterglow mode of minimum-B electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfeld, D.; Izotov, I.; Skalyga, V.; Tarvainen, O.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Laulainen, J.

    2016-04-01

    The paper is concerned with the dynamic regimes of cyclotron instabilities in non-equilibrium plasma of a minimum-B electron cyclotron resonance ion source operated in pulsed mode. The instability appears in decaying ion source plasma shortly (1-10 ms) after switching off the microwave radiation of the klystron, and manifests itself in the form of powerful pulses of electromagnetic emission associated with precipitation of high-energy electrons along the magnetic field lines. Recently it was shown that this plasma instability causes perturbations of the extracted ion current, which limits the performance of the ion source and generates strong bursts of bremsstrahlung emission. In this article we present time-resolved diagnostics of electromagnetic emission bursts related to cyclotron instability in the decaying plasma. The temporal resolution is sufficient to study the fine structure of the dynamic spectra of the electromagnetic emission at different operating regimes of the ion source. It was found that at different values of magnetic field and heating power the dynamic spectra demonstrate common features: Decreasing frequency from burst to burst and an always falling tone during a single burst of instability. The analysis has shown that the instability is driven by the resonant interaction of hot electrons, distributed between the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) zone and the trap center, with slow extraordinary wave propagation quasi-parallel with respect to the external magnetic field.

  8. Production of electron cyclotron resonance plasma by using multifrequencies microwaves and active beam profile control on a large bore electron cyclotron resonance ion source with permanent magnets.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yushi; Watanabe, Takeyoshi; Matsui, Yuuki; Hirai, Yoshiaki; Kutsumi, Osamu; Sakamoto, Naoki; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2010-02-01

    A new concept on magnetic field with all magnets on plasma production and confinement has been proposed to enhance efficiency of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma for broad and dense ion beam source under the low pressure. The magnetic field configuration is constructed by a pair of magnets assembly, i.e., comb-shaped magnet which cylindrically surrounds the plasma chamber. The resonance zones corresponding to the fundamental ECR for 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz frequencies are constructed at different positions. The profiles of the plasma parameters in the ECR ion source are different from each frequency of microwave. Large bore extractor is set at the opposite side against the microwave feeds. It is found that differences of their profiles also appear at those of ion beam profiles. We conducted to launch simultaneously multiplex frequencies microwaves controlled individually, and tried to control the profiles of the plasma parameters and then those of extracted ion beam.

  9. Studies of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Toivanen, V. Küchler, D.

    2016-02-15

    The 14.5 GHz GTS-LHC Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) provides multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The GTS-LHC beam formation has been studied extensively with lead, argon, and xenon beams with varied beam extraction conditions using the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulation model predicts self-consistently the formation of triangular and hollow beam structures which are often associated with ECRIS ion beams, as well as beam loss patterns which match the observed beam induced markings in the extraction region. These studies provide a better understanding of the properties of the extracted beams and a way to diagnose the extraction system performance and limitations, which is otherwise challenging due to the lack of direct diagnostics in this region and the limited availability of the ion source for development work.

  10. Studies of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, V; Küchler, D

    2016-02-01

    The 14.5 GHz GTS-LHC Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) provides multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The GTS-LHC beam formation has been studied extensively with lead, argon, and xenon beams with varied beam extraction conditions using the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulation model predicts self-consistently the formation of triangular and hollow beam structures which are often associated with ECRIS ion beams, as well as beam loss patterns which match the observed beam induced markings in the extraction region. These studies provide a better understanding of the properties of the extracted beams and a way to diagnose the extraction system performance and limitations, which is otherwise challenging due to the lack of direct diagnostics in this region and the limited availability of the ion source for development work.

  11. High yield neutron generator based on a high-current gasdynamic electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Skalyga, V.; Sidorov, A.; Izotov, I.; Golubev, S.; Razin, S.; Strelkov, A.; Tarvainen, O.; Koivisto, H.; Kalvas, T.

    2015-09-07

    In present paper, an approach for high yield compact D-D neutron generator based on a high current gasdynamic electron cyclotron resonance ion source is suggested. Results on dense pulsed deuteron beam production with current up to 500 mA and current density up to 750 mA/cm{sup 2} are demonstrated. Neutron yield from D{sub 2}O and TiD{sub 2} targets was measured in case of its bombardment by pulsed 300 mA D{sup +} beam with 45 keV energy. Neutron yield density at target surface of 10{sup 9} s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} was detected with a system of two {sup 3}He proportional counters. Estimations based on obtained experimental results show that neutron yield from a high quality TiD{sub 2} target bombarded by D{sup +} beam demonstrated in present work accelerated to 100 keV could reach 6 × 10{sup 10} s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. It is discussed that compact neutron generator with such characteristics could be perspective for a number of applications like boron neutron capture therapy, security systems based on neutron scanning, and neutronography.

  12. The effects of gas mixing and plasma electrode position on the emittance of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suominen, P.; Tarvainen, O.; Koivisto, H.

    2004-05-01

    Gas mixing is a commonly used method to improve the intensities and the charge state distribution of ion beams extracted from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). At the same time, the emittance of the ion beam should be as small as possible. In this work we have studied the effect of the gas mixing method on the ion beam quality by measuring the emittance and brightness of different ion beams using helium, oxygen, and argon with several gas feeding ratios. All measurements were performed with the JYFL 6.4 GHz ECRIS. At the second stage of the experiments the emittance and the ion beam brightness were studied as a function of the plasma electrode position. The extraction system constructed for this experiment can be moved online.

  13. Effect of resonant microwave power on a PIG ion source. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.E.; Gavin, B.F.; MacGill, R.A.

    1984-08-01

    We have investigated the effect of applying microwave power at the electron cyclotron frequency on the characteristics of the ion beam extracted from a hot-cathode PIG ion source. No change was seen in the ion charge state distribution. A small but significant reduction in the beam noise level was seen, and it is possible that the technique may find application in situations where beam quiescence is important. 32 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Measurements and analysis of bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrum obtained in NANOGAN electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Baskaran, R.; Selvakumaran, T. S.; Rodrigues, G.; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.

    2008-02-15

    From the ECR plasma, hot electrons leak across the magnetic lines of force and by striking the plasma chamber produce bremsstrahlung x-rays. The wall bremsstrahlung gives information on the confinement status of hot electron. In our studies, experimental measurements are carried out in NANOGAN electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source for the wall bremsstrahlung x-rays and the results are presented. While optimizing a particular charge state in ECR ion source, experimental parameters are adjusted to get a maximum current. The wall bremsstrahlung components are studied in these cases for understanding the hot electron confinement conditions.

  15. Emittance study of a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the Rare Isotope Science Project superconducting linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Bum-Sik Hong, In-Seok; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jin, Hyunchang; Choi, Sukjin; Kim, Yonghwan

    2016-02-15

    A 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is being developed for use as an injector for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project. Beam extraction from the ECR ion source has been simulated using the KOBRA3-INP software. The simulation software can calculate charged particle trajectories in three dimensional complex magnetic field structures, which in this case are formed by the arrangement of five superconducting magnets. In this study, the beam emittance is simulated to understand the effects of plasma potential, mass-to-charge ratio, and spatial distribution. The results of these simulations and their comparison to experimental results are presented in this paper.

  16. Emittance study of a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the Rare Isotope Science Project superconducting linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Park, Bum-Sik; Hong, In-Seok; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jin, Hyunchang; Choi, Sukjin; Kim, Yonghwan

    2016-02-01

    A 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is being developed for use as an injector for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project. Beam extraction from the ECR ion source has been simulated using the KOBRA3-INP software. The simulation software can calculate charged particle trajectories in three dimensional complex magnetic field structures, which in this case are formed by the arrangement of five superconducting magnets. In this study, the beam emittance is simulated to understand the effects of plasma potential, mass-to-charge ratio, and spatial distribution. The results of these simulations and their comparison to experimental results are presented in this paper.

  17. Initial velocity distribution of MALDI/LDI ions measured by internal MALDI source Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chagovets, Vitaliy; Frankevich, Vladimir; Zenobi, Renato

    2014-11-01

    A new method for measuring the ion velocity distribution using an internal matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) source Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer is described. The method provides the possibility of studying ion velocities without any influence of electric fields in the direction of the instrument axis until the ions reach the ICR cell. It also allows to simultaneously account for and to estimate not only the velocity distribution but the angular distribution as well. The method was demonstrated using several types of compounds in laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mode.

  18. High electronegativity multi-dipolar electron cyclotron resonance plasma source for etching by negative ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamate, E.; Draghici, M.

    2012-04-01

    A large area plasma source based on 12 multi-dipolar ECR plasma cells arranged in a 3 × 4 matrix configuration was built and optimized for silicon etching by negative ions. The density ratio of negative ions to electrons has exceeded 300 in Ar/SF6 gas mixture when a magnetic filter was used to reduce the electron temperature to about 1.2 eV. Mass spectrometry and electrostatic probe were used for plasma diagnostics. The new source is free of density jumps and instabilities and shows a very good stability for plasma potential, and the dominant negative ion species is F-. The magnetic field in plasma volume is negligible and there is no contamination by filaments. The etching rate by negative ions measured in Ar/SF6/O2 mixtures was almost similar with that by positive ions reaching 700 nm/min.

  19. New method for comprehensive detection of chemical warfare agents using an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion-source mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Kidera, Masanori; Seto, Yasuo; Takahashi, Kazuya; Enomoto, Shuichi; Kishi, Shintaro; Makita, Mika; Nagamatsu, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Tatsuhiko; Toda, Masayoshi

    2011-03-01

    We developed a detection technology for vapor forms of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) with an element analysis system using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. After the vapor sample was introduced directly into the ion source, the molecular material was decomposed into elements using electron cyclotron resonance plasma and ionized. The following CWAs and stimulants were examined: diisopropyl fluorophosphonate (DFP), 2-chloroethylethylsulfide (2CEES), cyanogen chloride (CNCl), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The type of chemical warfare agents, specifically, whether it was a nerve agent, blister agent, blood agent, or choking agent, could be determined by measuring the quantities of the monatomic ions or CN(+) using mass spectrometry. It was possible to detect gaseous CWAs that could not be detected by a conventional mass spectrometer. The distribution of electron temperature in the plasma could be closely controlled by adjusting the input power of the microwaves used to generate the electron cyclotron resonance plasma, and the target compounds could be detected as molecular ions or fragment ions, enabling identification of the target agents.

  20. New method for comprehensive detection of chemical warfare agents using an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion-source mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidera, Masanori; Seto, Yasuo; Takahashi, Kazuya; Enomoto, Shuichi; Kishi, Shintaro; Makita, Mika; Nagamatsu, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Tatsuhiko; Toda, Masayoshi

    2011-03-01

    We developed a detection technology for vapor forms of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) with an element analysis system using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. After the vapor sample was introduced directly into the ion source, the molecular material was decomposed into elements using electron cyclotron resonance plasma and ionized. The following CWAs and stimulants were examined: diisopropyl fluorophosphonate (DFP), 2-chloroethylethylsulfide (2CEES), cyanogen chloride (CNCl), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The type of chemical warfare agents, specifically, whether it was a nerve agent, blister agent, blood agent, or choking agent, could be determined by measuring the quantities of the monatomic ions or CN + using mass spectrometry. It was possible to detect gaseous CWAs that could not be detected by a conventional mass spectrometer. The distribution of electron temperature in the plasma could be closely controlled by adjusting the input power of the microwaves used to generate the electron cyclotron resonance plasma, and the target compounds could be detected as molecular ions or fragment ions, enabling identification of the target agents.

  1. The preliminary tests of the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source DECRIS-SC2.

    PubMed

    Efremov, A; Bekhterev, V; Bogomolov, S; Drobin, V; Loginov, V; Lebedev, A; Yazvitsky, N; Yakovlev, B

    2012-02-01

    A new compact version of the "liquid He-free" superconducting ECR ion source, to be used as an injector of highly charged heavy ions for the MC-400 cyclotron, is designed and built at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions in collaboration with the Laboratory of High Energy Physics of JINR. The axial magnetic field of the source is created by the superconducting magnet and the NdFeB hexapole is used for the radial plasma confinement. The microwave frequency of 14 GHz is used for ECR plasma heating. During the first tests, the source shows a good enough performance for the production of medium charge state ions. In this paper, we will present the design parameters and the preliminary results with gaseous ions.

  2. Beam experiments with the Grenoble test electron cyclotron resonance ion source at iThemba LABS

    SciTech Connect

    Thomae, R. Conradie, J.; Fourie, D.; Mira, J.; Nemulodi, F.; Kuechler, D.; Toivanen, V.

    2016-02-15

    At iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences (iThemba LABS) an electron cyclotron ion source was installed and commissioned. This source is a copy of the Grenoble Test Source (GTS) for the production of highly charged ions. The source is similar to the GTS-LHC at CERN and named GTS2. A collaboration between the Accelerators and Beam Physics Group of CERN and the Accelerator and Engineering Department of iThemba LABS was proposed in which the development of high intensity argon and xenon beams is envisaged. In this paper, we present beam experiments with the GTS2 at iThemba LABS, in which the results of continuous wave and afterglow operation of xenon ion beams with oxygen as supporting gases are presented.

  3. Note: Enhanced production of He{sup +} from the Versatile Ion Source (VIS) in off-resonance configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, G.; Mascali, D.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mazzaglia, M.; Neri, L.; Altana, C.; Ciavola, G.; Caliri, C.; Bartolo, F. Di; Lanaia, D.; Miracoli, R.; Torrisi, G.

    2014-09-15

    The Versatile Ion Source (VIS) is a microwave discharge ion source installed at INFN-LNS and here used as test-bench for the production of high intensity low emittance proton beams and for studies on plasma physics. A series of measurements have been carried out with VIS in order to test the source with light ions. In particular a He{sup +} beam has been characterized in terms of plasma discharge parameters. The experiment has been triggered by the observation of X-radiation emission from the plasma for some configuration of the magnetic field profile. The plasma electron energy distribution function is in fact modified when in some regions of the plasma chamber under-resonance discharge takes place, fulfilling the condition that allows the electromagnetic wave to electrostatic wave conversion. These tests allowed obtaining more than 50 mA of He{sup +} beams.

  4. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W.M.

    1959-04-14

    This patent deals with calutrons and more particularly to an arrangement therein whereby charged bottles in a calutron source unit may be replaced without admitting atmospheric air to the calutron vacuum chamber. As described, an ion unit is disposed within a vacuum tank and has a reservoir open toward a wall of the tank. A spike projects from thc source into the reservoir. When a charge bottle is placed in the reservoir, the spike breaks a frangible seal on the bottle. After the contents of the bottle are expended the bottle may be withdrawn and replaced with another charge bottle by a varuum lock arrangement in conjunction with an arm for manipulating the bottle.

  5. Ion source

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W. M.

    1959-04-14

    This patent deals with calutrons and more particularly to an arrangement therein whereby charged bottles in a calutron source unit may be replaced without admitting atmospheric air to the calutron vacuum chamber. As described, an ion unit is disposed within a vacuum tank and has a reservoir open toward a wall of the tank. A spike projects from the source into the reservoir. When a charge bottle is placed in the reservoir, the spike breaks a frangible seal on the bottle. After the contents of the bottle are expended the bottle may be withdrawn and replaced with another charge bottle by a vacuum lock arrangement in conjunction with an arm for manipulating the bottle.

  6. The identification of autoionizing states of atomic chromium for the resonance ionization laser ion source of the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day Goodacre, T.; Chrysalidis, K.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Marsh, B. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Seiffert, C.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into autoionizing states of atomic chromium, in the service of the resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS): the principal ion source of the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility based at CERN. The multi-step resonance photo-ionization process enables element selective ionization which, in combination with mass separation, allows isotope specific selectivity in the production of radioactive ion beams at ISOLDE. The element selective nature of the process requires a multi-step "ionization scheme" to be developed for each element. Using the method of in-source resonance ionization spectroscopy, an optimal three-step, three-resonance photo-ionization scheme originating from the 3d5(6S)4s a7S3 atomic ground state has been developed for chromium. The scheme uses an ionizing transition to one of the 15 newly observed autoionizing states reported here. Details of the spectroscopic studies are described and the new ionization scheme is summarized.

  7. Operation of Lanzhou all permanent electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 2 on 320 kV platform with highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, W.; Li, J. Y.; Kang, L.; Liu, H. P.; Li, H.; Li, J. D.; Sun, L. T.; Ma, X. W.

    2014-02-01

    The 320 kV platform for multi-discipline research with highly charged ions is a heavy ion beam acceleration instrument developed by Institute of Modern Physics, which is dedicated to basic scientific researches such as plasma, atom, material physics, and astrophysics, etc. The platform has delivered ion beams of 400 species for 36 000 h. The average operation time is around 5000 h/year. With the beams provided by the platform, lots of outstanding progresses were made in various research fields. The ion source of the platform is an all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source, LAPECR2 (Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source No. 2). The maximum axial magnetic fields are 1.28 T at injection and 1.07 T at extraction, and the radial magnetic field is up to 1.21 T at the inner wall of the plasma chamber. The ion source is capable to produce low, medium, and high charge state gaseous and metallic ion beams, such as H+, 40Ar8+, 129Xe30+, 209Bi33+, etc. This paper will present the latest result of LAPECR2 and the routine operation status for the high voltage platform.

  8. Operation of Lanzhou all permanent electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 2 on 320 kV platform with highly charged ions.

    PubMed

    Lu, W; Li, J Y; Kang, L; Liu, H P; Li, H; Li, J D; Sun, L T; Ma, X W

    2014-02-01

    The 320 kV platform for multi-discipline research with highly charged ions is a heavy ion beam acceleration instrument developed by Institute of Modern Physics, which is dedicated to basic scientific researches such as plasma, atom, material physics, and astrophysics, etc. The platform has delivered ion beams of 400 species for 36,000 h. The average operation time is around 5000 h/year. With the beams provided by the platform, lots of outstanding progresses were made in various research fields. The ion source of the platform is an all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source, LAPECR2 (Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source No. 2). The maximum axial magnetic fields are 1.28 T at injection and 1.07 T at extraction, and the radial magnetic field is up to 1.21 T at the inner wall of the plasma chamber. The ion source is capable to produce low, medium, and high charge state gaseous and metallic ion beams, such as H(+), (40)Ar(8+), (129)Xe(30+), (209)Bi(33+), etc. This paper will present the latest result of LAPECR2 and the routine operation status for the high voltage platform.

  9. Operation of the CAPRICE electron cyclotron resonance ion source applying frequency tuning and double frequency heating.

    PubMed

    Maimone, F; Tinschert, K; Celona, L; Lang, R; Mäder, J; Rossbach, J; Spädtke, P

    2012-02-01

    The properties of the electromagnetic waves heating the electrons of the ECR ion sources (ECRIS) plasma affect the features of the extracted ion beams such as the emittance, the shape, and the current, in particular for higher charge states. The electron heating methods such as the frequency tuning effect and the double frequency heating are widely used for enhancing the performances of ECRIS or even for the routine operation during the beam production. In order to better investigate these effects the CAPRICE ECRIS has been operated using these techniques. The ion beam properties for highly charged ions have been measured with beam diagnostic tools. The reason of the observed variations of this performance can be related to the different electromagnetic field patterns, which are changing inside the plasma chamber when the frequency is varying.

  10. Upgrade of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, V; Bellodi, G; Dimov, V; Küchler, D; Lombardi, A M; Maintrot, M

    2016-02-01

    Linac3 is the first accelerator in the heavy ion injector chain of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), providing multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The ion beams are produced with GTS-LHC, a 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, operated in afterglow mode. Improvement of the GTS-LHC beam formation and beam transport along Linac3 is part of the upgrade program of the injector chain in preparation for the future high luminosity LHC. A mismatch between the ion beam properties in the ion source extraction region and the acceptance of the following Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) section has been identified as one of the factors limiting the Linac3 performance. The installation of a new focusing element, an einzel lens, into the GTS-LHC extraction region is foreseen as a part of the Linac3 upgrade, as well as a redesign of the first section of the LEBT. Details of the upgrade and results of a beam dynamics study of the extraction region and LEBT modifications will be presented.

  11. Upgrade of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Toivanen, V. Bellodi, G.; Dimov, V.; Küchler, D.; Lombardi, A. M.; Maintrot, M.

    2016-02-15

    Linac3 is the first accelerator in the heavy ion injector chain of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), providing multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The ion beams are produced with GTS-LHC, a 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, operated in afterglow mode. Improvement of the GTS-LHC beam formation and beam transport along Linac3 is part of the upgrade program of the injector chain in preparation for the future high luminosity LHC. A mismatch between the ion beam properties in the ion source extraction region and the acceptance of the following Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) section has been identified as one of the factors limiting the Linac3 performance. The installation of a new focusing element, an einzel lens, into the GTS-LHC extraction region is foreseen as a part of the Linac3 upgrade, as well as a redesign of the first section of the LEBT. Details of the upgrade and results of a beam dynamics study of the extraction region and LEBT modifications will be presented.

  12. Upgrade of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toivanen, V.; Bellodi, G.; Dimov, V.; Küchler, D.; Lombardi, A. M.; Maintrot, M.

    2016-02-01

    Linac3 is the first accelerator in the heavy ion injector chain of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), providing multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The ion beams are produced with GTS-LHC, a 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, operated in afterglow mode. Improvement of the GTS-LHC beam formation and beam transport along Linac3 is part of the upgrade program of the injector chain in preparation for the future high luminosity LHC. A mismatch between the ion beam properties in the ion source extraction region and the acceptance of the following Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) section has been identified as one of the factors limiting the Linac3 performance. The installation of a new focusing element, an einzel lens, into the GTS-LHC extraction region is foreseen as a part of the Linac3 upgrade, as well as a redesign of the first section of the LEBT. Details of the upgrade and results of a beam dynamics study of the extraction region and LEBT modifications will be presented.

  13. Optimization of a charge-state analyzer for electron cyclotron resonance ion source beams.

    PubMed

    Saminathan, S; Beijers, J P M; Kremers, H R; Mironov, V; Mulder, J; Brandenburg, S

    2012-07-01

    A detailed experimental and simulation study of the extraction of a 24 keV He(+) beam from an ECR ion source and the subsequent beam transport through an analyzing magnet is presented. We find that such a slow ion beam is very sensitive to space-charge forces, but also that the neutralization of the beam's space charge by secondary electrons is virtually complete for beam currents up to at least 0.5 mA. The beam emittance directly behind the extraction system is 65 π mm mrad and is determined by the fact that the ion beam is extracted in the strong magnetic fringe field of the ion source. The relatively large emittance of the beam and its non-paraxiality lead, in combination with a relatively small magnet gap, to significant beam losses and a five-fold increase of the effective beam emittance during its transport through the analyzing magnet. The calculated beam profile and phase-space distributions in the image plane of the analyzing magnet agree well with measurements. The kinematic and magnet aberrations have been studied using the calculated second-order transfer map of the analyzing magnet, with which we can reproduce the phase-space distributions of the ion beam behind the analyzing magnet. Using the transfer map and trajectory calculations we have worked out an aberration compensation scheme based on the addition of compensating hexapole components to the main dipole field by modifying the shape of the poles. The simulations predict that by compensating the kinematic and geometric aberrations in this way and enlarging the pole gap the overall beam transport efficiency can be increased from 16% to 45%.

  14. Spatially resolved measurements of electron cyclotron resonance ion source beam profile characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Panitzsch, Lauri; Stalder, Michael; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2011-03-15

    Simulations predict that the concentric rings and the triangular structures in the profiles of strongly focused ion beams that are found in different experiments should be dominated by ion species with the same or at least similar m/q-ratio. To verify these theoretical predictions we have tuned our ECR ion source to deliver a beam consisting of multiple ion species whose particular m/q-depending focusing ranges from weakly focused to overfocused. We then recorded spatially resolved charge-state distributions of the beam profile at characteristic positions in the plane perpendicular to the beam line. The results validate theoretical predictions and are summarized in this paper. To achieve the required beam profile characteristics we moved the extraction along the beam line to achieve stronger focusing than by only changing the extraction voltage. To fit the regions of interest of the beam profile into the transmission area of the sector magnet, we steered the beam by moving the extraction in the plane perpendicular to the beam axis. The results of both investigations, beam focusing and beam steering by using a 3D-movable extraction, are also reported in this paper. A brief overview of the new beam monitor extensively used during these measurements, the Faraday cup array, is also given.

  15. Microwave electron cyclotron electron resonance (ECR) ion source with a large, uniformly distributed, axially symmetric, ECR plasma volume

    DOEpatents

    Alton, Gerald D.

    1996-01-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source includes a primary mirror coil disposed coaxially around a vacuum vessel in which a plasma is induced and introducing a solenoidal ECR-producing field throughout the length of the vacuum vessel. Radial plasma confinement is provided by a multi-cusp, multi-polar permanent magnet array disposed azimuthally around the vessel and within the primary mirror coil. Axial confinement is provided either by multi-cusp permanent magnets at the opposite axial ends of the vessel, or by secondary mirror coils disposed on opposite sides of the primary coil.

  16. Measurement of the high energy component of the x-ray spectra in the VENUS electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, D.; Benitez, J. Y.; Lyneis, C. M.; Todd, D. S.; Ropponen, T.; Ropponen, J.; Koivisto, H.; Gammino, S.

    2008-03-15

    High performance electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, such as VENUS (Versatile ECR for NUclear Science), produce large amounts of x-rays. By studying their energy spectra, conclusions can be drawn about the electron heating process and the electron confinement. In addition, the bremsstrahlung from the plasma chamber is partly absorbed by the cold mass of the superconducting magnet, adding an extra heat load to the cryostat. Germanium or NaI detectors are generally used for x-ray measurements. Due to the high x-ray flux from the source, the experimental setup to measure bremsstrahlung spectra from ECR ion sources is somewhat different from that for the traditional nuclear physics measurements these detectors are generally used for. In particular, the collimation and background shielding can be problematic. In this paper, we will discuss the experimental setup for such a measurement, the energy calibration and background reduction, the shielding of the detector, and collimation of the x-ray flux. We will present x-ray energy spectra and cryostat heating rates depending on various ion source parameters, such as confinement fields, minimum B-field, rf power, and heating frequency.

  17. Dependence of ion beam current on position of mobile plate tuner in multi-frequencies microwaves electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Kurisu, Yosuke; Kiriyama, Ryutaro; Takenaka, Tomoya; Nozaki, Dai; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2012-02-15

    We are constructing a tandem-type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The first stage of this can supply 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz microwaves to plasma chamber individually and simultaneously. We optimize the beam current I{sub FC} by the mobile plate tuner. The I{sub FC} is affected by the position of the mobile plate tuner in the chamber as like a circular cavity resonator. We aim to clarify the relation between the I{sub FC} and the ion saturation current in the ECRIS against the position of the mobile plate tuner. We obtained the result that the variation of the plasma density contributes largely to the variation of the I{sub FC} when we change the position of the mobile plate tuner.

  18. Dependence of ion beam current on position of mobile plate tuner in multi-frequencies microwaves electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Kurisu, Yosuke; Kiriyama, Ryutaro; Takenaka, Tomoya; Nozaki, Dai; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2012-02-01

    We are constructing a tandem-type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The first stage of this can supply 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz microwaves to plasma chamber individually and simultaneously. We optimize the beam current I(FC) by the mobile plate tuner. The I(FC) is affected by the position of the mobile plate tuner in the chamber as like a circular cavity resonator. We aim to clarify the relation between the I(FC) and the ion saturation current in the ECRIS against the position of the mobile plate tuner. We obtained the result that the variation of the plasma density contributes largely to the variation of the I(FC) when we change the position of the mobile plate tuner.

  19. Development of a high-temperature oven for the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, J. Higurashi, Y.; Kidera, M.; Ozeki, K.; Nakagawa, T.

    2014-02-15

    We have been developing the 28 GHz ECR ion source in order to accelerate high-intensity uranium beams at the RIKEN RI-beam Factory. Although we have generated U{sup 35+} beams by the sputtering method thus far, we began developing a high-temperature oven with the aim of increasing and stabilizing the beams. Because the oven method uses UO{sub 2}, a crucible must be heated to a temperature higher than 2000 °C to supply an appropriate amount of UO{sub 2} vapor to the ECR plasma. Our high-temperature oven uses a tungsten crucible joule-heated with DC current of approximately 450 A. Its inside dimensions are ϕ11 mm × 13.5 mm. Since the crucible is placed in a magnetic field of approximately 3 T, it is subject to a magnetic force of approximately 40 N. Therefore, we used ANSYS to carefully design the crucible, which was manufactured by machining a tungsten rod. We could raise the oven up to 1900 °C in the first off-line test. Subsequently, UO{sub 2} was loaded into the crucible, and the oven was installed in the 28 GHz ECR ion source and was tested. As a result, a U{sup 35+} beam current of 150 μA was extracted successfully at a RF power of approximately 3 kW.

  20. Spatially resolved charge-state and current-density distributions at the extraction of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Panitzsch, Lauri; Peleikis, Thies; Stalder, Michael; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2011-09-15

    In this paper we present our measurements of charge-state and current-density distributions performed in very close vicinity (15 mm) of the extraction of our hexapole geometry electron cyclotron resonance ion source. We achieved a relatively high spatial resolution reducing the aperture of our 3D-movable extraction (puller) electrode to a diameter of only 0.5 mm. Thus, we are able to limit the source of the extracted ion beam to a very small region of the plasma electrode's hole (O = 4 mm) and therefore to a very small region of the neutral plasma sheath. The information about the charge-state distribution and the current density in the plane of the plasma electrode at each particular position is conserved in the ion beam. We determined the total current density distribution at a fixed coaxial distance of only 15 mm to the plasma electrode by remotely moving the small-aperture puller electrode which contained a dedicated Faraday cup (FC) across the aperture of the plasma electrode. In a second measurement we removed the FC and recorded m/q-spectra for the different positions using a sector magnet. From our results we can deduce that different ion charge-states can be grouped into bloated triangles of different sizes and same orientation at the extraction with the current density peaking at centre. This confirms observations from other groups based on simulations and emittance measurements. We present our measurements in detail and discuss possible systematic errors.

  1. A hybrid electron cyclotron resonance metal ion source with integrated sputter magnetron for the production of an intense Al⁺ ion beam.

    PubMed

    Weichsel, T; Hartung, U; Kopte, T; Zschornack, G; Kreller, M; Philipp, A

    2015-09-01

    A metal ion source prototype has been developed: a combination of magnetron sputter technology with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source technology-a so called magnetron ECR ion source (MECRIS). An integrated ring-shaped sputter magnetron with an Al target is acting as a powerful metal atom supply in order to produce an intense current of singly charged metal ions. Preliminary experiments show that an Al(+) ion current with a density of 167 μA/cm(2) is extracted from the source at an acceleration voltage of 27 kV. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy were used to study the plasma states of the ion source: sputter magnetron, ECR, and MECRIS plasma. Electron density and temperature as well as Al atom density were determined as a function of microwave and sputter magnetron power. The effect of ECR heating is strongly pronounced in the center of the source. There the electron density is increased by one order of magnitude from 6 × 10(9) cm(-3) to 6 × 10(10) cm(-3) and the electron temperature is enhanced from about 5 eV to 12 eV, when the ECR plasma is ignited to the magnetron plasma. Operating the magnetron at constant power, it was observed that its discharge current is raised from 1.8 A to 4.8 A, when the ECR discharge was superimposed with a microwave power of 2 kW. At the same time, the discharge voltage decreased from about 560 V to 210 V, clearly indicating a higher plasma density of the MECRIS mode. The optical emission spectrum of the MECRIS plasma is dominated by lines of excited Al atoms and shows a significant contribution of lines arising from singly ionized Al. Plasma emission photography with a CCD camera was used to prove probe measurements and to identify separated plasma emission zones originating from the ECR and magnetron discharge.

  2. Progress of a room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source using evaporative cooling technology at Institute of Modern Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, W.; Xiong, B.; Guo, S. Q.; Cao, R.; Ruan, L.; Zhang, X. Z.; Sun, L. T.; Feng, Y. C.; Ma, B. H.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-02-15

    A new room temperature ECR ion source, Lanzhou Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source No. 4 (LECR4, previously named DRAGON), is under intense construction at Institute of Modern Physics. LECR4 is designed to operate with 18 GHz microwave frequency. The maximum axial magnetic fields are 2.3 T at injection and 1.3 T at extraction, and the radial field at the plasma chamber wall of 76 mm inner diameter is 1.0–1.2 T. One of the unique features for LECR4 is that its axial solenoids are winded with solid square copper wires which are immersed in a kind of special evaporative cooling medium for cooling purpose. Till now, a prototype of the cooling system has been successfully constructed and tested, which has demonstrated that the cooling efficiency of the designed system could meet the requirements of LECR4 under the routine operation conditions. All the main components of the ion source have been completed. Assembly and commissioning is ongoing. The latest developments and test results will be presented in this paper.

  3. Progress of a room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source using evaporative cooling technology at Institute of Modern Physics.

    PubMed

    Lu, W; Xiong, B; Zhang, X Z; Sun, L T; Feng, Y C; Ma, B H; Guo, S Q; Cao, R; Ruan, L; Zhao, H W

    2014-02-01

    A new room temperature ECR ion source, Lanzhou Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source No. 4 (LECR4, previously named DRAGON), is under intense construction at Institute of Modern Physics. LECR4 is designed to operate with 18 GHz microwave frequency. The maximum axial magnetic fields are 2.3 T at injection and 1.3 T at extraction, and the radial field at the plasma chamber wall of 76 mm inner diameter is 1.0-1.2 T. One of the unique features for LECR4 is that its axial solenoids are winded with solid square copper wires which are immersed in a kind of special evaporative cooling medium for cooling purpose. Till now, a prototype of the cooling system has been successfully constructed and tested, which has demonstrated that the cooling efficiency of the designed system could meet the requirements of LECR4 under the routine operation conditions. All the main components of the ion source have been completed. Assembly and commissioning is ongoing. The latest developments and test results will be presented in this paper.

  4. Microwave emission related to cyclotron instabilities in a minimum-B electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izotov, I.; Tarvainen, O.; Mansfeld, D.; Skalyga, V.; Koivisto, H.; Kalvas, T.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Laulainen, J.

    2015-08-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) have been essential in the research and applications of nuclear physics over the past 40 years. They are extensively used in a wide range of large-scale accelerator facilities for the production of highly charged heavy ion beams of stable and radioactive elements. ECRISs are susceptible to kinetic instabilities due to resonance heating mechanism leading to anisotropic electron velocity distribution function. Instabilities of cyclotron type are a proven cause of frequently observed periodic bursts of ‘hot’ electrons and bremsstrahlung, accompanied with emission of microwave radiation and followed by considerable drop of multiply charged ions current. Detailed studies of the microwave radiation associated with the instabilities have been performed with a minimum-B 14 GHz ECRIS operating on helium, oxygen and argon plasmas. It is demonstrated that during the development of cyclotron instability ‘hot’ electrons emit microwaves in sub-microsecond scale bursts at temporally descending frequencies in the 8-15 GHz range with two dominant frequencies of 11.09 and 12.59 GHz regardless of ECRIS settings i.e. magnetic field strength, neutral gas pressure or species and microwave power. The experimental data suggest that the most probable excited plasma wave is a slow extraordinary Z-mode propagating quasi-longitudinally with respect to the external magnetic field.

  5. Development of portable mass spectrometer with electron cyclotron resonance ion source for detection of chemical warfare agents in air.

    PubMed

    Urabe, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Kazuya; Kitagawa, Michiko; Sato, Takafumi; Kondo, Tomohide; Enomoto, Shuichi; Kidera, Masanori; Seto, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    A portable mass spectrometer with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (miniECRIS-MS) was developed. It was used for in situ monitoring of trace amounts of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in atmospheric air. Instrumental construction and parameters were optimized to realize a fast response, high sensitivity, and a small body size. Three types of CWAs, i.e., phosgene, mustard gas, and hydrogen cyanide were examined to check if the mass spectrometer was able to detect characteristic elements and atomic groups. From the results, it was found that CWAs were effectively ionized in the miniECRIS-MS, and their specific signals could be discerned over the background signals of air. In phosgene, the signals of the 35Cl+ and 37Cl+ ions were clearly observed with high dose-response relationships in the parts-per-billion level, which could lead to the quantitative on-site analysis of CWAs. A parts-per-million level of mustard gas, which was far lower than its lethal dosage (LCt50), was successfully detected with a high signal-stability of the plasma ion source. It was also found that the chemical forms of CWAs ionized in the plasma, i.e., monoatomic ions, fragment ions, and molecular ions, could be detected, thereby enabling the effective identification of the target CWAs. Despite the disadvantages associated with miniaturization, the overall performance (sensitivity and response time) of the miniECRIS-MS in detecting CWAs exceeded those of sector-type ECRIS-MS, showing its potential for on-site detection in the future.

  6. High intensity beams from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources: A study of efficient extraction and transport system (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Celona, L.; Andò, L.; Passarello, S.; Zhang, X. Zh.; Spädtke, P.; Winkler, M.

    2004-05-01

    A study of the design of extraction and transport system for high intensity beams that will be produced by the next generation electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) was carried out in the frame of a European collaboration devoted to the definition of the main parameters of third generation ECRIS. High intensity production tests carried out in the previous years at INFN-LNS have shown evidence for the need to review the main concepts of the beam analysis and transport when high currents of low energy highly charged ions are extracted from the source. The transport of such low energy beams becomes critical as soon as the total current exceeds a few mA. The study reported here is based on the calculated parameters for the GyroSERSE source and the computer simulations have been carried out to obtain low emittance beams. The design of the extraction system was carried out by means of the KOBRA (three dimensional) code. The study of the beam line has been carried out with the codes GIOS, GICO, and TRANSPORT by taking into account both the phase space growth due to space charge and to the aberrations inside the magnets. The description of some different beam line options will be also given.

  7. Improved ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-05-04

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species,

  8. Effect of source tuning parameters on the plasma potential of heavy ions in the 18 GHz high temperature superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, G.; Mathur, Y.; Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A.; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.; Baskaran, R.; Kukrety, S.

    2012-03-15

    Plasma potentials for various heavy ions have been measured using the retarding field technique in the 18 GHz high temperature superconducting ECR ion source, PKDELIS [C. Bieth, S. Kantas, P. Sortais, D. Kanjilal, G. Rodrigues, S. Milward, S. Harrison, and R. McMahon, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 235, 498 (2005); D. Kanjilal, G. Rodrigues, P. Kumar, A. Mandal, A. Roy, C. Bieth, S. Kantas, and P. Sortais, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 03A317 (2006)]. The ion beam extracted from the source is decelerated close to the location of a mesh which is polarized to the source potential and beams having different plasma potentials are measured on a Faraday cup located downstream of the mesh. The influence of various source parameters, viz., RF power, gas pressure, magnetic field, negative dc bias, and gas mixing on the plasma potential is studied. The study helped to find an upper limit of the energy spread of the heavy ions, which can influence the design of the longitudinal optics of the high current injector being developed at the Inter University Accelerator Centre. It is observed that the plasma potentials are decreasing for increasing charge states and a mass effect is clearly observed for the ions with similar operating gas pressures. In the case of gas mixing, it is observed that the plasma potential minimizes at an optimum value of the gas pressure of the mixing gas and the mean charge state maximizes at this value. Details of the measurements carried out as a function of various source parameters and its impact on the longitudinal optics are presented.

