Science.gov

Sample records for resonance transition 795-nm

  1. Hydrocarbon-free resonance transition 795-nm rubidium laser

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S Q; Soules, T F; Page, R H; Mitchell, S C; Kanz, V K; Beach, R J

    2008-01-09

    An optical resonance transition rubidium laser (5{sup 2}P{sub 1/2} {yields} 5{sup 2}S{sub 1/2}) is demonstrated with a hydrocarbon-free buffer gas. Prior demonstrations of alkali resonance transition lasers have used ethane as either the buffer gas or a buffer gas component to promote rapid fine-structure mixing. However, our experience suggests that the alkali vapor reacts with the ethane producing carbon as one of the reaction products. This degrades long term laser reliability. Our recent experimental results with a 'clean' helium-only buffer gas system pumped by a Ti:sapphire laser demonstrate all the advantages of the original alkali laser system, but without the reliability issues associated with the use of ethane.

  2. Resonance transition 795-nm Rubidium laser using 3He buffer gas

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S S; Soules, T F; Page, R H; Mitchell, S C; Kanz, V K; Beach, R J

    2007-08-02

    We report the first demonstration of a 795-nm Rubidium resonance transition laser using a buffer gas consisting of pure {sup 3}He. This follows our recent demonstration of a hydrocarbon-free 795-nm Rubidium resonance laser which used naturally-occurring He as the buffer gas. Using He gas that is isotopically enriched with {sup 3}He yields enhanced mixing of the Rb fine-structure levels. This enables efficient lasing at reduced He buffer gas pressure, improving thermal management in high average power Rb lasers and enhancing the power scaling potential of such systems.

  3. Improvement of vacuum squeezing resonant on the rubidium D1 line at 795 nm.

    PubMed

    Han, Yashuai; Wen, Xin; He, Jun; Yang, Baodong; Wang, Yanhua; Wang, Junmin

    2016-02-01

    We report on efficient generation of second harmonic laser and single-mode vacuum squeezed light of 795 nm with periodically poled KTiOPO4 (PPKTP) crystals. We achieved 111 mW of ultra-violet (UV) light at 397.5 nm from 191 mW of fundamental light with a PPKTP crystal in a doubling cavity, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 58.1%. Using the UV light to pump an optical parametric oscillator with a PPKTP crystal, we realized -5.6 dB of a maximum squeezing. We analyzed the pump power dependence of the squeezing level and concluded that the UV light induced losses limit the improvement of the squeezing level. The generated squeezed light has huge potential application in quantum memory and ultra-precise measurement. PMID:26906810

  4. Developments toward a reliable diode-pumped hydrocarbon-free 795-nm rubidium laser

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S S; Soules, T F; Page, R H; Mitchell, S C; Kanz, V K; Beach, R J

    2008-05-07

    We report a 795-nm diode-pumpable Rb laser using a buffer gas of pure {sup 3}He. {sup 3}He gas enhances mixing of the Rb fine-structure levels. This enables efficient lasing at reduced He pressures and improved thermal management.

  5. Preparation of 5.6dB vacuum squeezing on 795nm rubidium D1 line via an OPO (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junmin; Han, Yashuai; Wen, Xin; Yang, Baodong; Wang, Yanhua; He, Jun

    2016-04-01

    We report on experimental preparation of the second-harmonic-wave laser and the single-mode squeezed vacuum state of 795 nm (rubidium atom D1 line) with periodically-poled KTiOPO4 (PPKTP) bulk crystals. By using a four-mirror bow-tie type ring doubling cavity we achieved ~111 mW of continuous-wave single-frequency ultra-violet (UV) laser radiation at 397.5 nm with ~191 mW of 795 nm fundamental-wave laser input. The corresponding doubling efficiency is 58.1%. To our knowledge, this is the highest doubling efficiency at 795 nm so far. Employing the 397.5 nm UV laser as a pump source of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with a PPKTP crystal, we achieved 5.6 dB of 795 nm single-mode squeezed vacuum output at analyzing frequency of 2 MHz. To our knowledge, this is the highest squeezing level of 795 nm single-mode squeezed vacuum so far. We analyzed the pump power dependence of the squeezing level, and concluded that UV laser induced losses of PPKTP crystal are main limiting factors for further improving the squeezing level. The generated 795 nm vacuum squeezing has huge potential applications in quantum memory and ultra-precision measurement with rubidium atoms.

  6. Electromagnetic Transition form Factor of Nucleon Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Toru

    2016-10-01

    A dynamical coupled channel model for electron and neutrino induced meson production reactions is developed. The model is an extension of our previous reaction model to describe reactions at finite Q^2. The electromagnetic transition form factors of the first (3/2^+,3/2) and (3/2^-,1/2) resonances extracted from partial wave amplitude are discussed.

  7. Electromagnetic Transition Form Factors of Nucleon Resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Burkert, Volker D.

    2008-10-13

    Recent measurements of nucleon resonance transition form factors with CLAS at Jefferson Lab are discussed. The new data resolve a long-standing puzzle of the nature of the Roper resonance, and confirm the assertion of the symmetric constituent quark model of the Roper as the first radial excitation of the nucleon. The data on high Q{sup 2} n{pi}{sup +} production confirm the slow fall off of the S{sub 11}(1535) transition form factor with Q{sup 2}, and better constrain the branching ratios {beta}{sub N{pi}} = 0.50 and {beta}{sub N{eta}} = 0.45. For the first time, the longitudinal transition amplitude to the S{sub 11}(1535) was extracted from the n{pi}{sup +} data. Also, new results on the transition amplitudes for the D{sub 13}(1520) resonance are presented showing a rapid transition from helicity 3/2 dominance seen at the real photon point to helicty 1/2 dominance at higher Q{sup 2}.

  8. Resonant quantum transitions in trapped antihydrogen atoms.

    PubMed

    Amole, C; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Capra, A; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Donnan, P H; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Isaac, C A; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Little, A; Madsen, N; McKenna, J T K; Menary, S; Napoli, S C; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Shields, C R; Silveira, D M; Stracka, S; So, C; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S

    2012-03-07

    The hydrogen atom is one of the most important and influential model systems in modern physics. Attempts to understand its spectrum are inextricably linked to the early history and development of quantum mechanics. The hydrogen atom's stature lies in its simplicity and in the accuracy with which its spectrum can be measured and compared to theory. Today its spectrum remains a valuable tool for determining the values of fundamental constants and for challenging the limits of modern physics, including the validity of quantum electrodynamics and--by comparison with measurements on its antimatter counterpart, antihydrogen--the validity of CPT (charge conjugation, parity and time reversal) symmetry. Here we report spectroscopy of a pure antimatter atom, demonstrating resonant quantum transitions in antihydrogen. We have manipulated the internal spin state of antihydrogen atoms so as to induce magnetic resonance transitions between hyperfine levels of the positronic ground state. We used resonant microwave radiation to flip the spin of the positron in antihydrogen atoms that were magnetically trapped in the ALPHA apparatus. The spin flip causes trapped anti-atoms to be ejected from the trap. We look for evidence of resonant interaction by comparing the survival rate of trapped atoms irradiated with microwaves on-resonance to that of atoms subjected to microwaves that are off-resonance. In one variant of the experiment, we detect 23 atoms that survive in 110 trapping attempts with microwaves off-resonance (0.21 per attempt), and only two atoms that survive in 103 attempts with microwaves on-resonance (0.02 per attempt). We also describe the direct detection of the annihilation of antihydrogen atoms ejected by the microwaves.

  9. Dynamics and Transit Variations of Resonant Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David

    2016-06-01

    Transit timing variations (TTVs) are deviations of the measured midtransit times from the exact periodicity. One of the most interesting causes of TTVs is the gravitational interaction between planets. Here we consider a case of two planets in a mean motion resonance (orbital periods in a ratio of small integers). This case is important because the resonant interaction can amplify the TTV effect and allow planets to be detected more easily. We develop an analytic model of the resonant dynamics valid for small orbital eccentricities and use it to derive the principal TTV terms. We find that a resonant system should show TTV terms with two basic periods (and their harmonics). The resonant TTV period is proportional (m/M *)-2/3, where m and M * are the planetary and stellar masses. For m = 10-4 M *, for example, the TTV period exceeds the orbital period by about two orders of magnitude. The amplitude of the resonant TTV terms scales linearly with the libration amplitude. The ratio of the TTV amplitudes of two resonant planets is inversely proportional to the ratio of their masses. These and other relationships discussed in the main text can be used to aid the interpretation of TTV observations.

  10. Electric Dipole Transitions at Magnetoacoustic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichurin, M. I.; Petrov, V. M.; Ryabkov, O. V.; Filippov, A. V.; Ivanov, A. A.; Srinivasan, G.

    2006-03-01

    Ferromagnetic-ferroelectric composites show giant magnetoelectric (ME) effects that are facilitated by the sample response to electric, magnetic, and elastic forces. Composites consisting of magnetostrictive ferrites and piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) or lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) are found to show strong ME coupling. Such materials also provide us with unique opportunities for theoretical and experimental studies on ME coupling when the magnetic and/or electric subsystems show resonance behavior. Two types of resonances are of importance: electromechanical resonance (EMR) for the piezoelectric component and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) for the magnetic component. At the coincidence of EMR and FMR, i.e., at the magneto-acoustic resonance (MAR) ME interaction becomes stronger [1]. This work focuses on electric dipole transitions in multilayer ferromagnetic-ferroelectric composites, such as yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and PZT, at MAR. Expressions have been obtained for ME susceptibility and the ME coefficient. The results indicate the potential for novel microwave devices based on ME interactions at MAR. Supported by grants from the ARO, ONR and NSF.[1] M.I. Bichurin, V.M. Petrov, O.V. Ryabkov, S.V. Averkin and G. Srinivasan, Phys. Rev. B. 72, 060408(R) (2005).

  11. Improved Tracking of an Atomic-Clock Resonance Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D.; Chung, Sang K.; Tu, Meirong

    2010-01-01

    An improved method of making an electronic oscillator track the frequency of an atomic-clock resonance transition is based on fitting a theoretical nonlinear curve to measurements at three oscillator frequencies within the operational frequency band of the transition (in other words, at three points within the resonance peak). In the measurement process, the frequency of a microwave oscillator is repeatedly set at various offsets from the nominal resonance frequency, the oscillator signal is applied in a square pulse of the oscillator signal having a suitable duration (typically, of the order of a second), and, for each pulse at each frequency offset, fluorescence photons of the transition in question are counted. As described below, the counts are used to determine a new nominal resonance frequency. Thereafter, offsets are determined with respect to the new resonance frequency. The process as described thus far is repeated so as to repeatedly adjust the oscillator to track the most recent estimate of the nominal resonance frequency.

  12. Resonant Auger for the detection of quadrupolar transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Danger, J.; Le Fevre, P.; Chandesris, D.; Magnan, H.; Jupille, J.; Bourgeois, S.; Eickhoff, T.; Drube, W.

    2003-01-24

    Quadrupolar transitions can play an important role in X-ray absorption spectroscopy, especially when it is used for magnetic measurements, like in X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism or Resonant Magnetic Scattering. We show here that resonantly excited Ti KL2,3L2,3 Auger spectra of TiO2 (110) carry a clear signature of quadrupolar transitions from the 1s to localized eg and t2g d-like states. The quadrupolar nature of the observed additional spectator lines are clearly demonstrated by their angular dependence, and their intensity is used to locate and quantify the quadrupolar transitions in the absorption spectrum.

  13. Optical feshbach resonance using the intercombination transition.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, K; Kasa, K; Kitagawa, M; Takahashi, Y

    2008-11-14

    We report control of the scattering wave function by an optical Feshbach resonance effect using ytterbium atoms. The narrow intercombination line (1S0-3P1) is used for efficient control as proposed by Ciuryło et al. [Phys. Rev. A 71, 030701(R) (2005)10.1103/PhysRevA.71.030701]. The manipulation of the scattering wave function is monitored with the change of a photoassociation rate caused by another laser. The optical Feshbach resonance is especially efficient for isotopes with large negative scattering lengths such as 172Yb, and we have confirmed that the scattering phase shift divided by the wave number, which gives the scattering length in the zero energy limit, is changed by about 30 nm. PMID:19113335

  14. Modeling Developmental Transitions in Adaptive Resonance Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2004-01-01

    Neural networks are applied to a theoretical subject in developmental psychology: modeling developmental transitions. Two issues that are involved will be discussed: discontinuities and acquiring qualitatively new knowledge. We will argue that by the appearance of a bifurcation, a neural network can show discontinuities and may acquire…

  15. Comparison of three EIT-type resonances formed in Rb nanocell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, Armen; Sarkisyan, David; Margalit, Leah; Wilson-Gordon, Arlene D.

    2016-09-01

    The electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) phenomenon is studied using a nanometric thin (L = 795 nm) Rb vapour layer. EIT-type resonances that are formed in three different energy-level systems are reported. It is demonstrated that the EIT resonance which is formed in a Λ-system where the ground levels are separated by the hyperfine splitting (EITH-resonance) has the smallest linewidth (~10 MHz). The EIT resonance which is realized in a Λ-system formed by the Zeeman sublevels of the Fg = 2 → Fe = 1 transition (EITZ-resonance) has a larger linewidth (~14 MHz). The EITV-resonance which is formed in the V-system has the largest linewidth (~40 MHz). The uniqueness of the EIT phenomena reported here is that they can be formed in different types of Λ-systems even for L < 1 μm. The splitting of the EITZ-resonance into two components in a transverse magnetic field is reported. The theoretical model well describes the experiment.

  16. Transition representations of quantum evolution with application to scattering resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, Y.

    2011-03-15

    A Lyapunov operator is a self-adjoint quantum observable whose expectation value varies monotonically as time increases and may serve as a marker for the flow of time in a quantum system. In this paper it is shown that the existence of a certain type of Lyapunov operator leads to representations of the quantum dynamics, termed transition representations, in which an evolving quantum state {psi}(t) is decomposed into a sum {psi}(t) ={psi}{sup b}(t) +{psi}{sup f}(t) of a backward asymptotic component and a forward asymptotic component such that the evolution process is represented as a transition from {psi}{sup b}(t) to {psi}{sup f}(t). When applied to the evolution of scattering resonances, such transition representations separate the process of decay of a scattering resonance from the evolution of outgoing waves corresponding to the probability 'released' by the resonance and carried away to spatial infinity. This separation property clearly exhibits the spatial probability distribution profile of a resonance. Moreover, it leads to the definition of exact resonance states as elements of the physical Hilbert space corresponding to the scattering problem. These resonance states evolve naturally according to a semigroup law of evolution.

  17. A resonant chain of four transiting, sub-Neptune planets.

    PubMed

    Mills, Sean M; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Migaszewski, Cezary; Ford, Eric B; Petigura, Erik; Isaacson, Howard

    2016-05-26

    Surveys have revealed many multi-planet systems containing super-Earths and Neptunes in orbits of a few days to a few months. There is debate whether in situ assembly or inward migration is the dominant mechanism of the formation of such planetary systems. Simulations suggest that migration creates tightly packed systems with planets whose orbital periods may be expressed as ratios of small integers (resonances), often in a many-planet series (chain). In the hundreds of multi-planet systems of sub-Neptunes, more planet pairs are observed near resonances than would generally be expected, but no individual system has hitherto been identified that must have been formed by migration. Proximity to resonance enables the detection of planets perturbing each other. Here we report transit timing variations of the four planets in the Kepler-223 system, model these variations as resonant-angle librations, and compute the long-term stability of the resonant chain. The architecture of Kepler-223 is too finely tuned to have been formed by scattering, and our numerical simulations demonstrate that its properties are natural outcomes of the migration hypothesis. Similar systems could be destabilized by any of several mechanisms, contributing to the observed orbital-period distribution, where many planets are not in resonances. Planetesimal interactions in particular are thought to be responsible for establishing the current orbits of the four giant planets in the Solar System by disrupting a theoretical initial resonant chain similar to that observed in Kepler-223. PMID:27225123

  18. A resonant chain of four transiting, sub-Neptune planets.

    PubMed

    Mills, Sean M; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Migaszewski, Cezary; Ford, Eric B; Petigura, Erik; Isaacson, Howard

    2016-05-11

    Surveys have revealed many multi-planet systems containing super-Earths and Neptunes in orbits of a few days to a few months. There is debate whether in situ assembly or inward migration is the dominant mechanism of the formation of such planetary systems. Simulations suggest that migration creates tightly packed systems with planets whose orbital periods may be expressed as ratios of small integers (resonances), often in a many-planet series (chain). In the hundreds of multi-planet systems of sub-Neptunes, more planet pairs are observed near resonances than would generally be expected, but no individual system has hitherto been identified that must have been formed by migration. Proximity to resonance enables the detection of planets perturbing each other. Here we report transit timing variations of the four planets in the Kepler-223 system, model these variations as resonant-angle librations, and compute the long-term stability of the resonant chain. The architecture of Kepler-223 is too finely tuned to have been formed by scattering, and our numerical simulations demonstrate that its properties are natural outcomes of the migration hypothesis. Similar systems could be destabilized by any of several mechanisms, contributing to the observed orbital-period distribution, where many planets are not in resonances. Planetesimal interactions in particular are thought to be responsible for establishing the current orbits of the four giant planets in the Solar System by disrupting a theoretical initial resonant chain similar to that observed in Kepler-223.

  19. A resonant chain of four transiting, sub-Neptune planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Sean M.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Migaszewski, Cezary; Ford, Eric B.; Petigura, Erik; Isaacson, Howard

    2016-05-01

    Surveys have revealed many multi-planet systems containing super-Earths and Neptunes in orbits of a few days to a few months. There is debate whether in situ assembly or inward migration is the dominant mechanism of the formation of such planetary systems. Simulations suggest that migration creates tightly packed systems with planets whose orbital periods may be expressed as ratios of small integers (resonances), often in a many-planet series (chain). In the hundreds of multi-planet systems of sub-Neptunes, more planet pairs are observed near resonances than would generally be expected, but no individual system has hitherto been identified that must have been formed by migration. Proximity to resonance enables the detection of planets perturbing each other. Here we report transit timing variations of the four planets in the Kepler-223 system, model these variations as resonant-angle librations, and compute the long-term stability of the resonant chain. The architecture of Kepler-223 is too finely tuned to have been formed by scattering, and our numerical simulations demonstrate that its properties are natural outcomes of the migration hypothesis. Similar systems could be destabilized by any of several mechanisms, contributing to the observed orbital-period distribution, where many planets are not in resonances. Planetesimal interactions in particular are thought to be responsible for establishing the current orbits of the four giant planets in the Solar System by disrupting a theoretical initial resonant chain similar to that observed in Kepler-223.

  20. Isotropically sensitive optical filter employing atomic resonance transitions

    DOEpatents

    Marling, J.B.

    An ultra-high Q isotropically sensitive optical filter or optical detector is disclosed employing atomic resonance transitions. More specifically, atomic resonance transitions utilized in conjunction with two optical bandpass filters provide an optical detector having a wide field of view (approx. 2 ..pi.. steradians) and very narrow acceptance bandwidth approaching 0.01A. A light signal to be detected is transmitted through an outer bandpass filter into a resonantly absorbing atomic vapor, the excited atomic vapor than providing a fluorescence signal at a different wavelength which is transmitted through an inner bandpass filters have no common transmission band, therby resulting in complete blockage of all optical signals that are not resonantly shifted in wavelength by the intervening atomic vapor. Two embodiments are disclosed, one in which the light signal raises atoms contained in the atomic vapor from the ground state to an excited state from which fluorescence occurs, and the other in which a pump laser is used to raise the atoms in the ground state to a first excited state from which the light signal then is resonantly absorbed, thereby raising the atoms to a second excited state from which fluorescence occurs. A specific application is described in which an optical detector according to the present invention can be located in an orbiting satellite.

  1. Isotropically sensitive optical filter employing atomic resonance transitions

    DOEpatents

    Marling, John B.

    1981-01-01

    An ultra-high Q isotropically sensitive optical filter or optical detector employing atomic resonance transitions. More specifically, atomic resonance transitions utilized in conjunction with two optical bandpass filters provide an optical detector having a wide field of view (.about.2.pi. steradians) and very narrow acceptance bandwidth approaching 0.01 A. A light signal to be detected is transmitted through an outer bandpass filter into a resonantly absorbing atomic vapor, the excited atomic vapor then providing a fluorescence signal at a different wavelength which is transmitted through an inner bandpass filter. The outer and inner bandpass filters have no common transmission band, thereby resulting in complete blockage of all optical signals that are not resonantly shifted in wavelength by the intervening atomic vapor. Two embodiments are disclosed, one in which the light signal raises atoms contained in the atomic vapor from the ground state to an excited state from which fluorescence occurs, and the other in which a pump laser is used to raise the atoms in the ground state to a first excited state from which the light signal then is resonantly absorbed, thereby raising the atoms to a second excited state from which fluorescence occurs. A specific application is described in which an optical detector according to the present invention can be used as an underwater detector for light from an optical transmitter which could be located in an orbiting satellite.

  2. Quantum Phase Transitions across a p-Wave Feshbach Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurarie, V.; Radzihovsky, L.; Andreev, A. V.

    2005-06-01

    We study a single-species polarized Fermi gas tuned across a narrow p-wave Feshbach resonance. We show that in the course of a Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC)-BCS crossover, the system can undergo a magnetic-field-tuned quantum phase transition from a px-wave to a px+ipy-wave superfluid. The latter state, that spontaneously breaks time-reversal symmetry, furthermore undergoes a topological px+ipy to px+ipy transition at zero chemical potential μ. In two dimensions, for μ>0 it is characterized by a Pfaffian ground state exhibiting topological order and non-Abelian excitations familiar from fractional quantum Hall systems.

  3. General magnetic transition dipole moments for electron paramagnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Nehrkorn, Joscha; Schnegg, Alexander; Holldack, Karsten; Stoll, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We present general expressions for the magnetic transition rates in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments of anisotropic spin systems in the solid state. The expressions apply to general spin centers and arbitrary excitation geometry (Voigt, Faraday, and intermediate). They work for linear and circular polarized as well as unpolarized excitation, and for crystals and powders. The expressions are based on the concept of the (complex) magnetic transition dipole moment vector. Using the new theory, we determine the parities of ground and excited spin states of high-spin (S=5/2) Fe(III) in hemin from the polarization dependence of experimental EPR line intensities.

  4. Resonant Ultrasound Studies of Complex Transition Metal Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Henry Bass; Dr. J. R. Gladden

    2008-08-18

    Department of Energy EPSCoR The University of Mississippi Award: DE-FG02-04ER46121 Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy Studies of Complex Transition Metal Oxides The central thrust of this DOE funded research program has been to apply resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS), an elegant and efficient method for determining the elastic stiffness constants of a crystal, to the complex and poorly understood class of materials known as transition metal oxides (TMOs). Perhaps the most interesting and challenging feature of TMOs is their strongly correlated behavior in which spin, lattice, and charge degrees of freedom are strongly coupled. Elastic constants are a measure of the interatomic potentials in a crystal and are thus sensitive probes into the atomic environment. This sensitivity makes RUS an ideal tool to study the coupling of phase transition order parameters to lattice strains. The most significant result of the project has been the construction of a high temperature RUS apparatus capable of making elastic constant measurements at temperatures as high as 1000 degrees Celsius. We have designed and built novel acoustic transducers which can operate as high as 600 degrees Celsius based on lithium niobate piezoelectric elements. For measurement between 600 to 1000 C, a buffer rod system is used in which the samples under test and transducers are separated by a rod with low acoustic attenuation. The high temperature RUS system has been used to study the charge order (CO) transition in transition metal oxides for which we have discovered a new transition occurring about 35 C below the CO transition. While the CO transition exhibits a linear coupling between the strain and order parameter, this new precursor transition shows a different coupling indicating a fundamentally different mechanism. We have also begun a study, in collaboration with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, to study novel thermoelectric materials at elevated temperatures. These materials include silicon

  5. Superfluidity and phase transitions in a resonant Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzihovsky, Leo; Weichman, Peter B.; Park, Jae I.

    2008-10-01

    The atomic Bose gas is studied across a Feshbach resonance, mapping out its phase diagram, and computing its thermodynamics and excitation spectra. It is shown that such a degenerate gas admits two distinct atomic and molecular superfluid phases, with the latter distinguished by the absence of atomic off-diagonal long-range order, gapped atomic excitations, and deconfined atomic π-vortices. The properties of the molecular superfluid are explored, and it is shown that across a Feshbach resonance it undergoes a quantum Ising transition to the atomic superfluid, where both atoms and molecules are condensed. In addition to its distinct thermodynamic signatures and deconfined half-vortices, in a trap a molecular superfluid should be identifiable by the absence of an atomic condensate peak and the presence of a molecular one.

  6. Resonantly enhanced Bragg-scattering spectroscopy of an atomic transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xudong; Qiao, Cuifang; Li, Chuanliang; Chen, Fenghua

    2016-07-01

    A novel resonantly enhanced Bragg-scattering (REBS) spectroscopy from a population difference grating (PDG) is reported. The PDG is formed by a standing-wave (SW) pump field, which periodically modulates the space population distributions of two levels in the 87Rb D1 line. Then, a probe beam, having identical frequency and orthogonal polarization with the SW pump field, is Bragg-scattered by the PDG. The research achievement shows that the Bragg-scattered light is strongest at an atomic transition, and forms an REBS spectrum with a high signal-to-noise ratio and sub-natural linewidth. The observed REBS can be applied in precise frequency measurements.

  7. Quantum phase transitions across a p-wave Feshbach resonance.

    PubMed

    Gurarie, V; Radzihovsky, L; Andreev, A V

    2005-06-17

    We study a single-species polarized Fermi gas tuned across a narrow p-wave Feshbach resonance. We show that in the course of a Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC)-BCS crossover, the system can undergo a magnetic-field-tuned quantum phase transition from a px-wave to a px+ipy-wave superfluid. The latter state, that spontaneously breaks time-reversal symmetry, furthermore undergoes a topological px+ipy to px+ipy transition at zero chemical potential mu. In two dimensions, for mu > 0 it is characterized by a Pfaffian ground state exhibiting topological order and non-Abelian excitations familiar from fractional quantum Hall systems. PMID:16090447

  8. PULSAR STATE SWITCHING FROM MARKOV TRANSITIONS AND STOCHASTIC RESONANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Cordes, J. M.

    2013-09-20

    Markov processes are shown to be consistent with metastable states seen in pulsar phenomena, including intensity nulling, pulse-shape mode changes, subpulse drift rates, spin-down rates, and X-ray emission, based on the typically broad and monotonic distributions of state lifetimes. Markovianity implies a nonlinear magnetospheric system in which state changes occur stochastically, corresponding to transitions between local minima in an effective potential. State durations (though not transition times) are thus largely decoupled from the characteristic timescales of various magnetospheric processes. Dyadic states are common but some objects show at least four states with some transitions forbidden. Another case is the long-term intermittent pulsar B1931+24 that has binary radio-emission and torque states with wide, but non-monotonic duration distributions. It also shows a quasi-period of 38 ± 5 days in a 13 yr time sequence, suggesting stochastic resonance in a Markov system with a forcing function that could be strictly periodic or quasi-periodic. Nonlinear phenomena are associated with time-dependent activity in the acceleration region near each magnetic polar cap. The polar-cap diode is altered by feedback from the outer magnetosphere and by return currents from the equatorial region outside the light cylinder that may also cause the neutron star to episodically charge and discharge. Orbital perturbations of a disk or current sheet provide a natural periodicity for the forcing function in the stochastic-resonance interpretation of B1931+24. Disk dynamics may introduce additional timescales in observed phenomena. Future work can test the Markov interpretation, identify which pulsar types have a propensity for state changes, and clarify the role of selection effects.

  9. On transition from Alfvén resonance to forced magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Luan, Q.; Wang, X.

    2014-07-15

    We revisit the transition from Alfvén resonance to forced magnetic reconnection with a focus on the property of their singularities. As the driven frequency tends to zero, the logarithmic singularity of Alfvén resonance shifts to the power-law singularity of forced reconnection, due to merging of the two resonance layers. The transition criterion depends on either kinetic effects or dissipations that resolve the singularity. As an example, a small but finite resistivity η is introduced to investigate the transition process. The transition threshold is then obtained as the driven frequency reaches a level of ∼O((η/k){sup 1/3})

  10. EIT resonance features in strong magnetic fields in rubidium atomic columns with length varying by 4 orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoyan, R.; Sargsyan, A.; Sarkisyan, D.; Wojciechowski, A.; Stabrawa, A.; Gawlik, W.

    2016-06-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) resonances are investigated with the 85Rb D 1 line (795 nm) in strong magnetic fields (up to 2 kG) with three different types of spectroscopic vapor cells: the nano-cell with a thickness along the direction of laser light L ≈ 795 nm, the micro-cell with L = 30 μm with the addition of a neon buffer gas, and the centimeter-long glass cell. These cells allowed us to observe systematic changes of the EIT spectra when the increasing magnetic field systematically decoupled the total atomic electron and nuclear angular moments (the Paschen-Back/Back-Goudsmit effects). The observations agree well with a theoretical model. The advantages and disadvantages of a particular type of cell are discussed along with the possible practical applications.

  11. Cu nanoshells: effects of interband transitions on the nanoparticle plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Tam, Felicia; Grady, Nathaniel K; Halas, Naomi J

    2005-10-01

    The optical properties of metals arise both from optical excitation of interband transitions and their collective electronic, or plasmon, response. Here, we examine the optical properties of Cu, whose strong interband transitions dominate its optical response in the visible region of the spectrum, in a nanoshell geometry. This nanostructure permits the geometrical tuning of the nanoparticle plasmon energy relative to the onset of interband transitions in the metal. Spectral overlap of the interband transitions of Cu with the nanoshell plasmon resonance results in a striking double-peaked plasmon resonance, a unique phenomenon previously unobserved in other noble or coinage metal nanostructures. PMID:16853342

  12. Electron Spin Resonance of Tetrahedral Transition Metal Oxyanions (MO4n-) in Solids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenblatt, M.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines general principles in observing sharp electron spin resonance (ESR) lines in the solid state by incorporating the transition metal ion of interest into an isostructural diamagnetic host material in small concentration. Examples of some recent studies are described. (CS)

  13. Phase transitions in trajectories of a superconducting single-electron transistor coupled to a resonator.

    PubMed

    Genway, Sam; Garrahan, Juan P; Lesanovsky, Igor; Armour, Andrew D

    2012-05-01

    Recent progress in the study of dynamical phase transitions has been made with a large-deviation approach to study trajectories of stochastic jumps using a thermodynamic formalism. We study this method applied to an open quantum system consisting of a superconducting single-electron transistor, near the Josephson quasiparticle resonance, coupled to a resonator. We find that the dynamical behavior shown in rare trajectories can be rich even when the mean dynamical activity is small, and thus the formalism gives insights into the form of fluctuations. The structure of the dynamical phase diagram found from the quantum-jump trajectories of the resonator is studied, and we see that sharp transitions in the dynamical activity may be related to the appearance and disappearance of bistabilities in the state of the resonator as system parameters are changed. We also demonstrate that for a fast resonator, the trajectories of quasiparticles are similar to the resonator trajectories. PMID:23004718

  14. Acoustic self-induced transparency for transverse waves in a system with resonant and quasi-resonant transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazonov, S. V.

    2009-07-01

    A theoretical analysis of acoustic self-induced transparency is presented for transverse elastic waves propagating perpendicular to an applied magnetic field through a crystal with spin-3/2 paramagnetic impurities. The interaction between an acoustic pulse and magnetic field is described by Maxwell-Bloch-type equations for a system with transitions inhomogeneously broadened because of a quadrupole Stark shift. If the pulse carrier frequency is resonant with one transition and quasi-resonant with another transition, then the evolution of a one-dimensional pulse is described by an integrable Konno-Kameyama-Sanuki (KKS) equation. The underlying physics of its soliton solution and the corresponding behavior of the medium are analyzed. Self-focusing and self-trapping conditions are found for a pulse of finite transverse size. In the latter regime, the pulse stretches along the propagation direction, transforming into a “hollow bullet,” while its transverse size remains constant.

  15. The Mass-Radius-Eccentricity Distribution of Near-Resonant Transiting Exoplanet Pairs Detected by Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabram, Megan; Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Ford, Eric B.

    2015-12-01

    We characterize the mass-radius-eccentricity distribution of transiting planets near first-order mean motion resonances using Transit Timing Variation (TTV) observations from NASA's Kepler mission. Kepler's precise measurements of transit times (Mazeh et al. 2014; Rowe et al. 2015) constrain the planet-star mass ratio, eccentricity and pericenter directions for hundreds of planets. Strongly-interacting planetary systems allow TTVs to provide precise measurements of masses and orbital eccentricities separately (e.g., Kepler-36, Carter et al. 2012). In addition to these precisely characterized planetary systems, there are several systems harboring at least two planets near a mean motion resonance (MMR) for which TTVs provide a joint constraint on planet masses, eccentricities and pericenter directions (Hadden et al. 2015). Unfortunately, a near degeneracy between these parameters leads to a posterior probability density with highly correlated uncertainties. Nevertheless, the population encodes valuable information about the distribution of planet masses, orbital eccentricities and the planet mass-radius relationship. We characterize the distribution of masses and eccentricities for near-resonant transiting planets by combining a hierarchical Bayesian model with an analytic model for the TTV signatures of near-resonant planet pairs (Lithwick & Wu 2012). By developing a rigorous statistical framework for analyzing the TTV signatures of a population of planetary systems, we significantly improve upon previous analyses. For example, our analysis includes transit timing measurements of near-resonant transiting planet pairs regardless of whether there is a significant detection of TTVs, thereby avoiding biases due to only including TTV detections.

  16. Multi-photon transitions and Rabi resonance in continuous wave EPR.

    PubMed

    Saiko, Alexander P; Fedaruk, Ryhor; Markevich, Siarhei A

    2015-10-01

    The study of microwave-radiofrequency multi-photon transitions in continuous wave (CW) EPR spectroscopy is extended to a Rabi resonance condition, when the radio frequency of the magnetic-field modulation matches the Rabi frequency of a spin system in the microwave field. Using the non-secular perturbation theory based on the Bogoliubov averaging method, the analytical description of the response of the spin system is derived for all modulation frequency harmonics. When the modulation frequency exceeds the EPR linewidth, multi-photon transitions result in sidebands in absorption EPR spectra measured with phase-sensitive detection at any harmonic. The saturation of different-order multi-photon transitions is shown to be significantly different and to be sensitive to the Rabi resonance. The noticeable frequency shifts of sidebands are found to be the signatures of this resonance. The inversion of two-photon lines in some spectral intervals of the out-of-phase first-harmonic signal is predicted under passage through the Rabi resonance. The inversion indicates the transition from absorption to stimulated emission or vice versa, depending on the sideband. The manifestation of the primary and secondary Rabi resonance is also demonstrated in the time evolution of steady-state EPR signals formed by all harmonics of the modulation frequency. Our results provide a theoretical framework for future developments in multi-photon CW EPR spectroscopy, which can be useful for samples with long spin relaxation times and extremely narrow EPR lines. PMID:26295168

  17. Superradiant phase transition of Fermi gases in a cavity across a Feshbach resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Zhai, Hui; Yu, Zhenhua

    2015-02-01

    We consider the superradiant phase transition of a two-component Fermi gas in a cavity across a Feshbach resonance. It is known that quantum statistics plays a crucial role for the superradiant phase transition in atomic gases; in contrast to bosons, in a Fermi gas this transition exhibits strong density dependence. We show that across a Feshbach resonance, while the two-component Fermi gas passes through the BEC-BCS crossover, the superradiant phase transition undergoes a corresponding crossover from a fermionic behavior on the weakly interacting BCS side, to a bosonic behavior on the molecular Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) side. This intricate statistics crossover makes the superradiance maximally enhanced either in the unitary regime for low densities, in the BCS regime for moderate densities close to Fermi surface nesting, or in the BEC regime for high densities.

  18. Superfluid transition in a rotating fermi gas with resonant interactions.

    PubMed

    Veillette, Martin Y; Sheehy, Daniel E; Radzihovsky, Leo; Gurarie, Victor

    2006-12-22

    We study a rotating atomic Fermi gas near a narrow s-wave Feshbach resonance in a uniaxial trap with frequencies Omega perpendicular, Omega z. We predict the upper-critical angular velocity, omega c2(delta,T), as a function of temperature T and detuning delta across the BEC-BCS crossover. The suppression of superfluidity at omega c2 is distinct in the BCS and BEC regimes, with the former controlled by depairing and the latter by the dilution of bosonic molecules. At low T and Omega z < Omega perpendicular, in the BCS and crossover regimes of 0 less similar delta less similar delta c, omega c2 is implicitly given by [formula: see text], vanishing as omega c2 approximately Omega perpendicular(1 - delta/delta c)(1/2) near [formula: see text] (with Delta the BCS gap and gamma the resonance width), and extending the bulk result variant Planck's over 2pi omega c2 approximately 2Delta2/epsilonF to a trap. In the BEC regime of delta < 0 we find omega c2-->Omega perpendicular-, where molecular superfluidity is destroyed only by large quantum fluctuations associated with comparable boson and vortex densities. PMID:17280330

  19. Superfluid Transition in a Rotating Fermi Gas with Resonant Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veillette, Martin Y.; Sheehy, Daniel E.; Radzihovsky, Leo; Gurarie, Victor

    2006-12-01

    We study a rotating atomic Fermi gas near a narrow s-wave Feshbach resonance in a uniaxial trap with frequencies Ω⊥, Ωz. We predict the upper-critical angular velocity, ωc2(δ,T), as a function of temperature T and detuning δ across the BEC-BCS crossover. The suppression of superfluidity at ωc2 is distinct in the BCS and BEC regimes, with the former controlled by depairing and the latter by the dilution of bosonic molecules. At low T and Ωz≪Ω⊥, in the BCS and crossover regimes of 0≲δ≲δc, ωc2 is implicitly given by ℏωc22+Ω⊥2≈2ΔℏΩ⊥/γF, vanishing as ωc2˜Ω⊥(1-δ/δc)1/2 near δc≈2γF+(γ)/(2)γFln⁡(γF/ℏΩ⊥) (with Δ the BCS gap and γ the resonance width), and extending the bulk result ℏωc2≈2Δ2/γF to a trap. In the BEC regime of δ<0 we find ωc2→Ω⊥-, where molecular superfluidity is destroyed only by large quantum fluctuations associated with comparable boson and vortex densities.

  20. Detection of Laplace-resonant three-planet systems from transit timing variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libert, A.-S.; Renner, S.

    2013-04-01

    Transit timing variations (TTVs) are useful to constrain the existence of perturbing planets, especially in resonant systems where the variations are strongly enhanced. Here we focus on Laplace-resonant three-planet systems, and assume that the inner planet transits the star. A dynamical study is performed for different masses of the three bodies, with special attention to terrestrial planets. We consider a maximal time-span of ˜100 yr and discuss the shape of the inner planet TTVs curve. Using frequency analysis, we highlight the three periods related to the evolution of the system: two periods associated with the Laplace-resonant angle and the third one with the precession of the pericentres. These three periods are clearly detected in the TTVs of an inner giant planet perturbed by two terrestrial companions. Only two periods are detected for a Jupiter-Jupiter-Earth configuration (the ones associated with the giant interactions) or for three terrestrial planets (the Laplace periods). However, the latter system can be constrained from the inner planet TTVs. We finally remark that the TTVs of resonant three or two Jupiter systems mix up, when the period of the Laplace-resonant angle matches the pericentre precession of the two-body configuration. This study highlights the importance of TTVs long-term observational programmes for the detection of multiple-planet resonant systems.

  1. Kepler-223: A Resonant Chain of Four Transiting, Sub-Neptune Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Sean; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Migaszewski, Cezary; Ford, Eric B.; Petigura, Erik; Isaacson, Howard T.

    2016-05-01

    Surveys have revealed an abundance of multi-planet systems containing super-Earths and Neptunes in few-day to few-month orbits. Orbital periods of pairs of planets in the same system occasionally lie near, but generally not exactly on, ratios of small integers (resonances), allowing for the detection of the planets perturbing each other. There is debate whether in situ assembly or significant inward migration is the dominant mechanism of their formation. Simulations suggest migration creates tightly-packed, resonant systems, often in chains of resonance. Of the hundreds of multi-planet systems of sub-Neptunes, there is weak statistical enhancement near resonances, but no individual system has been identified that requires migration. Here we describe dynamical modeling of the system Kepler-223, which has a series of resonances among its four planets. We observe transit timing variations (TTVs), model them as resonant angle librations, and compute long-term stability, combining these analyses to constrain dynamical parameters and planetary masses. The detailed architecture of Kepler-223 is too finely tuned for formation by scattering, whereas numerical simulations demonstrate its properties are natural outcomes of the migration hypothesis. Similar systems could be destabilized by many mechanisms contributing to the observed period distribution. Planetesimal interactions in particular are thought to be responsible for establishing thecurrent orbits of the four giant planets in our own Solar System by disrupting a theoretical initial resonant chain like that actually observed in Kepler-223.

  2. Oscillator strengths of selected resonance transitions in neutral sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beideck, D. J.; Schectman, R. M.; Federman, S. R.; Ellis, D. G.

    1994-01-01

    Mean lives and branching ratios for the 4s (3)S(sup 0 sub 1) and 4s(double prime) (3)P(sup 0 sub 1, 2) levels of neutral sulfur were determined at the Toledo Heavy Ion Accelerator using beam-foil spectroscopic techniques. The mean lives obtained for the 4s (3)S(sup 0 sub 1) 4s(double prime) (3)P(sup 0 sub 1), and (3)P(sup 0 sub 2) levels, 1.875 +/- 0.094 ns, 2.034 +/- 0.102 ns, and 2.146 +/- 0.129 ns, respectively, represent the most accurate results available to date. Oscillator strengths for the transitions 3p(sup 4)(3)P(sub 2, 1, 0)-4s (3)S(sup 0 sub 1) and 3p(sup 4)(3)P(sub 2, 1, 0)-4s(double prime) (3)P(sup 0 sub 1, 2) were derived from these mean lives together with the measured branching ratios. For comparison with published results which present only multiplet f-values, such f-values were computed from the measured individual line oscillator strengths. The value obtained for the 3p(sup 4)(3)P-4s(sup 3)S(sup 0) multiplet at 1814 A is 0.088 +/- 0.005, in good agreement with the mean of previous experimental measurements and theoretical calculations. With the mean life for the 4s(double prime) 3P(sup 0 sub 0) level set equal to the mean of our determination for the other two 4s(double prime) (3)P(sup 0) levels (a valid assumption for LS coupling conditions, and consistent with the observed equality of the mean lives within the accuracy of our measurement), an oscillator strength for the 1299 A multiplet of 0.121 +/- 0.004 was found. Both results are in good agreement with recent large-scale theoretical calculations that incorporate the effects of configuration interaction.

  3. Extraction of Electromagnetic Transition Form Factors for Nucleon Resonances within a Dynamical Coupled-Channels Model

    SciTech Connect

    N. Suzuki, T. Sato, T.-S. H. Lee

    2010-10-01

    We explain the application of a recently developed analytic continuation method to extract the electromagnetic transition form factors for the nucleon resonances ($N^*$) within a dynamical coupled-channel model of meson-baryon reactions.Illustrative results of the obtained $N^*\\rightarrow \\gamma N$ transition form factors, defined at the resonance pole positions on the complex energy plane, for the well isolated $P_{33}$ and $D_{13}$, and the complicated $P_{11}$ resonances are presented. A formula has been developed to give an unified representation of the effects due to the first two $P_{11}$ poles, which are near the $\\pi\\Delta$ threshold, but are on different Riemann sheets. We also find that a simple formula, with its parameters determined in the Laurent expansions of $\\pi N \\rightarrow \\pi N$ and $\\gamma N \\rightarrow\\pi N$ amplitudes, can reproduce to a very large extent the exact solutions of the considered model at energies near the real parts of the extracted resonance positions. We indicate the differences between our results and those extracted from the approaches using the Breit-Wigner parametrization of resonant amplitudes to fit the data.

  4. Decoupling transition in a one-dimensional fermionic gas interacting via a Feshbach resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzihovsky, Leo

    2005-03-01

    We study a fermionic atomic gas confined to move in one dimension and interacting via an s-wave Feshbach resonance. At low energies the system is characterized by a model of two Josephson-coupled Luttinger liquids, corresponding to fermionic atoms and their diatomic molecules. In contrast to higher dimensions, we find that this system exhibits a quantum phase transition from a phase in which the two superfluids are strongly coupled to one where the Feshbach resonance coupling becomes irrelevant and the two types of superfluid decouple.

  5. Transition from nonresonant to resonant random lasers by the geometrical confinement of disorder.

    PubMed

    Ghofraniha, N; Viola, I; Zacheo, A; Arima, V; Gigli, G; Conti, C

    2013-12-01

    We report on a transition in random lasers that is induced by the geometrical confinement of the emitting material. Different dye doped paper devices with controlled geometry are fabricated by soft lithography and show two distinguished behaviors in the stimulated emission: in the absence of boundary constraints, the energy threshold decreases for larger laser volumes showing the typical trend of diffusive nonresonant random lasers, while when the same material is lithographed into channels, the walls act as cavity and the resonant behavior typical of standard lasers is observed. The experimental results are consistent with the general theories of random and standard lasers and a clear phase diagram of the transition is reported.

  6. Temporal buildup of electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption resonances in degenerate two-level transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, P.; Failache, H.; Lezama, A.

    2003-01-01

    The temporal evolution of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and absorption (EIA) coherence resonances in pump-probe spectroscopy of degenerate two-level atomic transition is studied for light intensities below saturation. Analytical expressions for the transient absorption spectra are given for simple model systems and a model for the calculation of the time-dependent response of realistic atomic transitions, where the Zeeman degeneracy is fully accounted for, is presented. EIT and EIA resonances have a similar (opposite sign) time-dependent line shape, however, the EIA evolution is slower and thus narrower lines are observed for long interaction time. Qualitative agreement with the theoretical predictions is obtained for the transient probe absorption on the 85Rb D2 line in an atomic beam experiment.

  7. Quantum decoupling transition in a one-dimensional Feshbach-resonant superfluid.

    PubMed

    Sheehy, Daniel E; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2005-09-23

    We study a one-dimensional gas of fermionic atoms interacting via an s-wave molecular Feshbach resonance. At low energies the system is characterized by two Josephson-coupled Luttinger liquids, corresponding to paired atomic and molecular superfluids. We show that, in contrast to higher dimensions, the system exhibits a quantum phase transition from a phase in which the two superfluids are locked together to one in which, at low energies, quantum fluctuations suppress the Feshbach resonance (Josephson) coupling, effectively decoupling the molecular and atomic superfluids. Experimental signatures of this quantum transition include the appearance of an out-of-phase gapless mode (in addition to the standard gapless in-phase mode) in the spectrum of the decoupled superfluid phase and a discontinuous change in the molecular momentum distribution function. PMID:16197122

  8. Quantum Decoupling Transition in a One-Dimensional Feshbach-Resonant Superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehy, Daniel E.; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2005-09-01

    We study a one-dimensional gas of fermionic atoms interacting via an s-wave molecular Feshbach resonance. At low energies the system is characterized by two Josephson-coupled Luttinger liquids, corresponding to paired atomic and molecular superfluids. We show that, in contrast to higher dimensions, the system exhibits a quantum phase transition from a phase in which the two superfluids are locked together to one in which, at low energies, quantum fluctuations suppress the Feshbach resonance (Josephson) coupling, effectively decoupling the molecular and atomic superfluids. Experimental signatures of this quantum transition include the appearance of an out-of-phase gapless mode (in addition to the standard gapless in-phase mode) in the spectrum of the decoupled superfluid phase and a discontinuous change in the molecular momentum distribution function.

  9. Non-resonant electromechanical energy harvesting using inter-ferroelectric phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez Moyet, Richard; Rossetti, George A.; Stace, Joseph; Amin, Ahmed; Finkel, Peter

    2015-10-26

    Non-resonant electromechanical energy harvesting is demonstrated under low frequency excitation (<50 Hz) using [110]{sub C}-poled lead indium niobate-lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate relaxor ferroelectric single crystals with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary. The efficiency of power generation at the stress-induced phase transition between domain-engineered rhombohedral and orthorhombic ferroelectric states is as much as four times greater than is obtained in the linear piezoelectric regime under identical measurement conditions but during loading below the coercive stress of the phase change. The phase transition mode of electromechanical transduction holds potential for non-resonant energy harvesting from low-frequency vibrations and does not require mechanical frequency up-conversion.

  10. Spin-orbit interaction in bent carbon nanotubes: resonant spin transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osika, E. N.; Szafran, B.

    2015-11-01

    We develop an effective tight-binding Hamiltonian for spin-orbit (SO) interaction in bent carbon nanotubes (CNT) for the electrons forming the π bonds between the nearest neighbor atoms. We account for the bend of the CNT and the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction which introduce mixing of π and σ bonds between the p z orbitals along the CNT. The effect contributes to the main origin of the SO coupling—the folding of the graphene plane into the nanotube. We discuss the bend-related contribution of the SO coupling for resonant single-electron spin and charge transitions in a double quantum dot. We report that although the effect of the bend-related SO coupling is weak for the energy spectra, it produces a pronounced increase of the spin transition rates driven by an external electric field. We find that spin-flipping transitions driven by alternate electric fields have usually larger rates when accompanied by charge shift from one dot to the other. Spin-flipping transition rates are non-monotonic functions of the driving amplitude since they are masked by stronger spin-conserving charge transitions. We demonstrate that the fractional resonances—counterparts of multiphoton transitions for atoms in strong laser fields—occurring in electrically controlled nanodevices already at moderate ac amplitudes—can be used to maintain the spin-flip transitions.

  11. Superfluid Transitions in Bosonic Atom-Molecule Mixtures near a Feshbach Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzihovsky, Leo; Park, Jae; Weichman, Peter B.

    2004-04-01

    We study bosonic atoms near a Feshbach resonance and predict that, in addition to standard normal and atomic superfluid phases, this system generically exhibits a distinct phase of matter: a molecular superfluid, where molecules are superfluid while atoms are not. We explore zero- and finite-temperature properties of the molecular superfluid (a bosonic, strong-coupling analog of a BCS superconductor), and study quantum and classical phase transitions between the normal, molecular superfluid, and atomic superfluid states.

  12. Superfluid transitions in bosonic atom-molecule mixtures near a Feshbach resonance.

    PubMed

    Radzihovsky, Leo; Park, Jae; Weichman, Peter B

    2004-04-23

    We study bosonic atoms near a Feshbach resonance and predict that, in addition to standard normal and atomic superfluid phases, this system generically exhibits a distinct phase of matter: a molecular superfluid, where molecules are superfluid while atoms are not. We explore zero- and finite-temperature properties of the molecular superfluid (a bosonic, strong-coupling analog of a BCS superconductor), and study quantum and classical phase transitions between the normal, molecular superfluid, and atomic superfluid states. PMID:15169205

  13. Exact transition probabilities for a linear sweep through a Kramers-Kronig resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chen; Sinitsyn, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    We consider a localized electronic spin controlled by a circularly polarized optical beam and an external magnetic field. When the frequency of the beam is tuned near an optical resonance with a continuum of higher energy states, effective magnetic fields are induced on the two-level system via the inverse Faraday effect. We explore the process in which the frequency of the beam is made linearly time-dependent so that it sweeps through the optical resonance, starting and ending at the values far away from it. In addition to changes of spin states, Kramers-Kronig relations guarantee that a localized electron can also escape into a continuum of states. We argue that probabilities of transitions between different possible electronic states after such a sweep of the optical frequency can be found exactly, regardless the shape of the resonance. We also discuss extension of our results to multistate systems.

  14. Exact transition probabilities for a linear sweep through a Kramers-Kronig resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Chen; Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.

    2015-11-19

    We consider a localized electronic spin controlled by a circularly polarized optical beam and an external magnetic field. When the frequency of the beam is tuned near an optical resonance with a continuum of higher energy states, effective magnetic fields are induced on the two-level system via the inverse Faraday effect. We explore the process in which the frequency of the beam is made linearly time-dependent so that it sweeps through the optical resonance, starting and ending at the values far away from it. In addition to changes of spin states, Kramers-Kronig relations guarantee that a localized electron can also escape into a continuum of states. We argue that probabilities of transitions between different possible electronic states after such a sweep of the optical frequency can be found exactly, regardless the shape of the resonance. In conclusion, we also discuss extension of our results to multistate systems.

  15. Exact transition probabilities for a linear sweep through a Kramers-Kronig resonance

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Chen; Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.

    2015-11-19

    We consider a localized electronic spin controlled by a circularly polarized optical beam and an external magnetic field. When the frequency of the beam is tuned near an optical resonance with a continuum of higher energy states, effective magnetic fields are induced on the two-level system via the inverse Faraday effect. We explore the process in which the frequency of the beam is made linearly time-dependent so that it sweeps through the optical resonance, starting and ending at the values far away from it. In addition to changes of spin states, Kramers-Kronig relations guarantee that a localized electron can alsomore » escape into a continuum of states. We argue that probabilities of transitions between different possible electronic states after such a sweep of the optical frequency can be found exactly, regardless the shape of the resonance. In conclusion, we also discuss extension of our results to multistate systems.« less

  16. Delay-induced state transition and resonance in periodically driven tumor model with immune surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tao; Han, Qinglin; Zeng, Chunhua; Wang, Hua; Fu, Yunchang; Zhang, Chun

    2014-06-01

    The phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR) in a tumor growth model under the presence of immune surveillance is investigated. Time delay and cross-correlation between multiplicative and additive noises are considered in the system. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is calculated when periodic signal is introduced multiplicatively. Our results show that: (i) the time delay can accelerate the transition from the state of stable tumor to that of extinction, however the correlation between two noises can accelerate the transition from the state of extinction to that of stable tumor; (ii) the time delay and correlation between two noises can lead to a transition between SR and double SR in the curve of SNR as a function of additive noise intensity, however for the curve of SNR as a function of multiplicative noise intensity, the time delay can cause the SR phenomenon to disappear, and the cross-correlation between two noises can lead to a transition from SR to stochastic reverse-resonance. Finally, we compare the SR phenomenon for the multiplicative periodic signal with that for additive periodic signal in the tumor growth model with immune surveillance.

