#### Sample records for resource economic implications

1. Natural resource economic implications of geothermal area use

SciTech Connect

Darby, d'E Charles

1993-01-28

Large-scale use of geothermal energy is likely to result in depletion of natural resources that support both biodiversity and other human uses. Most of the problems could be averted with competent planning and adherence to agreed conditions, but they commonly develop because they are not perceived to be directly geothermal in origin and hence are not taken into account adequately. Some of the implications of such issues are discussed below, with particular reference to countries where all or most resources are held under traditional principals of custom ownership.

2. Resource Economics

1999-10-01

Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of each chapter, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems.

3. Resource Economics

2000-01-01

Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. These problems help make concepts operational, develop economic intuition, and serve as a bridge to the study of real-world problems of resource management. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of Chapters 1 to 8, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems. Book is unique in its use of spreadsheet software (Excel) to solve dynamic allocation problems Conrad is co-author of a previous book for the Press on the subject for graduate students Approach is extremely student-friendly; gives students the tools to apply research results to actual environmental issues

4. Implications of climate change for economic development in northern Canada: energy, resource, and transportation sectors.

PubMed

Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Chouinard, Rebecca; Melling, Humfrey; Milburn, David; Smith, Sharon L

2009-07-01

Northern Canada is projected to experience major changes to its climate, which will have major implications for northern economic development. Some of these, such as mining and oil and gas development, have experienced rapid expansion in recent years and are likely to expand further, partly as the result of indirect effects of changing climate. This article reviews how a changing climate will affect several economic sectors including the hydroelectric, oil and gas, and mining industries as well as infrastructure and transportation, both marine and freshwater. Of particular importance to all sectors are projected changes in the cryosphere, which will create both problems and opportunities. Potential adaptation strategies that could be used to minimize the negative impacts created by a climate change are also reviewed.

5. Resource efficiency and economic implications of alternatives to surgical castration without anaesthesia.

PubMed

de Roest, K; Montanari, C; Fowler, T; Baltussen, W

2009-11-01

This paper presents an analysis of the economic implications of alternative methods to surgical castration without anaesthesia. Detailed research results on the economic implications of four different alternatives are reported: castration with local anaesthesia, castration with general anaesthesia, immunocastration and raising entire males. The first three alternatives have been assessed for their impact on pig production costs in the most important pig-producing Member States of the EU. The findings on castration with anaesthesia show that cost differences among farms increase if the anaesthesia cannot be administered by farmers and when the veterinarian has to be called to perform it. The cost of veterinarian service largely affects the total average costs, making this solution economically less feasible in small-scale pig farms. In all other farms, the impact on production costs of local anaesthesia is however limited and does not exceed 1 €ct per kg. General anaesthesia administered by inhalation or injection of Ketamin in combination with a sedative (Azaperone, Midazolan) is more expensive. These costs depend heavily on farm size, as the inhalation equipment has to be depreciated on the largest number of pigs possible. The overall costs of immunocastration - including the cost of the work load for the farmer - has to be evaluated against the potential benefits derived from higher daily weight gain and feed efficiency in comparison with surgical castrates. The economic feasibility of this practice will finally depend on the price of the vaccine and on consumer acceptance of immunocastration. The improvement in feed efficiency may compensate almost entirely for the cost of vaccination. The main advantages linked to raising entire males are due to the higher efficiency of feed conversion, to the better growth rate and to the higher leanness of carcass. A higher risk of boar taint on the slaughter line has to be accounted for. Raising entire males should not

6. Economics: A Resource Guide.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

The guide, designed for teachers, supervisors, and resource center directors, identifies sources of classroom materials in economics for elementary and secondary grades. Section I lists 87 pamphlets and periodicals published by the 12 federal reserve districts in the United States. Topics include water use, small farm economics, business…

7. The role of natural resource amenities in attracting retirees: implications for economic growth policy

Treesearch

Neelam C. Poudyal; Donald G. Hodges; H. Ken Cordell

2008-01-01

Increasing criticism of resource-extractive and polluting heavy duty industries in urbanareas, as well as continuing declines in timbering, farming and mining in rural areas, havecreated challenges for planners and policy makers seeking sustainable rural economies.Earlier studies have concluded that a...

8. Resources of Recent Migrants to Rural Areas for Economic Development: Policy Implications.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bradshaw, Ted K.; Blakely, Edward J.

Using in-person questionnaires, 553 newcomers and 106 long-term residents were interviewed in late 1979 and early 1980 in 5 small northern California communities to explore the role of newcomers in developing the rural economy, and especially to analyze the resources emigrants bring with them: their skills, education, background, and business and…

9. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

SciTech Connect

Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

2010-03-01

Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

10. Climate change and socio-economic scenarios, land use modelling implications on water resources in an inner alpine area, Switzerland

Rey, Emmanuel; Schneider, Flurina; Liniger, Hanspeter; Weingartner, Rolf; Herweg, Karl

2014-05-01

The MontanAqua project aims to study the water resources management in the region Sierre-Montana (Valais, Switzerland). Land use is known to have an influence on the water resources (soil moisture dynamic, soil sealing, surface runoff and deep percolation). Thus land use modelling is of importance for the water resources management. An actual land use map was produced using infrared imagery (Niklaus 2012, Fig.1). Land use changes are known to be mainly drived by socio-economic factors as well as climatic factors (Dolman et al. 2003). Potential future Land uses was separatly predicted according to 1-. socio-economic and 2-. climatic/abiotic drivers : 1. 4 socio-economic scenarios were developped with stakeholders (Schneider et al. 2013) between 2010 and 2012. We modeled those socio-economic scenarios into a GIS application using Python programming (ModelBuilder in ArcGIS 10) to get a cartographic transcription of the wishes of the stakeholders for their region in 2050. 2. Uncorrelated climatic and abiotic drivers were used in a BIOMOD2 (Georges et al. 2013) framework. 4 models were used: Maximum Entropy (MAXENT), Multiple Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Classification Tree Analysis (CTA) and the Flexible Discriminant Analysis (FDA) to predict grassland, alpine pasture, vineyards and forest in our study region. Climatic scenarios were then introduced into the models to predict potential land use in 2050 driven only by climatic and abiotic factors The comparison of all the outputs demonstrates that the socio-economic drivers will have a more important impact in the region than the climatic drivers (e.g. -70% grassland surface for the worst socio-economic scenario vs. -40% of grassland surface for the worst climatic models). Further analysis also brings out the sensitivity of the grassland/alpine pasture system to the climate change and to socio-economic changes. Future work will be to cross the different land use maps obtained by the two model types and to use

11. Economic valuation of sheep genetic resources: implications for sustainable utilization in the Kenyan semi-arid tropics.

PubMed

Omondi, I; Baltenweck, I; Drucker, A G; Obare, G; Zander, K K

2008-12-01

Sheep, recognised as one of the important livestock species especially in the semi-arid tropics with high genetic resource potentials, can be exploited through sustainable utilization in order to improve livestock keepers' livelihoods. This study presents the evaluation of the economic values of sheep genetic resources (SGR) in terms of the important non-market traits embedded in sheep and how this information can be utilised to improve livelihoods in semi-arid regions. The results obtained from mixed logit models results derived from stated choice data collected from 157 respondents in the semi-arid Marsabit district of Kenya reveal that disease resistance is the most highly valued trait whose resultant increment results into a welfare improvement of up to KShs.1537. Drought tolerance and fat deposition traits were found to be implicitly valued at KShs.694 and 738 respectively. The results further point out that for livestock stakeholders to effectively improve the livelihoods of poor livestock-keepers, development strategies for improving the management and/or utilisation of SGR in terms of drought tolerance, should not only be tailor made to target regions that are frequently devastated by drought but should also succeed other strategies or efforts that would first lead to the improvement of producers' economic status.

12. Economic Resources for Older Women.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Miller, Sheila J.

Although the older person's economic stiuation has improved, older women, minorities, and rural residents have incomes significantly lower than those for the older population in general. Older married women may appear to be financially secure, but many of their resources often disappear when their husbands die. Widowhood or divorce endangers the…

13. Cultural Implications of Human Resource Development.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hiranpruk, Chaiskran

A discussion of the cultural effects of economic and, by extension, human resource development in Southeast Asia looks at short- and long-term implications. It is suggested that in the short term, increased competition will affect distribution of wealth, which can promote materialism and corruption. The introduction of labor-saving technology may…

14. Economic Resources of the Union of Burma

DTIC Science & Technology

mineral resources and another the industries, transportation, trade and commerce. A final chapter analyzes and evaluates economic development in Burma, and especially the economic programs and policies which were formulated in the early years of independence from colonial

15. Mineral resources, economic growth, and world populatic.

PubMed

Brooks, D B; Andrews, P W

1974-07-05

World population and world income can grow at any likely rate for the next 50 to 75 years, probably for longer, and mineral supplies will continue to keep pace with demand. Not, however, without environmental costs, without affecting Third World development, and, perhaps most important, without ignoring critical questions of power. In what might be termed the revisionist form of the limits to growth thesis, Aurelio Peccei and Alexander King, cofounders of the Club of Rome, seem to be saying that the forecasts of doom themselves are unimportant but they symbolize critical problems of the nature and uses of power in the modern world (30): . . . the Club of Rome is questioning the quality of growth and its distribution around the world. . . . We know that the present structure of the world is obsolete. . . . Both private and state capitalism are stale . . . we have to develop something else. Surely, continually increasing rates of mineral production are symptoms of this obsolete power structure, a result of the fact that, ultimately, population growth and monetary income growth lead to demands for natural resources that necessitate their being found and produced regardless of the implications. Since such higher rates of production are geologically and economically sustainable, we should choose among alternative paths of growth, and hence among alternative rates of mineral resource development, according to what we like or dislike about these implications. The key information will not be found in tables comparing reserves and consumption but in preferences and ethics.