  9. Effect of source tuning parameters on the plasma potential of heavy ions in the 18 GHz high temperature superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, G; Baskaran, R; Kukrety, S; Mathur, Y; Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A; Kanjilal, D; Roy, A

    2012-03-01

    Plasma potentials for various heavy ions have been measured using the retarding field technique in the 18 GHz high temperature superconducting ECR ion source, PKDELIS [C. Bieth, S. Kantas, P. Sortais, D. Kanjilal, G. Rodrigues, S. Milward, S. Harrison, and R. McMahon, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 235, 498 (2005); D. Kanjilal, G. Rodrigues, P. Kumar, A. Mandal, A. Roy, C. Bieth, S. Kantas, and P. Sortais, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 03A317 (2006)]. The ion beam extracted from the source is decelerated close to the location of a mesh which is polarized to the source potential and beams having different plasma potentials are measured on a Faraday cup located downstream of the mesh. The influence of various source parameters, viz., RF power, gas pressure, magnetic field, negative dc bias, and gas mixing on the plasma potential is studied. The study helped to find an upper limit of the energy spread of the heavy ions, which can influence the design of the longitudinal optics of the high current injector being developed at the Inter University Accelerator Centre. It is observed that the plasma potentials are decreasing for increasing charge states and a mass effect is clearly observed for the ions with similar operating gas pressures. In the case of gas mixing, it is observed that the plasma potential minimizes at an optimum value of the gas pressure of the mixing gas and the mean charge state maximizes at this value. Details of the measurements carried out as a function of various source parameters and its impact on the longitudinal optics are presented.

  10. Effect of source tuning parameters on the plasma potential of heavy ions in the 18 GHz high temperature superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, G.; Baskaran, R.; Kukrety, S.; Mathur, Y.; Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A.; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.

    2012-03-01

    Plasma potentials for various heavy ions have been measured using the retarding field technique in the 18 GHz high temperature superconducting ECR ion source, PKDELIS [C. Bieth, S. Kantas, P. Sortais, D. Kanjilal, G. Rodrigues, S. Milward, S. Harrison, and R. McMahon, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 235, 498 (2005), 10.1016/j.nimb.2005.03.232; D. Kanjilal, G. Rodrigues, P. Kumar, A. Mandal, A. Roy, C. Bieth, S. Kantas, and P. Sortais, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 03A317 (2006), 10.1063/1.2164887]. The ion beam extracted from the source is decelerated close to the location of a mesh which is polarized to the source potential and beams having different plasma potentials are measured on a Faraday cup located downstream of the mesh. The influence of various source parameters, viz., RF power, gas pressure, magnetic field, negative dc bias, and gas mixing on the plasma potential is studied. The study helped to find an upper limit of the energy spread of the heavy ions, which can influence the design of the longitudinal optics of the high current injector being developed at the Inter University Accelerator Centre. It is observed that the plasma potentials are decreasing for increasing charge states and a mass effect is clearly observed for the ions with similar operating gas pressures. In the case of gas mixing, it is observed that the plasma potential minimizes at an optimum value of the gas pressure of the mixing gas and the mean charge state maximizes at this value. Details of the measurements carried out as a function of various source parameters and its impact on the longitudinal optics are presented.

  11. Note: {sup 6}Li III light intensity observation for {sup 6}Li{sup 3+} ion beam operation at Hyper-Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, Hideshi; Ohshiro, Yukimitsu; Yamaka, Shoichi; Yamaguchi, Hidetoshi; Shimoura, Susumu; Watanabe, Shin-ichi; Oyaizu, Michihiro; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Kotaka, Yasuteru; Nishimura, Makoto; Kase, Masayuki; Kubono, Shigeru; Hattori, Toshiyuki

    2014-12-15

    The light intensity of {sup 6}Li III line spectrum at λ = 516.7 nm was observed during {sup 6}Li{sup 3+} beam tuning at the Hyper-Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source. Separation of ion species of the same charge to mass ratio with an electromagnetic mass analyzer is known to be an exceptionally complex process. However, {sup 6}Li III line intensity observation conducted in this study gives new insights into its simplification of this process. The light intensity of {sup 6}Li III line spectrum from the ECR plasma was found to have a strong correlation with the extracted {sup 6}Li{sup 3+} beam intensity from the RIKEN Azimuthal Varying Field cyclotron.

  12. Superconducting magnet performance for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jin Yong; Choi, Seyong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Ok, Jung-Woo; Shin, Chang Seouk; Won, Mi-Sook; Kim, Byoung Chul; Ahn, Jung Keun

    2014-02-15

    A superconducting magnet for use in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source was developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The superconducting magnet is comprised of three solenoids and a hexapole magnet. According to the design value, the solenoid magnets can generate a mirror field, resulting in axial magnetic fields of 3.6 T at the injection area and 2.2 T at the extraction region. A radial field strength of 2.1 T can also be achieved by hexapole magnet on the plasma chamber wall. NbTi superconducting wire was used in the winding process following appropriate techniques for magnet structure. The final assembly of the each magnet involved it being vertically inserted into the cryostat to cool down the temperature using liquid helium. The performance of each solenoid and hexapole magnet was separately verified experimentally. The construction of the superconducting coil, the entire magnet assembly for performance testing and experimental results are reported herein.

  13. An All-Solid-State High Repetiton Rate Titanium:Sapphire Laser System For Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattolat, C.; Rothe, S.; Schwellnus, F.; Gottwald, T.; Raeder, S.; Wendt, K.

    2009-03-01

    On-line production facilities for radioactive isotopes nowadays heavily rely on resonance ionization laser ion sources due to their demonstrated unsurpassed efficiency and elemental selectivity. Powerful high repetition rate tunable pulsed dye or Ti:sapphire lasers can be used for this purpose. To counteract limitations of short pulse pump lasers, as needed for dye laser pumping, i.e. copper vapor lasers, which include high maintenance and nevertheless often only imperfect reliability, an all-solid-state Nd:YAG pumped Ti:sapphire laser system has been constructed. This could complement or even replace dye laser systems, eliminating their disadvantages but on the other hand introduce shortcomings on the side of the available wavelength range. Pros and cons of these developments will be discussed.

  14. An All-Solid-State High Repetiton Rate Titanium:Sapphire Laser System For Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mattolat, C.; Rothe, S.; Schwellnus, F.; Gottwald, T.; Raeder, S.; Wendt, K.

    2009-03-17

    On-line production facilities for radioactive isotopes nowadays heavily rely on resonance ionization laser ion sources due to their demonstrated unsurpassed efficiency and elemental selectivity. Powerful high repetition rate tunable pulsed dye or Ti:sapphire lasers can be used for this purpose. To counteract limitations of short pulse pump lasers, as needed for dye laser pumping, i.e. copper vapor lasers, which include high maintenance and nevertheless often only imperfect reliability, an all-solid-state Nd:YAG pumped Ti:sapphire laser system has been constructed. This could complement or even replace dye laser systems, eliminating their disadvantages but on the other hand introduce shortcomings on the side of the available wavelength range. Pros and cons of these developments will be discussed.

  15. A hybrid electron cyclotron resonance metal ion source with integrated sputter magnetron for the production of an intense Al{sup +} ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Weichsel, T. Hartung, U.; Kopte, T.; Zschornack, G.; Kreller, M.; Philipp, A.

    2015-09-15

    A metal ion source prototype has been developed: a combination of magnetron sputter technology with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source technology—a so called magnetron ECR ion source (MECRIS). An integrated ring-shaped sputter magnetron with an Al target is acting as a powerful metal atom supply in order to produce an intense current of singly charged metal ions. Preliminary experiments show that an Al{sup +} ion current with a density of 167 μA/cm{sup 2} is extracted from the source at an acceleration voltage of 27 kV. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy were used to study the plasma states of the ion source: sputter magnetron, ECR, and MECRIS plasma. Electron density and temperature as well as Al atom density were determined as a function of microwave and sputter magnetron power. The effect of ECR heating is strongly pronounced in the center of the source. There the electron density is increased by one order of magnitude from 6 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −3} to 6 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} and the electron temperature is enhanced from about 5 eV to 12 eV, when the ECR plasma is ignited to the magnetron plasma. Operating the magnetron at constant power, it was observed that its discharge current is raised from 1.8 A to 4.8 A, when the ECR discharge was superimposed with a microwave power of 2 kW. At the same time, the discharge voltage decreased from about 560 V to 210 V, clearly indicating a higher plasma density of the MECRIS mode. The optical emission spectrum of the MECRIS plasma is dominated by lines of excited Al atoms and shows a significant contribution of lines arising from singly ionized Al. Plasma emission photography with a CCD camera was used to prove probe measurements and to identify separated plasma emission zones originating from the ECR and magnetron discharge.

  16. A gas-jet transport and catcher technique for on-line production of radioactive ion beams using an electron cyclotron resonance ion-source.

    PubMed

    Naik, V; Chakrabarti, A; Bhattacharjee, M; Karmakar, P; Bandyopadhyay, A; Bhattacharjee, S; Dechoudhury, S; Mondal, M; Pandey, H K; Lavanyakumar, D; Mandi, T K; Dutta, D P; Kundu Roy, T; Bhowmick, D; Sanyal, D; Srivastava, S C L; Ray, A; Ali, Md S

    2013-03-01

    Radioactive ion beams (RIB) have been produced on-line, using a gas-jet recoil transport coupled Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion-source at the VECC-RIB facility. Radioactive atoms∕molecules carried through the gas-jet were stopped in a catcher placed inside the ECR plasma chamber. A skimmer has been used to remove bulk of the carrier gas at the ECR entrance. The diffusion of atoms∕molecules through the catcher has been verified off-line using stable isotopes and on-line through transmission of radioactive reaction products. Beams of (14)O (71 s), (42)K (12.4 h), (43)K (22.2 h), and (41)Ar (1.8 h) have been produced by bombarding nitrogen and argon gas targets with proton and alpha particle beams from the K130 cyclotron at VECC. Typical measured intensity of RIB at the separator focal plane is found to be a few times 10(3) particles per second (pps). About 3.2 × 10(3) pps of 1.4 MeV (14)O RIB has been measured after acceleration through a radiofrequency quadrupole linac. The details of the gas-jet coupled ECR ion-source and RIB production experiments are presented along with the plans for the future.

  17. Studies of extraction and transport system for highly charged ion beam of 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Yorita, T. Hatanaka, K.; Fukuda, M.; Ueda, H.; Yasuda, Y.; Morinobu, S.; Tamii, A.; Kamakura, K.

    2014-02-15

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source is installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by cyclotrons of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The beam production developments of several ions from B to Xe have been already done [T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008) and T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A332 (2010)] and the further studies for those beam extraction and its transport have been done in order to increase the beam current more. The plasma electrode, extraction electrode, and einzel lens are modified. Especially extraction electrode can be applied minus voltage for the beam extraction and it works well to improve the extracted beam current. The extraction voltage dependences of transmission and emittance also have been studied for beam current improvement which is injected into azimuthally varying field cyclotron at RCNP.

  18. Studies of extraction and transport system for highly charged ion beam of 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorita, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Fukuda, M.; Ueda, H.; Yasuda, Y.; Morinobu, S.; Tamii, A.; Kamakura, K.

    2014-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source is installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by cyclotrons of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The beam production developments of several ions from B to Xe have been already done [T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008) and T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A332 (2010)] and the further studies for those beam extraction and its transport have been done in order to increase the beam current more. The plasma electrode, extraction electrode, and einzel lens are modified. Especially extraction electrode can be applied minus voltage for the beam extraction and it works well to improve the extracted beam current. The extraction voltage dependences of transmission and emittance also have been studied for beam current improvement which is injected into azimuthally varying field cyclotron at RCNP.

  19. Studies of extraction and transport system for highly charged ion beam of 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Research Center for Nuclear Physics.

    PubMed

    Yorita, T; Hatanaka, K; Fukuda, M; Ueda, H; Yasuda, Y; Morinobu, S; Tamii, A; Kamakura, K

    2014-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source is installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by cyclotrons of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The beam production developments of several ions from B to Xe have been already done [T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008) and T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A332 (2010)] and the further studies for those beam extraction and its transport have been done in order to increase the beam current more. The plasma electrode, extraction electrode, and einzel lens are modified. Especially extraction electrode can be applied minus voltage for the beam extraction and it works well to improve the extracted beam current. The extraction voltage dependences of transmission and emittance also have been studied for beam current improvement which is injected into azimuthally varying field cyclotron at RCNP.

  20. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma characterization by X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mascali, David Castro, Giuseppe; Celona, Luigi; Neri, Lorenzo; Gammino, Santo; Biri, Sándor; Rácz, Richárd; Pálinkás, József; Romano, Francesco Paolo; Torrisi, Giuseppe

    2016-02-15

    An experimental campaign aiming to investigate electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma X-ray emission has been recently carried out at the ECRISs—Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources laboratory of Atomki based on a collaboration between the Debrecen and Catania ECR teams. In a first series, the X-ray spectroscopy was performed through silicon drift detectors and high purity germanium detectors, characterizing the volumetric plasma emission. The on-purpose developed collimation system was suitable for direct plasma density evaluation, performed “on-line” during beam extraction and charge state distribution characterization. A campaign for correlating the plasma density and temperature with the output charge states and the beam intensity for different pumping wave frequencies, different magnetic field profiles, and single-gas/gas-mixing configurations was carried out. The results reveal a surprisingly very good agreement between warm-electron density fluctuations, output beam currents, and the calculated electromagnetic modal density of the plasma chamber. A charge-coupled device camera coupled to a small pin-hole allowing X-ray imaging was installed and numerous X-ray photos were taken in order to study the peculiarities of the ECRIS plasma structure.

  1. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma characterization by X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascali, David; Castro, Giuseppe; Biri, Sándor; Rácz, Richárd; Pálinkás, József; Caliri, Claudia; Celona, Luigi; Neri, Lorenzo; Romano, Francesco Paolo; Torrisi, Giuseppe; Gammino, Santo

    2016-02-01

    An experimental campaign aiming to investigate electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma X-ray emission has been recently carried out at the ECRISs—Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources laboratory of Atomki based on a collaboration between the Debrecen and Catania ECR teams. In a first series, the X-ray spectroscopy was performed through silicon drift detectors and high purity germanium detectors, characterizing the volumetric plasma emission. The on-purpose developed collimation system was suitable for direct plasma density evaluation, performed "on-line" during beam extraction and charge state distribution characterization. A campaign for correlating the plasma density and temperature with the output charge states and the beam intensity for different pumping wave frequencies, different magnetic field profiles, and single-gas/gas-mixing configurations was carried out. The results reveal a surprisingly very good agreement between warm-electron density fluctuations, output beam currents, and the calculated electromagnetic modal density of the plasma chamber. A charge-coupled device camera coupled to a small pin-hole allowing X-ray imaging was installed and numerous X-ray photos were taken in order to study the peculiarities of the ECRIS plasma structure.

  2. On-Line Desalting of Crude Oil in the Source Region of a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanthamontri, C. Ken; Stopford, Andrew P.; Snowdon, Ryan W.; Oldenburg, Thomas B. P.; Larter, Stephen R.

    2014-08-01

    The presence of dissolved metal ions in waters associated with crude oils has many negative implications for the transport, processing, and refining of petroleum. In addition, mass spectrometric analysis of sodium containing crude oil samples suffers from ionization suppression, unwanted adduct formation, and an increase in the complexity of data analysis. Here, we describe a method for the reduction/elimination of these adverse effects by modification of the source region gas-inlet system of a 12 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Several acids were examined as part of this study, with the most suitable for on-line desalting found to have both high vapor pressure and low pKa; 12.1 M HCl showed the strongest desalting effect for crude oil samples with a sodium removal index (SRI) of 88%-100% ± 7% for the NaOS compound class. In comparison, a SRI of only 38% ± 9% was observed for a H2O/toluene solution-phase extraction of Oil 1. These results clearly demonstrate the increased efficacy of pseudo-vapor phase desalting with the additional advantages that initial sample solution conditions are preserved and no sample preparation is required prior to analysis.

  3. Oil spill source identification by principal component analysis of electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Corilo, Yuri E; Podgorski, David C; McKenna, Amy M; Lemkau, Karin L; Reddy, Christopher M; Marshall, Alan G; Rodgers, Ryan P

    2013-10-01

    One fundamental challenge with either acute or chronic oil spills is to identify the source, especially in highly polluted areas, near natural oil seeps, when the source contains more than one petroleum product or when extensive weathering has occurred. Here we focus on heavy fuel oil that spilled (~200,000 L) from two suspected fuel tanks that were ruptured on the motor vessel (M/V) Cosco Busan when it struck the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge in November 2007. We highlight the utility of principal component analysis (PCA) of elemental composition data obtained by high resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometry to correctly identify the source of environmental contamination caused by the unintended release of heavy fuel oil (HFO). Using ultrahigh resolution electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, we uniquely assigned thousands of elemental compositions of heteroatom-containing species in neat samples from both tanks and then applied principal component analysis. The components were based on double bond equivalents for constituents of elemental composition, CcHhN1S1. To determine if the fidelity of our source identification was affected by weathering, field samples were collected at various intervals up to two years after the spill. We are able to identify a suite of polar petroleum markers that are environmentally persistent, enabling us to confidently identify that only one tank was the source of the spilled oil: in fact, a single principal component could account for 98% of the variance. Although identification is unaffected by the presence of higher polarity, petrogenic oxidation (weathering) products, future studies may require removal of such species by anion exchange chromatography prior to mass spectral analysis due to their preferential ionization by ESI.

  4. Upgrade of the resonance ionization laser ion source at ISOLDE on-line isotope separation facility: New lasers and new ion beamsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosseev, V. N.; Berg, L.-E.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fink, D.; Launila, O. J.; Losito, R.; Marsh, B. A.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Sjödin, A. M.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    2012-02-01

    The resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) produces beams for the majority of experiments at the ISOLDE on-line isotope separator. A substantial improvement in RILIS performance has been achieved through a series of upgrade steps: replacement of the copper vapor lasers by a Nd:YAG laser; replacement of the old homemade dye lasers by new commercial dye lasers; installation of a complementary Ti:Sapphire laser system. The combined dye and Ti:Sapphire laser system with harmonics is capable of generating beams at any wavelength in the range of 210-950 nm. In total, isotopes of 31 different elements have been selectively laser-ionized and separated at ISOLDE, including recently developed beams of samarium, praseodymium, polonium, and astatine.

  5. Ionization efficiency studies with charge breeder and conventional electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Koivisto, H. Tarvainen, O.; Toivanen, V.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Lamy, T.; Angot, J.; Delahaye, P.; Maunoury, L.; Patti, G.; Standylo, L.; Steczkiewicz, O.; Choinski, J.

    2014-02-15

    Radioactive Ion Beams play an increasingly important role in several European research facility programs such as SPES, SPIRAL1 Upgrade, and SPIRAL2, but even more for those such as EURISOL. Although remarkable advances of ECRIS charge breeders (CBs) have been achieved, further studies are needed to gain insight on the physics of the charge breeding process. The fundamental plasma processes of charge breeders are studied in the frame of the European collaboration project, EMILIE, for optimizing the charge breeding. Important information on the charge breeding can be obtained by conducting similar experiments using the gas mixing and 2-frequency heating techniques with a conventional JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS and the LPSC-PHOENIX charge breeder. The first experiments were carried out with noble gases and they revealed, for example, that the effects of the gas mixing and 2-frequency heating on the production of high charge states appear to be additive for the conventional ECRIS. The results also indicate that at least in the case of noble gases the differences between the conventional ECRIS and the charge breeder cause only minor impact on the production efficiency of ion beams.

  6. ARTEMIS-B: A room-temperature test electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University

    SciTech Connect

    Machicoane, G.; Cole, D.; Ottarson, J.; Stetson, J.; Zavodszky, P.

    2006-03-15

    The current scheme for ion-beam injection into the coupled cyclotron accelerator at the NSCL involves the use of two electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. The first one is a 6.4 GHz fully superconducting that will be replaced within two years by SUSI, a third generation 18 GHz superconducting ECR ion source. The other source, ARTEMIS, is a room-temperature source based on the AECR-U design and built in collaboration with the University of Jyvaeskylae in 1999. Due to cyclotron operation constraint, very little time can be allowed to ion source development and optics studies of the cyclotron injection beam line. In this context, NSCL has decided to build ARTEMIS-B an exact replica of its room-temperature ECR ion source. The goal of this project is threefold. One is to improve the overall reliability of cyclotron operation through tests and studies of various ion source parameters that could benefit beam stability, tuning reproducibility, and of course overall extracted currents performance. Second is to implement and test modifications or upgrade made to the ion source: extraction geometry, new resistive or rf oven design, dual frequency use, liner, etc. Finally, this test source will be used to study various ion optics schemes such as electrostatic quadrupole doublet or triplet at the source extraction or the use of a correction sextupole and assess their effect on the ion beam through the use of an emittance scanner and imaging viewer that will be incorporated into ARTEMIS-B beam line. This article reviews the design and construction of ARTEMIS-B along with some initial commissioning results.

  7. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, G. Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.; Becker, R.; Baskaran, R.

    2014-02-15

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged {sup 238}U{sup 40+} (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  8. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, G.; Becker, R.; Hamm, R. W.; Baskaran, R.; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.

    2014-02-01

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged 238U40+ (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  9. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, G; Becker, R; Hamm, R W; Baskaran, R; Kanjilal, D; Roy, A

    2014-02-01

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged (238)U(40+) (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  10. A mode converter to generate a Gaussian-like mode for injection into the VENUS electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C. Benitez, J.; Hodgkinson, A.; Strohmeier, M.; Todd, D.; Plaum, B.; Thuillier, T.

    2014-02-15

    A number of superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources use gyrotrons at either 24 or 28 GHz for ECR heating. In these systems, the microwave power is launched into the plasma using the TE{sub 01} circular waveguide mode. This is fundamentally different and may be less efficient than the typical rectangular, linearly polarized TE{sub 10} mode used for launching waves at lower frequencies. To improve the 28 GHz microwave coupling in VENUS, a TE{sub 01}-HE{sub 11} mode conversion system has been built to test launching HE{sub 11} microwave power into the plasma chamber. The HE{sub 11} mode is a quasi-Gaussian, linearly polarized mode, which should couple strongly to the plasma electrons. The mode conversion is done in two steps. First, a 0.66 m long “snake” converts the TE{sub 01} mode to the TE{sub 11} mode. Second, a corrugated circular waveguide excites the HE{sub 11} mode, which is launched directly into the plasma chamber. The design concept draws on the development of similar devices used in tokamaks and stellerators. The first tests of the new coupling system are described below.

  11. Reversal ion source - A new source of negative ion beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orient, O. J.; Chutjian, A.; Alajajian, S. H.

    1985-01-01

    A new type of ion source utilizing beams of electrons and target molecules, rather than a diffuse, volume plasma, is described. The source utilizes an electrostatic electron 'mirror' which reverses trajectories in an electron beam, producing electrons at their turning point having a distribution of velocities centered at zero velocity. A gas which attaches zero-velocity electrons is introduced at this turning point. Negative ions are produced by an attachment or dissociative attachment process. For many of the thermal electron-attaching molecules the cross sections can be quite large, varying as the inverse square root of the electron energy or just the s-wave threshold law. The efficiency and current density of the ion source for production of Cl(-) through the large, thermal energy attachment process is estimated. It is argued that the source can be used for the production of negative ions through attachment resonances located at higher energies as well.

  12. Results with the electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder for the 252Cf fission source project (Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade) at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System.

    PubMed

    Vondrasek, R; Kondrashev, S; Pardo, R; Scott, R; Zinkann, G P

    2010-02-01

    The construction of the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade, a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is nearing completion. The facility will use fission fragments from a 1 Ci (252)Cf source; thermalized and collected into a low-energy particle beam by a helium gas catcher. In order to reaccelerate these beams, an existing ATLAS electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source was redesigned to function as an ECR charge breeder. Thus far, the charge breeder has been tested with stable beams of rubidium and cesium achieving charge breeding efficiencies of 9.7% into (85)Rb(17+) and 2.9% into (133)Cs(20+).

  13. Industrial ion source technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    A 30 cm electron bombardment ion source was designed and fabricated for micromachining and sputtering applications. This source has a multipole magnetic field that employs permanent magnets between permeable pole pieces. An average ion current density of 1 ma/sq cm with 500 eV argon ions was selected as a design operating condition. The ion beam at this operating condition was uniform and well collimated, with an average variation of plus or minus 5 percent over the center 20 cm of the beam at distances up to 30 cm from the ion source. A variety of sputtering applications were undertaken with a small 10 cm ion source to better understand the ion source requirements in these applications. The results of these experimental studies are also included.

  14. Profiles of ion beams and plasma parameters on a multi-frequencies microwaves large bore electron cyclotron resonance ion source with permanent magnets.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yushi; Sakamoto, Naoki; Kiriyama, Ryutaro; Takenaka, Tomoya; Kurisu, Yosuke; Nozaki, Dai; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2012-02-01

    In order to contribute to various applications of plasma and beams based on an electron cyclotron resonance, a new concept on magnetic field with all magnets on plasma production and confinement has been proposed with enhanced efficiency for broad and dense ion beam. The magnetic field configuration consists of a pair of comb-shaped magnet surrounding plasma chamber cylindrically. Resonance zones corresponding for 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz frequencies are positioned at spatially different positions. We launch simultaneously multiplex frequencies microwaves operated individually, try to control profiles of the plasma parameters and the extracted ion beams, and to measure them in detail.

  15. Profiles of ion beams and plasma parameters on a multi-frequencies microwaves large bore electron cyclotron resonance ion source with permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Yushi; Sakamoto, Naoki; Kiriyama, Ryutaro; Takenaka, Tomoya; Kurisu, Yosuke; Nozaki, Dai; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2012-02-15

    In order to contribute to various applications of plasma and beams based on an electron cyclotron resonance, a new concept on magnetic field with all magnets on plasma production and confinement has been proposed with enhanced efficiency for broad and dense ion beam. The magnetic field configuration consists of a pair of comb-shaped magnet surrounding plasma chamber cylindrically. Resonance zones corresponding for 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz frequencies are positioned at spatially different positions. We launch simultaneously multiplex frequencies microwaves operated individually, try to control profiles of the plasma parameters and the extracted ion beams, and to measure them in detail.

  16. A simple electron cyclotron resonance ion sourcea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welton, R. F.; Moran, T. F.; Feeney, R. K.; Thomas, E. W.

    1996-04-01

    A simple, all permanent magnet, 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been developed for the production of stable beams of low charge state ions from gaseous feed materials. The source can produce ˜1 mA of low energy (3 kV) singly charged ion current in the 10-4 Torr pressure range. The source can also be operated in a more efficient low-pressure mode at an order of magnitude lower pressure. In this latter range, for example, the ionization efficiency of Ar is estimated to be 1% with charge states up to Ar8+ present. Operation in the low-pressure mode requires low power input (˜20 W). These features make the source especially suited for use with small accelerator systems for a number of applications including ion implantation, mass spectrometry, and atomic collision experiments where multiply charged ions are desirable. Design details and performance characteristics of the source are presented.

  17. Cold Strontium Ion Source for Ion Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Jarom; Durfee, Dallin

    2015-05-01

    We are working on a cold source of Sr Ions to be used in an ion interferometer. The beam will be generated from a magneto-optical trap (MOT) of Sr atoms by optically ionizing atoms leaking out a carefully prepared hole in the MOT. A single laser cooling on the resonant transition (461 nm) in Sr should be sufficient for trapping, as we've calculated that losses to the atom beam will outweigh losses to dark states. Another laser (405 nm), together with light from the trapping laser, will drive a two photon transition in the atom beam to an autoionizing state. Supported by NSF Award No. 1205736.

  18. Generation of multi-charged high current ion beams using the SMIS 37 gas-dynamic electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Dorf, M. A.; Zorin, V. G.; Sidorov, A. V.; Bokhanov, A. F.; Izotov, I. V.; Razin, S. V.; Skalyga, V. A.

    2013-06-02

    A gas-dynamic ECR ion source (GaDIS) is distinguished by its ability to produce high current and high brightness beams of moderately charged ions. Contrary to a classical ECR ion source where the plasma confinement is determined by the slow electron scattering into an empty loss-cone, the higher density and lower electron temperature in a GaDIS plasma lead to an isotropic electron distribution with the confinement time determined by the prompt gas-dynamic flow losses. As a result, much higher ion fluxes are available, however a decrease in the confinement time of the GaDIS plasma lowers the ion charge state. The gas-dynamic ECR ion source concept has been successfully realized in the SMIS 37 experimental facility operated at the Institute of Applied Physics, Russia. The use of high-power (~100 kW) microwave (37.5 GHz) radiation provides a dense plasma (~1013 cm-3) with a relatively low electron temperature (~50- 100 eV) and allows for the generation of high current (~1 A/cm2) beams of multi-charged ions. In this work we report on the present status of the SMIS 37 ion source and discuss the advanced numerical modeling of ion beam extraction using the particle-in-cell code WARP

  19. Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) With Improved Selectivity Achieved By Ion Pulse Compression Using In-Source Time-of-flight Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Mishin, V. I.; Malinovsky, A. L.; Mishin, D. V.

    2009-03-17

    This paper describes for the first time the improved selectivity of the RILIS made possible by the time-of-flight (TOF) ion bunch compression. Brief description of the compression principles and some preliminary experimental results are presented. In the off-line experiments short ion peaks of natural Li, Na, K, Tm and Yb are observed as ions leave the RILIS-TOF structure. For Tm the ion peaks of 5 {mu}s half-height duration are detected and 1 {mu}s peaks for Sn are predicted. In view of the repetition rate of the ISOLDE-RILIS lasers it is hoped that the selectivity of Sn isotopes production may be improved as much as 100 employing the RILIS with the TOF ion bunch compression and a gating technique.

  20. PULSED ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.E.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1958-06-17

    An ion source is described for producing very short high density pulses of ions without bcam scattering. The ions are created by an oscillating electron discharge within a magnetic field. After the ions are drawn from the ionization chamber by an accelerating electrode the ion beam is under the influence of the magnetic field for separation of the ions according to mass and, at the same time, passes between two neutralizing plntes maintained nt equal negative potentials. As the plates are formed of a material having a high ratio of secondary electrons to impinging ions, the ion bombardment of the plntes emits electrons which neutralize the frirge space-charge of the beam and tend to prevent widening of the beam cross section due to the mutual repulsion of the ions.

  1. RF synchronized short pulse laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Fuwa, Yasuhiro Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Tongu, Hiromu; Inoue, Shunsuke; Hashida, Masaki; Sakabe, Shuji; Okamura, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Atsushi

    2016-02-15

    A laser ion source that produces shortly bunched ion beam is proposed. In this ion source, ions are extracted immediately after the generation of laser plasma by an ultra-short pulse laser before its diffusion. The ions can be injected into radio frequency (RF) accelerating bucket of a subsequent accelerator. As a proof-of-principle experiment of the ion source, a RF resonator is prepared and H{sub 2} gas was ionized by a short pulse laser in the RF electric field in the resonator. As a result, bunched ions with 1.2 mA peak current and 5 ns pulse length were observed at the exit of RF resonator by a probe.

  2. Effect of the gas mixing technique on the plasma potential and emittance of the JYFL 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvainen, O.; Suominen, P.; Ropponen, T.; Kalvas, T.; Heikkinen, P.; Koivisto, H.

    2005-09-01

    The effect of the gas mixing technique on the plasma potential, energy spread, and emittance of ion beams extracted from the JYFL 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been studied under various gas mixing conditions. The plasma potential and energy spread of the ion beams were studied with a plasma potential instrument developed at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä (JYFL). With the instrument the effects of the gas mixing on different plasma parameters such as plasma potential and the energy distribution of the ions can be studied. The purpose of this work was to confirm that ion cooling can explain the beneficial effect of the gas mixing on the production of highly charged ion beams. This was done by measuring the ion-beam current as a function of a stopping voltage in conjunction with emittance measurements. It was observed that gas mixing affects the shape of the beam current decay curves measured with low charge-state ion beams indicating that the temperature and/or the spatial distribution of these ions is affected by the mixing gas. The results obtained in the emittance measurements support the conclusion that the ion temperature changes due to the gas mixing. The effect of the energy spread on the emittance of different ion beams was also studied theoretically. It was observed that the emittance depends considerably on the dispersive matrix elements of the beam line transfer matrix. This effect is due to the fact that the dipole magnet is a dispersive ion optical component. The effect of the energy spread on the measured emittance in the bending plane of the magnet can be several tens of percent.

  3. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOEpatents

    Greenly, John B.

    1997-01-01

    An improved pulsed ion beam source having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center.

  4. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOEpatents

    Greenly, John B.

    1996-01-01

    An improved magnetically-confined anode plasma pulsed ion beam source. Beam rotation effects and power efficiency are improved by a magnetic design which places the separatrix between the fast field flux structure and the slow field structure near the anode of the ion beam source, by a gas port design which localizes the gas delivery into the gap between the fast coil and the anode, by a pre-ionizer ringing circuit connected to the fast coil, and by a bias field means which optimally adjusts the plasma formation position in the ion beam source.

  5. A 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source and a dual-lens low energy beam transporta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W. H.; Ma, H. Y.; Yang, Y.; Wu, Q.; Zhang, X. Z.; Wang, H.; Ma, B. H.; Feng, Y. C.; Fang, X.; Guo, J. W.; Cao, Y.; Li, X. X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Li, J. Y.; Sha, S.; Lu, W.; Lin, S. H.; Guo, X. H.; Zhao, H. Y.; Sun, L. T.; Xie, D. Z.; Peng, S. X.; Liu, Z. W.; Zhao, H. W.

    2012-02-01

    The structure and preliminary commissioning results of a new 2.45 GHz ECR proton ion source and a dual-lens low energy beam transport (LEBT) system are presented in this paper. The main magnetic field of the ion source is provided by a set of permanent magnets with two small electro-solenoid magnets at the injection and the extraction to fine tune the magnetic field for better microwave coupling. A 50 keV pulsed proton beam extracted by a three-electrode mechanism passes through the LEBT system of length of 1183 mm. This LEBT consists of a diagnosis chamber, two Glaser lenses, two steering magnets, and a final beam defining cone. A set of inner permanent magnetic rings is embedded in each of the two Glaser lenses to produce a flatter axial-field to reduce the lens aberrations.

  6. A 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source and a dual-lens low energy beam transport

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W. H.; Ma, H. Y.; Wu, Q.; Zhang, X. Z.; Wang, H.; Ma, B. H.; Feng, Y. C.; Fang, X.; Guo, J. W.; Li, X. X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Li, J. Y.; Guo, X. H.; Zhao, H. Y.; Sun, L. T.; Xie, D. Z.; Liu, Z. W.; Zhao, H. W.; Yang, Y.; Cao, Y.; and others

    2012-02-15

    The structure and preliminary commissioning results of a new 2.45 GHz ECR proton ion source and a dual-lens low energy beam transport (LEBT) system are presented in this paper. The main magnetic field of the ion source is provided by a set of permanent magnets with two small electro-solenoid magnets at the injection and the extraction to fine tune the magnetic field for better microwave coupling. A 50 keV pulsed proton beam extracted by a three-electrode mechanism passes through the LEBT system of length of 1183 mm. This LEBT consists of a diagnosis chamber, two Glaser lenses, two steering magnets, and a final beam defining cone. A set of inner permanent magnetic rings is embedded in each of the two Glaser lenses to produce a flatter axial-field to reduce the lens aberrations.

  7. Microwave ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.

    2005-07-26

    A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.

  8. Selective ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-05-14

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P{sup +} from PH{sub 3}. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P{sup +}, As{sup +}, and B{sup +} without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices. 6 figs.

  9. Selective ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1996-01-01

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P.sup.+ from PH.sub.3. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P.sup.+, AS.sup.+, and B.sup.+ without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices.

  10. ECR ion source with electron gun

    DOEpatents

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1993-10-26

    An Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source having an electron gun for introducing electrons into the plasma chamber of the ion source is described. The ion source has a injection enclosure and a plasma chamber tank. The plasma chamber is defined by a plurality of longitudinal magnets. The electron gun injects electrons axially into the plasma chamber such that ionization within the plasma chamber occurs in the presence of the additional electrons produced by the electron gun. The electron gun has a cathode for emitting electrons therefrom which is heated by current supplied from an AC power supply while bias potential is provided by a bias power supply. A concentric inner conductor and outer conductor carry heating current to a carbon chuck and carbon pusher which hold the cathode in place and also heat the cathode. In the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, the electron gun replaces the conventional first stage used in prior electron cyclotron resonance ion generators. 5 figures.

  11. HIGH VOLTAGE ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-04-19

    A device is described for providing a source of molecular ions having a large output current and with an accelerated energy of the order of 600 kv. Ions are produced in an ion source which is provided with a water-cooled source grid of metal to effect maximum recombination of atomic ions to molecular ions. A very high accelerating voltage is applied to withdraw and accelerate the molecular ions from the source, and means are provided for dumping the excess electrons at the lowest possible potentials. An accelerating grid is placed adjacent to the source grid and a slotted, grounded accelerating electrode is placed adjacent to the accelerating grid. A potential of about 35 kv is maintained between the source grid and accelerating grid, and a potential of about 600 kv is maintained between the accelerating grid and accelerating electrode. In order to keep at a minimum the large number of oscillating electrons which are created when such high voltages are employed in the vicinity of a strong magnetic field, a plurality of high voltage cascaded shields are employed with a conventional electron dumping system being employed between each shield so as to dump the electrons at the lowest possible potential rather than at 600 kv.

  12. Results with the electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder for the 252Cf fission source project (Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade) at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondrasek, R.; Kondrashev, S.; Pardo, R.; Scott, R.; Zinkann, G. P.

    2010-02-01

    The construction of the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade, a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is nearing completion. The facility will use fission fragments from a 1 Ci C252f source; thermalized and collected into a low-energy particle beam by a helium gas catcher. In order to reaccelerate these beams, an existing ATLAS electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source was redesigned to function as an ECR charge breeder. Thus far, the charge breeder has been tested with stable beams of rubidium and cesium achieving charge breeding efficiencies of 9.7% into R85b17+ and 2.9% into C133s20+.

  13. Results with the electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder for the {sup 252}Cf fission source project (Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade) at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System

    SciTech Connect

    Vondrasek, R.; Kondrashev, S.; Pardo, R.; Scott, R.; Zinkann, G. P.