  17. Which orbital and charge ordering in transition metal oxides can resonant X-ray diffraction detect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Matteo, Sergio

    2009-11-01

    The present article is a brief critical review about the possibility of detecting charge and/or orbital order in transition-metal oxides by means of resonant x-ray diffraction. Many recent models of transition-metal oxides are based on charge and/or orbitally ordered ground-states and it has been claimed in the past that resonant x-ray diffraction is able to confirm or reject them. However, in spite of the many merits of this technique, such claims are ambiguous, because the interpretative frameworks used to analyze such results in transition-metal oxides, where structural distortions are always associated to the claimed charged/orbitally ordered transition, strongly influence (not to say suggest) the answer. In order to clarify this point, I discuss the two different definitions of orbital and charge orderings which are often used in the literature without a clear distinction. My conclusion is that the answer to the question of the title depends on which definition is adopted.

  18. Percolation transition in the kinematics of nonlinear resonance broadening in Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model of Rossby wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Jamie; Connaughton, Colm; Bustamante, Miguel D.

    2013-08-01

    We study the kinematics of nonlinear resonance broadening of interacting Rossby waves as modelled by the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation on a biperiodic domain. We focus on the set of wave modes which can interact quasi-resonantly at a particular level of resonance broadening and aim to characterize how the structure of this set changes as the level of resonance broadening is varied. The commonly held view that resonance broadening can be thought of as a thickening of the resonant manifold is misleading. We show that in fact the set of modes corresponding to a single quasi-resonant triad has a non-trivial structure and that its area in fact diverges for a finite degree of broadening. We also study the connectivity of the network of modes which is generated when quasi-resonant triads share common modes. This network has been argued to form the backbone for energy transfer in Rossby wave turbulence. We show that this network undergoes a percolation transition when the level of resonance broadening exceeds a critical value. Below this critical value, the largest connected component of the quasi-resonant network contains a negligible fraction of the total number of modes in the system whereas above this critical value a finite fraction of the total number of modes in the system are contained in the largest connected component. We argue that this percolation transition should correspond to the transition to turbulence in the system.

  19. Generation of undamped stokes radiation under resonant pumping of the dipole-forbidden transition in a {Xi}-atom

    SciTech Connect

    Kochanov, V. P.

    2009-12-15

    We have developed a theory of the nonlinear ring interaction of three intense fields in the scheme of resonant Raman scattering on the dipole-allowed transition from the ground state to the first excited state of a cascade three-level quantum system. We show that the backward Stokes radiation generated by a pump resonant to the dipole-forbidden transition can be used in remote laser sensing of metal vapors.

  20. Heteroclinic connections between periodic orbits and resonance transitions in celestial mechanics.

    PubMed

    Koon, Wang Sang; Lo, Martin W.; Marsden, Jerrold E.; Ross, Shane D.

    2000-06-01

    In this paper we apply dynamical systems techniques to the problem of heteroclinic connections and resonance transitions in the planar circular restricted three-body problem. These related phenomena have been of concern for some time in topics such as the capture of comets and asteroids and with the design of trajectories for space missions such as the Genesis Discovery Mission. The main new technical result in this paper is the numerical demonstration of the existence of a heteroclinic connection between pairs of periodic orbits: one around the libration point L(1) and the other around L(2), with the two periodic orbits having the same energy. This result is applied to the resonance transition problem and to the explicit numerical construction of interesting orbits with prescribed itineraries. The point of view developed in this paper is that the invariant manifold structures associated to L(1) and L(2) as well as the aforementioned heteroclinic connection are fundamental tools that can aid in understanding dynamical channels throughout the solar system as well as transport between the "interior" and "exterior" Hill's regions and other resonant phenomena. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12779398

  1. Heteroclinic connections between periodic orbits and resonance transitions in celestial mechanics.

    PubMed

    Koon, Wang Sang; Lo, Martin W.; Marsden, Jerrold E.; Ross, Shane D.

    2000-06-01

    In this paper we apply dynamical systems techniques to the problem of heteroclinic connections and resonance transitions in the planar circular restricted three-body problem. These related phenomena have been of concern for some time in topics such as the capture of comets and asteroids and with the design of trajectories for space missions such as the Genesis Discovery Mission. The main new technical result in this paper is the numerical demonstration of the existence of a heteroclinic connection between pairs of periodic orbits: one around the libration point L(1) and the other around L(2), with the two periodic orbits having the same energy. This result is applied to the resonance transition problem and to the explicit numerical construction of interesting orbits with prescribed itineraries. The point of view developed in this paper is that the invariant manifold structures associated to L(1) and L(2) as well as the aforementioned heteroclinic connection are fundamental tools that can aid in understanding dynamical channels throughout the solar system as well as transport between the "interior" and "exterior" Hill's regions and other resonant phenomena. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Unusual magnetic transitions and nature of magnetic resonance spectra in oxide glasses containing gadolinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliava, Janis; Malakhovskii, Alexander; Edelman, Irina; Potseluyko, Anatoly; Petrakovskaja, Eleonora; Melnikova, Svetlana; Zarubina, Tat'Jana; Petrovskii, Gurii; Bruckental, Yishay; Yeshurun, Yosef

    2005-03-01

    Magnetic susceptibility, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and optical properties have been studied in a glass system {20La2O3-22Al2O3-23B2O3-35(SiO2+GeO2)} with a part of La2O3 substituted by Gd2O3 in different concentrations. Positive Weiss constants have been found in the more heavily doped glasses and ascribed to clustering of Gd3+ ions. Two magnetic phase transitions at 55 and 12 K were detected and ascribed, respectively, to ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic clusters containing Gd ions. The overall shape of the EPR spectra shows the presence of clustering at the higher Gd contents. At low temperatures the cluster-related resonance signal is altered in shape, indicating an onset of magnetic anisotropy field. This signal is convincingly fitted to superparamagnetic resonance arising from ferromagnetic nanoparticles. The clustering, depending on the Gd concentration, correlates with a significant shift to lower energies of the strong optical absorption band edge, ascribed to a charge transfer transition between Gd ions. A nonmonotonous change of refractive index with the increase of the Gd content indicates changes in the glass matrix and in Gd cluster structure.

  3. Resonant Ultrasound studies of spin- and orbital ordering transitions in RVO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, M.; Yan, J.-Q.; Ren, Y.; Sales, B. C.; Mandrus, D.; Keppens, V.

    2013-03-01

    RVO3 perovskites (R = rare earth) have been shown to undergo multiple spin and orbital transitions due to the Jahn-Teller active V3+ electrons. We have initiated a study of the elastic response of RVO3, (R = Dy, Gd, Ce) as well as Y1-xLaxVO3 (x = 0.05, 0.3, 1) using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. The temperature-dependence of the elastic response is dominated by the ordering transitions, with transition temperatures that change with the size of the rare earth. For CeVO3 and LaVO3, two transitions are observed, separated by 17K and 2K, respectively. DyVO3 and Y0.95La0.05VO3 show three transitions below 220K while GdVO3 only shows one. The full elastic tensor of Y0 . 7 La0.3VO3 has also been determined from 300K to 50K, yielding the temperature dependence of the 9 orthorhombic elastic moduli. Work at ORNL was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  4. Transition of lasing modes in polymeric opal photonic crystal resonating cavity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lan-Ting; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Jin, Feng; Dong, Xian-Zi; Chen, Wei-Qiang; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng; Duan, Xuan-Ming

    2016-06-10

    We demonstrate the transition of lasing modes in the resonating cavity constructed by polystyrene opal photonic crystals and 7 wt. % tert-butyl Rhodamine B doped polymer film. Both single mode and multiple mode lasing emission are observed from the resonating cavity. The lasing threshold is determined to be 0.81  μJ/pulse for single mode lasing emission and 2.25  μJ/pulse for multiple mode lasing emission. The single mode lasing emission is attributed to photonic lasing resulting from the photonic bandgap effect of the opal photonic crystals, while the multiple mode lasing emission is assigned to random lasing due to the defects in the photonic crystals. The result would benefit the development of low threshold polymeric solid state photonic crystal lasers. PMID:27409036

  5. Transition of lasing modes in polymeric opal photonic crystal resonating cavity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lan-Ting; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Jin, Feng; Dong, Xian-Zi; Chen, Wei-Qiang; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng; Duan, Xuan-Ming

    2016-06-10

    We demonstrate the transition of lasing modes in the resonating cavity constructed by polystyrene opal photonic crystals and 7 wt. % tert-butyl Rhodamine B doped polymer film. Both single mode and multiple mode lasing emission are observed from the resonating cavity. The lasing threshold is determined to be 0.81  μJ/pulse for single mode lasing emission and 2.25  μJ/pulse for multiple mode lasing emission. The single mode lasing emission is attributed to photonic lasing resulting from the photonic bandgap effect of the opal photonic crystals, while the multiple mode lasing emission is assigned to random lasing due to the defects in the photonic crystals. The result would benefit the development of low threshold polymeric solid state photonic crystal lasers.

  6. Line shapes of optical Feshbach resonances near the intercombination transition of bosonic ytterbium

    SciTech Connect

    Borkowski, M.; Ciurylo, R.; Tojo, S.; Enomoto, K.; Takahashi, Y.

    2009-07-15

    The properties of bosonic ytterbium photoassociation spectra near the intercombination transition {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 1} are studied theoretically at ultralow temperatures. We demonstrate how the shapes and intensities of rotational components of optical Feshbach resonances are affected by mass tuning of the scattering properties of the two colliding ground-state atoms. Particular attention is given to the relationship between the magnitude of the scattering length and the occurrence of shape resonances in higher partial waves of the van der Waals system. We develop a mass-scaled model of the excited-state potential that represents the experimental data for different isotopes. The shape of the rotational photoassociation spectrum for various bosonic Yb isotopes can be qualitatively different.

  7. Long-wavelength approximation in on- and off-resonance transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Komninos, Yannis; Mercouris, Theodoros; Nicolaides, Cleanthes A.

    2005-02-01

    In view of the possibilities of laser spectroscopy with very short pulses and relatively high frequencies, we examine aspects of the theory of atom-field interactions that are related to violation of the condition of the long-wavelength approximation (LWA) according to which kr<<1, where r is 'of the order of atomic dimensions' and k is the magnitude of the wave vector. On- and off-resonance transitions are considered, with kr being larger than unity due to the large extent of the two wave functions involved in the coupling matrix element. The implementation of the analysis uses bound-free transition matrix elements with the n=50 and 80 hydrogenic functions as initial states and values of k up to 27 eV, which is sufficient to produce kr>1, thereby rendering the LWA inoperative. In spite of this, it is shown that, for on-resonance transitions, the results from the use of the well-known multipole operators resulting from the LWA [e.g., the electric dipole approximation (EDA)] agree with those from the exact expressions derived here from the application of the multipolar Hamiltonian. This numerical agreement is proven analytically. As a test of the kind of convergence of the multipole series expansion for small values of k and large r, it is shown that the lowest-order ratio of electric dipole to quadrupole matrix elements decreases rapidly within 1.0 atomic unit above threshold. Finally, it is shown that off-resonance couplings lead to differences between the full-interaction operator and the EDA which cannot be neglected. In the extreme case of intrashell couplings for the n=50 shell, calculation shows that the 50p state is coupled to angular momentum states up to l=21, compared to the electric dipole coupling of {delta}l={+-}1.

  8. Finite-momentum superfluidity and phase transitions in a p-wave resonant Bose gas

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Sungsoo; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2011-10-15

    We study a degenerate two-species gas of bosonic atoms interacting through a p-wave Feshbach resonance as, for example, realized in a {sup 85}Rb-{sup 87}Rb mixture. We show that, in addition to a conventional atomic and a p-wave molecular spinor-1 superfluidity at large positive and negative detunings, respectively, the system generically exhibits a finite-momentum atomic-molecular superfluidity at intermediate detuning around the unitary point. We analyze the detailed nature of the corresponding phases and the associated quantum and thermal phase transitions.

  9. Finite-momentum superfluidity and phase transitions in a p-wave resonant Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sungsoo; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2011-10-01

    We study a degenerate two-species gas of bosonic atoms interacting through a p-wave Feshbach resonance as, for example, realized in a 85Rb-87Rb mixture. We show that, in addition to a conventional atomic and a p-wave molecular spinor-1 superfluidity at large positive and negative detunings, respectively, the system generically exhibits a finite-momentum atomic-molecular superfluidity at intermediate detuning around the unitary point. We analyze the detailed nature of the corresponding phases and the associated quantum and thermal phase transitions.

  10. Near-field resonance shifts of ferroelectric barium titanate domains upon low-temperature phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Döring, Jonathan; Ribbeck, Hans-Georg von; Kehr, Susanne C.; Eng, Lukas M.; Fehrenbacher, Markus

    2014-08-04

    Scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) has been established as an excellent tool to probe domains in ferroelectric crystals at room temperature. Here, we apply the s-SNOM possibilities to quantify low-temperature phase transitions in barium titanate single crystals by both temperature-dependent resonance spectroscopy and domain distribution imaging. The orthorhombic-to-tetragonal structural phase transition at 263 K manifests in a change of the spatial arrangement of ferroelectric domains as probed with a tunable free-electron laser. More intriguingly, the domain distribution unravels non-favored domain configurations upon sample recovery to room temperature as explainable by increased sample disorder. Ferroelectric domains and topographic influences are clearly deconvolved even at low temperatures, since complementing our s-SNOM nano-spectroscopy with piezoresponse force microscopy and topographic imaging using one and the same atomic force microscope and tip.

  11. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with laser irradiation resonant with vibrational transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatrian, Ani; Dagdigian, Paul J.

    2010-05-01

    An investigation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of polymers, both in bulk form and spin coated on Si wafers, with laser irradiation in the mid-infrared spectral region is presented. Of particular interest is whether the LIBS signals are enhanced when the laser wavelength is resonant with a fundamental vibrational transition of the polymer. Significant increases in the LIBS signals were observed for irradiation on hydride stretch fundamental transitions, and the magnitude of the enhancement showed a strong dependence on the mode excited. The role of the substrate was investigated by comparison of results for bulk and spin-coated samples. The polymers investigated were Nylon 12 and poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene).

  12. Transit Timing Variations for Planets near Eccentricity-type Mean Motion Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deck, Katherine M.; Agol, Eric

    2016-04-01

    We derive the transit timing variations (TTVs) of two planets near a second-order mean motion resonance (MMR) on nearly circular orbits. We show that the TTVs of each planet are given by sinusoids with a frequency of {{jn}}2-(j-2){n}1, where j≥slant 3 is an integer characterizing the resonance and n2 and n1 are the mean motions of the outer and inner planets, respectively. The amplitude of the TTV depends on the mass of the perturbing planet, relative to the mass of the star, and on both the eccentricities and longitudes of pericenter of each planet. The TTVs of the two planets are approximated anti-correlated, with phases of ϕ and ≈ φ +π , where the phase ϕ also depends on the eccentricities and longitudes of pericenter. Therefore, the TTVs caused by proximity to a second-order MMR do not in general uniquely determine both planet masses, eccentricities, and pericenters. This is completely analogous to the case of TTVs induced by two planets near a first-order MMR. We explore how other TTV signals, such as the short-period synodic TTV or a first-order resonant TTV, in combination with the second-order resonant TTV, can break degeneracies. Finally, we derive approximate formulae for the TTVs of planets near any order eccentricity-type MMR; this shows that the same basic sinusoidal TTV structure holds for all eccentricity-type resonances. Our general formula reduces to previously derived results near first-order MMRs.

  13. Distinguishing Unfolding and Functional Conformational Transitions of Calmodulin Using Ultraviolet Resonance Raman Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Eric M.; Balakrishnan, G.; Squier, Thomas C.; Spiro, Thomas

    2014-06-14

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a ubiquitous moderator protein for calcium signaling in all eukaryotic cells. This small calcium-binding protein exhibits a broad range of structural transitions, including domain opening and folding-unfolding, that allow it to recognize a wide variety of binding partners in vivo. While the static structures of CaM associated with its various binding activities are fairly well known, it has been challenging to examine the dynamics of transition between these structures in real-time, due to a lack of suitable spectroscopic probes of CaM structure. In this paper, we examine the potential of ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy for clarifying the nature of structural transitions in CaM. We find that the UVRR spectral change (with 229 nm excitation) due to thermal unfolding of CaM is qualitatively different from that associated with opening of the C-terminal domain in response to Ca2+ binding. This spectral difference is entirely due to differences in teritary contacts at the inter-domain tyrosine residue Tyr138, toward which other spectroscopic methods are not sensitive. We conclude that UVRR is ideally suited to identifying the different types of structural transitions in CaM and other proteins with conformation-sensitive tyrosine residues, opening a path to time-resolved studies of CaM dynamics using Raman spectroscopy.

  14. Resonant-Raman Intensities of N-layer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Henrique; Froehlicher, Guillaume; Lorchat, Ettienne; Fernique, François; Molina-Sánchez, Alejandro; Berciaud, Stéphane; Wirtz, Ludger

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have interesting optical and electronic properties that make them good candidates for nano-engineering applications. Raman spectroscopy provides information about the vibrational modes and optical spectrum at the same time: when the laser energy is close to an electronic transition, the intensity is increased due to resonance. We investigate these effects combining different ab initio methods: we obtain ground-state and vibrational properties from density functional theory and the optical absorption spectrum using GW corrections and the Bethe-Salpeter equation to account for the excitonic effects which are known to play an important role in TMDs. Using a quasi-static finite differences approach, we calculate the dielectric susceptibility for different light polarizations and different phonon modes in order to determine the Raman tensor of TMDs, in particular of multi-layer and bulk MoTe2. We explain recent experimental results for the splitting of high-frequency modes and deviations from the non-resonant Raman model. We also give a brief outlook on possible improvements of the methodology.

  15. Sensitivity Enhancement of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides/Silicon Nanostructure-based Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Qingling; Zeng, Shuwen; Jiang, Li; Hong, Liying; Xu, Gaixia; Dinh, Xuan-Quyen; Qian, Jun; He, Sailing; Qu, Junle; Coquet, Philippe; Yong, Ken-Tye

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we designed a sensitivity-enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensor structure based on silicon nanosheet and two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. This configuration contains six components: SF10 triangular prism, gold thin film, silicon nanosheet, two-dimensional MoS2/MoSe2/WS2/WSe2 (defined as MX2) layers, biomolecular analyte layer and sensing medium. The minimum reflectivity, sensitivity as well as the Full Width at Half Maximum of SPR curve are systematically examined by using Fresnel equations and the transfer matrix method in the visible and near infrared wavelength range (600 nm to 1024 nm). The variation of the minimum reflectivity and the change in resonance angle as the function of the number of MX2 layers are presented respectively. The results show that silicon nanosheet and MX2 layers can be served as effective light absorption medium. Under resonance conditions, the electrons in these additional dielectric layers can be transferred to the surface of gold thin film. All silicon-MX2 enhanced sensing models show much better performance than that of the conventional sensing scheme where pure Au thin film is used, the highest sensitivity can be achieved by employing 600 nm excitation light wavelength with 35 nm gold thin film and 7 nm thickness silicon nanosheet coated with monolayer WS2.

  16. Sensitivity Enhancement of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides/Silicon Nanostructure-based Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Qingling; Zeng, Shuwen; Jiang, Li; Hong, Liying; Xu, Gaixia; Dinh, Xuan-Quyen; Qian, Jun; He, Sailing; Qu, Junle; Coquet, Philippe; Yong, Ken-Tye

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we designed a sensitivity-enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensor structure based on silicon nanosheet and two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. This configuration contains six components: SF10 triangular prism, gold thin film, silicon nanosheet, two-dimensional MoS2/MoSe2/WS2/WSe2 (defined as MX2) layers, biomolecular analyte layer and sensing medium. The minimum reflectivity, sensitivity as well as the Full Width at Half Maximum of SPR curve are systematically examined by using Fresnel equations and the transfer matrix method in the visible and near infrared wavelength range (600 nm to 1024 nm). The variation of the minimum reflectivity and the change in resonance angle as the function of the number of MX2 layers are presented respectively. The results show that silicon nanosheet and MX2 layers can be served as effective light absorption medium. Under resonance conditions, the electrons in these additional dielectric layers can be transferred to the surface of gold thin film. All silicon-MX2 enhanced sensing models show much better performance than that of the conventional sensing scheme where pure Au thin film is used, the highest sensitivity can be achieved by employing 600 nm excitation light wavelength with 35 nm gold thin film and 7 nm thickness silicon nanosheet coated with monolayer WS2. PMID:27305974

  17. Sensitivity Enhancement of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides/Silicon Nanostructure-based Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Qingling; Zeng, Shuwen; Jiang, Li; Hong, Liying; Xu, Gaixia; Dinh, Xuan-Quyen; Qian, Jun; He, Sailing; Qu, Junle; Coquet, Philippe; Yong, Ken-Tye

    2016-06-16

    In this work, we designed a sensitivity-enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensor structure based on silicon nanosheet and two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. This configuration contains six components: SF10 triangular prism, gold thin film, silicon nanosheet, two-dimensional MoS2/MoSe2/WS2/WSe2 (defined as MX2) layers, biomolecular analyte layer and sensing medium. The minimum reflectivity, sensitivity as well as the Full Width at Half Maximum of SPR curve are systematically examined by using Fresnel equations and the transfer matrix method in the visible and near infrared wavelength range (600 nm to 1024 nm). The variation of the minimum reflectivity and the change in resonance angle as the function of the number of MX2 layers are presented respectively. The results show that silicon nanosheet and MX2 layers can be served as effective light absorption medium. Under resonance conditions, the electrons in these additional dielectric layers can be transferred to the surface of gold thin film. All silicon-MX2 enhanced sensing models show much better performance than that of the conventional sensing scheme where pure Au thin film is used, the highest sensitivity can be achieved by employing 600 nm excitation light wavelength with 35 nm gold thin film and 7 nm thickness silicon nanosheet coated with monolayer WS2.

  18. Coherent population trapping resonances in the presence of the frequency-phase noises of an exciting field

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, A V; Matveev, A N; Samokotin, A Yu; Akimov, A V; Sorokin, Vadim N; Kolachevsky, Nikolai N

    2009-05-31

    The influence of noises of the frequency and phase difference of an exciting bichromatic field on the parameters of coherent population trapping resonances is studied experimentally. When the phase difference fluctuates within a limited interval near its average value with a short correlation time, the resonance contrast decreases proportionally to exp({phi}{sup 2}{sub rms}), where {phi}{sup 2}{sub rms} is the phase dispersion (in rad{sup 2}). In this case, the spectral width of the resonance remains constant. In another limiting case, when the phase noise has a long correlation time, the resonance contour broadens, the area under the contour being invariable. Experiments were performed with the Zeeman sublevels of the ground state of {sup 87}Rb by exciting rubidium vapour in a glass cell at the resonance wavelength of 795 nm. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  19. BEC BCS crossover, phase transitions and phase separation in polarized resonantly-paired superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehy, Daniel E.; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2007-08-01

    We study resonantly-paired s-wave superfluidity in a degenerate gas of two species (hyperfine states labeled by ↑, ↓) of fermionic atoms when the numbers N↑ and N↓ of the two species are unequal, i.e., the system is "polarized." We find that the continuous crossover from the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) limit of tightly-bound diatomic molecules to the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) limit of weakly correlated Cooper pairs, studied extensively at equal populations, is interrupted by a variety of distinct phenomena under an imposed population difference Δ N ≡ N↑ - N↓. Our findings are summarized by a "polarization" (Δ N) versus Feshbach-resonance detuning ( δ) zero-temperature phase diagram, which exhibits regions of phase separation, a periodic FFLO superfluid, a polarized normal Fermi gas and a polarized molecular superfluid consisting of a molecular condensate and a fully polarized Fermi gas. We describe numerous experimental signatures of such phases and the transitions between them, in particular focusing on their spatial structure in the inhomogeneous environment of an atomic trap.

  20. Relaxation transition in glass-forming polybutadiene as revealed by nuclear resonance X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Kanaya, Toshiji; Inoue, Rintaro; Saito, Makina; Seto, Makoto; Yoda, Yoshitaka

    2014-04-14

    We investigated the arrest mechanism of molecular motions in a glass forming polybutadiene near the glass transition using a new nuclear resonance synchrotron X-ray scattering technique to cover a wide time range (10(-9) to 10(-5) s) and a scattering vector Q range (9.6-40 nm(-1)), which have never been accessed by other methods. Owing to the wide time and Q ranges it was found for the first time that a transition of the α-process to the slow β-process (or the Johari-Goldstein process) was observed in a Q range higher than the first peak in the structure factor S(Q) at the critical temperature T(c) in the mode coupling theory. The results suggest the important roles of hopping motions below T(c), which was predicted by the recent extended mode coupling theory and the cooperative motions due to the strong correlation at the first peak in S(Q) in the arrest mechanism. PMID:24735317

  1. Relaxation transition in glass-forming polybutadiene as revealed by nuclear resonance X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaya, Toshiji; Inoue, Rintaro; Saito, Makina; Seto, Makoto; Yoda, Yoshitaka

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the arrest mechanism of molecular motions in a glass forming polybutadiene near the glass transition using a new nuclear resonance synchrotron X-ray scattering technique to cover a wide time range (10-9 to 10-5 s) and a scattering vector Q range (9.6-40 nm-1), which have never been accessed by other methods. Owing to the wide time and Q ranges it was found for the first time that a transition of the α-process to the slow β-process (or the Johari-Goldstein process) was observed in a Q range higher than the first peak in the structure factor S(Q) at the critical temperature Tc in the mode coupling theory. The results suggest the important roles of hopping motions below Tc, which was predicted by the recent extended mode coupling theory and the cooperative motions due to the strong correlation at the first peak in S(Q) in the arrest mechanism.

  2. Relaxation transition in glass-forming polybutadiene as revealed by nuclear resonance X-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Kanaya, Toshiji; Inoue, Rintaro; Saito, Makina; Seto, Makoto; Yoda, Yoshitaka

    2014-04-14

    We investigated the arrest mechanism of molecular motions in a glass forming polybutadiene near the glass transition using a new nuclear resonance synchrotron X-ray scattering technique to cover a wide time range (10{sup −9} to 10{sup −5} s) and a scattering vector Q range (9.6–40 nm{sup −1}), which have never been accessed by other methods. Owing to the wide time and Q ranges it was found for the first time that a transition of the α-process to the slow β-process (or the Johari-Goldstein process) was observed in a Q range higher than the first peak in the structure factor S(Q) at the critical temperature T{sub c} in the mode coupling theory. The results suggest the important roles of hopping motions below T{sub c}, which was predicted by the recent extended mode coupling theory and the cooperative motions due to the strong correlation at the first peak in S(Q) in the arrest mechanism.

  3. High field nuclear magnetic resonance in transition metal substituted BaFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garitezi, T. M.; Lesseux, G. G.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Adriano, C.; Reyes, A. P.; Kuhns, P. L.; Pagliuso, P. G.; Urbano, R. R.

    2014-05-01

    We report high field 75As nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements on Co and Cu substituted BaFe2As2 single crystals displaying same structural/magnetic transition T0≃128 K. From our anisotropy studies in the paramagnetic state, we strikingly found virtually identical quadrupolar splitting and consequently the quadrupole frequency νQ≃2.57(1) MHz for both compounds, despite the claim that each Cu delivers 2 extra 3d electrons in BaFe2As2 compared to Co substitution. These results allow us to conclude that a subtle change in the crystallographic structure, particularly in the Fe-As tetrahedra, must be the most probable tuning parameter to determine T0 in this class of superconductors rather than electronic doping. Furthermore, our NMR data around T0 suggest coexistence of tetragonal/paramagnetic and orthorhombic/antiferromagnetic phases between the structural and the spin density wave magnetic phase transitions, similarly to what was reported for K-doped BaFe2As2 [Urbano et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 107001 (2010)].

  4. KOI-142, THE KING OF TRANSIT VARIATIONS, IS A PAIR OF PLANETS NEAR THE 2:1 RESONANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvorný, David; Terrell, Dirk; Kipping, David; Hartman, Joel; Bakos, Gáspár Á.; Buchhave, Lars A.

    2013-11-01

    The transit timing variations (TTVs) can be used as a diagnostic of gravitational interactions between planets in a multi-planet system. Many Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) exhibit significant TTVs, but KOI-142.01 stands out among them with an unrivaled ≅12 hr TTV amplitude. Here we report a thorough analysis of KOI-142.01's transits. We discover periodic transit duration variations (TDVs) of KOI-142.01 that are nearly in phase with the observed TTVs. We show that KOI-142.01's TTVs and TDVs uniquely detect a non-transiting companion with a mass ≅0.63 that of Jupiter (KOI-142c). KOI-142.01's mass inferred from the transit variations is consistent with the measured transit depth, suggesting a Neptune-class planet (KOI-142b). The orbital period ratio P{sub c} /P{sub b} = 2.03 indicates that the two planets are just wide of the 2:1 resonance. The present dynamics of this system, characterized here in detail, can be used to test various formation theories that have been proposed to explain the near-resonant pairs of exoplanets.

  5. Coherent forward scattering of γ-ray and XUV radiation in the medium with the modulated quasi-resonant transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedzhanov, T. R.; Antonov, V. A.; Kocharovskaya, Olga

    2016-10-01

    We establish a close physical analogy between coherent forward scattering of γ-ray radiation in the vibrating quasi-resonant nuclear absorber and the XUV field propagation in the quasi-resonant atomic medium in the presence of the moderately strong IR field. We prove that both processes, under certain conditions, are described by similar Maxwell–Bloch equations for a two-level medium with modulated parameters of the resonant transition. It results in similar transformation of both γ-ray and XUV fields at the exit from the medium, fully determined by the characteristics of applied modulation and spectral content of the incident fields. We find an appropriate analytical solution describing transformation of the electromagnetic field as a result of its propagation in the modulated medium. We show, in particular, that recently observed effects of (i) suppressed resonant absorption in coherent γ-ray scattering of vibrating absorber and (ii) ionization rate modulation in IR pump–XUV probe experiments, present themselves as different manifestations of the same general physical phenomenon of modulation induced transparency (MIT). That transparency is induced by modulating the parameters of the resonant transition. While only partial MIT was observed so far, we suggest certain conditions for conducting some realistic experiments, which should demonstrate nearly 100% transparency in both processes.

  6. Low-power stimulated emission nuclear quadrupole resonance detection system utilizing Rabi transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolos, John; Mouyos, William; Feng, Judy; Chase, Walter

    2013-06-01

    The application of CW radar techniques to Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) detection of nitrogen based explosives and chlorine based narcotics enables the use of low power levels, in the range of 10's of watts, to yield high signal strengths. By utilizing Rabi transitions the nucleus oscillates between states one and two under the time dependent incident electromagnetic field and alternately absorbs energy from the incident field while emitting coherent energy via stimulated emission. Through the application of a cancellation algorithm the incident field is eliminated from the NQR response, allowing the receive signal to be measured while transmitting. The response signal is processed using matched filters of the NQR response which enables the direct detection of explosives. This technology has applicability to the direct detection of explosives and narcotics for security screening, all at safe low power levels, opposed to the current XRay and Millimeter wave screening systems that detect objects that may contain explosives and utilize high power. The quantum mechanics theoretical basis for the approach and an application for a system for security screening are described with empirical results presented to show the effects observed.

  7. Frequency tuning of single photons from a whispering-gallery mode resonator to MHz-wide transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunk, G.; Vogl, U.; Sedlmeir, F.; Strekalov, D. V.; Otterpohl, A.; Averchenko, V.; Schwefel, H. G. L.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch.

    2016-11-01

    Quantum repeaters rely on interfacing flying qubits with quantum memories. The most common implementations include a narrowband single photon matched in bandwidth and central frequency to an atomic system. Previously, we demonstrated the compatibility of our versatile source of heralded single photons, which is based on parametric down-conversion in a triply resonant whispering-gallery mode resonator, with alkaline transitions [Schunk et al., Optica 2015, 2, 773]. In this paper, we analyse our source in terms of phase matching, available wavelength-tuning mechanisms and applications to narrowband atomic systems. We resonantly address the D1 transitions of caesium and rubidium with this optical parametric oscillator pumped above its oscillation threshold. Below threshold, the efficient coupling of single photons to atomic transitions heralded by single telecom-band photons is demonstrated. Finally, we present an accurate analytical description of our observations. Providing the demonstrated flexibility in connecting various atomic transitions with telecom wavelengths, we show a promising approach to realize an essential building block for quantum repeaters.

  8. Higher-order time-symmetry-breaking phase transition due to meeting of an exceptional point and a Fano resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Garmon, Savannah; Kanki, Kazuki; Petrosky, Tomio

    2016-08-01

    We have theoretically investigated the time-symmetry-breaking phase-transition process for two discrete states coupled with a one-dimensional continuum by solving the nonlinear eigenvalue problem for the effective Hamiltonian associated with the discrete spectrum. We obtain the effective Hamiltonian with use of the Feshbach-Brillouin-Wigner projection method. Strong energy dependence of the self-energy appearing in the effective Hamiltonian plays a key role in the time-symmetry-breaking phase transition: As a result of competition in the decay process between the Van Hove singularity and the Fano resonance, the phase transition becomes a higher-order transition when both the two discrete states are located near the continuum threshold.

  9. Weighted sum threshold logic operation of MOBILE (monostable-bistable transition logic element) using resonant-tunneling transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akeyoshi, Tomoyuki; Maezawa, Koichi; Mizutani, Takashi

    1993-10-01

    The functional operation of MOBILE (monostable-bistable transition logic element) has been studied using multiple-input logic gates. MOBILE uses two resonant-tunneling transistors (RTT's), connected in series and driven by oscillating bias voltage to produce a mono-to-bistable transition of the circuit. A fabricated MOBILE having three-input gates with a 1:2:4 width ratio can distinguish all 8 (2(exp 3)) input patterns corresponding to each weighted sum, depending on the threshold value selected by the control gate. The results signify the realization of the weighted sum threshold logic operation of input signals.

  10. Feshbach resonances and transition rates for cold homonuclear collisions between {sup 39}K and {sup 41}K atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Lysebo, M.; Veseth, L.

    2010-03-15

    We report results from close-coupling calculations for homonuclear ultracold collisions between potassium atoms, using the most up-to-date Born-Oppenheimer potential curves. The present study includes both of the bosonic isotopes {sup 39}K and {sup 41}K. The s-wave scattering lengths as functions of the magnetic field strength for collisions between atoms in identical and different hyperfine states are obtained. Several Feshbach resonances are located and characterized for both isotopes. Comparison with experiments, where such data are available, show excellent agreement. We also study weakly bound molecular states of the K{sub 2} molecule in close relation to the calculated Feshbach resonances. Another objective of the present work is to study inelastic collisions in which the hyperfine states of the colliding atoms are changed. From this type of calculation we obtain transition rates as functions of the magnetic field strength. Finally, we discuss how such transition rates might be of importance for experimental work.

  11. Dependence of nuclear quadrupole resonance transitions on the electric field gradient asymmetry parameter for nuclides with half-integer spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Herman

    2016-09-01

    Allowed transition energies and eigenstate expansions have been calculated and tabulated in numerical form as functions of the electric field gradient asymmetry parameter for the zero field Hamiltonian of quadrupolar nuclides with I = 3 / 2 , 5 / 2 , 7 / 2, and 9 / 2. These results are essential to interpret nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectra and extract accurate values of the electric field gradient tensors. Applications of NQR methods to studies of electronic structure in heavy element systems are proposed.

  12. Dependence of nuclear quadrupole resonance transitions on the electric field gradient asymmetry parameter for nuclides with half-integer spins

    DOE PAGES

    Cho, Herman

    2016-02-28

    Allowed transition energies and eigenstate expansions have been calculated and tabulated in numerical form as functions of the electric field gradient asymmetry parameter for the zero field Hamiltonian of quadrupolar nuclides with I = 3/2,5/2,7/2, and 9/2. These results are essential to interpret nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectra and extract accurate values of the electric field gradient tensors. Furthermore, applications of NQR methods to studies of electronic structure in heavy element systems are proposed.

  13. Conformational transitions in the calcium adenosinetriphosphatase studied by time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Birmachu, W; Nisswandt, F L; Thomas, D D

    1989-05-01

    We have used time-resolved fluorescence to study proposed conformational transitions in the Ca-ATPase in skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Resonance energy transfer was used to measure distances between the binding sites of 5-[[2-[(iodoacetyl)amino]ethyl]amino]naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (IAEDANS) and fluorescein 5-isothiocyanate (FITC) as a function of conditions proposed to affect the enzyme's conformation. When 1.0 +/- 0.15 IAEDANS is bound per Ca-ATPase, most (76 +/- 4%) of the probes have an excited-state lifetime (tau) of 18.6 +/- 0.5 ns, and the remainder have a lifetime of 2.5 +/- 0.9 ns. When FITC is bound to a specific site on each IAEDANS-labeled enzyme, most of the long-lifetime component is quenched into two short-lifetime components, indicating energy transfer that corresponds to two donor-acceptor distances. About one-third of the quenched population has a lifetime tau = 11.1 +/- 2.5 ns, corresponding to a transfer efficiency E = 0.40 +/- 0.07 and a donor-acceptor distance R1 = 52 +/- 3 A. The remaining two-thirds exhibit lifetimes in the range of 1.2-4.2 ns, corresponding to a second distance 31 A less than or equal to R2 less than or equal to 40 A. Addition of Ca2+ (in the micromolar to millimolar range), or vanadate (to produce a phosphoenzyme analogue), had no effect on the donor-acceptor distances. Addition of decavanadate results in the quenching of IAEDANS fluorescence but has no effect on the energy-transfer distance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. The theory of electro-magnetic radiation of electron transiting through the resonance-tunnel structure

    SciTech Connect

    Tkach, M.; Seti, Ju.; Voitsekhivska, O.; Fartushynsky, R.

    2009-12-14

    The quasi-stationary electron states are studied in the three-barrier resonance-tunnel structure which is the basic element of coherent quantum cascade lasers. In the models of rectangular and delta-barrier potentials there is established theory of evolution and collapse of double resonance complexes in a symmetric resonance-tunnel structure. The induced conductivity of nano-system is calculated within the both models. It is shown that the negative induced conductivity of three-barrier resonance-tunnel structure in delta-barrier model is dozens times smaller than more realistic magnitudes obtained within the rectangular potentials model.

  15. Nonlinear Transition from Mitigation to Suppression of the Edge Localized Mode with Resonant Magnetic Perturbations in the EAST Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Liang, Y; Liu, Y Q; Gu, S; Yang, X; Guo, W; Shi, T; Jia, M; Wang, L; Lyu, B; Zhou, C; Liu, A; Zang, Q; Liu, H; Chu, N; Wang, H H; Zhang, T; Qian, J; Xu, L; He, K; Chen, D; Shen, B; Gong, X; Ji, X; Wang, S; Qi, M; Song, Y; Yuan, Q; Sheng, Z; Gao, G; Fu, P; Wan, B

    2016-09-01

    Evidence of a nonlinear transition from mitigation to suppression of the edge localized mode (ELM) by using resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in the EAST tokamak is presented. This is the first demonstration of ELM suppression with RMPs in slowly rotating plasmas with dominant radio-frequency wave heating. Changes of edge magnetic topology after the transition are indicated by a gradual phase shift in the plasma response field from a linear magneto hydro dynamics modeling result to a vacuum one and a sudden increase of three-dimensional particle flux to the divertor. The transition threshold depends on the spectrum of RMPs and plasma rotation as well as perturbation amplitude. This means that edge topological changes resulting from nonlinear plasma response plays a key role in the suppression of ELM with RMPs.

  16. Nonlinear Transition from Mitigation to Suppression of the Edge Localized Mode with Resonant Magnetic Perturbations in the EAST Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Liang, Y; Liu, Y Q; Gu, S; Yang, X; Guo, W; Shi, T; Jia, M; Wang, L; Lyu, B; Zhou, C; Liu, A; Zang, Q; Liu, H; Chu, N; Wang, H H; Zhang, T; Qian, J; Xu, L; He, K; Chen, D; Shen, B; Gong, X; Ji, X; Wang, S; Qi, M; Song, Y; Yuan, Q; Sheng, Z; Gao, G; Fu, P; Wan, B

    2016-09-01

    Evidence of a nonlinear transition from mitigation to suppression of the edge localized mode (ELM) by using resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in the EAST tokamak is presented. This is the first demonstration of ELM suppression with RMPs in slowly rotating plasmas with dominant radio-frequency wave heating. Changes of edge magnetic topology after the transition are indicated by a gradual phase shift in the plasma response field from a linear magneto hydro dynamics modeling result to a vacuum one and a sudden increase of three-dimensional particle flux to the divertor. The transition threshold depends on the spectrum of RMPs and plasma rotation as well as perturbation amplitude. This means that edge topological changes resulting from nonlinear plasma response plays a key role in the suppression of ELM with RMPs. PMID:27661697

  17. Scalar resonance contributions to the dipion transition rates of {upsilon}(4S,5S) in the rescattering model

    SciTech Connect

    Meng Ce; Chao, K.-T.

    2008-04-01

    In order to explain the observed unusually large dipion transition rates of {upsilon}(10870), the scalar resonance contributions in the rescattering model to the dipion transitions of {upsilon}(4S) and {upsilon}(5S) are studied. Since the imaginary part of the rescattering amplitude is expected to be dominant, the large ratios of the transition rates of {upsilon}(10870), which is identified with {upsilon}(5S), to that of {upsilon}(4S) can be understood as mainly coming from the difference between the p values in their decays into open bottom channels, and the ratios are estimated numerically to be about 200-600 with reasonable choices of parameters. The absolute and relative rates of {upsilon}(5S){yields}{upsilon}(1S,2S,3S){pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and {upsilon}(5S){yields}{upsilon}(1S)K{sup +}K{sup -} are roughly consistent with data. We emphasize that the dipion transitions observed for some of the newly discovered Y states associated with charmonia may have similar features to the dipion transitions of {upsilon}(5S). Measurements on the dipion transitions of {upsilon}(6S) could provide further tests for this mechanism.

  18. Observation of strongly forbidden solid effect dynamic nuclear polarization transitions via electron-electron double resonance detected NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Albert A.; Corzilius, Björn; Haze, Olesya; Swager, Timothy M.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2013-12-07

    We present electron paramagnetic resonance experiments for which solid effect dynamic nuclear polarization transitions were observed indirectly via polarization loss on the electron. This use of indirect observation allows characterization of the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) process close to the electron. Frequency profiles of the electron-detected solid effect obtained using trityl radical showed intense saturation of the electron at the usual solid effect condition, which involves a single electron and nucleus. However, higher order solid effect transitions involving two, three, or four nuclei were also observed with surprising intensity, although these transitions did not lead to bulk nuclear polarization—suggesting that higher order transitions are important primarily in the transfer of polarization to nuclei nearby the electron. Similar results were obtained for the SA-BDPA radical where strong electron-nuclear couplings produced splittings in the spectrum of the indirectly observed solid effect conditions. Observation of high order solid effect transitions supports recent studies of the solid effect, and suggests that a multi-spin solid effect mechanism may play a major role in polarization transfer via DNP.

  19. Effect of photoions on the line shape of the Foerster resonance lines and microwave transitions in cold rubidium Rydberg atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Tretyakov, D. B.; Beterov, I. I.; Entin, V. M.; Yakshina, E. A.; Ryabtsev, I. I.; Dyubko, S. F.; Alekseev, E. A.; Pogrebnyak, N. L.; Bezuglov, N. N.; Arimondo, E.

    2012-01-15

    Experiments are carried out on the spectroscopy of the Foerster resonance lines Rb(37P) + Rb(37P) {yields} Rb(37S) + Rb(38S) and microwave transitions nP {yields} n Prime S, n Prime D between Rydberg states of cold rubidium atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). Under ordinary conditions, all spectra exhibit a linewidth of 2-3 MHz irrespective of the interaction time between atoms or between atoms and microwave radiation, although the limit resonance width should be determined by the inverse interaction time. The analysis of experimental conditions has shown that the main source of line broadening is the inhomogeneous electric field of cold photoions that are generated under the excitation of initial nP Rydberg states by broadband pulsed laser radiation. The application of an additional electric-field pulse that rapidly extracts photoions produced by a laser pulse leads to a considerable narrowing of lines of microwave resonances and the Foerster resonance. Various sources of line broadening in cold Rydberg atoms are analyzed.

  20. Electromagnetically induced transparency resonances inverted in magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Sargsyan, A.; Sarkisyan, D. E-mail: david@ipr.sci.am; Pashayan-Leroy, Y.; Leroy, C.; Cartaleva, S.; Wilson-Gordon, A. D.; Auzinsh, M.

    2015-12-15

    The phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is investigated in a Λ-system of the {sup 87}Rb D{sub 1} line in an external transverse magnetic field. Two spectroscopic cells having strongly different values of the relaxation rates γ{sub rel} are used: an Rb cell with antirelaxation coating (L ∼ 1 cm) and an Rb nanometric- thin cell (nanocell) with a thickness of the atomic vapor column L = 795 nm. For the EIT in the nanocell, we have the usual EIT resonances characterized by a reduction in the absorption (dark resonance (DR)), whereas for the EIT in the Rb cell with an antirelaxation coating, the resonances demonstrate an increase in the absorption (bright resonances (BR)). We suppose that such an unusual behavior of the EIT resonances (i.e., the reversal of the sign from DR to BR) is caused by the influence of an alignment process. The influence of alignment strongly depends on the configuration of the coupling and probe frequencies as well as on the configuration of the magnetic field.

  1. Spectroscopy of the D1 transition of cesium by dressed-state resonance fluorescence from a single (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, S. M.; Weiler, S.; Oster, M.; Jetter, M.; Urvoy, A.; Löw, R.; Michler, P.

    2014-09-01

    We use a laser-driven single (In,Ga)As quantum dot (QD) in the dressed-state regime of resonance fluorescence (T =4K) to observe the four D1-transition lines of alkali atomic cesium (Cs) vapor at room temperature. We tune the frequency of the dressing continuous-wave laser in the vicinity of the bare QD resonance ˜335.116THz (˜894.592nm) at constant excitation power and thereby controllably tune the center and side channel frequencies of the probe light, i.e., the Mollow triplet. Resonances between individual QD Mollow triplet lines and the atomic hyperfine-split transitions are clearly identified in the Cs absorption spectrum. Our results show that narrow-band (In,Ga)As QD resonance fluorescence (RF) is suitable to optically address individual transitions of the D1 quadruplet without applying magnetic field or electric field tuning.

  2. Study of ferroelectric phase transition in Pb5Ge3O11 by paramagnetic resonance of Gd3+ centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazhenin, V. A.; Rumyantsev, E. L.; Artyomov, M. Yu.; Potapov, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    The temperature dependence of the fine structure of trigonal paramagnetic Gd3+ centres in Pb5Ge3O11 was investigated in a wide temperature range in the vicinity of structural phase transition. The temperature dependence of the squared order parameter has been constructed based on the obtained data. It was shown that for the adequate description of its behaviour, the sixth-power term in polarization must be taken into account in the expansion of the thermodynamic potential. The orientational dependence of anomalous broadening of electron paramagnetic resonance signals in the vicinity of ferroelectric phase transition was studied. By comparison of the observed behaviour with the angular dependences of the line width that are characteristic of various broadening mechanisms, it was inferred that it can be attributed to defect induced statistical dispersion of fine structure triclinic parameters.

  3. [The Study of Characteristics of Cladding-Reduced Coated Long-Period Fiber Grating Based on Mode Transition and Dual Peak Resonance].

    PubMed

    Lan, Jin-long; Gu, Zheng-tian

    2015-11-01

    Based on coupled-mode theory, the mode transition of the high-order cladding modes in a coated long-period tiber grating (LPFG) has been studied firstly; the mode transition region and non-mode transition region of high-order cladding modes are divided. The response characteristic of cladding mode effective index with increasing the overlay thickness is analyzed; the shift of resonant wavelength in the mode transition region will be larger than that in the non-mode transition region. Further, the changes of the resonant wavelength of some high-order cladding modes with grating period are investigated when the cladding radius are different, the shift between two resonant wavelengths of dual peak in the mode transition region is bigger than that in non-mode transition region when the cladding radius are uniform. And the shift between two resonant wavelengths of dual peak will be increased by the decrease of the cladding radius in both mode transition and non-mode transition regions. Finally, the response characteristics of film refractive index of coated LPFG are investigated for a high-order cladding mode while the cladding radius are different and the overlay thickness is located in mode transition region and non-transition mode region, then the optimized design scheme is come up with. The higher sensitivity dual-peak sensor of coated LPFG than the traditional dual-peak sensor will be obtained when the overlay thickness and refractive index is located in the mode transition region and the grating period close to the phase matching turning points. Further, the resolution power of coated LPFG sensor will further be improved by the appropriate reducing of the cladding radius.

  4. Size modulated transition in the fluid-structure interaction losses in nano mechanical beam resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwakarma, S. D.; Pandey, A. K.; Parpia, J. M.; Verbridge, S. S.; Craighead, H. G.; Pratap, R.

    2016-05-01

    An understanding of the dominant dissipative mechanisms is crucial for the design of a high-Q doubly clamped nanobeam resonator to be operated in air. We focus on quantifying analytically the viscous losses—the squeeze film damping and drag force damping—that limit the net quality factor of a beam resonator, vibrating in its flexural fundamental mode with the surrounding fluid as air at atmospheric pressure. Specifically, drag force damping dominates at smaller beam widths and squeeze film losses dominate at larger beam widths, with no significant contribution from structural losses and acoustic radiation losses. The combined viscous losses agree well with the experimentally measured Q of the resonator over a large range of beam widths, within the limits of thin beam theory. We propose an empirical relation between the maximum quality factor and the ratio of maximum beam width to the squeeze film air gap thickness.

  5. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes four articles: "Career Aspirations" (Field); "Making the Transition to a New Curriculum" (Baker, Householder); "How about a 'Work to School' Transition?" (Glasberg); and "Technological Improvisation: Bringing CNC to Woodworking" (Charles, McDuffie). (SK)

  6. Probing local bias-induced transitions using photothermal excitation contact resonance atomic force microscopy and voltage spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Qian; Jesse, Stephen; Tselev, Alexander; Collins, Liam; Yu, Pu; Kravchenko, Ivan; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Balke, Nina

    2015-01-05

    In this paper, nanomechanical properties are closely related to the states of matter, including chemical composition, crystal structure, mesoscopic domain configuration, etc. Investigation of these properties at the nanoscale requires not only static imaging methods, e.g., contact resonance atomic force microscopy (CR-AFM), but also spectroscopic methods capable of revealing their dependence on various external stimuli. Here we demonstrate the voltage spectroscopy of CR-AFM, which was realized by combining photothermal excitation (as opposed to the conventional piezoacoustic excitation method) with the band excitation technique. We applied this spectroscopy to explore local bias-induced phenomena ranging from purely physical to surface electromechanical andmore » electrochemical processes. Our measurements show that the changes in the surface properties associated with these bias-induced transitions can be accurately assessed in a fast and dynamic manner, using resonance frequency as a signature. Finally, with many of the advantages offered by photothermal excitation, contact resonance voltage spectroscopy not only is expected to find applications in a broader field of nanoscience but also will provide a basis for future development of other nanoscale elastic spectroscopies.« less

  7. Probing local bias-induced transitions using photothermal excitation contact resonance atomic force microscopy and voltage spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qian; Jesse, Stephen; Tselev, Alexander; Collins, Liam; Yu, Pu; Kravchenko, Ivan; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Balke, Nina

    2015-01-05

    In this paper, nanomechanical properties are closely related to the states of matter, including chemical composition, crystal structure, mesoscopic domain configuration, etc. Investigation of these properties at the nanoscale requires not only static imaging methods, e.g., contact resonance atomic force microscopy (CR-AFM), but also spectroscopic methods capable of revealing their dependence on various external stimuli. Here we demonstrate the voltage spectroscopy of CR-AFM, which was realized by combining photothermal excitation (as opposed to the conventional piezoacoustic excitation method) with the band excitation technique. We applied this spectroscopy to explore local bias-induced phenomena ranging from purely physical to surface electromechanical and electrochemical processes. Our measurements show that the changes in the surface properties associated with these bias-induced transitions can be accurately assessed in a fast and dynamic manner, using resonance frequency as a signature. Finally, with many of the advantages offered by photothermal excitation, contact resonance voltage spectroscopy not only is expected to find applications in a broader field of nanoscience but also will provide a basis for future development of other nanoscale elastic spectroscopies.

  8. Model for the {Delta}(1600) resonance and {gamma}N{yields}{Delta}(1600) transition

    SciTech Connect

    Ramalho, G.; Tsushima, K.

    2010-10-01

    A covariant spectator constituent quark model is applied to study the {gamma}N{yields}{Delta}(1600) transition. Two processes are important in the transition: a photon couples to the individual quarks of the {Delta}(1600) core (quark core), and a photon couples to the intermediate pion-baryon states (pion cloud). While the quark core contributions are estimated assuming {Delta}(1600) as the first radial excitation of {Delta}(1232), the pion cloud contributions are estimated based on an analogy with the {gamma}N{yields}{Delta}(1232) transition. To estimate the pion cloud contributions in the {gamma}N{yields}{Delta}(1600) transition, we include the relevant intermediate states, {pi}N, {pi}{Delta}, {pi}N(1440) and {pi}{Delta}(1600). Dependence on the four-momentum transfer squared, Q{sup 2}, is predicted for the magnetic dipole transition form factor, G{sub M}*(Q{sup 2}), as well as the helicity amplitudes, A{sub 1/2}(Q{sup 2}) and A{sub 3/2}(Q{sup 2}). The results at Q{sup 2}=0 are compared with the existing data.