16. Black Women Who Head Families: Economic Needs and Economic Resources.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sawhill, Isabel V.

Black women bear a heavy burden of family responsibilities, yet their economic position is marginal relative to other groups in American society. It is this imbalance between economic needs and economic resources which poses the greatest challenge to public policy. This paper examines some aspects of this imbalance. It describes the demographic…

17. Black Women Who Head Families: Economic Needs and Economic Resources.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sawhill, Isabel V.

Black women bear a heavy burden of family responsibilities, yet their economic position is marginal relative to other groups in American society. It is this imbalance between economic needs and economic resources which poses the greatest challenge to public policy. This paper examines some aspects of this imbalance. It describes the demographic…

18. Wives' Economic Resources and Risk of Divorce

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachman, Jay

2010-01-01

Using longitudinal data covering 25 years from 1979 to 2004, the author examines the relationship between wives' economic resources and the risk of marital dissolution. The author considers the effects of labor force participation, income, and relative income while accounting for potential endogeneity of wives' economic resources. The extent to…

19. Wives' Economic Resources and Risk of Divorce

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachman, Jay

2010-01-01

Using longitudinal data covering 25 years from 1979 to 2004, the author examines the relationship between wives' economic resources and the risk of marital dissolution. The author considers the effects of labor force participation, income, and relative income while accounting for potential endogeneity of wives' economic resources. The extent to…

20. The Economics of Open Educational Resources

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Casserly, Catherine M.

2007-01-01

This article examines from an economic perspective the ways in which Open Educational Resources (OER) can be linked to economic growth, equality of access to knowledge, and the improvement of teaching and learning. In leading economies, technology and knowledge are the critical factors of economic growth, which is a significant shift from the…

1. The Economics of Open Educational Resources

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Casserly, Catherine M.

2007-01-01

This article examines from an economic perspective the ways in which Open Educational Resources (OER) can be linked to economic growth, equality of access to knowledge, and the improvement of teaching and learning. In leading economies, technology and knowledge are the critical factors of economic growth, which is a significant shift from the…

2. Economics and Human Resource Development: A Rejoinder

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

2008-01-01

This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…

3. Economics and Human Resource Development: A Rejoinder

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

2008-01-01

This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…

4. Water Resources Research supports water economics submissions

Griffin, Ronald C.

2012-09-01

AGU's international interdisciplinary journal Water Resources Research (WRR) publishes original contributions in hydrology; the physical, chemical, and biological sciences; and the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. With the rising relevance of water economics and related social sciences, the editors of WRR continue to encourage submissions on economics and policy. WRR was originally founded in the mid 1960s by Walter Langbein and economist Allen Kneese. Several former WRR editors have been economists—including David Brookshire, Ron Cummings, and Chuck Howe—and many landmark articles in water economics have been published in WRR.

5. Comparative economics of space resource utilization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cutler, Andrew Hall

1991-01-01

Physical economic factors such as mass payback ratio, total payback ratio, and capital payback time are discussed and used to compare the economics of using resources from the Moon, Mars and its moons, and near Earth asteroids to serve certain near term markets such as propellant in low Earth orbit or launched mass reduction for lunar and Martian exploration. Methods for accounting for the time cost of money in simple figures of merit such as MPRs are explored and applied to comparisons such as those between lunar, Martian, and asteroidal resources. Methods for trading off capital and operating costs to compare schemes with substantially different capital to operating cost ratio are presented and discussed. Areas where further research or engineering would be extremely useful in reducing economic uncertainty are identified, as are areas where economic merit is highly sensitive to engineering performance - as well as areas where such sensitivity is surprisingly low.

6. Comparative economics of space resource utilization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cutler, Andrew Hall

1991-01-01

Physical economic factors such as mass payback ratio, total payback ratio, and capital payback time are discussed and used to compare the economics of using resources from the Moon, Mars and its moons, and near Earth asteroids to serve certain near term markets such as propellant in low Earth orbit or launched mass reduction for lunar and Martian exploration. Methods for accounting for the time cost of money in simple figures of merit such as MPRs are explored and applied to comparisons such as those between lunar, Martian, and asteroidal resources. Methods for trading off capital and operating costs to compare schemes with substantially different capital to operating cost ratio are presented and discussed. Areas where further research or engineering would be extremely useful in reducing economic uncertainty are identified, as are areas where economic merit is highly sensitive to engineering performance - as well as areas where such sensitivity is surprisingly low.

7. Economic Aspects of a Resource Discovery Network.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Halliday, Leah; Oppenheim, Charles

2001-01-01

Explores economic aspects of a resource discovery network (RDN) in the United Kingdom consisting of a center and eight sub-based hubs using Ithink Analyst, a modeling software package. Results suggest that with a combination of sponsorship and subscription income a RDN could succeed without grant funding within 10 years of its launch. (Author/LRW)

8. Economic Aspects of a Resource Discovery Network.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Halliday, Leah; Oppenheim, Charles

2001-01-01

Explores economic aspects of a resource discovery network (RDN) in the United Kingdom consisting of a center and eight sub-based hubs using Ithink Analyst, a modeling software package. Results suggest that with a combination of sponsorship and subscription income a RDN could succeed without grant funding within 10 years of its launch. (Author/LRW)

9. The family's economic resources and adolescents' health complaints--do adolescents' own economic resources matter?

PubMed

Aberg Yngwe, Monica; Östberg, Viveca

2013-02-01

The present study focuses on the relevance of economic resources to psychological and psychosomatic health complaints during adolescence. It explores the link between the family's and the adolescent's economic resources and investigates whether or not differences in health complaints by the family's financial situation can be explained by adolescents' own economic resources. Drawing on data from two Swedish surveys on living conditions during adolescence (in the age group 10-18 years) conducted in 2002-03, logistic regressions were used to assess the associations between adolescents' own and household economic resources on two measures of health complaints. The association between family economic hardship (i.e. lack of cash margin) and adolescents' health complaints largely disappeared when controlling for adolescents' own economic resources. Three measures of own absolute and relative economic resources were used. Out of these, the ability (or not) to buy things that others have was connected with both psychological [Odds ratio (OR) 2.16, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.6-2.9] and psychosomatic complaints (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.3-2.1), irrespective of age and gender. The importance of lacking a personal cash margin or not being able to join friends seemed to differ between age groups and genders. The importance of different aspects of economic resources seems to vary across age groups and gender. However, not being able to buy things that others have was clearly associated with health complaints irrespective of age and gender. Family economic hardship was associated with adolescents' health complaints, and this association was largely explained by adolescents' own economic resources.

10. Economic implications of antibiotic resistance in a global economy.

PubMed

Rudholm, Niklas

2002-11-01

This paper concerns the economic implications of antibiotic resistance in a global economy. The global economy consists of several countries, where antibiotic consumption creates a stock of bacteria which is resistant to antibiotics. This stock affects the welfare in all countries because of the risk that resistant bacterial strains may be transmitted. The main purpose of the paper is to compare the socially optimal resource allocation with the allocation brought forward by the decentralized market economy. In addition, a dynamic Pigouvian tax designed to implement the globally optimal resource allocation is presented.

11. [Multiple sclerosis: social and economic implications].

PubMed

Machado, April; Valente, Francisco; Reis, Mariana; Saraiva, Pedro; Silva, Rita; Martins, Rosa; Cruz, Simão; Rodrigues, Tiago

2010-01-01

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the most common demyelinating disease of the Central Nervous System. It is more frequently diagnosed in young individuals between 20 and 40 years old. MS is the leading non-traumatic cause for disability in young adults in western countries. Portuguese prevalence of the disease is about 50 per 100,000 inhabitants, which means that there are around 5,000 people with MS in Portugal. Our goal was to determine social and economic implications of MS through the description of patient's quality of life and economic difficulties, and to assess the dividend spent by the National Health System (NHS) with this disease. The studied population consisted of 50 individuals with MS in any stage of the disease to whom no exclusion criteria were used. The following questionnaires were applied: Multiple Sclerosis: Socio-Economic Implications and MS and Quality of Life (MSQoL-54). For data processing purposes we used SPSS v.16 and Microsoft Excel 2003. The confidence interval was 95%. In addition we based the cost calculations on K and C constants (official values from 2002). The results obtained were similar to those described in literature in what concerns the clinical presentation and the onset of the disease. Social implications evaluated by MSQoL revealed the majority of the inquiries had a score above 50 (n = 31). In what concerns economic implications the value of 40 843 250 euro was obtained as the mínimum spent by NHS. This number probably represents an under-valorization of the real value since only the direct costs were analyzed. It is necessary that new studies especially with bigger study populations can determine precisely the economic impact of MS in the Portuguese society.