    2010-02-15

    The construction of the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade, a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is nearing completion. The facility will use fission fragments from a 1 Ci {sup 252}Cf source; thermalized and collected into a low-energy particle beam by a helium gas catcher. In order to reaccelerate these beams, an existing ATLAS electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source was redesigned to function as an ECR charge breeder. Thus far, the charge breeder has been tested with stable beams of rubidium and cesium achieving charge breeding efficiencies of 9.7% into {sup 85}Rb{sup 17+} and 2.9% into {sup 133}Cs{sup 20+}.

  14. COASTING ARC ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Foster, J.S. Jr.

    1957-09-10

    An improved ion source is described and in particular a source in which the ions are efficiently removed. The plasma is generated in a tubular amode structure by the oscillation of electrons in an axial magnetic field, as in the Phillips Ion Gage. The novel aspect of the source is the expansion of the plasma as it leaves the anode structure, so as to reduce the ion density at the axis of the anode and present a uniform area of plasma to an extraction grid. The structure utilized in the present patent to expand the plasma comprises flange members of high permeability at the exitgrid end of the amode to diverge the magnetic field adjacent the exit.

  15. Design of a compact, permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for proton and H{sub 2}{sup +} beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Jia Xianlu; Zhang Tianjue; Wang Chuan; Zheng Xia; Yin Zhiguo; Zhong Junqing; Wu Longcheng; Qin Jiuchang; Luo Shan

    2010-02-15

    A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source was developed at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) for proton beam production of over 60 mA [B.-Q. Cui, Y.-W. Bao, L.-Q. Li, W.-S. Jiang, and R.-W. Wang, Proceedings of the High Current Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Ion Source for Proton Accelerator, APAC-2001, 2001 (unpublished)]. For various proton beam applications, another 2.45 GHz microwave ion source with a compact structure is designed and will be built at CIAE as well for high current proton beam production. It is also considered to be used for the test of H{sub 2}{sup +} beam, which could be injected into the central region model cyclotron at CIAE, and accelerated to 5 MeV before extraction by stripping. The required ECR magnetic field is supplied by all the permanent magnets rather than electrical solenoids and six poles. The magnetic field distribution provided by this permanent magnets configuration is a large and uniformly volume of ECR zone, with central magnetic field of a magnitude of {approx}875 Gs[T. Taylor and J. S. C. Wills, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 309, 37 (1991)]. The field adjustment at the extraction end can be implemented by moving the position of the magnet blocks. The results of plasma, coupling with 2.45 GHz microwave in the ECR zone inside the ion source are simulated by particle-in-cell code to optimize the density by adjusting the magnetic field distribution. The design configuration of the ion source will be summarized in the paper.

  16. CALUTRON ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Lofgren, E.J.

    1959-02-17

    An improvement is described in ion source mechanisms whereby the source structure is better adapted to withstanid the ravages of heat, erosion, and deterioration concomitant with operation of an ion source of the calutron type. A pair of molybdenum plates define the exit opening of the arc chamber and are in thermal contact with the walls of the chamber. These plates are maintained at a reduced temperature by a pair of copper blocks in thermal conducting contact therewith to form subsequent diverging margins for the exit opening.

  17. Note: Effect of hot liner in producing {sup 40,48}Ca beam from RIKEN 18-GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Ozeki, K. Higurashi, Y.; Kidera, M.; Nakagawa, T.

    2015-01-15

    In order to produce a high-intensity and stable {sup 48}Ca beam from the RIKEN 18-GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, we have begun testing the production of a calcium beam using a micro-oven. To minimize the consumption rate of the material ({sup 48}Ca), we introduced the “hot liner” method and investigated the effect of the liner on the material consumption rate. The micro-oven was first used to produce the {sup 48}Ca beam for experiments in the RIKEN radioisotope beam factory, and a stable beam could be supplied for a long time with low consumption rate.

  18. Measurement of the high energy component of the x-ray spectra in the VENUS electron cyclotron resonance ion source (abstract only)

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, D.; Benitez, J. Y.; Lyneis, C. M.; Todd, D. S.; Ropponen, T.; Ropponen, J.; Koivisto, H.; Gammino, S.

    2008-02-15

    High performance electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, such as VENUS (versatile ECR for nuclear science), produce large amounts of x rays. By studying their energy spectra, conclusions can be drawn about the electron heating process and the electron confinement. In addition, the bremsstrahlung from the plasma chamber is partly absorbed by the cold mass of the superconducting magnet adding an extra heat load to the cryostat. Germanium or NaI detectors are generally used for x-ray measurements. Due to the high x-ray flux from the source, the experimental setup to measure bremsstrahlung spectra from ECR ion sources is somewhat different than for the traditional nuclear physics measurements these detectors are generally used for. In particular, the collimation and background shielding can be problematic. In this paper we will discuss the experimental setup for such a measurement, the energy calibration and background reduction, the shielding of the detector, and collimation of the x-ray flux. We will present x-ray energy spectra and cryostat heating rates in dependence of various ion source parameters such as confinement fields, minimum B-field, rf power, and heating frequency.

  19. Photoelectron emission from metal surfaces induced by radiation emitted by a 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laulainen, Janne; Kalvas, Taneli; Koivisto, Hannu; Komppula, Jani; Kronholm, Risto; Tarvainen, Olli

    2016-02-01

    Photoelectron emission measurements have been performed using a room-temperature 14 GHz ECR ion source. It is shown that the photoelectron emission from Al, Cu, and stainless steel (SAE 304) surfaces, which are common plasma chamber materials, is predominantly caused by radiation emitted from plasma with energies between 8 eV and 1 keV. Characteristic X-ray emission and bremsstrahlung from plasma have a negligible contribution to the photoelectron emission. It is estimated from the measured data that the maximum conceivable photoelectron flux from plasma chamber walls is on the order of 10% of the estimated total electron losses from the plasma.

  20. Photoelectron emission from metal surfaces induced by radiation emitted by a 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Laulainen, Janne Kalvas, Taneli; Koivisto, Hannu; Komppula, Jani; Kronholm, Risto; Tarvainen, Olli

    2016-02-15

    Photoelectron emission measurements have been performed using a room-temperature 14 GHz ECR ion source. It is shown that the photoelectron emission from Al, Cu, and stainless steel (SAE 304) surfaces, which are common plasma chamber materials, is predominantly caused by radiation emitted from plasma with energies between 8 eV and 1 keV. Characteristic X-ray emission and bremsstrahlung from plasma have a negligible contribution to the photoelectron emission. It is estimated from the measured data that the maximum conceivable photoelectron flux from plasma chamber walls is on the order of 10% of the estimated total electron losses from the plasma.

  1. High current ion source

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ian G.; MacGill, Robert A.; Galvin, James E.

    1990-01-01

    An ion source utilizing a cathode and anode for producing an electric arc therebetween. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma leaves the generation region and expands through another regon. The density profile of the plasma may be flattened using a magnetic field formed within a vacuum chamber. Ions are extracted from the plasma to produce a high current broad on beam.

  2. Design aspects of a compact, single-frequency, permanent magnet ECR ion source with a large uniformly distributed resonant plasma volume

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.; Reed, C.A.; Haynes, D.L.

    1997-09-01

    A compact, all-permanent-magnet single-frequency ECR ion source with a large uniformly distributed ECR plasma volume has been designed and is presently under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The central region of the field is designed to achieve a flat-field (constant mod-B) which extends over the length of the central field region along the axis of symmetry and radially outward to form a uniformly distributed ECR plasma volume. The magnetic field design strongly contrasts with those used in conventional ECR ion sources where the central field regions are approximately parabolic and the consequent ECR zones are surfaces. The plasma confinement magnetic field mirror has a mirror ratio B{sub max}/B{sub ECR} of slightly greater than two. The source is designed to operate at a nominal RF frequency of 6 GHz. The central flat magnetic field region can be easily adjusted by mechanical means to tune the source to the resonant conditions within the limits of 5.5 to 6.8 GHz. The RF injection system is broadband to ensure excitation of transverse electric (TE) modes so that the RF power is largely concentrated in the resonant plasma volume which lies along and surrounds the axis of symmetry of the source. Because of the much larger ECR zone, the probability for absorption of microwave power is dramatically increased thereby increasing the probability for acceleration of electrons, the electron temperature of the plasma and, consequently, the hot electron population within the plasma volume of the source. The creation of an ECR volume rather than a surface is commensurate with higher charge states and higher beam intensities within a particular charge state.

  3. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOEpatents

    Greenly, J.B.

    1997-08-12

    An improved pulsed ion beam source is disclosed having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center. 12 figs.

  4. Three-photon resonance ionization of atomic Mn in a hot-cavity laser ion source using Ti:sapphire lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Y.; Gottwald, T.; Mattolat, C.; ...

    2015-05-08

    We have demonstrated three-photon resonance ionization of atomic manganese (Mn) in a hot-cavity ion source using Ti: sapphire lasers. Three-step ionization schemes employing different intermediate levels and Rydberg or autoionizing (AI) states in the final ionization step are established. Strong AI resonances were observed via the 3d54s5s f6S5/2 level at 49 415.35 cm-1, while Rydberg transitions were reached from the 3d54s4d e 6D9/2,7/2,5/2) levels at around 47 210 cm-1. Analyses of the strong Rydberg transitions associated with the 3d54s4d e 6D7/2 lower level indicate that they belong to the dipole-allowed 4d → nf6F°9/2,7/2,5/2 series converging to the 3d54s 7S3 groundmore » state of Mn II. From this series, an ionization potential of 59 959.56 ± 0.01 cm-1 is obtained for Mn. At high ion source temperatures the semi-forbidden 4d → nf8F°9/2,7/2,5/2 series was also observed. The overall ionization efficiency for Mn has been measured to be about 0.9% when using the strong AI transition in the third excitation step and 0.3% when employing an intense Rydberg transition. Experimental data indicate that the ionization efficiency was limited by the interaction of Mn atoms with ion source materials at high temperatures.« less

  5. Three-photon resonance ionization of atomic Mn in a hot-cavity laser ion source using Ti:sapphire lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Gottwald, T.; Mattolat, C.; Wendt, K.

    2015-05-08

    We have demonstrated three-photon resonance ionization of atomic manganese (Mn) in a hot-cavity ion source using Ti: sapphire lasers. Three-step ionization schemes employing different intermediate levels and Rydberg or autoionizing (AI) states in the final ionization step are established. Strong AI resonances were observed via the 3d54s5s f6S5/2 level at 49 415.35 cm-1, while Rydberg transitions were reached from the 3d54s4d e 6D9/2,7/2,5/2) levels at around 47 210 cm-1. Analyses of the strong Rydberg transitions associated with the 3d54s4d e 6D7/2 lower level indicate that they belong to the dipole-allowed 4d → nf69/2,7/2,5/2 series converging to the 3d54s 7S3 ground state of Mn II. From this series, an ionization potential of 59 959.56 ± 0.01 cm-1 is obtained for Mn. At high ion source temperatures the semi-forbidden 4d → nf8F°9/2,7/2,5/2 series was also observed. The overall ionization efficiency for Mn has been measured to be about 0.9% when using the strong AI transition in the third excitation step and 0.3% when employing an intense Rydberg transition. Experimental data indicate that the ionization efficiency was limited by the interaction of Mn atoms with ion source materials at high temperatures.

  6. Surface morphology changes to tungsten under exposure to He ions from an electron cyclotron resonance plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, David; Maan, Anurag; Duran, Jonah; Buchenauer, Dean; Whaley, Josh

    2015-11-01

    Exposure of tungsten to low energy (<100 eV) helium plasmas at temperatures between 900-1900 K in both laboratory experiments and tokamaks has been shown to cause severe nanoscale modification of the near surface resulting the growth of tungsten tendrils. We used a relatively low flux (2.5x1019 ions m-2 s-1) compact ECR plasma source at Sandia-California to investigate the early stages of helium induced tungsten damage. Exposures of polished tungsten discs were performed and characterized using SEM, AFM, and FIB cross section imaging. Bubbles have been seen on the exposed tungsten surface and in sub-surface cross sections growing to up to 150 nm in diameter. Comparisons were made between exposures of warm rolled Plansee tungsten discs and ALMT ITER grade tungsten samples. A similar He plasma exposure stage has now been developed at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville with an improved compact ECR plasma source. Status of the new UTK exposure stage will be discussed as well as planned experiments and new material characterization techniques (EBSD, GIXRD). Work supported by US DOE Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000 and the PSI Science Center.

  7. A new 14 GH{sub z} electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the heavy ion accelerator facility ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlapp, M.; Vondrasek, R.C.; Szczech, J.; Biliquist, P.J.; Pardo, R.C.; Xie, Z.Q.; Harkewicz, R.

    1997-09-01

    A new 14 GHz ECRIS has been designed and built over the last two years. The source design incorporates the latest results from ECR developments to produce intense beams of highly charged ions. An improved magnetic electron confinement is achieved from a large mirror ratio and strong hexapole field. The aluminum plasma chamber and extraction electrode as well as a biased disk on axis at the microwave injection side donate additional electrons to the plasma, making use of the large secondary electron yields from aluminum oxide. The source will be capable of ECR plasma heating using two different frequencies simultaneously to increase the electron energy gain. To be able to deliver usable intensities of the heaviest ion beams the design will also allow axial access for metal evaporation ovens and solid material. The main design goal is to produce several e{mu}A of at least {sup 238}U{sup 34+} in order to accelerate the beam to coulomb-barrier energies without further stripping. First charge state distributions for {sup 16}O and {sup 40}Ar have been measured.

  8. Improved negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, J.E.

    1984-05-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  9. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, James E.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reeccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200.degree. to 500.degree. for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  10. The effect of cavity tuning on oxygen beam currents of an A-ECR type 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvainen, O.; Orpana, J.; Kronholm, R.; Kalvas, T.; Laulainen, J.; Koivisto, H.; Izotov, I.; Skalyga, V.; Toivanen, V.

    2016-09-01

    The efficiency of the microwave-plasma coupling plays a significant role in the production of highly charged ion beams with electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs). The coupling properties are affected by the mechanical design of the ion source plasma chamber and microwave launching system, as well as damping of the microwave electric field by the plasma. Several experiments attempting to optimize the microwave-plasma coupling characteristics by fine-tuning the frequency of the injected microwaves have been conducted with varying degrees of success. The inherent difficulty in interpretation of the frequency tuning results is that the effects of microwave coupling system and the cavity behavior of the plasma chamber cannot be separated. A preferable approach to study the effect of the cavity properties of the plasma chamber on extracted beam currents is to adjust the cavity dimensions. The results of such cavity tuning experiments conducted with the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS are reported here. The cavity properties were adjusted by inserting a conducting tuner rod axially into the plasma chamber. The extracted beam currents of oxygen charge states O3+-O7+ were recorded at various tuner positions and frequencies in the range of 14.00-14.15 GHz. It was observed that the tuner position affects the beam currents of high charge state ions up to several tens of percent. In particular, it was found that at some tuner position / frequency combinations the plasma exhibited "mode-hopping" between two operating regimes. The results improve the understanding of the role of plasma chamber cavity properties on ECRIS performances.

  11. The effect of cavity tuning on oxygen beam currents of an A-ECR type 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Tarvainen, O; Orpana, J; Kronholm, R; Kalvas, T; Laulainen, J; Koivisto, H; Izotov, I; Skalyga, V; Toivanen, V

    2016-09-01

    The efficiency of the microwave-plasma coupling plays a significant role in the production of highly charged ion beams with electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs). The coupling properties are affected by the mechanical design of the ion source plasma chamber and microwave launching system, as well as damping of the microwave electric field by the plasma. Several experiments attempting to optimize the microwave-plasma coupling characteristics by fine-tuning the frequency of the injected microwaves have been conducted with varying degrees of success. The inherent difficulty in interpretation of the frequency tuning results is that the effects of microwave coupling system and the cavity behavior of the plasma chamber cannot be separated. A preferable approach to study the effect of the cavity properties of the plasma chamber on extracted beam currents is to adjust the cavity dimensions. The results of such cavity tuning experiments conducted with the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS are reported here. The cavity properties were adjusted by inserting a conducting tuner rod axially into the plasma chamber. The extracted beam currents of oxygen charge states O(3+)-O(7+) were recorded at various tuner positions and frequencies in the range of 14.00-14.15 GHz. It was observed that the tuner position affects the beam currents of high charge state ions up to several tens of percent. In particular, it was found that at some tuner position / frequency combinations the plasma exhibited "mode-hopping" between two operating regimes. The results improve the understanding of the role of plasma chamber cavity properties on ECRIS performances.

  12. Industrial ion source technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to describe the development of a coned surface texture with ion bombardment and simultaneous deposition of an impurity. A mathematical model of sputter deposition rate from a beveled target was developed in conjuction with the texturing models to provide an important input to that model. The establishment of a general procedure that will allow the treatment of manay different sputtering configurations is outlined. Calculation of cross sections for energetic binary collisions was extened to Ar, Kr.. and Xe with total cross sections for viscosity and diffusion calculated for the interaction energy range from leV to 1000eV. Physical sputtering and reactive ion etching experiments provided experimental data on the operating limits of a broad beam ion source using CF4 as a working gas to produce reactive species in a sputtering beam. Magnetic clustering effects are observed when Al is seeded with Fe and sputtered with Ar(?) ions. Silicon was textured at a micron scale by using a substrate temperature of 600 C.

  13. Charge exchange molecular ion source

    DOEpatents

    Vella, Michael C.

    2003-06-03

    Ions, particularly molecular ions with multiple dopant nucleons per ion, are produced by charge exchange. An ion source contains a minimum of two regions separated by a physical barrier and utilizes charge exchange to enhance production of a desired ion species. The essential elements are a plasma chamber for production of ions of a first species, a physical separator, and a charge transfer chamber where ions of the first species from the plasma chamber undergo charge exchange or transfer with the reactant atom or molecules to produce ions of a second species. Molecular ions may be produced which are useful for ion implantation.

  14. Highly Polarized Ion Sources for Electron Ion Colliders (EIC)

    SciTech Connect

    V.G. Dudnikov, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, Y. Zhang

    2010-03-01

    The operation of the RHIC facility at BNL and the Electron Ion Colliders (EIC) under development at Jefferson Laboratory and BNL need high brightness ion beams with the highest polarization. Charge exchange injection into a storage ring or synchrotron and Siberian snakes have the potential to handle the needed polarized beam currents, but first the ion sources must create beams with the highest possible polarization to maximize collider productivity, which is proportional to a high power of the polarization. We are developing one universal H-/D- ion source design which will synthesize the most advanced developments in the field of polarized ion sources to provide high current, high brightness, ion beams with greater than 90% polarization, good lifetime, high reliability, and good power efficiency. The new source will be an advanced version of an atomic beam polarized ion source (ABPIS) with resonant charge exchange ionization by negative ions. An integrated ABPIS design will be prepared based on new materials and an optimized magnetic focusing system. Polarized atomic and ion beam formation, extraction, and transport for the new source will be computer simulated.

  15. Compact ion accelerator source

    DOEpatents

    Schenkel, Thomas; Persaud, Arun; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali

    2014-04-29

    An ion source includes a conductive substrate, the substrate including a plurality of conductive nanostructures with free-standing tips formed on the substrate. A conductive catalytic coating is formed on the nanostructures and substrate for dissociation of a molecular species into an atomic species, the molecular species being brought in contact with the catalytic coating. A target electrode placed apart from the substrate, the target electrode being biased relative to the substrate with a first bias voltage to ionize the atomic species in proximity to the free-standing tips and attract the ionized atomic species from the substrate in the direction of the target electrode.

  16. Note: Development of ESS Bilbao's proton ion source: Ion Source Hydrogen Positive

    SciTech Connect

    Miracoli, R. Feuchtwanger, J.; Arredondo, I.; Belver, D.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Corres, J.; Djekic, S.; Echevarria, P.; Eguiraun, M.; Garmendia, N.; Muguira, L.

    2014-02-15

    The Ion Source Hydrogen positive is a 2.7 GHz off-resonance microwave discharge ion source. It uses four coils to generate an axial magnetic field in the plasma chamber around 0.1 T that exceeds the ECR resonance field. A new magnetic system was designed as a combination of the four coils and soft iron in order to increase the reliability of the source. The description of the simulations of the magnetic field and the comparison with the magnetic measurements are presented. Moreover, results of the initial commissioning of the source for extraction voltage until 50 kV will be reported.

  17. Note: development of ESS Bilbao's proton ion source: Ion Source Hydrogen positive.

    PubMed

    Miracoli, R; Feuchtwanger, J; Arredondo, I; Belver, D; Gonzalez, P J; Corres, J; Djekic, S; Echevarria, P; Eguiraun, M; Garmendia, N; Muguira, L

    2014-02-01

    The Ion Source Hydrogen positive is a 2.7 GHz off-resonance microwave discharge ion source. It uses four coils to generate an axial magnetic field in the plasma chamber around 0.1 T that exceeds the ECR resonance field. A new magnetic system was designed as a combination of the four coils and soft iron in order to increase the reliability of the source. The description of the simulations of the magnetic field and the comparison with the magnetic measurements are presented. Moreover, results of the initial commissioning of the source for extraction voltage until 50 kV will be reported.

  18. Ion sources for fission fragment accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, U.; Kester, O.; Habs, D.

    1998-03-01

    At the Grenoble and Munich high-flux reactors fission fragment accelerators are under design which will deliver beams of very neutron-rich fission products with a final energy between 3 and 6 MeV/u. In order to obtain an efficient acceleration in a compact accelerator, charge conversion of the 1+ ion beams from the in-pile ion source to a q/A⩾0.16 has to take place. In the chain from production to acceleration, ion sources are the key elements to reach high beam intensities of over 1010s-1. For the in-pile part the target-ion source assembly has not only to be very efficient, but should also be highly selective for the desired elements (which go from nickel to europium) on one hand and robust against the hostile environment (high neutron and gamma flux) on the other hand. Foreseen types are a surface ionization source, which could also be run as laser ion source for resonant photo ionization, and, for rare gases, a plasma ion source coupled via a transfer line to the target. For the charge state breeding several different schemes are considered: the combination of a Penning trap for bunching, cooling, and mass separation and an electron beam ion source (EBIS) as charge breeder, similar to REX-ISOLDE, an EBIS with direct injection of a dc beam of 1+ ions ("accu-EBIS") or an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) with either continuous or bunched extraction. The EBIS may provide higher charge states, whereas the ECRIS is able to work with much higher beam intensities and allows cw-operation. The advantage of each scheme is explained and some design requirements of the different sources are presented.

  19. Ion sources for fission fragment accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, U.; Kester, O.; Habs, D.

    1998-02-01

    At the Grenoble and Munich high-flux reactors fission fragment accelerators are under design which will deliver beams of very neutron-rich fission products with a final energy between 3 and 6 MeV/u. In order to obtain an efficient acceleration in a compact accelerator, charge conversion of the 1+ ion beams from the in-pile ion source to a q/A⩾0.16 has to take place. In the chain from production to acceleration, ion sources are the key elements to reach high beam intensities of over 1010s-1. For the in-pile part the target-ion source assembly has not only to be very efficient, but should also be highly selective for the desired elements (which go from nickel to europium) on one hand and robust against the hostile environment (high neutron and gamma flux) on the other hand. Foreseen types are a surface ionization source, which could also be run as laser ion source for resonant photo ionization, and, for rare gases, a plasma ion source coupled via a transfer line to the target. For the charge state breeding several different schemes are considered: the combination of a Penning trap for bunching, cooling, and mass separation and an electron beam ion source (EBIS) as charge breeder, similar to REX-ISOLDE, an EBIS with direct injection of a dc beam of 1+ ions ("accu-EBIS") or an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) with either continuous or bunched extraction. The EBIS may provide higher charge states, whereas the ECRIS is able to work with much higher beam intensities and allows cw-operation. The advantage of each scheme is explained and some design requirements of the different sources are presented.

  20. Ion sources for ion implantation technology (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Shigeki; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka; Umisedo, Sei; Miyamoto, Naoki

    2014-02-01

    Ion sources for ion implantation are introduced. The technique is applied not only to large scale integration (LSI) devices but also to flat panel display. For LSI fabrication, ion source scheduled maintenance cycle is most important. For CMOS image sensor devices, metal contamination at implanted wafer is most important. On the other hand, to fabricate miniaturized devices, cluster ion implantation has been proposed to make shallow PN junction. While for power devices such as silicon carbide, aluminum ion is required. For doping processes of LCD fabrication, a large ion source is required. The extraction area is about 150 cm × 10 cm, and the beam uniformity is important as well as the total target beam current.

  1. Ion sources for ion implantation technology (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Shigeki Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka; Umisedo, Sei; Miyamoto, Naoki

    2014-02-15

    Ion sources for ion implantation are introduced. The technique is applied not only to large scale integration (LSI) devices but also to flat panel display. For LSI fabrication, ion source scheduled maintenance cycle is most important. For CMOS image sensor devices, metal contamination at implanted wafer is most important. On the other hand, to fabricate miniaturized devices, cluster ion implantation has been proposed to make shallow PN junction. While for power devices such as silicon carbide, aluminum ion is required. For doping processes of LCD fabrication, a large ion source is required. The extraction area is about 150 cm × 10 cm, and the beam uniformity is important as well as the total target beam current.

  2. ECR ion source with electron gun

    DOEpatents

    Xie, Zu Q.; Lyneis, Claude M.

    1993-01-01

    An Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (10) having an electron gun (52) for introducing electrons into the plasma chamber (18) of the ion source (10). The ion source (10) has a injection enclosure (12) and a plasma chamber tank (14). The plasma chamber (18) is defined by a plurality of longitudinal magnets (16). The electron gun (52) injects electrons axially into the plasma chamber (18) such that ionization within the plasma chamber (18) occurs in the presence of the additional electrons produced by the electron gun (52). The electron gun (52) has a cathode (116) for emitting electrons therefrom which is heated by current supplied from an AC power supply (96) while bias potential is provided by a bias power supply (118). A concentric inner conductor (60) and Outer conductor (62) carry heating current to a carbon chuck (104) and carbon pusher (114) Which hold the cathode (116) in place and also heat the cathode (16). In the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (10), the electron gun (52) replaces the conventional first stage used in prior art electron cyclotron resonance ion generators.

  3. Ion implantation technology and ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugitani, Michiro

    2014-02-01

    Ion implantation (I/I) technology has been developed with a great economic success of industries of VLSI (Very Large-Scale Integrated circuit) devices. Due to its large flexibility and good controllability, the I/I technology has been assuming various challenging requirements of VLSI evolutions, especially in advanced evolutional characteristics of CMOSFET. Here, reviewing the demands of VLSI manufacturing to the I/I technology, required characteristics of ion implanters, and their ion sources are discussed.

  4. Resonance methods in quadrupole ion traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Dalton T.; Peng, Wen-Ping; Cooks, R. Graham

    2017-01-01

    The quadrupole ion trap is widely used in the chemical physics community for making measurements on dynamical systems, both intramolecular (e.g. ion fragmentation reactions) and intermolecular (e.g. ion/molecule reactions). In this review, we discuss linear and nonlinear resonances in quadrupole ion traps, an understanding of which is critical for operation of these devices and interpretation of the data which they provide. The effect of quadrupole field nonlinearity is addressed, with important implications for promoting fragmentation and achieving unique methods of mass scanning. Methods that depend on ion resonances (i.e. matching an external perturbation with an ion's induced frequency of motion) are discussed, including ion isolation, ion activation, and ion ejection.

  5. ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Billquist, P.J.; Harkewicz, R.; Pardo, R.C.

    1995-08-01

    The feasibility of using a 30-watt pulsed NdYAG laser to ablate or evaporate material directly into the ECR had some initial exploratory runs and produced two distinctly interesting results. This technique holds the possibility of using small quantities of material, with a high efficiency, and being applicable to all solids. The laser illuminates a sample through one of the radial ports in the ECR main plasma chamber. The off-line tests indicated that our surplus (free) laser is capable of ablating significant quantities of interesting materials. The first tests of the laser ablation idea were carried out using a bismuth sample. The inherent pulsed nature of the technique allowed us to immediately study the time evolution of charge states in the ECR plasma. The results are directly comparable to model calculations and are completely consistent with the sequential stepwise stripping process which was assumed to dominate the high charge state production process. A paper describing our results will be presented at the 1995 International Ion Source Conference.

  6. Temperature peaking at beginning of breakdown in 2.45 GHz pulsed off-resonance electron cyclotron resonance ion source hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Cortazar, O. D.

    2012-10-15

    An experimental study of temperature and density evolution during breakdown in off-resonance ECR hydrogen plasma is presented. Under square 2.45 GHz microwave excitation pulses with a frequency of 50 Hz and relative high microwave power, unexpected transient temperature peaks that reach 18 eV during 20 {mu}s are reported at very beginning of plasma breakdown. Decays of such peaks reach final stable temperatures of 5 eV at flat top microwave excitation pulse. Evidence of interplay between incoming power and duty cycle giving different kind of plasma parameters evolutions engaged to microwave coupling times is observed. Under relative high power conditions where short microwave coupling times are recorded, high temperature peaks are measured. However, for lower incoming powers and longer coupling times, temperature evolves gradually to a higher final temperature without peaking. On the other hand, the early instant where temperature peaks are observed also suggest a possible connection with preglow processes during breakdown in ECRIS plasmas.

  7. Resonance microwave volume plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhetskaya, N. K.; Kop'ev, V. A.; Kossyi, I. A.; Malykh, N. I.; Misakyan, M. A.; Taktakishvili, M. I.; Temchin, S. M.; Lee, Young Dong

    2007-07-15

    A conceptual design of a microwave gas-discharge plasma source is described. The possibility is considered of creating conditions under which microwave energy in the plasma resonance region would be efficiently converted into the energy of thermal and accelerated (fast) electrons. Results are presented from interferometric and probe measurements of the plasma density in a coaxial microwave plasmatron, as well as the data from probe measurements of the plasma potential and electron temperature. The dynamics of plasma radiation was recorded using a streak camera and a collimated photomultiplier. The experimental results indicate that, at relatively low pressures of the working gas, the nonlinear interaction between the microwave field and the inhomogeneous plasma in the resonance region of the plasmatron substantially affects the parameters of the ionized gas in the reactor volume.

  8. Resonant structures in heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, S.J.; Henning, W.; Ernst, H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Jachcinski, C.; Kovar, D.G.; Paul, M.; Schiffer, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of heavy-ion resonance structures using the /sup 24/Mg(/sup 16/O, /sup 12/C)/sup 28/Si reaction is presented. The data are analyzed in the context of Breit-Wigner resonances added to a direct-reaction background.

  9. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.; Hiskes, J.R.

    1983-11-10

    It is an object of this invention provide a negative ion source which efficiently provides a large flux of negatively ionized particles. This invention provides a volume source of negative ions which has a current density sufficient for magnetic fusion applications and has electrons suppressed from the output. It is still another object of this invention to provide a volume source of negative ions which can be electrostatically accelerated to high energies and subsequently neutralized to form a high energy neutral beam for use with a magnetically confined plasma.

  10. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1984-01-01

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  11. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-08-06

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  12. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1984-12-04

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field. 14 figs.

  13. Advanced penning ion source

    DOEpatents

    Schenkel, Thomas; Ji, Qing; Persaud, Arun; Sy, Amy V.

    2016-11-01

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus for ion generation. In one aspect, an apparatus includes an anode, a first cathode, a second cathode, and a plurality of cusp magnets. The anode has a first open end and a second open end. The first cathode is associated with the first open end of the anode. The second cathode is associated with the second open end of the anode. The anode, the first cathode, and the second cathode define a chamber. The second cathode has an open region configured for the passage of ions from the chamber. Each cusp magnet of the plurality of cusp magnets is disposed along a length of the anode.

  14. Investigation of an ion-ion hybrid Alfven wave resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Vincena, S. T.; Farmer, W. A.; Maggs, J. E.; Morales, G. J.

    2013-01-15

    A theoretical and experimental investigation is made of a wave resonator based on the concept of wave reflection along the confinement magnetic field at a spatial location where the wave frequency matches the local value of the ion-ion hybrid frequency. Such a situation can be realized by shear Alfven waves in a magnetized plasma with two ion species because this mode has zero parallel group velocity and experiences a cut-off at the ion-ion hybrid frequency. Since the ion-ion hybrid frequency is proportional to the magnetic field, it is expected that a magnetic well configuration in a two-ion plasma can result in an Alfven wave resonator. Such a concept has been proposed in various space plasma studies and could have relevance to mirror and tokamak fusion devices. This study demonstrates such a resonator in a controlled laboratory experiment using a H{sup +}-He{sup +} mixture. The resonator response is investigated by launching monochromatic waves and impulses from a magnetic loop antenna. The observed frequency spectra are found to agree with predictions of a theoretical model of trapped eigenmodes.

  15. ION SOURCE UNIT FOR CALUTRON

    DOEpatents

    Sloan, D.H.; Yockey, H.P.; Schmidt, F.H.

    1959-04-14

    An improvement in the mounting arrangement for an ion source within the vacuum tank of a calutron device is reported. The cathode and arc block of the source are independently supported from a stem passing through the tank wall. The arc block may be pivoted and moved longitudinally with respect to the stem to thereby align the arc chamber in the biock with the cathode and magnetic field in the tank. With this arrangement the elements of the ion source are capable of precise adjustment with respect to one another, promoting increased source efficiency.

  16. Improved ion optics for introduction of ions into a 9.4-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Leach, Franklin E; Kaiser, Nathan K; Dang, Xibei; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Norheim, Randolph V; Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D; Marshall, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Enhancements to the ion source and transfer optics of our 9.4 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectrometer have resulted in improved ion transmission efficiency for more sensitive mass measurement of complex mixtures at the MS and MS/MS levels. The tube lens/skimmer has been replaced by a dual ion funnel and the following octopole by a quadrupole for reduced ion cloud radial expansion before transmission into a mass-selective quadrupole. The number of ions that reach the ICR cell is increased by an order of magnitude for the funnel/quadrupole relative to the tube lens/skimmer/octopole.

  17. A study on prevention of an electric discharge at an extraction electrode of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kishii, Y; Kawasaki, S; Kitagawa, A; Muramatsu, M; Uchida, T

    2014-02-01

    A compact ECR ion source has utilized for carbon radiotherapy. In order to increase beam intensity with higher electric field at the extraction electrode and be better ion supply stability for long periods, electric geometry and surface conditions of an extraction electrode have been studied. Focusing attention on black deposited substances on the extraction electrode, which were observed around the extraction electrode after long-term use, the relation between black deposited substances and the electrical insulation property is investigated. The black deposited substances were inspected for the thickness of deposit, surface roughness, structural arrangement examined using Raman spectroscopy, and characteristics of electric discharge in a test bench, which was set up to simulate the ECR ion source.

  18. Low-pressure ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, F.M.; Brainard, J.P.; O'Hagan, J.B.; Walko, R.J.

    1982-10-27

    A low pressure ion source for a neutron source comprises a filament cathode and an anode ring. Approximately 150V is applied between the cathode and the anode. Other electrodes, including a heat shield, a reflector and an aperture plate with a focus electrode, are placed at intermediate potentials. Electrons from the filament drawn out by the plasma and eventually removed by the anode are contained in a magnetic field created by a magnet ring. Ions are formed by electron impact with deuterium or tritium and are extracted at the aperture in the focus electrode. The ion source will typically generate a 200 mA beam through a 1.25 cm/sup 2/ aperture for an arc current of 10A. For deuterium gas, the ion beam is over 50 percent D/sup +/ with less than 1% impurity. The current density profile across the aperture will typically be uniform to within 20%.

  19. Negative-ion plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, D. P.; Rynn, N.

    1988-08-01

    Three designs for negative-ion plasma sources are described. Two sources utilize metal hexafluorides such as SF6 and WF6 to scavenge electrons from electron-ion plasmas and the third relies upon surface ionization of alkali halide salts on heated alumina and zirconia. SF6 introduced into electron-ion plasmas yielded negative-ion plasma densities of 10 to the 10th/cu cm with low residual electron densities. On alumina, plasma densities of 10 to the 9th/cu cm were obtained for CsCl, CsI, and KI and 10 to the 9th/cu cm for KCl. On zirconia 10 to the 10th/cu cm densities were obtained for CsCl. For alkali halide sources, electron densities of less than about 10 to the -4th have been achieved.

  20. Pulsed reflex ion source studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bickes, Jr., R. W.; O'Hagan, J. B.

    1980-11-01

    Parametric studies of demountable versions of the pulsed ion source used in Controlatron and Zetatron neutron tubes were carried out. The goal of these experiments, a continuation of earlier work by Bacon and O'Hagan, was to investigate the deuteron beam intensity as a function of source geometry, electrode materials, operating conditions and pulse length. Geometric variations produced only modest changes in the ion beam intensity; the most sensitive parameter was the length of the secondary cathode. There is some evidence that the addition of oxygen either in the gas feed or using alumina on the cathode surfaces can increase the atomic ion fraction. The lowest reliable operating source pressure was approximately 1.33 Pa. The longest pulse length was about 1.2 ms. Difficulties in measuring the ion currents are discussed and suggestions for future experiments are briefly outlined.

  1. Beyond Naphthenic Acids: Environmental Screening of Water from Natural Sources and the Athabasca Oil Sands Industry Using Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Mark P; Peru, Kerry M; Fahlman, Brian; Hewitt, L Mark; Frank, Richard A; Headley, John V

    2015-09-01

    There is a growing need for environmental screening of natural waters in the Athabasca region of Alberta, Canada, particularly in the differentiation between anthropogenic and naturally-derived organic compounds associated with weathered bitumen deposits. Previous research has focused primarily upon characterization of naphthenic acids in water samples by negative-ion electrospray ionization methods. Atmospheric pressure photoionization is a much less widely used ionization method, but one that affords the possibility of observing low polarity compounds that cannot be readily observed by electrospray ionization. This study describes the first usage of atmospheric pressure photoionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes) to characterize and compare extracts of oil sands process water, river water, and groundwater samples from areas associated with oil sands mining activities. When comparing mass spectra previously obtained by electrospray ionization and data acquired by atmospheric pressure photoionization, there can be a doubling of the number of components detected. In addition to polar compounds that have previously been observed, low-polarity, sulfur-containing compounds and hydrocarbons that do not incorporate a heteroatom were detected. These latter components, which are not amenable to electrospray ionization, have potential for screening efforts within monitoring programs of the oil sands.

  2. Beyond Naphthenic Acids: Environmental Screening of Water from Natural Sources and the Athabasca Oil Sands Industry Using Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, Mark P.; Peru, Kerry M.; Fahlman, Brian; Hewitt, L. Mark; Frank, Richard A.; Headley, John V.