  9. A model for the Delta(1600) resonance and gamma N -> Delta(1600) transition

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ramalho, K. Tsushima

    2010-10-01

    A covariant spectator constituent quark model is applied to study the gamma N -> Delta(1600) transition. Two processes are important in the transition: a photon couples to the individual quarks of the Delta(1600) core (quark core), and a photon couples to the intermediate pion-baryon states (pion cloud). While the quark core contributions are estimated assuming Delta(1600) as the first radial excitation of Delta(1232), the pion cloud contributions are estimated based on an analogy with the gamma N -> Delta(1232) transition. To estimate the pion cloud contributions in the gamma N -> Delta(1600) transition, we include the relevant intermediate states, pi-N, pi-Delta, pi-N(1440) and pi-Delta(1600). Dependence on the four-momentum transfer squared, Q2, is predicted for the magnetic dipole transition form factor, GM*(Q2), as well as the helicity amplitudes, A_1/2(Q2) and A_3/2(Q2). The results at Q2=0 are compared with the existing data.

  10. Zero-energy resonances of hydrogen diatom isotopologs: tuning quasiresonant transitions in vibration space.

    PubMed

    Yang, Benhui; Forrey, R C; Stancil, P C; Fonseca dos Santos, S; Balakrishnan, N

    2012-12-01

    Highly efficient and specific energy transfer mechanisms that involve rotation-rotation, vibration-vibration, and vibration-rotation exchange in diatomic molecules are examined theoretically in ultracold H(2), D(2), and HD self-collisions as a function of initial vibrational level v. The three quasiresonant mechanisms are found to operate for all vibrational levels and yield complex scattering lengths which vary smoothly with v. Exceptions to this trend occur at select high values of v where the scattering lengths are modulated by orders of magnitude corresponding to the location of an s-wave zero-energy resonance in "vibration space." The quasiresonant mechanisms, which are not very sensitive to the details of the interaction potential, generally control the final distribution of molecular states for any given initial distribution. The zero-energy resonances are more sensitive to the potential and may be used to vibrationally "tune" the interaction strength, similar to methods which vary applied external fields.

  11. Gamma-ray cascade transitions from resonant neutron capture in Cd-111 and Cd-113

    SciTech Connect

    Rusev, Gencho Y.

    2012-08-27

    A neutron-capture experiment on {sup nat}Cd has been carried out at DANCE. Multiple-fold coincidence {gamma}-ray spectra have been collected from J=0, 1 resonances in {sup 111}Cd and {sup 113}Cd. The cascades ending at the ground state can be described by the SLO model while the cascades ending at the 2+ states are better reproduced by the mixed SLO+KMF model.

  12. Nonlinear Interaction of Detuned Instability Waves in Boundary-Layer Transition: Resonant-Triad Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sang Soo

    1998-01-01

    The non-equilibrium critical-layer analysis of a system of frequency-detuned resonant-triads is presented using the generalized scaling of Lee. It is shown that resonant-triads can interact nonlinearly within the common critical layer when their (fundamental) Strouhal numbers are different by a factor whose magnitude is of the order of the growth rate multiplied by the wavenumber of the instability wave. Since the growth rates of the instability modes become larger and the critical layers become thicker as the instability waves propagate downstream, the frequency-detuned resonant-triads that grow independently of each other in the upstream region can interact nonlinearly in the later downstream stage. In the final stage of the non-equilibrium critical-layer evolution, a wide range of instability waves with the scaled frequencies differing by almost an Order of (l) can nonlinearly interact. Low-frequency modes are also generated by the nonlinear interaction between oblique waves in the critical layer. The system of partial differential critical-layer equations along with the jump equations are presented here. The amplitude equations with their numerical solutions are given in Part 2. The nonlinearly generated low-frequency components are also investigated in Part 2.

  13. Non inverted gain lineshapes of the cesium resonance transition at 894 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataliotti, F. S.; Fort, C.; Prevedelli, M.; Hänsch, T. W.; Inguscio, M.

    1997-01-01

    We report on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a V-type system in cesium. We investigated the induced EIT as a function of the pump-laser power for different hyperfine components on the D1-D2 lines. Adding repumping light on the D1 transition we observed 2% single pass gain.

  14. High-order harmonics in static gas target by 795-nm Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yuanqin; Chen, Deying; Chen, Jianxin; Wang, Qi

    2004-03-01

    The 5th-23rd high-order harmonics generation in rare gases in static gas target with 120-fs, 85-mJ/pulse, 10-Hz laser system was investigated. Compared with the traditional gas target, static gas target is simple to be used in experiment, and the experimental parameters can be easily controlled. The effects on high-order harmonics due to laser intensities (energy), polarization, gas densities, confocal parameter, and phase mismatch were studied in this paper.

  15. Resonant magnetic x-ray scattering study of phase transitions in UPd2Al3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaulin, B. D.; Gibbs, D.; Isaacs, E. D.; Lussier, J. G.; Reimers, J. N.; Schröder, A.; Taillefer, L.; Zschack, P.

    1994-08-01

    Resonant magnetic x-ray scattering measurements were performed on a single microcrystallite at the surface of a polycrystalline boule of the antiferromagnetic, heavy fermion superconductor UPd2Al3. These measurements show a strong anomaly in the order parameter at 11.8 K, below TN~14.5 K, indicating at least two antiferromagnetically ordered phases which share a common periodicity. Measurements performed at temperatures near and below Tc=2.0 K show the antiferromagnetic order parameter to be unaffected on passing into the superconducting phase, to +/-2%.

  16. Probing temperature-driven spin reorientation transition of GdFeCo film by Kerr loops and ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    He, Wei Liu, Hao-Liang; Cai, Jian-Wang; Cheng, Zhao-Hua; Wu, Hong-Ye

    2015-01-26

    The magnetic anisotropy is of both scientific and technological interest for magneto-optical material GdFeCo film. We characterize the magnetic anisotropy of a 20 nm GdFeCo film from 265 K to 320 K via Kerr loops and ferromagnetic resonance. With increasing temperature, both of the first-order uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and shape anisotropy increase. However, the competition between them causes a temperature-driven spin reorientation transition (SRT) and the effective perpendicular magnetic anisotropy decrease from 2.22 × 10{sup 4 }ergs/cm{sup 3} (288 K) to −1.56 × 10{sup 4 }ergs/cm{sup 3} (317 K). The positive second-order uniaxial magnetic anisotropy determines an easy-cone state as the mediated state during SRT.

  17. Phase transitions in the boson-fermion resonance model in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orignac, E.; Citro, R.

    2006-06-01

    We study one-dimensional fermions with photoassociation or with a narrow Fano-Feshbach resonance described by the boson-fermion resonance model. Using the bosonization technique, we derive a low-energy Hamiltonian of the system. We show that at low energy, the order parameters for the Bose condensation and fermion superfluidity become identical, while a spin gap and a gap against the formation of phase slips are formed. As a result of these gaps, charge density wave correlations decay exponentially in contrast with the phases where only bosons or only fermions are present. We find a Luther-Emery point where the phase slips and the spin excitations can be described in terms of pseudofermions. This allows us to provide closed form expressions of the density-density correlations and the spectral functions. The spectral functions of the fermions are gapped, whereas the spectral functions of the bosons remain gapless. The application of a magnetic field results in a loss of coherence between the bosons and the fermion and the disappearance of the gap. Changing the detuning has no effect on the gap until either the fermion or the boson density is reduced to zero. Finally, we discuss the formation of a Mott insulating state in a periodic potential. The relevance of our results for experiments with ultracold atomic gases subject to one-dimensional confinement is also discussed.

  18. Magnetic phase transitions in ferrite nanoparticles characterized by electron spin resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Flores-Arias, Yesica Vázquez-Victorio, Gabriela; Ortega-Zempoalteca, Raul; Acevedo-Salas, Ulises; Valenzuela, Raul; Ammar, Souad

    2015-05-07

    Ferrite magnetic nanoparticles in the composition Zn{sub 0.7}Ni{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were synthesized by the polyol method, with an average size of 8 nm. Electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements were carried out at a frequency of 9.45 GHz in the 100–500 K temperature range. Obtained results exhibited a characteristic ESR signal in terms of resonance field, H{sub res}, linewidth, ΔH, and peak ratio, R, for each magnetic phase. At low temperatures, the ferrimagnetic phase showed low H{sub res}, broad ΔH, and asymmetric R. At high temperatures, these parameters exhibited opposite values: high H{sub res}, small ΔH, and R ∼ 1. For intermediate temperatures, a different phase was observed, which was identified as a superparamagnetic phase by means of zero-field cooling-field cooling and hysteresis loops measurements. The observed differences were explained in terms of the internal fields and especially due to the cubic anisotropy in the ordered phase.

  19. Study of the resonant frequencies of silicon microcantilevers coated with vanadium dioxide films during the insulator-to-metal transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rúa, Armando; Fernández, Félix E.; Hines, Melissa A.; Sepúlveda, Nelson

    2010-03-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films were grown on silicon microcantilevers and companion test substrates by pulsed laser deposition followed by in situ annealing in an oxidizing atmosphere, with annealing times used to control crystallite sizes. Annealing times of 18 min produced VO2 films with average crystallite sizes of ˜10 nm or less, while those annealed for 35 min had crystallites of average size ˜90 nm, comparable to sample thickness. X-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of the samples showed that films with crystallite sizes ˜40 nm or greater consisted of substoichiometric VO2 in its monoclinic phase, with preferential orientation with (011) planes parallel to the sample surface, while finer structured samples had a substantially similar composition, but showed no clear evidence of preferential orientation and were probably partially amorphous. Forced vibration experiments were performed with the cantilevers as they were thermally cycled through the VO2 insulator-to-metal transition (IMT). Very large reversible changes in the resonant frequencies of up to 5% (3.6 kHz) as well as hysteretic behavior were observed, which depend strongly on film crystallite size. The average value of Young's modulus for VO2 films with crystallite sizes of ˜90 nm was estimated from the mechanical resonance data at room temperature to be ˜120 GPa, but the large tensile stresses which develop between film and substrate through the IMT impede a similar determination for the VO2 tetragonal phase, since the commonly used relationships for cantilever frequencies derived from elasticity theory are not applicable for strongly curved composite beams. The results presented show that VO2 thin films can be useful in novel microscale and nanoscale electromechanical resonators in which effective stiffness can be tuned thermally or optically. This response can provide additional functionality to VO2—based devices which take advantage of other property changes

  20. Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliland, Ronald L.

    Transits of the planets Mercury and especially Venus have been exciting events in the development of astronomy over the past few hundred years. Just two years ago the first transiting extra-solar planet, HD 209458b, was discovered, and subsequent studies during transit have contributed fundamental new knowledge. From the photometric light curve during transit one obtains a basic confirmation that the radial velocity detected object is indeed a planet by allowing precise determination of its mass and radius relative to these stellar quantities. From study of spectroscopic changes during transit it has been possible to probe for individual components of the transiting planets atmosphere. Planet transits are likely to become a primary tool for detection of new planets, especially other Earth-like planets with the Kepler Discovery Mission. Looking ahead, the additional aperture of the James Webb Space Space Telescope promises to allow the first possibility of studying the atmosphere of extra-solar Earth-analogue planets, perhaps even providing the first evidence of direct relevance to the search for signs of life on other planets.

  1. Intricate phase diagram of a prevalent visual circuit reveals universal dynamics, phase transitions, and resonances.

    PubMed

    Caudill, Matthew S; Brandt, Sebastian F; Nussinov, Zohar; Wessel, Ralf

    2009-11-01

    Neural feedback-triads consisting of two feedback loops with a nonreciprocal lateral connection from one loop to the other are ubiquitous in the brain. We show analytically that the dynamics of this network topology are determined by algebraic combinations of its five synaptic weights. Exploration of network activity over the parameter space demonstrates the importance of the nonreciprocal lateral connection and reveals intricate behavior involving continuous transitions between qualitatively different activity states. In addition, we show that the response to periodic inputs is narrowly tuned around a center frequency determined by the effective synaptic parameters. PMID:20365022

  2. Deuteron NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) in relation to the glass transition in polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roessler, E.; Sillescu, H.; Spiess, H. W.; Wallwitz, R.

    1983-01-01

    H-2NMR is introduced as a tool for investigating slow molecular motion in the glass transition region of amorphous polymers. In particular, we compare H-2 spin alignment echo spectra of chain deuterated polystyrene with model calculations for restricted rotational Brownian motion. Molecular motion in the polyztyrene-toluene system has been investigated by analyzing H-2NMR of partially deuterated polystyrene and toluene, respectively. The diluent mobility in the mixed glass has been decomposed into solid and liquid components where the respective average correlation times differ by more than 5 decades.

  3. Phase-locking transition in Raman combs generated with whispering gallery mode resonators.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guoping; Chembo, Yanne K

    2016-08-15

    We investigate the mechanisms leading to phase locking in Raman optical frequency combs generated with ultrahigh Q crystalline whispering gallery mode disk resonators. We show that several regimes can be triggered depending on the pumping conditions, such as single-frequency Raman lasing, multimode operation involving more than one family of cavity eigenmodes, and Kerr-assisted Raman frequency comb generation. The phase locking and coherence of the combs are experimentally monitored through the measurement of beat signal spectra. These phase-locked combs, which feature high coherence and wide spectral spans, are obtained with pump powers in the range of a few tens of mW. In particular, Raman frequency combs with multiple free-spectral range spacings are reported, and the measured beat signal in the microwave domain features a 3 dB linewidth smaller than 50 Hz, thereby indicating phase locking. PMID:27519071

  4. Phase-locking transition in Raman combs generated with whispering gallery mode resonators.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guoping; Chembo, Yanne K

    2016-08-15

    We investigate the mechanisms leading to phase locking in Raman optical frequency combs generated with ultrahigh Q crystalline whispering gallery mode disk resonators. We show that several regimes can be triggered depending on the pumping conditions, such as single-frequency Raman lasing, multimode operation involving more than one family of cavity eigenmodes, and Kerr-assisted Raman frequency comb generation. The phase locking and coherence of the combs are experimentally monitored through the measurement of beat signal spectra. These phase-locked combs, which feature high coherence and wide spectral spans, are obtained with pump powers in the range of a few tens of mW. In particular, Raman frequency combs with multiple free-spectral range spacings are reported, and the measured beat signal in the microwave domain features a 3 dB linewidth smaller than 50 Hz, thereby indicating phase locking.

  5. Polarization correlations for electron-impact excitation of the resonant transitions of Ne and Ar at low incident energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves, L. R.; Campbell, C.; Khakoo, M. A.; McConkey, J. W.; Zatsarinny, O.; Bartschat, K.; Stauffer, A. D.; McEachran, R. P.

    2013-02-01

    The electron-polarized-photon coincidence method is used to determine linear and circular polarization correlations in vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) for the differential electron-impact excitation of neon and argon resonance transitions at impact energies of 25 and 30 eV at small scattering angles up to 40°. The circular polarization correlation is found to be positive in the case of Ne at 25 eV and supports the prediction of the present B-spline R-matrix theory concerning the violation of a long-established propensity rule regarding angular momentum transfer in electron-impact excitation of S→P transitions. Comparisons with the results from the present relativistic distorted-wave approximation and an earlier semirelativistic distorted-wave Born model are also made. For the case of Ar, at 25 and 30 eV, the circular polarization measurements remain in agreement with theory, but provide limited evidence as to whether or not the circular polarization at small scattering angles is also positive. For the linear polarizations, much better agreement with theory is obtained than in earlier measurements carried out by S. H. Zheng and K. Becker [Z. Phys. DZDACE20178-768310.1007/BF01436735 23, 137 (1992); J. Phys. BJPAMA40022-370010.1088/0953-4075/26/3/022 26, 517 (1993)].

  6. A Large-Scale Allosteric Transition in Cytochrome P450 3A4 Revealed by Luminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (LRET)

    PubMed Central

    Sineva, Elena V.; Rumfeldt, Jessica A. O.; Halpert, James R.; Davydov, Dmitri R.

    2013-01-01

    Effector-induced allosteric transitions in cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) were investigated by luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) between two SH-reactive probes attached to various pairs of distantly located cysteine residues, namely the double-cysteine mutants CYP3A4(C64/C468), CYP3A4(C377/C468) and CYP3A4(C64/C121). Successive equimolar labeling of these proteins with the phosphorescent probe erythrosine iodoacetamide (donor) and the near-infrared fluorophore DY-731 maleimide (acceptor) allowed us to establish donor/acceptor pairs sensitive to conformational motions. The interactions of all three double-labeled mutants with the allosteric activators α-naphthoflavone and testosterone resulted in an increase in the distance between the probes. A similar effect was elicited by cholesterol. These changes in distance vary from 1.3 to 8.5 Å, depending on the position of the donor/acceptor pair and the nature of the effector. In contrast, the changes in the interprobe distance caused by such substrates as bromocriptine or 1-pyrenebutanol were only marginal. Our results provide a decisive support to the paradigm of allosteric modulation of CYP3A4 and indicate that the conformational transition caused by allosteric effectors increases the spatial separation between the beta-domain of the enzyme (bearing residues Cys64 and Cys377) and the alpha-domain, where Cys121 and Cys468 are located. PMID:24376769

  7. Using localized surface plasmon resonances to probe the nanoscopic origins of adsorbate-driven ordering transitions of liquid crystals in contact with chemically functionalized gold nanodots.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Gary M; Gettelfinger, Brian T; de Pablo, Juan J; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2008-08-01

    We report that localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) of gold nanodots immersed under liquid crystals (LCs) can be used to characterize adsorbate-induced ordering transitions of the LCs on the surfaces of the nanodots. The nanoscopic changes in ordering of the LCs, as measured by LSPR, were shown to give rise to macroscopic ordering transitions of the LCs that were observed by polarized light microscopy. The results reported herein suggest that (i) LCs may be useful for enhancing the sensitivity of LSPR-based detection of binding events and (ii) that LSPR measurements of gold nanodots provide a means to characterize the nanoscopic origins of macroscopic, adsorbate-induced LC ordering transitions.

  8. Effect of pulse slippage on density transition-based resonant third-harmonic generation of short-pulse laser in plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Vishal; Kant, Niti

    2016-08-01

    The resonant third-harmonic generation of a self-focusing laser in plasma with a density transition was investigated. Because of self-focusing of the fundamental laser pulse, a transverse intensity gradient was created, which generated a plasma wave at the fundamental wave frequency. Phase matching was satisfied by using a Wiggler magnetic field, which provided additional angular momentum to the third-harmonic photon to make the process resonant. An enhancement was observed in the resonant third-harmonic generation of an intense short-pulse laser in plasma embedded with a magnetic Wiggler with a density transition. A plasma density ramp played an important role in the self-focusing, enhancing the third-harmonic generation in plasma. We also examined the effect of the Wiggler magnetic field on the pulse slippage of the third-harmonic pulse in plasma. The pulse slippage was due to the group-velocity mismatch between the fundamental and third-harmonic pulses.

  9. Time-domain separation of optical properties from structural transitions in resonantly bonded materials.

    PubMed

    Waldecker, Lutz; Miller, Timothy A; Rudé, Miquel; Bertoni, Roman; Osmond, Johann; Pruneri, Valerio; Simpson, Robert E; Ernstorfer, Ralph; Wall, Simon

    2015-10-01

    The extreme electro-optical contrast between crystalline and amorphous states in phase-change materials is routinely exploited in optical data storage and future applications include universal memories, flexible displays, reconfigurable optical circuits, and logic devices. Optical contrast is believed to arise owing to a change in crystallinity. Here we show that the connection between optical properties and structure can be broken. Using a combination of single-shot femtosecond electron diffraction and optical spectroscopy, we simultaneously follow the lattice dynamics and dielectric function in the phase-change material Ge2Sb2Te5 during an irreversible state transformation. The dielectric function changes by 30% within 100 fs owing to a rapid depletion of electrons from resonantly bonded states. This occurs without perturbing the crystallinity of the lattice, which heats with a 2-ps time constant. The optical changes are an order of magnitude larger than those achievable with silicon and present new routes to manipulate light on an ultrafast timescale without structural changes.

  10. Transition nucleon resonance electrocouplings from CLAS data on pi+pi-p electroproduction off protons.

    SciTech Connect

    Victor Mokeev

    2011-10-01

    Electrocouplings of excited proton states with masses less than 1.8 GeV were determined for the first time from the CLAS data on {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}p electroproduction at photon virtualities Q{sup 2} < 1.5 GeV {sup 2}. Electrocouplings were obtained from a combined fit of all available observables within the framework of a phenomenological reaction model. Accurate information on the Q{sup 2}-evolution of {gamma}{sub virt}NN* electrocouplings for many excited proton states with masses less than 1.8 GeV and at photon virtualities up to 1.5 GeV{sup 2} have become available from CLAS data on {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}p electroproduction. These results open up new opportunities for theory to explore confinement mechanisms in the baryon sector through their manifestation in the structure of excited proton states of various quantum numbers, as it was outlined. The analysis reported here covers the range of photon virtualities, where both meson-baryon and quark degrees of freedom can be relevant. Our results on high lying N* electrocouplings for the first time make it possible to explore the transition from meson-baryon to quark degrees of freedom in the structure of excited proton states with masses above 1.6 GeV within the framework of dynamical coupled channel approaches under development in EBAC at Jefferson Lab.

  11. Fluctuations and phase transitions in Larkin-Ovchinnikov liquid-crystal states of a population-imbalanced resonant Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzihovsky, Leo

    2011-08-01

    Motivated by a realization of imbalanced Feshbach-resonant atomic Fermi gases, we formulate a low-energy theory of the Fulde-Ferrell and the Larkin-Ovchinnikov (LO) states and use it to analyze fluctuations, stability, and phase transitions in these enigmatic finite momentum-paired superfluids. Focusing on the unidirectional LO pair-density-wave state, which spontaneously breaks the continuous rotational and translational symmetries, we show that it is characterized by two Goldstone modes, corresponding to a superfluid phase and a smectic phonon. Because of the liquid-crystalline “softness” of the latter, at finite temperature the three-dimensional state is characterized by a vanishing LO order parameter, quasi-Bragg peaks in the structure and momentum distribution functions, and a “charge”-4, paired-Cooper-pairs, off-diagonal long-range order, with a superfluid-stiffness anisotropy that diverges near a transition into a nonsuperfluid state. In addition to conventional integer vortices and dislocations, the LO superfluid smectic exhibits composite half-integer vortex-dislocation defects. A proliferation of defects leads to a rich variety of descendant states, such as the charge-4 superfluid and Fermi-liquid nematics and topologically ordered nonsuperfluid states, that generically intervene between the LO state and the conventional superfluid and the polarized Fermi liquid at low and high imbalance, respectively. The fermionic sector of the LO gapless superconductor is also quite unique, exhibiting a Fermi surface of Bogoliubov quasiparticles associated with the Andreev band of states, localized on the array of the LO domain walls.

  12. Fluctuations and phase transitions in Larkin-Ovchinnikov liquid-crystal states of a population-imbalanced resonant Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Radzihovsky, Leo

    2011-08-15

    Motivated by a realization of imbalanced Feshbach-resonant atomic Fermi gases, we formulate a low-energy theory of the Fulde-Ferrell and the Larkin-Ovchinnikov (LO) states and use it to analyze fluctuations, stability, and phase transitions in these enigmatic finite momentum-paired superfluids. Focusing on the unidirectional LO pair-density-wave state, which spontaneously breaks the continuous rotational and translational symmetries, we show that it is characterized by two Goldstone modes, corresponding to a superfluid phase and a smectic phonon. Because of the liquid-crystalline ''softness'' of the latter, at finite temperature the three-dimensional state is characterized by a vanishing LO order parameter, quasi-Bragg peaks in the structure and momentum distribution functions, and a ''charge''-4, paired-Cooper-pairs, off-diagonal long-range order, with a superfluid-stiffness anisotropy that diverges near a transition into a nonsuperfluid state. In addition to conventional integer vortices and dislocations, the LO superfluid smectic exhibits composite half-integer vortex-dislocation defects. A proliferation of defects leads to a rich variety of descendant states, such as the charge-4 superfluid and Fermi-liquid nematics and topologically ordered nonsuperfluid states, that generically intervene between the LO state and the conventional superfluid and the polarized Fermi liquid at low and high imbalance, respectively. The fermionic sector of the LO gapless superconductor is also quite unique, exhibiting a Fermi surface of Bogoliubov quasiparticles associated with the Andreev band of states, localized on the array of the LO domain walls.

  13. Change in resonance parameters of a linear molecule as it bends: Evidence in electron-impact vibrational transitions of hot COS and CO2 molecules*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Masamitsu; Ishijima, Yohei; Kato, Hidetoshi; Mogi, Daisuke; Takahashi, Yoshinao; Fukae, Katsuya; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Shimamura, Isao

    2016-04-01

    Inelastic and superelastic electron-impact vibrational excitation functions of hot carbonyl sulphide COS (and hot CO2) are measured for electron energies from 0.5 to 3.0 eV (1.5 to 6.0 eV) and at a scattering angle of 90°. Based on the vibrational populations and the principle of detailed balance, these excitation functions are decomposed into contributions from state-to-state vibrational transitions involving up to the second bending overtone (030) in the electronically ground state. Both the 2Π resonance for COS around 1.2 eV and the 2Πu resonance for CO2 around 3.8 eV are shifted to lower energies as the initial vibrational state is excited in the bending mode. The width of the resonance hump for COS changes only little as the molecule bends, whereas that of the overall boomerang resonance for CO2 becomes narrower. The angular distribution of the electrons resonantly scattered by hot COS and hot CO2 is also measured. The different shapes depending on the vibrational transitions and gas temperatures are discussed in terms of the symmetry of the vibrational wave functions. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.

  14. Investigation of high-contrast velocity selective optical pumping resonance at the cycling transition of Cs using fluorescence technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Saswati; Ray, Biswajit; Ghosh, Pradip Narayan; Cartaleva, Stefka; Slavov, Dimitar

    2015-12-01

    A high contrast (∼48%) Velocity Selective Optical Pumping (VSOP) resonance at the closed transition Fg=4→Fe=5 of Cs-D2 line is obtained in the fluorescence signal under co-propagating pump-probe configuration. We use a 5.2 μm cell operating at reduced temperature (∼55 °C) and the intensity of the pump-laser is kept lower than that of the probe-laser. The observed sharp narrow structure is suitable for side-arms frequency-locking of the cooling- (i.e. probe-) laser in a cold atom experiment, with possibility for "-Γ" to "-4Γ" red-detuning and "+Γ" to "+10Γ" blue-detuning using the standard properties of the commercially available electronics. We have developed a theoretical model corresponding to the thin cell, incorporating the atomic time-of-flight dependent optical pumping decay rate to describe the dimensional anisotropy of the thin cell. The model shows good qualitative agreement with the observation and simulates as well the cases of cells with smaller thickness. It also describes correctly the temperature dependence of the line broadening and shows the potential for further optimization and red-shift detuning above "-4Γ". It may be of interest for further development of miniaturized modules, like the recently developed portable small magneto-optical traps.

  15. Atomic sulfur: Frequency measurement of the J = 0 left arrow 1 fine-structure transition at 56.3 microns by laser magnetic resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, John M.; Evenson, Kenneth M.; Zink, Lyndon R.

    1994-01-01

    The J = 0 left arrow 1 fine-structure transition in atomic sulfur (S I) in its ground (3)P state has been detected in the laboratory by far-infrared laser magnetic resonance. The fine-structure interval has been measured accurately as 5,322,492.9 +/- 2.8 MHz which corresponds to a wavelength of 56.325572 +/- 0.000030 micrometers.

  16. Blue diode-pumped solid-state-laser based on ytterbium doped laser crystals operating on the resonance zero-phonon transition

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, William F.; Payne, Stephen A.; Marshall, Christopher D.

    2001-01-01

    The invention provides an efficient, compact means of generating blue laser light at a wavelength near .about.493+/-3 nm, based on the use of a laser diode-pumped Yb-doped laser crystal emitting on its zero phonon line (ZPL) resonance transition at a wavelength near .about.986+/-6 nm, whose fundamental infrared output radiation is harmonically doubled into the blue spectral region. The invention is applied to the excitation of biofluorescent dyes (in the .about.490-496 nm spectral region) utilized in flow cytometry, immunoassay, DNA sequencing, and other biofluorescence instruments. The preferred host crystals have strong ZPL fluorecence (laser) transitions lying in the spectral range from .about.980 to .about.992 nm (so that when frequency-doubled, they produce output radiation in the spectral range from 490 to 496 nm). Alternate preferred Yb doped tungstate crystals, such as Yb:KY(WO.sub.4).sub.2, may be configured to lase on the resonant ZPL transition near 981 nm (in lieu of the normal 1025 nm transition). The laser light is then doubled in the blue at 490.5 nm.

  17. State transition analysis of spontaneous branch migration of the Holliday junction by photon-based single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kenji; Sako, Yasushi

    2016-02-01

    Branch migration of Holliday junction (HJ) DNA in solution is a spontaneous conformational change between multiple discrete states. We applied single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) measurement to three-state branch migration. The photon-based variational Bayes-hidden Markov model (VB-HMM) method was applied to fluorescence signals to reproduce the state transition trajectories and evaluate the transition parameters, such as transition rate. The upper limit of time resolution suggested in simulation was nearly achieved for the state dynamics with relatively small FRET changes, and the distinctions in the populations of different states were successfully retrieved. We also discuss the suitability of the HJ as a standard sample for smFRET dynamics measurements and data analysis.

  18. State transition analysis of spontaneous branch migration of the Holliday junction by photon-based single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kenji; Sako, Yasushi

    2016-02-01

    Branch migration of Holliday junction (HJ) DNA in solution is a spontaneous conformational change between multiple discrete states. We applied single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) measurement to three-state branch migration. The photon-based variational Bayes-hidden Markov model (VB-HMM) method was applied to fluorescence signals to reproduce the state transition trajectories and evaluate the transition parameters, such as transition rate. The upper limit of time resolution suggested in simulation was nearly achieved for the state dynamics with relatively small FRET changes, and the distinctions in the populations of different states were successfully retrieved. We also discuss the suitability of the HJ as a standard sample for smFRET dynamics measurements and data analysis. PMID:26687325

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of the ferroelastic phase transition of order-disorder type in [N(C2H5)4]2CdCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Ae Ran; Kim, Min Soo; Lim, Kye-Young

    2016-08-01

    This study uses nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to examine the detailed changes in [N(C2H5)4]2CdCl4 around its phase transition at the temperature TC = 284 K. The chemical shifts and spin-lattice relaxation times in the rotating frame (T1ρ) were determined from 1H magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR and 13C cross-polarization (CP)/MAS NMR spectra. The two sets of inequivalent 1H and 13C nuclei in CH3 and CH2 were distinguished. A ferroelastic phase transition was observed at TC, without structural symmetry change. The phase transition is mainly attributed to the orientational ordering of the [N(C2H5)4]+ cations, and the spectral splitting at low temperature is associated with different ferroelastic domains.

  20. Multimode-diode-pumped gas (alkali-vapor) laser

    SciTech Connect

    Page, R H; Beach, R J; Kanz, V K

    2005-08-22

    We report the first demonstration of a multimode-diode-pumped gas laser--Rb vapor operating on the 795 nm resonance transition. Peak output of {approx}1 Watt was obtained using a volume-Bragg-grating stabilized pump diode array. The laser's output radiance exceeded the pump radiance by a factor greater than 2000. Power scaling (by pumping with larger diode arrays) is therefore possible.

  1. Self-organised aggregation of a pair of particles with different resonant frequencies and electric dipole moments of transitions, controlled by an external quasi-resonant field

    SciTech Connect

    Slabko, V V; Tsipotan, A S; Aleksandrovsky, A S

    2013-05-31

    The influence of the oscillation phases of the dipole moments induced in metal nanoparticles and quantum dots by an external laser field on their interaction energy is considered. It is shown that a difference in resonant frequencies leads to the formation of additional minima and maxima, which are absent in the spectral dependence of the interaction energy of identical particles at similar orientations of the pair of particles with respect to the plane of polarisation of radiation. These features are due to the fact that the oscillation phase difference of the induced dipole moments of particles reaches values close to {pi}. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  2. Spin-flop transition on Gd5Ge4 observed by x-ray resonant magnetic scattering and first-principles calculations of magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, L.; Kreyssig, A.; Nandi, S.; Jia, S.; Lee, Y. B.; Lang, J. C.; Islam, Z.; Lograsso, T.; Schlagel, D.; Pecharsky, V.; Gschneidner, K.; Canfield, P.; Harmon, B.; McQueeney, R.; Goldman, A.

    2008-02-21

    X-ray resonant magnetic scattering was employed to study a fully reversible spin-flop transition in orthorhombic Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 4} and to elucidate details of the magnetic structure in the spin-flop phase. The orientation of the moments at the three Gd sites flop 90{sup o} from the c axis to the a axis when a magnetic field, H{sub sf} = 9 kOe, is applied along the c axis at T = 9 K. The magnetic space group changes from Pnm'a to Pn'm'a' for all three Gd sublattices. The magnetic anisotropy energy determined from experimental measurements is in good agreement with the calculations of the magnetic anisotropy based on the spin-orbit coupling of the conduction electrons and an estimation of the dipolar interactions anisotropy. No significant magnetostriction effects were observed at the spin-flop transition.

  3. Structural Insights into the Calcium-Mediated Allosteric Transition in the C-Terminal Domain of Calmodulin from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements.

    PubMed

    Kukic, Predrag; Lundström, Patrik; Camilloni, Carlo; Evenäs, Johan; Akke, Mikael; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2016-01-12

    Calmodulin is a two-domain signaling protein that becomes activated upon binding cooperatively two pairs of calcium ions, leading to large-scale conformational changes that expose its binding site. Despite significant advances in understanding the structural biology of calmodulin functions, the mechanistic details of the conformational transition between closed and open states have remained unclear. To investigate this transition, we used a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments on the Ca(2+)-saturated E140Q C-terminal domain variant. Using chemical shift restraints in replica-averaged metadynamics simulations, we obtained a high-resolution structural ensemble consisting of two conformational states and validated such an ensemble against three independent experimental data sets, namely, interproton nuclear Overhauser enhancements, (15)N order parameters, and chemical shift differences between the exchanging states. Through a detailed analysis of this structural ensemble and of the corresponding statistical weights, we characterized a calcium-mediated conformational transition whereby the coordination of Ca(2+) by just one oxygen of the bidentate ligand E140 triggers a concerted movement of the two EF-hands that exposes the target binding site. This analysis provides atomistic insights into a possible Ca(2+)-mediated activation mechanism of calmodulin that cannot be achieved from static structures alone or from ensemble NMR measurements of the transition between conformations.

  4. Monitoring the kinetics of the pH driven transition of the anthrax toxin prepore to the pore by biolayer interferometry and surface plasmon resonance

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Subhashchandra; Brock, Susan; Akkaladevi, Narahari; Tally, Jon; Mcginn-Straub, Wesley; Zhang, Na; Gao, Phillip; Gogol, E. P.; Pentelute, B. L.; Collier, R. John; Fisher, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Domain 2 of the anthrax protective antigen (PA) prepore heptamer unfolds and refolds during endosome acidification to generate an extended 100 Å beta barrel pore that inserts into the endosomal membrane. The PA pore facilitates the pH dependent unfolding and translocation of bound toxin enzymic components, lethal factor (LF) and/or edema factor (EF), from the endosome into the cytoplasm. We constructed immobilized complexes of the prepore with the PA-binding domain of LF (LFN) to monitor the real-time prepore to pore kinetic transition using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and bio-layer interferometry (BLI). The kinetics of this transition increased as the solution pH was decreased from pH 7.5 to pH 5.0, mirroring acidification of the endosome. Once transitioned, the LFN-PA pore complex was removed from the BLI biosensor tip and deposited onto EM grids, where the PA pore formation was confirmed by negative stain electron microscopy. When the soluble receptor domain (ANTRX2/CMG2) binds the immobilized PA prepore, the transition to the pore state was observed only after the pH was lowered to early or late endosomal pH conditions (5.5 to 5.0 respectively). Once the pore formed, the soluble receptor readily dissociated from the PA pore. Separate binding experiments with immobilized PA pores and soluble receptor indicate that the receptor has a weakened propensity to bind to the transitioned pore. This immobilized anthrax toxin platform can be used to identify or validate potential antimicrobial lead compounds capable of regulating and/or inhibiting anthrax toxin complex formation or pore transitions. PMID:23964683

  5. Diagrammatic theory of transition of pendulum like systems. [orbit-orbit and spin-orbit gravitational resonance interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoder, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    Orbit-orbit and spin-orbit gravitational resonances are analyzed using the model of a rigid pendulum subject to both a time-dependent periodic torque and a constant applied torque. First, a descriptive model of passage through resonance is developed from an examination of the polynomial equation that determines the extremes of the momentum variable. From this study, a probability estimate for capture into libration is derived. Second, a lowest order solution is constructed and compared with the solution obtained from numerical integration. The steps necessary to systematically improve this solution are also discussed. Finally, the effect of a dissipative term in the pendulum equation is analyzed.

  6. High-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance study of phase transition kinetics in LiNaSO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Shakhovoy, R. A. E-mail: r.a.shakhovoy@gmail.com; Sarou-Kanian, V.; Rakhmatullin, A.; Véron, E.; Bessada, C.

    2015-12-28

    A new high-temperature NMR technique for measurements of the phase transition kinetics in solids has been developed. The technique allows measuring the time evolution of the volume of the appearing phase at controlled cooling rates. Developed method was applied to study the phase transition kinetics in the superionic conductor LiNaSO{sub 4}. It was revealed that the phase transition in LiNaSO{sub 4} is governed by the diffusion-controlled growth of nuclei (“germs”). An effect of the crystallite rearrangement in the LiNaSO{sub 4} powder after cooling through the phase transition was also revealed. This effect was studied by means of high-temperature XRD and NMR.

  7. Magnetic resonance and spin-reorientation transitions in the Nd0.75Ho0.25Fe3(BO3)4 multiferroic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobets, M. I.; Dergachev, K. G.; Gnatchenko, S. L.; Khatsko, E. N.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.; Gudim, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    A presentation of experimental study results obtained by antiferromagnetic resonance (AFMR) of the high-frequency properties of the multiferroic Nd0.75Ho0.25Fe3(BO3)4 in a broad range of temperatures and frequencies. We studied the effect of substituting the Nd3+ ions with Ho3+, on the resonance properties of the Nd0.75Ho0.25Fe3(BO3)4 solid solution. In addition, we investigated the particularities of magnetic-field induced spin-reorientation phase transitions for H||c and H||a directions, in which the anisotropy of the magnetic system is measured from "easy-axis" anisotropy to "easy-plane." The AFMR modes of a Fe3+ subsystem are revealed. New information about the most important characteristics of AFM is obtained, including: frequency-field dependence of the AFMR spectrum, gaps in the spin-wave spectrum, effective magnetic anisotropy values, and fields of spin-reorientation transitions. It is shown that "easy-plane" anisotropy prevails in this magnet, with a weak anisotropy in the basal plane. For the first time there are observed features in the AFMR spectra that could be tied to the presence of a spatially modulated spin structure (incommensurate phase) in AFM Nd0.75Ho0.25Fe3(BO3)4.

  8. Elastic relaxations associated with the Pm3m-R3c transition in LaA103 III: superattenuation of acoustic resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, Timothy W; Carpenter, M A; Buckley, A; Taylor, P A; Mcknight, R E A

    2009-01-01

    Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy has been used to characterize elastic softening and a variety of new acoustic dissipation processes associated with the Pm{bar 3}m {leftrightarrow} R{bar 3}c transition in single crystal and ceramic samples of LaAlO{sub 3}. Softening of the cubic structure ahead of the transition point is not accompanied by an increase in dissipation but follows different temperature dependences for the bulk modulus, 1/3(C{sub 11} + 2C{sub 12}), and the shear components 1/2(C{sub 11}-C{sub 12}) and C{sub 44} as if the tilting instability contains two slightly different critical temperatures. The transition itself is marked by the complete disappearance of resonance peaks (superattenuation), which then reappear below {approx}700 K in spectra from single crystals. Comparison with low frequency, high stress data from the literature indicate that the dissipation is not due to macroscopic displacement of needle twins. An alternative mechanism, local bowing of twin walls under low dynamic stress, is proposed. Pinning of the walls with respect to this displacement process occurs below {approx}350 K. Anelasticity maps, analogous to plastic deformation mechanism maps, are proposed to display dispersion relations and temperature/frequency/stress fields for different twin wall related dissipation mechanisms. An additional dissipation process, with an activation energy of 43 {+-} 6 kJ.mole{sup -1}, occurs in the vicinity of 250 K. The mechanism for this is not known, but it is associated with C{sub 44} and therefore appears to be related in some way to the cubic {leftrightarrow} rhombohedral transition at {approx}817 K. Slight softening in the temperature interval {approx}220 {yields} 70 K of resonance peaks determined by shear elastic constants hints at an incipient E{sub g} ferroelastic instability in LaAlO{sub 3}. The softening interval ends with a further dissipation peak at {approx} 60 K, the origin of which is discussed in terms of freezing of atomic

  9. Substrate-induced conformational transition in human phenylalanine hydroxylase as studied by surface plasmon resonance analyses: the effect of terminal deletions, substrate analogues and phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Stokka, Anne J; Flatmark, Torgeir

    2003-01-01

    The optical biosensor technique, based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomenon, was used for real-time measurements of the slow conformational transition (isomerization) which occurs in human phenylalanine hydroxylase (hPAH) on the binding/dissociation of L-phenylalanine (L-Phe). The binding to immobilized tetrameric wt-hPAH resulted in a time-dependent increase in the refractive index (up to approx. 3 min at 25 degrees C) with an end point of approx. 75 RU (resonance units)/(pmol subunit/mm(2)). By contrast, the contribution of binding the substrate (165 Da) to its catalytic core enzyme [DeltaN(1-102)/DeltaC(428-452)-hPAH] was only approx. 2 RU/(pmol subunit/mm(2)). The binding isotherm for tetrameric and dimeric wt-hPAH revealed a [S](0.5)-value of 98+/-7 microM (h =1.0) and 158+/-11 microM, respectively, i.e. for the tetramer it is slightly lower than the value (145+/-5 microM) obtained for the co-operative binding (h =1.6+/-0.4) of L-Phe as measured by the change in intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. The responses obtained by SPR and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence are both considered to be related to the slow reversible conformational transition which occurs in the enzyme upon L-Phe binding, i.e. by the transition from a low-activity state ('T-state') to a relaxed high-activity state ('R-state') characteristic of this hysteretic enzyme, however, the two methods reflect different elements of the transition. Studies on the N- and C-terminal truncated forms revealed that the N-terminal regulatory domain (residues 1-117) plus catalytic domain (residues 118-411) were required for the full signal amplitude of the SPR response. Both the on- and off-rates for the conformational transition were biphasic, which is interpreted in terms of a difference in the energy barrier and the rate by which the two domains (catalytic and regulatory) undergo a conformational change. The substrate analogue 3-(2-thienyl)-L-alanine revealed an SPR response comparable with

  10. Infrared switching from resonant to passive photonic bandgaps: transition from purely photonic to hybrid electronic/photonic systems.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, S M; Li, W

    2009-04-15

    Coherently controlled optical processes have been extensively studied in various systems including atoms, quantum wells and quantum dots. In this study we investigate such processes in Bragg multi-quantum well resonant (active) photonic bandgaps, wherein the dipole-dipole interwell interaction couples different quantum wells together, forming supperradiant exciton modes. Our results show that in such systems one can use an infrared laser beam to replace the collective superradiant mode with an electromagnetically induced transparency mode, demonstrating infrared switching of an active photonic bandgap to a hybrid system. Such a hybrid system consists of a passive photonic bandgap and an electromagnetically induced transparency band window superimposed on each other. A detailed study of the interplay between the collective and infrared-induced exciton excitations of quantum wells in Bragg multi-quantum well resonant photonic bandgap structures is presented.

  11. High Resolution Far Infrared Study of Antiferromagnetic Resonance Transitions in α-Fe2O3 (hematite)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Shin Grace; Plusquellic, David F.; Stutzman, Paul E.; Wang, Shuangzhen; Garboczi, Edward J.; Egelhoff, William F.

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we report high resolution optical measurements of the temperature dependence of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition in α-Fe2O3 (hematite) between (0.5 and 10) cm-1. The absorption peak position, over a large temperature range, is found to be in agreement with a modified spin-wave model at both the high and low temperature phases, where the temperature is above and below the Morin transition temperature, respectively. The high spectral resolution optical measurements as demonstrated in this study allow unprecedented zero-field spectral analysis of the zone center AFM magnon in a previously challenging spectral region, giving insights into the role of temperature and strain on the exchange and anisotropy interactions in the system. The results also suggest that the frequency-resolved measurement platform could be extended for room-temperature non-destructive examination and imaging applications for antiferromagnetic materials and devices.

  12. Detection of an unconventional superconducting phase in the vicinity of the strong first-order magnetic transition in CrAs using (75)As-nuclear quadrupole resonance.

    PubMed

    Kotegawa, Hisashi; Nakahara, Shingo; Akamatsu, Rui; Tou, Hideki; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Harima, Hisatomo

    2015-03-20

    Pressure-induced superconductivity was recently discovered in the binary helimagnet CrAs. We report the results of measurements of nuclear quadrupole resonance for CrAs under pressure. In the vicinity of the critical pressure P(c) between the helimagnetic (HM) and paramagnetic (PM) phases, a phase separation is observed. The large internal field remaining in the phase-separated HM state indicates that the HM phase disappears through a strong first-order transition. This indicates the absence of a quantum critical point in CrAs; however, the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T(1) reveals that substantial magnetic fluctuations are present in the PM state. The absence of a coherence effect in 1/T(1) in the superconducting state provides evidence that CrAs is the first Cr-based unconventional superconductor. PMID:25839303

  13. Detection of an unconventional superconducting phase in the vicinity of the strong first-order magnetic transition in CrAs using (75)As-nuclear quadrupole resonance.

    PubMed

    Kotegawa, Hisashi; Nakahara, Shingo; Akamatsu, Rui; Tou, Hideki; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Harima, Hisatomo

    2015-03-20

    Pressure-induced superconductivity was recently discovered in the binary helimagnet CrAs. We report the results of measurements of nuclear quadrupole resonance for CrAs under pressure. In the vicinity of the critical pressure P(c) between the helimagnetic (HM) and paramagnetic (PM) phases, a phase separation is observed. The large internal field remaining in the phase-separated HM state indicates that the HM phase disappears through a strong first-order transition. This indicates the absence of a quantum critical point in CrAs; however, the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T(1) reveals that substantial magnetic fluctuations are present in the PM state. The absence of a coherence effect in 1/T(1) in the superconducting state provides evidence that CrAs is the first Cr-based unconventional superconductor.

  14. New insights into the thermal behaviour of organic ionic plastic crystals: magnetic resonance imaging of polycrystalline morphology alterations induced by solid-solid phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Konstantin; Pringle, Jennifer M; O'Dell, Luke A; Forsyth, Maria

    2015-07-15

    Organic ionic plastic crystals (OIPCs) show strong potential as solid-state electrolytes for lithium battery applications, demonstrating promising electrochemical performance and eliminating the need for a volatile and flammable liquid electrolyte. The ionic conductivity (σ) in these systems has recently been shown to depend strongly on polycrystalline morphology, which is largely determined by the sample's thermal history. [K. Romanenko et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2014, 136, 15638]. Tailoring this morphology could lead to conductivities sufficiently high for battery applications, so a more complete understanding of how phenomena such as solid-solid phase transitions can affect the sample morphology is of significant interest. Anisotropic relaxation of nuclear spin magnetisation provides a new MRI based approach for studies of polycrystalline materials at both a macroscopic and molecular level. In this contribution, morphology alterations induced by solid-solid phase transitions in triisobutyl(methyl)phosphonium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (P1444FSI) and diethyl(methyl)(isobutyl)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate (P1224PF6) are examined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), alongside nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, diffusion measurements and conductivity data. These observations are linked to molecular dynamics and structural behaviour crucial for the conductive properties of OIPCs. A distinct correlation is established between the conductivity at a given temperature, σ(T), and the intensity of the narrow NMR signal that is attributed to a mobile fraction, fm(T), of ions in the OIPC. To explain these findings we propose an analogy with the well-studied relationship between permeability (k) and void fraction (θ) in porous media, with k(θ) commonly quantified by a power-law dependence that can also be employed to describe σ(fm).

  15. Polarization Dependence of Resonant X-Ray Emission Spectra in 3dn Transition Metal Compounds with n = 0, 1, 2, 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Masahiko; Uozumi, Takayuki; Kotani, Akio; Harada, Yoshihisa; Shin, Shik

    2002-01-01

    The polarization dependence of 2p \\to 3d \\to 2p resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES) in 3d1, 3d2 and 3d3 systems (TiF3, VF3 and Cr2O3, respectively) is measured and analyzed by means of the MX6 (M denotes a transition metal and X denotes a ligand, respectively) cluster model. The results are compared with a previous one for the 3d0 system (TiO2). Generally, with increasing 3d electron number, the spectral structure of RXES becomes more complicated by the influence of the crystal field and the multiplet coupling effect. Moreover, we point out that the selection rules on the polarization dependence of RXES change with the 3d electron number and that a drastic resonance enhancement corresponding to the excitation to an antibonding state in the 3d0 system is almost absent for the 3dn systems with n = 1, 2 and 3.

  16. Measurement of high-frequency rotational transitions of H2O+ in its ground state by far-infrared laser magnetic resonance (LMR) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mürtz, P.; Zink, L. R.; Evenson, K. M.; Brown, J. M.

    1998-12-01

    Thirteen new rotational transitions of H2O+ in the (0,0,0) level of the X˜ 2B1 state have been measured in the wavenumber region between 80 and 200 cm-1 (50 and 120 μm) by far-infrared laser magnetic resonance (LMR) spectroscopy. LMR data measured previously between 25 and 90 cm-1 (110 and 400 μm), as well as optical and infrared combination differences, have been combined with the new LMR data in a weighted least-squares analysis using an A-reduced expression of the rotational-fine structure Hamiltonian. Thirty-two molecular constants were simultaneously determined, some sextic centrifugal distortion parameters and some quartic and sextic spin-rotation parameters for the first time. From this improved set of molecular parameters, very accurate calculations of rotational term values and zero-field predictions of the 111-000 transition, including hyperfine structure, have been performed. Moreover, the electronic g-tensors and the hyperfine coupling constants are consistent with ab initio calculations which had been carried out for these constants.

  17. Resonant inelastic light scattering studies in the fractional quantum Hall regime, and of phase transitions in relaxor ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dujovne, Irene

    This dissertation presents inelastic light scattering results that probe low energy physics in quantum liquids and in materials with novel contemporary applications. Two areas are considered: (a) low-lying excitations in two dimensional structures under the extreme conditions that occur in the fractional quantum Hall regime (FQH), (b) low energy vibrational modes in relaxor ferroelectrics. In the FQH regime we concentrate in the region 1/2 ≥ nu ≥ 1/3. We discovered new spin-flip excitations that provide insight into composite fermions (CF) energy level spacings and interactions. In the filling factor region 2/5 ≥ nu ≥ 1/3 we uncover new excitations that extend to filling factors between the main fractions of the FQH effect and can be associated to transitions between different CF Landau levels. These results provide information on residual interactions between the CFs. We find that residual interactions are not negligible and could lead to novel behaviors. An analysis of the density dependence of CF energy levels at filling factors nu = 1/3 and nu = 2/5 based on simple energy level models is presented. The main assumptions are that the splitting between quasiparticle levels and spin reversal energies are proportional to the Coulomb energy. Energy level structures of CF quasiparticles are also probed by means of light scattering experiments with spin-flip excitations at nu = 3/7 and nu = 4/9. Measurements of spin excitations in the limit of nu → 1/2 uncover a delicate balance between spin reversal and Fermi energies. The interactions are exposed in low-lying spin-flip excitations that have marked sensitivity to the state of spin polarization of the system when nu → 1/2. We are able to determine the boundaries between full and partial spin polarization, these, together with the observation of spin-flip rotons reveal spin reversal energies much larger than the bare Zeeman splitting. Inelastic light scattering by optical phonons (Raman scattering) in

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of human erythrocytes in the presence of manganese ions. Evidence for a thermal transition.

    PubMed

    Morariu, V V; Ionescu, M S; Frangopol, M; Grosescu, R; Lupu, M; Frangopol, P T

    1985-05-14

    Water proton transverse relaxation was investigated in whole blood and washed erythrocytes samples, respectively, at various temperatures and manganese concentrations. Water diffusional exchange controls proton relaxation in whole blood samples at higher Mn2+ concentrations (20-30 mM) or in washed erythrocyte samples at low Mn2+ content (1-5 mM). Mn2+ uptake is significant in washed normal erythrocyte samples when its concentration is about 18 mM or higher in the medium, at temperatures below about 26 degrees C. The thermal transition as revealed by the NMR doping method represents a switch from a water exchange process, mainly seen in the higher temperature range, to a paramagnetic ion controlled water proton relaxation in the lower temperature range.

  19. Spin Texture and Spin Dynamics in Superconducting Cuprates Near the Phase Transition Revealed by the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochelaev, B. I.

    2016-04-01

    A short review of experimental results and theoretical models of the spin texture and spin dynamics in superconducting cuprates near the phase transition developed on the basis of the EPR measurements is given. Distortions of the long-range antiferromagnetic order in the YBa_2 Cu_3 O_{6+y} were investigated for y=0.1-0.4 using Yb^{3+} ions as the EPR probe. In weakly doped samples with y=0.1 , a strong anisotropy of the EPR linewidth is revealed which was related to the indirect spin-spin interaction between the ytterbium ions via antiferromagnetic spin-waves. In the case of the doping level y=0.2-0.3 , the EPR signal consists of narrow and broad lines, which were attributed to formation of charged domain walls. A theoretical analysis is well consistent with experimental results for the case of coplanar elliptical domain walls. A discussion of possible reasons for the observed unusual planar oxygen isotope effect on a critical temperature T_c related to charge heterogeneity in underdoped cuprates is given.