12. Widening economic & social disparities: implications for India.

PubMed

Kurian, N J

2007-10-01

India is often characterized as an emerging economic super power. The huge demographic dividend, the high quality engineering and management talent, the powerful Indian diaspora and the emerging Indian transnational--kneeling the optimism. In contrast, there is another profile of India which is rather gloomy. This is the country with the largest number of the poor, illiterates and unemployed in the world. High infant mortality, morbidity and widespread anaemia among women and children continue. India suffers from acute economic and social disparities. This article addresses four dimensions of such disparities, viz. regional, rural-urban, social, and gender. There is empirical evidence to indicate that during the last two decades all these disparities have been increasing. As a result of economic reforms, the southern and western States experienced accelerated economic and social development as compared to northern and eastern States. This has led to widening gap in income, poverty and other indicators of development between the two regions. Rural-urban divide also widened in the wake of reforms. While large and medium cities experience unprecedented economic prosperity, the rural areas experience economic stagnation. As a result, there is widespread agrarian distress which results in farmers' suicide and rural unrest. Socially backward sections, especially scheduled castes and tribes (SCs and STs) have gained little from the new prosperity which rewards disproportionately those with assets, skills and higher education. STs have often been victims of development as a result of displacement. The gender gap in social and economic status, traditionally more in India as compared to other societies; has further widened by the economic reforms and globalization. The approach paper to the Eleventh Plan stresses the importance of more inclusive economic growth. It emphasizes the need for bridging the divides discussed in this article. Unless these are achieved in a time

13. Natural Resource Economics. Teacher's Guide to World Resources. Comprehensive Coursework on the Global Environment.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Snyder, Sarah A.

This teacher's guide presents teaching suggestions and presentation materials about natural resources as economic assets contributing to national economic productivity. The term "natural resource accounting" or "green accounting" is introduced for valuing natural resources as capital in economic systems. The lesson is divided…

14. Natural Resource Economics. Teacher's Guide to World Resources. Comprehensive Coursework on the Global Environment.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Snyder, Sarah A.

This teacher's guide presents teaching suggestions and presentation materials about natural resources as economic assets contributing to national economic productivity. The term "natural resource accounting" or "green accounting" is introduced for valuing natural resources as capital in economic systems. The lesson is divided…

15. Resources, environment and economic development in Nigeria.

PubMed

Okpala, A O

1995-06-01

It is argued that Nigeria must focus on effective environmentally protective intensive farming, resource management methods, and strong family planning programs. Other contributory factors are recognized as the lack of democracy and the "ill-advised" internal policies of the government. The emphasis is on man-made decisions about migration, natality, and land use practices that have ecological consequences that significantly affect the economy. Land degradation in Nigeria is attributed to improper agricultural and husbandry practices. Land degradation has severe ecological, economic, and human costs. Awareness of environmental problems in Nigeria is growing. Natural disasters such as the droughts of 1984-85, continued soil depletion, accumulations of soil wastes, increased flooding in urban areas, and land erosion in Anambra state are evidence of the growing environmental problems. Agricultural development should involve changing rural land use practices, using technology that is "appropriate" to the climate, crops, and culture of the people, and introducing agroforestry. Population growth in Nigeria puts pressure on the fragile ecosystem. Actual carrying capacity is a rough calculation. Nigeria's population growth patterns follow a pattern that suggests population pressure on carrying capacity. The acceleration of population growth has strained the traditional system of agriculture. Land is overused, and cultivation continues on unsuitable land. Domestic policies during the oil boom encouraged rapid industrialization at the expense of the environment. Migration increased to urban centers, but cities did not provide suitable housing, waste disposal, safe water supplies, and other basic facilities.

16. Economic gas resources remain in western Canada Triassic plays

SciTech Connect

Dallaire, S.M.; Waghmare, R.R.; Roux, L.; Conn, R.F. )

1994-12-12

This article reviews the estimates of economic potential of the undiscovered natural gas resources estimated to exist in the Triassic System of the interior plains region of the Western Canada sedimentary basin. This work was recently released as Part 2 of Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) Bulletin 483. It is the second in a series of multidisciplinary studies reviewing the petroleum geology, discovered and undiscovered gas resources, and economic potential of natural gas in the Western Canada basin. Economic potential measures the portion of the undiscovered resource which can be expected to provide economic investment opportunities over the long term. By taking costs and other economic constraints into account, a more realistic estimate of the resources of commercial interest to industry is provided. Estimates of economic potential are also relevant in supply/demand forecasting, in the resource management mandates of governments and regulatory bodies, and in the strategic planning of transportation systems.

17. Changing Roles of Parental Economic Resources in Children's Educational Attainment

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nam, Yunju; Huang, Jin

2011-01-01

The authors investigated whether the relationship between parents' economic resources and children's educational attainment had changed over time by comparing two cohorts from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Using probit regressions and Chow tests, they examined multiple measures of economic resources, including income, net worth, liquid…

18. Developing Resourceful Humans. Adult Education within the Economic Context.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Burton, Lynn Elen, Ed.

This book, which explores the shifting paradigm from human resource development to developing resourceful humans, establishes the historical position of adult education within the economic context, discusses human capital propositions, and examines the learning dimensions of economic and educational change. The following chapters are included:…

19. Changing Roles of Parental Economic Resources in Children's Educational Attainment

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nam, Yunju; Huang, Jin

2011-01-01

The authors investigated whether the relationship between parents' economic resources and children's educational attainment had changed over time by comparing two cohorts from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Using probit regressions and Chow tests, they examined multiple measures of economic resources, including income, net worth, liquid…

20. Enforcing Service Level Agreements Using an Economically Enhanced Resource Manager

Macías, Mario; Smith, Garry; Rana, Omer; Guitart, Jordi; Torres, Jordi

Traditional resource management has had as its main objective the optimisation of throughput, based on parameters such as CPU, memory, and network bandwidth. With the appearance of Grid Markets, new variables that determine economic expenditure, benefit and opportunity must be taken into account. The SORMA project aims to allow resource owners and consumers to exploit market mechanisms to sell and buy resources across the Grid. SORMA's motivation is to achieve efficient resource utilisation by maximising revenue for resource providers, and minimising the cost of resource consumption within a market environment. An overriding factor in Grid markets is the need to ensure that desired Quality of Service levels meet the expectations of market participants. This paper explains the proposed use of an Economically Enhanced Resource Manager (EERM) for resource provisioning based on economic models. In particular, this paper describes techniques used by the EERM to support revenue maximisation across multiple Service Level Agreements.

1. Economics, Kindergarten-Grade 6. A Curriculum Resource Guide.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Texas Council for Economic Education, Houston.

This resource guide results from a joint project of the Texas Council on Economic Education and the Texas Education Agency. For each of the elementary school grades, the guide presents interdisciplinary lessons that feature an integrated approach to the teaching of economics. The lessons are devoted to a number of basic economics concepts. The…

2. Interurban Systems and Regional Economic Development, Resource Paper No. 26.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stohr, Walter B.

This resource paper on economic geography is part of a series designed to supplement undergraduate geography courses. It interprets regional economic development in terms of geographic spatial patterns of production, income, and physical or economic distance. Chapter two outlines some selected characteristics of spatial disparities of economic…

3. Interurban Systems and Regional Economic Development, Resource Paper No. 26.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stohr, Walter B.

This resource paper on economic geography is part of a series designed to supplement undergraduate geography courses. It interprets regional economic development in terms of geographic spatial patterns of production, income, and physical or economic distance. Chapter two outlines some selected characteristics of spatial disparities of economic…

4. Resource Sharing in Higher Education: Home Economics Administrators' Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ley, Connie; Webb-Lupo, Anita

1988-01-01

A total of 117 members of the National Council of Administrators of Home Economics completed the Resource Sharing Inventory. Forty-five percent provide some examples of how their department shared resources with other departments. Administrator attitude was the factor identified as most likely to encourage resource sharing. (CH)

5. Mineral Resources, Economic Growth, and World Population

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brooks, David B.; Andrews, P. W.

1974-01-01

World mineral supply and demand is discussed. The economics of future mineral availability in terms of effects on pollution, land use, energy consumption, human settlements, and the international distribution of income are emphasized. (DT)

6. Mineral Resources, Economic Growth, and World Population

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brooks, David B.; Andrews, P. W.

1974-01-01

World mineral supply and demand is discussed. The economics of future mineral availability in terms of effects on pollution, land use, energy consumption, human settlements, and the international distribution of income are emphasized. (DT)

7. Economic implications of resistance to antimalarial drugs.

PubMed

Phillips, M; Phillips-Howard, P A

1996-09-01

The widespread evolution of drug resistance in malarial parasites has seriously hampered efforts to control this debilitating disease. Chloroquine, the mainstay of malaria treatment for many decades, is now proving largely ineffective in many parts of the world, particularly against the most severe form of malaria--falciparum. Alternative drugs have been developed, but they are frequently less safe and are all between 50 and 700% more expensive than chloroquine. Choice of drug clearly has important budgetary implications and national malaria control programmes need to weigh up the costs and benefits in deciding whether to change to more effective but more expensive drugs. The growth in drug resistance also has implications for the choice of diagnostic tool. Clinical diagnosis of malaria is relatively cheap, but less specific than some technological approaches. As more expensive drugs are employed, the cost of wasted treatment on suspected cases who do not in fact have malaria rises and the more worthwhile it becomes to invest in more specific diagnostic techniques. This paper presents an economic framework for analysing the various malaria drug and diagnostic tool options available. It discusses the nature of the key factors that need to be considered when making choices of malaria treatment (including treatment costs, drug resistance, the costs of treatment failure and compliance) and diagnosis (including diagnosis cost and accuracy, and the often overlooked costs associated with delayed treatment), and uses some simple equations to illustrate the impact of these on the relative cost effectiveness of the alternatives being considered. On the basis of some simplifying assumptions and illustrative calculations, it appears that in many countries more effective drugs and more specific and rapid diagnostic approaches will be worth adopting even although they imply additional expense.

8. The Economic Resource Receipt of New Mothers

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nichols, Laura; Elman, Cheryl; Feltey, Kathryn M.