    2015-09-01

    There is a growing need for environmental screening of natural waters in the Athabasca region of Alberta, Canada, particularly in the differentiation between anthropogenic and naturally-derived organic compounds associated with weathered bitumen deposits. Previous research has focused primarily upon characterization of naphthenic acids in water samples by negative-ion electrospray ionization methods. Atmospheric pressure photoionization is a much less widely used ionization method, but one that affords the possibility of observing low polarity compounds that cannot be readily observed by electrospray ionization. This study describes the first usage of atmospheric pressure photoionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes) to characterize and compare extracts of oil sands process water, river water, and groundwater samples from areas associated with oil sands mining activities. When comparing mass spectra previously obtained by electrospray ionization and data acquired by atmospheric pressure photoionization, there can be a doubling of the number of components detected. In addition to polar compounds that have previously been observed, low-polarity, sulfur-containing compounds and hydrocarbons that do not incorporate a heteroatom were detected. These latter components, which are not amenable to electrospray ionization, have potential for screening efforts within monitoring programs of the oil sands.

  3. Effect of frequency tuning on bremsstrahlung spectra, beam intensity, and shape in the 10 GHz NANOGAN electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, G. Mal, Kedar; Kumar, Narender; Lakshmy, P. S.; Mathur, Y.; Kumar, P.; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.; Baskaran, R.

    2014-02-15

    Studies on the effect of the frequency tuning on the bremsstrahlung spectra, beam intensities, and beam shape of various ions have been carried out in the 10 GHz NANOGAN ECR ion source. The warm and cold components of the electrons were found to be directly correlated with beam intensity enhancement in case of Ar{sup 9+} but not so for O{sup 5+}. The warm electron component was, however, much smaller compared to the cold component. The effect of the fine tuning of the frequency on the bremsstrahlung spectrum, beam intensities and beam shape is presented.

  4. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. But, we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. Furthermore, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2014. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion source for regular operation.

  5. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. However we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. In 2014, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion source for regular operation.

  6. HIMAC PIG ion source development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.; Sato, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Kimura, T.

    1989-02-01

    The HIMAC (Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba) project is in progress. Necessary characteristics for the HIMAC ion source are high current ( 130-630 μA with a q/A of{1}/{7}) from He to Ar, good stability, long life and easy maintenance. To attain these characteristics, an indirectly heated PIG ion source test bench has been designed and constructed since 1985. A low-energy beam transport line has also been installed in order to test the beam quality and the matching condition with an RFQ linac (8-800 keV/u). For N, Ne and Ar, preliminary experiments have been carried out on the arc characteristics, ion extraction and charge spectra since 1987. The radial emittance has also been measured and is 150 π mm mrad for a 40 μA Ar 3+ beam (0.64 keV/u).

  7. Ion source development for ultratrace detection of uranium and thorium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Batchelder, J. C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Chu, R.; Fan, S.; Romero-Romero, E.; Stracener, D. W.

    2015-10-01

    Efficient ion sources are needed for detecting ultratrace U and Th impurities in a copper matrix by mass spectrometry techniques such as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Two positive ion sources, a hot-cavity surface ionization source and a resonant ionization laser ion source, are evaluated in terms of ionization efficiencies for generating ion beams of U and Th. The performances of the ion sources are characterized using uranyl nitrate and thorium nitrate sample materials with sample sizes between 20 and 40 μg of U or Th. For the surface ion source, the dominant ion beams observed are UO+ or ThO+ and ionization efficiencies of 2-4% have been obtained with W and Re cavities. With the laser ion source, three-step resonant photoionization of U atoms has been studied and only atomic U ions are observed. An ionization efficiency of about 9% has been demonstrated. The performances of both ion sources are expected to be further improved.

  8. Performance of the LBL ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C.M.

    1984-10-01

    The LBL Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source in test operation since January 1984 has produced a wide variety of high charge state ion beams suitable for injection into the 88-Inch Cyclotron. Two recent developments have dramatically improved the capability of the ECR source. The first development was the production of metallic ions. The intensities of aluminum ions produced were 36, 22, 10, and .065 e..mu..A for charge states 6, 7, 8, and 11, respectively. Calcium ion intensities were 36, 31, 4.6, and 0.20 e..mu..A for charge states 8, 9, 12, and 14, respectively. The second development was the replacement of the sextupole magnet used in of all other high charge state ECR sources with an octupole structure. This modification resulted in a dramatic improvement in the intensities of the high charge state beams and a significant upward shift in the charge state distribution (C.S.D.). The ECR-octupole or OCTIGUN has produced 89, 52, 9, and 2.5 e..mu..A of Ar/sup 8,9,11,12+/ and 21, 10, and 0.34 e..mu..A of Kr/sup 10,14,18+/, respectively. For the high charge states of argon and krypton the improvement gained by using the octupole is typically a factor of 5 to 10.

  9. Solenoid and monocusp ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Brainard, John Paul; Burns, Erskine John Thomas; Draper, Charles Hadley

    1997-01-01

    An ion source which generates hydrogen ions having high atomic purity incorporates a solenoidal permanent magnets to increase the electron path length. In a sealed envelope, electrons emitted from a cathode traverse the magnetic field lines of a solenoid and a monocusp magnet between the cathode and a reflector at the monocusp. As electrons collide with gas, the molecular gas forms a plasma. An anode grazes the outer boundary of the plasma. Molecular ions and high energy electrons remain substantially on the cathode side of the cusp, but as the ions and electrons are scattered to the aperture side of the cusp, additional collisions create atomic ions. The increased electron path length allows for smaller diameters and lower operating pressures.

  10. Solenoid and monocusp ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Brainard, J.P.; Burns, E.J.T.; Draper, C.H.

    1995-12-31

    An ion source which generates ions having high atomic purity incorporates a solenoidal magnetic field to increase the electron path length. In a sealed envelope, electrons emitted from a cathode traverse the magnetic field lines of a solenoid and a monocusp magnet between the cathode and a reflector at the monocusp. As electrons collide with gas, the molecular gas forms a plasma. An anode grazes the outer boundary of the plasma. Molecular ions and high energy electrons remain substantially on the cathode side of the cusp, but as the ions and electrons are scattered to the aperture side of the cusp, additional collisions create atomic ions. The increased electron path length allows for smaller diameters and lower operating pressures.

  11. Solenoid and monocusp ion source

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, J.P.; Burns, E.J.T.; Draper, C.H.

    1997-10-07

    An ion source which generates hydrogen ions having high atomic purity incorporates a solenoidal permanent magnets to increase the electron path length. In a sealed envelope, electrons emitted from a cathode traverse the magnetic field lines of a solenoid and a monocusp magnet between the cathode and a reflector at the monocusp. As electrons collide with gas, the molecular gas forms a plasma. An anode grazes the outer boundary of the plasma. Molecular ions and high energy electrons remain substantially on the cathode side of the cusp, but as the ions and electrons are scattered to the aperture side of the cusp, additional collisions create atomic ions. The increased electron path length allows for smaller diameters and lower operating pressures. 6 figs.

  12. Multi-source ion funnel

    DOEpatents

    Tang, Keqi; Belov, Mikhail B.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Udseth, Harold R.; Smith, Richard D.

    2005-12-27

    A method for introducing ions generated in a region of relatively high pressure into a region of relatively low pressure by providing at least two electrospray ion sources, providing at least two capillary inlets configured to direct ions generated by the electrospray sources into and through each of the capillary inlets, providing at least two sets of primary elements having apertures, each set of elements having a receiving end and an emitting end, the primary sets of elements configured to receive a ions from the capillary inlets at the receiving ends, and providing a secondary set of elements having apertures having a receiving end and an emitting end, the secondary set of elements configured to receive said ions from the emitting end of the primary sets of elements and emit said ions from said emitting end of the secondary set of elements. The method may further include the step of providing at least one jet disturber positioned within at least one of the sets of primary elements, providing a voltage, such as a dc voltage, in the jet disturber, thereby adjusting the transmission of ions through at least one of the sets of primary elements.

  13. Two-frequency heating technique at the 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Biri, S.; Rácz, R.; Sasaki, N.; Takasugi, W.

    2014-02-15

    The two-frequency heating technique was studied to increase the beam intensities of highly charged ions provided by the high-voltage extraction configuration (HEC) ion source at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). The observed dependences on microwave power and frequency suggested that this technique improved plasma stability but it required precise frequency tuning and more microwave power than was available before 2013. Recently, a new, high-power (1200 W) wide band-width (17.1–18.5 GHz) travelling-wave-tube amplifier (TWTA) was installed. After some single tests with klystron and TWT amplifiers the simultaneous injection of the two microwaves has been successfully realized. The dependence of highly charged ions (HCI) currents on the superposed microwave power was studied by changing only the output power of one of the two amplifiers, alternatively. While operating the klystron on its fixed 18.0 GHz, the frequency of the TWTA was swept within its full limits (17.1–18.5 GHz), and the effect of this frequency on the HCI-production rate was examined under several operation conditions. As an overall result, new beam records of highly charged argon, krypton, and xenon beams were obtained at the NIRS-HEC ion source by this high-power two-frequency operation mode.

  14. Two-frequency heating technique at the 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biri, S.; Kitagawa, A.; Muramatsu, M.; Drentje, A. G.; Rácz, R.; Yano, K.; Kato, Y.; Sasaki, N.; Takasugi, W.

    2014-02-01

    The two-frequency heating technique was studied to increase the beam intensities of highly charged ions provided by the high-voltage extraction configuration (HEC) ion source at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). The observed dependences on microwave power and frequency suggested that this technique improved plasma stability but it required precise frequency tuning and more microwave power than was available before 2013. Recently, a new, high-power (1200 W) wide band-width (17.1-18.5 GHz) travelling-wave-tube amplifier (TWTA) was installed. After some single tests with klystron and TWT amplifiers the simultaneous injection of the two microwaves has been successfully realized. The dependence of highly charged ions (HCI) currents on the superposed microwave power was studied by changing only the output power of one of the two amplifiers, alternatively. While operating the klystron on its fixed 18.0 GHz, the frequency of the TWTA was swept within its full limits (17.1-18.5 GHz), and the effect of this frequency on the HCI-production rate was examined under several operation conditions. As an overall result, new beam records of highly charged argon, krypton, and xenon beams were obtained at the NIRS-HEC ion source by this high-power two-frequency operation mode.

  15. The DCU laser ion source.

    PubMed

    Yeates, P; Costello, J T; Kennedy, E T

    2010-04-01

    Laser ion sources are used to generate and deliver highly charged ions of various masses and energies. We present details on the design and basic parameters of the DCU laser ion source (LIS). The theoretical aspects of a high voltage (HV) linear LIS are presented and the main issues surrounding laser-plasma formation, ion extraction and modeling of beam transport in relation to the operation of a LIS are detailed. A range of laser power densities (I approximately 10(8)-10(11) W cm(-2)) and fluences (F=0.1-3.9 kJ cm(-2)) from a Q-switched ruby laser (full-width half-maximum pulse duration approximately 35 ns, lambda=694 nm) were used to generate a copper plasma. In "basic operating mode," laser generated plasma ions are electrostatically accelerated using a dc HV bias (5-18 kV). A traditional einzel electrostatic lens system is utilized to transport and collimate the extracted ion beam for detection via a Faraday cup. Peak currents of up to I approximately 600 microA for Cu(+) to Cu(3+) ions were recorded. The maximum collected charge reached 94 pC (Cu(2+)). Hydrodynamic simulations and ion probe diagnostics were used to study the plasma plume within the extraction gap. The system measured performance and electrodynamic simulations indicated that the use of a short field-free (L=48 mm) region results in rapid expansion of the injected ion beam in the drift tube. This severely limits the efficiency of the electrostatic lens system and consequently the sources performance. Simulations of ion beam dynamics in a "continuous einzel array" were performed and experimentally verified to counter the strong space-charge force present in the ion beam which results from plasma extraction close to the target surface. Ion beam acceleration and injection thus occur at "high pressure." In "enhanced operating mode," peak currents of 3.26 mA (Cu(2+)) were recorded. The collected currents of more highly charged ions (Cu(4+)-Cu(6+)) increased considerably in this mode of operation.

  16. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    DOE PAGES

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. But, we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. Furthermore, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2014. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion sourcemore » for regular operation.« less

  17. Low energy ion beam dynamics of NANOGAN ECR ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A.

    2016-04-01

    A new low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) has been developed for providing the mass analyzed highly charged intense ion beams of energy ranging from a few tens of keV to a few MeV for atomic, molecular and materials sciences research. The new facility consists of an all permanent magnet 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (NANOGAN) installed on a high voltage platform (400 kV) which provides large currents of multiply charged ion beams. Higher emittance at low energy of intense ion beam puts a tremendous challenge to the beam optical design of this facility. The beam line consists of mainly the electrostatic quadrupoles, an accelerating section, analyzing cum switching magnet and suitable beam diagnostics including vacuum components. The accelerated ion beam is analyzed for a particular mass to charge (m/q) ratio as well as guided to three different lines along 75°, 90° and 105° using a large acceptance analyzing cum switching magnet. The details of transverse beam optics to all the beam lines with TRANSPORT and GICOSY beam optics codes are being described. Field computation code, OPERA 3D has been utilized to design the magnets and electrostatic quadrupoles. A theoretical estimation of emittance for optimized geometry of ion source is given so as to form the basis of beam optics calculations. The method of quadrupole scan of the beam is used to characterize the emittance of the final beam on the target. The measured beam emittance increases with m/q ratios of various ion beams similar to the trend observed theoretically.

  18. Cross-field potential hill arisen eccentrically in toroidal electron cyclotron resonance plasmas in the Low Aspect ratio Torus Experiment device to regulate electron and ion flows from source to boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Kengoh; Wada, Manato; Uchida, Masaki; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    We have investigated the electron and ion flows in toroidal electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas maintained by a 2.45 GHz microwave power around 1 kW under a simple toroidal field in the low aspect ratio torus experiment (LATE) device. We have found that a vertically uniform ridge of electron pressure that also constitutes the source belt of electron impact ionization is formed along just lower field side of the ECR layer and a cross-field potential hill ({{V}S}\\cong 30 V while {{T}e}\\cong 10 eV), eccentrically shifted toward the corner formed by the top panel and the ECR layer, arises. Combination of the hill-driven E× B drift and the vertical drift due to the field gradient and curvature, being referred to as vacuum toroidal field (VTF) drift, realizes steady flows of electrons and ions from the source to the boundary. In particular, the ions, of which VTF drift velocity is much slower than the electron VTF drift velocity near the source belt, are carried by the E× B drift around the hill to the vicinity of the top panel, where the ion VTF drift is enhanced on the steep down slope of potential toward the top panel. On the other hand the electron temperature strongly decreases in this area. Thus the carrier of VTF drift current is replaced from the electrons to the ions before the top panel, enabling the current circulation through the top and bottom panels and the vessel (electrons mainly to the bottom and ions mainly to the top) that keeps the charge neutrality very high. A few percent of electrons from the source turn around the hill by 360 degree and reentry the source belt from the high field side as seed electrons for the impact ionization, keeping the discharge stable.

  19. Ion Source Development for Ultratrace Detection of Uranium and Thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuan; Batchelder, Jon Charles; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn}; Stracener, Daniel W

    2015-01-01

    A hot-cavity surface ionization source and a hot-cavity laser ion source are evaluated in terms of ionization efficiencies for generating ion beams of U and Th. The work is motivated by the need for more efficient ion sources for detecting ultratrace U and Th impurities in a copper matrix by mass spectrometry techniques such as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The performances of the ion sources are characterized using uranyl nitrate and thorium nitrate sample materials and sample sizes of 20 - 40 g of U or Th. For the surface source, the dominant ion beams observed are UO+ or ThO+ and ionization efficiencies of 2-4% have been obtained with W and Re cavities. Three-step resonant photoionization of U atoms is studied and an ionization efficiency of 8.7% has been obtained with the laser ion source. The positive ion sources promise more than an order of magnitude more efficient than conventional Cs-sputter negative ion sources used for AMS. In addition, the laser ion source is highly selective and effective in suppressing interfering and ions. Work is in progress to improve the efficiencies of both positive ion sources.

  20. Review on heavy ion radiotherapy facilities and related ion sources (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, A.; Fujita, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Biri, S.; Drentje, A. G.

    2010-02-01

    Heavy ion radiotherapy awakens worldwide interest recently. The clinical results obtained by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan have clearly demonstrated the advantages of carbon ion radiotherapy. Presently, there are four facilities for heavy ion radiotherapy in operation, and several new facilities are under construction or being planned. The most common requests for ion sources are a long lifetime and good stability and reproducibility. Sufficient intensity has been achieved by electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at the present facilities.

  1. High brilliance negative ion and neutral beam source

    DOEpatents

    Compton, Robert N.

    1991-01-01

    A high brilliance mass selected (Z-selected) negative ion and neutral beam source having good energy resolution. The source is based upon laser resonance ionization of atoms or molecules in a small gaseous medium followed by charge exchange through an alkali oven. The source is capable of producing microampere beams of an extremely wide variety of negative ions, and milliampere beams when operated in the pulsed mode.

  2. Collisional activation of ions by off-resonance irradiation in ion cyclotron resonance spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seung Koo; Han, Seung-Jin; Seo, Jongcheol

    2009-06-01

    Collisional activation of ions in the ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) cell by short off-resonance burst irradiation (ORBI) was studied by time-resolved photodissociation of the meta-bromotoluene radical cation. Off-resonance chirp or single-frequency burst was applied for 2 ms to the probe ion in the presence of Ar buffer gas. The amount of internal energy imparted to the probe ion by collision under ORBI was precisely determined by time-resolved photodissociation spectroscopy. The rate of unimolecular dissociation of the probe ion following the photolysis at 532 nm was measured by monitoring the real-time appearance of the C7H7+ product ion. The internal energy of the probe ion was extracted from the known rate-energy curve. To help understand the collisional activation of an ion under ORBI, we simulated the radial trajectory of the ion using Green's method. The calculated radial kinetic energy was converted to the collision energy in the center-of-mass frame, and the collision frequency was estimated by using a reactive hard-sphere collision model with an ion-induced dipole potential. Both experiments and trajectory simulations suggest that chirp irradiation leads to less collisional activation of ions than other waveforms.

  3. ION SOURCE FOR A CALUTRON

    DOEpatents

    Backus, J.G.

    1957-12-24

    This patent relates to ion sources and more particularly describes an ion source for a calutron which has the advantage of efficient production of an ion beam and long operation time without recharging. The source comprises an arc block provided with an arc chamber connected to a plurality of series-connected charge chambers and means for heating the charge within the chambers. A cathode is disposed at one end of the arc chamber and enclosed hy a vapor tight housing to protect the cathode. The arc discharge is set up between the cathode and the block due to a difference in potentials placed on these parts, and a magnetic field is aligned with the arc discharge. Cooling of the arc block is accomplished by passing coolant through a hollow stem secured at one end to the block and rotatably mounted at the other end through the wall of the calutron. The ions are removed through a slit in the arc chamber by accelerating electrodes.

  4. Relating to monitoring ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore; Bounds, John Alan

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques for monitoring the position on alpha contamination in or on items or locations. The technique is particularly applicable to pipes, conduits and other locations to which access is difficult. The technique uses indirect monitoring of alpha emissions by detecting ions generated by the alpha emissions. The medium containing the ions is moved in a controlled manner frog in proximity with the item or location to the detecting unit and the signals achieved over time are used to generate alpha source position information.

  5. ION SOURCE FOR A CALUTRON

    DOEpatents

    Lofgren, E.J.

    1959-04-14

    This patcnt relates to calutron devices and deals particularly with the mechanism used to produce the beam of ions wherein a charge material which is a vapor at room temperature is used. A charge container located outside the tank is connected through several conduits to various points along the arc chamber of the ion source. In addition, the rate of flow of the vapor to the arc chamber is controlled by a throttle valve in each conduit. By this arrangement the arc can be regulated accurately and without appreciable time lag, inasmuch as the rate of vapor flow is immediately responsive to the manipulation of the throttle valves.

  6. C60 Secondary Ion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Donald F.; Robinson, Errol W.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Heeren, Ronald M.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2011-12-15

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has seen increased application for high spatial chemical imaging of complex biological surfaces. The advent and commercial availability of cluster and polyatomic primary ion sources (e.g. Au and Bi cluster and buckminsterfullerene (C60)) provide improved secondary ion yield and decreased fragmentation of surface species, thus accessibility to intact molecular ions. Despite developments in primary ion sources, development of mass spectrometers to fully exploit their advantages has been limited. Tandem mass spectrometry for identification of secondary ions is highly desirable, but implementation has proven to be difficult. Similarly, high mass resolution and high mass measurement accuracy would greatly improve the chemical specificity of SIMS. Here we combine, for the first time, the advantages of a C60 primary ion source with the ultra-high mass resolving power and high mass measurement accuracy of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Mass resolving power in excess of 100,000 (m/Δm50%) is demonstrated, with mass measurement accuracies below 3 parts-per-million. Imaging of mouse brain tissue at 40 μm pixel size is shown. Tandem mass spectrometry of ions from biological tissue is demonstrated and molecular formulae can be assigned to fragment ions.

  7. New theoretical treatment of ion resonance phenomena.

    PubMed

    Vincze, G; Szasz, A; Liboff, A R

    2008-07-01

    Despite experimental evidence supporting ICR-like interactions in biological systems, to date there is no reasonable theoretical explanation for this phenomenon. The parametric resonance approach introduced by Lednev has enjoyed limited success in predicting the response as a function of the ratio of AC magnetic intensity to that of the DC field, explaining the results in terms of magnetically induced changes in the transition probability of calcium binding states. In the present work, we derive an expression for the velocity of a damped ion with arbitrary q/m under the influence of the Lorentz force. Series solutions to the differential equations reveal transient responses as well as resonance-like terms. One fascinating result is that the expressions for ionic drift velocity include a somewhat similar Bessel function dependence as was previously obtained for the transition probability in parametric resonance. However, in the present work, not only is there an explicit effect due to damping, but the previous Bessel dependence now occurs as a subset of a more general solution, including not only the magnetic field AC/DC ratio as an independent variable, but also the ratio of the cyclotronic frequency Omega to the applied AC frequency omega. In effect, this removes the necessity to explain the ICR interaction as stemming from ion-protein binding sites. We hypothesize that the selectively enhanced drift velocity predicted in this model can explain ICR-like phenomena as resulting from increased interaction probabilities in the vicinity of ion channel gates.

  8. Modification of anisotropic plasma diffusion via auxiliary electrons emitted by a carbon nanotubes-based electron gun in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Malferrari, L; Odorici, F; Veronese, G P; Rizzoli, R; Mascali, D; Celona, L; Gammino, S; Castro, G; Miracoli, R; Serafino, T

    2012-02-01

    The diffusion mechanism in magnetized plasmas is a largely debated issue. A short circuit model was proposed by Simon, assuming fluxes of lost particles along the axial (electrons) and radial (ions) directions which can be compensated, to preserve the quasi-neutrality, by currents flowing throughout the conducting plasma chamber walls. We hereby propose a new method to modify Simon's currents via electrons injected by a carbon nanotubes-based electron gun. We found this improves the source performances, increasing the output current for several charge states. The method is especially sensitive to the pumping frequency. Output currents for given charge states, at different auxiliary electron currents, will be reported in the paper and the influence of the frequency tuning on the compensation mechanism will be discussed.

  9. Multi-Species Test of Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating at High Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Persoon, A. M.; Peterson, W. K.; Andre, M.; Chang, T.; Gurnett, D. A.; Retterer, J. M.; Crew, G. B.

    1997-01-01

    Observations of ion distributions and plasma waves obtained by the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite in the high-altitude, nightside auroral zone are used to study ion energization for three ion species. A number of theoretical models have been proposed to account for the transverse heating of these ion populations. One of these, the ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) mechanism, explains ion conic formation through ion cyclotron resonance with broadband electromagnetic wave turbulence in the vicinity of the characteristic ion cyclotron frequency. The cyclotron resonant heating of the ions by low- frequency electromagnetic waves is an important energy source for the transport of ions from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere. In this paper we test the applicability of the ICRH mechanism to three simultaneously heated and accelerated ion species by modelling the ion conic formation in terms of a resonant wave-particle interaction in which the ions extract energy from the portion of the broadband electromagnetic wave spectrum which includes the ion cyclotron frequency. Using a Monte Carlo technique we evaluate the ion heating produced by the electromagnetic turbulence at low frequencies and find that the wave amplitudes near the ion cyclotron frequencies are sufficient to explain the observed ion energies.

  10. Multi-Species Test of Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating at High Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Persoon, A. M.; Peterson, W. K.; Andre, M.; Chang, T.; Gurnett, D. A.; Retterer, J. M.; Crew, G. B.

    1997-01-01

    Observations of ion distributions and plasma waves obtained by the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite in the high-altitude, nightside auroral zone are used to study ion energization for three ion species. A number of theoretical models have been proposed to account for the transverse heating of these ion populations. One of these, the ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) mechanism, explains ion conic formation through ion cyclotron resonance with broadband electromagnetic wave turbulence in the vicinity of the characteristic ion cyclotron frequency. The cyclotron resonant heating of the ions by low-frequency electromagnetic waves is an important energy source for the transport of ions from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere. In this paper we test the applicability of the ICRH mechanism to three simultaneously heated and accelerated ion species by modelling the ion conic formation in terms of a resonant wave-particle interaction in which the ions extract energy from the portion of the broadband electromagnetic wave spectrum which includes the ion cyclotron frequency. Using a Monte Carlo technique we evaluate the ion heating produced by the electromagnetic turbulence at low frequencies and find that the wave amplitudes near the ion cyclotron frequencies are sufficient to explain the observed ion energies.

  11. Liquid metal ion source and alloy

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Jr., William M.; Utlaut, Mark W.; Behrens, Robert G.; Szklarz, Eugene G.; Storms, Edmund K.; Santandrea, Robert P.; Swanson, Lynwood W.

    1988-10-04

    A liquid metal ion source and alloy, wherein the species to be emitted from the ion source is contained in a congruently vaporizing alloy. In one embodiment, the liquid metal ion source acts as a source of arsenic, and in a source alloy the arsenic is combined with palladium, preferably in a liquid alloy having a range of compositions from about 24 to about 33 atomic percent arsenic. Such an alloy may be readily prepared by a combustion synthesis technique. Liquid metal ion sources thus prepared produce arsenic ions for implantation, have long lifetimes, and are highly stable in operation.

  12. Liquid metal ion source assembly for external ion injection into an electron string ion source (ESIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segal, M. J.; Bark, R. A.; Thomae, R.; Donets, E. E.; Donets, E. D.; Boytsov, A.; Ponkin, D.; Ramsdorf, A.

    2016-02-01

    An assembly for a commercial Ga+ liquid metal ion source in combination with an ion transportation and focusing system, a pulse high-voltage quadrupole deflector, and a beam diagnostics system has been constructed in the framework of the iThemba LABS (Cape Town, South Africa)—JINR (Dubna, Russia) collaboration. First, results on Ga+ ion beam commissioning will be presented. Outlook of further experiments for measurements of charge breeding efficiency in the electron string ion source with the use of external injection of Ga+ and Au+ ion beams will be reported as well.

  13. Liquid metal ion source assembly for external ion injection into an electron string ion source (ESIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, M. J.; Bark, R. A.; Thomae, R.; Donets, E. E.; Donets, E. D.; Boytsov, A.; Ponkin, D.; Ramsdorf, A.

    2016-02-15

    An assembly for a commercial Ga{sup +} liquid metal ion source in combination with an ion transportation and focusing system, a pulse high-voltage quadrupole deflector, and a beam diagnostics system has been constructed in the framework of the iThemba LABS (Cape Town, South Africa)—JINR (Dubna, Russia) collaboration. First, results on Ga{sup +} ion beam commissioning will be presented. Outlook of further experiments for measurements of charge breeding efficiency in the electron string ion source with the use of external injection of Ga{sup +} and Au{sup +} ion beams will be reported as well.

  14. Hydrogen hollow cathode ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J., Jr.; Sovey, J. S.; Roman, R. F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A source of hydrogen ions is disclosed and includes a chamber having at one end a cathode which provides electrons and through which hydrogen gas flows into the chamber. Screen and accelerator grids are provided at the other end of the chamber. A baffle plate is disposed between the cathode and the grids and a cylindrical baffle is disposed coaxially with the cathode at the one end of the chamber. The cylindrical baffle is of greater diameter than the baffle plate to provide discharge impedance and also to protect the cathode from ion flux. An anode electrode draws the electrons away from the cathode. The hollow cathode includes a tubular insert of tungsten impregnated with a low work function material to provide ample electrons. A heater is provided around the hollow cathode to initiate electron emission from the low work function material.

  15. Some plasma aspects and plasma diagnostics of ion sources.

    PubMed

    Wiesemann, Klaus

    2008-02-01

    We consider plasma properties in the most advanced type of plasma ion sources, electron cyclotron resonance ion sources for highly charged ions. Depending on the operation conditions the plasma in these sources may be highly ionized, which completely changes its transport properties. The most striking difference to weakly ionized plasma is that diffusion will become intrinsically ambipolar. We further discuss means of plasma diagnostics. As noninvasive diagnostic methods we will discuss analysis of the ion beam, optical spectroscopy, and measurement of the x-ray bremsstrahlung continuum. From beam analysis and optical spectroscopy one may deduce ion densities, and electron densities and distribution functions as a mean over the line of sight along the axis (optical spectroscopy) or at the plasma edge (ion beam). From x-ray spectra one obtains information about the population of highly energetic electrons and the energy transfer from the driving electromagnetic waves to the plasma -- basic data for plasma modeling.

  16. Emittance improvement of the electron cyclotron resonance high intensity light ion source proton beam by gas injection in the low energy beam transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauvais, P.-Y.; Ferdinand, R.; Gobin, R.; Lagniel, J. M.; Leroy, P.-A.; Celona, L.; Ciavola, G.; Gammino, S.; Pottin, B.; Sherman, J.

    2000-03-01

    SILHI is the ECR high intensity light ion source studied in France at C.E.A. Saclay. This is the source for the injector of the high intensity proton injector prototype developed by a CNRS-IN2P3 collaboration. 80 mA at 95 keV beams with a rms normalized r-r' emittance lower than 0.3 π mm mrad and a proton fraction better than 85% are currently produced. Recently, it has been found that the injection in the low energy beam transport of a buffer gas had a strong effect on the emittance measured 1 m downstream of the focusing solenoid. By adding several gases (H2, N2, Ar, Kr), improvements as great as a factor of 3 have been observed. The emittance has been measured by means of an r-r' emittance measurement unit equipped with a sampling hole and a wire profile monitor, both moving across the beam. Simultaneously, the space charge compensation factor is measured using a four-grid analyzer unit. In this article all results of these experiments are presented and discussed. A first explanation of the emittance reduction phenomenon and possible consequences on the injector operation is given.

  17. Design and fabrication of a superconducting magnet for an 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion/photon source NFRI-ECRIPS

    SciTech Connect

    You, H.-J.; Jang, S.-W.; Jung, Y.-H.; Lho, T.-H.; Lee, S.-J.

    2012-02-15

    A superconducting magnet was designed and fabricated for an 18 GHz ECR ion/photon source, which will be installed at National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) in South Korea. The magnetic system consists of a set of four superconducting coils for axial mirror field and 36 pieces of permanent magnets for hexapolar field. The superconducting coils with a cryocooler (1.5 W - 4.2 K) allow one to reach peak mirror fields of 2.2 T in the injection and those of 1.5 T in the extraction regions on the source axis, and the resultant hexapolar field gives 1.35 T on the plasma chamber wall. The unbalanced magnetic force between the coils and surrounding yoke has been minimized to 16 ton by a coil arrangement and their electrical connection, and then was successfully suspended by 12 strong thermal insulating supports made of large numbers of carbon fibers. In order to block radiative thermal losses, multilayer thermal insulations are covered on the coil windings as well as 40-K aluminum thermal shield. Also new schemes of quench detection and safety system (coil divisions, quench detection coils, and heaters) were employed. For impregnation of the windings a special epoxy has been selected and treated to have a higher breaking strength and a higher thermal conductivity, which enables the superconductors to be uniformly and rapidly cooled down or heated during a quench.

  18. Design study of electron cyclotron resonance-ion plasma accelerator for heavy ion cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, T. Sugimoto, S.; Sasai, K.; Hattori, T.

    2014-02-15

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance-Ion Plasma Accelerator (ECR-IPAC) device, which theoretically can accelerate multiple charged ions to several hundred MeV with short acceleration length, has been proposed. The acceleration mechanism is based on the combination of two physical principles, plasma electron ion adiabatic ejection (PLEIADE) and Gyromagnetic Autoresonance (GYRAC). In this study, we have designed the proof of principle machine ECR-IPAC device and simulated the electromagnetic field distribution generating in the resonance cavity. ECR-IPAC device consisted of three parts, ECR ion source section, GYRAC section, and PLEIADE section. ECR ion source section and PLEIADE section were designed using several multi-turn solenoid coils and sextupole magnets, and GYRAC section was designed using 10 turns coil. The structure of ECR-IPAC device was the cylindrical shape, and the total length was 1024 mm and the maximum diameter was 580 mm. The magnetic field distribution, which maintains the stable acceleration of plasma, was generated on the acceleration center axis throughout three sections. In addition, the electric field for efficient acceleration of electrons was generated in the resonance cavity by supplying microwave of 2.45 GHz.

  19. Laser ion source for isobaric heavy ion collider experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesue, T. Okamura, M.; Kumaki, M.; Ikeda, S.

    2016-02-15

    Heavy-ion collider experiment in isobaric system is under investigation at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. For this experiment, ion source is required to maximize the abundance of the intended isotope. The candidate of the experiment is {sup 96}Ru + {sup 96}Zr. Since the natural abundance of particular isotope is low and composition of isotope from ion source depends on the composites of the target, an isotope enriched material may be needed as a target. We studied the performance of the laser ion source required for the experiment for Zr ions.

  20. Laser ion source for isobaric heavy ion collider experiment.

    PubMed

    Kanesue, T; Kumaki, M; Ikeda, S; Okamura, M

    2016-02-01

    Heavy-ion collider experiment in isobaric system is under investigation at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. For this experiment, ion source is required to maximize the abundance of the intended isotope. The candidate of the experiment is (96)Ru + (96)Zr. Since the natural abundance of particular isotope is low and composition of isotope from ion source depends on the composites of the target, an isotope enriched material may be needed as a target. We studied the performance of the laser ion source required for the experiment for Zr ions.

  1. An ion guide laser ion source for isobar-suppressed rare isotope beams

    SciTech Connect

    Raeder, Sebastian Ames, Friedhelm; Bishop, Daryl; Bricault, Pierre; Kunz, Peter; Mjøs, Anders; Heggen, Henning; Lassen, Jens Teigelhöfer, Andrea

    2014-03-15

    Modern experiments at isotope separator on-line (ISOL) facilities like ISAC at TRIUMF often depend critically on the purity of the delivered rare isotope beams. Therefore, highly selective ion sources are essential. This article presents the development and successful on-line operation of an ion guide laser ion source (IG-LIS) for the production of ion beams free of isobaric contamination. Thermionic ions from the hot ISOL target are suppressed by an electrostatic potential barrier, while neutral radio nuclides effusing out are resonantly ionized by laser radiation within a quadrupole ion guide behind this barrier. The IG-LIS was developed through detailed thermal and ion optics simulation studies and off-line tests with stable isotopes. In a first on-line run with a SiC target a suppression of surface-ionized Na contaminants in the ion beam of up to six orders of magnitude was demonstrated.

  2. Compact RF ion source for industrial electrostatic ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Hyeok-Jung Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Dae-Il; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2016-02-15

    Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex is developing a single-ended electrostatic ion accelerator to irradiate gaseous ions, such as hydrogen and nitrogen, on materials for industrial applications. ELV type high voltage power supply has been selected. Because of the limited space, electrical power, and robust operation, a 200 MHz RF ion source has been developed. In this paper, the accelerator system, test stand of the ion source, and its test results are described.

  3. A 30-cm diameter argon ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    A 30 cm diameter argon ion source was evaluated. Ion source beam currents up to 4a were extracted with ion energies ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 KeV. An ion optics scaling relation was developed for predicting ion beam extraction capability as a function of total extraction voltage, gas type, and screen grid open area. Ignition and emission characteristics of several hollow cathode geometries were assessed for purposes of defining discharge chamber and neutralizer cathodes. Also presented are ion beam profile characteristics which exhibit broad beam capability well suited for ion beam sputtering applications.

  4. Inductively generated streaming plasma ion source

    DOEpatents

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.; Greenly, John B.

    2006-07-25

    A novel pulsed, neutralized ion beam source is provided. The source uses pulsed inductive breakdown of neutral gas, and magnetic acceleration and control of the resulting plasma, to form a beam. The beam supplies ions for applications requiring excellent control of ion species, low remittance, high current density, and spatial uniformity.

  5. Ion source for radioactive isotopes - IRIS ECR

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J.T.; Freedman, S.J.; Lyneis, C.M.; Wutte, D.

    2001-01-01

    A compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source for radioactive isotopes (IRIS ECR) has been developed for the {sup 14}O experiment at the 88-Inch Cyclotron. The {sup 14}O experiment is a joint effort between the Nuclear Science Division's Weak Interaction Group and the 88-Inch Cyclotron ECR ion source group. The initial goal of the experimentalists is to measure {sup 14}O half-life and the shape of the beta decay spectrum. The 70 second half-life of {sup 14}O requires producing the isotope on-line at the 88-Inch Cyclotron. The {sup 14}O is generated in the form of {sup 12}C{sup 14}O in a high temperature carbon aerogel target using a 20 MeV {sup 3}He{sup +} beam from the LBNL 88-Inch Cyclotron via the reaction {sup 12}C({sup 3}He,n){sup 14}O. The {sup 14}O atoms are then separated from the other radioactive isotopes produced in the target and then implanted into a thin foil. The implanted target serves to minimize the radiation background and maximize the signal in the beta spectrometer by concentrating the{sup 14}O into a 5mm diameter spot. An 8 meter long stainless steel transfer line connects the target chamber to the IRIS ECR through a turbo molecular pump. The gas coming from the turbo pump is fed into the ion source and ionized, extracted at energies of 20 to 30 keV and mass separated by an analyzing magnet. The ion source started operation in spring 1999 and achieved a beam intensity of 3 x 10{sup 5} {sup 14}O{sup +} ions/second. Extensive developments on the production target were made to increase extraction efficiency of the {sup 14}O. A liquid nitrogen trap was installed between the ECR and the turbo pump to minimize the gas load to the ion source. An improved support gas injection system was installed so that multiple support gases can be introduced. A bias disk is used to stabilize the plasma. A quartz liner in the plasma chamber is used to reduce the hold-up time for oxygen and increase the overall ionization efficiency. The extraction system was

  6. Production and ion-ion cooling of highly charged ions in electron string ion source.

    PubMed

    Donets, D E; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B; Syresin, E M

    2009-06-01

    The scheme of an internal injection of Au atoms into the working space of the "Krion-2" electron string ion source (ESIS) was applied and tested. In this scheme Au atoms are evaporated from the thin tungsten wire surface in vicinity of the source electron string. Ion beams with charge states up to Au51+ were produced. Ion-ion cooling with use of C and O coolant ions was studied. It allowed increasing of the Au51+ ion yield by a factor of 2. Ions of Kr up to charge state 28+ were also produced in the source. Electron strings were first formed with injection electron energy up to 6 keV. Methods to increase the ESIS ion output are discussed.