  20. White noise of Nb-based microwave superconducting quantum interference device multiplexers with NbN coplanar resonators for readout of transition edge sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kohjiro, Satoshi; Hirayama, Fuminori; Yamamori, Hirotake; Nagasawa, Shuichi; Fukuda, Daiji; Hidaka, Mutsuo

    2014-06-14

    White noise of dissipationless microwave radio frequency superconducting quantum interference device (RF-SQUID) multiplexers has been experimentally studied to evaluate their readout performance for transition edge sensor (TES) photon counters ranging from near infrared to gamma ray. The characterization has been carried out at 4 K, first to avoid the low-frequency fluctuations present at around 0.1 K, and second, for a feasibility study of readout operation at 4 K for extended applications. To increase the resonant Q at 4 K and maintain low noise SQUID operation, multiplexer chips consisting of niobium nitride (NbN)-based coplanar-waveguide resonators and niobium (Nb)-based RF-SQUIDs have been developed. This hybrid multiplexer exhibited 1 × 10{sup 4} ≤ Q ≤ 2 × 10{sup 4} and the square root of spectral density of current noise referred to the SQUID input √S{sub I} = 31 pA/√Hz. The former and the latter are factor-of-five and seven improvements from our previous results on Nb-based resonators, respectively. Two-directional readout on the complex plane of the transmission component of scattering matrix S{sub 21} enables us to distinguish the flux noise from noise originating from other sources, such as the cryogenic high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) amplifier. Systematic noise measurements with various microwave readout powers P{sub MR} make it possible to distinguish the contribution of noise sources within the system as follows: (1) The achieved √S{sub I} is dominated by the Nyquist noise from a resistor at 4 K in parallel to the SQUID input coil which is present to prevent microwave leakage to the TES. (2) The next dominant source is either the HEMT-amplifier noise (for small values of P{sub MR}) or the quantization noise due to the resolution of 300-K electronics (for large values of P{sub MR}). By a decrease of these noise levels to a degree that is achievable by current technology, we predict that the

  1. White noise of Nb-based microwave superconducting quantum interference device multiplexers with NbN coplanar resonators for readout of transition edge sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohjiro, Satoshi; Hirayama, Fuminori; Yamamori, Hirotake; Nagasawa, Shuichi; Fukuda, Daiji; Hidaka, Mutsuo

    2014-06-01

    White noise of dissipationless microwave radio frequency superconducting quantum interference device (RF-SQUID) multiplexers has been experimentally studied to evaluate their readout performance for transition edge sensor (TES) photon counters ranging from near infrared to gamma ray. The characterization has been carried out at 4 K, first to avoid the low-frequency fluctuations present at around 0.1 K, and second, for a feasibility study of readout operation at 4 K for extended applications. To increase the resonant Q at 4 K and maintain low noise SQUID operation, multiplexer chips consisting of niobium nitride (NbN)-based coplanar-waveguide resonators and niobium (Nb)-based RF-SQUIDs have been developed. This hybrid multiplexer exhibited 1 × 104 ≤ Q ≤ 2 × 104 and the square root of spectral density of current noise referred to the SQUID input √SI = 31 pA/√Hz. The former and the latter are factor-of-five and seven improvements from our previous results on Nb-based resonators, respectively. Two-directional readout on the complex plane of the transmission component of scattering matrix S21 enables us to distinguish the flux noise from noise originating from other sources, such as the cryogenic high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) amplifier. Systematic noise measurements with various microwave readout powers PMR make it possible to distinguish the contribution of noise sources within the system as follows: (1) The achieved √SI is dominated by the Nyquist noise from a resistor at 4 K in parallel to the SQUID input coil which is present to prevent microwave leakage to the TES. (2) The next dominant source is either the HEMT-amplifier noise (for small values of PMR) or the quantization noise due to the resolution of 300-K electronics (for large values of PMR). By a decrease of these noise levels to a degree that is achievable by current technology, we predict that the microwave RF-SQUID multiplexer can exhibit √SI ≤ 5 pA/√Hz, i.e., close to √SI of

  2. Observation of persistent α-helical content and discrete types of backbone disorder during a molten globule to ordered peptide transition via deep-UV resonance Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Mia C.; Mutter, Andrew; Koder, Ronald L.; JiJi, Renee D.; Cooley, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    The molten globule state can aide in the folding of a protein to a functional structure and is loosely defined as an increase in structural disorder with conservation of the ensemble secondary structure content. Simultaneous observation of persistent secondary structure content with increased disorder has remained experimentally problematic. As a consequence, modeling how the molten globule state remains stable and how it facilitates proper folding remains difficult due to a lack of amenable spectroscopic techniques to characterize this class of partially unfolded proteins. Previously, deep-UV resonance Raman (dUVRR) spectroscopy has proven useful in the resolution of global and local structural fluctuations in the secondary structure of proteins. In this work, dUVRR was employed to study the molten globule to ordered transition of a model four-helix bundle protein, HP7. Both the average ensemble secondary structure and types of local disorder were monitored, without perturbation of the solvent, pH, or temperature. The molten globule to ordered transition is induced by stepwise coordination of two heme molecules. Persistent dUVRR spectral features in the amide III region at 1295–1301 and 1335–1338 cm−1 confirm previous observations that HP7 remains predominantly helical in the molten globule versus the fully ordered state. Additionally, these spectra represent the first demonstration of conserved helical content in a molten globule protein. With successive heme binding significant losses are observed in the spectral intensity of the amide III3 and S regions (1230–1260 and 1390 cm−1, respectively), which are known to be sensitive to local disorder. These observations indicate that there is a decrease in the structural populations able to explore various extended conformations, with successive heme binding events. DUVRR spectra indicate that the first heme coordination between two helical segments diminishes exploration of more elongated backbone structural

  3. The molecular mechanism of the neutral-to-base transition of human serum albumin. Acid/base titration and proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies on a large peptic and a large tryptic fragment of albumin.

    PubMed

    Bos, O J; Labro, J F; Fischer, M J; Wilting, J; Janssen, L H

    1989-01-15

    In order to obtain a better understanding of the neutral-to-base (N-B) transition of human serum albumin, we performed acid/base titration experiments and 500-MHz 1H NMR experiments on albumin and on a large peptic (residues 1-387) and large tryptic (residues 198-585) fragment of albumin. The acid/base titration experiments revealed that Ca2+ ions induce a downward pK shift of several histidine residues of the peptic (P46) fragment and of albumin. By contrast, Ca2+ has very little influence on the pK of histidine residues of the tryptic (T45) fragment. In albumin, the pH-dependent His C-2 proton resonances, observed with 1H NMR experiments, have been allotted the numbers 1-17. It proved possible to locate these resonances in the P46 and the T45 fragments. A correspondence was found between the number of histidines detected by the acid/base titration and by the 1H NMR experiments. The results of the experiments lead us to conclude that in domain 1 at least the histidines corresponding to the His C-2 proton resonances 1-5 play a dominant role in the N-B transition. The Cu2+-binding histidine residue 3 (resonance 8) of the albumin molecule is not involved in the N-B transition. In addition, we were able to assign His C-2 proton resonance 9 to histidine 464 of the albumin molecule. The role of the N-B transition in the transport and cellular uptake mechanisms of endogenous and exogenous compounds is discussed.

  4. Binding of transition metals to monosilicic acid in aqueous and xylem (Cucumis sativus L.) solutions: a low-T electron paramagnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Stevic, Nenad; Korac, Jelena; Pavlovic, Jelena; Nikolic, Miroslav

    2016-10-01

    The supplementation of monosilicic acid [Si(OH)4] to the root growing medium is known to protect plants from toxic levels of iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn), but also to mitigate deficiency of Fe and Mn. However, the physicochemical bases of these alleviating mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we applied low-T electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to examine the formation of complexes of Si(OH)4 with Mn(2+), Fe(3+), and Cu(2+) in water and in xylem sap of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown without or with supply of Si(OH)4. EPR, which is also useful in establishing the redox state of these metals, was combined with measurements of total concentrations of metals in xylem sap by inductive coupled plasma. Our results show that Si(OH)4 forms coordination bonds with all three metals. The strongest interactions of Si(OH)4 appear to be with Cu(2+) (1/1 stoichiometry) which might lead to Cu precipitation. In line with this in vitro findings, Si(OH)4 supply to cucumber resulted in dramatically lower concentration of this metal in the xylem sap. Further, it was demonstrated that Si(OH)4 supplementation causes pro-reductive changes that contribute to the maintenance of Fe and, in particular, Mn in the xylem sap in bioavailable 2+ form. Our results shed more light on the intertwined reactions between Si(OH)4 and transition metals in plant fluids (e.g. xylem sap).

  5. Binding of transition metals to monosilicic acid in aqueous and xylem (Cucumis sativus L.) solutions: a low-T electron paramagnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Stevic, Nenad; Korac, Jelena; Pavlovic, Jelena; Nikolic, Miroslav

    2016-10-01

    The supplementation of monosilicic acid [Si(OH)4] to the root growing medium is known to protect plants from toxic levels of iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn), but also to mitigate deficiency of Fe and Mn. However, the physicochemical bases of these alleviating mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we applied low-T electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to examine the formation of complexes of Si(OH)4 with Mn(2+), Fe(3+), and Cu(2+) in water and in xylem sap of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown without or with supply of Si(OH)4. EPR, which is also useful in establishing the redox state of these metals, was combined with measurements of total concentrations of metals in xylem sap by inductive coupled plasma. Our results show that Si(OH)4 forms coordination bonds with all three metals. The strongest interactions of Si(OH)4 appear to be with Cu(2+) (1/1 stoichiometry) which might lead to Cu precipitation. In line with this in vitro findings, Si(OH)4 supply to cucumber resulted in dramatically lower concentration of this metal in the xylem sap. Further, it was demonstrated that Si(OH)4 supplementation causes pro-reductive changes that contribute to the maintenance of Fe and, in particular, Mn in the xylem sap in bioavailable 2+ form. Our results shed more light on the intertwined reactions between Si(OH)4 and transition metals in plant fluids (e.g. xylem sap). PMID:27502949

  6. Excitation-energy dependence of the resonant Auger transitions to the 4p{sup 4}({sup 1}D)np (n=5,6) states across the 3d{sub 3/2}{sup -1}5p and 3d{sub 5/2}{sup -1}6p resonances in Kr

    SciTech Connect

    Sankari, A.; Alitalo, S.; Nikkinen, J.; Kivimaeki, A.; Aksela, S.; Aksela, H.; Fritzsche, S.

    2007-08-15

    The energy dependencies of the intensities and angular distribution parameters {beta} of the resonant Auger final states 4p{sup 4}({sup 1}D)np (n=5,6) of Kr were determined experimentally in the excitation-energy region of the overlapping 3d{sub 3/2}{sup -1}5p and 3d{sub 5/2}{sup -1}6p resonances. The experimental results were compared with the outcome of multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations. Combining experimental and calculated results allowed us to study interference effects between the direct and several resonant channels that populate the 4p{sup 4}({sup 1}D)np states. The inclusion of the direct channel was crucial in order to reproduce the observed energy behavior of the angular distribution parameters. It was also important to take into account experimentally observed shake transitions.

  7. Identification by UV resonance Raman spectroscopy of an imino tautomer of 5-hydroxy-2′-deoxycytidine, a powerful base analog transition mutagen with a much higher unfavored tautomer frequency than that of the natural residue 2′-deoxycytidine

    PubMed Central

    Suen, Wu; Spiro, Thomas G.; Sowers, Lawrence C.; Fresco, Jacques R.

    1999-01-01

    UV resonance Raman spectroscopy was used to detect and estimate the frequency of the unfavored imino tautomer of the transition mutagen 5-hydroxy-2′-deoxycytidine (HO5dCyt) in its anionic form. In DNA, this 2′-deoxycytidine analog arises from the oxidation of 2′-deoxycytidine and induces C → T transitions with 102 greater frequency than such spontaneous transitions. An imino tautomer marker carbonyl band (≈1650 cm−1) is enhanced at ≈65°C against an otherwise stable spectrum of bands associated with the favored amino tautomer. This band is similarly present in the UV resonance Raman spectra of the imino cytidine analogs N3-methylcytidine at high pH and N4-methoxy-2′-deoxycytidine at pH 7 and displays features attributable to the imino form of C residues and their derivatives. The fact that the imino tautomer of HO5dCyt occurs at a frequency consistent with its high mutagenic enhancement lends strong support to the hypothesis that unfavored base tautomers play important roles in the mispair intermediates of replication leading to substitution mutations. PMID:10200291

  8. Resonances and resonance widths

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, T.

    1986-05-01

    Two-dimensional betatron resonances are much more important than their simple one-dimensional counterparts and exhibit a strong dependence on the betatron phase advance per cell. A practical definition of ''width'' is expanded upon in order to display these relations in tables. A primarily pedagogical introduction is given to explain the tables, and also to encourage a wider capability for deriving resonance behavior and wider use of ''designer'' resonances.

  9. A new model for broadband waveguide to microstrip transition design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Downey, Alan N.

    1986-01-01

    A new model is presented which permits the prediction of the resonant frequencies created by antipodal finline waveguide to microstrip transitions. The transition is modeled as a tapered transmission line in series with an infinite set of coupled resonant circuits. The resonant circuits are modeled as simple microwave resonant cavities of which the resonant frequencies are easily determined. The model is developed and the resonant frequencies determined for several different transitions. Experimental results are given to confirm the models.

  10. The Nucleon Resonance Program at Jlab

    SciTech Connect

    Ralf W. Gothe

    2006-02-01

    The status of the program to study baryon resonances at Jefferson Lab will be exemplified by the latest results on resonance parameters and transition form factors in single and double-pion production as well as kaon-hyperon decays.

  11. Distinguishing S-plus-minus and S-plus-plus electron pairing symmetries by neutron spin resonances in superconducting Sodium-Iron-Cobalt-Arsenic (transitional temperature = 18 Kelvin)

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Tanmoy; Balatsky, Alexander V.; Zhang, Chenglin; Li, Haifeng; Su, Yiki; Nethertom, Tucker; Redding, Caleb; Carr, Scott; Schneidewind, Astrid; Faulhaber, Enrico; Li, Shiliang; Yao, Daoxin; Bruckel, Thomas; Dai, Pengchen; Sobolev, Oleg

    2012-06-05

    A determination of the superconducting (SC) electron pairing symmetry forms the basis for establishing a microscopic mechansim for superconductivity. For iron pnictide superconductors, the s{sup {+-}}-pairing symmetry theory predicts the presence of a sharp neutron spin resonance at an energy below the sum of hole and electron SC gap energies (E {le} 2{Delta}). Although the resonances have been observed for various iron pnictide superconductors, they are broad in energy and can also be interpreted as arising from the s{sup ++}-pairing symmetry with E {ge} 2{Delta}. Here we use inelastic neutron scattering to reveal a sharp resonance at E = 7 meV in the SC NaFe{sub 0.935}Co{sub 0.045}As (T{sub c} = 18 K). By comparing our experiments with calculated spin-excitations spectra within the s{sup {+-}} and s{sup ++}-pairing symmetries, we conclude that the resonance in NaFe{sub 0.935}Co{sub 0.045}As is consistent with the s{sup {+-}}-pairing symmetry, thus eliminating s{sup ++}-pairing symmetry as a candidate for superconductivity.

  12. Microwave, Millimeter-Wave, and Submillimeter-Wave Spectra of 1,1,1-Trifluoropropyne: Analysis of the Ground and υ 10 = 1 Vibrational States and Observation of Direct l-Type Resonance Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harder, H.; Gerke, C.; Mader, H.; Cosleaou, J.; Bocquet, R.; Demaison, J.; Papousek, D.; Sarka, K.

    1994-09-01

    The rotational spectrum of CF 3CCH was measured up to 650 GHz in the ground state (about 220 transitions up to J = 112). A centrifugal distortion analysis was performed and all the sextic constants were accurately determined. The failure to observe the splitting of the K = 3 lines indicates that the splitting constant h3 is smaller than 10 -5 Hz. In the lowest bending vibrational state υ 10 = 1, the rotational spectrum was measured up to 470 470 (289 transitions up to J = 78). Furthermore, 344 direct l-type resonance transitions were observed between 2 and 23 GHz up to J = 84 by microwave Fourier-transform spectroscopy. Two sets of parameters were used to fit the data. In addition to a strong "2, 2" l-type interaction, it was necessary to take into account a "2, -4" interaction, which explains the splitting of the kl = -2 levels. A third interaction also had to be included in the fit: either the "0, ±3" interaction or the "2, -1" l-type one. Both sets result in the same superb standard deviation of the fit. This is due to an ambiguity of the effective Hamiltonian which may be reduced in an infinite number of different manners. The unitary equivalence of both sets of parameters is verified experimentally. It must also be noted that the axial rotational constant A10 could be determined accurately.

  13. Time-resolved resonant soft x-ray diffraction with free-electron lasers: Femtosecond dynamics across the Verwey transition in magnetite

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, N.; Kachel, T.; Schuessler-Langeheine, C.; Schlotter, W. F.; Beye, M.; Sorgenfrei, F.; Wurth, W.; Chang, C. F.; Foehlisch, A.; Berglund, M.; Metcalf, P.

    2011-05-02

    Resonant soft x-ray diffraction (RSXD) with femtosecond (fs) time resolution is a powerful tool for disentangling the interplay between different degrees of freedom in strongly correlated electron materials. It allows addressing the coupling of particular degrees of freedom upon an external selective perturbation, e.g., by an optical or infrared laser pulse. Here, we report a time-resolved RSXD experiment from the prototypical correlated electron material magnetite using soft x-ray pulses from the free-electron laser FLASH in Hamburg. We observe ultrafast melting of the charge-orbital order leading to the formation of a transient phase, which has not been observed in equilibrium.

  14. High-resolution {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance evidence of phase transition of Rb,Cs-intercalated single-walled nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Bouhrara, M.; Saih, Y.; Waagberg, T.; Goze-Bac, C.; Abou-Hamad, E.

    2011-09-01

    We present 13 C high-resolution magic-angle-turning (MAT) and magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance data of Cs and Rb intercalated single walled carbon nanotubes. We find two distinct phases at different intercalation levels. A simple charge transfer is applicable at low intercalation level. The new phase at high intercalation level is accompanied by a hybridization of alkali (s) orbitals with the carbon (sp2) orbitals of the single walled nanotubes, which indicate bundle surface sites is the most probable alkali site.

  15. 27Al magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance satellite transition spectroscopy of glasses in the system K2O-Al2O3-SiO2.

    PubMed

    Mundus, C; Müller-Warmuth, W

    1995-10-01

    27Al magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance satellite transition spectroscopy at 78 MHz has been applied to determine (true) chemical shift and quadrupole coupling parameters of glasses in the system K2O-Al2O3-SiO2 with 60-80 mol% SiO2 and K2O concentrations between 0 and 24 mol%. The powdered crystalline aluminosilicates andalusite and sillimanite have also been examined. In the glasses, all Al appears to be tetrahedrally bound in the aluminosilicate network unless x = mol% K2O:mol% Al2O3 becomes extremely small. Upon decreasing x the distortion of the tetrahedral Al(OSi)4 units increases in steps, and possible explanations are discussed. Six-coordinated aluminum observed for x < 0.2 is connected with the occurrence of interstitial Al3+ ions which charge-compensate the AlO4 units in addition to K+. PMID:8748646

  16. Detection of an Unconventional Superconducting Phase in the Vicinity of the Strong First-Order Magnetic Transition in CrAs Using As 75 -Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotegawa, Hisashi; Nakahara, Shingo; Akamatsu, Rui; Tou, Hideki; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Harima, Hisatomo

    2015-03-01

    Pressure-induced superconductivity was recently discovered in the binary helimagnet CrAs. We report the results of measurements of nuclear quadrupole resonance for CrAs under pressure. In the vicinity of the critical pressure Pc between the helimagnetic (HM) and paramagnetic (PM) phases, a phase separation is observed. The large internal field remaining in the phase-separated HM state indicates that the HM phase disappears through a strong first-order transition. This indicates the absence of a quantum critical point in CrAs; however, the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1 /T1 reveals that substantial magnetic fluctuations are present in the PM state. The absence of a coherence effect in 1 /T1 in the superconducting state provides evidence that CrAs is the first Cr-based unconventional superconductor.

  17. Second harmonic generation at 399 nm resonant on the 1S0-1P1 transition of ytterbium using a periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguide.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takumi; Akamatsu, Daisuke; Nishida, Yoshiki; Tanabe, Takehiko; Yasuda, Masami; Hong, Feng-Lei; Hosaka, Kazumoto

    2016-05-30

    We demonstrate a compact and robust method for generating a 399-nm light resonant on the 1S0 - 1P1 transition in ytterbium using a single-pass periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguide for second harmonic generation (SHG). The obtained output power at 399 nm was 25 mW when a 798-nm fundamental power of 380 mW was coupled to the waveguide. We observed no degradation of the SHG power for 13 hours with a low power of 6 mW. The obtained SHG light has been used as a seed light for injection locking, which provides sufficient power for laser cooling ytterbium. PMID:27410134

  18. A 1 + 1' resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization scheme for rotationally state-selective detection of formaldehyde via the à (1)A2 ← X[combining tilde] (1)A1 transition.

    PubMed

    Park, G Barratt; Krüger, Bastian C; Meyer, Sven; Wodtke, Alec M; Schäfer, Tim

    2016-08-10

    The formaldehyde molecule is an important model system for understanding dynamical processes in small polyatomic molecules. However, prior to this work, there have been no reports of a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) detection scheme for formaldehyde suitable for rovibrationally state-selective detection in molecular beam scattering experiments. Previously reported tunable REMPI schemes are either non-rotationally resolved, involve multiple resonant steps, or involve many-photon ionization steps. In the current work, we present a new 1 + 1' REMPI scheme for formaldehyde. The first photon is tunable and provides rotational resolution via the vibronically allowed à (1)A2 ← X[combining tilde] (1)A1 transition. Molecules are then directly ionized from the à state by one photon of 157 nm. The results indicate that the ionization cross section from the 4(1) vibrational level of the à state is independent of the rotational level used as intermediate, to within experimental uncertainty. The 1 + 1' REMPI intensities are therefore directly proportional to the à ← X[combining tilde] absorption intensities and can be used for quantitative measurement of X[combining tilde]-state population distributions.

  19. Chemistry of (and on) transition metal clusters: a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance study of the reaction of niobium cluster cations with nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Harding, Daniel J; Oliver, Thomas A A; Walsh, Tiffany R; Drewello, Thomas; Woodruff, D Phil; Derrick, Peter J; Mackenzie, Stuart R

    2009-01-01

    The reactions of niobium cluster cations, Nb(+)(n) (n = 2-19), with nitric oxide have been investigated using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR). The overall reaction rate constants are found to be in reasonable agreement with collision rates calculated using the surface charge capture model. The dominant reaction for small clusters (n <9) involves reaction-induced fragmentation resulting in the loss of either NbO or NbN. By contrast, the main reaction observed for the larger clusters (n> 11) is sequential NO chemisorption. Clusters n = 9, 10 exhibit both extremes of behaviour and are the only clusters upon which there is evidence of NO decomposition with N(2) loss observed whenever multiple NO molecules are co-adsorbed. The rate constants for each process have been determined as a function of cluster size.

  20. 23Na magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance of central and satellite transitions in the characterization of the anhydrous, dihydrate, and mixed phases of sodium molybdate and tungstate.

    PubMed

    Skibsted, J; Jakobsen, H J

    1994-02-01

    23Na Magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectra of pure phases for Na2MoO4, Na2MoO4 x 2H2O, Na2WO4, and Na2WO4 x 2H2O have led to the determination of accurate values for the quadrupole coupling parameters and isotropic chemical shifts for all Na sites. The analysis of the spectra involves a combination of simulations of the line shapes for the central transitions and the manifold of spinning sidebands for the satellite transitions. The spectral parameters for the pure phases represent a prerequisite for a correct assignment and quantitative evaluation of 23Na MAS spectra at different magnetic field strengths observed for mixtures of the anhydrous and dihydrate phases. Such phase mixtures are observed, for example, for some commercial samples of Na2MoO4 or may be generated by (i) exposure of the anhydrous phases to a humid atmosphere or (ii) gently heating the dihydrates. The quadrupole coupling parameters for the two Na sites in the dihydrates are tentatively assigned to the two crystallographically distinct Na atoms in the asymmetric unit by calculations of an approximate dependency of the electric field gradient tensor on the local geometry for the Na sites.

  1. Intense, narrow atomic-clock resonances.

    PubMed

    Jau, Y-Y; Post, A B; Kuzma, N N; Braun, A M; Romalis, M V; Happer, W

    2004-03-19

    We present experimental and theoretical results showing that magnetic resonance transitions from the "end" sublevels of maximum or minimum spin in alkali-metal vapors are a promising alternative to the conventional 0-0 transition for small-size gas-cell atomic clocks. For these "end resonances," collisional spin-exchange broadening, which often dominates the linewidth of the 0-0 resonance, decreases with increasing spin polarization and vanishes for 100% polarization. The end resonances also have much stronger signals than the 0-0 resonance, and are readily detectable in cells with high buffer-gas pressure.

  2. Resonantly paired fermionic superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurarie, V.; Radzihovsky, L.

    2007-01-01

    We present a theory of a degenerate atomic Fermi gas, interacting through a narrow Feshbach resonance, whose position and therefore strength can be tuned experimentally, as demonstrated recently in ultracold trapped atomic gases. The distinguishing feature of the theory is that its accuracy is controlled by a dimensionless parameter proportional to the ratio of the width of the resonance to Fermi energy. The theory is therefore quantitatively accurate for a narrow Feshbach resonance. In the case of a narrow s-wave resonance, our analysis leads to a quantitative description of the crossover between a weakly paired BCS superconductor of overlapping Cooper pairs and a strongly paired molecular Bose-Einstein condensate of diatomic molecules. In the case of pairing via a p-wave resonance, that we show is always narrow for a sufficiently low density, we predict a detuning-temperature phase diagram, that in the course of a BCS-BEC crossover can exhibit a host of thermodynamically distinct phases separated by quantum and classical phase transitions. For an intermediate strength of the dipolar anisotropy, the system exhibits a px + i py paired superfluidity that undergoes a topological phase transition between a weakly coupled gapless ground state at large positive detuning and a strongly paired fully gapped molecular superfluid for a negative detuning. In two dimensions the former state is characterized by a Pfaffian ground state exhibiting topological order and non-Abelian vortex excitations familiar from fractional quantum Hall systems.

  3. Gravitationally induced quantum transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, A.; Paranjape, M. B.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we calculate the probability for resonantly inducing transitions in quantum states due to time-dependent gravitational perturbations. Contrary to common wisdom, the probability of inducing transitions is not infinitesimally small. We consider a system of ultracold neutrons, which are organized according to the energy levels of the Schrödinger equation in the presence of the Earth's gravitational field. Transitions between energy levels are induced by an oscillating driving force of frequency ω . The driving force is created by oscillating a macroscopic mass in the neighborhood of the system of neutrons. The neutron lifetime is approximately 880 sec while the probability of transitions increases as t2. Hence, the optimal strategy is to drive the system for two lifetimes. The transition amplitude then is of the order of 1.06 ×10-5, and hence with a million ultracold neutrons, one should be able to observe transitions.

  4. Electron Excitation Cross Sections for the 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 3) (sup 4)S -> 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 3) (sup 2d) ->2s2p(sup 4) (sup 4p) (Resonance) Transitions in Oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuo, M.; Smith, S.; Chutjian, A.; Williams, I.; Tayal, S.; McLaughlin, B.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical excitation cross sections are reported for the first forbidden transition xxx and the first allowed (resonance) transition xxx in OII. Use is made of electron-energy loss and merged beams methods. The electron energy range covered is 3.33 eV (threshold) to 15 eV for the S->D transition, and 14.9 eV (threshold) to 40 eV for the S->P transition. Care was taken to assess and minimize the metastable fraction of the OII beam. An electron mirror was designed and tested to reflect inelastically back-scattered electrons into the forward direction to account for the full range of polar scattering angles. Comparisons are made between present experiments and 11-state R-Matrix calculations. Calculations are also presented for the xxx transition.

  5. Low-temperature spin-state transition in LaCoO{sub 3} investigated using resonant x-ray absorption at the Co K edge

    SciTech Connect

    Medarde, M.; Pomjakushina, E.; Conder, K.; Dallera, C.; Grioni, M.; Voigt, J.; Podlesnyak, A.; Neisius, Th.; Tjernberg, O.; Barilo, S. N.

    2006-02-01

    LaCoO{sub 3} displays two broad anomalies in the DC magnetic susceptibility {chi}{sup DC}, occurring, respectively, around 50 K and 500 K. We have investigated the first of them within the 10 Ktransition from a lower to a higher spin state, have been analyzed using a minimal model including the Co 3d and O 2p hybridization in the initial state. The temperature dependence of the Co magnetic moment obtained from the estimated e{sub g} and t{sub 2g} occupations could be satisfactorily reproduced. Also, the decrease of the Co 3d and O 2p hybridization by increasing temperature obtained from this simple model compares favorably with the values estimated from thermal evolution of the crystallographic structure.

  6. Interband Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varma, Shikha

    We have studied thin (1-7 monolayer) overlayers of Hg on Ag(100) and Cu(100) using angle-resolved photoemission and low energy electron diffraction. We have investigated the electronic states of well ordered, disordered and the liquid overlayers of mercury. We show that the electronic structure of the well ordered overlayers is very different than that of the disordered and the liquid overlayers. The well ordered overlayers of Hg on Ag(100) exhibit a new electronic state which is absent for the disordered overlayers of mercury as well as for gaseous mercury. We will argue that this new Hg state is a result of the interaction among the Hg-Hg atoms, when adsorbed on Ag(100). The strain among adlayer atoms also plays a crucial role in the development of the new electronic state. We have used the synchrotron radiation to study the partial cross-section and the branching ratio of the 5d electronic state of Hg. We have measured the partial cross-section and branching ratio of the well-ordered, disordered and liquid overlayers of mercury on Ag(100) and Cu(100). We have observed resonances in the photoemission intensities of the mercury 5d orbitals for thin films of mercury for incident photon energies near the 5p _{3/2}, 4f_{7/2 } and 4f_{5/2} thresholds. The results indicate that interband transitions from the 5p and 4f levels to the 5d orbitals can occur for a thin overlayer of mercury, as a result of final state 5f contributions, though such interband transitions are forbidden for the free isolated Hg atom. These resonances are attributed to the formation of a solid state band structure incorporating new itinerant mercury electronic state. These resonances are absent when the mercury film is disordered or melted. We have measured the branching ratio of the 5d orbital for thin mercury overlayers in the photon energy range between 26 to 105 eV. The branching ratios deviate from the nonrelativistic statistical value of 1.5, reaching values of 8.0. These results indicate

  7. Optical resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor); Yariv, Amnon (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention discloses a semi-ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP) optical resonator structure comprising a medium including an edge forming a reflective facet and a waveguide within the medium, the waveguide having opposing ends formed by the reflective facet. The performance of the SRFP resonator can be further enhanced by including a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the waveguide on one side of the gain medium. The optical resonator can be employed in a variety of optical devices. Laser structures using at least one SRFP resonator are disclosed where the resonators are disposed on opposite sides of a gain medium. Other laser structures employing one or more resonators on one side of a gain region are also disclosed.

  8. Dynamical Transition in polypeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yunfen; Markelz, Andrea

    2008-03-01

    Two of the possible causes for the so called dynamical transition (the rapid increase in flexibility for biomolecules at ˜ 200 K) are: thermally activated side chain diffusive motions with hydration dependent activation energies; or a glass transition in the biological water directly adjacent to the biomolecule. If the transition is strictly due to side chain activation, it should not depend on protein structure. Previously we demonstrated that the dynamical transition remains after tertiary structure was removed using THz time domain dielectric spectroscopy (0.2 -2.0 THz, 0.5-5ps). Here measurements on polyalanine as a function of chain length show that the dynamical transition does not occur for peptide length shorter than 5. However, the transition is observed for 5 mer and higher. Structural and simulation studies indicate that the 5 mer transiently occupies structured forms [1,2]. These results suggest that A) the dynamical transition is not due to thermally activated side chain motion and B) secondary structure is necessary for the dynamical transition. Secondary structure possibly induces sufficient ordering in the adjacent water to result in a fragile to strong glass transition resulting in increased protein flexibility [3]. [1] KAH Wildman et al. Solid State Nucl. Magn. Reson. 24 (2003) 94-109. [2] Yuguang Mu,et al. Proteins 58, (2005) 45-52. [3] S.H. Chen et al. PNAS (2006) 9012--9016.

  9. Stochastic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammaitoni, Luca; Hänggi, Peter; Jung, Peter; Marchesoni, Fabio

    1998-01-01

    Over the last two decades, stochastic resonance has continuously attracted considerable attention. The term is given to a phenomenon that is manifest in nonlinear systems whereby generally feeble input information (such as a weak signal) can be be amplified and optimized by the assistance of noise. The effect requires three basic ingredients: (i) an energetic activation barrier or, more generally, a form of threshold; (ii) a weak coherent input (such as a periodic signal); (iii) a source of noise that is inherent in the system, or that adds to the coherent input. Given these features, the response of the system undergoes resonance-like behavior as a function of the noise level; hence the name stochastic resonance. The underlying mechanism is fairly simple and robust. As a consequence, stochastic resonance has been observed in a large variety of systems, including bistable ring lasers, semiconductor devices, chemical reactions, and mechanoreceptor cells in the tail fan of a crayfish. In this paper, the authors report, interpret, and extend much of the current understanding of the theory and physics of stochastic resonance. They introduce the readers to the basic features of stochastic resonance and its recent history. Definitions of the characteristic quantities that are important to quantify stochastic resonance, together with the most important tools necessary to actually compute those quantities, are presented. The essence of classical stochastic resonance theory is presented, and important applications of stochastic resonance in nonlinear optics, solid state devices, and neurophysiology are described and put into context with stochastic resonance theory. More elaborate and recent developments of stochastic resonance theory are discussed, ranging from fundamental quantum properties-being important at low temperatures-over spatiotemporal aspects in spatially distributed systems, to realizations in chaotic maps. In conclusion the authors summarize the achievements

  10. Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statfeld, Jenna L.

    2011-01-01

    Post-school transition is the movement of a child with disabilities from school to activities that occur after the completion of school. This paper provides information about: (1) post-school transition; (2) transition plan; (3) transition services; (4) transition planning; (5) vocational rehabilitation services; (6) services that are available…

  11. Resonance IR: a coherent multidimensional analogue of resonance Raman.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Erin S; Neff-Mallon, Nathan A; Handali, Jonathan D; Wright, John C

    2014-05-01

    This work demonstrates the use of triply resonant sum frequency (TRSF) spectroscopy as a "resonance IR" analogue to resonance Raman spectroscopy. TRSF is a four-wave-mixing process where three lasers with independent frequencies interact coherently with a sample to generate an output at their triple summation frequency. The first two lasers are in the infrared and result in two vibrational excitations, while the third laser is visible and induces a two-quantum anti-Stokes resonance Raman transition. The signal intensity grows when the laser frequencies are all in resonance with coupled vibrational and electronic states. The method therefore provides electronic enhancement of IR-active vibrational modes. These modes may be buried beneath solvent in the IR spectrum and also be Raman-inactive and therefore inaccessible by other techniques. The method is presented on the centrosymmetric complex copper phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate. In this study, the two vibrational frequencies were scanned across ring-breathing modes, while the visible frequency was left in resonance with the copper phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate Q band, resulting in a two-dimensional infrared plot that also reveals coupling between vibrational states. TRSF has the potential to be a very useful probe of structurally similar biological motifs such as hemes, as well as synthetic transition-metal complexes. PMID:24707979

  12. Electroexcitation of nucleon resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Inna Aznauryan, Volker D. Burkert

    2012-01-01

    We review recent progress in the investigation of the electroexcitation of nucleon resonances, both in experiment and in theory. The most accurate results have been obtained for the electroexcitation amplitudes of the four lowest excited states, which have been measured in a range of Q2 up to 8 and 4.5 GeV2 for the Delta(1232)P33, N(1535)S11 and N(1440)P11, N(1520)D13, respectively. These results have been confronted with calculations based on lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD (pQCD), and QCD-inspired models. The amplitudes for the Delta(1232) indicate large pion-cloud contributions at low Q2 and don't show any sign of approaching the pQCD regime for Q2<7 GeV2. Measured for the first time, the electroexcitation amplitudes of the Roper resonance, N(1440)P11, provide strong evidence for this state as a predominantly radial excitation of a three-quark (3q) ground state, with additional non-3-quark contributions needed to describe the low Q2 behavior of the amplitudes. The longitudinal transition amplitude for the N(1535)S11 was determined and has become a challenge for quark models. Explanations may require large meson-cloud contributions or alternative representations of this state. The N(1520)D13 clearly shows the rapid changeover from helicity-3/2 dominance at the real photon point to helicity-1/2 dominance at Q2 > 0.5 GeV2, confirming a long-standing prediction of the constituent quark model. The interpretation of the moments of resonance transition form factors in terms of transition transverse charge distributions in infinite momentum frame is presented.

  13. Transiting Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haswell, Carole A.

    2010-07-01

    1. Our solar system from afar; 2. Exoplanet discoveries by the transit method; 3. What the transit lightcurve tells us; 4. The transiting exoplanet population; 5. Transmission spectroscopy and Rossiter-McLaughlin effect; 6. Secondary eclipses and phase variations; 7. Transit timing variations and orbital dynamics; 8. Brave new worlds: the future; Index.

  14. Transverse charge densities of N* resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Tiator, L.; Vanderhaeghen, M.

    2011-10-24

    The unitary isobar model MAID2007 has been used to analyze the recent data of pion electroproduction. The model contains all four-star resonances in the region below W = 2 GeV. Both single-Q{sup 2} and Q{sup 2} dependent transition form factors could be obtained for the Delta, Roper, D{sub 13}(1520), S{sub 11}(1535), D{sub 15}(1675), and F{sub 15}(1680) nucleon resonances. Furthermore, we show the empirical transverse charge densities for the Roper, the S11 and D13 resonances, which are evaluated from Fourier transforms of the transition form factors.

  15. Laser Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, L. L. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An optical resonator cavity configuration has a unitary mirror with oppositely directed convex and concave reflective surfaces disposed into one fold and concertedly reversing both ends of a beam propagating from a laser rod disposed between two total internal reflection prisms. The optical components are rigidly positioned with perpendicularly crossed virtual rooflines by a compact optical bed. The rooflines of the internal reflection prisms, are arranged perpendicularly to the axis of the laser beam and to the optical axes of the optical resonator components.

  16. Resonance conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebusco, P.

    2005-11-01

    Non-linear parametric resonances occur frequently in nature. Here we summarize how they can be studied by means of perturbative methods. We show in particular how resonances can affect the motion of a test particle orbiting in the vicinity of a compact object. These mathematical toy-models find application in explaining the structure of the observed kHz Quasi-Periodic Oscillations: we show which aspects of the reality naturally enter in the theory, and which one still remain a puzzle.

  17. Negative refraction using Raman transitions and chirality

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, D. E.; Yavuz, D. D.

    2011-11-15

    We present a scheme that achieves negative refraction with low absorption in far-off resonant atomic systems. The scheme utilizes Raman resonances and does not require the simultaneous presence of an electric-dipole transition and a magnetic-dipole transition near the same wavelength. We show that two interfering Raman tran-sitions coupled to a magnetic-dipole transition can achieve a negative index of refraction with low absorption through magnetoelectric cross-coupling. We confirm the validity of the analytical results with exact numerical simulations of the density matrix. We also discuss possible experimental implementations of the scheme in rare-earth metal atomic systems.

  18. Polarization dependence of double-resonance optical pumping and electromagnetically induced transparency in the 5S{sub 1/2}-5P{sub 3/2}-5D{sub 5/2} transition of {sup 87}Rb atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Han Seb; Noh, Heung-Ryoul

    2011-09-15

    The polarization dependence of double-resonance optical pumping (DROP) in the ladder-type electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of the 5S{sub 1/2}-5P{sub 3/2}-5D{sub 5/2} transition of {sup 87}Rb atoms is studied. The transmittance spectra in the 5S{sub 1/2}(F=2)-5P{sub 3/2}(F'=3)-5D{sub 5/2}(F''=2,3,4) transition were observed as caused by EIT, DROP, and saturation effects in the various polarization combinations between the probe and coupling lasers. The features of the double-structure transmittance spectra in the 5S{sub 1/2}(F=2)-5P{sub 3/2}(F'=3)-5D{sub 5/2}(F''=4) cycling transition were attributed to the difference in saturation effect according to the transition routes between the Zeeman sublevels and the EIT according to the two-photon transition probability.

  19. Autostereogram resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leavey, Sean; Rae, Katherine; Murray, Adam; Courtial, Johannes

    2012-09-01

    Autostereograms, or "Magic Eye" pictures, are repeating patterns designed to give the illusion of depth. Here we discuss optical resonators that create light patterns which, when viewed from a suitable position by a monocular observer, are autostereograms of the three-dimensional shape of one of the mirror surfaces.

  20. Demographics of Resonances in Exoplanetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragozzine, Darin; Conaway, James L.; MacDonald, Mariah G.; Sallee, Victor

    2016-10-01

    NASA's Kepler Space Telescope has identified ~700 systems of multiple transiting exoplanets containing ~1700 planets. Most of these multi-transiting systems have 3-5 planets small planets with periods of roughly 5-50 days and are known as Systems with Tightly-spaced Inner Planets (STIPs). These information-rich exoplanetary systems have precisely measured period ratios which allows for the identification and characterization of orbital mean motion resonances. Improved understanding of the resonant populations will reveal much about the formation and evolution of planetary systems. Lissauer, Ragozzine, et al. 2011 found that most Kepler systems were not in resonance, but that there was a small excess of planets wide of resonance. We present new analyses that rigorously identify the frequency of planets in multiple resonances (including three-body resonances) and thus identify many specific new results on the demographics of resonances. We also show that the apparent over-abundance of resonances can be attributed to a difference in inclinations (potentially from dissipation) with implications for the true underlying frequency of resonant systems. We compare the period ratio distribution of Kepler (corrected for inclination biases) to Radial Velocity (RV) surveys and conclude that RV systems are often missing small intermediate planets. This has serious implications for the completeness of RV identification of planets in STIPs.

  1. Extraordinary acoustic transmission mediated by Helmholtz resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Koju, Vijay; Rowe, Ebony; Robertson, William M.

    2014-07-15

    We demonstrate perfect transmission of sound through a rigid barrier embedded with Helmholtz resonators. The resonators are confined within a waveguide and they are oriented such that one neck protrudes onto each side of the barrier. Perfect sound transmission occurs even though the open area of the necks is less than 3% of the barrier area. Maximum transmission occurs at the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz resonator. Because the dimensions of the Helmholtz resonators are much smaller than the resonant wavelength, the transmission is independent of the direction of sound on the barrier and of the relative placement of the necks. Further, we show that the transmitted sound experiences a continuous phase transition of π radians as a function of frequency through resonance. In simulations of adjacent resonators with slightly offset resonance frequencies, the phase difference leads to destructive interference. By expanding the simulation to a linear array of tuned Helmholtz resonators we show that it is possible to create an acoustic lens. The ability of Helmholtz resonator arrays to manipulate the phase of a plane acoustic wave enables a new class of sonic beam-forming devices analogous to diffractive optics.

  2. Resonant behavior of dielectric objects (electrostatic resonances).

    PubMed

    Fredkin, D R; Mayergoyz, I D

    2003-12-19

    Resonant behavior of dielectric objects occurs at certain frequencies for which the object permittivity is negative and the free-space wavelength is large in comparison with the object dimensions. Unique physical features of these resonances are studied and a novel technique for the calculation of resonance values of permittivity, and hence resonance frequencies, is proposed. Scale invariance of resonance frequencies, unusually strong orthogonality properties of resonance modes, and a two-dimensional phenomenon of "twin" spectra are reported. The paper concludes with brief discussions of optical controllability of these resonances in semiconductor nanoparticles and a plausible, electrostatic resonance based, mechanism for nucleation and formation of ball lightning.

  3. Resonant behavior of dielectric objects (electrostatic resonances).

    PubMed

    Fredkin, D R; Mayergoyz, I D

    2003-12-19

    Resonant behavior of dielectric objects occurs at certain frequencies for which the object permittivity is negative and the free-space wavelength is large in comparison with the object dimensions. Unique physical features of these resonances are studied and a novel technique for the calculation of resonance values of permittivity, and hence resonance frequencies, is proposed. Scale invariance of resonance frequencies, unusually strong orthogonality properties of resonance modes, and a two-dimensional phenomenon of "twin" spectra are reported. The paper concludes with brief discussions of optical controllability of these resonances in semiconductor nanoparticles and a plausible, electrostatic resonance based, mechanism for nucleation and formation of ball lightning. PMID:14754117

  4. Experimental realization of extraordinary acoustic transmission using Helmholtz resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, Brian C.; Cullen, Jordan M.; McKenzie, William W.; Koju, Vijay; Robertson, William M.

    2015-02-15

    The phenomenon of extraordinary acoustic transmission through a solid barrier with an embedded Helmholtz resonator (HR) is demonstrated. The Helmholtz resonator consists of an embedded cavity and two necks that protrude, one on each side of the barrier. Extraordinary transmission occurs for a narrow spectral range encompassing the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz resonator. We show that an amplitude transmission of 97.5% is achieved through a resonator whose neck creates an open area of 6.25% of the total barrier area. In addition to the enhanced transmission, we show that there is a smooth, continuous phase transition in the transmitted sound as a function of frequency. The frequency dependent phase transition is used to experimentally realize slow wave propagation for a narrow-band Gaussian wave packet centered at the maximum transmission frequency. The use of parallel pairs of Helmholtz resonators tuned to different resonant frequencies is experimentally explored as a means of increasing the transmission bandwidth. These experiments show that because of the phase transition, there is always a frequency between the two Helmholtz resonant frequencies at which destructive interference occurs whether the resonances are close or far apart. Finally, we explain how the phase transition associated with Helmholtz-resonator-mediated extraordinary acoustic transmission can be exploited to produce diffractive acoustic components including sub-wavelength thickness acoustic lenses.

  5. If It's Resonance, What is Resonating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon under the name "resonance," which, is based on the mathematical analogy between mechanical resonance and the behavior of wave functions in quantum mechanical exchange phenomena was described. The resonating system does not have a structure intermediate between those involved in the resonance, but instead a structure which is further…

  6. Hadron Resonances from QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudek, Jozef J.

    2016-03-01

    I describe how hadron-hadron scattering amplitudes are related to the eigenstates of QCD in a finite cubic volume. The discrete spectrum of such eigenstates can be determined from correlation functions computed using lattice QCD, and the corresponding scattering amplitudes extracted. I review results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration who have used these finite volume methods to study ππ elastic scattering, including the ρ resonance, as well as coupled-channel πK, ηK scattering. The very recent extension to the case where an external current acts is also presented, considering the reaction πγ* → ππ, from which the unstable ρ → πγ transition form factor is extracted. Ongoing calculations are advertised and the outlook for finite volume approaches is presented.

  7. Transitional Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Mary; Keating, Stacen A.

    2008-01-01

    Transitional care encompasses a broad range of services and environments designed to promote the safe and timely passage of patients between levels of health care and across care settings. High-quality transitional care is especially important for older adults with multiple chronic conditions and complex therapeutic regimens, as well as for their…

  8. Tidal Dynamics of Transiting Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2008-05-01

    The transits of extrasolar planets have revealed a wealth of information about their structures and atmospheres. Because of increased transit likelihood, these planets have small semi-major axes; therefore the planets we know the best are those which are tidally evolved. Transiting planets have not yet been found in multiple-planet systems, but will eventually be an excellent probe of their dynamics. This talk addresses both sides of the coin: theories of tidal dynamics on the one side, clever observations to constrain those theories on the other. On the theory side: Small orbits may be established via eccentricity pumping by a third body (e.g., Kozai cycles) plus tidal dissipation; (b) Oblique spins (Cassini states) may be created and maintained through a secular resonance between orbital precession and spin precession; and (c) Second planets may evolve out of coorbital configurations (near Lagrange points) and mean motion resonance (e.g., the Laplace resonance among Jupiter's satellites) by tidal dissipation. On the observation side: (a) Spectroscopic transit measurements assess the spin orientation of the host star relative to the orbit of the transiting planet; (b) Transit timing measurements can discover second planets and characterize the dynamics of resonant planetary systems; (c) The instantaneous orbital configuration of two-planet systems can indicate the precession rate of the transiting planet, yielding its Love number and probing its internal structure. I gratefully acknowledge funding by the Michelson Fellowship, supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and administered by the Michelson Science Center.

  9. Newborn transition.

    PubMed

    Graves, Barbara W; Haley, Mary Mumford

    2013-01-01

    The transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life is a complex adaptation. Although, in a sense, the entire time in utero is in preparation for this transition, there are many specific anatomic and physiologic changes that take place in the weeks and days leading up to labor that facilitate a healthy transition. Some, including increasing pulmonary vasculature and blood flow, are part of an ongoing process of maturation. Others, such as a reversal in the lung from secreting fluid to absorbing fluid and the secretion of pulmonary surfactant, are associated with the hormonal milieu that occurs when spontaneous labor is impending. Interventions such as elective cesarean birth or induction of labor may interfere with this preparation for birth. Postnatal interventions such as immediate clamping of the umbilical cord and oropharyngeal suction may also compromise the normal process of newborn transition. This article reviews the physiology of the fetal to newborn transition and explores interventions that may facilitate or hinder the optimal process.

  10. Luminescence resonance energy transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, P.R.; Rana, T.M.; Hearst, J.E. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1994-06-29

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), in which a fluorescent donor molecule transfers energy via a nonradiative dipole-dipole interaction to an acceptor molecule (which is usually a fluorescent molecule), is a standard spectroscopic technique for measuring distances in the 10-70 Angstrom range. We have used a luminescent europium chelate as donor and an organic dye, CY-5, as acceptor. This luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) has several advantages over the more conventional FRET. The distance at which 50% of the energy is transferred (R[sub 0]) is large, 70 [angstrom]; the donor lifetime is single exponential and long (0.63 ms in H[sub 2]O; 2.5 ms in D[sub 2]O), making lifetime measurements facile and highly accurate; the orientation dependence (k[sup 2]) of energy transfer is minimized by the donor's multiple electronic transitions and long lifetime, limiting uncertainty in the measured distance due to orientation effects to [+-]12% in the worst case; the sensitized emission of the acceptor can be measured with little or no interfering background, yielding a >50-fold improvement in signal to background over standard donor-acceptor pairs and enabling distances several times R[sub 0] to be measured. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Spin gravitational resonance and graviton detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quach, James Q.

    2016-05-01

    We develop a gravitational analogue of spin magnetic resonance, called spin gravitational resonance, whereby a gravitational wave interacts with a magnetic field to produce a spin transition. In particular, an external magnetic field separates the energy spin states of a spin-1 /2 particle, and the presence of the gravitational wave produces a perturbation in the components of the magnetic field orthogonal to the gravitational-wave propagation. In this framework we test Dyson's conjecture that individual gravitons cannot be detected. Although we find no fundamental laws preventing single gravitons being detected with spin gravitational resonance, we show that it cannot be used in practice, in support of Dyson's conjecture.

  12. Experiments with Helmholtz Resonators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments that use Helmholtz resonators and have been designed for a sophomore-level course in oscillations and waves. Discusses the theory of the Helmholtz resonator and resonance curves. (JRH)

  13. Nucleon Transition Form Factors and New Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Gothe, R W

    2007-10-01

    The status of the electro-excitation program to study baryon resonances at Jefferson Lab will be exemplified by the most recent results on resonance parameters and transition form factors in single and double-pion production. These results demonstrate that the separation of resonance and background contributions and therefore the extraction of the electro-coupling amplitudes of resonances become easier and cleaner at higher four-momentum transfers (Q2). Furthermore, the double-pion in comparison to the single-pion channel shows a higher sensitivity to higher excited resonances and a distinctly different Q2 dependence of the background amplitudes. The combined analysis of the single- and double-pion data reduces model dependent uncertainties significantly, which allows us to extract the resonant electrocoupling amplitudes with an unprecedented quality.

  14. Resonant delocalization and Bloch oscillations in modulated lattices.

    PubMed

    El-Ganainy, R; Christodoulides, D N; Rüter, C E; Kip, D

    2011-04-15

    We study the propagation of light in Bloch waveguide arrays exhibiting periodic coupling interactions. Intriguing wave packet revival patterns as well as beating Bloch oscillations are demonstrated. A new resonant delocalization phase transition is also predicted.

  15. Imaging agents for in vivo magnetic resonance and scintigraphic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Engelstad, Barry L.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Huberty, John P.; White, David L.

    1991-01-01

    Methods are provided for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and/or scintigraphic imaging of a subject using chelated transition metal and lanthanide metal complexes. Novel ligands for these complexes are provided.

  16. Imaging agents for in vivo magnetic resonance and scintigraphic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Engelstad, B.L.; Raymond, K.N.; Huberty, J.P.; White, D.L.