2006-01-01

U.S. federal policies do not provide a universal social safety net of economic support for women during pregnancy or the immediate postpartum period but assume that employment and/or marriage will protect families from poverty. Yet even mothers with considerable human and marital capital may experience disruptions in employment, earnings, and…

9. Advanced Placement Economics. Teacher Resource Manual.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Morton, John S.

This book, in conjunction with the student activities books for macroeconomics and microeconomics, is designed for teaching the Advanced Placement Economics course. The book contains five units for the microeconomic portion and six units for the macroeconomic portion of the text. Along with the many activities are sample multiple-choice questions,…

10. Economic Hard Times and Electronic Resources

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grogg, Jill E.

2009-01-01

Library school courses focusing on management and budgeting are as important as ever, as are continuing education opportunities for librarians who may not have encountered a severe economic recession. The journal crisis of the 1990s is still a fresh and unpleasant memory for many. However, for other librarians who may have graduated from library…

11. Economic and policy implications of improving longevity.

PubMed

2005-09-01

With all the rhetoric surrounding the impending "entitlement crisis" produced by the "graying of America," there has been surprisingly little serious analysis of the social and economic implications of increased longevity and the doubling of the number of elderly people that will occur in this country over the next 30 years. This article identifies five critical areas in which the effect of demographic change will be significant. First, patterns of work life and labor-force participation will almost inevitably change. Second, government expenditures now financed largely by payroll and federal income taxes will increase, whereas those financed by state and local property taxes will fall, at least proportionately. Third, the post-World War II pattern of suburbanized, automobile-dependent communities will pose special challenges to serving an aging population, and new adaptations will need to be developed. Fourth, intrafamily caregiving patterns will necessarily change. Fifth, the level of disability and dependence of older people, for which the rate of change is inherently unpredictable, will have a major effect on all these and other phenomena. Whether one views the net effect of all these changes as a positive or a negative, it is necessary to begin thinking a lot harder and more systematically about all of them.

12. Economic and Community Development Resource Guide for Native Americans.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Association on American Indian Affairs, Inc., New York, NY.

The Association on American Indian Affairs compiled a collection of sources for Native Americans pertaining to economic and community development. Sections included in the resource guide are: (1) information services and sources; (2) computer databases; (3) technical assistance organizations; (4) organizations that support economic development;…

13. Economics research supporting water resource stewardship in the Pacific Northwest.

Treesearch

Laurie L. Houston; Jeffrey D. Kline; Ralph J. Alig

2002-01-01

The use of water increasingly involves complex tradeoffs among biophysical, economic, ecological, and societal values. Knowledge about the value of water to different users and methods with which to evaluate biophysical, economic, ecological, and social tradeoffs associated with allocating limited water resources among competing uses is vital to devising appropriate...

14. Natural Resource Information for Economic Development.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Herfindahl, Orris C.

This study is concerned with the problem of collecting information on natural resources. It analyses the cost of effectiveness of various kinds of surveys and related techniques (for example, aerial photography, geological and soil studies, and forest surveys) under various conditions, distinguishing between "time-bound" information and…

15. Natural Resource Information for Economic Development.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Herfindahl, Orris C.

This study is concerned with the problem of collecting information on natural resources. It analyses the cost of effectiveness of various kinds of surveys and related techniques (for example, aerial photography, geological and soil studies, and forest surveys) under various conditions, distinguishing between "time-bound" information and…

16. Using STELLA Simulation Models to Teach Natural Resource Economics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dissanayake, Sahan T. M.

2016-01-01

In this article, the author discusses how graphical simulation models created using STELLA software can be used to present natural resource systems in an intuitive way in undergraduate natural resource economics classes based on his experiences at a leading research university, a state university, and a leading liberal arts college in the United…

17. Using STELLA Simulation Models to Teach Natural Resource Economics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dissanayake, Sahan T. M.

2016-01-01

In this article, the author discusses how graphical simulation models created using STELLA software can be used to present natural resource systems in an intuitive way in undergraduate natural resource economics classes based on his experiences at a leading research university, a state university, and a leading liberal arts college in the United…

18. Resource values in analyzing fire management programs for economic efficiency

Treesearch

Irene A. Althaus; Thomas J. Mills

1982-01-01

In analyzing fire management programs for their economic efficiency, it is necessary to assign monetary values to the changes in resource outputs caused by, fire. The derivation of resource values is complicated by imperfect or nonexistent commercial market structures. The valuation concept recommended for fire program analyses is willingness-to-pay because it permits...

19. Ecological and resource economics as ecosystem management tools

Treesearch

1999-01-01

Economic pressures on ecosystems will only intensify in the future. Increased population levels, settlement patterns, and increased incomes will raise the demands for ecosystem resources and their services. The pressure to transform ecosystem natural assets into marketable commodities, whether by harvesting and mining resources or altering landscapes through...

20. Technological change, economic growth, and exhaustible resources

SciTech Connect

Shah, F.A.

1990-01-01

Dynamic optimization models are developed to address two topics: (1) financing of large-scale technological change when credit is constrained; (2) adoption of discrete conservationist production technologies in response to the depletion of an exhaustible input. The self-financing of large-scale projects may be expected to entail cutbacks in consumption; a model that depicts this situation is presented. Sensitivity analysis is performed and various extensions are considered. The response of individual producers to increasing resource scarcity is modeled keeping in view two important examples from agriculture. First, ground water used for irrigation in a region operated by heterogeneous farms is considered an exhaustible resource. As the water stock gets depleted, pumping costs rise and more farmers switch from traditional furrow irrigation to less wasteful irrigation technologies, such as drips or sprinklers. An optimal subsidy for adopters of the efficient technology can be a viable second-best policy instrument. As a second example, the environment's ability to absorb polluting irrigation drainwater is modeled as a common-property exhaustible resource. Furrow irrigation generates more drainage than sprinkler or drip irrigation. The common property problem causes competitive farmers to use sub-optimal irrigation practices.

1. Negative Appendectomy: Clinical and Economic Implications.

PubMed

Lu, Yang; Friedlander, Scott; Lee, Steven L

2016-10-01

Historically, performing a negative appendectomy (NA) was justified to reduce the incidence of perforation. Furthermore, it is also believed that NA is associated with minimal morbidity and cost. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency, clinical characteristics, and economic implications of NA. We reviewed the inpatient admissions on 274,405 patients who underwent nonincidental appendectomy as their primary procedure from the California State Inpatient Databases (2005-2011). Overall, 96.9 per cent had appendicitis (nonperforated = 73.1%, perforated = 23.8% and 3.1%) had NA. NA rates decreased steadily from 4.2 per cent in 2005 to 2.5 per cent in 2011 (P < 0.01). The rates of appendectomy for perforated appendicitis rates also decreased slightly from 25.3 to 23.3 per cent during this time (P = <0.01). Multivariate regression showed that female gender, African American race, and public insurance were all associated with increased NA rates. Compared with patients with appendectomy for nonperforated appendicitis, NA was associated with longer length of stay (NA = 3.2 days vs nonperforated = 1.7 days), higher median cost per admission (NA = \$8626 vs nonperforated = \$7605), and higher morbidity (4.7 vs 1.9%), all P < 0.01. Contrary to classic justification for NA, we did not find an inverse association of appendectomy for perforated appendicitis and NA at the hospital level. In conclusion, NA is associated with substantial clinical and financial burden, while having no apparent impact on lowering the rate of appendectomy for perforated appendicitis.

2. Quantitative analysis of the economically recoverable resource

SciTech Connect

Pulle, C.V.; Seskus, A.P.

1981-05-01

The objective of this study is to obtain estimates of the economically recoverable gas in the Appalachian Basin. The estimates were obtained in terms of a probability distribution, which quantifies the inherent uncertainty associated with estimates where geologic and production uncertainties prevail. It is established that well productivity on a county and regional basis is lognormally distributed, and the total recoverable gas is Normally distributed. The expected (mean), total economically recoverable gas is 20.2 trillion cubic feet (TCF) with a standard deviation of 1.6 TCF, conditional on the use of shooting technology on 160-acre well-spacing. From properties of the Normal distribution, it is seen that a 95 percent probability exists for the total recoverable gas to lie between 17.06 and 23.34 TCF. The estimates are sensitive to well spacings and the technology applied to a particular geologic environment. It is observed that with smaller well spacings - for example, at 80 acres - the estimate is substantially increased, and that advanced technology, such as foam fracturing, has the potential of significantly increasing gas recovery. However, the threshold and optimum conditions governing advanced exploitation technology, based on well spacing and other parameters, were not analyzed in this study. Their technological impact on gas recovery is mentioned in the text where relevant; and on the basis of a rough projection an additional 10 TCF could be expected with the use of foam fracturing on wells with initial open flows lower than 300 MCFD. From the exploration point of view, the lognormal distribution of well productivity suggests that even in smaller areas, such as a county basis, intense exploration might be appropriate. This is evident from the small tail probabilities of the lognormal distribution, which represent the small number of wells with relatively very high productivity.

3. Lunar Magnetic Fields: Implications for Resource Utilization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hood, L. L.