  7. The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS)

    ScienceCinema

    Brookhaven Lab

    2016-07-12

    Brookhaven National Lab has successfully developed a new pre-injector system, called the Electron Beam Ion Source, for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory science programs. The first of several planned improvemen

  8. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-11-12

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. In this study, the laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 μs which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.

  9. The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Brookhaven Lab

    2009-06-09

    Brookhaven National Lab has successfully developed a new pre-injector system, called the Electron Beam Ion Source, for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory science programs. The first of several planned improvemen

  10. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    DOE PAGES

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; ...

    2014-11-12

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. In this study, the laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 μs which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, whichmore » was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.« less

  11. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-11-01

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 μs which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.

  12. High-charge-state ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.J.

    1983-06-01

    Sources of high charge state positive ions have uses in a variety of research fields. For heavy ion particle accelerators higher charge state particles give greater acceleration per gap and greater bending strength in a magnet. Thus higher energies can be obtained from circular accelerators of a given size, and linear accelerators can be designed with higher energy gain per length using higher charge state ions. In atomic physics the many atomic transitions in highly charged ions supplies a wealth of spectroscopy data. High charge state ion beams are also used for charge exchange and crossed beam experiments. High charge state ion sources are reviewed. (WHK)

  13. Laser ion source for low charge heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura,M.; Pikin, A.; Zajic, V.; Kanesue, T.; Tamura, J.

    2008-08-03

    For heavy ion inertial fusion application, a combination of a laser ion source and direct plasma injection scheme into an RFQ is proposed. The combination might provide more than 100 mA of singly charged heavy ion beam from a single laser shot. A planned feasibility test with moderate current is also discussed.

  14. High-intensity sources for light ions

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.N.

    1995-10-01

    The use of the multicusp plasma generator as a source of light ions is described. By employing radio-frequency induction discharge, the performance of the multicusp source is greatly improved, both in lifetime and in high brightness H{sup +} and H{sup {minus}} beam production. A new technique for generating multiply-charged ions in this type of ion source is also presented.

  15. Cyclotron resonance effects on stochastic acceleration of light ionospheric ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N.; Schunk, R. W.; Sojka, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The production of energetic ions with conical pitch angle distributions along the auroral field lines is a subject of considerable current interest. There are several theoretical treatments showing the acceleration (heating) of the ions by ion cyclotron waves. The quasi-linear theory predicts no acceleration when the ions are nonresonant. In the present investigation, it is demonstrated that the cyclotron resonances are not crucial for the transverse acceleration of ions by ion cyclotron waves. It is found that transverse energization of ionospheric ions, such as He(+), He(++), O(++), and O(+), is possible by an Electrostatic Hydrogen Cyclotron (EHC) wave even in the absence of cyclotron resonance. The mechanism of acceleration is the nonresonant stochastic heating. However, when there are resonant ions both the total energy gain and the number of accelerated ions increase with increasing parallel wave number.

  16. Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited).

    PubMed

    Becker, Reinard; Kester, Oliver

    2010-02-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not "sorcery" but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future.

  17. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Gushenets, V. I.; Seleznev, D. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Dugin, S.; Oks, E. M.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Alexeyenko, O.; Kozlov, A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Minaev, S.; Vizir, A.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4+ ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  18. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited).

    PubMed

    Hershcovitch, A; Gushenets, V I; Seleznev, D N; Bugaev, A S; Dugin, S; Oks, E M; Kulevoy, T V; Alexeyenko, O; Kozlov, A; Kropachev, G N; Kuibeda, R P; Minaev, S; Vizir, A; Yushkov, G Yu

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4(+) ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  19. Multicharged iron ions produced by using induction heating vapor source.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yushi; Kubo, Takashi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kiyokatsu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Asaji, Toyohisa; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2008-02-01

    Multiply charged Fe ions are produced from solid pure material in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. We develop an evaporator by using induction heating with an induction coil which is made of bare molybdenum wire partially covered by ceramic beads in vacuum and surrounding and heating directly the pure Fe rod. Heated material has no contact with insulators, so that outgas is minimized. The evaporator is installed around the mirror end plate outside of the ECR plasma with its hole grazing the ECR zone. Helium or argon gas is usually chosen for supporting gas. The multicharged Fe ions up to Fe(13+) are extracted from the opposite side of mirror and against the evaporator, and then multicharged Fe ion beam is formed. We compare production of multicharged iron ions by using this new source with our previous methods.

  20. Gated Trapped Ion Mobility Spectrometry Coupled to Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ridgeway, Mark E; Wolff, Jeremy J; Silveira, Joshua A; Lin, Cheng; Costello, Catherine E; Park, Melvin A

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of molecules by ion mobility spectrometry coupled with mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) provides chemical information on the three dimensional structure and mass of the molecules. The coupling of ion mobility to trapping mass spectrometers has historically been challenging due to the large differences in analysis time between the two devices. In this paper we present a modification of the trapped ion mobility (TIMS) analysis scheme termed "Gated TIMS" that allows efficient coupling to a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) analyzer. Analyses of standard compounds and the influence of source conditions on the TIMS distributions produced by ion mobility spectra of labile ubiquitin protein ions are presented. Ion mobility resolving powers up to 100 are observed. Measured collisional cross sections of ubiquitin ions are in excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement to previous measurements. Gated TIMS FT-ICR produces results comparable to those acquired using TIMS/time-of-flight MS instrument platforms as well as numerous drift tube IMS-MS studies published in the literature.

  1. Transverse coupling property of beam from ECR ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.; Yuan, Y. J.; Sun, L. T.; Feng, Y. C.; Fang, X.; Cao, Y.; Lu, W.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-11-15

    Experimental evidence of the property of transverse coupling of beam from Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source is presented. It is especially of interest for an ECR ion source, where the cross section of extracted beam is not round along transport path due to the magnetic confinement configuration. When the ions are extracted and accelerated through the descending axial magnetic field at the extraction region, the horizontal and vertical phase space strongly coupled. In this study, the coupling configuration between the transverse phase spaces of the beam from ECR ion source is achieved by beam back-tracking simulation based on the measurements. The reasonability of this coupling configuration has been proven by a series of subsequent simulations.

  2. Enhanced life ion source for germanium and carbon ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Tseh-Jen; Colvin, Neil; Kondratenko, Serguei

    2012-11-06

    Germanium and carbon ions represent a significant portion of total ion implantation steps in the process flow. Very often ion source materials that used to produce ions are chemically aggressive, especially at higher temperatures, and result in fast ion source performance degradation and a very limited lifetime [B.S. Freer, et. al., 2002 14th Intl. Conf. on Ion Implantation Technology Proc, IEEE Conf. Proc., p. 420 (2003)]. GeF{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} are commonly used to generate germanium and carbon beams. In the case of GeF{sub 4} controlling the tungsten deposition due to the de-composition of WF{sub 6} (halogen cycle) is critical to ion source life. With CO{sub 2}, the materials oxidation and carbon deposition must be controlled as both will affect cathode thermionic emission and anti-cathode (repeller) efficiencies due to the formation of volatile metal oxides. The improved ion source design Extended Life Source 3 (Eterna ELS3) together with its proprietary co-gas material implementation has demonstrated >300 hours of stable continuous operation when using carbon and germanium ion beams. Optimizing cogas chemistries retard the cathode erosion rate for germanium and carbon minimizes the adverse effects of oxygen when reducing gas is introduced for carbon. The proprietary combination of hardware and co-gas has improved source stability and the results of the hardware and co-gas development are discussed.

  3. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, Daniel D.; Keville, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  4. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-12-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  5. The ATLAS PII-ECR ion source project

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R.C.; Billquist, P.J.; Dey, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Argonne PII-ECR ion source has been operating for ten months. Beam development has proceeded well and has included the first beams from solid materials as well as gases. High voltage operation has been accomplished and beams to an atomic physics program have been provided for a total of four months. Problems with the high voltage transformer has limited run time at high voltage. A test of ion cyclotron resonance heating has occurred, demonstrating the possibility of selectively enhancing certain charge states in the extracted beam distributions. First beam from the Phase I Positive Ion Injector (PII) project is scheduled for February, 1989. 7 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Using Different Photon Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Caggiano, Joseph A.; Ahmed, Mohammad; Bertozzi, William; Hunt, Alan W.; Johnson, James; Jones, James L.; Korbly, Steve; Reedy, Edward; Seipel, Heather; Stave, Sean; Watson, Scott; Weller, Henry

    2008-11-14

    Abstract–Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) is a photon-based active interrogation approach that provides isotope-specific signatures that can be used to detect and characterize samples. As NRF systems are designed to address specific appli¬cations, an obvious first question to address is the type of photon source to be employed for the application. Our collaboration has conducted a series of NRF measurements using different photon sources to begin to examine this issue. The measurements were designed to be as similar as possible to facilitate a straightforward comparison of the different sources. Measurements were conducted with a high-duty factor electron accelerator using bremsstrahlung photons, with a pulsed linear accelerator using bremsstrahlung photons, and with a narrow bandwidth photon source using Compton backscattered photons. We present our observations on the advantages and disadvantages of each photon source type. Issues such as signal rate, the signal-to-noise ratio, and absorbed dose are discussed.

  7. Observation of a shape resonance of the positronium negative ion

    PubMed Central

    Michishio, Koji; Kanai, Tsuneto; Kuma, Susumu; Azuma, Toshiyuki; Wada, Ken; Mochizuki, Izumi; Hyodo, Toshio; Yagishita, Akira; Nagashima, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    When an electron binds to its anti-matter counterpart, the positron, it forms the exotic atom positronium (Ps). Ps can further bind to another electron to form the positronium negative ion, Ps− (e−e+e−). Since its constituents are solely point-like particles with the same mass, this system provides an excellent testing ground for the three-body problem in quantum mechanics. While theoretical works on its energy level and dynamics have been performed extensively, experimental investigations of its characteristics have been hampered by the weak ion yield and short annihilation lifetime. Here we report on the laser spectroscopy study of Ps−, using a source of efficiently produced ions, generated from the bombardment of slow positrons onto a Na-coated W surface. A strong shape resonance of 1Po symmetry has been observed near the Ps (n=2) formation threshold. The resonance energy and width measured are in good agreement with the result of three-body calculations. PMID:26983496

  8. ION SOURCES FOR ENERGY EXTREMES OF ION IMPLANTATION.

    SciTech Connect

    HERSCHCOVITCH,A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; BATALIN, V.A.; KROPACHEV, G.N.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; KULEVOY, T.V.; KOLOMIETS, A.A.; PERSHIN, V.I.; PETRENKO, S.V.; RUDSKOY, I.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; BUGAEV, A.S.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; LITOVKO, I.V.; OKS, E.M.; YUSHKOV, G. YU.; MASEUNOV, E.S.; POLOZOV, S.M.; POOLE, H.J.; STOROZHENKO, P.A.; SVAROVSKI, YA.

    2007-08-26

    For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques, which meet the two energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of Antimony and Phosphorous ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb{sup 4+}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. For low energy ion implantation our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA of positive Decaborane ions were extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative Decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, Boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bemas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

  9. Sample inlet tube for ion source

    DOEpatents

    Prior, David [Hermiston, OR; Price, John [Richland, WA; Bruce, Jim [Oceanside, CA

    2002-09-24

    An improved inlet tube is positioned within an aperture through the device to allow the passage of ions from the ion source, through the improved inlet tube, and into the interior of the device. The inlet tube is designed with a larger end and a smaller end wherein the larger end has a larger interior diameter than the interior diameter of the smaller end. The inlet tube is positioned within the aperture such that the larger end is pointed towards the ion source, to receive ions therefrom, and the smaller end is directed towards the interior of the device, to deliver the ions thereto. Preferably, the ion source utilized in the operation of the present invention is a standard electrospray ionization source. Similarly, the present invention finds particular utility in conjunction with analytical devices such as mass spectrometers.

  10. Note: Ion source design for ion trap systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriega, J. R.; Quevedo, M.; Gnade, B.; Vasselli, J.

    2013-06-01

    A small plasma (glow discharge) based ion source and circuit are described in this work. The ion source works by producing a high voltage pulsed discharge between two electrodes in a pressure range of 50-100 mTorr. A third mesh electrode is used for ion extraction. The electrodes are small stainless steel screws mounted in a MACOR ionization chamber in a linear arrangement. The electrode arrangement is driven by a circuit, design for low power operation. This design is a proof of concept intended for applications on small cylindrical ion traps.

  11. Peltier Refrigerators for Molecular Ion Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2008-11-01

    Molecular ion sources have been considered for various applications. In particular, there is considerable effort to develop decaborane and octadecaborane ion sources for the semiconductor industry. Since the invention of the transistor, the trend has been to miniaturize semiconductor devices. As semiconductors become smaller (and get miniaturized), ion energy needed for implantation decreases, since shallow implantation is desired. But, due to space charge (intra-ion repulsion) effects, forming and transporting ion beams becomes a rather difficult task. These problems associated with lower energy ion beams limit implanter ion currents, thus leading to low production rates. One way to tackle the space charge problem is to use singly charged molecular ions. A crucial aspect in generating large molecular ion beam currents is ion source temperature control. Peltier coolers, which have in the past successfully utilized in BaF2 and CSI gamma ray detectors, may be ideal for this application. Clogging prevention of molecular ion sources is also a hurdle, which was overcome with special slots. Both topics are to be presented.

  12. Primary ion sources for EBIS devices

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, R. )

    1989-06-01

    The ion-optical conditions for primary ion sources that could be installed in an EBIS injector are derived, assuming a realistic set of fixed parameters to be imposed by the EBIS. It is shown how these requirements may be met, and that beam currents of up to 2 mA can be generated with the postulated emittance. This derivation, even though carried out for one specific case, gives general guide lines how to proceede for other conditions as well. In the second part, different types of ion sources are presented that are likely candidates for EBIS injector sources. Beam current examples are given and the basic features of the sources discussed. The emphasis of this paper is put on the reliable production of ion beams, rather than attempting to furnish a representative cross section of the existing ion source varieties.

  13. Radio frequency multicusp ion source development (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-03-01

    The radio-frequency (rf) driven multicusp source was originally developed for use in the Superconducting Super Collider injector. It has been demonstrated that the source can meet the H{sup {minus}} beam current and emittance requirements for this application. By employing a porcelain-coated antenna, a clean plasma discharge with very long-life operation can be achieved. Today, the rf source is used to generate both positive and negative hydrogen ion beams and has been tested in various particle accelerator laboratories throughout the world. Applications of this ion source have been extended to other fields such as ion beam lithography, oil-well logging, ion implantation, accelerator mass spectrometry and medical therapy machines. This paper summarizes the latest rf ion source technology and development at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Polarized 3He− ion source with hyperfine state selection

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, V.; Morozov, Vasiliy; Dudnikov, A.

    2015-04-01

    High beam polarization is essential to the scientific productivity of a collider. Polarized 3He ions are an essential part of the nuclear physics programs at existing and future ion-ion and electron-ion colliders such as BNL's RHIC and eRHIC and JLab's ELIC. Ion sources with performance exceeding that achieved today are a key requirement for the development of these next generation high-luminosity high-polarization colliders. The development of high-intensity high-brightness arc-discharge ion sources at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) has opened up an opportunity for realization of a new type of a polarized 3He− ion source. This report discusses a polarized 3He− ion source based on the large difference of extra-electron auto-detachment lifetimes of the different 3He− ion hyperfine states. The highest momentum state of 5/2 has the largest lifetime of τ ∼ 350 µs while the lower momentum states have lifetimes of τ ~ 10 µs. By producing 3He− ion beam composed of only the |5/2, ±5/2> hyperfine states and then quenching one of the states by an RF resonant field, 3He− beam polarization of 90% can be achieved. Such a method of polarized 3He− production has been considered before; however, due to low intensities of the He+ ion sources existing at that time, it was not possible to produce any interesting intensity of polarized 3He− ions. The high-brightness arc-discharge ion source developed at BINP can produce a high-brightness 3He+ beam with an intensity of up to 2 A allowing for selection of up to ∼1-4 mA of 3He− ions with ∼90% polarization. The high gas efficiency of an arc-discharge source is important due to the high cost of 3He gas. Some features of such a PIS as well as prototype designs are considered. An integrated 3He− ion source design providing high beam polarization could be prepared using existing BNL equipment with incorporation of new designs of the 1) arc discharge plasma generator, 2) extraction system, 3) charge

  15. Development of ion beams for space effects testing using an ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, Janilee; Hodgkinson, Adrian; Johnson, Mike; Loew, Tim; Lyneis, Claude; Phair, Larry

    2013-04-19

    At LBNL's 88-Inch Cyclotron and Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects (BASE) Facility, a range of ion beams at energies from 1 to 55 MeV/nucleon are used for radiation space effects testing. By bombarding a component with ion beams the radiation component of the space environment can be simulated and single event effects (SEEs) determined. The performance of electronic components used in space flight and high altitude aircraft can then be evaluated. The 88- Inch Cyclotron is coupled to the three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECR, AECR-U, VENUS). These ion sources provide a variety of ion species, ranging from protons to heavy ions such as bismuth, for these tests. In particular the ion sources have been developed to provide {sup c}ocktails{sup ,} a mixture of ions of similar mass-to-charge ratio, which can be simultaneously injected into the cyclotron, but selectively extracted from it. The ions differ in both their linear energy transfer (LET) deposited to the part and in their penetration depth into the tested part. The current heavy ion cocktails available are the 4.5, 10, 16, and 30 MeV per nucleon.

  16. Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, Igor B. Ryabchikov, Alexander I.; Sivin, Denis O.; Verigin, Dan A.

    2014-02-15

    The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface.

  17. ION SOURCE WITH SPACE CHARGE NEUTRALIZATION

    DOEpatents

    Flowers, J.W.; Luce, J.S.; Stirling, W.L.

    1963-01-22

    This patent relates to a space charge neutralized ion source in which a refluxing gas-fed arc discharge is provided between a cathode and a gas-fed anode to provide ions. An electron gun directs a controlled, monoenergetic electron beam through the discharge. A space charge neutralization is effected in the ion source and accelerating gap by oscillating low energy electrons, and a space charge neutralization of the source exit beam is effected by the monoenergetic electron beam beyond the source exit end. The neutralized beam may be accelerated to any desired energy at densities well above the limitation imposed by Langmuir-Child' s law. (AEC)

  18. Space-charge compensation measurements in electron cyclotron resonance ion source low energy beam transport lines with a retarding field analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Winklehner, D.; Leitner, D. Cole, D.; Machicoane, G.; Tobos, L.

    2014-02-15

    In this paper we describe the first systematic measurement of beam neutralization (space charge compensation) in the ECR low energy transport line with a retarding field analyzer, which can be used to measure the potential of the beam. Expected trends for the space charge compensation levels such as increase with residual gas pressure, beam current, and beam density could be observed. However, the overall levels of neutralization are consistently low (<60%). The results and the processes involved for neutralizing ion beams are discussed for conditions typical for ECR injector beam lines. The results are compared to a simple theoretical beam plasma model as well as simulations.

  19. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators.

    PubMed

    Boytsov, A Yu; Donets, D E; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Katagiri, K; Noda, K; Ponkin, D O; Ramzdorf, A Yu; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B

    2015-08-01

    The type of the Electron String Ion Sources (ESIS) is considered to be the appropriate one to produce pulsed C(4+) and C(6+) ion beams for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact, the new test ESIS Krion-6T already now provides more than 10(10) C(4+) ions per pulse and about 5 × 10(9) C(6+) ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable to apply at synchrotrons. It has also been found that Krion-6T can provide more than 10(11) C(6+) ions per second at the 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. ESIS can be also a suitable type of ion source to produce the (11)C radioactive ion beams. A specialized cryogenic cell was experimentally tested at the Krion-2M ESIS for pulse injection of gaseous species into the electron string. It has been shown in experiments with stable methane that the total conversion efficiency of methane molecules to C(4+) ions reached 5%÷10%. For cancer therapy with simultaneous irradiation and precise dose control (positron emission tomography) by means of (11)C, transporting to the tumor with the primary accelerated (11)C(4+) beam, this efficiency is preliminarily considered to be large enough to produce the (11)C(4+) beam from radioactive methane and to inject this beam into synchrotrons.

  20. Cold atomic beam ion source for focused ion beam applications

    SciTech Connect

    Knuffman, B.; Steele, A. V.; McClelland, J. J.

    2013-07-28

    We report measurements and modeling of an ion source that is based on ionization of a laser-cooled atomic beam. We show a high brightness and a low energy spread, suitable for use in next-generation, high-resolution focused ion beam systems. Our measurements of total ion current as a function of ionization conditions support an analytical model that also predicts the cross-sectional current density and spatial distribution of ions created in the source. The model predicts a peak brightness of 2 × 10{sup 7} A m{sup −2} sr{sup −1} eV{sup −1} and an energy spread less than 0.34 eV. The model is also combined with Monte-Carlo simulations of the inter-ion Coulomb forces to show that the source can be operated at several picoamperes with a brightness above 1 × 10{sup 7} A m{sup −2} sr{sup −1} eV{sup −1}. We estimate that when combined with a conventional ion focusing column, an ion source with these properties could focus a 1 pA beam into a spot smaller than 1 nm. A total current greater than 5 nA was measured in a lower-brightness configuration of the ion source, demonstrating the possibility of a high current mode of operation.

  1. Cold atomic beam ion source for focused ion beam applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuffman, B.; Steele, A. V.; McClelland, J. J.

    2013-07-01

    We report measurements and modeling of an ion source that is based on ionization of a laser-cooled atomic beam. We show a high brightness and a low energy spread, suitable for use in next-generation, high-resolution focused ion beam systems. Our measurements of total ion current as a function of ionization conditions support an analytical model that also predicts the cross-sectional current density and spatial distribution of ions created in the source. The model predicts a peak brightness of 2 × 107 A m-2 sr-1 eV-1 and an energy spread less than 0.34 eV. The model is also combined with Monte-Carlo simulations of the inter-ion Coulomb forces to show that the source can be operated at several picoamperes with a brightness above 1 × 107 A m-2 sr-1 eV-1. We estimate that when combined with a conventional ion focusing column, an ion source with these properties could focus a 1 pA beam into a spot smaller than 1 nm. A total current greater than 5 nA was measured in a lower-brightness configuration of the ion source, demonstrating the possibility of a high current mode of operation.

  2. Proceedings of the 10th international workshop on ECR ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, F W; Kirkpatrick, M I

    1991-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Recent Developments and Future Projects on ECR Ion Sources; Operation of the New KVI ECR Ion Source at 10 GHz; Operational Experience and Status of the INS SF-ECR Ion Source; Results of the New ECR4'' 14.5 GHz ECRIS; Preliminary Performance of the AECR; Experimental Study of the Parallel and Perpendicular Particle Losses from an ECRIS Plasma; Plasma Instability in Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heated Ion Sources; The Hyperbolic Energy Analyzer; Status of ECR Source Development; The New 10 GHz CAPRICE Source; First Operation of the Texas A M ECR Ion Source; Recent Developments of the RIKEN ECR Ion Sources; The 14 GHz CAPRICE Source; Characteristics and Potential Applications of an ORNL Microwave ECR Multicusp Plasma Ion Source; ECRIPAC: The Production and Acceleration of Multiply Charged Ions Using an ECR Plasma; ECR Source for the HHIRF Tandem Accelerator; Feasibility Studies for an ECR-Generated Plasma Stripper; Production of Ion Beams by using the ECR Plasmas Cathode; A Single Stage ECR Source for Efficient Production of Radioactive Ion Beams; The Single Staged ECR Source at the TRIUMF Isotope Separator TISOL; The Continuous Wave, Optically Pumped H{sup {minus}} Source; The H{sup +} ECR Source for the LAMPF Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source; Present Status of the Warsaw CUSP ECR Ion Source; An ECR Source for Negative Ion Production; GYRAC-D: A Device for a 200 keV ECR Plasma Production and Accumulation; Status Report of the 14.4 GHZ ECR in Legnaro; Status of JYFL-ECRIS; Report on the Uppsala ECRIS Facility and Its Planned Use for Atomic Physics; A 10 GHz ECR Ion Source for Ion-Electron and Ion-Atom Collision Studies; and Status of the ORNL ECR Source Facility for Multicharged Ion Collision Research.

  3. Ion source studies for particle beam accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Bieg, K.W.; Burns, E.J.T.; Olsen, J.N.; Dorrell, L.R.

    1985-05-01

    High power particle beam accelerators are being developed for use in inertial confinement fusion applications. These pulsed power accelerators require sources of low atomic number ions (e.g., protons, deuterons, carbon, or lithium). The sources must be of high purity for efficient accelerator operation and proper target coupling, must have a rapid ''turn-on,'' and must be compatible with ion diode configurations under development. A particular type of source presently being investigated is the flashover ion source which generates ions by means of the vacuum flashover of an insulating anode material when the high voltage pulse arrives at the diode. We have developed an applied-magnetic-field, extraction ion diode for the 0.03 TW Nereus accelerator specifically to investigate these sources. Extracted ion species are measured by means of a Thomson-parabola ion analyzer, dB/dt current monitors, and Faraday cups. Experiments have been performed to investigate the surface flashover mechanism and the effects of various dielectric source materials, anode preparation methods (including rf glow discharge cleaning), and vacuum conditions on ion species and diode operation.

  4. Thirty-centimeter-diameter ion milling source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A 30-cm beam diameter ion source has been designed and fabricated for micromachining and sputtering applications. An argon ion current density of 1 mA/cu cm at 500 eV ion energy was selected as a design operating condition. The completed ion source met the design criteria at this operating condition with a uniform and well-collimated beam having an average variation in current density of + or - 5% over the center of 20 cm of the beam. This ion source has a multipole magnetic field that employs permanent magnets between permeable pole pieces. Langmuir probe surveys of the source plasma support the design concepts of a multipole field and a circumferential cathode to enhance plasma uniformity.

  5. Ion source design for industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    The design of broad-beam industrial ion sources is described. The approach used emphasizes refractory metal cathodes and permanent-magnet multipole discharge chambers. Design procedures and sample calculations are given for the discharge chamber, ion optics, cathodes, and magnetic circuit. Hardware designs are included for the isolator, cathode supports, anode supports, pole-piece assembly, and ion-optics supports. There are other ways of designing most ion source components, but the designs presented are representative of current technology and adaptable to a wide range of configurations.

  6. Inert gas ion source program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    THe original 12 cm hexagonal magneto-electrostatic containment discharge chamber has been optimized for argon and xenon operation. Argon mass utilization efficiencies of 65 to 77 percent were achieved at keeper-plus-main discharge energy consumptions of 200 to 458 eV/ion, respectively. Xenon performance of 84 to 96 percent mass utilization was realized at 203 to 350 eV/ion. The optimization process and test results are discussed.

  7. An ion-optical bench for testing ion source lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffels, J. J.; Ells, D. R.

    1988-06-01

    An ion-optical bench has been designed and constructed to obtain experimental data on the focusing properties of ion lenses in three dimensions. The heart of the apparatus is a position-sensitive detector (PSD) that gives output signals proportional to the x and y positions of each ion impact. The position signals can be displayed on an oscilloscope screen and analyzed by a two-parameter pulse-height analyzer, thereby giving a visual picture of the ion beam cross section and intensity distribution. The PSD itself is mounted on a track and is movable during operation from a position immediately following the ion lens to 30 cm away. This enables the rapid collection of accurate data on the intensity distribution and divergence angles of ions leaving the source lens. Examples of ion lens measurements are given.

  8. Development of a compact ECR ion source for various ion production

    SciTech Connect

    Muramatsu, M. Hojo, S.; Iwata, Y.; Katagiri, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kitagawa, A.; Takahashi, N.; Sasaki, N.; Fukushima, K.; Takahashi, K.; Suzuki, T.; Sasano, T.; Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Hagino, S.; Nishiokada, T.; Kato, Y.

    2016-02-15

    There is a desire that a carbon-ion radiotherapy facility will produce various ion species for fundamental research. Although the present Kei2-type ion sources are dedicated for the carbon-ion production, a future ion source is expected that could provide: (1) carbon-ion production for medical use, (2) various ions with a charge-to-mass ratio of 1/3 for the existing Linac injector, and (3) low cost for modification. A prototype compact electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, named Kei3, based on the Kei series has been developed to correspond to the Kei2 type and to produce these various ions at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). The Kei3 has an outer diameter of 280 mm and a length of 1120 mm. The magnetic field is formed by the same permanent magnet as Kei2. The movable extraction electrode has been installed in order to optimize the beam extraction with various current densities. The gas-injection side of the vacuum chamber has enough space for an oven system. We measured dependence of microwave frequency, extraction voltage, and puller position. Charge state distributions of helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and neon were also measured.

  9. Development of a compact ECR ion source for various ion production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, M.; Hojo, S.; Iwata, Y.; Katagiri, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Sasaki, N.; Fukushima, K.; Takahashi, K.; Suzuki, T.; Sasano, T.; Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Hagino, S.; Nishiokada, T.; Kato, Y.; Kitagawa, A.

    2016-02-01

    There is a desire that a carbon-ion radiotherapy facility will produce various ion species for fundamental research. Although the present Kei2-type ion sources are dedicated for the carbon-ion production, a future ion source is expected that could provide: (1) carbon-ion production for medical use, (2) various ions with a charge-to-mass ratio of 1/3 for the existing Linac injector, and (3) low cost for modification. A prototype compact electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, named Kei3, based on the Kei series has been developed to correspond to the Kei2 type and to produce these various ions at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). The Kei3 has an outer diameter of 280 mm and a length of 1120 mm. The magnetic field is formed by the same permanent magnet as Kei2. The movable extraction electrode has been installed in order to optimize the beam extraction with various current densities. The gas-injection side of the vacuum chamber has enough space for an oven system. We measured dependence of microwave frequency, extraction voltage, and puller position. Charge state distributions of helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and neon were also measured.

  10. Ion source with external RF antenna

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ji, Qing; Wilde, Stephen

    2005-12-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source.

  11. Electrospray ion source with reduced analyte electrochemistry

    DOEpatents

    Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN; Van Berkel, Gary [Clinton, TN

    2011-08-23

    An electrospray ion (ESI) source and method capable of ionizing an analyte molecule without oxidizing or reducing the analyte of interest. The ESI source can include an emitter having a liquid conduit, a working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, a spray tip, a secondary working electrode, and a charge storage coating covering partially or fully the liquid contacting surface of the working electrode. The liquid conduit, the working electrode and the secondary working electrode can be in liquid communication. The electrospray ion source can also include a counter electrode proximate to, but separated from, said spray tip. The electrospray ion source can also include a power system for applying a voltage difference between the working electrodes and a counter-electrode. The power system can deliver pulsed voltage changes to the working electrodes during operation of said electrospray ion source to minimize the surface potential of the charge storage coating.

  12. Sources of polyatomic ions of organic liquids.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, G H; Takeuchi, M; Ryuto, H

    2010-02-01

    We have developed two types of liquid ion sources, one of which was a polyatomic ion source using liquid organic materials with a high-vapor pressure. Liquid materials such as octane and ethanol could be heated up to a maximum temperature of 100 degrees C, and the vapors were introduced into an ion source. They were ionized by an electron bombardment method and extracted from the ionizer. The ion current obtained at an extraction voltage of 2 kV was 230 microA for octane and several fragment ions such as alkyl ions were produced. On the other hand, another type of polyatomic ion source using alkyl naphthalene mixed with ionic liquid such as imidazolium dicyanamide has been developed. Instead of the electron bombardment method, a high-electric field method was used for the ion-emission from a sharp tip, because the vapor pressure of the liquid materials was relatively low. The threshold voltage was approximately 4.5 kV and the ion current of approximately 250 nA was obtained at an extraction voltage of 9.5 kV.

  13. Laser generated neutron source for neutron resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Higginson, D. P.; Bartal, T.; McNaney, J. M.; Swift, D. C.; Hey, D. S.; Le Pape, S.; Mackinnon, A.; Kodama, R.; Tanaka, K. A.; Mariscal, D.; Beg, F. N.; Nakamura, H.; Nakanii, N.

    2010-10-15

    A neutron source for neutron resonance spectroscopy has been developed using high-intensity, short-pulse lasers. This technique will allow robust measurement of interior ion temperature of laser-shocked materials and provide insight into material equation of state. The neutron generation technique uses laser-accelerated protons to create neutrons in LiF through (p,n) reactions. The incident proton beam has been diagnosed using radiochromic film. This distribution is used as the input for a (p,n) neutron prediction code which is validated with experimentally measured neutron yields. The calculation infers a total fluence of 1.8x10{sup 9} neutrons, which are expected to be sufficient for neutron resonance spectroscopy temperature measurements.

  14. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.; Hiskes, John R.

    1985-01-01

    A negative ion vessel is divided into an excitation chamber, a negative ionization chamber and an extraction chamber by two magnetic filters. Input means introduces neutral molecules into a first chamber where a first electron discharge means vibrationally excites the molecules which migrate to a second chamber. In the second chamber a second electron discharge means ionizes the molecules, producing negative ions which are extracted into or by a third chamber. A first magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the negative ionization chamber from the excitation chamber. A second magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the extraction chamber from the negative ionizing chamber. An extraction grid at the end of the negative ion vessel attracts negative ions into the third chamber and accelerates them. Another grid, located adjacent to the extraction grid, carries a small positive voltage in order to inhibit positive ions from migrating into the extraction chamber and contour the plasma potential. Additional electrons can be suppressed from the output flux using ExB forces provided by magnetic field means and the extractor grid electric potential.

  15. Comparison of particle-in-cell simulation with experiment for the transport system of the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source VENUS

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, D.S.; Leitner, D.; Leitner, M.; Lyneis, C.M.; Qiang, J.; Grote, D.P.

    2006-03-15

    The three-dimensional, particle-in-cell code WARP has been enhanced to allow end-to-end beam dynamics simulations of the VENUS beam transport system from the extraction region, through a mass-analyzing magnet, and up to a two-axis emittance scanner. This article presents the first results of comparisons between the simulation and experimental data. A helium beam (He{sup +} and He{sup 2+}) is chosen as an initial comparison beam due to its simple mass spectrum. Although a number of simplifications are made for the initial extracted beam, aberration characteristics appear in simulations that are also present in experimental phase-space current-density measurements. Further, measurements of phase-space tilt indicate that simulations must have little or no space-charge neutralization along the transport system to best agree with experiment. In addition, recent measurements of triangular beam structure immediately after the source are presented. This beam structure is related to the source magnetic confinement fields and will need to be taken into account as the initial beam approximations are lifted.

  16. Development of a microwave ion source for ion implantations

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, N. Murata, H.; Kitami, H.; Mitsubori, H.; Sakuraba, J.; Soga, T.; Aoki, Y.; Katoh, T.

    2016-02-15

    A microwave ion source is expected to have a long lifetime, as it has fewer consumables. Thus, we are in the process of developing a microwave ion source for ion implantation applications. In this paper, we report on a newly developed plasma chamber and the extracted P{sup +} beam currents. The volume of the plasma chamber is optimized by varying the length of a boron nitride block installed within the chamber. The extracted P{sup +} beam current is more than 30 mA, at a 25 kV acceleration voltage, using PH{sub 3} gas.

  17. Development of a microwave ion source for ion implantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, N.; Murata, H.; Kitami, H.; Mitsubori, H.; Sakuraba, J.; Soga, T.; Aoki, Y.; Katoh, T.

    2016-02-01

    A microwave ion source is expected to have a long lifetime, as it has fewer consumables. Thus, we are in the process of developing a microwave ion source for ion implantation applications. In this paper, we report on a newly developed plasma chamber and the extracted P+ beam currents. The volume of the plasma chamber is optimized by varying the length of a boron nitride block installed within the chamber. The extracted P+ beam current is more than 30 mA, at a 25 kV acceleration voltage, using PH3 gas.

  18. ION SOURCE (R.F. INDUCTION TYPE)

    DOEpatents

    Mills, C.B.

    1963-04-01

    A method is given for producing energetic ions by ionizing a gas with an oscillating electric field which is parallel to a confining magnetic field, then reorienting the fields perpendicular to each other to accelerate the ions to higher energies. An ion source is described wherein a secondary coil threads the bottom of a rectangular ionization chamber and induces an oscillating field parallel to a fixed intense magnetic field through the chamber. (AEC)

  19. Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2009-06-30

    Original technical objectives of CRADA number PVI C-03-09 between BNL and Poole Ventura, Inc. (PVI) were to develop an intense, high charge state, ion source for MeV ion implanters. Present day high-energy ion implanters utilize low charge state (usually single charge) ion sources in combination with rf accelerators. Usually, a MV LINAC is used for acceleration of a few rnA. It is desirable to have instead an intense, high charge state ion source on a relatively low energy platform (de acceleration) to generate high-energy ion beams for implantation. This de acceleration of ions will be far more efficient (in energy utilization). The resultant implanter will be smaller in size. It will generate higher quality ion beams (with lower emittance) for fabrication of superior semiconductor products. In addition to energy and cost savings, the implanter will operate at a lower level of health risks associated with ion implantation. An additional aim of the project was to producing a product that can lead to long­ term job creation in Russia and/or in the US. R&D was conducted in two Russian Centers (one in Tomsk and Seversk, the other in Moscow) under the guidance ofPVI personnel and the BNL PI. Multiple approaches were pursued, developed, and tested at various locations with the best candidate for commercialization delivered and tested at on an implanter at the PVI client Axcelis. Technical developments were exciting: record output currents of high charge state phosphorus and antimony were achieved; a Calutron-Bemas ion source with a 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art). Record steady state output currents of higher charge state phosphorous and antimony and P ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb {sup 4 +}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. Ultimate commercialization goals did not succeed (even though a number of the products like high

  20. A negative ion source test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Melanson, S.; Dehnel, M. Potkins, D.; Theroux, J.; Hollinger, C.; Martin, J.; Stewart, T.; Jackle, P.; Withington, S.; Philpott, C.; Williams, P.; Brown, S.; Jones, T.; Coad, B.

    2016-02-15

    Progress is being made in the development of an Ion Source Test Facility (ISTF) by D-Pace Inc. in collaboration with Buckley Systems Ltd. in Auckland, NZ. The first phase of the ISTF is to be commissioned in October 2015 with the second phase being commissioned in March 2016. The facility will primarily be used for the development and the commercialization of ion sources. It will also be used to characterize and further develop various D-Pace Inc. beam diagnostic devices.

  1. An advanced negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, Alexey A. Dobrovolsky, Andrey N.; Goretskii, Victor P.

    2016-02-15

    The results of investigation of emission productivity of negative particles source with cesiated combined discharge are presented. A cylindrical beam of negative hydrogen ions with density about 2 A/cm{sup 2} in low noise mode on source emission aperture is obtained. The total beam current values are up to 200 mA for negative hydrogen ions and up to 1.5 A for all negative particles with high divergence after source. The source has simple design and can produce stable discharge with low level of oscillation.