    1991-04-23

    Methods are provided for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and/or scintigraphic imaging of a subject using chelated transition metal and lanthanide metal complexes. Novel ligands for these complexes are provided. No Drawings

  17. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    DOEpatents

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  18. Superconducting transition at 38 K in insulating-overdoped La2CuO4-La1.64Sr0.36CuO4 superlattices: evidence for interface electronic redistribution from resonant soft X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Smadici, S; Lee, J C T; Wang, S; Abbamonte, P; Logvenov, G; Gozar, A; Cavellin, C Deville; Bozovic, I

    2009-03-13

    We use resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSXS) to quantify the hole distribution in a superlattice of insulating La2CuO4 (LCO) and overdoped La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO). Despite its nonsuperconducting constituents, this structure is superconducting with T_{c}=38 K. We found that the conducting holes redistribute electronically from LSCO to the LCO layers. The LCO layers were found to be optimally doped, suggesting they are the main drivers of superconductivity. Our results demonstrate the utility of RSXS for separating electronic from structural effects at oxide interfaces. PMID:19392148

  19. A cavity type absorption cell for double resonance microwave spectroscopy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; White, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    Description of an experimental dual resonant cavity absorption cell for observing microwave spectroscopic double-resonance effects. The device is composed of two Fabry-Perot interferometers excited by independent microwave sources and mounted at right angles in a suitable vacuum enclosure. The pumping transition is modulated by one source and the modulation induced on the rf absorption in the orthogonal cavity is detected.

  20. Trion formation dynamics in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    DOE PAGES

    Singh, Akashay; Moody, Galan; Schaibley, John R.; Yan, Jiaqiang; Mandrus, David G.; Xu, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaoqun; Tran, Kha; Scott, Marie E.; Overbeck, Vincent; et al

    2016-01-05

    Here, we report charged exciton (trion) formation dynamics in doped monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, specifically molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2), using resonant two-color pump-probe spectroscopy. When resonantly pumping the exciton transition, trions are generated on a picosecond time scale through exciton-electron interaction. As the pump energy is tuned from the high energy to low energy side of the inhomogeneously broadened exciton resonance, the trion formation time increases by ~50%. This feature can be explained by the existence of both localized and delocalized excitons in a disordered potential and suggests the existence of an exciton mobility edge in transition metal dichalcogenides.

  1. N+CPT clock resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Crescimanno, M.; Hohensee, M.

    2008-12-15

    In a typical compact atomic time standard a current modulated semiconductor laser is used to create the optical fields that interrogate the atomic hyperfine transition. A pair of optical sidebands created by modulating the diode laser become the coherent population trapping (CPT) fields. At the same time, other pairs of optical sidebands may contribute to other multiphoton resonances, such as three-photon N-resonance [Phys. Rev. A 65, 043817 (2002)]. We analyze the resulting joint CPT and N-resonance (hereafter N+CPT) analytically and numerically. Analytically we solve a four-level quantum optics model for this joint resonance and perturbatively include the leading ac Stark effects from the five largest optical fields in the laser's modulation comb. Numerically we use a truncated Floquet solving routine that first symbolically develops the optical Bloch equations to a prescribed order of perturbation theory before evaluating. This numerical approach has, as input, the complete physical details of the first two excited-state manifolds of {sup 87}Rb. We test these theoretical approaches with experiments by characterizing the optimal clock operating regimes.

  2. Electroweak-scale resonant leptogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pilaftsis, Apostolos; Underwood, Thomas E.J.

    2005-12-01

    We study minimal scenarios of resonant leptogenesis near the electroweak phase transition. These models offer a number of testable phenomenological signatures for low-energy experiments and future high-energy colliders. Our study extends previous analyses of the relevant network of Boltzmann equations, consistently taking into account effects from out of equilibrium sphalerons and single lepton flavors. We show that the effects from single lepton flavors become very important in variants of resonant leptogenesis, where the observed baryon asymmetry in the Universe is created by lepton-to-baryon conversion of an individual lepton number, for example, that of the {tau}-lepton. The predictions of such resonant {tau}-leptogenesis models for the final baryon asymmetry are almost independent of the initial lepton-number and heavy neutrino abundances. These models accommodate the current neutrino data and have a number of testable phenomenological implications. They contain electroweak-scale heavy Majorana neutrinos with appreciable couplings to electrons and muons, which can be probed at future e{sup +}e{sup -} and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} high-energy colliders. In particular, resonant {tau}-leptogenesis models predict sizable 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay, as well as e- and {mu}-number-violating processes, such as {mu}{yields}e{gamma} and {mu}{yields}e conversion in nuclei, with rates that are within reach of the experiments proposed by the MEG and MECO collaborations.

  3. Resonant tunneling of carriers in silicon nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derbenyova, N. V.; Konakov, A. A.; Burdov, V. A.

    2016-10-01

    The rates of resonant and nearly resonant tunnel transitions have been calculated within the envelope function approximation for electrons and holes in silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silicon dioxide matrix. It is shown that, if the nanocrystals are close enough, the rates of resonant tunneling reach the values of the order of 1012-1014 s-1, which considerably exceed the rates of radiative recombination and other basic non-radiative processes, such as the Auger recombination and capture on surface defects. The transition rate is found to be very sensitive to inter-crystallite distance, crystallite size, and effective mass of the carriers in the oxide matrix. Electron tunneling turns out to be faster than the hole one, especially, at greater distances between the nanocrystals. Thus, the tunnel migration in a dense ensemble of nanocrystals is mainly electronic.

  4. Injection-locking optimization in unstable resonators.

    PubMed

    Kedmi, J; Treves, D

    1981-06-15

    The problem of transverse-mode matching between the lowest-loss mode of a confocal unstable resonator and a Gaussian beam, which is injected into the resonator through a coupling hole in its back mirror, is analyzed. It is found that in resonators having equivalent Fresnel number >0.5, there is a value of the coupling hole diameter for which a mode transition occurs. Below this value the coupling coefficient between the mode and the injected signal increases with the hole diameter. The optimal coupling hole diameter for injection locking lies somewhat below the transition value, where the low-order mode is still dominant and the coupling coefficient is high (~0.25-0.30). The power loss through the coupling hole is negligible (~2%) compared to the output coupling, which is ~50-70%. PMID:20332894

  5. Response to 'Comment on 'Resonant dissociative electron transfer of the presolvated electron to CCl{sub 4} in liquid: Direct observation and lifetime of the CCl{sub 4}*{sup -} transition state' [J. Chem. Phys. 129, 027101 (2008)]'

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-R.; Drew, K.; Luo, T.; Lu, M.-J.; Lu, Q.-B.

    2008-07-14

    In our recent paper [J. Chem. Phys.128, 041102 (2008)], we reported a femtosecond time-resolved laser spectroscopic study of the electron transfer reaction of CCl{sub 4} in liquid ethanol. Our results provide direct evidence of the resonant dissociative electron transfer (RDET) of the presolvated electron to CCl{sub 4}, and indicate that RDET can be an efficient process in an aqueous environment. In a recent Comment, the author argues that the relevance of diethanolamine (DEA) induced destruction of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the polar stratosphere as a possible pathway for chemical ozone destruction should not be a motivation for further studies of DEA on CFC molecules, as no correlation is observed between polar chemical ozone loss and cosmic ray activity. Here, we show that this claim is misleading: it is made by using inconclusive and ambiguous data while ignoring pronounced and well-documented data.

  6. Metric transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This report describes NASA's metric transition in terms of seven major program elements. Six are technical areas involving research, technology development, and operations; they are managed by specific Program Offices at NASA Headquarters. The final program element, Institutional Management, covers both NASA-wide functional management under control of NASA Headquarters and metric capability development at the individual NASA Field Installations. This area addresses issues common to all NASA program elements, including: Federal, state, and local coordination; standards; private industry initiatives; public-awareness initiatives; and employee training. The concluding section identifies current barriers and impediments to metric transition; NASA has no specific recommendations for consideration by the Congress.

  7. Cavity- and waveguide-resonators in electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance, and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Webb, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Cavity resonators are widely used in electron paramagnetic resonance, very high field magnetic resonance microimaging and also in high field human imaging. The basic principles and designs of different forms of cavity resonators including rectangular, cylindrical, re-entrant, cavity magnetrons, toroidal cavities and dielectric resonators are reviewed. Applications in EPR and MRI are summarized, and finally the topic of traveling wave MRI using the magnet bore as a waveguide is discussed.

  8. THE TRANSIT LIGHT CURVE OF AN EXOZODIACAL DUST CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Christopher C.

    2011-10-15

    Planets embedded within debris disks gravitationally perturb nearby dust and can create clumpy, azimuthally asymmetric circumstellar ring structures that rotate in lock with the planet. The Earth creates one such structure in the solar zodiacal dust cloud. In an edge-on system, the dust 'clumps' periodically pass in front of the star as the planet orbits, occulting and forward-scattering starlight. In this paper, we predict the shape and magnitude of the corresponding transit signal. To do so, we model the dust distributions of collisional, steady-state exozodiacal clouds perturbed by planetary companions. We examine disks with dusty ring structures formed by the planet's resonant trapping of in-spiraling dust for a range of planet masses and semi-major axes, dust properties, and disk masses. We synthesize edge-on images of these models and calculate the transit signatures of the resonant ring structures. The transit light curves created by dusty resonant ring structures typically exhibit two broad transit minima that lead and trail the planetary transit. We find that Jupiter-mass planets embedded within disks hundreds of times denser than our zodiacal cloud can create resonant ring structures with transit depths up to {approx}10{sup -4}, possibly detectable with Kepler. Resonant rings produced by planets more or less massive than Jupiter produce smaller transit depths. Observations of these transit signals may provide upper limits on the degree of asymmetry in exozodiacal clouds.

  9. Raman-assisted Rabi resonances in two-mode cavity QED

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenwald, P.; Singh, S. K.; Vogel, W.

    2011-06-15

    The dynamics of a vibronic system in a lossy two-mode cavity is studied, with the first mode being resonant to the electronic transition and the second one being nearly resonant due to Raman transitions. We derive analytical solutions for the dynamics of this system. For a properly chosen detuning of the second mode from the exact Raman resonance, we obtain conditions that are closely related to the phenomenon of Rabi resonance as it is well known in laser physics. Such resonances can be observed in the spontaneous emission spectra, where the spectrum of the second mode in the case of weak Raman coupling is enhanced substantially.

  10. Progress in the Calculation of Nucleon Transition form Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichmann, Gernot

    2016-10-01

    We give a brief account of the Dyson-Schwinger and Faddeev-equation approach and its application to nucleon resonances and their transition form factors. We compare the three-body with the quark-diquark approach and present a quark-diquark calculation for the low-lying nucleon resonances including scalar, axialvector, pseudoscalar and vector diquarks. We also discuss the timelike structure of transition form factors and highlight the advantages of form factors over helicity amplitudes.

  11. Progress in the Calculation of Nucleon Transition form Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichmann, Gernot

    2016-06-01

    We give a brief account of the Dyson-Schwinger and Faddeev-equation approach and its application to nucleon resonances and their transition form factors. We compare the three-body with the quark-diquark approach and present a quark-diquark calculation for the low-lying nucleon resonances including scalar, axialvector, pseudoscalar and vector diquarks. We also discuss the timelike structure of transition form factors and highlight the advantages of form factors over helicity amplitudes.

  12. Integral resonator gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean V. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention discloses an inertial sensor having an integral resonator. A typical sensor comprises a planar mechanical resonator for sensing motion of the inertial sensor and a case for housing the resonator. The resonator and a wall of the case are defined through an etching process. A typical method of producing the resonator includes etching a baseplate, bonding a wafer to the etched baseplate, through etching the wafer to form a planar mechanical resonator and the wall of the case and bonding an end cap wafer to the wall to complete the case.

  13. An Exoplanet Radius and Transit Timing Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Drake; Jennings, Jonald; Sada, Pedro

    2010-02-01

    Many exoplanet systems contain Jupiter-mass planets on close-in orbits. Theories of planetary system formation account for these hot Jupiters as being end states of inward migration. Variants of those theories also predict terrestrial planets to be captured in mean motion resonance with the hot Jupiters. A continuing explosion of discoveries by transit surveys have given us a sample of 45 hot Jupiters transiting planets brighter than V=13. A transit timing survey of these systems could detect hot Earths in resonance, via the large (~ 180 second) perturbations they induce on the giant planet transits. Moreover, the discovery photometry for these systems usually provides only relatively coarse photometric precision, but larger-aperture follow-up can determine the giant planet radius to a precision limited only by knowledge of the stellar mass, and thereby reveal the diversity of giant exoplanet structure, such as the presence of heavy element cores. The relatively large sample now available means that a radius- and transit timing-survey is well matched to classical observing and telescope scheduling. We propose continued observations to perform transit photometry using FLAMINGOS on the 2.1-meter in the J-band, where stellar limb darkening is minimal and transit photometry has excellent sensitivity to planetary radii and shifts in transit time.

  14. An Exoplanet Radius and Transit Timing Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Drake; Jennings, Jonald; Sada, Pedro

    2009-08-01

    Many exoplanet systems contain Jupiter-mass planets on close-in orbits. Theories of planetary system formation account for these hot Jupiters as being end states of inward migration. Variants of those theories also predict terrestrial planets to be captured in mean motion resonance with the hot Jupiters. A recent explosion of discoveries by transit surveys have given us a sample of 37 hot Jupiters transiting planets brighter than V=13. A transit timing survey of these systems could detect hot Earths in resonance, via the large (~ 180 second) perturbations they induce on the giant planet transits. Moreover, the discovery photometry for these systems usually provides only relatively coarse photometric precision, but larger-aperture follow-up can determine the giant planet radius to a precision limited only by knowledge of the stellar mass, and thereby reveal the diversity of giant exoplanet structure, such as the presence of heavy element cores. The relatively large sample now available means that a radius- and transit timing-survey is well matched to classical observing and telescope scheduling. We propose continued observations to perform transit photometry using FLAMINGOS on the 2.1-meter in the J-band, where stellar limb darkening is minimal and transit photometry has excellent sensitivity to planetary radii and shifts in transit time.

  15. [Humanitarian transition].

    PubMed

    Mattei, Jean-François; Troit, Virginie

    2016-02-01

    In two centuries, modern humanitarian action has experienced several fractures often linked to crises. Although its professionalism and intervention force remain indisputable, it faces, since the 2000s, a new context that limits its ability to act and confronts it with new dilemmas, even though it must deal with needs for aid of unprecedented scale. These difficulties reveal a humanitarian transition period that was not anticipated. This transition period reflects the change from a dominant paradigm of North-South solidarity of Western origin to a much more complex model. This article provides a summary of the current mutations that are dominated by the States' assertion of sovereignty. Among the possible solutions, it argues for an ethical approach and a better integration of the research carried out in the Global South, prerequisites for building a true partnership and placing the victims at the heart of the operations which involve them. PMID:26936180

  16. Fractional resonances between waves and energetic particles in tokamak plasmas.

    PubMed

    Kramer, G J; Chen, L; Fisher, R K; Heidbrink, W W; Nazikian, R; Pace, D C; Van Zeeland, M A

    2012-07-20

    From numerical simulation and analytical modeling it is shown that fast ions can resonate with plasma waves at fractional values of the particle drift-orbit transit frequency when the plasma wave amplitude is sufficiently large. The fractional resonances, which are caused by a nonlinear interaction between the particle orbit and the wave, give rise to an increased density of resonances in phase space which reduces the threshold for stochastic transport. The effects of the fractional resonances on spatial and energy transport are illustrated for an energetic particle geodesic acoustic mode but they apply equally well to other types of MHD activity.

  17. Multiple-resonance phenomenon in neutrinoless double-electron capture

    SciTech Connect

    Eliseev, S.; Goncharov, M.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Herfurth, F.; Minaya Ramirez, E.; Droese, C.; Schweikhard, L.; Novikov, Yu. N.; Shabaev, V. M.; Tupitsyn, I. I.; Zubova, N. A.; Zuber, K.

    2011-07-15

    A superposition of multiple resonance states in neutrinoless double-electron capture in {sup 156}Dy has been discovered. Penning-trap mass spectrometry has been used for atomic-mass-difference measurements and careful calculations of electron wave functions and double-hole binding energies have been performed to determine the resonance-enhancement factors. Transitions to four nuclear excited states in the daughter nuclide {sup 156}Gd have been identified as resonantly enhanced, including one with a full resonant enhancement, within the uncertainty of 100 eV. This phenomenon is unique in that it can be used to probe the mechanisms of neutrinoless processes.

  18. Eliminating Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallick, Barb; Lee, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Adults often find themselves transitioning from one activity to another in a short time span. Most of the time, they do not feel they have a lot of control over their schedules, but wish that they could carve out extended time to relax and focus on one project. Picture a group of children in the block area who have spent 15 or 20 minutes building…

  19. Neutron resonance averaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  20. Nanomechanical resonance detector

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Jeffrey C; Zettl, Alexander K

    2013-10-29

    An embodiment of a nanomechanical frequency detector includes a support structure and a plurality of elongated nanostructures coupled to the support structure. Each of the elongated nanostructures has a particular resonant frequency. The plurality of elongated nanostructures has a range of resonant frequencies. An embodiment of a method of identifying an object includes introducing the object to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the object. An embodiment of a method of identifying a molecular species of the present invention includes introducing the molecular species to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the molecular species.

  1. Cooling trapped atoms in optical resonators.

    PubMed

    Zippilli, Stefano; Morigi, Giovanna

    2005-09-30

    We derive an equation for the cooling dynamics of the quantum motion of an atom trapped by an external potential inside an optical resonator. This equation has broad validity and allows us to identify novel regimes where the motion can be efficiently cooled to the potential ground state. Our result shows that the motion is critically affected by quantum correlations induced by the mechanical coupling with the resonator, which may lead to selective suppression of certain transitions for the appropriate parameters regimes, thereby increasing the cooling efficiency. PMID:16241649

  2. An Inexpensive Resonance Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Phillip

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of resonance is applicable to almost every branch of physics. Without resonance, there wouldn't be televisions or stereos, or even swings on the playground. However, resonance also has undesirable side effects such as irritating noises in the car and the catastrophic events such as helicopters flying apart. In this article, the…

  3. Stochastic Modeling of Laminar-Turbulent Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Robert; Choudhari, Meelan

    2002-01-01

    Stochastic versions of stability equations are developed in order to develop integrated models of transition and turbulence and to understand the effects of uncertain initial conditions on disturbance growth. Stochastic forms of the resonant triad equations, a high Reynolds number asymptotic theory, and the parabolized stability equations are developed.

  4. Excitation of dark multipolar plasmonic resonances at terahertz frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Wei, YuMing; Zang, XiaoFei; Zhu, YiMing; Zhuang, SongLin

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally observe the excitation of dark multipolar spoof localized surface plasmon resonances in a hybrid structure consisting of a corrugated metallic disk coupled with a C-shaped dipole resonator. The uncoupled corrugated metallic disk only supports a dipolar resonance in the transmission spectrum due to perfect symmetry of the structure. However, the dark multipolar spoof localized surface plasmon resonances emerge when coupled with a bright C-shaped resonator which is placed in the vicinity of the corrugated metallic disk. These excited multipolar resonances show minimum influence on the coupling distance between the C-shaped resonator and corrugated metallic disk. The resonance frequencies of the radiative modes are controlled by varying the angle of the C-shaped resonator and the inner disk radius, both of which play dominant roles in the excitation of the spoof localized surface plasmons. Observation of such a transition from the dark to radiative nature of multipolar spoof localized plasmon resonances would find potential applications in terahertz based resonant plasmonic and metamaterial devices. PMID:26903382

  5. Ovenized microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, Roy H; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kim, Bongsang

    2014-03-11

    An ovenized micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) resonator including: a substantially thermally isolated mechanical resonator cavity; a mechanical oscillator coupled to the mechanical resonator cavity; and a heating element formed on the mechanical resonator cavity.

  6. Time and neighbor interaction in resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallen, Hans D.; Niu, Shupeng; Li, Ling

    2014-09-01

    We study systems in which the resonance Raman process is fast due to the requirement for phonon involvement in the absorption. The resonance enhancement is found to track the isolated molecule, or vapor phase, absorption since the molecule does not have time to exchange energy with its neighbors. This corroborates with studies of pre-resonance, where Heisenberg's uncertainty principle enforces a rapid process, but differs from resonance on electronically allowed transitions, where the resonance allows a relatively prolonged interaction. High resolution excitation spectroscopy reveals large gains and narrow features usually associated with the isolated molecule. Vibration energies shift as the resonance is approached and the excited state vibration levels are probed. Several multiplets and overtone modes are enhanced along with the strongly coupled ring-breathing mode in aromatic molecules.

  7. Optical Helmholtz resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, Paul; Bouchon, Patrick; Haïdar, Riad; Pardo, Fabrice

    2014-08-01

    Helmholtz resonators are widely used acoustic components able to select a single frequency. Here, based on an analogy between acoustics and electromagnetism wave equations, we present an electromagnetic 2D Helmholtz resonator made of a metallic slit-box structure. At the resonance, the light is funneled in the λ/800 apertures, and is subsequently absorbed in the cavity. As in acoustics, there is no higher order of resonance, which is an appealing feature for applications such as photodetection or thermal emission. Eventually, we demonstrate that the slit is of capacitive nature while the box behaves inductively. We derive an analytical formula for the resonance wavelength, which does not rely on wave propagation and therefore does not depend on the permittivity of the material filling the box. Besides, in contrast with half-wavelength resonators, the resonance wavelength can be engineered by both the slit aspect ratio and the box area.

  8. Magnetic resonance energy and topological resonance energy.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Jun-Ichi

    2016-04-28

    Ring-current diamagnetism of a polycyclic π-system is closely associated with thermodynamic stability due to the individual circuits. Magnetic resonance energy (MRE), derived from the ring-current diamagnetic susceptibility, was explored in conjunction with graph-theoretically defined topological resonance energy (TRE). For many aromatic molecules, MRE is highly correlative with TRE with a correlation coefficient of 0.996. For all π-systems studied, MRE has the same sign as TRE. The only trouble with MRE may be that some antiaromatic and non-alternant species exhibit unusually large MRE-to-TRE ratios. This kind of difficulty can in principle be overcome by prior geometry-optimisation or by changing spin multiplicity. Apart from the semi-empirical resonance-theory resonance energy, MRE is considered as the first aromatic stabilisation energy (ASE) defined without referring to any hypothetical polyene reference.

  9. White-Light Whispering Gallery Mode Optical Resonator System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Savchenkov, Anatoliy A. (Inventor); Maleki, Lute (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An optical resonator system and method that includes a whispering-gallery mode (WGM) optical resonator that is capable of resonating across a broad, continuous swath of frequencies is provided. The optical resonator of the system is shaped to support at least one whispering gallery mode and includes a top surface, a bottom surface, a side wall, and a first curved transition region extending between the side wall and the top surface. The system further includes a coupler having a coupling surface which is arranged to face the transition region of the optical resonator and in the vicinity thereof such that an evanescent field emitted from the coupler is capable of being coupled into the optical resonator through the first curved transition region

  10. Resonant diffraction of synchrotron radiation: New possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikova, E. N.; Mukhamedzhanov, E. Kh.

    2016-09-01

    Resonant diffraction of synchrotron radiation (SR) is a modern method of studying the structure and properties of condensed matter that can be implemented on third-generation synchrotrons. This method allows one to investigate local properties of media (including magnetic and electronic ones) and observe thermal vibrations, defects, and orbital and charge orderings. A brief review of the advance provided by SR resonant diffraction is presented, and the capabilities of this method for analyzing phase transitions are considered in more detail by the example of potassium dihydrogen phosphate and rubidium dihydrogen phosphate crystals. It is shown that the investigation of the temperature dependence of forbidden reflections not only makes it possible to observe the transition from para- to ferroelectric phase, but also gives information about the proton distribution at hydrogen bonds.

  11. Resonant spectroscopy of the antihydrogen atom

    SciTech Connect

    Labzowsky, Leonti; Solovyev, Dmitri

    2003-07-01

    The spectra of the hydrogen and antihydrogen atoms in the presence of an external electric field are compared. It is shown that the nonresonant corrections to the transition frequency may contain terms linear in the electric field. The existence of these terms does not violate space and time parity and leads to a difference in the resonant spectroscopic measurements for the hydrogen and antihydrogen atoms in an external electric field.

  12. Astatine and Yttrium Resonant Ionization Laser Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teigelhoefer, Andrea

    Providing intense, contamination-free beams of rare isotopes to experiments is a challenging task. At isotope separator on-line facilities such as ISAC at TRIUMF, the choice of production target and ion source are key to the successful beam delivery. Due to their element-selectivity, high efficiency and versatility, resonant ionization laser ion sources (RILIS) gain increasingly in importance. The spectroscopic data available are typically incomplete in the region of excited- and autoionizing atomic states. In order to find the most efficient ionization scheme for a particular element, further spectroscopy is often required. The development of efficient laser resonant ionization schemes for yttrium and astatine is presented in this thesis. For yttrium, two ionization schemes with comparable relative intensities were found. Since for astatine, only two transitions were known, the focus was to provide data on atomic energy levels using resonance ionization spectroscopy. Altogether 41 previously unknown astatine energy levels were found.

  13. Electromagnetic excitation of the Delta(1232) resonance

    SciTech Connect

    V. Pascalutsa; M. Vanderhaeghen; Shin Nan Yang

    2006-09-05

    We review the description of the lowest-energy nucleon excitation--the Delta(1232)-resonance. Much of the recent effort has been focused on the precision measurements of the nucleon to Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes. We review the results of those measurements and confront them with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, and QCD-inspired models. Some of the theoretical approaches are reviewed in detail. In particular, we describe the chiral EFT of QCD in the energy domain of the Delta-resonance, and its applications to the electromagnetic nucleon-to-Delta transition (gamma N Delta). We also describe the recent dynamical and unitary-isobar models of pion electroproduction which are extensively used in the extraction of the gamma* N Delta form factors from experiment. Furthermore, we discuss the link of the gamma* N Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs), as well as the predictions of perturbative QCD for these transition form factors. The present status of understanding the Delta-resonance properties and the nature of its excitation is summarized.

  14. Nuclear response functions for the N- N ∗(1440) transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Ruso, L.; Barbaro, M. B.; Donnelly, T. W.; Molinari, A.

    2003-08-01

    Parity-conserving and -violating response functions are computed for the inclusive electroexcitation of the N ∗(1440) (Roper) resonance in nuclear matter modeled as a relativistic Fermi gas. Using various empirical parameterizations and theoretical models of the N- N ∗(1440) transition form factors, the sensitivity of the response functions to details of the structure of the Roper resonance is investigated. The possibility of disentangling this resonance from the contribution of Δ electroproduction in nuclei is addressed. Finally, the contributions of the Roper resonance to the longitudinal scaling function and to the Coulomb sum rule are also explored.

  15. Electronic Transitions of Yttrium Monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Y. W.; Wang, Na; Clark, Andrew B.; Cheung, A. S.-C.

    2013-06-01

    The electronic transition spectrum of yttrium monoxide (YO) in the spectral region between 284nm and 307nm has been recorded using laser ablation/reaction free-jet expansion and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. The YO molecule was produced by reacting laser-ablated yttrium atoms with O_{2} seeded in argon. Twenty transition bands were observed in that region and a few bands were selected for further study using optical-optical double resonance (OODR) spectroscopy. The excited C^{2} Π state has been reached via the intermediate B^{2} Σ^{+} state from the ground X^{2} Σ^{+} state. The excited sub-states observed so far have Ω = 0.5 and 1.5. A least squares fit of the measured rotational lines yielded molecular constants for the newly observed excited states.

  16. Excitonic surface lattice resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, A. D.; Gentile, M. J.; Barnes, W. L.

    2016-08-01

    Electromagnetic resonances are important in controlling light at the nanoscale. The most studied such resonance is the surface plasmon resonance that is associated with metallic nanostructures. Here we explore an alternative resonance, the surface exciton-polariton resonance, one based on excitonic molecular materials. Our study is based on analytical and numerical modelling. We show that periodic arrays of suitable molecular nanoparticles may support surface lattice resonances that arise as a result of coherent interactions between the particles. Our results demonstrate that excitonic molecular materials are an interesting alternative to metals for nanophotonics; they offer the prospect of both fabrication based on supramolecular chemistry and optical functionality arising from the way the properties of such materials may be controlled with light.

  17. Resonance Angle Nodding Behavior for Planet Pairs Near Mean Motion Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketchum, Jake; Adams, F. C.; Bloch, A. M.

    2012-05-01

    Motivated by the large number of extrasolar planetary systems that are near mean motion resonances, this paper explores a related type of dynamical behavior known as “nodding”. Here, the resonance angle of a planetary system executes libration (oscillatory motion) for several cycles, circulates for one or more cycles, and then enters once again into libration. This type of complicated dynamics can affect our interpretation of observed planetary systems that are in or near mean motion resonance. This work shows that planetary systems in mean motion resonance can exhibit nodding behavior, and outlines the portion of parameter space where it occurs. This problem is addressed using both full numerical integrations of the planetary systems and via model equations obtained through expansions of the disturbing function. In the latter approach, we identify the relevant terms that allow for nodding. The two approaches are in agreement, and show that nodding often occurs when a small body is in an external mean motion resonance with a larger planet. As a result, this phenomena can be important for interpreting observations of transit timing variations, where the existence of smaller bodies is inferred through their effects on larger, observed transiting planets.

  18. Acoustic Levitator Maintains Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Gaspar, M. S.

    1986-01-01

    Transducer loading characteristics allow resonance tracked at high temperature. Acoustic-levitation chamber length automatically adjusted to maintain resonance at constant acoustic frequency as temperature changes. Developed for containerless processing of materials at high temperatures, system does not rely on microphones as resonance sensors, since microphones are difficult to fabricate for use at temperatures above 500 degrees C. Instead, system uses acoustic transducer itself as sensor.

  19. Large mode radius resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Michael R.

    1987-01-01

    Resonator configurations permitting operation with large mode radius while maintaining good transverse mode discrimination are considered. Stable resonators incorporating an intracavity telescope and unstable resonator geometries utilizing an output coupler with a Gaussian reflectivity profile are shown to enable large radius single mode laser operation. Results of heterodyne studies of pulsed CO2 lasers with large (11mm e sup-2 radius) fundamental mode sizes are presented demonstrating minimal frequency sweeping in accordance with the theory of laser-induced medium perturbations.

  20. Measuring Shell Resonances of Spherical Acoustic Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, D.; Sparasci, F.; Foltête, E.; Ouisse, M.; Pitre, L.

    2011-01-01

    Coupling between the gas and shell is a concern in the experiment used at LNE-CNAM to determine the Boltzmann constant k B by an acoustic method. As the walls of real resonators are not perfectly rigid, some perturbations occur in the frequency range of the acoustic resonances measured within helium gas contained in the cavity. As a contribution for a better understanding of this phenomenon, an experiment to measure the shell modes of the spherical resonators is in use in this laboratory. A work in progress to assess these modes using a hammer blow method together with modal analysis is reported here. The study is carried out with an air-filled, copper-walled, half-liter quasi-spherical resonator in the frequency range from 1 Hz to 20 kHz. Results show that the shell modes expand into multiple resonances of similar modal shape, including the "breathing" mode. The observations reported in other studies of shell perturbations at other frequencies than the breathing frequency are confirmed.

  1. Ramsey resonance of coherent population trapping in slow rubidium beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, I. M.

    2016-03-01

    We calculate the coherent population trapping (CPT) resonance in slow beam of rubidium 87 atoms caused by of their interaction with bichromatic electromagnetic field in two separated spatial domains. In the case of monovelocity beam we study the properties of the CPT resonance depending on type of working transitions, velocity of the atomic beam, intensity and polarization of electromagnetic fields, and space separation in Ramsey scheme.

  2. On open electromagnetic resonators: relation between interferometers and resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Manenkov, Aleksandr A; Bykov, Vladimir P; Kuleshov, N V

    2010-05-26

    The physical difference between the concepts 'Fabry-Perot interferometer' and 'open resonator' is discussed. It is shown that the use of the term 'Fabry-Perot resonator' for open laser resonators is incorrect both from the historical viewpoint and from the viewpoint of the physical meaning of the processes occurring in these resonators. (laser beams and resonators)

  3. Fabrication and Characterization of Superconducting Resonators.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Barrentine, Emily M; Brown, Ari D; Moseley, Samuel H; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting microwave resonators are of interest for a wide range of applications, including for their use as microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) for the detection of faint astrophysical signatures, as well as for quantum computing applications and materials characterization. In this paper, procedures are presented for the fabrication and characterization of thin-film superconducting microwave resonators. The fabrication methodology allows for the realization of superconducting transmission-line resonators with features on both sides of an atomically smooth single-crystal silicon dielectric. This work describes the procedure for the installation of resonator devices into a cryogenic microwave testbed and for cool-down below the superconducting transition temperature. The set-up of the cryogenic microwave testbed allows one to do careful measurements of the complex microwave transmission of these resonator devices, enabling the extraction of the properties of the superconducting lines and dielectric substrate (e.g., internal quality factors, loss and kinetic inductance fractions), which are important for device design and performance. PMID:27284966

  4. Attosecond Delays in Resonant Photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maquet, Alfred

    2015-05-01

    Attosecond delays in the photoionization of atomic states have been evidenced in recent experiments performed in the 2010's. The delays were associated to the emission of photoelectron wave packets ejected from different atomic states, in the combined presence of attosecond pulses of XUV radiation and of a synchronized IR laser pulse, the latter being used as a reference ``clock''. These experiments were performed at XUV frequencies connecting the ground state to a ``flat'' continuum. Theoretical treatments were able to relate the measured delays to Wigner's definition of time delays in terms of the energy derivative of the phase-shift attached to the continuum wave functions of the photoelectrons. Attention has recently shifted towards the case of resonant photoionization in the course of which the XUV frequency is tuned close to a resonance of the target system. The case of a transition towards an autoionizing states of the target is particularly interesting as it makes evident the role of electronic correlations. Here, we shall present recent advances realized in the theoretical interpretation of this new class of experiments.

  5. Resonant spectra of quadrupolar anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossez, K.; Mao, Xingze; Nazarewicz, W.; Michel, N.; Garrett, W. R.; Płoszajczak, M.

    2016-09-01

    In quadrupole-bound anions, an extra electron is attached at a sufficiently large quadrupole moment of a neutral molecule, which is lacking a permanent dipole moment. The nature of the bound states and low-lying resonances of such anions is of interest for understanding the threshold behavior of open quantum systems in general. In this work, we investigate the properties of quadrupolar anions as halo systems, the formation of rotational bands, and the transition from a subcritical to supercritical electric quadrupole moment. We solve the electron-plus-rotor problem using a nonadiabatic coupled-channel formalism by employing the Berggren ensemble, which explicitly contains bound states, narrow resonances, and the scattering continuum. The rotor is treated as a linear triad of point charges with zero monopole and dipole moments and nonzero quadrupole moment. We demonstrate that binding energies and radii of quadrupolar anions strictly follow the scaling laws for two-body halo systems. Contrary to the case of dipolar anions, ground-state band of quadrupolar anions smoothly extend into the continuum, and many rotational bands could be identified above the detachment threshold. We study the evolution of a bound state of an anion as it dives into the continuum at a critical quadrupole moment and we show that the associated critical exponent is α =2 . Everything considered, quadrupolar anions represent a perfect laboratory for the studies of marginally bound open quantum systems.

  6. Optical Haroche and Hanle resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruyten, Wilhelmus M.

    1990-07-01

    It is shown that Haroche and Hanle resonances, known from magnetic resonance, should be observable in an optical resonance experiment in which a narrowband, phase-modulated laser resonantly excites a two-level system. The narrow Haroche resonances should allow the first observation of an optical Bloch-Siegert shift, and may find applications in modulation spectroscopy.

  7. Plasma resonant terahertz photomixers based on double graphene layer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhii, Maxim; Shur, Michael S.; Mitin, Vladimir; Satou, Akira; Ryzhii, Victor; Otsuji, Taiichi

    2014-03-01

    We propose terahertz (THz) photomixers based on double graphene layer (DGL) structures, utilizing the interband absorption of modulated optical radiation, tunneling or thermionic inter-GL transitions, and resonant excitation of plasma oscillations. Using the developed device model, we substantiate the operation of the photomixers and calculate their characteristics. We demonstrate that the output frequency-dependent power of THz radiation exhibits pronounced resonant peaks at the plasmonic resonant frequencies. The proposed THz photomixer can surpass the pertinent devices based on the standard heterostructures.

  8. The Concept of Resonance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truhlar, Donald G.

    2007-01-01

    A general example of a delocalization system associated with a higher energy than the localized one, which suggests that it is wrong to consider delocalization as equivalent to resonance stabilization, is presented. The meaning of resonance energy as it appears in valence bond theory is described as the lowering of the calculated ground-state…

  9. Ballistic spin resonance.

    PubMed

    Frolov, S M; Lüscher, S; Yu, W; Ren, Y; Folk, J A; Wegscheider, W

    2009-04-16

    The phenomenon of spin resonance has had far-reaching influence since its discovery 70 years ago. Electron spin resonance driven by high-frequency magnetic fields has enhanced our understanding of quantum mechanics, and finds application in fields as diverse as medicine and quantum information. Spin resonance can also be induced by high-frequency electric fields in materials with a spin-orbit interaction; the oscillation of the electrons creates a momentum-dependent effective magnetic field acting on the electron spin. Here we report electron spin resonance due to a spin-orbit interaction that does not require external driving fields. The effect, which we term ballistic spin resonance, is driven by the free motion of electrons that bounce at frequencies of tens of gigahertz in micrometre-scale channels of a two-dimensional electron gas. This is a frequency range that is experimentally challenging to access in spin resonance, and especially difficult on a chip. The resonance is manifest in electrical measurements of pure spin currents-we see a strong suppression of spin relaxation length when the oscillating spin-orbit field is in resonance with spin precession in a static magnetic field. These findings illustrate how the spin-orbit interaction can be harnessed for spin manipulation in a spintronic circuit, and point the way to gate-tunable coherent spin rotations in ballistic nanostructures without external alternating current fields. PMID:19370029

  10. The resonator handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jerry D.; Zhou, Shiliang

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to extend resonator theory into the region in which the planar mirror is quite small. Results of the theoretical description are then extended to resonator design and experimental arrangements as discussed in further sections of this work. Finally, a discussion of dielectric measurements for small samples is included as a specific application of this work.

  11. Monolithic MACS micro resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann-Horn, J. A.; Jacquinot, J.-F.; Ginefri, J. C.; Bonhomme, C.; Sakellariou, D.

    2016-10-01

    Magic Angle Coil Spinning (MACS) aids improving the intrinsically low NMR sensitivity of heterogeneous microscopic samples. We report on the design and testing of a new type of monolithic 2D MACS resonators to overcome known limitations of conventional micro coils. The resonators' conductors were printed on dielectric substrate and tuned without utilizing lumped element capacitors. Self-resonance conditions have been computed by a hybrid FEM-MoM technique. Preliminary results reported here indicate robust mechanical stability, reduced eddy currents heating and negligible susceptibility effects. The gain in B1 /√{ P } is in agreement with the NMR sensitivity enhancement according to the principle of reciprocity. A sensitivity enhancement larger than 3 has been achieved in a monolithic micro resonator inside a standard 4 mm rotor at 500 MHz. These 2D resonators could offer higher performance micro-detection and ease of use of heterogeneous microscopic substances such as biomedical samples, microscopic specimens and thin film materials.

  12. Resonant snubber inverter

    DOEpatents

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Young, Sr., Robert W.; Chen, Daoshen; Scudiere, Matthew B.; Ott, Jr., George W.; White, Clifford P.; McKeever, John W.

    1997-01-01

    A resonant, snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the main inverter switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter.

  13. Monolithic MACS micro resonators.

    PubMed

    Lehmann-Horn, J A; Jacquinot, J-F; Ginefri, J C; Bonhomme, C; Sakellariou, D

    2016-10-01

    Magic Angle Coil Spinning (MACS) aids improving the intrinsically low NMR sensitivity of heterogeneous microscopic samples. We report on the design and testing of a new type of monolithic 2D MACS resonators to overcome known limitations of conventional micro coils. The resonators' conductors were printed on dielectric substrate and tuned without utilizing lumped element capacitors. Self-resonance conditions have been computed by a hybrid FEM-MoM technique. Preliminary results reported here indicate robust mechanical stability, reduced eddy currents heating and negligible susceptibility effects. The gain in B1/P is in agreement with the NMR sensitivity enhancement according to the principle of reciprocity. A sensitivity enhancement larger than 3 has been achieved in a monolithic micro resonator inside a standard 4mm rotor at 500MHz. These 2D resonators could offer higher performance micro-detection and ease of use of heterogeneous microscopic substances such as biomedical samples, microscopic specimens and thin film materials. PMID:27544845

  14. Developments in Planet Detection using Transit Timing Variations

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason H.; Agol, Eric; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.

    2006-12-01

    In a transiting planetary system, the presence of a second planet will cause the time interval between transits to vary. These transit timing variations (TTV) are particularly large near mean-motion resonances and can be used to infer the orbital elements of planets with masses that are too small to detect by any other means. The author presents the results of a study of simulated data where they show the potential that this planet detection technique has to detect and characterize secondary planets in transiting systems. These results have important ramifications for planetary transit searches since each transiting system presents an opportunity for additional discoveries through a TTV analysis. They present such an analysis for 13 transits of the HD 209458 system that were observed with the Hubble Space Telescope. This analysis indicates that a putative companion in a low-order, mean-motion resonance can be no larger than the mass of the Earth and constitutes, to date, the most sensitive probe for extrasolar planets that orbit main sequence stars. The presence or absence of small planets in low-order, mean-motion resonances has implications for theories of the formation and evolution of planetary systems. Since TTV is most sensitive in these regimes, it should prove a valuable tool not only for the detection of additional planets in transiting systems, but also as a way to determine the dominant mechanisms of planet formation and the evolution of planetary systems.

  15. Prediction and identification of multiple-photon resonant ionization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H.; McKown, H.S.; Young, J.P.; Shaw, R.W.; Donohue, D.L.

    1988-08-01

    Many single-color, multiple-photon transitions leading to ionization are observed for lanthanide and actinide elements in experiments using resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS). It is desirable both to identify the energy levels involved in observed transitions and to be able to predict in advance their location. A computer code, ETRANS, has been written to perform these functions. Examples of both types of operation are given.

  16. Multi-frequency modes in superconducting resonators: Bridging frequency gaps in off-resonant couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Christian Kraglund; Mølmer, Klaus

    2015-03-01

    A SQUID inserted in a superconducting waveguide resonator imposes current and voltage boundary conditions that makes it suitable as a tuning element for the resonator modes. If such a SQUID element is subject to a periodically varying magnetic flux, the resonator modes acquire frequency side bands. We calculate the multi-frequency eigenmodes and these can couple resonantly to physical systems with different transition frequencies and this makes the resonator an efficient quantum bus for state transfer and coherent quantum operations in hybrid quantum systems. As an example of the application, we determine their coupling to transmon qubits with different frequencies and we present a bi-chromatic scheme for entanglement and gate operations. In this calculation, we obtain a maximally entangled state with a fidelity F = 95 % . Our proposal is competitive with the achievements of other entanglement-gates with superconducting devices and it may offer some advantages: (i) There is no need for additional control lines and dephasing associated with the conventional frequency tuning of qubits. (ii) When our qubits are idle, they are far detuned with respect to each other and to the resonator, and hence they are immune to cross talk and Purcell-enhanced decay.

  17. Transitions: A Personal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Ann Stace

    1995-01-01

    Distinguishes between unchosen transitions (children maturing and leaving, parents aging, companies downsizing) and chosen ones (moving, divorce, marriage, career changes). Describes the steps one goes through: uneasiness, renewed energy, complaining, exploration, partial transition, and the completed transition. (JOW)

  18. Sub-natural width resonances in Cs vapor confined in micrometric thickness optical cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartaleva, S.; Krasteva, A.; Sargsyan, A.; Sarkisyan, D.; Slavov, D.; Vartanyan, T.

    2013-03-01

    We present here the behavior of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT), Velocity Selective Optical Pumping (VSOP) resonances and Velocity Selective Excitation (VSE) resonances observed in Cs vapor confined in а micrometric optical cell (MC) with thickness L = 6λ, λ = 852nm. For comparison of behavior of VSE resonance another conventional optical cell with thickness L=2.5 cm is used. Cells are irradiated in orthogonal to their windows directions by probe beam scanned on the Fg = 4 → Fe= 3, 4, 5 set of transitions and pump beam fixed at the Fg = 3 → Fe = 4 transition, on the D2 line of Cs. The enhanced absorption (fluorescence) narrow VSOP resonance at the closed transition transforms into reduced absorption (fluorescence) one with small increase of atomic concentration or light intensity. A striking difference appears between the VSE resonance broadening in L = 6λ and conventional L = 2.5cm cells.

  19. Noise-induced transitions and resonant effects in nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaikin, Alexei

    2003-02-01

    Our every-day experience is connected with different acoustical noise or music. Usually noise plays the role of nuisance in any communication and destroys any order in a system. Similar optical effects are known: strong snowing or raining decreases quality of a vision. In contrast to these situations noisy stimuli can also play a positive constructive role, e.g. a driver can be more concentrated in a presence of quiet music. Transmission processes in neural systems are of especial interest from this point of view: excitation or information will be transmitted only in the case if a signal overcomes a threshold. Dr. Alexei Zaikin from the Potsdam University studies noise-induced phenomena in nonlinear systems from a theoretical point of view. Especially he is interested in the processes, in which noise influences the behaviour of a system twice: if the intensity of noise is over a threshold, it induces some regular structure that will be synchronized with the behaviour of neighbour elements. To obtain such a system with a threshold one needs one more noise source. Dr. Zaikin has analyzed further examples of such doubly stochastic effects and developed a concept of these new phenomena. These theoretical findings are important, because such processes can play a crucial role in neurophysics, technical communication devices and living sciences. Unsere alltägliche Erfahrung ist mit verschiedenen akustischen Einfluessen wie Lärm, aber auch Musik verbunden. Jeder weiss, wie Lärm stören kann und Kommunikation behindert oder gar unterbindet. Ähnliche optische Effekte sind bekannt: starkes Schneetreiben oder Regengüsse verschlechtern die Sicht und lassen uns Umrisse nur noch schemenhaft erkennen. Jedoch koennen ähnliche Stimuli auch sehr positive Auswirkungen haben: Autofahrer fahren bei leiser Musik konzentrierter -- die Behauptung von Schulkindern, nur bei dröhnenden Bässen die Mathehausaufgaben richtig rechnen zu können, ist allerdings nicht wissenschaftlich erwiesen. Außerordentlich interessant aus dieser Sicht sind auch Reizleitungsprozesse: Reize werden nur weitergleitet, wenn die strukturlosen Signale der Neuronen mit ausreichend starker Intensität erfolgen, also ein Schwellwert überschritten ist. Der Physiker Dr. Alexei Zaikin von der Universität Potsdam beschäftigt sich mit sogenannten rauschinduzierten Phänomenen aus theorischer Sicht. Sein Forschungsgebiet sind Prozesse, bei denen Rauschen mehrfach das Systemverhalten beeinflusst: ist es ausreichend gross, d.h. größer als ein kritischer Wert, wird eine reguläre Struktur gebildet, die durch das immernoch vorhandene Rauschen mit der Struktur des Nachbarsystems synchronisiert. Um ein solches System mit kritischem Wert zu erhalten, bedarf es einer weiteren Rauschquelle. Herr Zaikin analysierte noch weitere Beispiele solcher doppelt stochastischen Effekte. Die Ausarbeitung derartiger theoretischer Grundlagen ist wichtig, da diese Prozesse in der Neurophysik, in technischen Kommunikationssystemen und in den Lebenswissenschaften eine Rolle spielen.

  20. High efficiency hydrocarbon-free resonance transition potassium laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweiback, Jason; Hager, Gordon; Krupke, William F.

    2009-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a high efficiency potassium laser using a 0.15 nm bandwidth alexandrite laser as the pump source. The laser uses naturally occurring helium as the buffer gas. We achieve a 64% slope efficiency and a 57% optical to optical conversion. A pulsed laser model shows good agreement with the data.

  1. Resonance Radiation and Excited Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Allan C. G.; Zemansky, Mark W.

    2009-06-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Physical and chemical effects connected with resonance radiation; 3. Absorption lines and measurements of the lifetime of the resonance state; 4. Collision processes involving excited atoms; 5. The polarization of resonance radiation; Appendix; Index.

  2. Modelling resonant planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'yanenko, V.

    2012-09-01

    Many discovered multi-planet systems are in meanmotion resonances. The aim of this work is to study dynamical processes leading to the formation of resonant configurations on the basis of a unified model described earlier [1]. The model includes gravitational interactions of planets and migration of planets due to the presence of a gas disc. For the observed systems 24 Sex, HD 37124, HD 73526, HD 82943, HD 128311, HD 160691, Kepler 9, NN Ser with planets moving in the 2:1 resonance, it is shown that the capture in this resonance occurs at very wide ranges of parameters of both type I and type II migration. Conditions of migration leading to the formation of the resonant systems HD 45364 и HD 200964 (3:2 and 4:3, respectively) are obtained. Formation scenarios are studied for the systems HD 102272, HD 108874, HD 181433, HD 202206 with planets in high order resonances. We discuss also how gravitational interactions of planets and planetesimal discs lead to the breakup of resonant configurations and the formation of systems similar to the 47 UMa system.

  3. LABCOM resonator Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Keres, L.J.

    1990-11-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop quartz crystal resonator designs, production processes, and test capabilities for 5-MHz, 6.2-MHz, and 10-MHz resonators for Tactical Miniature Crystal Oscillator (TMXO) applications. GE Neutron Devices (GEND) established and demonstrated the capability to produce and test quartz crystal resonators for use in the TMXO developed by the US Army ERADCOM (now LABCOM). The goals in this project were based on the ERADCOM statement of work. The scope of work indicated that the resonator production facilities for this project would not be completely independent, but that they would be supported in part by equipment and processes in place at GEND used in US Department of Energy (DOE) work. In addition, provisions for production test equipment or or eventual technology transfer costs to a commercial supplier were clearly excluded from the scope of work. The demonstrated technical capability of the deep-etched blank design is feasible and practical. It can be manufactured in quantity with reasonable yield, and its performance is readily predictable. The ceramic flatpack is a very strong package with excellent hermeticity. The four-point mount supports the crystal to reasonable shock levels and does not perturb the resonator's natural frequency-temperature behavior. The package can be sealed with excellent yields. The high-temperature, high-vacuum processing developed for the TMXO resonator, including bonding the piezoid to its mount with conductive polyimide adhesive, is consistent with precision resonator fabrication. 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  4. Tunable multiwalled nanotube resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Zettl, Alex K.; Jensen, Kenneth J.; Girit, Caglar; Mickelson, William E.; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2011-03-29

    A tunable nanoscale resonator has potential applications in precise mass, force, position, and frequency measurement. One embodiment of this device consists of a specially prepared multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) suspended between a metal electrode and a mobile, piezoelectrically controlled contact. By harnessing a unique telescoping ability of MWNTs, one may controllably slide an inner nanotube core from its outer nanotube casing, effectively changing its length and thereby changing the tuning of its resonance frequency. Resonant energy transfer may be used with a nanoresonator to detect molecules at a specific target oscillation frequency, without the use of a chemical label, to provide label-free chemical species detection.

  5. Tunable multiwalled nanotube resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Kenneth J; Girit, Caglar O; Mickelson, William E; Zettl, Alexander K; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2013-11-05

    A tunable nanoscale resonator has potential applications in precise mass, force, position, and frequency measurement. One embodiment of this device consists of a specially prepared multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) suspended between a metal electrode and a mobile, piezoelectrically controlled contact. By harnessing a unique telescoping ability of MWNTs, one may controllably slide an inner nanotube core from its outer nanotube casing, effectively changing its length and thereby changing the tuning of its resonance frequency. Resonant energy transfer may be used with a nanoresonator to detect molecules at a specific target oscillation frequency, without the use of a chemical label, to provide label-free chemical species detection.

  6. Spin resonance strength calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Courant,E.D.

    2008-10-06

    In calculating the strengths of depolarizing resonances it may be convenient to reformulate the equations of spin motion in a coordinate system based on the actual trajectory of the particle, as introduced by Kondratenko, rather than the conventional one based on a reference orbit. It is shown that resonance strengths calculated by the conventional and the revised formalisms are identical. Resonances induced by radiofrequency dipoles or solenoids are also treated; with rf dipoles it is essential to consider not only the direct effect of the dipole but also the contribution from oscillations induced by it.

  7. Steady-state multipole moments of atoms in a resonant field with elliptical polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taichenachev, A. V.; Basalaev, M. Yu; Lazebny, D. B.; Yudin, V. I.

    2014-07-01

    Steady-state multipole moments of atoms ρK q of the rank K ⩽ 2 are analytically calculated for all closed dipole transitions Jg → Je in a resonant radiation field with arbitrary intensity and arbitrary elliptical polarization. The nonlinear propagation of a monochromatic elliptically polarized wave through a medium consisting of atoms with resonant transition Jg → Je is considered as an application.

  8. Two-color resonant four-wave mixing: A tool for double resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rohlfing, E.A.; Tobiason, J.D.; Dunlop, J.R.; Williams, S.

    1995-08-01

    Two-color resonant four-wave mixing (RFWM) shows great promise in a variety of double-resonance applications in molecular spectroscopy and chemical dynamics. One such application is stimulated emission pumping (SEP), which is a powerful method of characterizing ground-state potential energy surfaces in regions of chemical interest. The authors use time-independent, diagrammatic perturbation theory to identify the resonant terms in the third-order nonlinear susceptibility for each possible scheme by which two-color RFWM can be used for double-resonance spectroscopy. After a spherical tensor analysis they arrive at a signal expression for two-color RFWM that separates the molecular properties from purely laboratory-frame factors. In addition, the spectral response for tuning the DUMP laser in RFWM-SEP is found to be a simple Lorentzian in free-jet experiments. The authors demonstrate the utility of RFWM-SEP and test their theoretical predictions in experiments on jet-cooled transient molecules. In experiments on C{sub 3} they compare the two possible RFWM-SEP processes and show that one is particularly well-suited to the common situation in which the PUMP transition is strong but the DUMP transitions are weak. They obtain RFWM-SEP spectra of the formyl radical, HCO, that probe quasibound vibrational resonances lying above the low threshold for dissociation to H+CO. Varying the polarization of the input beams or PUMP rotational branch produces dramatic effects, in the relative intensities of rotational lines in the RFWM-SEP spectra of HCO; these effects are well-described by their theoretical analysis. Finally, RFWM-SEP spectra of HCO resonances that are homogeneously broadened by dissociation confirm the predicted lineshape and give widths that are in good agreement with those determined via unsaturated fluorescence depletion SEP.