1992-01-01

It is well known that solar-wind-implanted hydrogen and helium-3 in lunar soils are potentially usable resources for future manned activities. For economical mining of these implanted gases, it is desirable that relative concentrations exceed that of typical soils. It has previously been noted that the monthly variation of solar wind flux on the surface due to lunar immersion in the geomagnetic tail may have measurable consequences for resource utilization. It is pointed out that, for a constant external flux, locally strong lunar crustal magnetic fields will exert the dominant influence on solar wind volatile implantation rates. In particular, the strongest lunar crustal magnetic fields will both deflect and focus incident ions in local regions leading to local enhancements of the incident ion flux. Thus, the most economical sites for extraction of solar-wind-implanted volatiles may be within or adjacent to strong crustal magnetic fields. In addition, solar wind ion deflection by crustal magnetic fields must be considered in evaluating the issue of whether remnant cometary ice or water-bearing minerals have survived in permanently shadowed regions near the lunar poles. This is because sputter erosion of water ice by solar wind ions has been suggested to be an important ice loss mechanism within permanently shadowed regions. Thus, permanently shadowed regions that are also shielded from the solar wind by locally strong crustal fields could be the most promising locations for the survival of cometary ice. Additional numerical simulations are employed to show that solar wind ion deflection by strong lunar magnetic anomalies can produce local increases in the implantation rate of solar wind gases such as hydrogen.

4. Extraterrestrial resources: Implications from terrestrial experience

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kuck, David L.; Gillett, Stephen L.

1991-01-01

Terrestrial mining experience indicates that the overwhelming criterion of a potentially economic deposit is its recoverable concentration of the desired mineral or element. Recovery can be based on contrast in physical and/or chemical properties, but processes based on physical properties are typically less expensive. As several processes generally are used in sequence, they have a profound effect on extraction costs. These criteria will also apply to extraterrestrial resources. Although the extreme cost of access to space makes even ordinary materials extremely valuable, this inaccessibility also makes capital and maintenance costs extremely high. The following four development stages will apply, especially with the additional unknowns of an extraterrestrial environment: (1) Exploration for the highest grade of the mineral or element desired (because the extraction plant must be simple, cheap, and rugged to minimize capital and maintenance costs, high grade is extremely important); (2) Laboratory testing of various physical and/or chemical separation techniques on the possible ore to determine if the material can indeed be recovered economically; (3) a pilot plant test, in which a large sample is dug from the deposit to determine excavation rates, power requirements, and equipment wear. (This sample is then run through a pilot mill designed on the basis of the laboratory testing. Pilot plant testing must be carried out at increasing scales, but several trials are generally necessary at each scale before the size of operations can be increased. Moreover, pilot testing is necessary for each new mineral deposit); and (4) Last is the full-scale mine and plant start-up. (New problems invariably occur at this point, but they can be kept to a minimum if the pilot plant tests were realistic). If such a development plan is followed rigorously, major cost overruns, with their potentially disastrous effects on resource developments, can be avoided.

5. Extraterrestrial resources: Implications from terrestrial experience

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kuck, David L.; Gillett, Stephen L.

1991-01-01

Terrestrial mining experience indicates that the overwhelming criterion of a potentially economic deposit is its recoverable concentration of the desired mineral or element. Recovery can be based on contrast in physical and/or chemical properties, but processes based on physical properties are typically less expensive. As several processes generally are used in sequence, they have a profound effect on extraction costs. These criteria will also apply to extraterrestrial resources. Although the extreme cost of access to space makes even ordinary materials extremely valuable, this inaccessibility also makes capital and maintenance costs extremely high. The following four development stages will apply, especially with the additional unknowns of an extraterrestrial environment: (1) Exploration for the highest grade of the mineral or element desired (because the extraction plant must be simple, cheap, and rugged to minimize capital and maintenance costs, high grade is extremely important); (2) Laboratory testing of various physical and/or chemical separation techniques on the possible ore to determine if the material can indeed be recovered economically; (3) a pilot plant test, in which a large sample is dug from the deposit to determine excavation rates, power requirements, and equipment wear. (This sample is then run through a pilot mill designed on the basis of the laboratory testing. Pilot plant testing must be carried out at increasing scales, but several trials are generally necessary at each scale before the size of operations can be increased. Moreover, pilot testing is necessary for each new mineral deposit); and (4) Last is the full-scale mine and plant start-up. (New problems invariably occur at this point, but they can be kept to a minimum if the pilot plant tests were realistic). If such a development plan is followed rigorously, major cost overruns, with their potentially disastrous effects on resource developments, can be avoided.

6. Resource-use measurement based on patient recall: issues and challenges for economic evaluation.

PubMed

Thorn, Joanna C; Coast, Joanna; Cohen, David; Hollingworth, William; Knapp, Martin; Noble, Sian M; Ridyard, Colin; Wordsworth, Sarah; Hughes, Dyfrig

2013-06-01

Accurate resource-use measurement is challenging within an economic evaluation, but is a fundamental requirement for estimating efficiency. Considerable research effort has been concentrated on the appropriate measurement of outcomes and the policy implications of economic evaluation, while methods for resource-use measurement have been relatively neglected. Recently, the Database of Instruments for Resource Use Measurement (DIRUM) was set up at http://www.dirum.org to provide a repository where researchers can share resource-use measures and methods. A workshop to discuss the issues was held at the University of Birmingham in October 2011. Based on material presented at the workshop, this article highlights the state of the art of UK instruments for resource-use data collection based on patient recall. We consider methodological issues in the design and analysis of resource-use instruments, and the challenges associated with designing new questionnaires. We suggest a method of developing a good practice guideline, and identify some areas for future research. Consensus amongst health economists has yet to be reached on many aspects of resource-use measurement. We argue that researchers should now afford costing methodologies the same attention as outcome measurement, and we hope that this Current Opinion article will stimulate a debate on methods of resource-use data collection and establish a research agenda to improve the precision and accuracy of resource-use estimates.

7. Health economic evaluations help inform payers of the best use of scarce health care resources.

PubMed

O'Reilly, Daria; Gaebel, Kathryn; Xie, Feng; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Goeree, Ron

2011-09-01

The number of new health technologies has risen over the past decade. These new technologies usually are more effective but they also cost more compared to existing ones. In a publicly funded health care system such as Canada, the aim is to maximize the health of the population within the resources available. As a result, it is unavoidable that choices and trade-offs have to be made because there will always be more treatment options than resources will allow (i.e., scarcity of resources) as well as alternative uses for those resources (i.e., opportunity costs). The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of economic evaluations and how these tools can be used to help inform payers of the best use of scarce health care resources. This descriptive paper includes a summary of key consepts and definitions in economic appraisal and draws upon recently published papers as illustrations. Background on the necessity and role of economic evaluations is provided, followed by a description of the approaches for, and types of, economic evaluations. Two illustrative examples are used and some implications for rural, remote and circumpolar communities are discussed. There are 2 main approaches for conducting an economic evaluation (trial- and model-based) and 3 types of evaluations which can be considered to inform payers of the best use of health care resources (cost-effectiveness, cost-utility and cost-benefit analyses). Techniques of economic evaluation are useful tools and an important input into the decision-making process. Although these techniques have universal application, there are issues specific to rural, remote and circumpolar communities which can affect the results of economic appraisals.

8. Leveraging Resources and Sustaining Partnerships in Tough Economic Times

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Booth, Cheryl N.; Vaidya, Shruti J.; Farrell, Patricia A.; Bokemeier, Janet L.

2004-01-01

During times of economic uncertainty, how can universities develop and sustain resources for engagement efforts? This article focuses on how a university-wide research and outreach coalition at Michigan State University called Families and Communities Together (FACT) is exploring a variety of funding approaches and implementing successful…

9. United States History and Economics. A Resource Guide.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

This resource guide lists sources for elementary and secondary social studies teachers in the areas of history and economics. Intended primarily as a selection tool for teachers, it will also be helpful to supervisors, librarians, and other educators. Annotations are provided for the majority of works, published mostly during the 1950's and…

10. Human Resources, Education, and Economic Development in Peru.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

The present report is the result of the study on human resources and educational planning carried out in 1964 by the National Planning Institute (INP) in co-operation with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. The main purpose of the report is to help integrate Peru's educational development and process of general…

11. Land Resources for Crop Production. Agricultural Economic Report Number 572.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hexem, Roger; Krupa, Kenneth S.

About 35 million acres not being cultivated have high potential for crop use and 117 million more have medium potential, according to the 1982 National Resources Inventory (NRI) conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. USDA committees evaluated the economic potential for converting land based on physical characteristics of the soil; size…

12. What to Do Regarding Economics and Managing Resources.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

These materials for the curriculum area of economics and managing resources comprise one of six such packages that are part of the Ohio Vocational Consumer/Homemaking Curriculum Guide. The curriculum area or perennial problem taken up in this document is divided into three practical problems about what to do regarding: (1) decision making; (2)…

13. Starting Point: Pedagogic Resources for Teaching and Learning Economics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maier, Mark H.; McGoldrick, KimMarie; Simkins, Scott P.

2012-01-01

This article describes Starting Point: Teaching and Learning Economics, a Web-based portal that makes innovative pedagogic resources and effective teaching practices easily accessible to economists. Starting Point introduces economists to teaching innovations through 16 online modules, each containing a general description of a specific pedagogic…

14. Starting Point: Pedagogic Resources for Teaching and Learning Economics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maier, Mark H.; McGoldrick, KimMarie; Simkins, Scott P.

2012-01-01

This article describes Starting Point: Teaching and Learning Economics, a Web-based portal that makes innovative pedagogic resources and effective teaching practices easily accessible to economists. Starting Point introduces economists to teaching innovations through 16 online modules, each containing a general description of a specific pedagogic…

15. Survey of resource opportunities and critical evaluation of economic requirements

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clark, Benton C.