  2. Negative ion source with external RF antenna

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Hahto, Sami K.; Hahto, Sari T.

    2007-02-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source. A converter can be included in the ion source to produce negative ions.

  3. Mode conversion of fast Alfvén waves at the ion-ion hybrid resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, A. K.; Bers, A.; Schultz, S. D.; Fuchs, V.

    1996-05-01

    Substantial radio-frequency power in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies can be effectively coupled to a tokamak plasma from poloidal current strap antennas at the plasma edge. If there exists an ion-ion hybrid resonance inside the plasma, then some of the power from the antenna, delivered into the plasma by fast Alfvén waves, can be mode converted to ion-Bernstein waves. In tokamak confinement fields the mode-converted ion-Bernstein waves can damp effectively and locally on electrons [A. K. Ram and A. Bers, Phys. Fluids B 3, 1059 (1991)]. The usual mode-conversion analysis that studies the propagation of fast Alfvén waves in the immediate vicinity of the ion-ion hybrid resonance is extended to include the propagation and reflection of the fast Alfvén waves on the high magnetic-field side of the ion-ion hybrid resonance. It is shown that there exist plasma conditions for which the entire fast Alfvén wave power incident on the ion-ion hybrid resonance can be converted to ion-Bernstein waves. In this extended analysis of the mode conversion process, the fast Alfvén waves can be envisioned as being coupled to an internal plasma resonator. This resonator extends from the low magnetic-field cutoff near the ion-ion hybrid resonance to the high magnetic-field cutoff. The condition for 100% mode conversion corresponds to a critical coupling of the fast Alfvén waves to this internal resonator. As an example, the appropriate plasma conditions for 100% mode conversion are determined for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [R. Majeski et al., Proceedings of the 11th Topical Conference on RF Power in Plasmas, Palm Springs (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1995), Vol. 355, p. 63] experimental parameters.

  4. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Boytsov, A. Yu.; Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Ponkin, D. O.; Ramzdorf, A. Yu.; Salnikov, V. V.; Shutov, V. B.; Katagiri, K.; Noda, K.

    2015-08-15

    The type of the Electron String Ion Sources (ESIS) is considered to be the appropriate one to produce pulsed C{sup 4+} and C{sup 6+} ion beams for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact, the new test ESIS Krion-6T already now provides more than 10{sup 10} C{sup 4+} ions per pulse and about 5 × 10{sup 9} C{sup 6+} ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable to apply at synchrotrons. It has also been found that Krion-6T can provide more than 10{sup 11} C{sup 6+} ions per second at the 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. ESIS can be also a suitable type of ion source to produce the {sup 11}C radioactive ion beams. A specialized cryogenic cell was experimentally tested at the Krion-2M ESIS for pulse injection of gaseous species into the electron string. It has been shown in experiments with stable methane that the total conversion efficiency of methane molecules to C{sup 4+} ions reached 5%÷10%. For cancer therapy with simultaneous irradiation and precise dose control (positron emission tomography) by means of {sup 11}C, transporting to the tumor with the primary accelerated {sup 11}C{sup 4+} beam, this efficiency is preliminarily considered to be large enough to produce the {sup 11}C{sup 4+} beam from radioactive methane and to inject this beam into synchrotrons.

  5. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, A.; Gushenets, V. I.; Bugaev, A. S.; Oks, E. M.; Vizir, A.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Seleznev, D. N.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Kozlov, A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Minaev, S.; Dugin, S.; Alexeyenko, O.

    2016-02-15

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C{sub 4}H{sub 12}B{sub 10}O{sub 4}) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH{sub 3} = P{sub 4} + 6H{sub 2}; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  6. Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion source.

    PubMed

    Kondo, K; Yamamoto, T; Sekine, M; Okamura, M

    2012-02-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current (∼100 μA) with high charge (∼10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline.

  7. New Cs sputter ion source with polyatomic ion beams for secondary ion mass spectrometry applications

    SciTech Connect

    Belykh, S. F.; Palitsin, V. V.; Veryovkin, I. V.; Kovarsky, A. P.; Chang, R. J. H.; Adriaens, A.; Dowsett, M. G.; Adams, F.

    2007-08-15

    A simple design for a cesium sputter ion source compatible with vacuum and ion-optical systems as well as with electronics of the commercially available Cameca IMS-4f instrument is reported. This ion source has been tested with the cluster primary ions of Si{sub n}{sup -} and Cu{sub n}{sup -}. Our experiments with surface characterization and depth profiling conducted to date demonstrate improvements of the analytical capabilities of the secondary ion mass spectrometry instrument due to the nonadditive enhancement of secondary ion emission and shorter ion ranges of polyatomic projectiles compared to atomic ones with the same impact energy.

  8. New Cs sputter ion source with polyatomic ion beams for secondary ion mass spectrometry applications.

    PubMed

    Belykh, S F; Palitsin, V V; Veryovkin, I V; Kovarsky, A P; Chang, R J H; Adriaens, A; Dowsett, M G; Adams, F

    2007-08-01

    A simple design for a cesium sputter ion source compatible with vacuum and ion-optical systems as well as with electronics of the commercially available Cameca IMS-4f instrument is reported. This ion source has been tested with the cluster primary ions of Si(n)(-) and Cu(n)(-). Our experiments with surface characterization and depth profiling conducted to date demonstrate improvements of the analytical capabilities of the secondary ion mass spectrometry instrument due to the nonadditive enhancement of secondary ion emission and shorter ion ranges of polyatomic projectiles compared to atomic ones with the same impact energy.

  9. New Cs sputter ion source with polyatomic ion beams for secondary ion mass spectrometry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belykh, S. F.; Palitsin, V. V.; Veryovkin, I. V.; Kovarsky, A. P.; Chang, R. J. H.; Adriaens, A.; Dowsett, M. G.; Adams, F.

    2007-08-01

    A simple design for a cesium sputter ion source compatible with vacuum and ion-optical systems as well as with electronics of the commercially available Cameca IMS-4f instrument is reported. This ion source has been tested with the cluster primary ions of Sin- and Cun-. Our experiments with surface characterization and depth profiling conducted to date demonstrate improvements of the analytical capabilities of the secondary ion mass spectrometry instrument due to the nonadditive enhancement of secondary ion emission and shorter ion ranges of polyatomic projectiles compared to atomic ones with the same impact energy.

  10. Negative hydrogen ion sources for accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Moehs, D.P.; Peters, J.; Sherman, J.; /Los Alamos

    2005-08-01

    A variety of H{sup -} ion sources are in use at accelerator laboratories around the world. A list of these ion sources includes surface plasma sources with magnetron, Penning and surface converter geometries as well as magnetic-multipole volume sources with and without cesium. Just as varied is the means of igniting and maintaining magnetically confined plasmas. Hot and cold cathodes, radio frequency, and microwave power are all in use, as well as electron tandem source ignition. The extraction systems of accelerator H{sup -} ion sources are highly specialized utilizing magnetic and electric fields in their low energy beam transport systems to produce direct current, as well as pulsed and/or chopped beams with a variety of time structures. Within this paper, specific ion sources utilized at accelerator laboratories shall be reviewed along with the physics of surface and volume H{sup -} production in regard to source emittance. Current research trends including aperture modeling, thermal modeling, surface conditioning, and laser diagnostics will also be discussed.

  11. H- ion sources for CERN's Linac4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettry, J.; Aguglia, D.; Coutron, Y.; Chaudet, E.; Dallocchio, A.; Gil Flores, J.; Hansen, J.; Mahner, E.; Mathot, S.; Mattei, S.; Midttun, O.; Moyret, P.; Nisbet, D.; O'Neil, M.; Paoluzzi, M.; Pasquino, C.; Pereira, H.; Arias, J. Sanchez; Schmitzer, C.; Scrivens, R.; Steyaert, D.

    2013-02-01

    The specifications set to the Linac4 ion source are: H- ion pulses of 0.5 ms duration, 80 mA intensity and 45 keV energy within a normalized emittance of 0.25 mmmrad RMS at a repetition rate of 2 Hz. In 2010, during the commissioning of a prototype based on H- production from the plasma volume, it was observed that the powerful co-extracted electron beam inherent to this type of ion source could destroy its electron beam dump well before reaching nominal parameters. However, the same source was able to provide 80 mA of protons mixed with a small fraction of H2+ and H3+ molecular ions. The commissioning of the radio frequency quadrupole accelerator (RFQ), beam chopper and H- beam diagnostics of the Linac4 are scheduled for 2012 and its final installation in the underground building is to start in 2013. Therefore, a crash program was launched in 2010 and reviewed in 2011 aiming at keeping the original Linac4 schedule with the following deliverables: Design and production of a volume ion source prototype suitable for 20-30 mA H- and 80 mA proton pulses at 45 keV by mid-2012. This first prototype will be dedicated to the commissioning of the low energy components of the Linac4. Design and production of a second prototype suitable for 40-50 mA H- based on an external RF solenoid plasma heating and cesiated-surface production mechanism in 2013 and a third prototype based on BNL's Magnetron aiming at reliable 2 Hz and 80 mA H- operations in 2014. In order to ease the future maintenance and allow operation with Ion sources based on three different production principles, an ion source "front end" providing alignment features, pulsed gas injection, pumping units, beam tuning capabilities and pulsed bipolar high voltage acceleration was designed and is being produced. This paper describes the progress of the Linac4 ion source program, the design of the Front end and first ion source prototype. Preliminary results of the summer 2012 commissioning are presented. The outlook on

  12. High Current Ion Source Development for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Westenskow, G A; Grote, D P; Kwan, J W

    2003-09-04

    We are developing high-current-density high-brightness sources for Heavy Ion Fusion applications. Heavy ion driven inertial fusion requires beams of high brightness in order to achieve high power density at the target for high target gain. At present, there are no existing ion source types that can readily meet all the driver HIF requirements, though sources exist which are adequate for present experiments and which with further development may achieve driver requirements. Our two major efforts have been on alumino-silicate sources and RF plasma sources. Experiments being performed on a 10-cm alumino-silicate source are described. To obtain a compact system for a HIF driver we are studying RF plasma sources where low current beamlets are combined to produce a high current beam. A 80-kV 20-{micro}s source has produced up to 5 mA of Ar{sup +} in a single beamlet. The extraction current density was 100 mA/cm{sup 2}. We present measurements of the extracted current density as a function of RF power and gas pressure, current density uniformity, emittance, and energy dispersion (due to charge exchange).

  13. Low temperature ion source for calutrons

    DOEpatents

    Veach, A.M.; Bell, W.A. Jr.; Howell, G.D. Jr.

    1979-10-10

    A new ion source assembly for calutrons has been provided for the efficient separation of elements having high vapor pressures. The strategic location of cooling pads and improved insulation permits operation of the source at lower temperatures. A vapor valve constructed of graphite and located in a constantly increasing temperature gradient provides reliable control of the vapor flow from the charge bottle to the arc chamber. A pronounced saving in calutron operating time and equipment maintenance has been achieved with the use of the present ion source.

  14. Low temperature ion source for calutrons

    DOEpatents

    Veach, Allen M.; Bell, Jr., William A.; Howell, Jr., George D.

    1981-01-01

    A new ion source assembly for calutrons has been provided for the efficient separation of elements having high vapor pressures. The strategic location of cooling pads and improved insulation permits operation of the source at lower temperatures. A vapor valve constructed of graphite and located in a constantly increasing temperature gradient provides reliable control of the vapor flow from the charge bottle to the arc chamber. A pronounced saving in calutron operating time and equipment maintenance has been achieved with the use of the present ion source.

  15. Saddle antenna radio frequency ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, V. Johnson, R.; Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Santana, M.; Piller, C.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Breitschopf, J.; Dudnikova, G.

    2016-02-15

    Existing RF ion sources for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H{sup +} and H{sup −} ion generation ∼3–5 mA/cm{sup 2} kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) surface plasma source (SPS) described here was developed to improve H{sup −} ion production efficiency, reliability, and availability. In SA RF ion source, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm{sup 2} kW. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power ∼1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with ∼4 kW RF. Continuous wave (CW) operation of the SA SPS has been tested on the test stand. The general design of the CW SA SPS is based on the pulsed version. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. CW operation with negative ion extraction was tested with RF power up to ∼1.2 kW in the plasma with production up to Ic = 7 mA. A stable long time generation of H{sup −} beam without degradation was demonstrated in RF discharge with AlN discharge chamber.

  16. Saddle antenna radio frequency ion sources.

    PubMed

    Dudnikov, V; Johnson, R; Murray, S; Pennisi, T; Santana, M; Piller, C; Stockli, M; Welton, R; Breitschopf, J; Dudnikova, G

    2016-02-01

    Existing RF ion sources for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H(+) and H(-) ion generation ∼3-5 mA/cm(2) kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) surface plasma source (SPS) described here was developed to improve H(-) ion production efficiency, reliability, and availability. In SA RF ion source, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm(2) kW. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power ∼1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with ∼4 kW RF. Continuous wave (CW) operation of the SA SPS has been tested on the test stand. The general design of the CW SA SPS is based on the pulsed version. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. CW operation with negative ion extraction was tested with RF power up to ∼1.2 kW in the plasma with production up to Ic = 7 mA. A stable long time generation of H(-) beam without degradation was demonstrated in RF discharge with AlN discharge chamber.

  17. Recent progress on the superconducting ion source VENUS.

    PubMed

    Benitez, J Y; Franzen, K Y; Hodgkinson, A; Loew, T; Lyneis, C M; Phair, L; Saba, J; Strohmeier, M; Tarvainen, O

    2012-02-01

    The 28 GHz Ion Source VENUS (versatile ECR for nuclear science) is back in operation after the superconducting sextupole leads were repaired and a fourth cryocooler was added. VENUS serves as an R&D device to explore the limits of electron cyclotron resonance source performance at 28 GHz with its 10 kW gryotron and optimum magnetic fields and as an ion source to increase the capabilities of the 88-Inch Cyclotron both for nuclear physics research and applications. The development and testing of ovens and sputtering techniques cover a wide range of applications. Recent experiments on bismuth demonstrated stable operation at 300 eμA of Bi(31+), which is in the intensity range of interest for high performance heavy-ion drivers such as FRIB (Facility for Rare Isotope Beams). In addition, the space radiation effects testing program at the cyclotron relies on the production of a cocktail beam with many species produced simultaneously in the ion source and this can be done with a combination of gases, sputter probes, and an oven. These capabilities are being developed with VENUS by adding a low temperature oven, sputter probes, as well as studying the RF coupling into the source.

  18. Recent progress on the superconducting ion source VENUS

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, J. Y.; Franzen, K. Y.; Hodgkinson, A.; Loew, T.; Lyneis, C. M.; Phair, L.; Saba, J.; Strohmeier, M.; Tarvainen, O.

    2012-02-15

    The 28 GHz Ion Source VENUS (versatile ECR for nuclear science) is back in operation after the superconducting sextupole leads were repaired and a fourth cryocooler was added. VENUS serves as an R and D device to explore the limits of electron cyclotron resonance source performance at 28 GHz with its 10 kW gryotron and optimum magnetic fields and as an ion source to increase the capabilities of the 88-Inch Cyclotron both for nuclear physics research and applications. The development and testing of ovens and sputtering techniques cover a wide range of applications. Recent experiments on bismuth demonstrated stable operation at 300 e{mu}A of Bi{sup 31+}, which is in the intensity range of interest for high performance heavy-ion drivers such as FRIB (Facility for Rare Isotope Beams). In addition, the space radiation effects testing program at the cyclotron relies on the production of a cocktail beam with many species produced simultaneously in the ion source and this can be done with a combination of gases, sputter probes, and an oven. These capabilities are being developed with VENUS by adding a low temperature oven, sputter probes, as well as studying the RF coupling into the source.

  19. DUAL HEATED ION SOURCE STRUCTURE HAVING ARC SHIFTING MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, E.O.

    1959-04-14

    An ion source is presented for calutrons, particularly an electrode arrangement for the ion generator of a calutron ion source. The ion source arc chamber is heated and an exit opening with thermally conductive plates defines the margins of the opening. These plates are electrically insulated from the body of the ion source and are connected to a suitable source of voltage to serve as electrodes for shaping the ion beam egressing from the arc chamber.

  20. Ion source based on the cathodic arc

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, D.M.; Falabella, S.

    1994-02-01

    A cylindrically symmetric arc source to produce a ring of ions which leave the surface of the arc target radially and are reflected by electrostatic fields present in the source to a point of use, such as a part to be coated, is described. An array of electrically isolated rings positioned in the source serves the dual purpose of minimizing bouncing of macroparticles and providing electrical insulation to maximize the electric field gradients within the source. The source also includes a series of baffles which function as a filtering or trapping mechanism for any macroparticles. 3 figures.

  1. Ion source based on the cathodic arc

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, David M.; Falabella, Steven

    1994-01-01

    A cylindrically symmetric arc source to produce a ring of ions which leave the surface of the arc target radially and are reflected by electrostatic fields present in the source to a point of use, such as a part to be coated. An array of electrically isolated rings positioned in the source serves the dual purpose of minimizing bouncing of macroparticles and providing electrical insulation to maximize the electric field gradients within the source. The source also includes a series of baffles which function as a filtering or trapping mechanism for any macroparticles.

  2. Blurring the boundaries between ion sources: The application of the RILIS inside a FEBIAD type ion source at ISOLDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day Goodacre, T.; Billowes, J.; Catherall, R.; Cocolios, T. E.; Crepieux, B.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Gaffney, L. P.; Giles, T.; Gottberg, A.; Lynch, K. M.; Marsh, B. A.; Mendonça, T. M.; Ramos, J. P.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Sels, S.; Sotty, C.; Stora, T.; Van Beveren, C.; Veinhard, M.

    2016-06-01

    For the first time, the laser resonance photo-ionization technique has been applied inside a FEBIAD-type ion source at an ISOL facility. This was achieved by combining the ISOLDE RILIS with the ISOLDE variant of the FEBIAD ion source (the VADIS) in a series of off-line and on-line tests at CERN. The immediate applications of these developments include the coupling of the RILIS with molten targets at ISOLDE and the introduction of two new modes of FEBIAD operation: an element selective RILIS mode and a RILIS + VADIS mode for increased efficiency compared to VADIS mode operation alone. This functionality has been demonstrated off-line for gallium and barium and on-line for mercury and cadmium. Following this work, the RILIS mode of operation was successfully applied on-line for the study of nuclear ground state and isomer properties of mercury isotopes by in-source resonance ionization laser spectroscopy. The results from the first studies of the new operational modes, of what has been termed the Versatile Arc Discharge and Laser Ion Source (VADLIS), are presented and possible directions for future developments are outlined.

  3. Design study of primary ion provider for relativistic heavy ion collider electron beam ion source.

    PubMed

    Kondo, K; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Okamura, M

    2010-02-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed the new preinjector system, electron beam ion source (EBIS) for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory. Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented.

  4. Vacuum arc ion source development at GSI

    SciTech Connect

    Spaedtke, P.; Emig, H.; Wolf, B.H.

    1996-08-01

    Ion beams produced by the Mevva ion source are well suited for the injection into a synchrotron accelerator due to the low repetition rate (0.2 ... 5 Hz, the higher repetition rate is for the optimization of the linear accelerator only) and the short pulse length (up to 0.5ms). From the beginning of the authors experience with the Mevva ion source at GSI they tried to improve the reliability of pulse-to-pulse reproducibility and to minimize the noise on the extracted ion beam. For accelerator application this is highly necessary, otherwise the accelerator tuning and optimization becomes very difficult or even impossible. Already the beam transport becomes difficult for a noisy beam, because space charge compensation can be destroyed (at least partially). Furthermore a noisy dc-beam results in some rf-buckets which might be even empty.

  5. Ion source developments for the production of radioactive isotope beams at TRIUMF

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, F. Bricault, P.; Heggen, H.; Kunz, P.; Lassen, J.; Mjøs, A.; Raeder, S.; Teigelhöfer, A.

    2014-02-15

    At the ISAC facility at TRIUMF radioactive ions are produced by bombarding solid targets with up to 100 μA of 500 MeV protons. The reaction products have to diffuse out of the hot target into an ion source. Normally, singly charged ions are extracted. They can be transported either directly to experiments or via an ECR charge state breeder to a post accelerator. Several different types of ion sources have to be used in order to deliver a large variety of rare isotope beams. At ISAC those are surface ion sources, forced electron beam arc discharge (FEBIAD) ion sources and resonant laser ionization sources. Recent development activities concentrated on increasing the selectivity for the ionization to suppress isobaric contamination in the beam. Therefore, a surface ion rejecting resonant laser ionization source (SIRLIS) has been developed to suppress ions from surface ionization. For the FEBIAD ion source a cold transfer line has been introduced to prevent less volatile components from reaching the ion source.

  6. Compact ion source neutron generator

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, Thomas; Persaud, Arun; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali; Chang-Hasnain, Constance; Rangelow, Ivo; Kwan, Joe

    2015-10-13

    A neutron generator includes a conductive substrate comprising a plurality of conductive nanostructures with free-standing tips and a source of an atomic species to introduce the atomic species in proximity to the free-standing tips. A target placed apart from the substrate is voltage biased relative to the substrate to ionize and accelerate the ionized atomic species toward the target. The target includes an element capable of a nuclear fusion reaction with the ionized atomic species to produce a one or more neutrons as a reaction by-product.

  7. Pulsed source ion implantation apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-09-24

    A new pulsed plasma-immersion ion-implantation apparatus that implants ions in large irregularly shaped objects to controllable depth without overheating the target, minimizing voltage breakdown, and using a constant electrical bias applied to the target. Instead of pulsing the voltage applied to the target, the plasma source, for example a tungsten filament or a RF antenna, is pulsed. Both electrically conducting and insulating targets can be implanted. 16 figs.

  8. Pulsed source ion implantation apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1996-01-01

    A new pulsed plasma-immersion ion-implantation apparatus that implants ions in large irregularly shaped objects to controllable depth without overheating the target, minimizing voltage breakdown, and using a constant electrical bias applied to the target. Instead of pulsing the voltage applied to the target, the plasma source, for example a tungsten filament or a RF antenna, is pulsed. Both electrically conducting and insulating targets can be implanted.

  9. Ion sources and targets for radioactive beams

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, J.P.; Back, B.B.; Ahmad, I.

    1995-08-01

    A high-intensity ISOL-type radioactive beam facility depends critically on the performance of the target/ion source system. We developed a concept for producing high-intensity secondary beams of fission fragments, such as {sup 132}Sn, using a two-part target and ion source combination. The idea involves stopping a 1000-kW beam of 200-MeV deuterons in a target of Be or U to produce a secondary beam of neutrons. Just behind the neutron production target is a second target, typically a porous form of UC, coupled to an ISOL-type ion source. In December 1994, we tested this concept with 200-MeV deuterons at low intensity in an experiment at the NSCL. The yields of characteristic gamma rays were measured and confirmed our predictions.

  10. Optical surfacing via linear ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lixiang; Wei, Chaoyang; Shao, Jianda

    2017-04-01

    We present a concept of surface decomposition extended from double Fourier series to nonnegative sinusoidal wave surfaces, on the basis of which linear ion sources apply to the ultra-precision fabrication of complex surfaces and diffractive optics. The modified Fourier series, or sinusoidal wave surfaces, build a relationship between the fabrication process of optical surfaces and the surface characterization based on power spectral density (PSD) analysis. Also, we demonstrate that the one-dimensional scanning of linear ion source is applicable to the removal of mid-spatial frequency (MSF) errors caused by small-tool polishing in raster scan mode as well as the fabrication of beam sampling grating of high diffractive uniformity without a post-processing procedure. The simulation results show that optical fabrication with linear ion source is feasible and even of higher output efficiency compared with the conventional approach.

  11. The RHIC polarized H- ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenski, A.; Atoian, G.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D.

    2016-02-01

    A novel polarization technique had been successfully implemented for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) polarized H- ion source upgrade to higher intensity and polarization. In this technique, a proton beam inside the high magnetic field solenoid is produced by ionization of the atomic hydrogen beam (from external source) in the He-gaseous ionizer cell. Further proton polarization is produced in the process of polarized electron capture from the optically pumped Rb vapor. The use of high-brightness primary beam and large cross sections of charge-exchange cross sections resulted in production of high intensity H- ion beam of 85% polarization. The source very reliably delivered polarized beam in the RHIC Run-2013 and Run-2015. High beam current, brightness, and polarization resulted in 75% polarization at 23 GeV out of Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and 60%-65% beam polarization at 100-250 GeV colliding beams in RHIC.

  12. Focused ion beam source method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Pellin, Michael J.; Lykke, Keith R.; Lill, Thorsten B.

    2000-01-01

    A focused ion beam having a cross section of submicron diameter, a high ion current, and a narrow energy range is generated from a target comprised of particle source material by laser ablation. The method involves directing a laser beam having a cross section of critical diameter onto the target, producing a cloud of laser ablated particles having unique characteristics, and extracting and focusing a charged particle beam from the laser ablated cloud. The method is especially suited for producing focused ion beams for semiconductor device analysis and modification.

  13. Ion plating with an induction heating source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.; Brainard, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    Induction heating is introduced as an evaporation heat source in ion plating. A bare induction coil without shielding can be directly used in the glow discharge region with no arcing. The only requirement is to utilize an rf inductive generator with low operating frequency of 75 kHz. Mechanical simplicity of the ion plating apparatus and ease of operation is a great asset for industrial applications; practically any metal such as nickel, iron, and the high temperature refractories can be evaporated and ion plated.

  14. Ion source design for industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    The more frequently used design techniques for the components of broad-beam electron bombardment ion sources are discussed. The approach used emphasizes refractory metal cathodes and permanent-magnet multipole discharge chambers. Design procedures and sample calculations are given for the discharge chamber, ion optics, the cathodes, and the magnetic circuit. Hardware designs are included for the isolator, cathode supports, anode supports, pole-piece assembly, and ion-optics supports. A comparison is made between two-grid and three-grid optics. The designs presented are representative of current technology and are adaptable to a wide range of configurations.

  15. Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology inmicrofabrications

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Lili

    2007-01-01

    For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it has shown the need for new ion beam tools and new approaches to the fabrication of small-scale devices. In the meanwhile, nanotechnology has also deeply involved in material science research and bioresearch in recent years. The conventional FIB systems which utilize liquid gallium ion sources to achieve nanometer scale resolution can no longer meet the various requirements raised from such a wide application area such as low contamination, high throughput and so on. The drive towards controlling materials properties at nanometer length scales relies on the availability of efficient tools. In this thesis, three novel ion beam tools have been developed and investigated as the alternatives for the conventional FIB systems in some particular applications. An integrated focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) system has been developed for direct doping or surface modification. This new instrument employs a mini-RF driven plasma source to generate focused ion beam with various ion species, a FEI two-lens electron (2LE) column for SEM imaging, and a five-axis manipulator system for sample positioning. An all-electrostatic two-lens column has been designed to focus the ion beam extracted from the source. Based on the Munro ion optics simulation, beam spot sizes as small as 100 nm can be achieved at beam energies between 5 to 35 keV if a 5 μm-diameter extraction aperture is used. Smaller beam spot sizes can be obtained with smaller apertures at sacrifice of some beam current. The FEI 2LE column, which utilizes Schottky emission, electrostatic focusing optics, and stacked-disk column construction, can provide high-resolution (as small as 20 nm) imaging capability, with fairly long working distance (25

  16. The ion-ion hybrid Alfvén resonator in a fusion environment

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, W. A.; Morales, G. J.

    2014-06-01

    An investigation is made of a shear Alfvén wave resonator for burning plasma conditions expected in the ITER device. For small perpendicular scale-lengths the shear mode, which propagates predominantly along the magnetic field direction, experiences a parallel reflection where the wave frequency matches the local ion-ion hybrid frequency. In a tokamak device operating with a deuterium–tritium fuel, this effect can form a natural resonator because of the variation in local field strength along a field line. The relevant kinetic dispersion relation is examined to determine the relative importance of Landau and cyclotron damping over the possible resonator parameter space. A WKB model based on the kinetic dispersion relation is used to determine the eigenfrequencies and the quality factors of modes trapped in the resonator. The lowest frequency found has a value slightly larger than the ion-ion hybrid frequency at the outboard side of a given flux surface. The possibility that the resonator modes can be driven unstable by energetic alpha particles is considered. It is found that within a bandwidth of roughly 600 kHz above the ion-ion hybrid frequency on the outboard side of the flux surface, the shear modes can experience significant spatial amplification. An assessment is made of the form of an approximate global eigenmode that possesses the features of a resonator. It is identified that magnetic field shear combined with large ion temperature can cause coupling to an ion-Bernstein wave, which can limit the instability.

  17. Lithium Ion Source for Satellite Charge Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    ePH^TOELE 1a b |, SOLAR PHOTONS PH3TOL ETROtJS ATTRACTED BACK BY THE SURFACE CHARGE Figure 1. Qualitative illustration of the charging : of a surface by...LITHIUM ION SOURCE FOR SATELLITE CHARGE CONTROL 12 Personal Author(s) Song. Tae Ik 13a Type of Report 13b Time Covered Id Date of Report (year, month...if ncvessary and Identify by block number) Field Group Subgroup Lithium Ion Source, Satellite Charge Control 19 Abstract (continue on reverse if

  18. Review of Negative Hydrogen Ion Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    250 mA/cm 2 Second Symposium (1980) BNL 51304, with reduced e/H" ratios. At high cesium levels, where extraction Third Symposium ( 1983 ) ABp Conf...Sym. on Ion Sources and Formation of Ion Beams, Typically the accelerator usage has stressed duty factor, Berkeley, LBL -3399 (1974) VIII-1. reliability...source and for low-duty usage the lifetime can be NS-30 ( 1983 ) 2743. many months to a year as witnessed by operating magnetrons. 13. H. S. Zhang, G.-G

  19. Negative ion source with low temperature transverse divergence optical system

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, J.H.; Stirling, W.L.

    1985-03-04

    A negative ion source is provided which has extremely low transverse divergence as a result of a unique ion focusing system in which the focal line of an ion beam emanating from an elongated, concave converter surface is outside of the ion exit slit of the source and the path of the exiting ions. The beam source operates with a minimum ion temperature which makes possible a sharply focused (extremely low transverse divergence) ribbon like negative ion beam.

  20. Negative ion source with low temperature transverse divergence optical system

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H.; Stirling, William L.

    1986-01-01

    A negative ion source is provided which has extremely low transverse divergence as a result of a unique ion focusing system in which the focal line of an ion beam emanating from an elongated, concave converter surface is outside of the ion exit slit of the source and the path of the exiting ions. The beam source operates with a minimum ion temperature which makes possible a sharply focused (extremely low transverse divergence) ribbon like negative ion beam.

  1. rf improvements for Spallation Neutron Source H- ion source.

    PubMed

    Kang, Y W; Fuja, R; Goulding, R H; Hardek, T; Lee, S-W; McCarthy, M P; Piller, M C; Shin, K; Stockli, M P; Welton, R F

    2010-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is ramping up the accelerated proton beam power to 1.4 MW and just reached 1 MW. The rf-driven multicusp ion source that originates from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been delivering approximately 38 mA H(-) beam in the linac at 60 Hz, 0.9 ms. To improve availability, a rf-driven external antenna multicusp ion source with a water-cooled ceramic aluminum nitride (AlN) plasma chamber is developed. Computer modeling and simulations have been made to analyze and optimize the rf performance of the new ion source. Operational statistics and test runs with up to 56 mA medium energy beam transport beam current identify the 2 MHz rf system as a limiting factor in the system availability and beam production. Plasma ignition system is under development by using a separate 13 MHz system. To improve the availability of the rf power system with easier maintenance, we tested a 70 kV isolation transformer for the 80 kW, 6% duty cycle 2 MHz amplifier to power the ion source from a grounded solid-state amplifier.

  2. Ion sources for induction linac driven heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, H.L.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.W.

    1993-08-01

    The use of ion sources in induction linacs for heavy ion fusion is fundamentally different from their use in the rf linac-storage rings approach. Induction linacs require very high current, short pulse extraction usually with large apertures which are dictated by the injector design. One is faced with the problem of extracting beams in a pulsed fashion while maintaining high beam quality during the pulse (low-emittance). Four types of sources have been studied for this application. The vacuum arc and the rf cusp field source are the plasma types and the porous plug and hot alumino-silicate surface source are the thermal types. The hot alumino-silicate potassium source has proved to be the best candidate for the next generation of scaled experiments. The porous plug for potassium is somewhat more difficult to use. The vacuum arc suffers from noise and lifetime problems and the rf cusp field source is difficult to use with very short pulses. Operational experience with all of these types of sources is presented.

  3. Spark discharge coupled laser multicharged ion source.

    PubMed

    Shaim, Md Haider A; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E

    2015-07-01

    A spark discharge is coupled to a laser multicharged ion source to enhance ion generation. The laser plasma triggers a spark discharge with electrodes located in front of the ablated target. For an aluminum target, the spark discharge results in significant enhancement in the generation of multicharged ions along with higher charge states than observed with the laser source alone. When a Nd:YAG laser pulse (wavelength 1064 nm, pulse width 7.4 ns, pulse energy 72 mJ, laser spot area on target 0.0024 cm(2)) is used, the total multicharged ions detected by a Faraday cup is 1.0 nC with charge state up to Al(3+). When the spark amplification stage is used (0.1 μF capacitor charged to 5.0 kV), the total charge measured increases by a factor of ∼9 with up to Al(6+) charge observed. Using laser pulse energy of 45 mJ, charge amplification by a factor of ∼13 was observed for a capacitor voltage of 4.5 kV. The spark discharge increases the multicharged ion generation without increasing target ablation, which solely results from the laser pulse. This allows for increased multicharged ion generation with relatively low laser energy pulses and less damage to the surface of the target.

  4. Development of versatile multiaperture negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Cavenago, M.; Minarello, A.; Sattin, M.; Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Recchia, M.; Veltri, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Barbisan, M.; Baseggio, L.; Cervaro, V.; Degli Agostini, F.; Franchin, L.; Laterza, B.; Ravarotto, D.; Rossetto, F.; Zaniol, B.; Zucchetti, S.; and others

    2015-04-08

    Enhancement of negative ion sources for production of large ion beams is a very active research field nowadays, driven from demand of plasma heating in nuclear fusion devices and accelerator applications. As a versatile test bench, the ion source NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1) is being commissioned by Consorzio RFX and INFN. The nominal beam current of 135 mA at −60 kV is divided into 9 beamlets, with multiaperture extraction electrodes. The plasma is sustained by a 2 MHz radiofrequency power supply, with a standard matching box. A High Voltage Deck (HVD) placed inside the lead shielding surrounding NIO1 contains the radiofrequency generator, the gas control, electronics and power supplies for the ion source. An autonomous closed circuit water cooling system was installed for the whole system, with a branch towards the HVD, using carefully optimized helical tubing. Insulation transformer is installed in a nearby box. Tests of several magnetic configurations can be performed. Status of experiments, measured spectra and plasma luminosity are described. Upgrades of magnetic filter, beam calorimeter and extraction grid and related theoretical issues are reviewed.

  5. Recent developments of ion sources for life-science studies at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Kitagawa, A.; Drentje, A. G.; Fujita, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Fukushima, K.; Shiraishi, N.; Suzuki, T.; Takahashi, K.; Takasugi, W.; Biri, S.; Rácz, R.; Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y.

    2016-02-15

    With about 1000-h of relativistic high-energy ion beams provided by Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, about 70 users are performing various biology experiments every year. A rich variety of ion species from hydrogen to xenon ions with a dose rate of several Gy/min is available. Carbon, iron, silicon, helium, neon, argon, hydrogen, and oxygen ions were utilized between 2012 and 2014. Presently, three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs) and one Penning ion source are available. Especially, the two frequency heating techniques have improved the performance of an 18 GHz ECRIS. The results have satisfied most requirements for life-science studies. In addition, this improved performance has realized a feasible solution for similar biology experiments with a hospital-specified accelerator complex.

  6. Improved ion optics for introduction of ions into a 9.4-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yu; Leach, Franklin E.; Kaiser, Nathan K.; Dang, Xibei; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2015-01-19

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry provides unparalleled mass accuracy and resolving power.[1],[2] With electrospray ionization (ESI), ions are typically transferred into the mass spectrometer through a skimmer, which serves as a conductance-limiting orifice. However, the skimmer allows only a small fraction of incoming ions to enter the mass spectrometer. An ion funnel, originally developed by Smith and coworkers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)[3-5] provides much more efficient ion focusing and transfer. The large entrance aperture of the ion funnel allows almost all ions emanating from a heated capillary to be efficiently captured and transferred, resulting in nearly lossless transmission.

  7. Survey of ion plating sources. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1979-01-01

    Based on the type of evaporation source, gaseous media and mode of transport, the following is discussed: resistance, electron beam, sputtering, reactive and ion beam evaporation. Ionization efficiencies and ion energies in the glow discharge determine the percentage of atoms which are ionized under typical ion plating conditions. The plating flux consists of a small number of energetic ions and a large number of energetic neutrals. The energy distribution ranges from thermal energies up to a maximum energy of the discharge. The various reaction mechanisms which contribute to the exceptionally strong adherence - formation of a graded sustrate/coating interface are not fully understood, however the controlling factors are evaluated. The influence of process variables on the nucleation and growth characteristics are illustrated in terms of morphological changes which affect the mechanical and tribological properties of the coating.

  8. Secondary electron ion source neutron generator

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, J.P.; McCollister, D.R.

    1998-04-28

    A neutron generator employing an electron emitter, an ion source bombarded by the electrons from the electron emitter, a plasma containment zone, and a target situated between the plasma containment zone and the electron emitter is disclosed. The target contains occluded deuterium, tritium, or a mixture thereof. 4 figs.

  9. Secondary electron ion source neutron generator

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, John P.; McCollister, Daryl R.

    1998-01-01

    A neutron generator employing an electron emitter, an ion source bombarded by the electrons from the electron emitter, a plasma containment zone, and a target situated between the plasma containment zone and the electron emitter. The target contains occluded deuterium, tritium, or a mixture thereof

  10. Ambipolarity and transport with resonant ion diffusion in EBT

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeger, E.F.; Hedrick, C.L.; Hastings, D.E.; Tolliver, J.S.

    1983-10-01

    Using recently derived analytic expressions for resonant and nonresonant neoclassical transport coefficients in EBT, we calculate the ambipolar potential required to maintain quasi-charge neutrality in the presence of a high-energy ion tail produced by nonclassical heating. The electric field obeys a differential rather than an algebraic equation. Solution of this equation gives a potential proportional to the local magnetic field strength and thus a rigid rotation of low-energy ions near the magnetic axis. Radial-transport calculations using this potential give improved agreement with experimental data for neutral density and particle lifetime. However, high-energy ion orbits in the calculated potential exhibit banana widths larger than assumed in the resonant transport theory. The required density of high-energy ions is therefore larger than would be expected if realistic banana widths could be included.