  9. Perspective on resonances of metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Min, Li; Huang, Lirong

    2015-07-27

    Electromagnetic resonance as the most important characteristic of metamaterials enables lots of exotic phenomena, such as invisible, negative refraction, man-made magnetism, etc. Conventional LC-resonance circuit model as the most authoritative and classic model is good at explaining and predicting the fundamental resonance wavelength of a metamaterial, while feels hard for high-order resonances, especially for resonance intensity (strength of resonance, determining on the performance and efficiency of metamaterial-based devices). In present work, via an easy-to-understand mass-spring model, we present a different and comprehensive insight for the resonance mechanism of metamaterials, through which both the resonance wavelengths (including the fundamental and high-order resonance wavelengths) and resonance intensities of metamaterials can be better understood. This developed theory has been well verified by different-material and different-structure resonators. This perspective will provide a broader space for exploring novel optical devices based on metamaterials (or metasurfaces).

  10. Resonances in Positronium Hydride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiRienzi, Joseph; Drachman, Richard J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We re-examine the problem of calculating the positions and widths of the lowest-lying resonances in the Ps + H scattering system which consists of two electrons, one positron and one proton. The first of these resonances, for L=0, was found by the methods of complex rotation and stabilization, and later described as a Feshbach resonance lying close to a bound state in the closed-channel e (+) + H (-) system. Recently, results for the L=1 and 2 scattering states were published, and it was found, surprisingly, that there is a larae shift in the positions of these resonances. In this work we repeat the analysis for L=1 and find an unexpected explanation for the shift.

  11. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, Ned A.; Koehler, Dale R.; Liang, Alan Y.; Smith, Bradley K.

    1993-01-01

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  12. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert

    1991-01-01

    A resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method provides a unique characterization of an object for use in distinguishing similar objects having physical differences greater than a predetermined tolerance. A resonant response spectrum is obtained for a reference object by placing excitation and detection transducers at any accessible location on the object. The spectrum is analyzed to determine the number of resonant response peaks in a predetermined frequency interval. The distribution of the resonance frequencies is then characterized in a manner effective to form a unique signature of the object. In one characterization, a small frequency interval is defined and stepped though the spectrum frequency range. Subsequent objects are similarly characterized where the characterizations serve as signatures effective to distinguish objects that differ from the reference object by more than the predetermined tolerance.

  13. Electrically detected ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Goennenwein, S. T. B.; Schink, S. W.; Brandlmaier, A.; Boger, A.; Opel, M.; Gross, R.; Keizer, R. S.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Gupta, A.; Huebl, H.; Bihler, C.; Brandt, M. S.

    2007-04-16

    We study the magnetoresistance properties of thin ferromagnetic CrO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films under microwave irradiation. Both the sheet resistance {rho} and the Hall voltage V{sub Hall} characteristically change when a ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) occurs in the film. The electrically detected ferromagnetic resonance (EDFMR) signals closely match the conventional FMR, measured simultaneously, in both resonance fields and line shapes. The sign and the magnitude of the resonant changes {delta}{rho}/{rho} and {delta}V{sub Hall}/V{sub Hall} can be consistently described in terms of a Joule heating effect. Bolometric EDFMR thus is a powerful tool for the investigation of magnetic anisotropy and magnetoresistive phenomena in ferromagnetic micro- or nanostructures.

  14. Resonances in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Matthias F. M.; Lange, Jens Sören; Pennington, Michael; Bettoni, Diego; Brambilla, Nora; Crede, Volker; Eidelman, Simon; Gillitzer, Albrecht; Gradl, Wolfgang; Lang, Christian B.; Metag, Volker; Nakano, Takashi; Nieves, Juan; Neubert, Sebastian; Oka, Makoto; Olsen, Stephen L.; Pappagallo, Marco; Paul, Stephan; Pelizäus, Marc; Pilloni, Alessandro; Prencipe, Elisabetta; Ritman, Jim; Ryan, Sinead; Thoma, Ulrike; Uwer, Ulrich; Weise, Wolfram

    2016-04-01

    We report on the EMMI Rapid Reaction Task Force meeting 'Resonances in QCD', which took place at GSI October 12-14, 2015. A group of 26 people met to discuss the physics of resonances in QCD. The aim of the meeting was defined by the following three key questions: What is needed to understand the physics of resonances in QCD? Where does QCD lead us to expect resonances with exotic quantum numbers? What experimental efforts are required to arrive at a coherent picture? For light mesons and baryons only those with up, down and strange quark content were considered. For heavy-light and heavy-heavy meson systems, those with charm quarks were the focus. This document summarizes the discussions by the participants, which in turn led to the coherent conclusions we present here.

  15. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, N.A.; Koehler, D.R.; Liang, A.Y.; Smith, B.K.

    1993-03-30

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  16. Interaction-enhanced double resonance in cold gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, A. I.; Safonova, I. I.; Yasnikov, I. S.

    2011-11-01

    A new type of double-resonance spectroscopy of a quantum gas based on interaction-induced frequency modulation of a probe transition has been considered. Interstate interaction of multilevel atoms causes a coherence-dependent collisional shift of the transition between the atomic states |1> and |2> due to a nonzero population of the state |3>. Thus, the frequency of the probe transition |1>-|2> experiences oscillations associated with the Rabi oscillations between the states |1> and |3> under continuous excitation of the drive resonance |1>-|3>. Such a dynamic frequency shift leads to a change in the electromagnetic absorption at the probe frequency and, consequently, greatly enhances the sensitivity of double-resonance spectroscopy as compared to traditional "hole burning", which is solely due to a decrease in the population of the initial state |1>. In particular, it has been shown that the resonance linewidth is determined by the magnitude of the contact shift and the amplitude of the drive field and does not depend on the static field gradient. The calculated line shape and width agree with the low-temperature electron-nuclear double-resonance spectra of two-dimensional atomic hydrogen.

  17. Observation of a high-confinement regime in a tokamak plasma with ion cyclotron resonance heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmetz, K.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Wagner, F.; Wesner, F.; Bäumler, J.; Becker, G.; Bosch, H. S.; Brambilla, M.; Braun, F.; Brocken, H.; Eberhagen, A.; Fritsch, R.; Fussmann, G.; Gehre, O.; Gernhardt, J.; v. Gierke, G.; Glock, E.; Gruber, O.; Haas, G.; Hofmann, J.; Hofmeister, F.; Izvozchikov, A.; Janeschitz, G.; Karger, F.; Keilhacker, M.; Klüber, O.; Kornherr, M.; Lackner, K.; Lisitano, G.; van Mark, E.; Mast, F.; Mayer, H. M.; McCormick, K.; Meisel, D.; Mertens, V.; Müller, E. R.; Murmann, H.; Niedermeyer, H.; Poschenrieder, W.; Puri, S.; Rapp, H.; Röhr, H.; Ryter, F.; Schmitter, K.-H.; Schneider, F.; Setzensack, C.; Siller, G.; Smeulders, P.; Söldner, F.; Speth, E.; Steuer, K.-H.; Vollmer, O.; Wedler, H.; Zasche, D.

    1987-01-01

    The H mode in ion cyclotron-resonance-heated plasmas has been investigated with and without additional neutral beam injection. Ion cyclotron-resonance heating can cause the transition into a high-confinement regime (H mode) in combination with beam heating. The H mode, however, has also been realized-for the first time-with ion cyclotron-resonance heating alone in the D (H)-hydrogen minority scheme at an absorbed rf power of 1.1 MW.

  18. Selectivity in multiple quantum nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, W.S.

    1980-11-01

    The observation of multiple-quantum nuclear magnetic resonance transitions in isotropic or anisotropic liquids is shown to give readily interpretable information on molecular configurations, rates of motional processes, and intramolecular interactions. However, the observed intensity of high multiple-quantum transitions falls off dramatically as the number of coupled spins increases. The theory of multiple-quantum NMR is developed through the density matrix formalism, and exact intensities are derived for several cases (isotropic first-order systems and anisotropic systems with high symmetry) to shown that this intensity decrease is expected if standard multiple-quantum pulse sequences are used. New pulse sequences are developed which excite coherences and produce population inversions only between selected states, even though other transitions are simultaneously resonant. One type of selective excitation presented only allows molecules to absorb and emit photons in groups of n. Coherent averaging theory is extended to describe these selective sequences, and to design sequences which are selective to arbitrarily high order in the Magnus expansion. This theory and computer calculations both show that extremely good selectivity and large signal enhancements are possible.

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, B.C.

    1984-02-07

    A nuclear magnetic resonance gyro using two nuclear magnetic resonance gases, preferably xenon 129 and xenon 131, together with two alkaline metal vapors, preferably rubidium, potassium or cesium, one of the two alkaline metal vapors being pumped by light which has the wavelength of that alkaline metal vapor, and the other alkaline vapor being illuminated by light which has the wavelength of that other alkaline vapor.

  20. Injector with integrated resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; York, William David; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2014-07-29

    The system may include a turbine engine. The turbine engine may include a fuel nozzle. The fuel nozzle may include an air path. The fuel nozzle may also include a fuel path such that the fuel nozzle is in communication with a combustion zone of the turbine engine. Furthermore, the fuel nozzle may include a resonator. The resonator may be disposed in the fuel nozzle directly adjacent to the combustion zone.

  1. Hexagonal quartz resonator

    DOEpatents

    Peters, Roswell D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A generally flat, relatively thin AT-cut piezoelectric resonator element structured to minimize the force-frequency effect when mounted and energized in a housing. The resonator is in the form of an equilateral hexagon with the X crystallographic axis of the crystal passing through one set of opposing corners with mounting being effected at an adjacent set of corners respectively .+-.60.degree. away from the X axis which thereby results in a substantially zero frequency shift of the operating frequency.

  2. Resonant dielectric metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Loui, Hung; Carroll, James; Clem, Paul G; Sinclair, Michael B

    2014-12-02

    A resonant dielectric metamaterial comprises a first and a second set of dielectric scattering particles (e.g., spheres) having different permittivities arranged in a cubic array. The array can be an ordered or randomized array of particles. The resonant dielectric metamaterials are low-loss 3D isotropic materials with negative permittivity and permeability. Such isotropic double negative materials offer polarization and direction independent electromagnetic wave propagation.

  3. Cylindrical laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Casperson, Lee W.

    1976-02-24

    The properties of an improved class of lasers is presented. In one configuration of these lasers the radiation propagates radially within the amplifying medium, resulting in high fields and symmetric illumination at the resonator axis. Thus there is a strong focusing of energy at the axis of the resonator. In a second configuration the radiation propagates back and forth in a tubular region of space.

  4. A microwave resonator integrated on a polymer microfluidic chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, S. Z.; Rostas, A. M.; Heidinger, L.; Spengler, N.; Meissner, M. V.; MacKinnon, N.; Schleicher, E.; Weber, S.; Korvink, J. G.

    2016-09-01

    We describe a novel stacked split-ring type microwave (MW) resonator that is integrated into a 10 mm by 10 mm sized microfluidic chip. A straightforward and scalable batch fabrication process renders the chip suitable for single-use applications. The resonator volume can be conveniently loaded with liquid sample via microfluidic channels patterned into the mid layer of the chip. The proposed MW resonator offers an alternative solution for compact in-field measurements, such as low-field magnetic resonance (MR) experiments requiring convenient sample exchange. A microstrip line was used to inductively couple MWs into the resonator. We characterised the proposed resonator topology by electromagnetic (EM) field simulations, a field perturbation method, as well as by return loss measurements. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra at X-band frequencies were recorded, revealing an electron-spin sensitivity of 3.7 ·1011spins ·Hz - 1 / 2G-1 for a single EPR transition. Preliminary time-resolved EPR experiments on light-induced triplet states in pentacene were performed to estimate the MW conversion efficiency of the resonator.

  5. A microwave resonator integrated on a polymer microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Kiss, S Z; Rostas, A M; Heidinger, L; Spengler, N; Meissner, M V; MacKinnon, N; Schleicher, E; Weber, S; Korvink, J G

    2016-09-01

    We describe a novel stacked split-ring type microwave (MW) resonator that is integrated into a 10mm by 10mm sized microfluidic chip. A straightforward and scalable batch fabrication process renders the chip suitable for single-use applications. The resonator volume can be conveniently loaded with liquid sample via microfluidic channels patterned into the mid layer of the chip. The proposed MW resonator offers an alternative solution for compact in-field measurements, such as low-field magnetic resonance (MR) experiments requiring convenient sample exchange. A microstrip line was used to inductively couple MWs into the resonator. We characterised the proposed resonator topology by electromagnetic (EM) field simulations, a field perturbation method, as well as by return loss measurements. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra at X-band frequencies were recorded, revealing an electron-spin sensitivity of 3.7·10(11)spins·Hz(-1/2)G(-1) for a single EPR transition. Preliminary time-resolved EPR experiments on light-induced triplet states in pentacene were performed to estimate the MW conversion efficiency of the resonator. PMID:27497077

  6. Anomalous Diffusion Near Resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    Synchro-betatron resonances can lead to emittance growth and the loss of luminosity. We consider the detailed dynamics of a bunch near such a low order resonance driven by crossing angles at the collision points. We characterize the nature of diffusion and find that it is anomalous and sub-diffusive. This affects both the shape of the beam distribution and the time scales for growth. Predictions of a simplified anomalous diffusion model are compared with direct simulations. Transport of particles near resonances is still not a well understood phenomenon. Often, without justification, phase space motion is assumed to be a normal diffusion process although at least one case of anomalous diffusion in beam dynamics has been reported [1]. Here we will focus on the motion near synchro-betatron resonances which can be excited by several means, including beams crossing at an angle at the collision points as in the LHC. We will consider low order resonances which couple the horizontal and longitudinal planes, both for simplicity and to observe large effects over short time scales. While the tunes we consider are not practical for a collider, nonetheless the transport mechanisms we uncover are also likely to operate at higher order resonances.

  7. Resonant nonlinear ultrasound spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Paul A.; TenCate, James A.; Guyer, Robert A.; Van Den Abeele, Koen E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Components with defects are identified from the response to strains applied at acoustic and ultrasound frequencies. The relative resonance frequency shift .vertline..DELTA..function./.function..sub.0.vertline., is determined as a function of applied strain amplitude for an acceptable component, where .function..sub.0 is the frequency of the resonance peak at the lowest amplitude of applied strain and .DELTA..function. is the frequency shift of the resonance peak of a selected mode to determine a reference relationship. Then, the relative resonance frequency shift .vertline..DELTA..function./.function..sub.0 is determined as a function of applied strain for a component under test, where fo .function..sub.0 the frequency of the resonance peak at the lowest amplitude of applied strain and .DELTA..function. is the frequency shift of the resonance peak to determine a quality test relationship. The reference relationship is compared with the quality test relationship to determine the presence of defects in the component under test.

  8. Plasmofluidic Disk Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Min-Suk; Ku, Bonwoo; Kim, Yonghan

    2016-01-01

    Waveguide-coupled silicon ring or disk resonators have been used for optical signal processing and sensing. Large-scale integration of optical devices demands continuous reduction in their footprints, and ultimately they need to be replaced by silicon-based plasmonic resonators. However, few waveguide-coupled silicon-based plasmonic resonators have been realized until now. Moreover, fluid cannot interact effectively with them since their resonance modes are strongly confined in solid regions. To solve this problem, this paper reports realized plasmofluidic disk resonators (PDRs). The PDR consists of a submicrometer radius silicon disk and metal laterally surrounding the disk with a 30-nm-wide channel in between. The channel is filled with fluid, and the resonance mode of the PDR is strongly confined in the fluid. The PDR coupled to a metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal waveguide is implemented by using standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. If the refractive index of the fluid increases by 0.141, the transmission spectrum of the waveguide coupled to the PDR of radius 0.9 μm red-shifts by 30 nm. The PDR can be used as a refractive index sensor requiring a very small amount of analyte. Plus, the PDR filled with liquid crystal may be an ultracompact intensity modulator which is effectively controlled by small driving voltage. PMID:26979929

  9. Application of resonance Raman LIDAR for chemical species identification

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.L.; Heglund, D.L.; Ray, M.D.; Harder, D.; Dobert, R.; Leung, K.P.; Wu, M.; Sedlacek, A.

    1997-07-01

    BNL has been developing a remote sensing technique for the detection of atmospheric pollutants based on the phenomenon of resonance Raman LIDAR that has also incorporated a number of new techniques/technologies designed to extend it`s performance envelope. When the excitation frequency approaches an allowed electronic transition of the molecule, an enormous enhancement of the inelastic scattering cross-section can occur, often up to 2 to 4 orders-of-magnitude, and is referred to as resonance Raman (RR), since the excitation frequency is in resonance with an allowed electronic transition. Exploitation of this enhancement along with new techniques such as pattern recognition algorithms to take advantage of the spectral fingerprint and a new laser frequency modulation technique designed to suppress broadband fluorescence, referred to as Frequency modulated Excitation Raman Spectroscopy (FreMERS) and recent developments in liquid edge filter technology, for suppression of the elastic channel, all help increase the overall performance of Raman LIDAR.

  10. Coulomb and nuclear excitations of narrow resonances in 17Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marganiec, J.; Wamers, F.; Aksouh, F.; Aksyutina, Yu.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bertulani, C. A.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Chartier, M.; Chatillon, A.; Chulkov, L. V.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Emling, H.; Ershova, O.; Fraile, L. M.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Geissel, H.; Heil, M.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Hoffmann, J.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Karagiannis, C.; Kiselev, O. A.; Kratz, J. V.; Kulessa, R.; Kurz, N.; Langer, C.; Lantz, M.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Mahata, K.; Müntz, C.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Nyman, G.; Ott, W.; Panin, V.; Paschalis, S.; Perea, A.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Richter, A.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Riisager, K.; Savran, D.; Schrieder, G.; Simon, H.; Stroth, J.; Sümmerer, K.; Tengblad, O.; Typel, S.; Weick, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wimmer, C.

    2016-08-01

    New experimental data for dissociation of relativistic 17Ne projectiles incident on targets of lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets at GSI are presented. Special attention is paid to the excitation and decay of narrow resonant states in 17Ne. Distributions of internal energy in the 15O + p + p three-body system have been determined together with angular and partial-energy correlations between the decay products in different energy regions. The analysis was done using existing experimental data on 17Ne and its mirror nucleus 17N. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is used for assignment of observed resonances and their spins and parities. A combination of data from the heavy and light targets yielded cross sections and transition probabilities for the Coulomb excitations of the narrow resonant states. The resulting transition probabilities provide information relevant for a better understanding of the 17Ne structure.

  11. Full counting statistics of quantum dot resonance fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Matthiesen, Clemens; Stanley, Megan J; Hugues, Maxime; Clarke, Edmund; Atatüre, Mete

    2014-01-01

    The electronic energy levels and optical transitions of a semiconductor quantum dot are subject to dynamics within the solid-state environment. In particular, fluctuating electric fields due to nearby charge traps or other quantum dots shift the transition frequencies via the Stark effect. The environment dynamics are mapped directly onto the fluorescence under resonant excitation and diminish the prospects of quantum dots as sources of indistinguishable photons in optical quantum computing. Here, we present an analysis of resonance fluorescence fluctuations based on photon counting statistics which captures the underlying time-averaged electric field fluctuations of the local environment. The measurement protocol avoids dynamic feedback on the electric environment and the dynamics of the quantum dot's nuclear spin bath by virtue of its resonant nature and by keeping experimental control parameters such as excitation frequency and external fields constant throughout. The method introduced here is experimentally undemanding. PMID:24810097

  12. Ultraviolet Resonant Raman Enhancements in the Detection of Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Short Jr., Billy Joe

    2009-06-01

    Raman-based spectroscopy is potentially militarily useful for standoff detection of high explosives. Normal (non-resonance) and resonance Raman spectroscopies are both light scattering techniques that use a laser to measure the vibrational spectrum of a sample. In resonance Raman, the laser is tuned to match the wavelength of a strong electronic absorbance in the molecule of interest, whereas, in normal Raman the laser is not tuned to any strong electronic absorbance bands. The selection of appropriate excitation wavelengths in resonance Raman can result in a dramatic increase in the Raman scattering efficiency of select band(s) associated with the electronic transition. Other than the excitation wavelength, however, resonance Raman is performed experimentally the same as normal Raman. In these studies, normal and resonance Raman spectral signatures of select solid high explosive (HE) samples and explosive precursors were collected at 785 nm, 244 nm and 229 nm. Solutions of PETN, TNT, and explosive precursors (DNT & PNT) in acetonitrile solvent as an internal Raman standard were quantitatively evaluated using ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) microscopy and normal Raman spectroscopy as a function of power and select excitation wavelengths. Use of an internal standard allowed resonance enhancements to be estimated at 229 nm and 244 nm. Investigations demonstrated that UVRR provided ~2000-fold enhancement at 244 nm and ~800-fold improvement at 229 nm while PETN showed a maximum of ~25-fold at 244 nm and ~190-fold enhancement at 229 nm solely from resonance effects when compared to normal Raman measurements. In addition to the observed resonance enhancements, additional Raman signal enhancements are obtained with ultraviolet excitation (i.e., Raman scattering scales as !4 for measurements based on scattered photons). A model, based partly on the resonance Raman enhancement results for HE solutions, is presented for estimating Raman enhancements for solid HE samples.

  13. Walking and running at resonance.

    PubMed

    Ahlborn, Boye K; Blake, Robert W

    2002-01-01

    Humans and other animals can temporarily store mechanical energy in elastic oscillations, f(el), of body parts and in pendulum oscillations, f(p) = const sq.rt (g/L), of legs, length L, or other appendages, and thereby reduce the energy consumption of locomotion. However, energy saving only occurs if these oscillations are tuned to the leg propagation frequency f. It has long been known that f is tuned to the pendulum frequency of the free-swinging leg of walkers. During running the leg frequency increases to some new value f = f(r). We propose that in order to maintain resonance the animal, mass M, actively increases its leg pendulum frequency to the new value f(p,r) =const sq.rt (a(y)/L)=f(r), by giving its hips a vertical acceleration a(y)= F(y)/M. The pendulum frequency is increased if the impact force F(y) of the stance foot is larger than Mg, explaining the observation by Alexander and Bennet-Clark (1976) that F(v) becomes larger than Mg when animals start to run. Our model predictions of the running velocity U(r) as function of L, F(v), are in agreement with measurements of these quantities (Farley et al. 1993). The leg's longitudinal elastic oscillation frequency scales as f(el) = const sq.rt (k/M). Experiments by Ferris et al., (1998) show that runners adjust their leg's stiffness, k, when running on surfaces of different elasticity so that the total stiffness k remains constant. Our analysis of their data suggests that the longitudinal oscillations of the stance leg are indeed kept in tune with the running frequency. Therefore we conclude that humans, and by extension all animals, maintain resonance during running. Our model also predicts the Froude number of walking-running transitions, Fr = U(2)/gL approximately 0.5 in good agreement with measurements.

  14. Resonant optical rectification in bacteriorhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Groma, Géza I.; Colonna, Anne; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Petrich, Jacob W.; Váró, György; Joffre, Manuel; Vos, Marten H.; Martin, Jean-Louis

    2004-01-01

    The relative role of retinal isomerization and microscopic polarization in the phototransduction process of bacteriorhodopsin is still an open question. It is known that both processes occur on an ultrafast time scale. The retinal trans→cis photoisomerization takes place on the time scale of a few hundred femtoseconds. On the other hand, it has been proposed that the primary light-induced event is a sudden polarization of the retinal environment, although there is no direct experimental evidence for femtosecond charge displacements, because photovoltaic techniques cannot be used to detect charge movements faster than picoseconds. Making use of the known high second-order susceptibility χ(2) of retinal in proteins, we have used a nonlinear technique, interferometric detection of coherent infrared emission, to study macroscopically oriented bacteriorhodopsin-containing purple membranes. We report and characterize impulsive macroscopic polarization of these films by optical rectification of an 11-fs visible light pulse in resonance with the optical transition. This finding provides direct evidence for charge separation as a precursor event for subsequent functional processes. A simple two-level model incorporating the resonant second-order optical properties of retinal, which are known to be a requirement for functioning of bacteriorhodopsin, is used to describe the observations. In addition to the electronic response, long-lived infrared emission at specific frequencies was observed, reflecting charge movements associated with vibrational motions. The simultaneous and phase-sensitive observation of both the electronic and vibrational signals opens the way to study the transduction of the initial polarization into structural dynamics. PMID:15148391

  15. Precession of a rapidly rotating cylinder flow: traverse through resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Juan; Marques, Francisco

    2014-11-01

    The flow in a rapidly rotating cylinder that is titled and also rotating around another axis can undergo sudden transitions to turbulence. Experimental observations of this have been associated with triadic resonances. The experimental and theoretical results are well-established in the literature, but there remains a lack of understanding of the physical mechanisms at play in the sudden transition from laminar to turbulent flow with very small variations in the governing parameters. Here, we present direct numerical simulations of a traverse in parameter space through an isolated resonance, and describe in detail the bifurcations involved in the sudden transition. U.S. National Science Foundation Grant CBET-1336410 and Spanish Ministry of Education and Science Grant (with FEDER funds) FIS2013-40880.

  16. Isospin decomposition of γ N →N* transitions within a dynamical coupled-channels model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamano, H.; Nakamura, S. X.; Lee, T.-S. H.; Sato, T.

    2016-07-01

    By extending the dynamical coupled-channels analysis performed in our previous work [Phys. Rev. C 88, 035209 (2013)], 10.1103/PhysRevC.88.035209 to include the available data of photoproduction of π mesons off neutrons, the transition amplitudes for the photoexcitation of the neutron-to-nucleon resonances, γ n →N* , at the resonance pole positions are determined. The combined fits to the data for both the proton- and neutron-target reactions also revise our results for the resonance pole positions and the γ p →N* transition amplitudes. Our results allow an isospin decomposition of the γ N →N* transition amplitudes for the isospin I =1/2 N* resonances, which is necessary for testing hadron structure models and gives crucial inputs for constructing models of neutrino-induced reactions in the nucleon resonance region.

  17. Strong-Field Resonant Dynamics in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wismer, Michael S.; Kruchinin, Stanislav Yu.; Ciappina, Marcelo; Stockman, Mark I.; Yakovlev, Vladislav S.

    2016-05-01

    We predict that a direct band gap semiconductor (GaAs) resonantly excited by a strong ultrashort laser pulse exhibits a novel regime: kicked anharmonic Rabi oscillations. In this regime, Rabi oscillations are strongly coupled to intraband motion, and interband transitions mainly take place when electrons pass near the Brillouin zone center where electron populations undergo very rapid changes. The asymmetry of the residual population distribution induces an electric current controlled by the carrier-envelope phase of the driving pulse. The predicted effects are experimentally observable using photoemission and terahertz spectroscopies.

  18. Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Studies in MICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, S.; Rhadakrishna, S.; Marino, R. A.

    1986-02-01

    Aluminum-27 NQR transitions were detected in Muscovite Mica at room temperature using double resonance by level crossing (DRLC) techniques. Three lines were observed with frequencies of 572.5, 1052.0, and 1624.5 kHz. These lines are assigned to the octahedrally coordinated site, AlO4(OH)2. The corresponding quadrupole coupling constant, e2q Q/h, and asymmetry parameter, η, are 3554.8 kHz and 0.265, respectively. The remaining tetrahedrally coordinated sites, AlO4, gave no discernible signal, perhaps due to the greater 27Al- 1H distance.

  19. Lévy stable noise-induced transitions: stochastic resonance, resonant activation and dynamic hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa

    2009-05-01

    A standard approach to analysis of noise-induced effects in stochastic dynamics assumes a Gaussian character of the noise term describing interaction of the analyzed system with its complex surroundings. An additional assumption about the existence of timescale separation between the dynamics of the measured observable and the typical timescale of the noise allows external fluctuations to be modeled as temporally uncorrelated and therefore white. However, in many natural phenomena the assumptions concerning the above mentioned properties of 'Gaussianity' and 'whiteness' of the noise can be violated. In this context, in contrast to the spatiotemporal coupling characterizing general forms of non-Markovian or semi-Markovian Lévy walks, so called Lévy flights correspond to the class of Markov processes which can still be interpreted as white, but distributed according to a more general, infinitely divisible, stable and non-Gaussian law. Lévy noise-driven non-equilibrium systems are known to manifest interesting physical properties and have been addressed in various scenarios of physical transport exhibiting a superdiffusive behavior. Here we present a brief overview of our recent investigations aimed at understanding features of stochastic dynamics under the influence of Lévy white noise perturbations. We find that the archetypal phenomena of noise-induced ordering are robust and can be detected also in systems driven by memoryless, non-Gaussian, heavy-tailed fluctuations with infinite variance.

  20. Measurement of the 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance frequencies by the solid effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliger, J.; Žagar, V.

    2008-07-01

    1H- 14N nuclear quadrupole double resonance using magnetic field cycling between high and low magnetic field and solid effect in the low magnetic field is analyzed in details. The transition probabilities per unit time for the solid-effect transitions are calculated. The double resonance spectra are calculated in the limiting cases of fast and slow nitrogen spin-lattice relaxation. The double resonance spectra are measured in histamine and quinolinic acid. The experimental spectra are analyzed and the 14N NQR frequencies are determined.

  1. Novel multisample dielectric resonators for electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovina, Iryna S.; Kolesnik, Sergiy P.; Geifman, Ilia N.; Belous, Anatoliy G.

    2010-04-01

    We have developed and tested two types of novel dielectric resonators for simultaneous recording of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra from two to four samples. The resonator of the first type contains two holes, and the other resonator contains four holes for introduction of the samples. Also, the resonator structure includes a pair of gradient coils. Dielectric resonators made of materials with high dielectric constant with low losses can be inserted into the standard EPR cavity or waveguide in the maximum microwave magnetic field. Gradient coils are located outside the cavity (or waveguide) so that their axes are parallel to the static magnetic field. Computer simulations were made to obtain microwave characteristics of the resonators such as resonant frequency, sizes, and distribution of the fields. Spacing of the point samples and optimum value of the magnetic-field gradient have been chosen correctly. The designed resonators can be applied in express analysis using EPR technique, for instance.

  2. From chiral quark dynamics with Polyakov loop to the hadron resonance gas model

    SciTech Connect

    Arriola, E. R.; Salcedo, L. L.; Megias, E.

    2013-03-25

    Chiral quark models with Polyakov loop at finite temperature have been often used to describe the phase transition. We show how the transition to a hadron resonance gas is realized based on the quantum and local nature of the Polyakov loop.

  3. Transition Handbook: Valley Transitional School Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Rehabilitation Services, Richmond.

    The handbook was developed by the 3-year Valley Transitional School Project, serving Augusta, Staunton, and Waynesboro schools, all located in Augusta County, Virginia. The purpose of the project was to develop and validate a model which would assist school youth with severe disabilities to make the transition from school to employment, in the…

  4. MACHINERY RESONANCE AND DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.; Fowley, M.

    2010-01-23

    New developments in vibration analysis better explain machinery resonance, through an example of drill bit chattering during machining of rusted steel. The vibration of an operating drill motor was measured, the natural frequency of an attached spring was measured, and the two frequencies were compared to show that the system was resonant. For resonance to occur, one of the natural frequencies of a structural component must be excited by a cyclic force of the same frequency. In this case, the frequency of drill bit chattering due to motor rotation equaled the spring frequency (cycles per second), and the system was unstable. A soft rust coating on the steel to be drilled permitted chattering to start at the drill bit tip, and the bit oscillated on and off of the surface, which increased the wear rate of the drill bit. This resonant condition is typically referred to as a motor critical speed. The analysis presented here quantifies the vibration associated with this particular critical speed problem, using novel techniques to describe resonance.

  5. Resonant ultrasound spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert; Visscher, William M.; Fisk, Zachary

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasound resonant spectrometer determines the resonant frequency spectrum of a rectangular parallelepiped sample of a high dissipation material over an expected resonant response frequency range. A sample holder structure grips corners of the sample between piezoelectric drive and receive transducers. Each transducer is mounted on a membrane for only weakly coupling the transducer to the holder structure and operatively contacts a material effective to remove system resonant responses at the transducer from the expected response range. i.e., either a material such as diamond to move the response frequencies above the range or a damping powder to preclude response within the range. A square-law detector amplifier receives the response signal and retransmits the signal on an isolated shield of connecting cabling to remove cabling capacitive effects. The amplifier also provides a substantially frequency independently voltage divider with the receive transducer. The spectrometer is extremely sensitive to enable low amplitude resonance to be detected for use in calculating the elastic constants of the high dissipation sample.

  6. Quantum depinning transition of quantum Hall stripes.

    PubMed

    Li, M-R; Fertig, H A; Côté, R; Yi, Hangmo

    2004-05-01

    We examine the effect of disorder on the electromagnetic response of quantum Hall stripes using an effective elastic theory to describe their low-energy dynamics, and replicas and the Gaussian variational method to handle disorder effects. Within our model we demonstrate the existence of a depinning transition at a critical partial Landau level filling factor Deltanu(c). For Deltanuresonant peaks. These peaks shift to zero frequency as Deltanu-->Deltanu(c). For Deltanu> or =Deltanu(c), we find a partial RSB solution in which there is free sliding only along the stripe direction. The transition is analogous to the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition.

  7. Application of Glass Transition in Food Processing.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, S; Devi, Apramita; Singh, K K; Bosco, S J D; Mohite, Ashish M

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of glass transition has been employed to food products to study their stability. It can be applied as an integrated approach along with water activity and physical and chemical changes in food in processing and storage to determine the food stability. Also associated with the changes during agglomeration crystallization, caking, sticking, collapse, oxidation reactions, nonenzymatic browning, and microbial stability of food system. Various techniques such as Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, etc. have been developed to determine the glass transition temperature (Tg) of food system. Also, various theories have been applied to explain the concept of Tg and its relation to changes in food system. This review summarizes the understanding of concept of glass transition, its measurement, and application in food technology.

  8. Structure of magnetic resonance in 87Rb atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, A. N.; Zibrov, S. A.; Zibrov, A. A.; Yudin, V. I.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Yakovlev, V. P.; Tsygankov, E. A.; Zibrov, A. S.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Velichansky, V. L.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance at the F g = 1 rightleftarrows F e = 1 transition of the D 1 line in 87Rb has been studied with pumping and detection by linearly polarized radiation and detection at the double frequency of the radiofrequency field. The intervals of allowed values of the static and alternating magnetic fields in which magnetic resonance has a single maximum have been found. The structure appearing beyond these intervals has been explained. It has been shown that the quadratic Zeeman shift is responsible for the three-peak structure of resonance; the radiofrequency shift results in the appearance of additional extrema in resonance, which can be used to determine the relaxation constant Γ2. The possibility of application in magnetometry has been discussed.

  9. Black phosphorus nanoelectromechanical resonators vibrating at very high frequencies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zenghui; Jia, Hao; Zheng, Xuqian; Yang, Rui; Wang, Zefang; Ye, G J; Chen, X H; Shan, Jie; Feng, Philip X-L

    2015-01-21

    We report on the experimental demonstration of a new type of nanoelectromechanical resonator based on black phosphorus crystals. Facilitated by a highly efficient dry transfer technique, crystalline black phosphorus flakes are harnessed to enable drumhead resonators vibrating at high and very high frequencies (HF and VHF bands, up to ∼100 MHz). We investigate the resonant vibrational responses from the black phosphorus crystals by devising both electrical and optical excitation schemes, in addition to measuring the undriven thermomechanical motions in these suspended nanostructures. Flakes with thicknesses from ∼200 nm down to ∼20 nm clearly exhibit elastic characteristics transitioning from the plate to the membrane regime. Both frequency- and time-domain measurements of the nanomechanical resonances show that very thin black phosphorus crystals hold interesting potential for moveable and vibratory devices and for semiconductor transducers where high-speed mechanical motions could be coupled to the attractive electronic and optoelectronic properties of black phosphorus.

  10. Exploitation of resonance Raman spectroscopy as a remote chemical sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Sedlacek, A.J.; Chen, C.L.

    1995-08-01

    We have discussed recent experimental results using a resonance-Raman-based LIDAR system as a remote chemical sensor. This spectroscopy has the fundamental advantage that it is based on optical fingerprints that are insensitive to environmental perturbations. By taking advantage of resonance enhancement, which 6 orders-of-magnitude, can be as large as 4 to an increased sensing range for a given chemical concentration or lower detection limit for a given stand-off distance can be realized. The success discussed above can in part be traced back to the use of new state-of-the-art technologies which, only recently, have allowed the phenomenon of resonance-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to be fully exploited as a remote chemical sensor platform. Since many chemicals have electronic transitions in the UV/IS, it is expected that many will have pronounced resonance enhancements.

  11. Black phosphorus nanoelectromechanical resonators vibrating at very high frequencies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zenghui; Jia, Hao; Zheng, Xuqian; Yang, Rui; Wang, Zefang; Ye, G J; Chen, X H; Shan, Jie; Feng, Philip X-L

    2015-01-21

    We report on the experimental demonstration of a new type of nanoelectromechanical resonator based on black phosphorus crystals. Facilitated by a highly efficient dry transfer technique, crystalline black phosphorus flakes are harnessed to enable drumhead resonators vibrating at high and very high frequencies (HF and VHF bands, up to ∼100 MHz). We investigate the resonant vibrational responses from the black phosphorus crystals by devising both electrical and optical excitation schemes, in addition to measuring the undriven thermomechanical motions in these suspended nanostructures. Flakes with thicknesses from ∼200 nm down to ∼20 nm clearly exhibit elastic characteristics transitioning from the plate to the membrane regime. Both frequency- and time-domain measurements of the nanomechanical resonances show that very thin black phosphorus crystals hold interesting potential for moveable and vibratory devices and for semiconductor transducers where high-speed mechanical motions could be coupled to the attractive electronic and optoelectronic properties of black phosphorus. PMID:25385657

  12. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOEpatents

    Coslow, B.J.; Whidden, G.L.

    1999-05-25

    A method is described for converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit. 7 figs.

  13. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOEpatents

    Coslow, Billy Joe; Whidden, Graydon Lane

    1999-01-01

    A method of converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit.

  14. Three-colour CARS spectroscopy of the OH radical at triple resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attal-Tretout, B.; Berlemont, P.; Taran, J. P.

    A coherent anti-Stokes Raman-scattering (CARS) study of the OH radical is conducted using resonance enhancement from the A 2Sigma(+) - X 2Pi transition. A review of previous work on resonance-enhanced CARS is first given. The OH radical has specific one-photon spectral properties that lead to original CARS features; main and satellite CARS processes are thus defined at resonance. The use of resonance-enhanced CARS for the detection of OH is discussed. Optimum detectivity is obtained at triple resonance. Triple resonance can be nearly achieved using only two lasers on satellite CARS lines, but the best results are obtained on the main CARS lines using three lasers. This is verified experimentally in a discharge and in a one-atmosphere flat flame. Extra resonances from the excited electronic-state vibration are clearly seen. The results indicate that detection of OH in flames at high pressures should be easily feasible.

  15. Modulating the Near Field Coupling through Resonator Displacement in Planar Terahertz Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan Rao, S. Jagan; Kumar, Deepak; Kumar, Gagan; Chowdhury, Dibakar Roy

    2016-10-01

    We present the effect of vertical displacements between the resonators inside the unit cell of planar coupled metamaterials on their near field coupling and hence on the terahertz (THz) wave modulation. The metamolecule design consists of two planar split- ring resonators (SRRs) in a unit cell which are coupled through their near fields. The numerically simulated transmission spectrum is found to have split resonances due to the resonance mode hybridization effect. With the increase in displacement between the near field coupled SRRs, this metamaterial system shows a transition from coupled to uncoupled state through merging of the split resonances to the single intrinsic resonance. We have used a semi-analytical model describing the effect of displacements between the resonators and determine that it can predict the numerically simulated results. The outcome could be useful in modulating the terahertz waves employing near field coupled metamaterials, hence, can be useful in the development of terahertz modulators and frequency tunable devices in future.

  16. Quartz resonator processing system

    DOEpatents

    Peters, Roswell D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a single chamber ultra-high vacuum processing system for the oduction of hermetically sealed quartz resonators wherein electrode metallization and sealing are carried out along with cleaning and bake-out without any air exposure between the processing steps. The system includes a common vacuum chamber in which is located a rotatable wheel-like member which is adapted to move a plurality of individual component sets of a flat pack resonator unit past discretely located processing stations in said chamber whereupon electrode deposition takes place followed by the placement of ceramic covers over a frame containing a resonator element and then to a sealing stage where a pair of hydraulic rams including heating elements effect a metallized bonding of the covers to the frame.

  17. Nuclear resonant spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturhahn, Wolfgang

    2004-02-01

    Nuclear resonant scattering techniques with synchrotron radiation (SR) are introduced on a basic level. We focus on the theoretical background and on experimental aspects of two popular methods with a widening range of applications, nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy. The inelastic method provides specific vibrational information, e.g., the phonon density of states. The Mössbauer method permits determination of hyperfine interactions. All nuclear resonance techniques take full advantage of the unique properties of SR: intensity, collimation, time structure, and polarization. As a result both methods discussed here have led to novel applications for materials under extreme conditions, proteins with biological functionality, and magnetic nanostructures.

  18. Collider Signal I :. Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, Tim M. P.

    2010-08-01

    These TASI lectures were part of the summer school in 2008 and cover the collider signal associated with resonances in models of physics beyond the Standard Model. I begin with a review of the Z boson, one of the best-studied resonances in particle physics, and review how the Breit-Wigner form of the propagator emerges in perturbation theory and discuss the narrow width approximation. I review how the LEP and SLAC experiments could use the kinematics of Z events to learn about fermion couplings to the Z. I then make a brief survey of models of physics beyond the Standard Model which predict resonances, and discuss some of the LHC observables which we can use to discover and identify the nature of the BSM physics. I finish up with a discussion of the linear moose that one can use for an effective theory description of a massive color octet vector particle.

  19. Magnetostrictive resonance excitation

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, Ricardo B.; Kuokkala, Veli-Tapani

    1992-01-01

    The resonance frequency spectrum of a magnetostrictive sample is remotely determined by exciting the magnetostrictive property with an oscillating magnetic field. The permeability of a magnetostrictive material and concomitant coupling with a detection coil varies with the strain in the material whereby resonance responses of the sample can be readily detected. A suitable sample may be a magnetostrictive material or some other material having at least one side coated with a magnetostrictive material. When the sample is a suitable shape, i.e., a cube, rectangular parallelepiped, solid sphere or spherical shell, the elastic moduli or the material can be analytically determined from the measured resonance frequency spectrum. No mechanical transducers are required and the sample excitation is obtained without contact with the sample, leading to highly reproducible results and a measurement capability over a wide temperature range, e.g. from liquid nitrogen temperature to the Curie temperature of the magnetostrictive material.

  20. Detection of Hot Earths by Giant Planet Transit Tming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Drake; Jennings, Donald E.; Sada, Pedro

    2008-08-01

    Many exoplanet systems contain Jupiter-mass planets on close-in orbits. Theories of planetary system formation account for these hot Jupiters as being end states of inward migration. Variants of those theories also predict terrestrial planets to be captured in mean motion resonance with the hot Jupiters. A recent explosion of discoveries by transit surveys have given us a sample of 25 hot Jupiters transiting stars brighter than V=13. A transit timing survey of these systems could detect hot Earths in resonance, via the large (typically 180 second) perturbations they induce on the giant planet transits. The relatively large sample now available implies that a transit timing survey is well matched to classical observing and telescope scheduling. We propose exploratory observations to perform transit photometry using the 2.1-meter/FLAMINGOS instrument in the J-band, where stellar limb darkening is minimal and transit photometry has maximum sensitivity to shifts in transit time. If our exploratory observations confirm timing precision approaching the predicted values (about 10 seconds for a typical system), we will propose additional observations in later semesters to establish a timing survey.

  1. Method for resonant measurement

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, George W.; Migliori, Albert; Dixon, Raymond D.

    1996-01-01

    A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson's ratio (.sigma.) and shear modulus (.mu.) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson's ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson's ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson's ratio.

  2. Physics of Sports: Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, David

    2000-04-01

    When force is applied by an athlete to sports equipment resonances can occur. Just a few examples are: the ringing of a spiked volleyball, the strumming of a golf club shaft during a swing, and multiple modes induced in an aluminum baseball bat when striking a ball. Resonances produce acoustic waves which, if conditions are favorable, can be detected off the playing field. This can provide a means to evaluate athletic performance during game conditions. Results are given from the use of a simple hand-held acoustic detector - by a spectator sitting in the stands - to determine how hard volleyballs were spiked during college and high school games.

  3. Hexagonal quartz resonator

    DOEpatents

    Peters, R.D.M.

    1982-11-02

    A generally flat, relatively thin AT-cut piezoelectric resonator element structured to minimize the force-frequency effect when mounted and energized in a housing. The resonator is in the form of an equilateral hexagon with the X crystallographic axis of the crystal passing through one set of opposing corners with mounting being effected at an adjacent set of corners respectively [+-]60[degree] away from the X axis which thereby results in a substantially zero frequency shift of the operating frequency. 3 figs.

  4. Magnetic resonance annual, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kressel, H.Y.

    1987-01-01

    This book features reviews of high-resolution MRI of the knee, MRI of the normal and ischmeic hip, MRI of the heart, and temporomandibular joint imaging, as well as thorough discussion on artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging. Contributors consider the clinical applications of gadolinium-DTPA in magnetic resonance imaging and the clinical use of partial saturation and saturation recovery sequences. Timely reports assess the current status of rapid MRI and describe a new rapid gated cine MRI technique. Also included is an analysis of cerebrospinal fluid flow effects during MRI of the central nervous system.

  5. Optical microbubble resonator.

    PubMed

    Sumetsky, M; Dulashko, Y; Windeler, R S

    2010-04-01

    We develop a method for fabricating very small silica microbubbles having a micrometer-order wall thickness and demonstrate the first optical microbubble resonator. Our method is based on blowing a microbubble using stable radiative CO(2) laser heating rather than unstable convective heating in a flame or furnace. Microbubbles are created along a microcapillary and are naturally opened to the input and output microfluidic or gas channels. The demonstrated microbubble resonator has 370 microm diameter, 2 microm wall thickness, and a Q factor exceeding 10(6). PMID:20364162

  6. Method for resonant measurement

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Dixon, R.D.

    1996-03-05

    A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson`s ratio ({sigma}) and shear modulus ({mu}) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson`s ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson`s ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson`s ratio. 1 fig.

  7. Field resonance propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    A propulsion concept was developed based on a proposed resonance between coherent, pulsed electromagnetic wave forms, and gravitational wave forms (or space-time metrics). Using this concept a spacecraft propulsion system potentially capable of galactic and intergalactic travel without prohibitive travel times was designed. The propulsion system utilizes recent research associated with magnetic field line merging, hydromagnetic wave effects, free-electron lasers, laser generation of megagauss fields, and special structural and containment metals. The research required to determine potential, field resonance characteristics and to evaluate various aspects of the spacecraft propulsion design is described.

  8. Conceptualizing Transitions to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of theories of the transition to young adulthood. It sets out the argument for conceptual renewal and discusses some implications of new patterns of transition for adult education.

  9. The Managerial Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneeland, Steven J.

    1980-01-01

    Having identified the problem of managerial transition in a previous article (CE 510 277), the author outlines a strategy for change which includes performance appraisal, definition of the management structure, and counselling for the individual in transition. (SK)

  10. Resonance behavior of atomic and molecular photoionization amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Cherepkov, N. A.; Kuznetsov, V. V.; Semenov, S. K.

    2007-07-15

    The behavior of the partial photoionization amplitudes with a given orbital angular momentum l in the complex plane in resonances is studied. In the autoionization resonances the trajectory of the amplitude in the complex plane corresponds to a circle. With increasing photoelectron energy the amplitude moves about a circle in the counterclockwise direction. The new expressions for the partial amplitudes in the resonance are proposed which are similar to the Fano form but contain the 'partial' profile parameters which are connected with the Fano parameter q by a simple relation. In the giant dipole resonances the amplitudes in the complex plane also move about a circle in the counterclockwise direction provided the Coulomb phase is excluded from the amplitude. In the correlational resonances created by channel interactions with the giant dipole resonance the trajectories of the amplitudes acquire a loop about which the amplitudes move in the counterclockwise direction. Very similar behavior of partial photoionization amplitudes in the complex plane is demonstrated also for the dipole transitions from the K shells of the N{sub 2} molecule in the {sigma}* shape resonance.

  11. High Quality Factor Mechanical Resonators Based on WSe2 Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Morell, Nicolas; Reserbat-Plantey, Antoine; Tsioutsios, Ioannis; Schädler, Kevin G; Dubin, François; Koppens, Frank H L; Bachtold, Adrian

    2016-08-10

    Suspended monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) are membranes that combine ultralow mass and exceptional optical properties, making them intriguing materials for opto-mechanical applications. However, the low measured quality factor of TMD resonators has been a roadblock so far. Here, we report an ultrasensitive optical readout of monolayer TMD resonators that allows us to reveal their mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. We find that the quality factor of monolayer WSe2 resonators greatly increases below room temperature, reaching values as high as 1.6 × 10(4) at liquid nitrogen temperature and 4.7 × 10(4) at liquid helium temperature. This surpasses the quality factor of monolayer graphene resonators with similar surface areas. Upon cooling the resonator, the resonant frequency increases significantly due to the thermal contraction of the WSe2 lattice. These measurements allow us to experimentally study the thermal expansion coefficient of WSe2 monolayers for the first time. High Q-factors are also found in resonators based on MoS2 and MoSe2 monolayers. The high quality-factor found in this work opens new possibilities for coupling mechanical vibrational states to two-dimensional excitons, valley pseudospins, and single quantum emitters and for quantum opto-mechanical experiments based on the Casimir interaction. PMID:27459399

  12. High Quality Factor Mechanical Resonators Based on WSe2 Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Suspended monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) are membranes that combine ultralow mass and exceptional optical properties, making them intriguing materials for opto-mechanical applications. However, the low measured quality factor of TMD resonators has been a roadblock so far. Here, we report an ultrasensitive optical readout of monolayer TMD resonators that allows us to reveal their mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. We find that the quality factor of monolayer WSe2 resonators greatly increases below room temperature, reaching values as high as 1.6 × 104 at liquid nitrogen temperature and 4.7 × 104 at liquid helium temperature. This surpasses the quality factor of monolayer graphene resonators with similar surface areas. Upon cooling the resonator, the resonant frequency increases significantly due to the thermal contraction of the WSe2 lattice. These measurements allow us to experimentally study the thermal expansion coefficient of WSe2 monolayers for the first time. High Q-factors are also found in resonators based on MoS2 and MoSe2 monolayers. The high quality-factor found in this work opens new possibilities for coupling mechanical vibrational states to two-dimensional excitons, valley pseudospins, and single quantum emitters and for quantum opto-mechanical experiments based on the Casimir interaction. PMID:27459399

  13. Transition in Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The concept of a large disturbance bypass mechanism for the initiation of transition is reviewed and studied. This mechanism, or some manifestation thereof, is suspected to be at work in the boundary layers present in a turbine flow passage. Discussion is presented on four relevant subtopics: (1) the effect of upstream disturbances and wakes on transition; (2) transition prediction models, code development, and verification; (3) transition and turbulence measurement techniques; and (4) the hydrodynamic condition of low Reynolds number boundary layers.

  14. Cosmological phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, E.W. |

    1993-10-01

    If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions.

  15. Origins of evolutionary transitions.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Ellen

    2014-04-01

    An 'evolutionary transition in individuality' or 'major transition' is a transformation in the hierarchical level at which natural selection operates on a population. In this article I give an abstract (i.e. level-neutral and substrate-neutral) articulation of the transition process in order to precisely understand how such processes can happen, especially how they can get started. PMID:24736161

  16. Transitivity of Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2011-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to "z". Any claim of empirical violations of transitivity by…

  17. Single spin magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrachtrup, Jörg; Finkler, Amit

    2016-08-01

    Different approaches have improved the sensitivity of either electron or nuclear magnetic resonance to the single spin level. For optical detection it has essentially become routine to observe a single electron spin or nuclear spin. Typically, the systems in use are carefully designed to allow for single spin detection and manipulation, and of those systems, diamond spin defects rank very high, being so robust that they can be addressed, read out and coherently controlled even under ambient conditions and in a versatile set of nanostructures. This renders them as a new type of sensor, which has been shown to detect single electron and nuclear spins among other quantities like force, pressure and temperature. Adapting pulse sequences from classic NMR and EPR, and combined with high resolution optical microscopy, proximity to the target sample and nanoscale size, the diamond sensors have the potential to constitute a new class of magnetic resonance detectors with single spin sensitivity. As diamond sensors can be operated under ambient conditions, they offer potential application across a multitude of disciplines. Here we review the different existing techniques for magnetic resonance, with a focus on diamond defect spin sensors, showing their potential as versatile sensors for ultra-sensitive magnetic resonance with nanoscale spatial resolution.

  18. Double resonator cantilever accelerometer

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, Dale R.

    1984-01-01

    A digital quartz accelerometer includes a pair of spaced double-ended tuning forks fastened at one end to a base and at the other end through a spacer mass. Transverse movement of the resonator members stresses one and compresses the other, providing a differential frequency output which is indicative of acceleration.