1991-01-01

A series of mission analyses were performed to evaluate human mission to Mars and the moon with and without the aid of planetary resource utilization. The types of trade studies that are considered include the use of resources to manufacture propellant, food, habitat atmospheric gases, and lander habitat structure. Also, the potential for export of resources from the moon, Mars, Phobos, Deimos, and selected asteroids is also examined. In all cases, mass leveraging is evaluated. For certain cases, economic factors are evaluated as well. It is concluded that some uses are highly leveraging on the mission, whereas others have lesser impact and, therefore, should be afforded lesser priority in resource utilization studies. This survey is made with a consistent set of scaling laws for spacecraft propulsion and habitation systems and subsystems, and therefore, provides a rational basis for comparing different resource locations and use strategies.

16. Survey of resource opportunities and critical evaluation of economic requirements

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clark, Benton C.

1991-01-01

A series of mission analyses were performed to evaluate human mission to Mars and the moon with and without the aid of planetary resource utilization. The types of trade studies that are considered include the use of resources to manufacture propellant, food, habitat atmospheric gases, and lander habitat structure. Also, the potential for export of resources from the moon, Mars, Phobos, Deimos, and selected asteroids is also examined. In all cases, mass leveraging is evaluated. For certain cases, economic factors are evaluated as well. It is concluded that some uses are highly leveraging on the mission, whereas others have lesser impact and, therefore, should be afforded lesser priority in resource utilization studies. This survey is made with a consistent set of scaling laws for spacecraft propulsion and habitation systems and subsystems, and therefore, provides a rational basis for comparing different resource locations and use strategies.

17. Natural resource protection on buffer lands: integrating resource evaluation and economics.

PubMed

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Greenberg, Michael

2008-07-01

Environmental managers are faced with the wise management, sustainability, and stewardship of their land for natural resource values. This task requires the integration of ecological evaluation with economics. Using the Department of Energy (DOE) as a case study, we examine the why, who, what, where, when, and how questions about assessment and natural resource protection of buffer lands. We suggest that managers evaluate natural resources for a variety of reasons that revolve around land use, remediation/restoration, protection of natural environments, and natural resource damage assessment (NRDA). While DOE is the manager of its lands, and thus its natural resources, a range of natural resource trustees and public officials have co-responsibility. We distinguish four types of natural resource evaluations: (1) the resources themselves (to the ecosystem), (2) the value of specific resources to people (e.g. hunting/fishing/bird-watching/herbal medicines), (3) the value of ecological resources to services for communities (e.g. clean air/water), and (4) the value of the intact ecosystems (e.g. forests or estuaries). Resource evaluations should occur initially to provide information about the status of those resources, and continued evaluation is required to provide trends data. Additional natural resource evaluation is required before, during and immediately following changes in land use, and remediation or restoration. Afterwards, additional monitoring and evaluations are required to evaluate the effects of the land use change or the efficacy of remediation/restoration. There are a wide range of economic methods available to evaluate natural resources, but the methods chosen depend upon the nature of the resource being evaluated, the purpose of the evaluation, and the needs of the agencies, natural resource trustees, public officials, and the public. We discuss the uses, and the advantages and disadvantages of different evaluation methods for natural resources.

18. Natural resource protection on buffer lands: integrating resource evaluation and economics

PubMed Central

Gochfeld, Michael; Greenberg, Michael

2014-01-01

Environmental managers are faced with the wise management, sustainability, and stewardship of their land for natural resource values. This task requires the integration of ecological evaluation with economics. Using the Department of Energy (DOE) as a case study, we examine the why, who, what, where, when, and how questions about assessment and natural resource protection of buffer lands. We suggest that managers evaluate natural resources for a variety of reasons that revolve around land use, remediation/restoration, protection of natural environments, and natural resource damage assessment (NRDA). While DOE is the manager of its lands, and thus its natural resources, a range of natural resource trustees and public officials have co-responsibility. We distinguish four types of natural resource evaluations: (1) the resources themselves (to the ecosystem), (2) the value of specific resources to people (e.g. hunting/fishing/bird-watching/herbal medicines), (3) the value of ecological resources to services for communities (e.g. clean air/water), and (4) the value of the intact ecosystems (e.g. forests or estuaries). Resource evaluations should occur initially to provide information about the status of those resources, and continued evaluation is required to provide trends data. Additional natural resource evaluation is required before, during and immediately following changes in land use, and remediation or restoration. Afterwards, additional monitoring and evaluations are required to evaluate the effects of the land use change or the efficacy of remediation/restoration. There are a wide range of economic methods available to evaluate natural resources, but the methods chosen depend upon the nature of the resource being evaluated, the purpose of the evaluation, and the needs of the agencies, natural resource trustees, public officials, and the public. We discuss the uses, and the advantages and disadvantages of different evaluation methods for natural resources. PMID

19. Realism and resources: Towards more explanatory economic evaluation

PubMed Central

Anderson, Rob; Hardwick, Rebecca

2016-01-01

To be successfully and sustainably adopted, policy-makers, service managers and practitioners want public programmes to be affordable and cost-effective, as well as effective. While the realist evaluation question is often summarised as what works for whom, under what circumstances, we believe the approach can be as salient to answering questions about resource use, costs and cost-effectiveness – the traditional domain of economic evaluation methods. This paper first describes the key similarities and differences between economic evaluation and realist evaluation. It summarises what health economists see as the challenges of evaluating complex interventions, and their suggested solutions. We then use examples of programme theory from a recent realist review of shared care for chronic conditions to illustrate two ways in which realist evaluations might better capture the resource requirements and resource consequences of programmes, and thereby produce explanations of how they are linked to outcomes (i.e. explanations of cost-effectiveness). PMID:27478402

20. Version 3.0 of EMINERS - Economic Mineral Resource Simulator

USGS Publications Warehouse

Duval, Joseph S.

2012-01-01

Quantitative mineral resource assessment, as developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consists of three parts: (1) development of grade and tonnage mineral deposit models; (2) delineation of tracts permissive for each deposit type; and (3) probabilistic estimation of the numbers of undiscovered deposits for each deposit type. The estimate of the number of undiscovered deposits at different levels of probability is the input to the EMINERS (Economic Mineral Resource Simulator) program. EMINERS uses a Monte Carlo statistical process to combine probabilistic estimates of undiscovered mineral deposits with models of mineral deposit grade and tonnage to estimate mineral resources. Version 3.0 of the EMINERS program is available as this USGS Open-File Report 2004-1344. Changes from version 2.0 include updating 87 grade and tonnage models, designing new templates to produce graphs showing cumulative distribution and summary tables, and disabling economic filters. The economic filters were disabled because embedded data for costs of labor and materials, mining techniques, and beneficiation methods are out of date. However, the cost algorithms used in the disabled economic filters are still in the program and available for reference for mining methods and milling techniques. The release notes included with this report give more details on changes in EMINERS over the years. EMINERS is written in C++ and depends upon the Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 programming environment. The code depends heavily on the use of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) for implementation of the Windows interface. The program works only on Microsoft Windows XP or newer personal computers. It does not work on Macintosh computers. For help in using the program in this report, see the "Quick-Start Guide for Version 3.0 of EMINERS-Economic Mineral Resource Simulator" (W.J. Bawiec and G.T. Spanski, 2012, USGS Open-File Report 2009-1057, linked at right). It demonstrates how to execute EMINERS software

1. National Security Implications of Transnational Economic Activity

DTIC Science & Technology

1993-04-01

negative economic indicators today. o The trade deficit has routinely been above \$100 billion annually since 1983, with 1991 being an exception at...lending rose from \$324 billion in 1980 to \$7.5 trillion in 1991 ("World Economy," 19 September 1992). o the gross sales and purchases of bonds and...period 1980-1989 (Baumol and Blinder, 1991 ). Since domestic savings were not available to draw upon, government expenditure was financed by foreign

2. [Inventories of the Earth. Mineral resource appraisals and the rise of resource economics].

PubMed

Westermann, Andrea

2014-03-01

How do the earth sciences mediate between the natural and social world? This paper explores the question by focusing on the history of nonfuel mineral resource appraisal from the late nineteenth to the mid twentieth century. It argues that earth sciences early on embraced social scientific knowledge, i.e. economic knowledge, in particular, when it came to determining or deposits and estimating the magnitude of mineral reserves. After 1900, assessing national and global mineral reserves and their "life span" or years of supply became ever more important, scaling up and complementing traditional appraisal practices on the level of individual mines or mining and trading companies. As a consequence, economic methods gained new weight for mineral resource estimation. Natural resource economics as an own field of research grew out of these efforts. By way of example, the mineral resource appraisal assigned to the U.S. Materials Policy Commission by President Harry S. Truman in 1951 is analyzed in more detail. Natural resource economics and environmental economics might be interpreted as a strategy to bring down the vast and holistically conceived object of geological and ecological research, the earth, to human scale, and assimilate it into social matters.

3. Southern New Mexico low temperature geothermal resource economic analysis

SciTech Connect

Fischer, C.L.; Whittier, J.; Witcher, J.C.; Schoenmackers, R.

1990-08-01

This report presents an overview of geothermal resource development for three-low temperature (i.e, <200{degree}F) sites in southern New Mexico: the Lower Animas Valley, the Las Cruces East Mesa, and Truth or Consequences. This report is intended to provide potential geothermal developers with detailed information on each site for planning and decision making purposes. Included in the overview for each site is both a full site characterization and an economic analysis of development costs associated with the construction and operation of both geothermal and fresh water systems at each of the three locations. The economic analysis focuses on providing utility services to a commercial greenhouse because greenhouse operations are among the most likely candidates for use of the resource base. 9 tabs., 8 figs.

4. Economic uses of forest plant resources in western Chitwan, Nepal

PubMed Central

Dangol, Dharma R.