  11. Resonance of relativistic electrons with electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    DOE PAGES

    Denton, R. E.; Jordanova, V. K.; Bortnik, J.

    2015-06-29

    Relativistic electrons have been thought to more easily resonate with electromagnetic ion cyclotron EMIC waves if the total density is large. We show that, for a particular EMIC mode, this dependence is weak due to the dependence of the wave frequency and wave vector on the density. A significant increase in relativistic electron minimum resonant energy might occur for the H band EMIC mode only for small density, but no changes in parameters significantly decrease the minimum resonant energy from a nominal value. The minimum resonant energy depends most strongly on the thermal velocity associated with the field line motionmore » of the hot ring current protons that drive the instability. High density due to a plasmasphere or plasmaspheric plume could possibly lead to lower minimum resonance energy by causing the He band EMIC mode to be dominant. We demonstrate these points using parameters from a ring current simulation.« less

  12. Observation of snake resonances at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, M.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Alessi, J.; et al

    2010-09-27

    The Siberian snakes are powerful tools in preserving polarization in high energy accelerators has been demonstrated at the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Equipped with two full Siberian snakes in each ring, polarization is preserved during acceleration from injection to 100 GeV. However, the Siberian snakes also introduce a new set of depolarization resonances, i.e. snake resonances as first discovered by Lee and Tepikian. The intrinsic spin resonances above 100 GeV are about a factor of two stronger than those below 100 GeV which raises the challenge to preserve the polarization up to 250 GeV. In 2009, polarized protons collided for the first time at the RHIC design store energy of 250 GeV. This paper presents the experimental measurements of snake resonances at RHIC. The plan for avoiding these resonances is also presented.

  13. Resonance of relativistic electrons with electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, R. E.; Jordanova, V. K.; Bortnik, J.

    2015-06-29

    Relativistic electrons have been thought to more easily resonate with electromagnetic ion cyclotron EMIC waves if the total density is large. We show that, for a particular EMIC mode, this dependence is weak due to the dependence of the wave frequency and wave vector on the density. A significant increase in relativistic electron minimum resonant energy might occur for the H band EMIC mode only for small density, but no changes in parameters significantly decrease the minimum resonant energy from a nominal value. The minimum resonant energy depends most strongly on the thermal velocity associated with the field line motion of the hot ring current protons that drive the instability. High density due to a plasmasphere or plasmaspheric plume could possibly lead to lower minimum resonance energy by causing the He band EMIC mode to be dominant. We demonstrate these points using parameters from a ring current simulation.

  14. HIGH CURRENT RADIO FREQUENCY ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Abdelaziz, M.E.

    1963-04-01

    This patent relates to a high current radio frequency ion source. A cylindrical plasma container has a coil disposed around the exterior surface thereof along the longitudinal axis. Means are provided for the injection of an unionized gas into the container and for applying a radio frequency signal to the coil whereby a radio frequency field is generated within the container parallel to the longitudinal axis thereof to ionize the injected gas. Cathode and anode means are provided for extracting transverse to the radio frequency field from an area midway between the ends of the container along the longitudinal axis thereof the ions created by said radio frequency field. (AEC)

  15. Personal computer based Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Shenheng; Jones, Patrick R.

    1988-12-01

    An IBM PC AT compatible computer is used to host the interface of a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer or FTMS. A common fast memory bank for both ion-excitation waveform and data acquisition is reserved in the computer's system memory space. All the digital electronics circuitry is assembled on an IBM PC AT extension board. Neither an external frequency synthesizer nor a waveform digitizer is needed. Ion-excitation waveforms can be generated in either frequency-sweeping or inverse-Fourier transform modes. Both excitation and data acquisition can be carried out at eight megawords per second.

  16. Investigation of an ion-ion hybrid Alfvén wave resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincena, S. T.; Farmer, W. A.; Maggs, J. E.; Morales, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation is made of a wave resonator based on the concept of wave reflection along the confinement magnetic field at a spatial location where the wave frequency matches the local value of the ion-ion hybrid frequency. Such a situation can be realized by shear Alfvén waves in a magnetized plasma with two ion species because this mode has zero parallel group velocity and experiences a cut-off at the ion-ion hybrid frequency. Since the ion-ion hybrid frequency is proportional to the magnetic field, it is expected that a magnetic well configuration in a two-ion plasma can result in an Alfvén wave resonator. Such a concept has been proposed in various space plasma studies and could have relevance to mirror and tokamak fusion devices. This study demonstrates such a resonator in a controlled laboratory experiment using a H+-He+ mixture. The resonator response is investigated by launching monochromatic waves and impulses from a magnetic loop antenna. The observed frequency spectra are found to agree with predictions of a theoretical model of trapped eigenmodes.

  17. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, H. Y. Zhang, J. J.; Jin, Q. Y.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.; Liu, W.; Wang, G. C.

    2016-02-15

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 10{sup 13} W cm{sup −2} in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  18. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited).

    PubMed

    Zhao, H Y; Zhang, J J; Jin, Q Y; Liu, W; Wang, G C; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 10(13) W cm(-2) in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  19. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Jin, Q. Y.; Liu, W.; Wang, G. C.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 1013 W cm-2 in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  20. Experimental Evaluation of a Negative Ion Source for a Heavy Ion Fusion Negative Ion Driver

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L. R.; Hahto, S. K.; Hahto, S. T.; Kwan, J. W.; Leung, K. N.

    2004-06-16

    Negative halogen ions have recently been proposed as a possible alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers because electron accumulation would not be a problem in the accelerator, and if desired, the beams could be photo-detached to neutrals. To test the ability to make suitable quality beams, an experiment was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using chlorine in an RF-driven ion source. Without introducing any cesium (which is required to enhance negative ion production in hydrogen ion sources) a negative chlorine current density of 45 mA/cm{sup 2} was obtained under the same conditions that gave 57 45 mA/cm{sup 2} of positive chlorine, suggesting the presence of nearly as many negative ions as positive ions in the plasma near the extraction plane. The negative ion spectrum was 99.5% atomic chlorine ions, with only 0.5% molecular chlorine, and essentially no impurities. Although this experiment did not incorporate the type of electron suppression technology that i s used in negative hydrogen beam extraction, the ratio of co-extracted electrons to Cl{sup -} was as low as 7 to 1, many times lower than the ratio of their mobilities, suggesting that few electrons are present in the near-extractor plasma. This, along with the near-equivalence of the positive and negative ion currents, suggests that the plasma in this region was mostly an ion-ion plasma. The negative chlorine current density was relatively insensitive to pressure, and scaled linearly with RF power. If this linear scaling continues to hold at higher RF powers, it should permit current densities of 100 45 mA/cm{sup 2}, sufficient for present heavy ion fusion injector concepts. The effective ion temperatures of the positive and negative ions appeared to be similar and relatively low for a plasma source.

  1. MULTIPLE ELECTRON BEAM ION PUMP AND SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, R.E.

    1962-02-27

    A vacuum pump is designed which operates by ionizing incoming air and by withdrawing the ions from the system by means of electrical fields. The apparatus comprises a cylindrical housing communicable with the vessel to be evacuated and having a thin wall section in one end. Suitable coils provide a longitudinal magnetic field within the cylinder. A broad cathode and an anode structure is provided to establish a plurality of adjacent electron beams which are parallel to the cylinder axis. Electron reflector means are provided so that each of the beams constitutes a PIG or reflex discharge. Such structure provides a large region in which incoming gas molecules may be ionized by electron bombardment. A charged electrode assembly accelerates the ions through the thin window, thereby removing the gas from the system. The invention may also be utilized as a highly efficient ion source. (AEC)

  2. Conceptual design of a Gyrotron-driven superconducting ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Countryman, P.J.; Lyneis, C.M.; Wolgast, R.C.

    1989-03-01

    The conceptual design for a superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) is presented. It is designed to take advantage of frequency scaling in ECRIS and be driven at 28 GHz by a laboratory scale gyrotron. The superconducting coils are surrounded by a warm bore iron yoke. Possible applications include cyclotrons, heavy-ion synchrotrons, ion implantation in semiconductors, and experiments in atomic physics. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Resonance ionization of rubidium in an ion trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.; Goeringer, D.E.; Buckley, B.T.

    1990-01-01

    We have recently initiated a study of resonance ionization processes in a quadrupole ion storage trap. The trap is a commercially available Ion Trap Detector that uses the voltage dependence of ion mass instability to obtain a mass spectrum of the trapped ions. We have modified the trap to permit laser excitation of atomic and molecular species within the quadrupole electrodes. Mass resolved resonance ionization spectra have been obtained for NO and Rb, described below. Rb was selected for this study for a number of reasons. We want to explore the potential of the ion trap for high resolution (Doppler free) resonance ionization spectroscopy with CW laser excitation. Rb can be excited to upper Rydberg levels with a series of transitions that can be induced with commercially available semiconductor diode lasers. In addition, levels in the same energy range can be reached through two-photon processes with visible wavelength tunable dye lasers or with single-photon processes after the laser is frequency doubled. The upper Rydberg levels can be ionized by photons, electric field, or collisions. Collisional ionization of a reservoir of Rydberg atoms may be a sensitive scheme for detecting electronegative species. RB has two stable isotopes with nonzero nuclear spin so that isotopic and hyperfine splittings can be used to assess the spectral resolution that is attained.

  4. An ion cyclotron resonance study of reactions of some atomic and simple polyatomic ions with water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpas, Z.; Anicich, V. G.; Huntress, W. T., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Reactions of various positive ions with water vapor were studied by ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometric techniques. Rate constants and product distributions were determined for reactions of the ions: Ar(+), Co(+), N2(+), and CO2(+), CH2(+), and CH4(+), CH2Cl(+), HCO(+), H2CO(+), H2COH(+), H2S(+) and HS(+). The results obtained in this work are compared with earlier reported data where available.

  5. Laser ion source for multi-nucleon transfer reaction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Y.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Imai, N.; Ishiyama, H.; Jeong, S. C.; Miyatake, H.; Oyaizu, M.; Kimura, S.; Mukai, M.; Kim, Y. H.; Sonoda, T.; Wada, M.; Huyse, M.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Van Duppen, P.

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a laser ion source for the target-like fragments (TLFs) produced in multi-nucleon transfer (MNT) reactions. The operation principle of the source is based on the in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) approach. In the source TLFs are thermalized and neutralized in high pressure and high purity argon gas, and are extracted after being selectively re-ionized in a multi-step laser resonance ionization process. The laser ion source has been implemented at the KEK Isotope Separation System (KISS) for β-decay spectroscopy of neutron-rich isotopes with N = 126 of nuclear astrophysical interest. The simulations of gas flow and ion-beam optics have been performed to optimize the gas cell for efficient thermalization and fast transporting the TLFs, and the mass-separator for efficient transport with high mass-resolving power, respectively. To confirm the performances expected at the design stage, off-line experiments have been performed by using 56Fe atoms evaporated from a filament in the gas cell. The gas-transport time of 230 ms in the argon cell and the measured KISS mass-resolving power of 900 are consistent with the designed values. The high purity of the gas-cell system, which is extremely important for efficient and highly-selective production of laser ions, was achieved and confirmed from the mass distribution of the extracted ions. After the off-line tests, on-line experiments were conducted by directly injecting energetic 56Fe beam into the gas cell. After thermalization of the injected 56Fe beam, laser-produced singly-charged 56Fe+ ions were extracted. The extraction efficiency and selectivity of the gas cell in the presence of plasma induced by 56Fe beam injection as well as the time profile of the extracted ions were investigated; extraction efficiency of 0.25%, a beam purity of >99% and an extraction time of 270 ms. It has been confirmed that the performance of the KISS laser ion source is satisfactory to start the measurements of

  6. Chromium plating pollution source reduction by plasma source ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, A.; Sridharan, K.; Dodd, R.A.; Conrad, J.R.; Qiu, X.; Hamdi, A.H.; Elmoursi, A.A.; Malaczynski, G.W.; Horne, W.G.

    1995-12-31

    There is growing concern over the environmental toxicity and workers` health issues due to the chemical baths and rinse water used in the hard chromium plating process. In this regard the significant hardening response of chromium to nitrogen ion implantation can be environmentally beneficial from the standpoint of decreasing the thickness and the frequency of application of chromium plating. In this paper the results of a study of nitrogen ion implantation of chrome plated test flats using the non-line-of-sight Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) process, are discussed. Surface characterization was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), and Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA). The surface properties were evaluated using a microhardness tester, a pin-on-disk wear tester, and a corrosion measurement system. Industrial field testing of nitrogen PSII treated chromium plated parts showed an improvement by a factor of two compared to the unimplanted case.

  7. Optical attenuation in ion-implanted silicon waveguide racetrack resonators.

    PubMed

    Doylend, J K; Jessop, P E; Knights, A P

    2011-08-01

    The optical absorption at wavelengths near 1550 nm has been quantified as a function of annealing temperature in ion-implanted silicon-on-insulator racetrack resonators. The variation of the output characteristics of the bus waveguide versus the concentration of implantation-induced lattice disorder in the ring is used to develop a novel method for the determination of the coupling and round-trip loss of the resonator, independently. This experimental procedure has general applicability for the determination of these parameters. Significant propagation loss is found to persist following annealing at temperatures previously observed to remove the majority of ion implantation damage. It is suggested that these annealing characteristics are a consequence of an ion implantation range which is greater than the silicon waveguide layer thickness.

  8. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron resonance heating in the VASIMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bering, E. A.; Chang-Díaz, F. R.; Squire, J. P.; Brukardt, M.; Glover, T. W.; Bengtson, R. D.; Jacobson, V. T.; McCaskill, G. E.; Cassady, L.

    2008-07-01

    Plasma physics has found an increasing range of practical industrial applications, including the development of electric spacecraft propulsion systems. One of these systems, the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) engine, both applies several important physical processes occurring in the magnetosphere. These processes include the mechanisms involved in the ion acceleration and heating that occur in the Birkeland currents of an auroral arc system. Auroral current region processes that are simulated in VASIMR include lower hybrid heating, parallel electric field acceleration and ion cyclotron acceleration. This paper will focus on using a physics demonstration model VASIMR to study ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). The major purpose is to provide a VASIMR status report to the COSPAR community. The VASIMR uses a helicon antenna with up to 20 kW of power to generate plasma. This plasma is energized by an RF booster stage that uses left hand polarized slow mode waves launched from the high field side of the ion cyclotron resonance. The present setup for the booster uses 2 4 MHz waves with up to 20 kW of power. This process is similar to the ion cyclotron heating in tokamaks, but in the VASIMR the ions only pass through the resonance region once. The rapid absorption of ion cyclotron waves has been predicted in recent theoretical studies. These theoretical predictions have been supported with several independent measurements in this paper. The ICRH produced a substantial increase in ion velocity. Pitch angle distribution studies show that this increase takes place in the resonance region where the ion cyclotron frequency is equal to the frequency on the injected RF waves. Downstream of the resonance region the perpendicular velocity boost should be converted to axial flow velocity through the conservation of the first adiabatic invariant as the magnetic field decreases in the exhaust region of the VASIMR. In deuterium plasma, 80% efficient

  9. Improved Ambient Pressure Pyroelectric Ion Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Kim, Hugh I.; Kanik, Isik; Ryu, Ernest K.; Beckett, Brett

    2011-01-01

    The detection of volatile vapors of unknown species in a complex field environment is required in many different applications. Mass spectroscopic techniques require subsystems including an ionization unit and sample transport mechanism. All of these subsystems must have low mass, small volume, low power, and be rugged. A volatile molecular detector, an ambient pressure pyroelectric ion source (APPIS) that met these requirements, was recently reported by Caltech researchers to be used in in situ environments.

  10. Observation of snake resonances at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, M.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I. G.; Alessi, J.; Courant, E.; Drees, A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Gill, R.; Glenn, J.; Huang, H.; Litvinenko, V.; Luccio, A.; Luo, Y.; Pilat, F.; MacKay, W. W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marusic, A.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.; Svirida, D.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S. Y.

    2011-05-01

    The Siberian snakes are powerful tools in preserving polarization in high energy accelerators has been demonstrated at the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Equipped with two full Siberian snakes in each ring, polarization is preserved during acceleration from injection to 100 GeV. However, the Siberian snakes also introduce a new set of depolarization resonances, i.e. snake resonances as first discoverd by Lee and Tepikian [1]. The intrinsic spin resonances above 100 GeV are about a factor of two stronger than those below 100 GeV which raises the challenge to preserve the polarization up to 250 GeV. In 2009, polarized protons collided for the first time at the RHIC design store energy of 250 GeV. This paper presents the experimental measurements of snake resonances at RHIC. The plan for avoiding these resonanances is also presented.

  11. Integrating a Traveling Wave Tube into an AECR-U ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Covo, Michel Kireeff; Benitez, Janilee Y.; Ratti, Alessandro; Vujic, Jasmina L.

    2011-07-01

    An RF system of 500W - 10.75 to 12.75 GHz was designed and integrated into the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance - Upgrade (AECR-U) ion source of the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The AECR-U produces ion beams for the Cyclotron giving large flexibility of ion species and charge states. The broadband frequency of a Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) allows modifying the volume that couples and heats the plasma. The TWT system design and integration with the AECR-U ion source and results from commissioning are presented.

  12. Observation of fast-ion Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance with shear Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yang; Heidbrink, W. W.; Boehmer, H.; McWilliams, R.; Vincena, S.; Carter, T. A.; Gekelman, W.; Leneman, D.; Pribyl, P.

    2008-10-15

    The Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance ({omega}-k{sub z}v{sub z}={omega}{sub f}) between fast ions and shear Alfven waves is experimentally investigated ({omega}, wave frequency; k{sub z}, axial wavenumber; v{sub z}, fast-ion axial speed; {omega}{sub f}, fast-ion cyclotron frequency). A test particle beam of fast ions is launched by a Li{sup +} source in the helium plasma of the LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) [W. Gekelman, H. Pfister, Z. Lucky, J. Bamber, D. Leneman, and J. Maggs, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)], with shear Alfven waves (SAW) (amplitude {delta} B/B up to 1%) launched by a loop antenna. A collimated fast-ion energy analyzer measures the nonclassical spreading of the beam, which is proportional to the resonance with the wave. A resonance spectrum is observed by launching SAWs at 0.3-0.8{omega}{sub ci}. Both the magnitude and frequency dependence of the beam-spreading are in agreement with the theoretical prediction using a Monte Carlo Lorentz code that launches fast ions with an initial spread in real/velocity space and random phases relative to the wave. Measured wave magnetic field data are used in the simulation.

  13. Liquid chromatography-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometric characterization of protein kinase C phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Michael J; Quinn, John P; Blakney, Greg T; Emmett, Mark R; Mischak, Harold; Gaskell, Simon J; Marshall, Alan G

    2003-01-01

    A vented column, capillary liquid chromatography (LC) microelectrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR (9.4 T)) mass spectrometry (MS) approach to phosphopeptide identification is described. A dual-ESI source capable of rapid (approximately 200 ms) switching between two independently controlled ESI emitters was constructed. The dual-ESI source, combined with external ion accumulation in a linear octopole ion trap, allowed for internal calibration of every mass spectrum during LC. LC ESI FT-ICR positive-ion MS of protein kinase C (PKC) revealed four previously unidentified phosphorylated peptides (one within PKC(alpha), one within PKC(delta), and two within PKC(zeta)). Internal calibration improved the mass accuracy for LC MS spectra from an absolute mean (47 peptide ions) of 11.5 ppm to 1.5 ppm. Five additional (out of eight known) activating sites of PKC phosphorylation, not detected in positive-ion experiments, were observed by subsequent negative-ion direct infusion nanoelectrospray. Extension of the method to enable infrared multiphoton dissociation of all ions in the ICR cell prior to every other mass measurement revealed the diagnostic neutral loss of H3PO4 from phosphorylated peptide ions. The combination of accurate-mass MS and MS/MS offers a powerful new tool for identifying the presence and site(s) of phosphorylation in peptides, without the need for additional wet chemical derivatization.

  14. Design aspects and status of construction of the mVINIS ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, A.; Kutner, V.; Bogomolov, S.; Lebedev, A.; Loginov, V.; Yazvitsky, N.; Dobrosavljević, A.; Draganić, I.; Dekić, S.; Stalevski, T.

    1998-02-01

    The mVINIS ion source is a multiply charged heavy ion source based on the electron cyclotron resonance effect. This machine is a part of the Tesla Accelerator Installation, an ion accelerator facility whose construction has been going on at the VINČA Institute of Nuclear Sciences in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. mVINIS is an advanced version of the Dubna electron cyclotron resonance ion source 14-2, constructed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia. It is a complete injector, consisting of an ECR ion source, focusing and steering elements, an analyzing magnet, a vacuum system, and an ion beam diagnostic system. The main parts of mVINIS have been designed and manufactured at JINR, while the vacuum equipment, power supplies, ion beam diagnostics, and control system were purchased elsewhere. The preliminary testing (magnetic field measurements, vacuum testing, testing of the ECR ion source) has been performed at JINR, and the final assembly of the mVINIS and measurement of the ion beam parameters have been going on at the VINČA Institute.

  15. A compact ion source and accelerator based on a piezoelectric driver

    SciTech Connect

    Norgard, P.; Kovaleski, S. D.; VanGordon, J. A.; Baxter, E. A.; Gall, B. B.; Kwon, Jae Wan; Kim, Baek Hyun; Dale, G. E.

    2013-04-19

    Compact ion sources and accelerators using piezoelectric devices for the production of energetic ion beams are being evaluated. A coupled source-accelerator is being tested as a neutron source to be incorporated into oil-well logging diagnostics. Two different ion sources are being investigated, including a piezoelectric transformer-based plasma source and a silicon-based field ion source. The piezoelectric transformer plasma ion source uses a cylindrical, resonantly driven piezoelectric crystal to produce high voltage inside a confined volume filled with low pressure deuterium gas. The plasma generated in the confined chamber is ejected through a small aperture into an evacuated drift region. The silicon field ion source uses localized electric field enhancement produced by an array of sharp emitters etched into a silicon blank to produce ions through field desorption ionization. A second piezoelectric device of a different design is used to generate an accelerating potential on the order of 130 kV; this potential is applied to a deuterated target plate positioned perpendicular to the ion stream produced by either plasma source. This paper discusses the results obtained by the individual components as they relate to the final neutron source.

  16. Resonant laser ablation ion trap mass spectrometry -- Recent applications for chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, C.G.; Garrett, A.W.; Hemberger, P.H.; Nogar, N.S.

    1995-12-31

    Resonant Laser Ablation (RLA) is a useful ionization process for selectively producing gas phase ions from a solid sample. Recent use of RLA for mass spectrometry by this group and by others has produced a wealth of knowledge and useful analytical techniques. The method relies upon the focusing of modest intensity laser pulses ({le} 10{sup 7} W {center_dot} Cm{sup {minus}2}) upon a sample surface. A small quantity of material is vaporized, and atoms of desired analyte are subsequently ionized by (n + m) photon processes in the gas phase (where n = number of photons to a resonant transition and m = number of photons to exceed the ionization limit). The authors have been using (2 + 1) resonant ionization schemes for this work. Quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry is realizing a very prominent role in current mass spectrometric research. Ion traps are versatile, powerful and extremely sensitive mass spectrometers, capable of a variety of ionization modes, MS{sup n} type experiments, high mass ranges and high resolution, all for a fraction of the cost of other instrumentation with similar capabilities. Quadrupole ion traps are ideally suited to pulsed ionization sources such as laser ionization methods, since their normal operational method (Mass Selective Instability) relies upon the storage of ions from a finite ionization period followed by ejection and detection of these ions based upon their mass to charge ratios. The paper describes selective ionization for trace atomic analysis, selective reagent ion source for ion chemistry investigations, and the analysis of ``difficult`` environmental contaminants, i.e., TBP.

  17. Status of ECR ion sources for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machicoane, Guillaume; Felice, Helene; Fogleman, Jesse; Hafalia, Ray; Morgan, Glenn; Pan, Heng; Prestemon, Soren; Pozdeyev, Eduard; Rao, Xing; Ren, Haitao; Tobos, Larry

    2016-02-01

    Ahead of the commissioning schedule, installation of the first Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source in the front end area of the Facility for Rare Isotope Beam (FRIB) is planned for the end of 2015. Operating at 14 GHz, this first ECR will be used for the commissioning and initial operation of the facility. In parallel, a superconducting magnet structure compatible with operation at 28 GHz for a new ECR ion source is in development at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The paper reviews the overall work in progress and development done with ECR ion sources for FRIB.

  18. Status of ECR ion sources for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Machicoane, Guillaume Morgan, Glenn; Pozdeyev, Eduard; Rao, Xing; Ren, Haitao; Felice, Helene; Hafalia, Ray; Pan, Heng; Prestemon, Soren; Fogleman, Jesse; Tobos, Larry

    2016-02-15

    Ahead of the commissioning schedule, installation of the first Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source in the front end area of the Facility for Rare Isotope Beam (FRIB) is planned for the end of 2015. Operating at 14 GHz, this first ECR will be used for the commissioning and initial operation of the facility. In parallel, a superconducting magnet structure compatible with operation at 28 GHz for a new ECR ion source is in development at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The paper reviews the overall work in progress and development done with ECR ion sources for FRIB.

  19. Ion source research and development at University of Jyväskylä: Studies of different plasma processes and towards the higher beam intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Koivisto, H. Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Laulainen, J.; Kronholm, R.; Ranttila, K.; Tuunanen, J.; Thuillier, T.; Machicoane, G.

    2016-02-15

    Several ion source related research and development projects are in progress at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä (JYFL). The work can be divided into investigation of the ion source plasma and development of ion sources, ion beams, and diagnostics. The investigation covers the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) plasma instabilities, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and visible light emission, photon induced electron emission, and the development of plasma diagnostics. The ion source development covers the work performed for radiofrequency-driven negative ion source, RADIS, beam line upgrade of the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS, and the development of a new room-temperature-magnet 18 GHz ECRIS, HIISI.

  20. Ion source research and development at University of Jyväskylä: Studies of different plasma processes and towards the higher beam intensities.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, H; Kalvas, T; Tarvainen, O; Komppula, J; Laulainen, J; Kronholm, R; Ranttila, K; Tuunanen, J; Thuillier, T; Xie, D; Machicoane, G

    2016-02-01

    Several ion source related research and development projects are in progress at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä (JYFL). The work can be divided into investigation of the ion source plasma and development of ion sources, ion beams, and diagnostics. The investigation covers the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) plasma instabilities, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and visible light emission, photon induced electron emission, and the development of plasma diagnostics. The ion source development covers the work performed for radiofrequency-driven negative ion source, RADIS, beam line upgrade of the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS, and the development of a new room-temperature-magnet 18 GHz ECRIS, HIISI.

  1. Ion source research and development at University of Jyväskylä: Studies of different plasma processes and towards the higher beam intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koivisto, H.; Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Laulainen, J.; Kronholm, R.; Ranttila, K.; Tuunanen, J.; Thuillier, T.; Xie, D.; Machicoane, G.

    2016-02-01

    Several ion source related research and development projects are in progress at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä (JYFL). The work can be divided into investigation of the ion source plasma and development of ion sources, ion beams, and diagnostics. The investigation covers the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) plasma instabilities, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and visible light emission, photon induced electron emission, and the development of plasma diagnostics. The ion source development covers the work performed for radiofrequency-driven negative ion source, RADIS, beam line upgrade of the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS, and the development of a new room-temperature-magnet 18 GHz ECRIS, HIISI.

  2. Ions beams and ferroelectric plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Anton

    Near-perfect space-charge neutralization is required for the transverse compression of high perveance ion beams for ion-beam-driven warm dense matter experiments, such as the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX). Neutralization can be accomplished by introducing a plasma in the beam path, which provides free electrons that compensate the positive space charge of the ion beam. In this thesis, charge neutralization of a 40 keV, perveance-dominated Ar+ beam by a Ferroelectric Plasma Source (FEPS) is investigated. First, the parameters of the ion beam, such as divergence due to the extraction optics, charge neutralization fraction, and emittance were measured. The ion beam was propagated through the FEPS plasma, and the effects of charge neutralization were inferred from time-resolved measurements of the transverse beam profile. In addition, the dependence of FEPS plasma parameters on the configuration of the driving pulser circuit was studied to optimize pulser design. An ion accelerator was constructed that produced a 30-50 keV Ar + beam with pulse duration <300 mus and dimensionless perveance Q up to 8 x 10-4. Transverse profile measurements 33 cm downstream of the ion source showed that the dependence of beam radius on Q was consistent with space charge expansion. It was concluded that the beam was perveance-dominated with a charge neutralization fraction of approximately zero in the absence of neutralizing plasma. Since beam expansion occurred primarily due to space charge, the decrease in effective perveance due to neutralization by FEPS plasma can be inferred from the reduction in beam radius. Results on propagation of the ion beam through FEPS plasma demonstrate that after the FEPS is triggered, the beam radius decreases to its neutralized value in about 5 mus. The duration of neutralization was about 10 mus at a charging voltage VFEPS = 5.5 kV and 35 mus at VFEPS = 6.5 kV. With VFEPS = 6.5 kV, the transverse current density profile 33 cm downstream

  3. HIGH-INTENSITY, HIGH CHARGE-STATE HEAVY ION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    ALESSI,J.G.

    2004-08-16

    There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions is reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. Benefits and limitations for these type sources are described. Possible future improvements in these sources are also mentioned.

  4. Advancement of highly charged ion beam production by superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L. Lu, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Feng, Y. C.; Qian, C.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.; Guo, J. W.; Yang, Y.; Fang, X.

    2016-02-15

    At Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source SECRAL (Superconducting ECR ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) has been put into operation for about 10 years now. It has been the main working horse to deliver intense highly charged heavy ion beams for the accelerators. Since its first plasma at 18 GHz, R&D work towards more intense highly charged ion beam production as well as the beam quality investigation has never been stopped. When SECRAL was upgraded to its typical operation frequency 24 GHz, it had already showed its promising capacity of very intense highly charged ion beam production. And it has also provided the strong experimental support for the so called scaling laws of microwave frequency effect. However, compared to the microwave power heating efficiency at 18 GHz, 24 GHz microwave heating does not show the ω{sup 2} scale at the same power level, which indicates that microwave power coupling at gyrotron frequency needs better understanding. In this paper, after a review of the operation status of SECRAL with regard to the beam availability and stability, the recent study of the extracted ion beam transverse coupling issues will be discussed, and the test results of the both TE{sub 01} and HE{sub 11} modes will be presented. A general comparison of the performance working with the two injection modes will be given, and a preliminary analysis will be introduced. The latest results of the production of very intense highly charged ion beams, such as 1.42 emA Ar{sup 12+}, 0.92 emA Xe{sup 27+}, and so on, will be presented.

  5. Advancement of highly charged ion beam production by superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Feng, Y. C.; Yang, Y.; Qian, C.; Fang, X.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    At Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source SECRAL (Superconducting ECR ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) has been put into operation for about 10 years now. It has been the main working horse to deliver intense highly charged heavy ion beams for the accelerators. Since its first plasma at 18 GHz, R&D work towards more intense highly charged ion beam production as well as the beam quality investigation has never been stopped. When SECRAL was upgraded to its typical operation frequency 24 GHz, it had already showed its promising capacity of very intense highly charged ion beam production. And it has also provided the strong experimental support for the so called scaling laws of microwave frequency effect. However, compared to the microwave power heating efficiency at 18 GHz, 24 GHz microwave heating does not show the ω2 scale at the same power level, which indicates that microwave power coupling at gyrotron frequency needs better understanding. In this paper, after a review of the operation status of SECRAL with regard to the beam availability and stability, the recent study of the extracted ion beam transverse coupling issues will be discussed, and the test results of the both TE01 and HE11 modes will be presented. A general comparison of the performance working with the two injection modes will be given, and a preliminary analysis will be introduced. The latest results of the production of very intense highly charged ion beams, such as 1.42 emA Ar12+, 0.92 emA Xe27+, and so on, will be presented.

  6. A carbon-cluster laser ion source for TRIGA-TRAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorra, C.; Blaum, K.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Ketelaer, J.; Ketter, J.; Knuth, K.; Nagy, Sz

    2009-08-01

    A new laser ablation ion source was developed and tested for the Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP in order to provide carbon-cluster ions for absolute mass calibration. Ions of different cluster sizes up to C+24 were successfully produced, covering the mass range up to the heavy actinide elements. The ions were captured in a Penning trap, and their time-of-flight cyclotron resonances recorded in order to determine their cyclotron frequency. Furthermore, the same ion source was used to produce GdO+ ions from a gadolinium target in sufficient amount for mass spectrometry purposes. The design of the source and its characteristics are presented. This paper comprises partly the PhD theses of J Ketelaer and C Smorra.

  7. Ion source with improved primary arc collimation

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1983-12-16

    An improved negative ion source is provided in which a self-biasing, molybdenum collimator is used to define the primary electron stream arc discharge from a filament operated at a negative potential. The collimator is located between the anode and the filament. It is electrically connected to the anode by means of an appropriate size resistor such that the collimator is biased at essentially the filament voltage during operation. Initially, the full arc voltage appears across the filament to collimator until the arc discharge strikes. Then the collimator biases itself to essentially filament potential due to current flow through the resistor thus defining the primary electron stream without intercepting any appreciable arc power. The collimator aperture is slightly smaller than the anode aperture to shield the anode from the arc power which, in the past, has caused overheating and erosion of the anode collimator during extended time pulsed-beam operation of the source. With the self-biasing collimator of this invention, the ion source may be operated from short pulse periods to steady-state without destroying the anode.

  8. Ion source with improved primary arc collimation

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.

    1985-01-01

    An improved negative ion source is provided in which a self-biasing, molybdenum collimator is used to define the primary electron stream arc discharge from a filament operated at a negative potential. The collimator is located between the anode and the filament. It is electrically connected to the anode by means of an appropriate size resistor such that the collimator is biased at essentially the filament voltage during operation. Initially, the full arc voltage appears across the filament to collimator until the arc discharge strikes. Then the collimator biases itself to essentially filament potential due to current flow through the resistor thus defining the primary electron stream without intercepting any appreciable arc power. The collimator aperture is slightly smaller than the anode aperture to shield the anode from the arc power, thereby preventing the exposure of the anode to the full arc power which, in the past, has caused overheating and erosion of the anode collimator during extended time pulsed-beam operation of the source. With the self-biasing collimator of this invention, the ion source may be operated from short pulse periods to steady-state without destroying the anode.

  9. Recent work on a microwave ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmussen, J.; Root, J.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of a microwave (2.45 GHz) plasma-disk ion source using a cylindrical microwave cavity is described. The operating characteristics in argon and xenon gases with 50-200 W of input power and gas flow rates from 10-80 sccm are presented. In particular, extracted beam current versus accelerating voltage, and specific energy vs. mass utilization efficiency and extracted beam current are presented. Double Langmuir probe measurements indicate that electron densities in excess of 10 to the 12th per cu cm can be readily achieved in the microwave generated plasma.

  10. Development of vacuum arc ion sources for heavy ion accelerator injectors and ion implantation technology (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oks, Efim M.

    1998-02-01

    The status of experimental research and ongoing development and upgrade of MEVVA-type ion sources over the last two years since the previous ICIS-95 is reviewed. There are two main application fields for this ion source: heavy ion accelerators and material surface implantation technology. For particle accelerator ion injection to accelerators it is important to enhance the fractions of multiply charged ions in the ion beam as well as controlling the charge state distribution, and to improve of beam current stability (i.e., to minimize the beam noise) and pulse-to-pulse reproducibility. For ion implantation application we need to increase both the implantation dose rate and the source lifetime (between required maintenance downtime) as well as making this kind of source more reliable and of yet low cost. Most of experimental results reported on here have been obtained in a collaborative program between research groups LBNL (Berkeley, USA), GSI (Darmstadt, Germany), HCEI (Tomsk, Russia), and other important contributions have been made by the groups at (BNU, Beijing, China), EDU (Izmir, Turkey), and elsewhere.

  11. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source.

    PubMed

    Alessi, James; Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

    2014-02-01

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

  12. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi, James Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

    2014-02-15

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

  13. Improved ion optics for introduction of ions into a 9.4-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Yu; Leach, Franklin E.; Kaiser, Nathan K.; ...

    2015-01-19

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry provides unparalleled mass accuracy and resolving power.[1],[2] With electrospray ionization (ESI), ions are typically transferred into the mass spectrometer through a skimmer, which serves as a conductance-limiting orifice. However, the skimmer allows only a small fraction of incoming ions to enter the mass spectrometer. An ion funnel, originally developed by Smith and coworkers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)[3-5] provides much more efficient ion focusing and transfer. The large entrance aperture of the ion funnel allows almost all ions emanating from a heated capillary to be efficiently captured and transferred, resulting inmore » nearly lossless transmission.« less

  14. Cesiated surface H- ion source: optimization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Akira

    2017-01-01

    The H- ion beam intensity required for high-energy and high-intensity proton accelerators is continuously increasing. The required 95%-beam transverse normalized root mean square emittance (ɛ 95%rnmsx/y ) of the beam is around 0.25 πmm mrad for all accelerators. The Japan Proton Accelerator Complex (J-PARC) 400 MeV linear accelerator (LINAC) succeeded in accelerating the world’s highest-class H- ion beam of 50 mA with a cesiated RF-driven H- ion source. This was achieved by increasing the beam brightness through the following measures: (1) 45°-tapered plasma electrode (PE) with a 16 mm thickness to increase beam intensity by 56%, (2) continuous-wave igniter plasma driven by 50 W 30 MHz RF to reduce hydrogen pressure in the plasma chamber (PCH) by 50% and beam loss in low-energy beam transport by 12%, compared with that by the commonly used 300 W 13.56 MHz RF, (3) axial magnetic-field correction around the PE beam aperture to increase beam intensity by a maximum of 15%, (4) operation at a low PE temperature (T PE) of about 70 °C to reduce ɛ 95%nrmsx/y by 27%, (5) suitable beam apertures of the plasma and the extraction electrodes to increase beam intensity by a maximum of 7% and to reduce ɛ 95%nrmsx/y by more than 4%, (6) argon/nitrogen elimination and 39% filter-field reduction to reduce ɛ 95%nrmsx/y by 9% and the required 2 MHz RF power by around 30%, (7) eight-hours conditioning with a 50 kW 2 MHz RF and a 5% (1 ms × 50 Hz) duty factor to reduce ɛ 95%nrmsx/y by 15%, and (8) slight water molecules (H2Os) feeding in hydrogen to avoid ɛ 95%nrmsx/y increase by 72% and divergence angle expansion by 50%. In the studies, we investigated principally the 66 mA H- ion beams extracted from the source in order to achieve a 50 mA beam at the J-PARC LINAC exit regardless of the beam’s brightness. Consequently, the source can produce the required beam for a 60 mA J-PARC LINAC operation, since the world’s brightest-class beam with the ɛ 95%nrmsx/y of 0.23

  15. Helium Ion Microscope-Assisted Nanomachining of Resonant Nanostrings

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Li, Peng; van den Hurk, Remko; Evoy, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    Helium ion microscopy has recently emerged as a potent tool for the in-situ modification and imaging of nanoscale devices. For example; finely focused helium ion beams have been used for the milling of pores in suspended structures. We here report the use of helium ion milling for the post-fabrication modification of nanostrings machined from an amorphous SiCN material. The modification consisted of milling linear arrays of holes along the length of nanostrings. This milling results in a slight decrease of resonant frequency while increasing the surface to volume ratio of the device. The frequency decrease is attributed to a reduction of the effective Young’s modulus of the string, which in turn reduces the tension the string is under. Such experimental observations are supported by the finite element analysis of milled and non-milled strings. PMID:27420070

  16. Modelling of the ion cyclotron resonance heating scenarios for W7-X stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakov, Ye. O.; Van Eester, D.; Ongena, J.; Fülöp, T.