  19. Double resonator cantilever accelerometer

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, D.R.

    1982-09-23

    A digital quartz accelerometer includes a pair of spaced double-ended tuning forks fastened at one end to a base and at the other end through a spacer mass. Transverse movement of the resonator members stresses one and compresses the other, providing a differential frequency output which is indicative of acceleration.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Annual, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Kressel, H.Y.

    1985-01-01

    The inaugural volume of Magnetic Resonance Annual includes reviews of MRI of the posterior fossa, cerebral neoplasms, and the cardiovascular and genitourinary systems. A chapter on contrast materials outlines the mechanisms of paramagnetic contrast enhancement and highlights several promising contrast agents.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, D.D.; Bradley, W.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a review of magnetic resonance imaging. Many topics are explored from instrumentation, spectroscopy, blood flow and sodium imaging to detailed clinical applications such as the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis or adrenal adenoma. The emphasis throughout is on descriptions of normal multiplanar anatomy and pathology as displayed by MRI.

  2. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…

  3. RESONATOR PARTICLE SEPARATOR

    DOEpatents

    Blewett, J.P.; Kiesling, J.D.

    1963-06-11

    A wave-guide resonator structure is designed for use in separating particles of equal momentum but differing in mass, having energies exceeding one billion eiectron volts. The particles referred to are those of sub-atomic size and are generally produced as a result of the bombardment of a target by a beam such as protons produced in a high energy accelerator. In the resonator a travelling electric wave is produced which travels at the same rate of speed as the unwanted particle which is thus deflected continuously over the length of the resonator. The wanted particle is slightly out of phase with the travelling wave so that over the whole length of the resonator it has a net deflection of substantially zero. The travelling wave is established in a wave guide of rectangular cross section in which stubs are provided to store magnetic wave energy leaving the electric wave energy in the main structure to obtain the desired travelling wave and deflection. The stubs are of such shape and spacing to establish a critical mathemitical relationship. (AEC)

  4. Single spin magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wrachtrup, Jörg; Finkler, Amit

    2016-08-01

    Different approaches have improved the sensitivity of either electron or nuclear magnetic resonance to the single spin level. For optical detection it has essentially become routine to observe a single electron spin or nuclear spin. Typically, the systems in use are carefully designed to allow for single spin detection and manipulation, and of those systems, diamond spin defects rank very high, being so robust that they can be addressed, read out and coherently controlled even under ambient conditions and in a versatile set of nanostructures. This renders them as a new type of sensor, which has been shown to detect single electron and nuclear spins among other quantities like force, pressure and temperature. Adapting pulse sequences from classic NMR and EPR, and combined with high resolution optical microscopy, proximity to the target sample and nanoscale size, the diamond sensors have the potential to constitute a new class of magnetic resonance detectors with single spin sensitivity. As diamond sensors can be operated under ambient conditions, they offer potential application across a multitude of disciplines. Here we review the different existing techniques for magnetic resonance, with a focus on diamond defect spin sensors, showing their potential as versatile sensors for ultra-sensitive magnetic resonance with nanoscale spatial resolution.

  5. Resonance Ionization, Mass Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, J. P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is an analytical technique that uses photons from lasers to resonantly excite an electron from some initial state of a gaseous atom through various excited states of the atom or molecule. Described are the apparatus, some analytical applications, and the precision and accuracy of the technique. Lists 26 references. (CW)

  6. Width of nonlinear resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnuma, S.

    1984-03-01

    Two approximations are made, one essential and the other not so essential but convenient to keep the analytical treatment manageable: (1) Only one nonlinear resonance is considered at a time so that the treatment is best suited when the tune is close to one resonance only. To improve this approximation, one must go to the next order which involves a canonical transformation of dynamical variables. Analytical treatment of more than one resonance is not possible for general cases. (2) In the formalism using the action-angle variables, the Hamiltonian can have terms which are independent of the angle variables. These terms are called phase-independent terms or shear terms. The tune is then a function of the oscillation amplitudes. In the lowest-order treatment, the (4N)-pole components but not the (4N + 2)-pole components contribute to this dependence. In deriving the resonance width analytically, one ignores these terms in the Hamiltonian for the sake of simplicity. If these are retained, one needs at least three extra parameters and the analytical treatment becomes rather unwieldy.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yuan-Yu; Du, An-Tao; Schuff, Norbert; Weiner, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent studies of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, idiopathic Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and vascular dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy can detect structural alteration and biochemical abnormalities in the brain of demented subjects and may help in the differential diagnosis and early detection of affected individuals, monitoring disease progression, and evaluation of therapeutic effect. PMID:11563438

  8. Trapped Ion Magnetic Resonance: Concepts and Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizarro, Pedro Jose

    A novel spectroscopy of trapped ions is proposed which will bring single-ion detection sensitivity to the observation of magnetic resonance spectra and resolve the apparent incompatibility in existing techniques between high information content and high sensitivity. Methods for studying both electron spin resonance (ESR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are designed. They assume established techniques for trapping ions in high magnetic field and observing electrically the trapping frequencies with high resolution (<1 Hz) and sensitivity (single -ion). A magnetic bottle field gradient couples the spin and spatial motions together and leads to the small spin -dependent force on the ion exploited by Dehmelt to observe directly the perturbation of the ground-state electron's axial frequency by its spin magnetic moment. A series of fundamental innovations is described to extend magnetic resonance to molecular ions ( cong 100 amu) and nuclear magnetic moments. It is demonstrated how time-domain trapping frequency observations before and after magnetic resonance can be used to make cooling of the particle to its ground state unnecessary. Adiabatic cycling of the magnetic bottle off between detection periods is shown to be practical and to allow high-resolution magnetic resonance to be encoded pointwise as the presence or absence of trapping frequency shifts. Methods of inducing spin -dependent work on the ion orbits with magnetic field gradients and Larmor frequency irradiation are proposed which greatly amplify the attainable shifts in trapping frequency. The first proposal presented builds on Dehmelt's experiment to reveal ESR spectra. A more powerful technique for ESR is then designed where axially synchronized spin transitions perform spin-dependent work in the presence of a magnetic bottle, which also converts axial amplitude changes into cyclotron frequency shifts. The most general approach presented is a continuous Stern-Gerlach effect in which a magnetic field

  9. Neutral Pion Electroproduction in the Δ Resonance Region

    SciTech Connect

    Villano, Anthony

    2007-11-01

    The electroproduction of baryon resonances at high Q2 is examined. Analysis focuses on the Δ(1232) resonance via exclusive pseudoscalar meson production of π0 particles. Differential cross sections are extracted for exclusive π0 electroproduction. In the central invariant mass (W) region the cross sections are used to extract resonant multipole amplitudes. In particular, the ratio of the electric quadrupole to magnetic dipole amplitudes (E2/M1) will be discussed for the Δ(1232) resonance. The transition to pQCD is discussed in terms of E2/M1 and other multipoles. The helicity amplitude A3/2 can be used as a baryon helicity conservation meter in this context and will be discussed. The fast shrinking of the resonant contribution in the Δ region is observed at this high momentum transfer. Apart from the observables related to pQCD scaling, the transition form factor G$*\\atop{M}$ is extracted along with the scalar to magnetic dipole ratio C2/M1.

  10. Resonances in extreme mass-ratio inspirals: Asymptotic and hyperasymptotic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gair, Jonathan; Yunes, Nicolás; Bender, Carl M.

    2012-03-01

    An expected source of gravitational waves for future detectors in space is the inspirals of small compact objects into much more massive black holes. These sources have the potential to provide a wealth of information about astronomy and fundamental physics. On short time scales the orbit of the small object is approximately geodesic. Generic geodesics for a Kerr black hole spacetime have a complete set of integrals and can be characterized by three frequencies of the motion. Over the course of an inspiral, a typical system will pass through resonances where two of these frequencies become commensurate. The effect of the resonance will be to alter significantly the rate of inspiral for the duration of the resonance. Understanding the impact of these resonances on gravitational wave phasing is important for the detection of these signals and for the exploitation of the observations for astrophysics and fundamental physics. Two differential equations that might describe the passage of an inspiral through such a resonance are investigated. These differences depending on whether it is the phase or the frequency components of a Fourier expansion of the motion that are taken to be continuous through the resonance. Asymptotic and hyperasymptotic analysis are used to find the late-time analytic behavior of the solution for a system that has passed through a resonance. Linearly growing (weak resonances) or linearly decaying (strong resonances) solutions are found depending on the strength of the resonance. In the weak-resonance case, frequency resonances leave an imprint (a resonant memory) on the gravitational wave frequency evolution. For frequency resonances, the transition between weak and strong resonances is characterized by a square-root-branch-cut singularity. On the strong resonance side of this singularity, solutions starting with different initial conditions bunch up into groups exponentially in the independent variable (time) and we show how this behavior can be

  11. High-Q bandpass resonators utilizing bandstop resonator pairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okean, H. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A high-Q bandpass resonators utilizing composite bandstop resonator pairs is reported. The bandstop resonator pairs are formed of composite series or parallel connected realizable transmission line elements. The elements are exclusively either quarter-wavelength lines or half-wavelength lines.

  12. Resonance enhancement of neutrinoless double electron capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivoruchenko, M. I.; Šimkovic, Fedor; Frekers, Dieter; Faessler, Amand

    2011-06-01

    The process of neutrinoless double electron (0νECEC) capture is revisited for those cases where the two participating atoms are nearly degenerate in mass. The theoretical framework is the formalism of an oscillation of two atoms with different total lepton number (and parity), one of which can be in an excited state so that mass degeneracy is realized. In such a case and assuming light Majorana neutrinos, the two atoms will be in a mixed configuration with respect to the weak interaction. A resonant enhancement of transitions between such pairs of atoms will occur, which could be detected by the subsequent electromagnetic de-excitation of the excited state of the daughter atom and nucleus. Available data of atomic masses, as well as nuclear and atomic excitations are used to select the most likely candidates for the resonant transitions. Assuming an effective mass for the Majorana neutrino of 1 eV, some half-lives are predicted to be as low as 1022 years in the unitary limit. It is argued that, in order to obtain more accurate predictions for the 0νECEC half-lives, precision mass measurements of the atoms involved are necessary, which can readily be accomplished by today's high precision Penning traps. Further advancements also require a better understanding of high-lying excited states of the final nuclei (i.e. excitation energy, angular momentum and parity) and the calculation of the nuclear matrix elements.

  13. Modeling the transition region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Bart A.

    1993-01-01

    The current status of transition-region models is reviewed in this report. To understand modeling problems, various flow features that influence the transition process are discussed first. Then an overview of the different approaches to transition-region modeling is given. This is followed by a detailed discussion of turbulence models and the specific modifications that are needed to predict flows undergoing laminar-turbulent transition. Methods for determining the usefulness of the models are presented, and an outlook for the future of transition-region modeling is suggested.

  14. Double resonant wideband Purcell effect in wire metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirmoosa, M. S.; Kosulnikov, S. Yu; Simovski, C. R.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we theoretically show that a broadband resonant enhancement of emission may occur for infrared sources located in a polaritonic wire medium. The reason for this enhancement is the overlapping of two topological transitions of the wave dispersion in the medium. The first topological transition has been revealed as an effect inherent to polaritonic wire media at a certain frequency in the mid-infrared range. This work uncovers another topological transition for such wire media which holds at a higher frequency but still in the mid infrared. We show that the first transition frequency can be shifted towards the second one by variation of the design parameters. This shift enables a broadband resonant Purcell factor. We compare the results obtained for two orientations of a subwavelength electric dipole embedded into the wire medium—that along the optical axis and that perpendicular to it—and report on the resonant isotropic radiation enhancement. Also, we reveal the enhancement of radiation to the free space from a finite sample of the wire medium.

  15. Does the transition to chaos determine the dynamic aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Jowett, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    We review the important notion of the dynamic aperture of a storage ring with emphasis on its relation to general ideas of dynamical instability, notably the transition to chaos. Practical approaches to the problem are compared. We suggest a somewhat novel quantitative guide to the old problem of choosing machine tunes based on a heuristic blend of KAM theory and resonance selection rules.

  16. Acoustic Detection of Phase Transitions at the Nanoscale

    DOE PAGES

    Vasudevan, Rama K.; Khassaf, Hamidreza; Cao, Ye; Zhang, Shujun; Tselev, Alexander; Carmichael, Ben D.; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Jesse, Stephen; Chen, Long-Qing; Alpay, S. Pamir; et al

    2016-01-25

    On page 478, N. Bassiri-Gharb and co-workers demonstrate acoustic detection in nanoscale volumes by use of an atomic force microscope tip technique. Elastic changes in volume are measured by detecting changes in resonance of the cantilever. Also, the electric field in this case causes a phase transition, which is modeled by Landau theory.

  17. Infrared cubic dielectric resonator metamaterial.

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Brener, Igal; Peters, David William; Ginn, James Cleveland, III; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2010-06-01

    Dielectric resonators are an effective means to realize isotropic, low-loss optical metamaterials. As proof of this concept, a cubic resonator is analytically designed and then tested in the long-wave infrared.

  18. Gifts from Exoplanetary Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Norio

    2009-08-01

    The discovery of transiting extrasolar planets has enabled us to do a number of interesting studies. Transit photometry reveals the radius and the orbital inclination of transiting planets, which allows us to learn the true mass and density of the respective planets by the combined information from radial velocity (RV) measurements. In addition, follow-up observations of transiting planets, looking at such things as secondary eclipses, transit timing variations, transmission spectroscopy, and the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, provide us information about their dayside temperatures, unseen bodies in systems, planetary atmospheres, and the obliquity of planetary orbits. Such observational information, which will provide us a greater understanding of extrasolar planets, is available only for transiting planets. Here, I briefly summarize what we can learn from transiting planets and introduce previous studies.

  19. Resonant tunnelling in a quantum oxide superlattice

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Woo Seok; Lee, Sang A.; You, Jeong Ho; Lee, Suyoun; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2015-06-24

    Resonant tunneling is a quantum mechanical process that has long been attracting both scientific and technological attention owing to its intriguing underlying physics and unique applications for high-speed electronics. The materials system exhibiting resonant tunneling, however, has been largely limited to the conventional semiconductors, partially due to their excellent crystalline quality. Here we show that a deliberately designed transition metal oxide superlattice exhibits a resonant tunneling behaviour with a clear negative differential resistance. The tunneling occurred through an atomically thin, lanthanum δ- doped SrTiO3 layer, and the negative differential resistance was realized on top of the bi-polar resistance switching typically observed for perovskite oxide junctions. This combined process resulted in an extremely large resistance ratio (~105) between the high and low resistance states. Lastly, the unprecedentedly large control found in atomically thin δ-doped oxide superlattices can open a door to novel oxide-based high-frequency logic devices.

  20. Resonant tunnelling in a quantum oxide superlattice

    DOE PAGES

    Choi, Woo Seok; Lee, Sang A.; You, Jeong Ho; Lee, Suyoun; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2015-06-24

    Resonant tunneling is a quantum mechanical process that has long been attracting both scientific and technological attention owing to its intriguing underlying physics and unique applications for high-speed electronics. The materials system exhibiting resonant tunneling, however, has been largely limited to the conventional semiconductors, partially due to their excellent crystalline quality. Here we show that a deliberately designed transition metal oxide superlattice exhibits a resonant tunneling behaviour with a clear negative differential resistance. The tunneling occurred through an atomically thin, lanthanum δ- doped SrTiO3 layer, and the negative differential resistance was realized on top of the bi-polar resistance switching typicallymore » observed for perovskite oxide junctions. This combined process resulted in an extremely large resistance ratio (~105) between the high and low resistance states. Lastly, the unprecedentedly large control found in atomically thin δ-doped oxide superlattices can open a door to novel oxide-based high-frequency logic devices.« less

  1. Birth of a resonant attosecond wavepacket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argenti, L.; Gruson, V.; Barreau, L.; Jimenez-Galan, A.; Risoud, F.; Caillat, J.; Maquet, A.; Carre, B.; Lepetit, F.; Hergott, J.-F.; Ruchon, T.; Taieb, R.; Martin, F.; Salieres, P.

    2016-05-01

    Both amplitude and phase are needed to characterize the dynamics of a wavepacket. However, such characterization is difficult when both attosecond and femtosecond timescales are involved, as it is the case for broadband photoionization to a continuum encompassing autoionizing states. Here we demonstrate that Rainbow RABBIT, a new attosecond interferometry, allows the measurement of amplitude and phase of a photoelectron wavepacket created through a Fano resonance with unprecedented precision. In the experiment, a tunable attosecond pulse train is combined with the fundamental laser pulse to induce two-photon transitions in helium via an intermediate autoionizing state. From the energy and time-delay resolved signal, we fully reconstruct the resonant electron wavepacket as it builds up in the continuum. Measurements accurately match the predictions of a new time-resolved multi-photon resonant model, known to reproduce ab initio calculations. This agreement confirms the potential of Rainbow RABBIT to investigate photoemission delays in ultrafast processes governed by electron correlation, as well as to control structured electron wavepackets. now at Univ. Central Florida, Orlando, FL (USA).

  2. Sinusoidal Regge Oscillations from Short Lived Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovski, D.; Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.

    2007-06-01

    It is well known that a resonance with a large angular life can produce sharp Breit-Wigner peaks in the energy dependence of integral cross sections [1,2]. Here we show that a short-lived resonance whose angular life is of order of one full rotation may produce a different kind of contribution to the integral cross section. This contribution has a sinousoidal form and its frequency is determined by the rotational constant of the complex. As one of the examples, we analyze the Regge oscillations observed in numerical simulations of the F+H2(v=0,j=0,φ=0) ->FH(v'=2,j'=0,φ'=0) + H reaction. In particular, we show that these oscillations are produced by two overlapping resonances located near the transition state and the van der Waals well, respectively [3]. [1] J. H. Macek, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 93, 183202, (2004). [2] Z. Felfli et al., J. Phys. B 39, L353 (2006) [3] D. Sokolovski, D. De Fazio, S. Cavalli and V. Aquilanti, J. Chem. Phys. (2007) (submitted).

  3. Liquid crystal filled surface plasmon resonance thermometer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mengdi; Zhang, Xinpu; Liang, Yuzhang; Li, Lixia; Masson, Jean-Francois; Peng, Wei

    2016-05-16

    A novel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) thermometer based on liquid crystal (LC) filled hollow fiber is demonstrated in this paper. A hollow fiber was internally coated with silver and then filled with LC. The SPR response to temperature was studied using modeling and verified experimentally. The results demonstrated that the refractive index of LC decreases with the increasing temperature and the variation can be detected by the resonance wavelength shift of the plasmon resonance. The temperature sensitivities were 4.72 nm/°C in the temperature range of 20 to 34.5 °C and 0.55 nm/°C in the temperature range of 36 to 50 °C, At the phase transition temperature between nematic and isotropic phases of the LC, the temperature sensitivity increased by one order of magnitude and a shift of more than 46 nm was observed with only a 1.5 °C temperature change. This sensor can be used for temperature monitoring and alarming, and can be extended for other physical parameter measurement. PMID:27409911

  4. Non-intrusive tunable resonant microwave cavity for optical detected magnetic resonance of NV centres in nanodiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Floch, Jean-Michel; Bradac, Carlo; Volz, Thomas; Tobar, Michael E.; Castelletto, Stefania

    2013-12-01

    Optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in nanodiamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres is usually achieved by applying a microwave field delivered by micron-size wires, strips or antennas directly positioned in very close proximity (~ μm) of the nanodiamond crystals. The microwave field couples evanescently with the ground state spin transition of the NV centre (2.87 GHz at zero magnetic field), which results in a reduction of the centre photoluminescence. We propose an alternative approach based on the construction of a dielectric resonator. We show that such a resonator allows for the efficient detection of NV spins in nanodiamonds without the constraints associated to the laborious positioning of the microwave antenna next to the nanodiamonds, providing therefore improved flexibility. The resonator is based on a tunable Transverse Electric Mode in a dielectric-loaded cavity, and we demonstrate that the resonator can detect single NV centre spins in nanodiamonds using less microwave power than alternative techniques in a non-intrusive manner. This method can achieve higher precision measurement of ODMR of paramagnetic defects spin transition in the micro to millimetre-wave frequency domain. Our approach would permit the tracking of NV centres in biological solutions rather than simply on the surface, which is desirable in light of the recently proposed applications of using nanodiamonds containing NV centres for spin labelling in biological systems with single spin and single particle resolution.

  5. Non-resonant triple alpha reaction rate at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, T.; Tamii, A.; Aoi, N.; Fujita, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Miki, K.; Ogata, K.; Carter, J.; Donaldson, L.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Furuno, T.; Kawabata, T.; Kamimura, M.; Nemulodi, F.; Neveling, R.; Smit, F. D.; Swarts, C.

    2014-05-02

    Our experimental goal is to study the non-resonant triple alpha reaction rate at low temperture (T < 10{sup 8} K). The {sup 13}C(p,d) reaction at 66 MeV has been used to probe the alpha-unbound continuum state in {sup 12}C just below the 2{sup nd} 0{sup +} state at 7.65 MeV. The transition strength to the continuum state is predicted to be sensitive to the non-resonant triple alpha reaction rate. The experiment has been performed at iThemba LABS. We report the present status of the experiment.

  6. Resonant metamaterial detectors based on THz quantum-cascade structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, A.; Krall, M.; Schwarz, S.; Dietze, D.; Detz, H.; Andrews, A. M.; Schrenk, W.; Strasser, G.; Unterrainer, K.

    2014-03-01

    We present the design, fabrication and characterisation of an intersubband detector employing a resonant metamaterial coupling structure. The semiconductor heterostructure relies on a conventional THz quantum-cascade laser design and is operated at zero bias for the detector operation. The same active region can be used to generate or detect light depending on the bias conditions and the vertical confinement. The metamaterial is processed directly into the top metal contact and is used to couple normal incidence radiation resonantly to the intersubband transitions. The device is capable of detecting light below and above the reststrahlenband of gallium-arsenide corresponding to the mid-infrared and THz spectral region.

  7. Resonant metamaterial detectors based on THz quantum-cascade structures

    PubMed Central

    Benz, A.; Krall, M.; Schwarz, S.; Dietze, D.; Detz, H.; Andrews, A. M.; Schrenk, W.; Strasser, G.; Unterrainer, K.

    2014-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication and characterisation of an intersubband detector employing a resonant metamaterial coupling structure. The semiconductor heterostructure relies on a conventional THz quantum-cascade laser design and is operated at zero bias for the detector operation. The same active region can be used to generate or detect light depending on the bias conditions and the vertical confinement. The metamaterial is processed directly into the top metal contact and is used to couple normal incidence radiation resonantly to the intersubband transitions. The device is capable of detecting light below and above the reststrahlenband of gallium-arsenide corresponding to the mid-infrared and THz spectral region. PMID:24608677

  8. Chapter 1 Magnetic Resonance Contributions to Other Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Norman F.

    In 1947, I.I. Rabi invented the molecular beam magnetic resonance method for the important, but limited purpose, of measuring nuclear magnetic moments and five of us working in his laboratory immediately began such experiments. The first experiments with LiCl gave the expected single resonance for each nucleus, but we were surprised to discover six resonances for the proton in H2, which we soon showed was due to the magnetic effects of the other proton and the rotating charged molecule: from these measurements we could also obtain new information on molecular structure. We had another shock when we studied D2 and found the resonance curves were spread more widely for D2 than H2 even though the magnetic interactions should have been much smaller. We found we could explain this by assuming that the deuteron had an electric quadrupole moment and J. Schwinger pointed out that this would require the existence of a previously unsuspected electric tensor force between the neutron and the proton. With this, the resonance method was giving new fundamental information about nuclear forces. In 1944, Rabi and I pointed out that it should be possible by the Dirac theory and our past resonance experiments to calculate exactly the hyperfine interaction between the electron and the proton in the hydrogen atom and we had two graduate students, Nafe and Nelson do the experiment and they found a disagreement which led J. Schwinger to develop the first successful relativistic quantum field theory and QED. In 1964, Purcell, Bloch and others detected magnetic resonance transitions by the effect of the transition on the oscillator, called NMR, making possible measurements on liquids, solids and gases and giving information on chemical shifts and thermal relaxation times T1 and T2. I developed a magnetic resonance method for setting a limit to the EDM of a neutron in a beam and with others for neutrons stored in a suitably coated bottle. Magnetic resonance measurements provide high

  9. Macroscopic resonances in planar geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strutinsky, V.; Vydrug-Vlasenko, S.; Magner, A.

    1987-09-01

    Resonating response is a characteristic feature of free-particle system contained between two vibrating planar surfaces. Resonance frequencies and widths are determined by a mean period of motion of particles reflected from the walls. Resonances due to quasiperiodic macroscopic motion appear when the interaction among quasi-particles by means of perturbations of the common self-consistent field is included. They have finite widths corresponding to collisionless Landau dissipation. Possible relationship of this phenomenon to nuclear giant resonances is discussed.

  10. Energy saver prototype accelerating resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Kerns, Q.; May, M.; Miller, H.W.; Reid, J.; Turkot, F.; Webber, R.; Wildman, D.

    1981-06-01

    A fixed frequency rf accelerating resonator has been built and tested for the Fermilab Energy Saver. The design parameters and prototype resonator test results are given. The resonator features a high permeability nickel alloy resistor which damps unwanted modes and corona rolls designed with the aid of the computer code SUPERFISH. In bench measurements, the prototype resonator has achieved peak accelerating voltages of 500 kV for a 1% duty cycle and cw operation at 360 kV. 4 refs.

  11. Nonlinear microwave photon occupancy of a driven resonator strongly coupled to a transmon qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suri, B.; Keane, Z. K.; Bishop, Lev S.; Novikov, S.; Wellstood, F. C.; Palmer, B. S.

    2015-12-01

    We measure photon occupancy in a thin-film superconducting lumped element resonator coupled to a transmon qubit at 20 mK and find a nonlinear dependence on the applied microwave power. The transmon-resonator system was operated in the strong dispersive regime, where the ac Stark shift (2 χ ) due to a single microwave photon present in the resonator was larger than the linewidth (Γ ) of the qubit transition. When the resonator was coherently driven at 5.474 325 GHz, the transition spectrum of the transmon at 4.982 GHz revealed well-resolved peaks, each corresponding to an individual photon number-state of the resonator. From the relative peak heights we obtain the occupancy of the photon states and the average photon occupancy n ¯ of the resonator. We observe a nonlinear variation of n ¯ with the applied drive power Prf for n ¯<5 and compare our results to numerical simulations of the system-bath master equation in the steady state, as well as to a semiclassical model for the resonator that includes the Jaynes-Cummings interaction between the transmon and the resonator. We find good quantitative agreement using both models and analysis reveals that the nonlinear behavior is principally due to shifts in the resonant frequency caused by a qubit-induced Jaynes-Cummings nonlinearity.

  12. On the complex resonant frequency of open dielectric resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, M.; Shigesawa, H.; Takiyama, K.

    1983-05-01

    An analytical method is presented for calculating accurately the complex resonant frequency of dielectric pillbox resonators. In this method, an approximted field of the resonator is expanded into a truncated series of solutions of the Helmholtz equation in the spherical coordinates, and the boundary condition on the resonator surface is treated in the least-squares sense. The resonant frequency and the intrinsic Q value due to radiation loss are obtained in the form of approximation converging to the exact values. Numerical results are compared with previously published calculations, which show that the present method is a relatively simple and effective one.

  13. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  14. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M.; Nunnally, William C.

    1988-01-01

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Facility (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Magnetic Resonance Facility capabilities and applications at NREL's National Bioenergy Center. Liquid and solid-state analysis capability for a variety of biomass, photovoltaic, and materials characterization applications across NREL. NREL scientists analyze solid and liquid samples on three nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers as well as an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer.

  16. Stochastic resonance in a generalized Von Foerster population growth model

    SciTech Connect

    Lumi, N.; Mankin, R.

    2014-11-12

    The stochastic dynamics of a population growth model, similar to the Von Foerster model for human population, is studied. The influence of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity is modeled as a multiplicative dichotomous noise. It is established that an interplay between nonlinearity and environmental fluctuations can cause single unidirectional discontinuous transitions of the mean population size versus the noise amplitude, i.e., an increase of noise amplitude can induce a jump from a state with a moderate number of individuals to that with a very large number, while by decreasing the noise amplitude an opposite transition cannot be effected. An analytical expression of the mean escape time for such transitions is found. Particularly, it is shown that the mean transition time exhibits a strong minimum at intermediate values of noise correlation time, i.e., the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. Applications of the results in ecology are also discussed.

  17. Efficient primary and parametric resonance excitation of bistable resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramini, A.; Alcheikh, N.; Ilyas, S.; Younis, M. I.

    2016-09-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an efficient approach to excite primary and parametric (up to the 4th) resonance of Microelectromechanical system MEMS arch resonators with large vibrational amplitudes. A single crystal silicon in-plane arch microbeam is fabricated such that it can be excited axially from one of its ends by a parallel-plate electrode. Its micro/nano scale vibrations are transduced using a high speed camera. Through the parallel-plate electrode, a time varying electrostatic force is applied, which is converted into a time varying axial force that modulates dynamically the stiffness of the arch resonator. Due to the initial curvature of the structure, not only parametric excitation is induced, but also primary resonance. Experimental investigation is conducted comparing the response of the arch near primary resonance using the axial excitation to that of a classical parallel-plate actuation where the arch itself forms an electrode. The results show that the axial excitation can be more efficient and requires less power for primary resonance excitation. Moreover, unlike the classical method where the structure is vulnerable to the dynamic pull-in instability, the axial excitation technique can provide large amplitude motion while protecting the structure from pull-in. In addition to primary resonance, parametrical resonances are demonstrated at twice, one-half, and two-thirds the primary resonance frequency. The ability to actuate primary and/or parametric resonances can serve various applications, such as for resonator based logic and memory devices.

  18. RESONANT CAVITY EXCITATION SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.; Kerns, Q.A.; Riedel, J.

    1959-01-13

    An apparatus is presented for exciting a cavity resonator with a minimum of difficulty and, more specifically describes a sub-exciter and an amplifier type pre-exciter for the high-frequency cxcitation of large cavities. Instead of applying full voltage to the main oscillator, a sub-excitation voltage is initially used to establish a base level of oscillation in the cavity. A portion of the cavity encrgy is coupled to the input of the pre-exciter where it is amplified and fed back into the cavity when the pre-exciter is energized. After the voltage in the cavity resonator has reached maximum value under excitation by the pre-exciter, full voltage is applied to the oscillator and the pre-exciter is tunned off. The cavity is then excited to the maximum high voltage value of radio frequency by the oscillator.

  19. Parametric resonance in DNA.

    PubMed

    Lacitignola, Deborah; Saccomandi, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    We consider a simple mesoscopic model of DNA in which the binding of the RNA polymerase enzyme molecule to the promoter sequence of the DNA is included through a substrate energy term modeling the enzymatic interaction with the DNA strands. We focus on the differential system for solitary waves and derive conditions--in terms of the model parameters--for the occurrence of the parametric resonance phenomenon. We find that what truly matters for parametric resonance is not the ratio between the strength of the stacking and the inter-strand forces but the ratio between the substrate and the inter-strands. On the basis of these results, the standard objection that longitudinal motion is negligible because of the second order seems to fail, suggesting that all the studies involving the longitudinal degree of freedom in DNA should be reconsidered when the interaction of the RNA polymerase with the DNA macromolecule is not neglected. PMID:24510728

  20. Saw Blades and Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebl, Michael

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes an inexpensive, classroom experiment that allows students to quantitatively investigate resonance using a hacksaw blade. The blade clamped to the edge of a table forms a cantilever that may vibrate at any of a number of preferred frequencies. A small cylindrical magnet is fixed to the saw blade. An electromagnetic coil powered by a frequency generator causes large-amplitude vibrations of the saw blade at the resonant frequencies. Vibrations of a similar system, a vibrating car antenna, have been discussed by Newburgh and Newburgh. The dramatic increases in the oscillation amplitude are both instructive and fascinating. Analogies may be drawn to systems ranging from a child on a swing to the Tacoma Narrows bridge.

  1. Resonant Cascaded Downconversion

    SciTech Connect

    Weedbrook, Christian; Parrett, Ben; Kheruntsyan, Karen; Drummond, Peter; Pooser, Raphael C; Pfister, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    We analyze an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) in which cascaded down-conversion occurs inside a cavity resonant for all modes but the initial pump. Due to the resonant cascade design, the OPO presents two {chi}{sup (2)}-level oscillation thresholds that are therefore much lower than for a {chi}{sup (3)} OPO. This is promising for reaching the regime of an effective third-order nonlinearity well above both thresholds. Such a {chi}{sup (2)} cascaded device also has potential applications in frequency conversion to far-infrared regimes. But, most importantly, it can generate novel multipartite quantum correlations in the output radiation, which represent a step beyond squeezed or entangled light. The output can be highly non-Gaussian and therefore not describable by any semiclassical model. In this paper, we derive quantum stochastic equations in the positive-P representation and undertake an analysis of steady-state and dynamical properties of this system.

  2. Resonant SIMP dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Soo-Min; Lee, Hyun Min

    2016-07-01

    We consider a resonant SIMP dark matter in models with two singlet complex scalar fields charged under a local dark U(1)D. After the U(1)D is broken down to a Z5 discrete subgroup, the lighter scalar field becomes a SIMP dark matter which has the enhanced 3 → 2 annihilation cross section near the resonance of the heavier scalar field. Bounds on the SIMP self-scattering cross section and the relic density can be fulfilled at the same time for perturbative couplings of SIMP. A small gauge kinetic mixing between the SM hypercharge and dark gauge bosons can be used to make SIMP dark matter in kinetic equilibrium with the SM during freeze-out.

  3. Photorefractivity in WGM resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Strekalov, Dmitry; Ilchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute

    2006-01-01

    We report on observation of photorefractive effects in whispering gallery mode resonators made of as-grown and magnesium doped lithium niobate and lithium tantalate in the near as well as far infrared. The effects manifested themselves as dynamic modification of the spectra as well as quality factors of the resonators coupled to the laser radiation. We have observed a significant (exceeding 10-4) change of the ordinary index of refraction of all the materials exposed with 780 nm light. Photorefractive effects have also been detected at 1550 nm. Our experiments support the conclusion that the photorefractivity does not have a distinct red boundary. We show that the maximum saturated refractive index change in the infrared is of the same order of magnitude as in the visible light.

  4. Resonant magnetic vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Decanini, Yves; Folacci, Antoine

    2003-04-01

    By using the complex angular momentum method, we provide a semiclassical analysis of electron scattering by a magnetic vortex of Aharonov-Bohm type. Regge poles of the S matrix are associated with surface waves orbiting around the vortex and supported by a magnetic field discontinuity. Rapid variations of sharp characteristic shapes can be observed on scattering cross sections. They correspond to quasibound states which are Breit-Wigner-type resonances associated with surface waves and which can be considered as quantum analogues of acoustic whispering-gallery modes. Such a resonant magnetic vortex could provide a different kind of artificial atom while the semiclassical approach developed here could be profitably extended in various areas of the physics of vortices.

  5. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  6. Auger resonant Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Azuma, Y.; LeBrun, T.; MacDonald, M.; Southworth, S.H.

    1995-08-01

    As noted above, traditional spectroscopy of the electronic structure of the inner shells of atoms, molecules, and solids is limited by the lifetime broadening of the core-excited states. This limitation can also be avoided with the non-radiative analog of X-ray Raman scattering - resonant Auger Raman spectroscopy. We have used this technique to study the K-shell excitation spectrum of argon as the photon energy is continuously scanned across threshold.

  7. Resonant diphoton phenomenology simplified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panico, Giuliano; Vecchi, Luca; Wulzer, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    A framework is proposed to describe resonant diphoton phenomenology at hadron colliders in full generality. It can be employed for a comprehensive model-independent interpretation of the experimental data. Within the general framework, few benchmark scenarios are defined as representative of the various phenomenological options and/or of motivated new physics scenarios. Their usage is illustrated by performing a characterization of the 750 GeV excess, based on a recast of available experimental results.

  8. Cross resonant optical antenna.

    PubMed

    Biagioni, P; Huang, J S; Duò, L; Finazzi, M; Hecht, B

    2009-06-26

    We propose a novel cross resonant optical antenna consisting of two perpendicular nanosized gold dipole antennas with a common feed gap. We demonstrate that the cross antenna is able to convert propagating fields of any polarization state into correspondingly polarized, localized, and enhanced fields and vice versa. The cross antenna structure therefore opens the road towards the control of light-matter interactions based on polarized light as well as the analysis of polarized fields on the nanometer scale.

  9. Damping of nanomechanical resonators.

    PubMed

    Unterreithmeier, Quirin P; Faust, Thomas; Kotthaus, Jörg P

    2010-07-01

    We study the transverse oscillatory modes of nanomechanical silicon nitride strings under high tensile stress as a function of geometry and mode index m≤9. Reproducing all observed resonance frequencies with classical elastic theory we extract the relevant elastic constants. Based on the oscillatory local strain we successfully predict the observed mode-dependent damping with a single frequency-independent fit parameter. Our model clarifies the role of tensile stress on damping and hints at the underlying microscopic mechanisms. PMID:20867737

  10. Resonance enhanced tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, S.; Yoshimura, M.

    2000-12-01

    Time evolution of tunneling in thermal medium is examined using the real-time semiclassical formalism previously developed. Effect of anharmonic terms in the potential well is shown to give a new mechanism of resonance enhanced tunneling. If the friction from environment is small enough, this mechanism may give a very large enhancement for the tunneling rate. The case of the asymmetric wine bottle potential is worked out in detail.

  11. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, Ian J.; Wendt, Joel R.

    1994-01-01

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors.

  12. Ultraminiature resonator accelerometer

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, D.R.; Kravitz, S.H.; Vianco, P.T.

    1996-04-01

    A new family of microminiature sensors and clocks is being developed with widespread application potential for missile and weapons applications, as biomedical sensors, as vehicle status monitors, and as high-volume animal identification and health sensors. To satisfy fundamental technology development needs, a micromachined clock and an accelerometer have initially been undertaken as development projects. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micromachined silicon package is used as the frequency-modulated basic component of the sensor family. Resonator design philosophy follows trapped energy principles and temperature compensation methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20--100 MHz range, corresponding to quartz wafer thicknesses in the 75--15 micron range. High-volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Chemical etching of quartz, as well as micromachining of silicon, achieves the surface and volume mechanical features necessary to fashion the resonating element and the mating package. Integration of the associated oscillator and signal analysis circuitry into the silicon package is inherent to the realization of a size reduction requirement. A low temperature In and In/Sn bonding technology allows assembly of the dissimilar quartz and silicon materials, an otherwise challenging task. Unique design features include robust vibration and shock performance, capacitance sensing with micromachined diaphragms, circuit integration, capacitance-to-frequency transduction, and extremely small dimensioning. Accelerometer sensitivities were measured in the 1--3 ppm/g range for the milligram proof-mass structures employed in the prototypes evaluated to date.

  13. RESONATOR PARTICLE SEPARATOR

    DOEpatents

    Blewett, J.P.

    1962-01-01

    A wave guide resonator structure is described for use in separating particles of equal momentum but differing in mass and having energies exceeding one billion electron volts. The particles are those of sub-atomic size and are generally produced as a result of the bombardment of a target by a beam such as protons produced in a high-energy accelerator. In this wave guide construction, the particles undergo preferential deflection as a result of the presence of an electric field. The boundary conditions established in the resonator are such as to eliminate an interfering magnetic component, and to otherwise phase the electric field to obtain a traveling wave such as one which moves at the same speed as the unwanted particle. The latter undergoes continuous deflection over the whole length of the device and is, therefore, eliminated while the wanted particle is deflected in opposite directions over the length of the resonator and is thus able to enter an exit aperture. (AEC)

  14. Resonant Tunneling Spin Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    The resonant tunneling spin pump is a proposed semiconductor device that would generate spin-polarized electron currents. The resonant tunneling spin pump would be a purely electrical device in the sense that it would not contain any magnetic material and would not rely on an applied magnetic field. Also, unlike prior sources of spin-polarized electron currents, the proposed device would not depend on a source of circularly polarized light. The proposed semiconductor electron-spin filters would exploit the Rashba effect, which can induce energy splitting in what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. Theoretical studies have suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling.

  15. Resonant non-gaussianity

    SciTech Connect

    Flauger, Raphael; Pajer, Enrico E-mail: ep295@cornell.edu

    2011-01-01

    We provide a derivation from first principles of the primordial bispectrum of scalar perturbations produced during inflation driven by a canonically normalized scalar field whose potential exhibits small sinusoidal modulations. A potential of this type has been derived in a class of string theory models of inflation based on axion monodromy. We use this model as a concrete example, but we present our derivations and results for a general slow-roll potential with superimposed modulations. We show analytically that a resonance between the oscillations of the background and the oscillations of the fluctuations is responsible for the production of an observably large non-Gaussian signal. We provide an explicit expression for the shape of this resonant non-Gaussianity. We show that there is essentially no overlap between this shape and the local, equilateral, and orthogonal shapes, and we stress that resonant non-Gaussianity is not captured by the simplest version of the effective field theory of inflation. We hope our analytic expression will be useful to further observationally constrain this class of models.

  16. Magnetic resonance sialography.

    PubMed

    Jungehülsing, M; Fischbach, R; Schröder, U; Kugel, H; Damm, M; Eckel, H E

    1999-10-01

    To evaluate a new noninvasive sialographic technique, we applied a new magnetic resonance technique to 10 healthy volunteers and 21 patients with lesions of the parotid gland. In addition to the usually performed T(1) and T(2) cross-sectional sequences, a heavily T(2)-weighted sequence (TR = 3600 msec, TE = 800 msec) was performed that allowed depiction of the fluid-filled parotid duct system. Twenty-one patients with benign as well as malignant parotid gland pathologies were examined: sialadenitis (n = 6), sicca syndrome (n = 2), pleomorphic adenoma (n = 4), carcinoma of the parotid gland (n = 2), lymphoepithelial carcinoma (n = 1), cystadenolymphoma (n = 3), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 2), and congenital duct dilatation (n = 1). Stenseńs duct was reliably depicted in all volunteers and patients. The primary branching ducts were reliably depicted in all normal cases. Intraglandular and extraglandular duct dilatations and duct strictures were well depicted in patients with chronic sialadenitis. Sialolithiasis with a calculus obstructing the duct was demonstrated in 2 cases. In conclusion, Initial experience indicates that magnetic resonance sialography can be applied successfully to investigate the duct system of the parotid gland. The usually performed cross-sectional MRI (T(1)- and T(2)-weighted images, gadolinium-DTPA) depicts the internal architecture of the parotid gland with high reliability. Magnetic resonance sialography with heavily T(2)-weighted images adds important information about the ductal system. Because it is completely noninvasive, the only contraindications are the ones generally accepted for MRI.

  17. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  18. Aberration correction of unstable resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Construction of aspheric reflectors for unstable resonator lasers to provide an arbitrary laser mode inside the resonator to correct aberrations of an output beam by the construction of the shape of an end reflector opposite the output reflector of the resonator cavity, such as aberrations resulting from refraction of a beam exiting the solid of the resonator having an index of refraction greater than 1 or to produce an aberration in the output beam that will precisely compensate for the aberration of an optical train into which the resonator beam is coupled.

  19. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality.

  20. Measurement and analysis of molecular hyperpolarizability in the two-photon resonance regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovic, G.; Meshulam, G.; Kotler, Z.

    2000-03-01

    The frequency dependent hyperpolarizability of typical donor-acceptor organic nonlinear optical molecules is commonly represented by a nonresonant two-level model, first presented by Oudar and Chemla. We discuss how this model can be extended into the resonant regime, including cases where the molecular transition is described by an inhomogeneously broadened peak. A resonant measurement of hyperpolarizability by electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISH) is demonstrated, as well as the more conventional off-resonance EFISH. The theoretical model correctly predicts both the amplitude and phase of the resonant hyperpolarizability measured by EFISH. We also show that both on-resonance and off-resonance EFISH yield the same hyperpolarizability extrapolated to the zero frequency limit.

  1. Resonant electron-atom bremsstrahlung in an intense laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheltukhin, A. N.; Flegel, A. V.; Frolov, M. V.; Manakov, N. L.; Starace, Anthony F.

    2014-02-01

    We analyze a resonant mechanism for spontaneous laser-assisted electron bremsstrahlung (BrS) involving the resonant transition (via either laser-assisted electron-ion recombination or electron-atom attachment) into a laser-dressed intermediate quasibound state (corresponding, respectively, to either a field-free neutral atom or a negative-ion bound state) accompanied by ionization or detachment of this state by the laser field. This mechanism leads to resonant enhancement (by orders of magnitude) of the BrS spectral density for emitted photon energies corresponding to those for laser-assisted recombination or attachment. We present an accurate parametrization of the resonant BrS amplitude in terms of the amplitudes for nonresonant BrS, for recombination or attachment to the intermediate state, and for ionization or detachment of this state. The high accuracy of our general analytic parametrization of the resonant BrS cross section is shown by comparison with exact numerical results for laser-assisted BrS spectra obtained within time-dependent effective range theory. Numerical estimates of resonant BrS in electron scattering from a Coulomb potential are also presented.

  2. Incommensurate spin resonance in URu2Si2

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, A V; Chantis, A; Dahal, Hari; Zhu, J X; Parker, David

    2008-01-01

    We propose to search for the spin resonance in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} at {omega}{sub res} = 4-6meV at the incommensurate wavector Q* = (1 {+-} 0.4, 0, 0). We expect that this spin resonance will set in at temperatures below HO transition and the intensity of this peak will scale as {approx} {Delta}{sub HO} {approx} (T{sub HO} - T). The resonance peak is know to occur in the states with superconducting gap and results in the gapping of the electronic spectrum add ref on SrruO and cel 15. In the case of HO the gap {Delta}{sub HO} results in the partially gapped electron spectrum. That appears to be a sufficient condition, as shown by Wiebe et al to produce a gap in spin excitation spectrum. In addition, we predict a peak in the spin excitation spectrum, as spectral weight redistribution produces the resonance feature. To the best of our knowledge, if the predicted resonance peak indeed occurs, it would be the first case where the spin resonance occurs at an incommensurate vector Q*.

  3. Shear moduli in bcc-fcc structure transition of colloidal crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongwei; Xu, Shenghua; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhu, Ruzeng

    2015-10-14

    Shear moduli variation in the metastable-stable structure transition of charged colloidal crystals was investigated by the combination techniques of torsional resonance spectroscopy and reflection spectrometer. Modulus of the system increases with the proceeding of the transition process and it finally reaches the maximum value at the end of the transition. For colloidal crystals in stable state, the experimental moduli show good consistence with theoretical expectations. However, in the transition process, the moduli are much smaller than theoretical ones and this can be chalked up to crystalline imperfection in the transition state.

  4. Negative refraction with low absorption using Raman transitions with magnetoelectric coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, D. E.; Yavuz, D. D.

    2010-07-15

    We suggest a scheme for obtaining negative refraction that does not require the simultaneous presence of an electric-dipole and a magnetic-dipole transition near the same transition frequency. The key idea of the scheme is to obtain a strong electric response by using far-off-resonant Raman transitions. We propose to use a pair of electric-dipole Raman transitions and utilize magneto-electric cross coupling to achieve a negative index of refraction without requiring negative permeability. The interference of the two Raman transitions allows tunable negative refraction with low absorption.

  5. Vibration-induced Wenzel-Cassie wetting transition on microstructured hydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wei; Jia, Zhi-Hai; He, Ji-Chang; Cai, Tai-Min; Wang, Gang

    2014-05-01

    Wetting transitions were studied with vertically vibrated droplet on various polydimethylsiloxane surfaces with square array of pillars. Our experiments show that the increase of the pillar spacing, at each given frequency, leads to a decrease of the critical amplitude (which is required to achieve a Wenzel to Cassie transition). The physical mechanism of Wenzel-Cassie transition by vibration is presented. Compared with other studies of wetting transition by vibration, we demonstrate that Wenzel-Cassie transition comes up when R(θ)fn2Acr2≈const (where fn is the resonance frequency, Acr is the threshold amplitude, and R(θ) is the initial radius of the droplet).

  6. Moons over Jupiter: transits and shadow transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, J. H.; et al.

    2003-06-01

    There is no more beautiful illustration of orbital motions than the movements of Jupiter's satellites. Every six years, their movements are most strikingly displayed, when the jovian system is presented edge-on to Earth. This means that there is a higher frequency of multiple transits over the face of the planet, as all the moons transit across the equatorial zone, whereas in other years Ganymede and Callisto transit near the poles or not at all. Also, for a few months, the satellites pass in front of each other, displaying mutual eclipses and occultations. In 2002/2003 we have been able to observe a fine series of these multiple and mutual events. On the cover, and on these pages, are some of the highest-resolution images received.

  7. Deterministic Many-Resonator W Entanglement of Nearly Arbitrary Microwave States via Attractive Bose-Hubbard Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangat, A. A.; McCulloch, I. P.; Milburn, G. J.

    2013-07-01

    Multipartite entanglement of large numbers of physically distinct linear resonators is of both fundamental and applied interest, but there have been no feasible proposals to date for achieving it. At the same time, the Bose-Hubbard model with attractive interactions (ABH) is theoretically known to have a phase transition from the superfluid phase to a highly entangled nonlocal superposition, but observation of this phase transition has remained out of experimental reach. In this theoretical work, we jointly address these two problems by (1) proposing an experimentally accessible quantum simulation of the ABH phase transition in an array of tunably coupled superconducting circuit microwave resonators and (2) incorporating the simulation into a highly scalable protocol that takes as input any microwave-resonator state with negligible occupation of number states |0⟩ and |1⟩ and nonlocally superposes it across the whole array of resonators. The large-scale multipartite entanglement produced by the protocol is of the W type, which is well known for its robustness. The protocol utilizes the ABH phase transition to generate the multipartite entanglement of all of the resonators in parallel, and is therefore deterministic and permits an increase in resonator number without any increase in protocol complexity; the number of resonators is limited instead by system characteristics such as resonator-frequency disorder and inter-resonator coupling strength. Only one local and two global controls are required for the protocol. We numerically demonstrate the protocol with realistic system parameters and estimate that current experimental capabilities can realize the protocol with high fidelity for greater than 40 resonators. Because superconducting-circuit microwave resonators are capable of interfacing with other devices and platforms such as mechanical resonators and (potentially) optical fields, this proposal provides a route toward large-scale W-type entanglement in those

  8. Nonadiabatic dynamics of two strongly coupled nanomechanical resonator modes.

    PubMed

    Faust, Thomas; Rieger, Johannes; Seitner, Maximilian J; Krenn, Peter; Kotthaus, Jörg P; Weig, Eva M

    2012-07-20

    The Landau-Zener transition is a fundamental concept for dynamical quantum systems and has been studied in numerous fields of physics. Here, we present a classical mechanical model system exhibiting analogous behavior using two inversely tunable, strongly coupled modes of the same nanomechanical beam resonator. In the adiabatic limit, the anticrossing between the two modes is observed and the coupling strength extracted. Sweeping an initialized mode across the coupling region allows mapping of the progression from diabatic to adiabatic transitions as a function of the sweep rate.

  9. Superconducting pairing in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yifei; Benjamin, David; Demler, Eugene; Klich, Israel

    2016-09-01

    We develop a method to study the effect of the superconducting transition on the resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) signal in superconductors with an order parameter with an arbitrary symmetry within a quasiparticle approach. As an example, we compare the direct RIXS signal below and above the superconducting transition for p -wave-type order parameters. For a p -wave order parameter with a nodal line, we show that, counterintuitively, the effect of the gap is most noticeable for momentum transfers in the nodal direction. This phenomenon may be naturally explained as a type of nesting effect.

  10. Measurements of optical Feshbach resonances of 174Yb atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Seok; Lee, Jeongwon; Lee, Jae Hoon; Shin, Y.; Mun, Jongchul

    2016-10-01

    We present measurements of the optical Feshbach resonances (OFRs) of 174Yb atoms for the intercombination transition. We measure the photoassociation (PA) spectra of a pure 174Yb Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and determine the dependence of OFRs on PA laser intensities and frequencies for four least-bound vibrational levels near the intercombination transition. We confirm that our measurements are consistent with the temporal decay of a BEC subjected to a PA beam in the vicinity of the fourth vibrational level from the dissociation limit.

  11. Persistence, resistance, resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsadka, Maayan

    Sound cannot travel in a vacuum, physically or socially. The ways in which sound operates are a result of acoustic properties, and the ways by which it is considered to be music are a result of social constructions. Therefore, music is always political, regardless of its content: the way it is performed and composed; the choice of instrumentation, notation, tuning; the medium of its distribution; its inherent hierarchy and power dynamics, and more. My compositional praxis makes me less interested in defining a relationship between music and politics than I am in erasing---or at least blurring---the borders between them. In this paper I discuss the aesthetics of resonance and echo in their metaphorical, physical, social, and musical manifestations. Also discussed is a political aesthetic of resonance, manifested through protest chants. I transcribe and analyze common protest chants from around the world, categorizing and unifying them as universal crowd-mobilizing rhythms. These ideas are explored musically in three pieces. Sumud: Rhetoric of Resistance in Three Movements, for two pianos and two percussion players, is a musical interpretation of the political/social concept of sumud, an Arabic word that literally means "steadfastness" and represents Palestinian non-violent resistance. The piece is based on common protest rhythms and uses the acoustic properties inherent to the instruments. The second piece, Three Piano Studies, extends some of the musical ideas and techniques used in Sumud, and explores the acoustic properties and resonance of the piano. The final set of pieces is part of my Critical Mess Music Project. These are site-specific musical works that attempt to blur the boundaries between audience, performers and composer, in part by including people without traditional musical training in the process of music making. These pieces use the natural structure and resonance of an environment, in this case, locations on the UCSC campus, and offer an active

  12. Frequency-tunable superconducting resonators via nonlinear kinetic inductance

    SciTech Connect

    Vissers, M. R.; Hubmayr, J.; Sandberg, M.; Gao, J.; Chaudhuri, S.; Bockstiegel, C.