    2014-02-01

    The construction of the world largest superconducting stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) has reached the final stage. One of the main scientific objectives of the W7-X project is to prove experimentally the predicted good confinement of high-energy ions. Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) system is considered to be installed in W7-X to serve as a localized source of high energy ions. ICRH heating scenarios relevant for hydrogen and deuterium phases of W7-X operation are summarized. The heating efficiency in (3He)-H plasmas is qualitatively analyzed using a modified version of the 1D TOMCAT code able to account for stellarator geometry. The minority ion absorption is shown to be maximized at the helium-3 concentration ˜2% for the typical plasma and ICRH parameters to be available during the initial phase of W7-X.

  17. Modelling of the ion cyclotron resonance heating scenarios for W7-X stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Kazakov, Ye. O.

    2014-02-12

    The construction of the world largest superconducting stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) has reached the final stage. One of the main scientific objectives of the W7-X project is to prove experimentally the predicted good confinement of high-energy ions. Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) system is considered to be installed in W7-X to serve as a localized source of high energy ions. ICRH heating scenarios relevant for hydrogen and deuterium phases of W7-X operation are summarized. The heating efficiency in ({sup 3}He)-H plasmas is qualitatively analyzed using a modified version of the 1D TOMCAT code able to account for stellarator geometry. The minority ion absorption is shown to be maximized at the helium-3 concentration ∼2% for the typical plasma and ICRH parameters to be available during the initial phase of W7-X.

  18. Resonant quasiparticle-ion scattering in anisotropic superfluid 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmelin, R. H.; Salomaa, M. M.

    1990-03-01

    Low-energy excitations in quantum fluids are most directly encountered by ions. In the superfluid phases of 3He the relevant elementary excitations are Bogoliubov quasiparticles, which undergo repeated scattering off an ion in the presence of a divergent density of states. We present a quantum-mechanical calculation of the resonant 3He quasiparticle-scattering-limited mobility for negative ions in the anisotropic bulk 3A (A phase) and 3P (polar phase) that is exact when the quasiparticles scatter elastically. We develop a numerical scheme to solve the singular equations for quasiparticle-ion scattering in the A and P phases. Both of these superfluid phases feature a uniaxially symmetric order parameter but distinct topology for the magnitude of the energy gap on the Fermi sphere, i.e., points versus lines of nodes. In particular, the perpetual orbital circulation of Cooper pairs in 3A results in a novel, purely quantum-mechanical intrinsic Magnus effect, which is absent in the polar phase, where Cooper pairs possess no spontaneous orbital angular momentum. This is of interest also for transport properties of heavy-fermion superconductors. We discuss the 3He quasiparticle-ion cross sections, which allow one to account for the mobility data with essentially no free parameters. The calculated mobility thus facilitates an introduction of ``ion spectroscopy'' to extract useful information on fundamental properties of the superfluid state, such as the temperature dependence of the energy gap in 3A.

  19. Stochastic resonance, coherence resonance, and spike timing reliability of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with ion-channel noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haitao; Galán, Roberto F.; Wang, Jiang; Cao, Yibin; Liu, Jing

    2017-04-01

    The random transitions of ion channels between open and closed states are a major source of noise in neurons. In this study, we investigate the stochastic dynamics of a single Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) neuron with realistic, physiological channel noise, which depends on the channel number and the voltage potential of the membrane. Without external input, the stochastic HH model can generate spontaneous spikes induced by ion-channel noise, and the variability of inter-spike intervals attains a minimum for an optimal membrane area, a phenomenon known as coherence resonance. When a subthreshold periodic input current is added, the neuron can optimally detect the input frequency for an intermediate membrane area, corresponding to the phenomenon of stochastic resonance. We also investigate spike timing reliability of neuronal responses to repeated presentations of the same stimulus with different realizations of channel noise. We show that, with increasing membrane area, the reliability of neuronal response decreases for subthreshold periodic inputs, and attains a minimum for suprathreshold inputs. Furthermore, Arnold tongues of high reliability arise in a two-dimensional plot of frequency and amplitude of the sinusoidal input current, resulting from the resonance effect of spike timing reliability.

  20. Glashow resonance as a window into cosmic neutrino sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, V.; Fu, Lingjun; Learned, J. G.; Marfatia, D.; Pakvasa, S.; Weiler, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Glashow resonance at Eν=6.3 PeV is a measure of the ν¯ e content of the astrophysical neutrino flux. The fractional ν¯e content depends on the neutrino production model at the cosmic neutrino source, and the environment at the source. Thus, the strength of the Glashow resonance event rate is a potential window into astrophysical sources. We quantify the "Glashow resonometer" and comment on the significance that no Glashow events are observed in the IceCube three-year data.

  1. A parameter study of mode conversion at ion-ion hybrid resonances for ICRF-heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alava, M. J.; Heikkinen, J. A.

    1992-04-01

    By solving the wave equation for the radial electric field with constant poloidal electric field around the resonance layer of the fast Alfvén wave, various complex characteristics of mode conversion physics can be elucidated and analyzed for ion cyclotron heating of tokamaks. The validity of the Budden and tunnelling model [Ngan, Y. C. and Swanson, D. G., Phys. Fluids 20, 1920 (1977)] for the conversion studies is explored, and the conversion coefficient for the ion-ion hybrid resonance in the presence of cyclotron damping is found in closed form. The analytical results are compared with the numerical solution of the full wave equations expanded to second order in ion Larmor radius. It is found that the standard tunnelling solutions can be erroneous, not only in the case of strong damping, but also when the linearization of the plasma parameters around the resonance, peculiar to the tunnelling model, becomes inaccurate. The effects of the damping and cavity resonances on the conversion are separated in the derived analytical estimates, and the limits of the local theory of conversion are determined.

  2. New progress of high current gasdynamic ion source (invited).

    PubMed

    Skalyga, V; Izotov, I; Golubev, S; Sidorov, A; Razin, S; Vodopyanov, A; Tarvainen, O; Koivisto, H; Kalvas, T

    2016-02-01

    The experimental and theoretical research carried out at the Institute of Applied Physics resulted in development of a new type of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs)-the gasdynamic ECRIS. The gasdynamic ECRIS features a confinement mechanism in a magnetic trap that is different from Geller's ECRIS confinement, i.e., the quasi-gasdynamic one similar to that in fusion mirror traps. Experimental studies of gasdynamic ECRIS were performed at Simple Mirror Ion Source (SMIS) 37 facility. The plasma was created by 37.5 and 75 GHz gyrotron radiation with power up to 100 kW. High frequency microwaves allowed to create and sustain plasma with significant density (up to 8 × 10(13) cm(-3)) and to maintain the main advantages of conventional ECRIS such as high ionization degree and low ion energy. Reaching such high plasma density relies on the fact that the critical density grows with the microwave frequency squared. High microwave power provided the average electron energy on a level of 50-300 eV enough for efficient ionization even at neutral gas pressure range of 10(-4)-10(-3) mbar. Gasdynamic ECRIS has demonstrated a good performance producing high current (100-300 mA) multi-charged ion beams with moderate average charge (Z = 4-5 for argon). Gasdynamic ECRIS has appeared to be especially effective in low emittance hydrogen and deuterium beams formation. Proton beams with current up to 500 emA and RMS emittance below 0.07 π ⋅ mm ⋅ mrad have been demonstrated in recent experiments.

  3. New progress of high current gasdynamic ion source (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Skalyga, V. Sidorov, A.; Vodopyanov, A.; Izotov, I.; Golubev, S.; Razin, S.; Tarvainen, O.; Koivisto, H.; Kalvas, T.

    2016-02-15

    The experimental and theoretical research carried out at the Institute of Applied Physics resulted in development of a new type of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs)—the gasdynamic ECRIS. The gasdynamic ECRIS features a confinement mechanism in a magnetic trap that is different from Geller’s ECRIS confinement, i.e., the quasi-gasdynamic one similar to that in fusion mirror traps. Experimental studies of gasdynamic ECRIS were performed at Simple Mirror Ion Source (SMIS) 37 facility. The plasma was created by 37.5 and 75 GHz gyrotron radiation with power up to 100 kW. High frequency microwaves allowed to create and sustain plasma with significant density (up to 8 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −3}) and to maintain the main advantages of conventional ECRIS such as high ionization degree and low ion energy. Reaching such high plasma density relies on the fact that the critical density grows with the microwave frequency squared. High microwave power provided the average electron energy on a level of 50-300 eV enough for efficient ionization even at neutral gas pressure range of 10{sup −4}–10{sup −3} mbar. Gasdynamic ECRIS has demonstrated a good performance producing high current (100-300 mA) multi-charged ion beams with moderate average charge (Z = 4-5 for argon). Gasdynamic ECRIS has appeared to be especially effective in low emittance hydrogen and deuterium beams formation. Proton beams with current up to 500 emA and RMS emittance below 0.07 π ⋅ mm ⋅ mrad have been demonstrated in recent experiments.

  4. Simulation study of LEBT for transversely coupled beam from an ECR ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Dou, W. P.; Sun, L. T.; Yao, Q. G.; Zhang, Z. M.; Yuan, Y. J.; He, Y.; Zh, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    A Low-Energy intense-highly charged ion Accelerator Facility (LEAF) program has been launched at Institute of Modern Physics. This accelerator facility consists of a superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source, a Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) system, and a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). It is especially of interest for the extracted ion beam from the ECR ion source, which is transversely coupled, and this property will significantly affect the beam transmission in the LEBT line and the matching with the downstream RFQ. In the beam transport design of LEAF, beam decoupling in the LEBT is considered to lower down the projection emittances and the feasibility of the design has been verified by beam simulation with a transversely coupled beam from the ECR ion source.

  5. Simulation study of LEBT for transversely coupled beam from an ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.; Dou, W. P.; Sun, L. T.; Yao, Q. G.; Zhang, Z. M.; Yuan, Y. J.; He, Y.; Zh, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-15

    A Low-Energy intense-highly charged ion Accelerator Facility (LEAF) program has been launched at Institute of Modern Physics. This accelerator facility consists of a superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source, a Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) system, and a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). It is especially of interest for the extracted ion beam from the ECR ion source, which is transversely coupled, and this property will significantly affect the beam transmission in the LEBT line and the matching with the downstream RFQ. In the beam transport design of LEAF, beam decoupling in the LEBT is considered to lower down the projection emittances and the feasibility of the design has been verified by beam simulation with a transversely coupled beam from the ECR ion source.

  6. An experimental study of waveguide coupled microwave heating with conventional multicusp negative ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komppula, J.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Laulainen, J.; Tarvainen, O.

    2015-04-01

    Negative ion production with conventional multicusp plasma chambers utilizing 2.45 GHz microwave heating is demonstrated. The experimental results were obtained with the multicusp plasma chambers and extraction systems of the RF-driven RADIS ion source and the filament driven arc discharge ion source LIISA. A waveguide microwave coupling system, which is almost similar to the one used with the SILHI ion source, was used. The results demonstrate that at least one third of negative ion beam obtained with inductive RF-coupling (RADIS) or arc discharge (LIISA) can be achieved with 1 kW of 2.45 GHz microwave power in CW mode without any modification of the plasma chamber. The co-extracted electron to H- ratio and the optimum pressure range were observed to be similar for both heating methods. The behaviour of the plasma implies that the energy transfer from the microwaves to the plasma electrons is mainly an off-resonance process.

  7. A singly charged ion source for radioactive {sup 11}C ion acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Katagiri, K.; Noda, A.; Nagatsu, K.; Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Suzuki, K.; Wakui, T.; Noda, K.

    2016-02-15

    A new singly charged ion source using electron impact ionization has been developed to realize an isotope separation on-line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive {sup 11}C ion beams. Low-energy electron beams are used in the electron impact ion source to produce singly charged ions. Ionization efficiency was calculated in order to decide the geometric parameters of the ion source and to determine the required electron emission current for obtaining high ionization efficiency. Based on these considerations, the singly charged ion source was designed and fabricated. In testing, the fabricated ion source was found to have favorable performance as a singly charged ion source.

  8. A singly charged ion source for radioactive 11C ion acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katagiri, K.; Noda, A.; Nagatsu, K.; Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Suzuki, K.; Wakui, T.; Noda, K.

    2016-02-01

    A new singly charged ion source using electron impact ionization has been developed to realize an isotope separation on-line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive 11C ion beams. Low-energy electron beams are used in the electron impact ion source to produce singly charged ions. Ionization efficiency was calculated in order to decide the geometric parameters of the ion source and to determine the required electron emission current for obtaining high ionization efficiency. Based on these considerations, the singly charged ion source was designed and fabricated. In testing, the fabricated ion source was found to have favorable performance as a singly charged ion source.

  9. Structural characterization of phospholipids by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Marto, J A; White, F M; Seldomridge, S; Marshall, A G

    1995-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry provides for structural analysis of the principal biological phospholipids: glycerophosphatidylcholine, -ethanolamine, -serine, and -inositol. Both positive and negative molecular or quasimolecular ions are generated in high abundance. Isolated molecular ions may be collisionally activated in the source side of a dual trap mass analyzer, yielding fragments serving to identify the polar head group (positive ion mode) and fatty acid side chains (negative ion mode). Azimuthal quadrupolar excitation following collisionally activated dissociation refocuses productions close to the solenoid axis; subsequent transfer of product ions to the analyzer ion trap allows for high-resolution mass analysis. Cyro-cooling of the sample probe with liquid nitrogen greatly reduces matrix adduction encountered in the negative ion mode.

  10. Progress on precision measurements of inner shell transitions in highly charged ions at an ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, Csilla I.; Indelicato, Paul; LeBigot, Eric-Olivier; Vallette, Alexandre; Amaro, Pedro; Guerra, Mauro; Gumberidze, Alex

    2012-05-25

    Inner shell transitions of highly charged ions produced in the plasma of an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) were observed the first time by a Double Crystal Spectrometer (DCS). The DCS is a well-used tool in precision x-ray spectroscopy due to its ability of precision wavelength measurement traced back to a relative angle measurement. Because of its requirement for a bright x-ray source the DCS has not been used before in direct measurements of highly charged ions (HCI). Our new precision measurement of inner shell transitions in HCI is not just going to provide new x-ray standards for quantum metrology but can also give information about the plasma in which the ions reside. Ionic temperatures and with that the electron density can be determined by thorough examination of line widths measured with great accuracy.

  11. Experiments with rf ovens in ECR ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Cavenago, M.; Kulevoy, T.; Petrenko, S.

    2004-11-01

    A 34 mm diameter radio frequency (rf) oven system previously developed on bench was inserted and tested into the Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Ion Source Alice, producing beams from natural copper and silver samples; charge range was typically i=10-13 for copper and i=10-19 for silver, which well compares to previous source yield for xenon (charges 11-20). Some issues of oven design, including wire section effects, and circuit matching, are discussed; taps on the coupling transformer improved the flexibility of rf matching to different crucible materials (tantalum or steel). Details of operating experience (cleaning the oven and replacing sample) are reported; sample duration was more than 100 h and temperature T{sub s} in excess of 1750 K were demonstrated. The ion source operation depends on both the oven distance L{sub oe} from ECR plasma and the bias voltage V{sub b} of the sample. Best conditions were found for close (L{sub oe} congruent with 70 mm) or preferably intermediate positions (L{sub oe} congruent with 106 mm) and for sample negative respect to ECR chamber V{sub b}<-400 V. Final results of current for silver [for example I({sup 107}Ag{sup 17+}) about 1000 nA] are well comparable to xenon case [for example I({sup 129}Xe{sup 18+}) about 500 nA] after correcting for isotopic abundance. Memory effect of metal ion generation was also important and is discussed as well as other time dependent effects and an empirical fit for the aggregate results of silver mass flow. New oven prototypes reached T{sub s} congruent with 2250 K in development tests.

  12. Electron Spectroscopy In Heavy-Ion Storage Rings: Resonant and Non-Resonant Electron Transfer Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hagmann, S.; Stoehlker, Th.; Trotsenko, S.; Kozhuharov, Ch.; Spillmann, U.; Bosch, F.; Liesen, D.; Winters, D.; Hillenbrand, P.-M.; Shabaev, V.; Tupitsyn, I.; Kozhedub, Y.; Rothard, H.; Reuschl, R.; Ullrich, J.; Moshammer, R.; Voitkiv, A.; Surzhykov, A.; Fischer, D.; Doerner, R.

    2011-06-01

    Whereas our understanding of total cross sections for ionization and capture processes in ion-atom collisions is widely viewed as having arrived at a state of adequate maturity, the same cannot be said at all about the dynamics of collisions, multi-electron processes or the electron continua (in target and projectile) which are at the origin of total cross sections. We depict how these processes can be studied favourably in storage ring environments. We present examples of resonant and non-resonant electron transfer processes, radiative and non-radiative. This is elucidated via the relation of the electron nucleus bremsstrahlung at the high energy tip of the bremsstrahlung spectrum to the radiative electron capture cusp (RECC) and a new approach to determining molecular orbital binding energies in superheavy quasi-molecules in resonant KK charge transfer.

  13. Improvements for extending the time between maintenance periods for the Heidelberg ion beam therapy center (HIT) ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelmann, Tim Cee, Rainer; Haberer, Thomas; Naas, Bernd; Peters, Andreas; Schreiner, Jochen

    2014-02-15

    The clinical operation at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) started in November 2009; since then more than 1600 patients have been treated. In a 24/7 operation scheme two 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are routinely used to produce protons and carbon ions. The modification of the low energy beam transport line and the integration of a third ion source into the therapy facility will be shown. In the last year we implemented a new extraction system at all three sources to enhance the lifetime of extraction parts and reduce preventive and corrective maintenance. The new four-electrode-design provides electron suppression as well as lower beam emittance. Unwanted beam sputtering effects which typically lead to contamination of the insulator ceramics and subsequent high-voltage break-downs are minimized by the beam guidance of the new extraction system. By this measure the service interval can be increased significantly. As a side effect, the beam emittance can be reduced allowing a less challenging working point for the ion sources without reducing the effective beam performance. This paper gives also an outlook to further enhancements at the HIT ion source testbench.

  14. Improvements for extending the time between maintenance periods for the Heidelberg ion beam therapy center (HIT) ion sources.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Tim; Cee, Rainer; Haberer, Thomas; Naas, Bernd; Peters, Andreas; Schreiner, Jochen

    2014-02-01

    The clinical operation at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) started in November 2009; since then more than 1600 patients have been treated. In a 24/7 operation scheme two 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are routinely used to produce protons and carbon ions. The modification of the low energy beam transport line and the integration of a third ion source into the therapy facility will be shown. In the last year we implemented a new extraction system at all three sources to enhance the lifetime of extraction parts and reduce preventive and corrective maintenance. The new four-electrode-design provides electron suppression as well as lower beam emittance. Unwanted beam sputtering effects which typically lead to contamination of the insulator ceramics and subsequent high-voltage break-downs are minimized by the beam guidance of the new extraction system. By this measure the service interval can be increased significantly. As a side effect, the beam emittance can be reduced allowing a less challenging working point for the ion sources without reducing the effective beam performance. This paper gives also an outlook to further enhancements at the HIT ion source testbench.

  15. Magnetic plasma confinement for laser ion source.

    PubMed

    Okamura, M; Adeyemi, A; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Kondo, K; Dabrowski, R

    2010-02-01

    A laser ion source (LIS) can easily provide a high current beam. However, it has been difficult to obtain a longer beam pulse while keeping a high current. On occasion, longer beam pulses are required by certain applications. For example, more than 10 micros of beam pulse is required for injecting highly charged beams to a large sized synchrotron. To extend beam pulse width, a solenoid field was applied at the drift space of the LIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The solenoid field suppressed the diverging angle of the expanding plasma and the beam pulse was widened. Also, it was observed that the plasma state was conserved after passing through a few hundred gauss of the 480 mm length solenoid field.

  16. Very Large Area/Volume Microwave ECR Plasma and Ion Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E. (Inventor); Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for producing very large area and large volume plasmas. The invention utilizes electron cyclotron resonances in conjunction with permanent magnets to produce dense, uniform plasmas for long life ion thruster applications or for plasma processing applications such as etching, deposition, ion milling and ion implantation. The large area source is at least five times larger than the 12-inch wafers being processed to date. Its rectangular shape makes it easier to accommodate to materials processing than sources that are circular in shape. The source itself represents the largest ECR ion source built to date. It is electrodeless and does not utilize electromagnets to generate the ECR magnetic circuit, nor does it make use of windows.

  17. Mini RF-driven ion source for focused ion beam system

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, X.; Ji, Q.; Chang, A.; Leung, K.N.

    2002-08-02

    Mini RF-driven ion sources with 1.2 cm and 1.5 cm inner chamber diameter have been developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Several gas species have been tested including argon, krypton and hydrogen. These mini ion sources operate in inductively coupled mode and are capable of generating high current density ion beams at tens of watts. Since the plasma potential is relatively low in the plasma chamber, these mini ion sources can function reliably without any perceptible sputtering damage. The mini RF-driven ion sources will be combined with electrostatic focusing columns, and are capable of producing nano focused ion beams for micro machining and semiconductor fabrications.

  18. Development of a miniature microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma ion thruster for exospheric micro-propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Indranuj; Toyoda, Yuji; Yamamoto, Naoji; Nakashima, Hideki

    2015-12-15

    A miniature microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source [(discharge diameter)/(microwave cutoff diameter) < 0.3] has been developed at Kyushu University to be used as an ion thruster in micro-propulsion applications in the exosphere. The discharge source uses both radial and axial magnetostatic field confinement to facilitate electron cyclotron resonance and increase the electron dwell time in the volume, thereby enhancing plasma production efficiency. Performance of the ion thruster is studied at 3 microwave frequencies (1.2 GHz, 1.6 GHz, and 2.45 GHz), for low input powers (<15 W) and small xenon mass flow rates (<40 μg/s), by experimentally measuring the extracted ion beam current through a potential difference of ≅1200 V. The discharge geometry is found to operate most efficiently at an input microwave frequency of 1.6 GHz. At this frequency, for an input power of 8 W, and propellant (xenon) mass flow rate of 21 μg/s, 13.7 mA of ion beam current is obtained, equivalent to an calculated thrust of 0.74 mN.

  19. Development of a miniature microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma ion thruster for exospheric micro-propulsion.

    PubMed

    Dey, Indranuj; Toyoda, Yuji; Yamamoto, Naoji; Nakashima, Hideki

    2015-12-01

    A miniature microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source [(discharge diameter)/(microwave cutoff diameter) < 0.3] has been developed at Kyushu University to be used as an ion thruster in micro-propulsion applications in the exosphere. The discharge source uses both radial and axial magnetostatic field confinement to facilitate electron cyclotron resonance and increase the electron dwell time in the volume, thereby enhancing plasma production efficiency. Performance of the ion thruster is studied at 3 microwave frequencies (1.2 GHz, 1.6 GHz, and 2.45 GHz), for low input powers (<15 W) and small xenon mass flow rates (<40 μg/s), by experimentally measuring the extracted ion beam current through a potential difference of ≅1200 V. The discharge geometry is found to operate most efficiently at an input microwave frequency of 1.6 GHz. At this frequency, for an input power of 8 W, and propellant (xenon) mass flow rate of 21 μg/s, 13.7 mA of ion beam current is obtained, equivalent to an calculated thrust of 0.74 mN.

  20. Side extraction duoPIGatron-type ion source.

    SciTech Connect

    GUSHENETS,V.I.; OKS, E.M.; HERSCHOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.

    2007-08-26

    We have designed and constructed a compact duoPIGatron-type ion source, for possible use in ion implanters, in such the ion can be extracted from side aperture in contrast to conventional duoPIGatron sources with axial ion extraction. The size of the side extraction aperture is 1x40 mm. The ion source was developed to study physical and technological aspects relevant to an industrial ion source. The side extraction duoPIGatron has stable arc, uniformly bright illumination, and dense plasma. The present work describes some of preliminary operating parameters of the ion source using Argon, BF3. The total unanalyzed beam currents are 23 mA using Ar at an arc current 5 A and 13 mA using BF3 gas at an arc current 6 A.

  1. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

    1980-12-12

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface is described. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  2. Ion source for high-precision mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Todd, Peter J.; McKown, Henry S.; Smith, David H.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is directed to a method for increasing the precision of positive-ion relative abundance measurements conducted in a sector mass spectrometer having an ion source for directing a beam of positive ions onto a collimating slit. The method comprises incorporating in the source an electrostatic lens assembly for providing a positive-ion beam of circular cross section for collimation by the slit.

  3. Ion source for high-precision mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Todd, P.J.; McKown, H.S.; Smith, D.H.

    1982-04-26

    The invention is directed to a method for increasing the precision of positive-ion relative abundance measurements conducted in a sector mass spectrometer having an ion source for directing a beam of positive ions onto a collimating slit. The method comprises incorporating in the source an electrostatic lens assembly for providing a positive-ion beam of circular cross section for collimation by the slit. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  4. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, Ady; Prelec, Krsto

    1983-01-01

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  5. Performance of positive ion based high power ion source of EAST neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Chundong; Xie, Yahong Xie, Yuanlai; Liu, Sheng; Xu, Yongjian; Liang, Lizhen; Jiang, Caichao; Li, Jun; Liu, Zhimin

    2016-02-15

    The positive ion based source with a hot cathode based arc chamber and a tetrode accelerator was employed for a neutral beam injector on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). Four ion sources were developed and each ion source has produced 4 MW @ 80 keV hydrogen beam on the test bed. 100 s long pulse operation with modulated beam has also been tested on the test bed. The accelerator was upgraded from circular shaped to diamond shaped in the latest two ion sources. In the latest campaign of EAST experiment, four ion sources injected more than 4 MW deuterium beam with beam energy of 60 keV into EAST.

  6. Production of negative hydrogen and deuterium ions in microwave-driven ion sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, D.

    1998-09-11

    The authors report progress they have made in the production of negative hydrogen and deuterium atomic ions in magnetically-confined microwave-driven (2.45 GHz) ion sources. The influence of source surface material, microwave power, source gas pressure and magnetic field configuration on the resulting ion current is discussed. Results strongly suggest that, at least in the source, vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen, the precursor to atomic negative ion production, is produced via a surface mechanism suggested by Hall et al. rather than via a gas phase reaction as is generally believed to be the case in most ion sources.

  7. Fermilab HINS Proton Ion Source Beam Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, W.M.; Apollinari, G.; Chaurize, S.; Hays, S.; Romanov, G.; Scarpine, V.; Schmidt, C.; Webber, R.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    The proton ion source for the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) Linac front-end at Fermilab has been successfully commissioned. It produces a 50 keV, 3 msec beam pulse with a peak current greater than 20mA at 2.5Hz. The beam is transported to the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) by a low energy beam transport (LEBT) that consists of two focusing solenoids, four steering dipole magnets and a beam current transformer. To understand beam transmission through the RFQ, it is important to characterize the 50 keV beam before connecting the LEBT to the RFQ. A wire scanner and a Faraday cup are temporarily installed at the exit of the LEBT to study the beam parameters. Beam profile measurements are made for different LEBT settings and results are compared to those from computer simulations. In lieu of direct emittance measurements, solenoid variation method based on profile measurements is used to reconstruct the beam emittance.

  8. Parallel Spectral Acquisition with an Ion Cyclotron Resonance Cell Array.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Gun; Anderson, Gordon A; Navare, Arti T; Bruce, James E

    2016-01-19

    Mass measurement accuracy is a critical analytical figure-of-merit in most areas of mass spectrometry application. However, the time required for acquisition of high-resolution, high mass accuracy data limits many applications and is an aspect under continual pressure for development. Current efforts target implementation of higher electrostatic and magnetic fields because ion oscillatory frequencies increase linearly with field strength. As such, the time required for spectral acquisition of a given resolving power and mass accuracy decreases linearly with increasing fields. Mass spectrometer developments to include multiple high-resolution detectors that can be operated in parallel could further decrease the acquisition time by a factor of n, the number of detectors. Efforts described here resulted in development of an instrument with a set of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) cells as detectors that constitute the first MS array capable of parallel high-resolution spectral acquisition. ICR cell array systems consisting of three or five cells were constructed with printed circuit boards and installed within a single superconducting magnet and vacuum system. Independent ion populations were injected and trapped within each cell in the array. Upon filling the array, all ions in all cells were simultaneously excited and ICR signals from each cell were independently amplified and recorded in parallel. Presented here are the initial results of successful parallel spectral acquisition, parallel mass spectrometry (MS) and MS/MS measurements, and parallel high-resolution acquisition with the MS array system.

  9. Development and characterization of a high-reliability, extended-lifetime H- ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, Gabriel; Barrows, Preston; Sherman, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Phoenix Nuclear Labs (PNL) has designed and constructed a long-lifetime, negative hydrogen (H-) ion source, in partnership with Fermilab for an ion beam injector servicing future Intensity Frontier particle accelerators. The specifications for the low-energy beam transport (LEBT) section are 5-10 mA of continuous H- ion current at 30 keV with <0.2 π-mm-mrad emittance. Existing ion sources at Fermilab rely on plasma-facing electrodes, limiting their lifetime to a few hundred hours, while requiring relatively high gas loads on downstream components. PNL's design features an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave plasma driver which has been extensively developed in positive ion source systems, having demonstrated 1000+ hours of operation and >99% continuous uptime at PNL. Positive ions and hyperthermal neutrals drift toward a low-work-function surface, where a fraction is converted into H- hydrogen ions, which are subsequently extracted into a low-energy beam using electrostatic lenses. A magnetic filter preferentially removes high-energy electrons emitted by the source plasma, in order to mitigate H- ion destruction via electron-impact detachment. The design of the source subsystems and preliminary diagnostic results will be presented.

  10. Double-layer ion acceleration triggered by ion magnetization in expanding radiofrequency plasma sources

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W.; Fujiwara, Tamiya

    2010-10-04

    Ion energy distribution functions downstream of the source exit in magnetically expanding low-pressure plasmas are experimentally investigated for four source tube diameters ranging from about 5 to 15 cm. The magnetic-field threshold corresponding to a transition from a simple expanding plasma to a double layer-containing plasma is observed to increase with a decrease in the source tube diameter. The results demonstrate that for the four geometries, the double layer and the accelerated ion beam form when the ion Larmour radius in the source becomes smaller than the source tube radius, i.e., when the ions become magnetized in the source tube.

  11. Effect of axial magnetic field on a 2.45 GHz permanent magnet ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, T. Wada, H.; Furuse, M.; Asaji, T.

    2016-02-15

    Herein, we conduct a fundamental study to improve the generation efficiency of a multi-charged ion source using argon. A magnetic field of our electron cyclotron resonance ion source is composed of a permanent magnet and a solenoid coil. Thereby, the axial magnetic field in the chamber can be tuned. Using the solenoid coil, we varied the magnetic field strength in the plasma chamber and measured the ion beam current extracted at the electrode. We observed an approximately three times increase in the Ar{sup 4+} ion beam current when the magnetic field on the extractor-electrode side of the chamber was weakened. From our results, we can confirm that the multi-charged ion beam current changes depending on magnetic field intensity in the plasma chamber.

  12. A new Cs sputter ion source with polyatomic ion beams for SIMS applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Belykh, S. F.; Palitsin, V. V.; Veryovkin, I. V.; Kovarsky, A. P.; Chang, R. J. H.; Adriaens, A.; Dowsett, M. G.; Adams, F.; Materials Science Division; Univ. Warwick; Ioffe Phys.-Tech. Inst.; Ghent Univ.; Univ. Antwerp

    2007-08-02

    A simple design for a cesium sputter ion source compatible with vacuum and ion-optical systems as well as with electronics of the commercially available Cameca IMS-4f instrument is reported. This ion source has been tested with the cluster primary ions of Si{sub n}{sup -} and Cu{sub n}{sup -}. Our experiments with surface characterization and depth profiling conducted to date demonstrate improvements of the analytical capabilities of the secondary ion mass spectrometry instrument due to the nonadditive enhancement of secondary ion emission and shorter ion ranges of polyatomic projectiles compared to atomic ones with the same impact energy.

  13. Anthropogenic sources stimulate resonance of a natural rock bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jeffrey R.; Thorne, Michael S.; Koper, Keith D.; Wood, John R.; Goddard, Kyler; Burlacu, Relu; Doyle, Sarah; Stanfield, Erik; White, Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    The natural modes of vibration of bedrock landforms, as well as the sources and effects of stimulated resonance remain poorly understood. Here we show that seismic energy created by an induced earthquake and an artificial reservoir has spectral content coincident with the natural modes of vibration of a prominent rock bridge. We measured the resonant frequencies of Rainbow Bridge, Utah using data from two broadband seismometers placed on the span, and identified eight distinct vibrational modes between 1 and 6 Hz. A distant, induced earthquake produced local ground motion rich in 1 Hz energy, stimulating a 20 dB increase in measured power at the bridge's fundamental mode. Moreover, we establish that wave action on Lake Powell, an artificial reservoir, generates microseismic energy with peak power ~1 Hz, also exciting resonance of Rainbow Bridge. These anthropogenic sources represent relatively new energy input for the bridge with unknown consequences for structural fatigue.

  14. Ion source for tests of ion behavior in the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino experiment beam line

    SciTech Connect

    Lukic, S.; Bornschein, B.; Drexlin, G.; Glueck, F.; Kazachenko, O.; Zoll, M. C. R.; Schoeppner, M.; Weinheimer, Ch.

    2011-01-15

    An electron-impact ion source based on photoelectron emission was developed for ionization of gases at pressures below 10{sup -4} mbar in an axial magnetic field in the order of 5 T. The ion source applies only dc fields, which makes it suitable for use in the presence of equipment sensitive to radio-frequency (RF) fields. The ion source was successfully tested under varying conditions regarding pressure, magnetic field, and magnetic-field gradient, and the results were studied with the help of simulations. The processes in the ion source are well understood, and possibilities for further optimization of generated ion currents are clarified.

  15. Properties of the ion-ion hybrid resonator in fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, George J.

    2015-10-06

    The project developed theoretical and numerical descriptions of the properties of ion-ion hybrid Alfvén resonators that are expected to arise in the operation of a fusion reactor. The methodology and theoretical concepts were successfully compared to observations made in basic experiments in the LAPD device at UCLA. An assessment was made of the excitation of resonator modes by energetic alpha particles for burning plasma conditions expected in the ITER device. The broader impacts included the generation of basic insight useful to magnetic fusion and space science researchers, defining new avenues for exploration in basic laboratory experiments, establishing broader contacts between experimentalists and theoreticians, completion of a Ph.D. dissertation, and promotion of interest in science through community outreach events and classroom instruction.

  16. Nuclear resonant scattering beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Alp, E.E.; Mooney, T.M.; Toellner, T.; Sturhahn, W.

    1993-09-01

    The principal and engineering aspects of a dedicated synchrotron radiation beamline under construction at the Advanced Photon Source for nuclear resonant scattering purposes are explained. The expected performance in terms of isotopes to be studied, flux, and timing properties is discussed.

  17. Future prospects for ECR ion sources with improved charge state distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    Despite the steady advance in the technology of the ECR ion source, present art forms have not yet reached their full potential in terms of charge state and intensity within a particular charge state, in part, because of the narrow band width. single-frequency microwave radiation used to heat the plasma electrons. This article identifies fundamentally important methods which may enhance the performances of ECR ion sources through the use of: (1) a tailored magnetic field configuration (spatial domain) in combination with single-frequency microwave radiation to create a large uniformly distributed ECR ``volume`` or (2) the use of broadband frequency domain techniques (variable-frequency, broad-band frequency, or multiple-discrete-frequency microwave radiation), derived from standard TWT technology, to transform the resonant plasma ``surfaces`` of traditional ECR ion sources into resonant plasma ``volume``. The creation of a large ECR plasma ``volume`` permits coupling of more power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, thereby producing higher charge state ions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present forms of` the source. The ECR ion source concepts described in this article offer exciting opportunities to significantly advance the-state-of-the-art of ECR technology and as a consequence, open new opportunities in fundamental and applied research and for a variety of industrial applications.

  18. Review on high current 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance sources (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Gammino, S.; Celona, L.; Ciavola, G.; Maimone, F.; Mascali, D.

    2010-02-15

    The suitable source for the production of intense beams for high power accelerators must obey to the request of high brightness, stability, and reliability. The 2.45 GHz off-resonance microwave discharge sources are the ideal device to generate the requested beams, as they produce multimilliampere beams of protons, deuterons, and monocharged ions, remaining stable for several weeks without maintenance. A description of different technical designs will be given, analyzing their strength, and weakness, with regard to the extraction system and low energy beam transport line, as the presence of beam halo is detrimental for the accelerator.

  19. Electron spin resonance study of ion-implanted polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasserman, B.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Braunstein, G.; Wnek, G. E.; Roth, G.

    1985-03-01

    The effect of ion implantation on the polymers PAN (polyacrylonitrile), PPO (poly 2,6-dimethylphenylene oxide) and PPS (p-polyphenylene sulfide) is studied using electron spin resonance. ESR measurements on these polymers were performed as a function of ion species and fluence in the temperature range 10 ion species used for implantation in this study (84Kr,80Br,75As,40Ar and14N). It is therefore concluded that the carrier concentration is related to the structural damage and not to chemical doping effects. From the shape of the ESR line, the ratio of the relaxation times for one-dimensional to three-dimensional spin diffusion is determined to be larger than 1000. The temperature dependence of the unpaired carrier concentration shows a strong deviation from a Curie law behavior, which can be explained by assuming that a defect band is formed with a bandgap due to strong Coulomb interaction between electrons on the defect sites.

  20. Comparison of graphite materials for targets of laser ion source.

    PubMed

    Fuwa, Y; Ikeda, S; Kumaki, M; Sekine, M; Munemoto, N; Cinquegrani, D; Romanelli, M; Kanesue, T; Okamura, M; Iwashita, Y

    2014-02-01

    To investigate efficient graphite material for carbon ion production in laser ion source, the plasma properties produced from these materials are measured. Comparing acquired current profile and charge state distribution, the distributions of ions in laser induced plasma from isotropic graphite and single crystal of graphite are different. The produced quantity of C(6+) from isotropic materials is larger than that from single crystal.