    2015-08-10

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a frequency-tunable high-Q superconducting resonator made from a niobium titanium nitride film. The frequency tunability is achieved by injecting a DC through a current-directing circuit into the nonlinear inductor whose kinetic inductance is current-dependent. We have demonstrated continuous tuning of the resonance frequency in a 180 MHz frequency range around 4.5 GHz while maintaining the high internal quality factor Q{sub i} > 180 000. This device may serve as a tunable filter and find applications in superconducting quantum computing and measurement. It also provides a useful tool to study the nonlinear response of a superconductor. In addition, it may be developed into techniques for measurement of the complex impedance of a superconductor at its transition temperature and for readout of transition-edge sensors.

  13. Spin-Orbit Coupled Fermi Gases across a Feshbach Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zeng-Qiang; Zhai, Hui

    2011-11-01

    In this Letter we study both ground state properties and the superfluid transition temperature of a spin-1/2 Fermi gas across a Feshbach resonance with a synthetic spin-orbit coupling, using the mean-field theory and the exact solution of two-body problem. We show that a strong spin-orbit coupling can significantly enhance the pairing gap for negative scattering length as, due to increased density of state at Fermi surface. Strong spin-orbit coupling can also significantly enhance the superfluid transition temperature Tc to a sizable fraction of Fermi temperature when as≲0, while it suppresses Tc slightly for positive as. The interaction energy and pair size at resonance are also discussed.

  14. Perception of complete and incomplete formant transitions in vowels

    PubMed Central

    Divenyi, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    In everyday speech, formant transitions rarely reach the canonical frequencies of a target vowel. The perceptual system often compensates for such production undershoots, called vowel reduction (VR), by a perceptual overshoot of the final transition frequencies. The present investigation explored the perceptual parameters and existence region of VR. In a series of experiments a 100-ms steady-state vowel V1 was followed by a formant transition toward a target vowel V2. By manipulating both its duration and velocity, in most stimuli the transition was truncated and only seldom reached the target. After being presented with the vowel V2 before each block of trials, listeners were asked to rate their confidence that the transition actually reached the V2 target. Transitions along six trajectories connecting the three cardinal vowels ∕a/, ∕i/, and ∕u/ in both directions as well as the transition ∕ie∕ (halfway along the trajectory ∕ia∕) were examined in experiments in which either the duration of the transition was fixed and its velocity was varied or vice-versa. Results confirmed the existence of perceptual overshoot and showed that, at the point a transition short of reaching the vowel V2 was just perceived as if it had reached the target, transition duration and transition velocity were inversely related. The amount of overshoot was found to be larger for larger V1-V2 distances and shorter trajectory durations. The overshoot could be reliably predicted by a linear model based on three parameters—the extent of V1-V2 distance, transition velocity, and transition acceleration. These findings suggest that the perceptual dynamics of speech relies on mechanisms that estimate the rate of change in the resonant characteristics of the vocal tract. PMID:19739756

  15. Transition from a spectrum filter to a polarizer in a metallic nano-slit array

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jing; Guo, L. Jay

    2014-01-01

    The transition from a spectrum filter (resonant transmission) to a polarizer (broadband transmission) for TM polarized light is observed in a metallic nano-slit array as period is decreased. A theoretical model is developed and shows that the spectrum filter behavior is caused by the coupled slit/grating resonance. With decreasing period, the slit resonance is decoupled from the grating resonance, which then dominates the transmission spectrum and broadens the transmission peak. With further reducing period, the slit resonance diminishes and the peak spectrum transforms to a broadband transmission. This effect is the basis for the operation of wire grid polarizers. The transition is explained by the change of the impedance to the incoming wave. PMID:24402443

  16. Tunable resonant and non-resonant interactions between a phase qubit and LC resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allman, Michael Shane; Whittaker, Jed D.; Castellanos-Beltran, Manuel; Cicak, Katarina; da Silva, Fabio; Defeo, Michael; Lecocq, Florent; Sirois, Adam; Teufel, John; Aumentado, Jose; Simmonds, Raymond W.

    2014-03-01

    We use a flux-biased radio frequency superconducting quantum interference device (rf SQUID) with an embedded flux-biased direct current (dc) SQUID to generate strong resonant and non-resonant tunable interactions between a phase qubit and a lumped-element resonator. The rf-SQUID creates a tunable magnetic susceptibility between the qubit and resonator providing resonant coupling rates from zero to near the ultra-strong coupling regime. By modulating the magnetic susceptibility, non-resonant parametric coupling achieves rates > 100 MHz . Nonlinearity of the magnetic susceptibility also leads to parametric coupling at subharmonics of the qubit-resonator detuning. Controllable coupling is generically important for constructing coupled-mode systems ubiquitous in physics, useful for both, quantum information architectures and quantum simulators. This work supported by NIST and NSA grant EAO140639.

  17. Crystallization and transitions of sulfamerazine polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Geoff G Z; Gu, Chonghui; Zell, Mark T; Burkhardt, R Todd; Munson, Eric J; Grant, David J W

    2002-04-01

    A bulk powder of sulfamerazine polymorph II in a narrow distribution of particle size was prepared for the first time. The two known sulfamerazine polymorphs, I and II, were physically characterized by optical microscopy, powder X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, carbon-13 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and measurements of aqueous solubility and density. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the transition between the polymorphs was examined under various pharmaceutically relevant conditions, such as heating, cooling, milling, compaction, and contact with solvents. The two polymorphs were found to be enantiotropes with slow kinetics of interconversion. The thermodynamic transition temperature lies between 51 and 54 degrees C, with polymorph II stable at lower temperatures. Ostwald's Rule of Stages explains the crystallization of the polymorphs from various solvents and may account for the delay in the discovery of polymorph II. PMID:11948548

  18. Optical fibre resonator rotation sensor using a low coherence source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadiroushan, M.; Giles, I. P.; Youngquist, R. C.

    1987-03-01

    A resonator-type rotation sensor using a low coherence is presented. While the system uses phase modulation techniques similar to those of the conventional optical fiber gyroscope, it relies on multiple loop transitions to enhance system sensitivity. The theoretical rotation sensitivity is 2.7 times greater than that of the conventional phase-modulated Sagnac interferometer. Consideration is given to the phase-induced intensity noise in the system.

  19. Resonance at the Rabi frequency in a superconducting flux qubit

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Ya. S.; Il'ichev, E.; Oelsner, G.; Shevchenko, S. N.

    2014-10-15

    We analyze a system composed of a superconducting flux qubit coupled to a transmission-line resonator driven by two signals with frequencies close to the resonator's harmonics. The first strong signal is used for exciting the system to a high energetic state while a second weak signal is applied for probing effective eigenstates of the system. In the framework of doubly dressed states we showed the possibility of amplification and attenuation of the probe signal by direct transitions at the Rabi frequency. We present a brief review of theoretical and experimental works where a direct resonance at Rabi frequency have been investigated in superconducting flux qubits. The interaction of the qubit with photons of two harmonics has prospects to be used as a quantum amplifier (microwave laser) or an attenuator.

  20. Electromagnetic Meson Production in the Nucleon Resonance Region

    SciTech Connect

    Volker Burkert; T.-S. H. Lee

    2004-10-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical advances in investigating electromagnetic meson production reactions in the nucleon resonance region are reviewed. The article gives a description of current experimental facilities with electron and photon beams and presents a unified derivation of most of the phenomenological approaches being used to extract the resonance parameters from the data. The analyses of {pi} and {eta} production data and the resulting transition form factors for the {Delta}(1232)P{sub 33}, N(1535)S{sub 11}, N(1440)P{sub 11}, and N(1520)D{sub 13} resonances are discussed in detail. The status of our understanding of the reactions with production of two pions, kaons, and vector mesons is also reviewed.

  1. Resonant diffraction of synchrotron radiation in rubidium dihydrophosphate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhamedzhanov, E. Kh.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Borisov, M. M.; Ovchinnikova, E. N.; Troshkov, E. V.; Dmitrienko, V. E.

    2010-03-15

    Purely resonant Bragg reflections 006, 55bar 0, and 666 in a rubidium dihydrophosphate (RbH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) crystal at the K edge of rubidium have been experimentally and theoretically investigated. These reflections remain forbidden when the resonant dipole-dipole (E1E1) contribution to the resonant atomic factor is taken into account; they may be due to the dipole-quadrupole (E1E2) transitions as well as to the anisotropy atomic factor, which is caused by thermal atomic displacements (thermally induced contribution) and/or local jumps of hydrogen atoms. A numerical simulation showed that, at room temperature (experimental conditions), the thermally induced contribution to the 'forbidden' reflections is dominant.

  2. Generalized Franck-Condon principle for resonant photoemission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sałek, Paweł; Gel'mukhanov, Faris; Ågren, Hans; Björneholm, Olle; Svensson, Svante

    1999-10-01

    A generalized Franck-Condon (GFC) principle for resonant x-ray Raman scattering and for resonant photoemission in particular is derived and numerically investigated. The GFC amplitudes differ from ordinary FC amplitudes by the presence of photon and photoelectron phase factors which describe the coupling-or interference-of the x-ray photons or Auger electrons with the nuclear motion. With the GFC amplitudes, a Kramers-Heisenberg relation is obtained for vibronic transitions that corrects the so-called lifetime-vibrational interference formula. For resonant photoemission in the soft-x-ray region involving typical bound potential surfaces, the generalization gives a contribution to the FC factors that can amount to 20%. For core excitation above the dissociation threshold, the GFC principle relates to Doppler effects on the ejected photoelectron both for the so-called ``molecular'' and ``atomic'' bands. The role of the GFC principle in direct photoionization is briefly discussed.

  3. High-Q resonant cavities for terahertz quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Campa, A; Consolino, L; Ravaro, M; Mazzotti, D; Vitiello, M S; Bartalini, S; De Natale, P

    2015-02-01

    We report on the realization and characterization of two different designs for resonant THz cavities, based on wire-grid polarizers as input/output couplers, and injected by a continuous-wave quantum cascade laser (QCL) emitting at 2.55 THz. A comparison between the measured resonators parameters and the expected theoretical values is reported. With achieved quality factor Q ≈ 2.5 × 10(5), these cavities show resonant peaks as narrow as few MHz, comparable with the typical Doppler linewidth of THz molecular transitions and slightly broader than the free-running QCL emission spectrum. The effects of the optical feedback from one cavity to the QCL are examined by using the other cavity as a frequency reference.

  4. Transition to Old Age (Transition to Retirement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Simon

    Several conceptualizations and definitions of retirement have been proposed. One of them--the three-stage transition process--can be illustrated from studies in Israel: (1) leaving the old role; (2) going through the act of formal separation; and (3) adjusting to the new situation and role. Today's higher rate of survival into later years means…

  5. Transitioning between Clerkship Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltys, Stephen M.; Pary, Robert J.; Robinson, Stephen W.; Markwell, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors report on succession-planning for mid-level academic positions. Method: The authors describe the process of succession-planning between clerkship directors and the smooth transition resulting in one case. Results: Gradually transitioning allowed a new faculty person to assume the clerkship-director position with minimal…

  6. Transitions in Spousal Caregiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Lynda C.; Zdaniuk, Bozena; Schulz, Richard; Jackson, Sharon; Hirsch, Calvin

    2003-01-01

    Describes transitions over 5 years among community-dwelling elderly spouses into and within caregiving roles and associated health outcomes. The trajectory of health outcomes associated with caregiving was generally downward. Those who transitioned to heavy caregiving had more symptoms of depression, and poorer self-reported health and health…

  7. Seamless Transition for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Test, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Postschool outcomes for students with disabilities have been dismal for quite some time now. Although recent data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 indicate some improvement, students with severe intellectual disabilities continue to transition into segregated employment at unacceptable rates in spite of a multitude of studies,…

  8. Matter in transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Lara B.; Gray, James; Raghuram, Nikhil; Taylor, Washington

    2016-04-01

    We explore a novel type of transition in certain 6D and 4D quantum field theories, in which the matter content of the theory changes while the gauge group and other parts of the spectrum remain invariant. Such transitions can occur, for example, for SU(6) and SU(7) gauge groups, where matter fields in a three-index antisymmetric representation and the fundamental representation are exchanged in the transition for matter in the two-index antisymmetric representation. These matter transitions are realized by passing through superconformal theories at the transition point. We explore these transitions in dual F-theory and heterotic descriptions, where a number of novel features arise. For example, in the heterotic description the relevant 6D SU(7) theories are described by bundles on K3 surfaces where the geometry of the K3 is constrained in addition to the bundle structure. On the F-theory side, non-standard representations such as the three-index antisymmetric representation of SU( N) require Weierstrass models that cannot be realized from the standard SU( N) Tate form. We also briefly describe some other situations, with groups such as Sp(3), SO(12), and SU(3), where analogous matter transitions can occur between different representations. For SU(3), in particular, we find a matter transition between adjoint matter and matter in the symmetric representation, giving an explicit Weierstrass model for the F-theory description of the symmetric representation that complements another recent analogous construction.

  9. Good Transitions = Great Starts!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Children: The National PTA Magazine, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The smooth transition of outgoing and incoming board members and officers is of vital importance and can determine the PTA's success for years to come. The transition process is the responsibility of both incoming and outgoing officers and board members. It gives closure to those leaving their positions and allows those coming in to be properly…

  10. Secondary Education Transition Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins.

    The Secondary Education Transition Model project at Colorado State University-Fort Collins represents a local and state commitment to serve students with severe handicaps who are moving into community work and living roles. These comprehensive transition services begin at the secondary education level and extend into the adult service system. The…

  11. Transitions and Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilfeld, Ellen M., Ed.; Hanssen, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    If children are to benefit from a healthy, supportive early childhood experience, it is important to strengthen transitions between early childhood experiences in educational and care settings and the more formal educational system. This issue of Coordinator's Notebook focuses on strengthening linkages and transitions between home, preschool, and…

  12. Nanotube resonator devices

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, Kenneth J; Zettl, Alexander K; Weldon, Jeffrey A

    2014-05-06

    A fully-functional radio receiver fabricated from a single nanotube is being disclosed. Simultaneously, a single nanotube can perform the functions of all major components of a radio: antenna, tunable band-pass filter, amplifier, and demodulator. A DC voltage source, as supplied by a battery, can power the radio. Using carrier waves in the commercially relevant 40-400 MHz range and both frequency and amplitude modulation techniques, successful music and voice reception has been demonstrated. Also disclosed are a radio transmitter and a mass sensor using a nanotube resonator device.

  13. Proton capture resonance studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, G.E. |; Bilpuch, E.G. |; Bybee, C.R. |; Cox, J.M.; Fittje, L.M. |; Labonte, M.A.; Moore, E.F.; Shriner, J.D. |; Shriner, J.F. Jr. |; Vavrina, G.A. |; Wallace, P.M. |

    1997-02-01

    The fluctuation properties of quantum systems now are used as a signature of quantum chaos. The analyses require data of extremely high quality. The {sup 29}Si(p,{gamma}) reaction is being used to establish a complete level scheme of {sup 30}P to study chaos and isospin breaking in this nuclide. Determination of the angular momentum J, the parity {pi}, and the isospin T from resonance capture data is considered. Special emphasis is placed on the capture angular distributions and on a geometric description of these angular distributions. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Resonance test system

    DOEpatents

    Musial, Walter; White, Darris

    2011-05-31

    An apparatus (10) for applying at least one load to a specimen (12) according to one embodiment of the invention may comprise a mass (18). An actuator (20) mounted to the specimen (12) and operatively associated with the mass (18) moves the mass (18) along a linear displacement path (22) that is perpendicular to a longitudinal axis of the specimen (12). A control system (26) operatively associated with the actuator (20) operates the actuator (20) to reciprocate the mass (18) along the linear displacement path (22) at a reciprocating frequency, the reciprocating frequency being about equal to a resonance frequency of the specimen (12) in a test configuration.

  15. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael

    2011-05-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation is currently in phase 4 of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. The micro-NMRG technology is pushing the boundaries of size, weight, power, and performance allowing new small platform applications of navigation grade Inertial Navigation System (INS) technology. Information on the historical development of the technology, basics of operation, task performance goals, application opportunities, and a phase 2 sample of earth rate measurement data will be presented. Funding Provided by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)

  16. Theoretical analysis of surface-plasmon-polariton resonators in free space and close to an interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jesper; Søndergaard, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    Surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) resonators consisting of metal strips in free space, and gap plasmon polariton resonators consisting of a metal strip close to either a block of metal or a metal surface, are studied as optical resonators. The analysis is performed using the Green's function surface integral equation method. For strips in free space, we show how the scattering resonances can be understood, by thinking of the strips as optical resonators for short-range SPPs. The two gap resonator configurations, strip-block and strip-surface, have different structure terminations as the width of the strip and the block are identical whereas the surface is infinite. In the strip-surface configuration, the scattering resonances are broader and red-shifted, compared to the strip-block configuration. This is explained as a consequence of the effective length of the resonator being larger in the strip-surface configuration. By varying the gap size, we study the transition from a SPP resonator to a gap plasmon polariton resonator. In the strip-surface configuration, light can be scattered into both out-of-plane propagating waves and into SPPs that propagate along the surface. For small gaps of a few tens of nanometers, a large enhancement in the scattering cross section is seen due to strong scattering into SPPs.

  17. Pygmy and giant dipole resonances in the nitrogen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hai-Liang; Dong, Bao-Guo; Yan, Yu-Liang; Zhang, Huan-Qiao; Yuan, Da-Qing; Zhu, Shen-Yun; Zhang, Xi-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    The configuration-interaction shell model with the WBP10 effective interaction has been used to investigate the pygmy and giant dipole resonances in the nitrogen isotopes. Large enhancement of low-lying dipole strength, i.e., pygmy dipole resonances (PDRs), is predicted in the neutron-rich 17,18,19,20N. The nature of the PDRs is analyzed via the transition densities and transition matrix elements. It turns out these PDRs involve a larger amount of excitations between the 2 s 1 d and loosely bound 1 f 2 p shells. Combining with the transition densities, it is concluded that the PDRs in 17,18,19,20N are collective and due to the oscillation between the excess neutrons and the isospin saturated core. The isospin dependence of energy splitting and sum rule of isospin doublets is discussed. The theoretical energy splitting of isospin doublets can significantly deviate from the systematic values when nucleus is far away from the β -stability line. The ratios of T< and T> energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR) are consistently larger than the systematic values, and it is noticed that the calculated EWSR ratio over the systematic ratio increases with increasing isospin almost linearly. We also calculated the photoabsorption cross sections for the nitrogen isotopes. We proposed the normalization factors for 0 -1 ℏ ω and 2 -3 ℏ ω calculations. After the normalization, the shell model has well reproduced the experimental photoabsorption cross sections in N,1514, especially the detailed structure of resonances.

  18. Pressure dependent resonant frequency of micromechanical drumhead resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, D. R.; Craighead, H. G.; Parpia, J. M.

    2009-05-25

    We examine the relationship between squeeze film effects and resonance frequency in drum-type resonators. We find that the resonance frequency increases linearly with pressure as a result of the additional restoring force contribution from compression of gas within the drum cavity. We demonstrate trapping of the gas by squeeze film effects and geometry. The pressure sensitivity is shown to scale inversely with cavity height and sound radiation is found to be the predominant loss mechanism near and above atmospheric pressure. Drum resonators exhibit linearity and sensitivity suitable to barometry from below 10 Torr up to several atmospheres.

  19. ARCHITECTURE AND DYNAMICS OF KEPLER'S CANDIDATE MULTIPLE TRANSITING PLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Howell, Steve B.; Ragozzine, Darin; Holman, Matthew J.; Carter, Joshua A.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Steffen, Jason H.; Ford, Eric B.; Shporer, Avi; Rowe, Jason F.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Ciardi, David; Gautier, Thomas N. III; and others

    2011-11-01

    About one-third of the {approx}1200 transiting planet candidates detected in the first four months of Kepler data are members of multiple candidate systems. There are 115 target stars with two candidate transiting planets, 45 with three, 8 with four, and 1 each with five and six. We characterize the dynamical properties of these candidate multi-planet systems. The distribution of observed period ratios shows that the vast majority of candidate pairs are neither in nor near low-order mean-motion resonances. Nonetheless, there are small but statistically significant excesses of candidate pairs both in resonance and spaced slightly too far apart to be in resonance, particularly near the 2:1 resonance. We find that virtually all candidate systems are stable, as tested by numerical integrations that assume a nominal mass-radius relationship. Several considerations strongly suggest that the vast majority of these multi-candidate systems are true planetary systems. Using the observed multiplicity frequencies, we find that a single population of planetary systems that matches the higher multiplicities underpredicts the number of singly transiting systems. We provide constraints on the true multiplicity and mutual inclination distribution of the multi-candidate systems, revealing a population of systems with multiple super-Earth-size and Neptune-size planets with low to moderate mutual inclinations.

  20. Two-channel model of photoassociation in the vicinity of a Feshbach resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Philipp-Immanuel; Saenz, Alejandro

    2009-12-15

    We derive the two-channel (TC) description of the photoassociation (PA) process in the presence of a magnetic Feshbach resonance and compare to full coupled multichannel calculations for the scattering of {sup 6}Li-{sup 87}Rb. Starting from a similar approach as that of Pellegrini et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053201 (2008)] we arrive at a simpler expression which fully describes the PA process by two parameters: the maximal transition rate and the point of vanishing transition rate. The TC approximation reproduces excellently the PA transition rates of the full multichannel calculation and reveals, e.g., that the enhancement of the rate at a resonance is directly connected to the position of vanishing rate. For the description of two independent resonances it was found that only three parameters completely characterize the PA process.

  1. TRANSIT MONITORING IN THE SOUTH (TraMoS) PROJECT: DISCARDING TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS IN WASP-5b

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, S.; Rojo, P.; Lopez-Morales, M. E-mail: pato@das.uchile.cl

    2012-03-20

    We report nine new transit epochs of the extrasolar planet WASP-5b, observed in the Bessell I band with the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope at the Cerro Pachon Observatory and with the SMARTS 1 m Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, between 2008 August and 2009 October. The new transits have been combined with all previously published transit data for this planet to provide a new Transit Timing Variation (TTV) analysis of its orbit. We find no evidence of TTV rms variations larger than 1 minute over a 3 year time span. This result discards the presence of planets more massive than about 5 M{sub Circled-Plus }, 1 M{sub Circled-Plus }, and 2 M{sub Circled-Plus} around the 1:2, 5:3, and 2:1 orbital resonances, respectively. These new detection limits exceed by {approx}5-30 times the limits imposed by current radial velocity observations in the mean motion resonances of this system. Our search for the variation of other parameters, such as orbital inclination and transit depth, also yields negative results over the total time span of the transit observations. This result supports formation theories that predict a paucity of planetary companions to hot Jupiters.

  2. Fermi resonance in optical microcavities.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chang-Hwan; Yu, Hyeon-Hye; Lee, Ji-Won; Kim, Chil-Min

    2015-04-01

    Fermi resonance is a phenomenon of quantum mechanical superposition, which most often occurs between normal and overtone modes in molecular systems that are nearly coincident in energy. We find that scarred resonances in deformed dielectric microcavities are the very phenomenon of Fermi resonance, that is, a pair of quasinormal modes interact with each other due to coupling and a pair of resonances are generated through an avoided resonance crossing. Then the quantum number difference of a pair of quasinormal modes, which is a consequence of quantum mechanical superposition, equals periodic orbits, whereby the resonances are localized on the periodic orbits. We derive the relation between the quantum number difference and the periodic orbits and confirm it in an elliptic, a rectangular, and a stadium-shaped dielectric microcavity.

  3. DISSIPATIVE DIVERGENCE OF RESONANT ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Konstantin; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    A considerable fraction of multi-planet systems discovered by the observational surveys of extrasolar planets reside in mild proximity to first-order mean-motion resonances. However, the relative remoteness of such systems from nominal resonant period ratios (e.g., 2:1, 3:2, and 4:3) has been interpreted as evidence for lack of resonant interactions. Here, we show that a slow divergence away from exact commensurability is a natural outcome of dissipative evolution and demonstrate that libration of critical angles can be maintained tens of percent away from nominal resonance. We construct an analytical theory for the long-term dynamical evolution of dissipated resonant planetary pairs and confirm our calculations numerically. Collectively, our results suggest that a significant fraction of the near-commensurate extrasolar planets are in fact resonant and have undergone significant dissipative evolution.

  4. Geometry-invariant resonant cavities

    PubMed Central

    Liberal, I.; Mahmoud, A. M.; Engheta, N.

    2016-01-01

    Resonant cavities are one of the basic building blocks in various disciplines of science and technology, with numerous applications ranging from abstract theoretical modelling to everyday life devices. The eigenfrequencies of conventional cavities are a function of their geometry, and, thus, the size and shape of a resonant cavity is selected to operate at a specific frequency. Here we demonstrate theoretically the existence of geometry-invariant resonant cavities, that is, resonators whose eigenfrequencies are invariant with respect to geometrical deformations of their external boundaries. This effect is obtained by exploiting the unusual properties of zero-index metamaterials, such as epsilon-near-zero media, which enable decoupling of the temporal and spatial field variations in the lossless limit. This new class of resonators may inspire alternative design concepts, and it might lead to the first generation of deformable resonant devices. PMID:27010103

  5. Optical resonator and laser applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor); Yariv, Amnon (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention discloses a semi-ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP) optical resonator structure comprising a medium including an edge forming a reflective facet and a waveguide within the medium, the waveguide having opposing ends formed by the reflective facet. The performance of the SRFP resonator can be further enhanced by including a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the waveguide on one side of the gain medium. The optical resonator can be employed in a variety of optical devices. Laser structures using at least one SRFP resonator are disclosed where the resonators are disposed on opposite sides of a gain medium. Other laser structures employing one or more resonators on one side of a gain region are also disclosed.

  6. Fe K-edge X-ray resonant magnetic scattering from Ba(Fe1−xCox)2As2 superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Min Gyu; Kreyssig, Andreas; Lee, Yongbin; McQueeney, Robert J.; Harmon, Bruce N.; Goldman, Alan I.

    2012-06-15

    We present an X-ray resonant magnetic scattering study at the Fe-K absorption edge of the BaFe2As2 compound. The energy spectrum of the resonant scattering, together with our calculation using the full-potential linear-augmented plane wave method with a local density functional suggests that the observed resonant scattering arises from electric dipole (E1) transitions. We discuss the role of Fe K-edge X-ray resonant magnetic scattering in understanding the relationship between the structure and the antiferromagnetic transition in the doped Ba(Fe1−xCox)2As2 superconductors.

  7. nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Karwacki, F. A.; Griffin, J.

    1985-04-02

    A nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope which derives angular rotation thereof from the phases of precessing nuclear moments utilizes a single-resonance cell situated in the center of a uniform DC magnetic field. The field is generated by current flow through a circular array of coils between parallel plates. It also utilizes a pump and read-out beam and associated electronics for signal processing and control. Encapsulated in the cell for sensing rotation are odd isotopes of Mercury Hg/sup 199/ and Hg/sup 201/. Unpolarized intensity modulated light from a pump lamp is directed by lenses to a linear polarizer, quarter wave plate combination producing circularly polarized light. The circularly polarized light is reflected by a mirror to the cell transverse to the field for optical pumping of the isotopes. Unpolarized light from a readout lamp is directed by lenses to another linear polarizer. The linearly polarized light is reflected by another mirror to the cell transverse to the field and orthogonal to the pump lamp light. The linear light after transversing the cell strikes an analyzer where it is converted to an intensity-modulated light. The modulated light is detected by a photodiode processed and utilized as feedback to control the field and pump lamp excitation and readout of angular displacement.

  8. Ion cyclotron resonance cell

    DOEpatents

    Weller, R.R.

    1995-02-14

    An ion cyclotron resonance cell is disclosed having two adjacent sections separated by a center trapping plate. The first section is defined by the center trapping plate, a first end trapping plate, and excitation and detector electrodes. The second section includes a second end trapping plate spaced apart from the center plate, a mirror, and an analyzer. The analyzer includes a wavelength-selective light detector, such as a detector incorporating an acousto-optical device (AOD) and a photodetector. One or more ion guides, grounded plates with holes for the ion beam, are positioned within the vacuum chamber of the mass spectrometer between the ion source and the cell. After ions are trapped and analyzed by ion cyclotron resonance techniques in the first section, the ions of interest are selected according to their mass and passed into the second section for optical spectroscopic studies. The trapped ions are excited by light from a laser and caused thereby to fluoresce. The fluorescent light emitted by the excited ions is reflected by the mirror and directed onto the detector. The AOD is scanned, and the photodetector output is recorded and analyzed. The ions remain in the second section for an extended period, enabling multiple studies to be carried out on the same ensemble of ions. 5 figs.

  9. Ion cyclotron resonance cell

    DOEpatents

    Weller, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    An ion cyclotron resonance cell having two adjacent sections separated by a center trapping plate. The first section is defined by the center trapping plate, a first end trapping plate, and excitation and detector electrodes. The second section includes a second end trapping plate spaced apart from the center plate, a mirror, and an analyzer. The analyzer includes a wavelength-selective light detector, such as a detector incorporating an acousto-optical device (AOD) and a photodetector. One or more ion guides, grounded plates with holes for the ion beam, are positioned within the vacuum chamber of the mass spectrometer between the ion source and the cell. After ions are trapped and analyzed by ion cyclotron resonance techniques in the first section, the ions of interest are selected according to their mass and passed into the second section for optical spectroscopic studies. The trapped ions are excited by light from a laser and caused thereby to fluoresce. The fluorescent light emitted by the excited ions is reflected by the mirror and directed onto the detector. The AOD is scanned, and the photodetector output is recorded and analyzed. The ions remain in the second section for an extended period, enabling multiple studies to be carried out on the same ensemble of ions.

  10. Magnetic resonance safety.

    PubMed

    Sammet, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a superior soft-tissue contrast compared to other radiological imaging modalities and its physiological and functional applications have led to a significant increase in MRI scans worldwide. A comprehensive MRI safety training to protect patients and other healthcare workers from potential bio-effects and risks of the magnetic fields in an MRI suite is therefore essential. The knowledge of the purpose of safety zones in an MRI suite as well as MRI appropriateness criteria is important for all healthcare professionals who will work in the MRI environment or refer patients for MRI scans. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of current magnetic resonance safety guidelines and discuss the safety risks of magnetic fields in an MRI suite including forces and torque of ferromagnetic objects, tissue heating, peripheral nerve stimulation, and hearing damages. MRI safety and compatibility of implanted devices, MRI scans during pregnancy, and the potential risks of MRI contrast agents will also be discussed, and a comprehensive MRI safety training to avoid fatal accidents in an MRI suite will be presented. PMID:26940331

  11. A mirrorless spinwave resonator

    PubMed Central

    Pinel, Olivier; Everett, Jesse L.; Hosseini, Mahdi; Campbell, Geoff T.; Buchler, Ben C.; Lam, Ping Koy

    2015-01-01

    Optical resonance is central to a wide range of optical devices and techniques. In an optical cavity, the round-trip length and mirror reflectivity can be chosen to optimize the circulating optical power, linewidth, and free-spectral range (FSR) for a given application. In this paper we show how an atomic spinwave system, with no physical mirrors, can behave in a manner that is analogous to an optical cavity. We demonstrate this similarity by characterising the build-up and decay of the resonance in the time domain, and measuring the effective optical linewidth and FSR in the frequency domain. Our spinwave is generated in a 20 cm long Rb gas cell, yet it facilitates an effective FSR of 83 kHz, which would require a round-trip path of 3.6 km in a free-space optical cavity. Furthermore, the spinwave coupling is controllable enabling dynamic tuning of the effective cavity parameters. PMID:26655839

  12. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael; Griffith, Robert; Bulatowicz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) has concluded the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This presentation will describe the operational principles, design basics, and demonstrated performance of the NMRG including an overview of the NGC designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program.

  13. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) has concluded the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, design, and demonstrated performance of the NMRG including an overview of the NGC designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program.

  14. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Clark, Philip; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael; Mirijanian, James

    2012-06-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation is concluding the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, and design basics of the NMRG including an overview of the NSD designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program. General performance results from phases 3 and 4 will also be presented.

  15. Resonance capture at arbitrary inclination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namouni, F.; Morais, M. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Resonance capture is studied numerically in the three-body problem for arbitrary inclinations. Massless particles are set to drift from outside the 1:5 resonance with a Jupiter-mass planet thereby encountering the web of the planet's diverse mean motion resonances. Randomly constructed samples explore parameter space for inclinations from 0 to 180° with 5° increments totalling nearly 6 × 105 numerical simulations. 30 resonances internal and external to the planet's location are monitored. We find that retrograde resonances are unexpectedly more efficient at capture than prograde resonances and that resonance order is not necessarily a good indicator of capture efficiency at arbitrary inclination. Capture probability drops significantly at moderate sample eccentricity for initial inclinations in the range [10°,110°]. Orbit inversion is possible for initially circular orbits with inclinations in the range [60°,130°]. Capture in the 1:1 co-orbital resonance occurs with great likelihood at large retrograde inclinations. The planet's orbital eccentricity, if larger than 0.1, reduces the capture probabilities through the action of the eccentric Kozai-Lidov mechanism. A capture asymmetry appears between inner and outer resonances as prograde orbits are preferentially trapped in inner resonances. The relative capture efficiency of retrograde resonance suggests that the dynamical lifetimes of Damocloids and Centaurs on retrograde orbits must be significantly larger than those on prograde orbits implying that the recently identified asteroids in retrograde resonance, 2006 BZ8, 2008 SO218, 2009 QY6 and 1999 LE31 may be among the oldest small bodies that wander between the outer giant planets.

  16. GAUSSIAN BEAM LASER RESONATOR PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    In designing a laser cavity, the laser engineer is frequently concerned with more than the stability of the resonator. Other considerations include the size of the beam at various optical surfaces within the resonator or the performance of intracavity line-narrowing or other optical elements. Laser resonators obey the laws of Gaussian beam propagation, not geometric optics. The Gaussian Beam Laser Resonator Program models laser resonators using Gaussian ray trace techniques. It can be used to determine the propagation of radiation through laser resonators. The algorithm used in the Gaussian Beam Resonator program has three major components. First, the ray transfer matrix for the laser resonator must be calculated. Next calculations of the initial beam parameters, specifically, the beam stability, the beam waist size and location for the resonator input element, and the wavefront curvature and beam radius at the input surface to the first resonator element are performed. Finally the propagation of the beam through the optical elements is computed. The optical elements can be modeled as parallel plates, lenses, mirrors, dummy surfaces, or Gradient Index (GRIN) lenses. A Gradient Index lens is a good approximation of a laser rod operating under a thermal load. The optical system may contain up to 50 elements. In addition to the internal beam elements the optical system may contain elements external to the resonator. The Gaussian Beam Resonator program was written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 4.01). It was developed for the IBM PS/2 80-071 microcomputer and has been implemented on an IBM PC compatible under MS DOS 3.21. The program was developed in 1988 and requires approximately 95K bytes to operate.

  17. Resonance capture and Saturn's rings

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, C.W.

    1986-05-01

    We have assigned the resonances apparently responsible for the stabilization of the Saturn's shepherd satellites and for the substructure seen in the F-ring and the ringlets in the C-ring. We show that Saturn's narrow ringlets have a substructure determined by three-body resonances with Saturn's ringmoons and the sun. We believe such resonances have important implications to satellite formation. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Resonant Metallic Nanostructures for Active Metamaterials and Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryce, Imogen Mary

    2011-07-01

    Electromagnetic metamaterials are composites consisting of sub-wavelength structures designed to exhibit particular responses to an incident electromagnetic wave. In general, the properties of a metamaterial are fixed at the time of fabrication by the dimensions of each unit cell and the materials used. By incorporating dynamic components to the metamaterial system, a new type of tunable design can be accessed. This thesis describes the design and development of resonant metallic nanostructures for use in active metamaterials. We begin by examining passive systems and introduce concepts that are critical for the design of more complex, tunable structures. We show how a simple metamaterial design, a plasmonic nanoparticle array, can be used to enhance the photocurrent of an ultrathin InGaN quantum well photovoltaic cell. We then explore how more complex resonator shapes can be coupled together in a single unit cell in order to access more complex resonant behavior. In the second half of this thesis, we use several material systems as the basis for the design of active metamaterials. We demonstrate the first tunable metamaterial at optical frequencies using vanadium dioxide, a phase transition material. We exploit this material's transition from a semiconducting to a metallic state and show how a novel fabrication scheme can be used to achieve a frequency tunable resonant response. We then abandon traditional hard and brittle substrates and develop a lithographic transfer process for adhering metallic nanostructures to highly compliant polymeric substrates. Mechanical deformation is then used to distort the resonator shapes and achieve resonant tunability of a full linewidth. This system is exploited to demonstrate interesting resonant hybridization phenomena, such as Fano resonance modulation, and sets the stage for the more elusive goal of driving two resonant nanostructures into contact. Finally, we describe the use of compliant tunable metamaterials as both

  19. Dynamic Stark effect and forbidden-transition spectrallineshapes

    SciTech Connect

    Stalnaker, Jason E.; Budker, D.; Freedman, S.J.; Guzman, J.S.; Rochester, S.M.; Yashchuk, V.V.

    2005-12-15

    We report on an experimental and theoretical study of thedynamic (ac) Stark effect on a for bidden transition. A general frameworkfor parameterizing and describing off-resonant ac-Stark shifts ispresented. A model is developed to calculate spectral line shapesresulting from resonant excitation of atoms in an intense standinglight-wave in the presence of off-resonant ac-Stark shifts. The model isused in the analysis and interpretation of a measurement of the ac-Starkshifts of the static-electric-field-induced 6s2 1S0 -->5d6s 3D1transition at 408 nm in atomic Yb. The results are in agreement withestimates of the ac-Stark shift of the transition under the assumptionthat the shift is dominated by that of the 6s2 1S0 ground state. Adetailed description of the experiment and analysis is presented. Abi-product of this work is an ind ependent determination (from thesaturation behavior of the 408-nm transition) of the Stark transitionpolarizability, which is found to be in agreement with our earliermeasurement. This work is part of the ongoing effort aimed at a precisionmeasurement of atomic parity-violation effects in Yb.

  20. Analysis of lossy mode resonances on thin-film coated cladding removed plastic fiber.

    PubMed

    Corres, Jesús M; Del Villar, Ignacio; Arregui, Francisco J; Matias, Ignacio R

    2015-11-01

    In this work, the modal transition induced by lossy mode resonances has been analyzed as a function of wavelength for thin-film coated cladding removed fibers. The wavelength dependence of the modal structure allows us to explain the resonance phenomenon. The numerical data obtained were calculated with a method based on the exact calculation of core modes. Theoretical simulations have been compared with experimental results showing good agreement.

  1. Microcavity with saturable nonlinearity under simultaneous resonant and nonresonant pumping: multistability, Hopf bifurcations and chaotic behaviour.

    PubMed

    Iorsh, Ivan; Alodjants, Alexander; Shelykh, Ivan A

    2016-05-30

    We studied optical response of microcavity non-equilibrium exciton-polariton Bose-Einstein condensate with saturable nonlinearity under simultaneous resonant and non-resonant pumping. We demonstrated the emergence of multistabile behavior due to the saturation of the excitonic absorption. Stable periodic Rabi-type oscillations of the excitonic and photonic condensate components in the regime of the stationary pump and their transition to the chaotic dynamics through the cascade of Hopf bifurcations by tuning of the electrical pump are revealed.

  2. Microcavity with saturable nonlinearity under simultaneous resonant and nonresonant pumping: multistability, Hopf bifurcations and chaotic behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorsh, Ivan; Alodjants, Alexander; Shelykh, Ivan A.

    2016-05-01

    We studied optical response of microcavity non-equilibrium exciton-polariton Bose-Einstein condensate with saturable nonlinearity under simultaneous resonant and non-resonant pumping. We demonstrated the emergence of multistabile behavior due to the satutration of the excitonic absorbtion. Stable periodic Rabi- type oscillations of the excitonic and photonic condensate components in the regime of the stationary pump and their transition to the chaotic dynamics through the cascade of Hopf bifurcations by tuning of the electrical pump are revealed.

  3. Calculation of the quasi-energies and resonances behavior of the hydrogen Lyman-alpha problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruyten, Wilhelmus M.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, Bakshi and Kalman presented numerical results for the quasi-energies of the n = 2 multiplet in the hydrogen Lyman-alpha transition for a plasma in which both strong static and oscillating electric fields are present. Recent work on related magnetic and optical resonance problems provides a simplified mathematical treatment, as well as greater insight into the complex resonance behavior of this interaction.

  4. Methyl quantum tunneling and nitrogen-14 NQR NMR studies using a SQUID magnetic resonance spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Black, B.E. |

    1993-07-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) techniques have been very successful in obtaining molecular conformation and dynamics information. Unfortunately, standard NMR and NQR spectrometers are unable to adequately detect resonances below a few megahertz due to the frequency dependent sensitivity of their Faraday coil detectors. For this reason a new spectrometer with a dc SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) detector, which has no such frequency dependence, has been developed. Previously, this spectrometer was used to observe {sup 11}B and {sup 27}Al NQR resonances. The scope of this study was increased to include {sup 23}Na, {sup 51}V, and {sup 55}Mn NQR transitions. Also, a technique was presented to observe {sup 14}N NQR resonances through cross relaxation of the nitrogen polarization to adjacent proton spins. When the proton Zeeman splitting matches one nitrogen quadrupoler transition the remaining two {sup 14}N transitions can be detected by sweeping a saturating rf field through resonance. Additionally, simultaneous excitation of two nitrogen resonances provides signal enhancement which helps to connect transitions from the same site. In this way, nitrogen-14 resonances were observed in several amino acids and polypeptides. This spectrometer has also been useful in the direct detection of methyl quantum tunneling splittings at 4.2 K. Tunneling, frequencies of a homologous series of carboxylic acids were measured and for solids with equivalent crystal structures, an exponential correlation between the tunneling frequency and the enthalpy of fusion is observed. This correlation provides information about the contribution of intermolecular interactions to the energy barrier for methyl rotation.

  5. Analysis of lossy mode resonances on thin-film coated cladding removed plastic fiber.

    PubMed

    Corres, Jesús M; Del Villar, Ignacio; Arregui, Francisco J; Matias, Ignacio R

    2015-11-01

    In this work, the modal transition induced by lossy mode resonances has been analyzed as a function of wavelength for thin-film coated cladding removed fibers. The wavelength dependence of the modal structure allows us to explain the resonance phenomenon. The numerical data obtained were calculated with a method based on the exact calculation of core modes. Theoretical simulations have been compared with experimental results showing good agreement. PMID:26512470

  6. Orbital resonances around black holes.

    PubMed

    Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja

    2015-02-27

    We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here.

  7. Electromagnetic production of hyperon resonances

    SciTech Connect

    K. Hicks, D. Keller, W. Tang

    2011-10-01

    The study of hyperon resonances has entered a new era of precision with advent of high-statistics photoproduction data from the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. These data have multi-particle final states, allowing clean identification of exclusive reactions associated with strange mesons and baryons. Examples of physics results are: evidence for isospin interference in the decay of the {Lambda}(1405) resonance; a strong suggestion of meson cloud effects in the structure of the {Sigma}(1385) resonance; data from K* photoproduction that will test the existence of the purported K{sub 0}(800)$ meson. Properties of other hyperon resonances will also be studied in the near future.

  8. Orbital resonances around black holes.

    PubMed

    Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja

    2015-02-27

    We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here. PMID:25768747

  9. Dynamic coupling of plasmonic resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Suyeon; Park, Q.-Han

    2016-02-01

    We clarify the nature of dynamic coupling in plasmonic resonators and determine the dynamic coupling coefficient using a simple analytic model. We show that plasmonic resonators, such as subwavelength holes in a metal film which can be treated as bound charge oscillators, couple to each other through the retarded interaction of oscillating screened charges. Our dynamic coupling model offers, for the first time, a quantitative analytic description of the fundamental symmetric and anti-symmetric modes of coupled resonators which agrees with experimental results. Our model also reveals that plasmonic electromagnetically induced transparency arises in any coupled resonators of slightly unequal lengths, as confirmed by a rigorous numerical calculation and experiments.

  10. Fano resonances in magnetic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Naether, Uta; Molina, Mario I.

    2011-10-15

    We study the scattering of magnetoinductive plane waves by internal (external) capacitive (inductive) defects coupled to a one-dimensional split-ring resonator array. We examine a number of simple defect configurations where Fano resonances occur and study the behavior of the transmission coefficient as a function of the controllable external parameters. We find that for embedded capacitive defects, the addition of a small amount of coupling to second neighbors is necessary for the occurrence of Fano resonance. For external inductive defects, Fano resonances are commonplace, and they can be tuned by changing the relative orientation or distance between the defect and the SSR array.

  11. Strongly Coupled Nanotube Electromechanical Resonators.

    PubMed

    Deng, Guang-Wei; Zhu, Dong; Wang, Xin-He; Zou, Chang-Ling; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Liu, Di; Li, Yan; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Kai-Li; Dai, Xing-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2016-09-14

    Coupling an electromechanical resonator with carbon-nanotube quantum dots is a significant method to control both the electronic charge and the spin quantum states. By exploiting a novel microtransfer technique, we fabricate two separate strongly coupled and electrically tunable mechanical resonators for the first time. The frequency of the two resonators can be individually tuned by the bottom gates, and in each resonator, the electron transport through the quantum dot can be strongly affected by the phonon mode and vice versa. Furthermore, the conductance of either resonator can be nonlocally modulated by the other resonator through phonon-phonon interaction between the two resonators. Strong coupling is observed between the phonon modes of the two resonators, where the coupling strength larger than 200 kHz can be reached. This strongly coupled nanotube electromechanical resonator array provides an experimental platform for future studies of the coherent electron-phonon interaction, the phonon-mediated long-distance electron interaction, and entanglement state generation.

  12. Dynamic coupling of plasmonic resonators

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Suyeon; Park, Q-Han

    2016-01-01

    We clarify the nature of dynamic coupling in plasmonic resonators and determine the dynamic coupling coefficient using a simple analytic model. We show that plasmonic resonators, such as subwavelength holes in a metal film which can be treated as bound charge oscillators, couple to each other through the retarded interaction of oscillating screened charges. Our dynamic coupling model offers, for the first time, a quantitative analytic description of the fundamental symmetric and anti-symmetric modes of coupled resonators which agrees with experimental results. Our model also reveals that plasmonic electromagnetically induced transparency arises in any coupled resonators of slightly unequal lengths, as confirmed by a rigorous numerical calculation and experiments. PMID:26911786

  13. Superconducting Resonators: Protecting Schrodinger's Cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, Jose; Mauskopf, Philip

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, superconducting resonators have played a fundamental role in various novel astronomical detectors and quantum information processors. One example is the microwave kinetic inductance detector that is able to resolve photon energies by measuring shifts in its resonant frequency. Similar resonators have been integrated with superconducting qubits, specifically the transmon, to substantially improve quantum coherence times. The purpose of this investigation is to survey various resonant structures within the requirements of circuit quantum electrodynamics giving special attention to quality factors, TLS noise, and quasi-particle generation. Specifically, planar and three dimensional cavities with varying geometries and materials are characterized - primarily focusing on NbTiN and Nb.

  14. Applications of the electromagnetic Helmholtz resonator*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoneback, Russell Alan

    An electromagnetic Helmholtz resonator comprised of a capacitor with an aperture is investigated theoretically and experimentally. It is proposed that this resonance may be described using effective impedances describing the capacitor and aperture, similar to lumped element descriptions of the acoustic Helmholtz resonator. The dipole impedance of an electromagnetic aperture is derived and verified using the finite element method. Incorporating standard network relations, the aperture impedance can be used to calculate radiated power. Measurements of a capacitor demonstrates that the transmitted voltage through the capacitor is modified by induced charges. An induced voltage is introduced, and predictions agree with observations. Measurements of a capacitor with an aperture in the grounded plate indicate that induced currents cancel the imaginary impedance of the aperture, and double the real impedance. The observed impedance is close to predictions using the derived aperture impedance, confirming the utility of the aperture impedance in describing the system. The numerically obtained aperture electromagnetic fields are similar to the Birkeland current distribution and the cross polar cap potential in the Earth's polar ionosphere, motivating a model where the polar ionosphere is treated as an effective aperture. It is proposed that this effective aperture interacts with the capacitor formed between the Earth and ionosphere, creating an electromagnetic Helmholtz resonator. Predictions made with this model agree with measurements of transmitted power and phase velocity by FAST during a geomagnetic substorm, measurements of the Ionospheric Alfven Resonator, and oscillations recorded by ground based magnetometers. The same effective aperture behavior is expected in sunspots and polar coronal holes. A peak is predicted in Alfven wave power across the transition region for waves with a 5 min. period that delivers an average power over 100 W/m2 to the corona, sufficient to

  15. Predictability of critical transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaozhu; Kuehn, Christian; Hallerberg, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Critical transitions in multistable systems have been discussed as models for a variety of phenomena ranging from the extinctions of species to socioeconomic changes and climate transitions between ice ages and warm ages. From bifurcation theory we can expect certain critical transitions to be preceded by a decreased recovery from external perturbations. The consequences of this critical slowing down have been observed as an increase in variance and autocorrelation prior to the transition. However, especially in the presence of noise, it is not clear whether these changes in observation variables are statistically relevant such that they could be used as indicators for critical transitions. In this contribution we investigate the predictability of critical transitions in conceptual models. We study the quadratic integrate-and-fire model and the van der Pol model under the influence of external noise. We focus especially on the statistical analysis of the success of predictions and the overall predictability of the system. The performance of different indicator variables turns out to be dependent on the specific model under study and the conditions of accessing it. Furthermore, we study the influence of the magnitude of transitions on the predictive performance.

  16. Electron paramagnetic resonance at dislocations in germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Pakulis, E.J.

    1982-06-01

    The first observation of the paramagnetic resonance of electrons at dislocations in germanium single crystals is reported. Under subband gap optical excitation, two sets of lines are detected: four lines about the <111> axes with g/sub perpendicular to/ = 0.34 and g/sub parallel/ = 1.94, and 24 lines with g/sub perpendicular to/ = 0.73 and g/sub parallel/ = 1.89 about <111> axes with the six-fold 1.2/sup 0/ distortion. This represents the first measurement of the disortion angle of a dislocation dangling bond. The possibility that the distortion results from a Peierls transition along the dislocation line is discussed.

  17. Resonant tunneling of fluctuation Cooper pairs

    DOE PAGES

    Galda, Alexey; Mel'nikov, A. S.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2015-02-09

    Superconducting fluctuations have proved to be an irreplaceable source of information about microscopic and macroscopic material parameters that could be inferred from the experiment. According to common wisdom, the effect of thermodynamic fluctuations in the vicinity of the superconducting transition temperature, Tc, is to round off all of the sharp corners and discontinuities, which otherwise would have been expected to occur at Tc. Here we report the current spikes due to radiation-induced resonant tunneling of fluctuation Cooper pairs between two superconductors which grow even sharper and more pronounced upon approach to Tc. This striking effect offers an unprecedented tool formore » direct measurements of fluctuation Cooper pair lifetime, which is key to our understanding of the fluctuation regime, most notably to nature of the pseudogap state in high-temperature superconductors. Our finding marks a radical departure from the conventional view of superconducting fluctuations as a blurring and rounding phenomenon.« less

  18. Long distance coupling of resonant exchange qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russ, Maximilian; Burkard, Guido

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of a microwave cavity as a mediator of interactions between two resonant exchange (RX) qubits in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) over long distances, limited only by the extension of the cavity. Our interaction model includes the orthonormalized Wannier orbitals constructed from Fock-Darwin states under the assumption of a harmonic QD confinement potential. We calculate the qubit-cavity coupling strength in a Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian and find that dipole transitions between two states with an asymmetric charge configuration constitute the relevant RX qubit-cavity coupling mechanism. The effective coupling between two RX qubits in a shared cavity yields a universal two-qubit iswap gate with gate times on the order of nanoseconds over distances on the order of up to a millimeter.

  19. Long distance coupling of resonant exchange qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russ, Maximilian; Burkard, Guido

    We investigate the effectiveness of a microwave cavity as a mediator of interactions between two resonant exchange (RX) qubits in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) over long distances, limited only by the extension of the cavity. Our interaction model includes the orthonormalized Wannier orbitals constructed from Fock-Darwin states under the assumption of a harmonic QD confinement potential. We calculate the qubit-cavity coupling strength gr in a Jaynes Cummings Hamiltonian, and find that dipole transitions between two states with an asymmetric charge configuration constitute the relevant RX qubit-cavity coupling mechanism. The effective coupling between two RX qubits in a shared cavity yields a universal two-qubit iSWAP-gate with gate times on the order of nanoseconds over distances on the order of up to a millimeter. Funded by ARO through Grant No. W911NF-15-1-0149.

  20. Resonant tunneling of fluctuation Cooper pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Galda, Alexey; Mel'nikov, A. S.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2015-02-09

    Superconducting fluctuations have proved to be an irreplaceable source of information about microscopic and macroscopic material parameters that could be inferred from the experiment. According to common wisdom, the effect of thermodynamic fluctuations in the vicinity of the superconducting transition temperature, Tc, is to round off all of the sharp corners and discontinuities, which otherwise would have been expected to occur at Tc. Here we report the current spikes due to radiation-induced resonant tunneling of fluctuation Cooper pairs between two superconductors which grow even sharper and more pronounced upon approach to Tc. This striking effect offers an unprecedented tool for direct measurements of fluctuation Cooper pair lifetime, which is key to our understanding of the fluctuation regime, most notably to nature of the pseudogap state in high-temperature superconductors. Our finding marks a radical departure from the conventional view of superconducting fluctuations as a blurring and rounding phenomenon.