2012-01-01

This paper discusses economic uses of forest plant resources documented from 117 forest plots and neighboring areas of western Chitwan, Nepal. The paper lists information on the plant species (1) that provide valuable food, vegetable and medicinal products that maintain human health and general well-being of the households; (2) that are economically valuable to farmers such as high-grade fodder, useful plants for crop management (e.g., pesticide, compost, green manure); (3) that are used as piscicide (harvest fish from rivers and streams), (4) that provide materials for use in household construction (e.g. building materials, thatch) and tool making; and (5) that have aesthetic value. The access to forest resources is important for many households, especially those living in remote and poor agricultural areas such as Western Chitwan. This paper also highlights the availability of the species wherever possible based upon the field data. PMID:23066332

5. Mineral resources of the Atlantic Exclusive Economic Zone

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dillon, William P.

1984-01-01

Potential mineral resources of the Atlantic Exclusive Economic Zone (including the Gulf of Mexico and US Caribbean areas) include petroleum, sand and gravel, phosphorite, placer deposits of heavy mineral sands, ferromanganese nodules, and fresh water. Although major efforts have been made to search for petroleum, the oil and gas resources of the region are well known only in the western Gulf Shelf and more exploration is under way. Heavy-mineral placer deposits, which may be sources of titanium, gold, rare earths, etc. , have been sampled, but the extent and, therefore, economic value of the deposits have not been identified. Sand and gravel, phosphorite, and ferromanganese nodules all are represented by fairly well established deposits, and only modified market conditions would be necessary to cause detailed exploration and mining.

6. Economic review of the geopressured-geothermal resource with recommendations

SciTech Connect

Plum, M.M.; Negus-de Wys, J.; Faulder, D.D.; Lunis, B.C.

1989-11-01

This report presents the results of an economic study conducted by the INEL under DOE Contract No. AC07-76ID01570 to evaluate the breakeven price to market energy from a geopressured-geothermal resource. A breakeven price is a minimum, per unit charge required for the developer to recover all direct and indirect costs and a rate of return sufficient to compensate the developer for depreciation, the time value of money, and the risk of failure. The DOE Geopressured-Geothermal Research Program and the DOE well testing and operations at three locations in the Gulf Coast region provide the bulk of resource and economic characteristics for this study. A menu-driven model was developed in LOTUS-123 to calculate the breakeven price to market gas and electricity from a geopressured-geothermal resource. This model was developed using the present value methodology and conservative assumptions. Assuming present well constraints and current off-the-shelf conversion technology, the breakeven price for electricity is about \$0.26/kWh using only the thermal energy from a Hulin-type resource. Assuming identical resource and technology constraints, the breakeven price is reduced to about \$0.15/kWh when using all available energy forms (methane, hydraulic, and thermal). Assuming the use of available advanced technologies, the breakeven price is reduced to about \$0.10/kWh. Assuming the higher quality resource (with higher temperature and gas content) in the South Texas cases, the breakeven cost is about \$0.095/kWh. Using advanced technology, this cost is further reduced to about \$0.05/kWh. Both costs are within program goals. The results of this study suggest that the future direction of the Geopressured-Geothermal Program emphasize (a) selection of higher quality resource, (b) advanced energy conversion technology, and (c) total energy utilization.

7. Early retirees under Social Security: health status and economic resources.

PubMed

Leonesio, M V; Vaughan, D R; Wixon, B

2000-01-01

Some proposals to change the Social Security program to ensure long-run solvency would reduce or eliminate benefits for early retirees. This article documents the health and financial resources of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) beneficiaries aged 62-64. It identifies a substantial minority of early retirees who might be economically vulnerable if either the early eligibility age or normal retirement age was raised. Attention is directed at the extent to which poor health limits work in this age group and the extent to which curtailment of early OASI benefits might lead to increases in the Disability Insurance (DI) program rolls. Using a set of comprehensive health measures, we estimate that over 20 percent of OASI beneficiaries aged 62-64 have health problems that substantially impair their ability to work. This finding implies that in this age range, as many severely disabled persons receive OASI benefits as disability benefits. In fact, 12 percent of early beneficiaries would meet a more stringent criterion for being classified "disabled"--SSA's medical standard for disability benefits. The evidence therefore indicates that OASI functions as a substantial, albeit unofficial, disability program for early retirees. Compared with those who have no health problems or are less severely impaired, early OASI beneficiaries who meet the medical criteria for disability benefits are more likely to be living alone and more likely to be poor or "near poor." The great majority of the group--almost 80 percent--are women. Analysis of their earnings histories suggests that most of these beneficiaries do not satisfy the insured-status requirements for Disability Insurance benefits. The article considers the different roles of the OASI program and the DI program for health-impaired individuals aged 62-64. Disability modelers sometimes overlook an important aspect of program administration. Under customary screening procedures implemented in Social Security field offices

8. The Public Health Implications of Resource Wars

PubMed Central

Klare, Michael T.; Sidel, Victor W.

2011-01-01

Competition for resources between or within nations is likely to become an increasingly common cause of armed conflict. Competition for petroleum is especially likely to trigger armed conflict because petroleum is a highly valuable resource whose supply is destined to contract. Wars fought over petroleum and other resources can create public health concerns by causing morbidity and mortality, damaging societal infrastructure, diverting resources, uprooting people, and violating human rights. Public health workers and the organizations with which they are affiliated can help prevent resource wars and minimize their consequences by (1) promoting renewable energy and conservation, (2) documenting the impact of past and potential future resource wars, (3) protecting the human rights of affected noncombatant civilian populations during armed conflict, and (4) developing and advocating for policies that promote peaceful dispute resolution. PMID:21778501

9. An Economics Scrapbook: A Catalog of Resources for Graduate Students in the Department of Economics.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Yoshimura, Miles, Comp.; Gang, Ira, Comp.

This catalog of resources entails, by definition, an incomplete listing of available materials in the Rutgers University Department of Economics, Alexander Library at Rutgers, data centers throughout Rutgers, and the Internet. Because of the changing nature of the field, this scrapbook is constantly being revised. This scrapbook contains seven…

10. Estimation of economic parameters of U.S. hydropower resources

SciTech Connect

Hall, Douglas G.; Hunt, Richard T.; Reeves, Kelly S.; Carroll, Greg R.

2003-06-01

Tools for estimating the cost of developing and operating and maintaining hydropower resources in the form of regression curves were developed based on historical plant data. Development costs that were addressed included: licensing, construction, and five types of environmental mitigation. It was found that the data for each type of cost correlated well with plant capacity. A tool for estimating the annual and monthly electric generation of hydropower resources was also developed. Additional tools were developed to estimate the cost of upgrading a turbine or a generator. The development and operation and maintenance cost estimating tools, and the generation estimating tool were applied to 2,155 U.S. hydropower sites representing a total potential capacity of 43,036 MW. The sites included totally undeveloped sites, dams without a hydroelectric plant, and hydroelectric plants that could be expanded to achieve greater capacity. Site characteristics and estimated costs and generation for each site were assembled in a database in Excel format that is also included within the EERE Library under the title, “Estimation of Economic Parameters of U.S. Hydropower Resources - INL Hydropower Resource Economics Database.”

11. Natural resource damages: A legal, economic and policy overview

SciTech Connect

Connaughton, J.L.

1995-12-31

Natural resource damages liability is a major development in environmental law. Government authorities are increasingly seeking damage claims for injury to natural resources, invoking the natural resource damages (NRD) provisions of the federal Superfund statute and the Oil Pollution Act. The number of Claims asserted is increasing, and the amounts sought range to hundreds of millions of dollars, with some claims exceeding \$1 billion. Some assert that the federal NRD program is an awakening sleeping giant that could threaten to rival the Superfund cleanup program in cost and the potential for imposing far-reaching liabilities on a wide range of businesses as well as the federal government. Lawyers, economists, and other experts on NRD have become fully engaged in comprehensive analyses of the legal, economic and policy issues presented by NRD claims, including a full review of the NRD litigating record. Many critics find that existing NRD law and practice is flawed; produces excessive liability claims, skewed incentives and economic waste; and urgently needs reform. Changes have been recommended to improve the law and refocus the NRD program on achieving cost-effective restoration of injured natural resources. These analytical endeavors are especially timely because Congress is currently considering significant changes in NRD law. This overview will provide a brief background summary of the NRD program and highlight some of the central legal and scientific issues facing government policy makers and litigants in NRD cases.

12. Using Cultural Diversity in Teaching Economics: Global Business Implications

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mitry, Darryl J.

2008-01-01

Globalization and increasing cross-cultural interactivity have implications for education in general and may also present valuable pedagogical opportunities in the practice of teaching economics for business students. Therefore, the author investigated this proposition and offers some empirical observations from research and teaching experiments.…

13. Using Cultural Diversity in Teaching Economics: Global Business Implications

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mitry, Darryl J.

2008-01-01

Globalization and increasing cross-cultural interactivity have implications for education in general and may also present valuable pedagogical opportunities in the practice of teaching economics for business students. Therefore, the author investigated this proposition and offers some empirical observations from research and teaching experiments.…

14. Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and socio-economic implications

Odhiambo, George O.

2016-06-01

The Arabian Gulf, one of the driest parts of the world, is already passing the water scarcity line as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The scarcity of renewable water resources and the growing discrepancy between demand and supply of water is a major challenge. Water scarcity is further worsened by rapidly growing demands due to rapid population growth, unsustainable consumption, climate change and weak management institutions and regulations. Water scarcity erodes the socio-economic sustainability of the communities that depend on the depleting storage. In this paper, an analysis of the water security situation within the Arabian Gulf region and the consequent socio-economic implications is presented.

15. Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and socio-economic implications

Odhiambo, George O.

2017-09-01

The Arabian Gulf, one of the driest parts of the world, is already passing the water scarcity line as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The scarcity of renewable water resources and the growing discrepancy between demand and supply of water is a major challenge. Water scarcity is further worsened by rapidly growing demands due to rapid population growth, unsustainable consumption, climate change and weak management institutions and regulations. Water scarcity erodes the socio-economic sustainability of the communities that depend on the depleting storage. In this paper, an analysis of the water security situation within the Arabian Gulf region and the consequent socio-economic implications is presented.

16. Flow of natural versus economic capital in industrial supply networks and its implications to sustainability.

PubMed

Ukidwe, Nandan U; Bakshi, Bhavik R

2005-12-15

Appreciating the reliance of industrial networks on natural capital is a necessary step toward their sustainable design and operation. However, most contemporary accounting techniques, including engineering economics, life cycle assessment, and full cost accounting, fail in this regard, as they take natural capital for granted and concentrate mainly on the economic aspects and emissions. The recently developed "thermodynamic input-output analysis" (TIOA) includes the contribution of ecological goods, ecosystem services, human resources, and impact of emissions in an economic input-output model. This paper uses TIOA to determine the throughputs of natural and economic capitals along industrial supply networks. The ratios of natural to economic capitals of economic sectors reveals a hierarchical organization of the U.S. economy wherein basic infrastructure industries are at the bottom and specialized value-added industries constitute the top. These results provide novel insight into the reliance of specific industrial sectors and supply chains on natural capital and the corresponding economic throughput. Such insight is useful for understanding the implications of corporate restructuring on industrial sustainability metrics and of outsourcing of business activities on outsourcer, outsourcee, and global sustainability. These implications are discussed from the standpoints of weak and strong sustainability paradigms. The calculated ratios can also be used for hybrid thermodynamic life cycle assessment.

17. Economic evaluation of ARTs in resource-limited countries

PubMed Central

Loubiere, S; Meiners, C; Sloan, C; Freedberg, KA; Yazdanpanah, Y

2013-01-01

Purpose of review In the face of increasing economic constraints, it is critically important to evaluate how best to utilize available resources. In this article, we review the growing number of cost-effectiveness analyses of HIV treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings. We focus on studies that evaluate when to start therapy, what therapy to start with and what to switch to based on what criteria. Recent findings Recent findings show that earlier ART initiation based on CD4 count criteria (CD4 counts <350/mm3) can be cost-effective in most resource-limited settings. They also suggest that initiating ART with tenofovir as a component of the first-line regimen is an efficient use of resources compared with initiating ART with stavudine. Finally, they show that HIV RNA monitoring combined with CD4 monitoring is more effective than CD4 count monitoring alone, although this strategy was not found to be cost-effective in all studies. Nearly all studies show, however, that the cost-effectiveness of HIV RNA monitoring will become more attractive as the cost of HIV RNA tests and second-line ART regimens decrease. Summary Substantial research shows that antiretroviral therapy for HIV disease in resource-limited settings is cost-effective. Improved initial regimens and increased laboratory monitoring both provide clinical benefit and good value for money. PMID:20539078

18. Modeling resource basis for social and economic development strategies: Water resource case

Kosolapova, Natalia A.; Matveeva, Ludmila G.; Nikitaeva, Anastasia Y.; Molapisi, Lesego

2017-10-01

The article substantiates that the effectiveness of implementing socio-economic development strategies is to a large extent determined by the adequate provision of basic resources. The key role of water resources in economic strategic development is empirically illustrated. The article demonstrates the practicability of strategic management of water resources based on the principle of a combination of river basin management approaches and the consideration of regional development strategies. The Game Theory technique was used to develop economic and mathematical tools for supporting decision-making in meeting the needs of regional consumers under water balance deficit conditions. The choice of methods was determined from two positions: the methods should allow for the possibility of multi-variant solutions for the selection of optimal options for the distribution of limited water resources between different consumers; the methods should be orientated on the maximum possible harmonization of multidirectional and multi-scale interests of the subjects in the water management system of the different regions (including the state) in order to achieve a balance. The approbation of developing a toolkit for the example of the regions located in the Don and Kuban river basins resulted in the appropriate selection of priority regions for the allocation of water resources in terms of strategic management as well as the determination of measures of ensuring the sustainable use of the river basins under consideration. The proposed tools can be used for coordinating decisions on the water supply of regional economic systems with actual and projected indicators of socio-economic development of the respective regions for a strategic perspective.

19. Accessing diabetes care in rural Uganda: Economic and social resources.

PubMed

Nielsen, Jannie; Bahendeka, Silver K; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Whyte, Susan R

2017-07-01

Non-communicable diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) are increasing rapidly in most Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries like Uganda. Little attention has been given to how patients with T2D try to achieve treatment when the availability of public health care for their disease is limited, as is the case in most SSA countries. In this paper we focus on the landscape of availability of care and the therapeutic journeys of patients within that landscape. Based on fieldwork in south-western Uganda including 10 case studies, we explore the diabetes treatment options in the area and what it takes to access the available treatment. We analyse the resources patients need to use the available treatment options, and demonstrate that the patients' journeys to access and maintain treatment are facilitated by the knowledge and support of their therapy management groups. Patients access treatment more effectively, if they and their family have money, useful social relations, and knowledge, together with the capacity to communicate with health staff. Patients coming from households with high socio-economic status (SES) are more likely to have all of these resources, while for patients with low or medium SES, lack of economic resources increases the importance of connections within the health system.

20. South Africa's Economic Development Trajectory: Implications for Skills Development

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mayer, Marina J.; Altman, Miriam

2005-01-01

This article argues that skills development in South Africa must be aligned to the economic and political imperatives of reducing unemployment and poverty, while fostering growth and international competitiveness. The legacy of a resource-based economy, overlaid by apartheid policies, has resulted in widespread poverty, inequality and unemployment…

1. 31 CFR 537.302 - Economic development of resources located in Burma.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Economic development of resources... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 537.302 Economic development of resources located in Burma. (a) The term economic development of resources located in Burma means activities pursuant to a contract the subject...

2. 31 CFR 537.302 - Economic development of resources located in Burma.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Economic development of resources... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 537.302 Economic development of resources located in Burma. (a) The term economic development of resources located in Burma means activities pursuant to a contract the subject of...

3. [Medical ethics and economics in the era of insufficient resources].

PubMed

Bin Nun, Gabi; Afek, Arnon

2009-03-01

During the Golden Age of Medicine (20th Century), scientific and technological breakthroughs enabled physicians to cure people's illnesses. The idealist, romantic approach of medical practice believed in the right of every human being to receive the best treatment possible, regardless of cost. However, the rise in health care expenditure at the end of the 20th Century made this impossible, therefore other approaches were adopted. The aim of this study is to investigate the causes of the change in medical approaches while distinguishing between the different methods practiced by nations in order to deal with the disparity created by ethical dilemmas caused by scare resources and delivery of medical treatment. This study is based on the evaluation of macro economic data and the comparison of international health data. Special emphasis was given to the evaluation of Israeli health economics since the National Health Insurance Act (1995). The study shows two different approaches to the problem of scarce resources: the liberal approach, as practiced in the USA, and the Social Democratic approach which is common in many European countries, including Israel. The Social Democratic ideology believes in public financing of defined health care services to all citizens. This method implies rationing and managed care in order to absorb medical expenses. The ethical dilemmas arising from the necessity to add economic considerations to a physician's care of his patient, demand that any given healthcare system find the right equilibrium. This balance between clinical, social, and economical considerations is not easily achieved. Only dialogue within the health care system itself, and with the public, can achieve the best possible balance.

4. Post-war energy economics: the urban and regional implications

SciTech Connect

Not Available

1982-01-01

An overview of urban and regional implications of past federal energy policies and the public revenues and tax incentives used to implement them notes a difference in regional as well as rural and urban impacts. The report documents significant trends in investment and employment, and analyzes current national energy policy within the context of past policies. The final section outlines some policy alternatives designed to make federal energy policy more geographically equitable and economically effective. 42 references, 3 figures, 18 tables.

5. Essays on Applied Resource Economics Using Bioeconomic Optimization Models

Affuso, Ermanno

With rising demographic growth, there is increasing interest in analytical studies that assess alternative policies to provide an optimal allocation of scarce natural resources while ensuring environmental sustainability. This dissertation consists of three essays in applied resource economics that are interconnected methodologically within the agricultural production sector of Economics. The first chapter examines the sustainability of biofuels by simulating and evaluating an agricultural voluntary program that aims to increase the land use efficiency in the production of biofuels of first generation in the state of Alabama. The results show that participatory decisions may increase the net energy value of biofuels by 208% and reduce emissions by 26%; significantly contributing to the state energy goals. The second chapter tests the hypothesis of overuse of fertilizers and pesticides in U.S. peanut farming with respect to other inputs and address genetic research to reduce the use of the most overused chemical input. The findings suggest that peanut producers overuse fungicide with respect to any other input and that fungi resistant genetically engineered peanuts may increase the producer welfare up to 36.2%. The third chapter implements a bioeconomic model, which consists of a biophysical model and a stochastic dynamic recursive model that is used to measure potential economic and environmental welfare of cotton farmers derived from a rotation scheme that uses peanut as a complementary crop. The results show that the rotation scenario would lower farming costs by 14% due to nitrogen credits from prior peanut land use and reduce non-point source pollution from nitrogen runoff by 6.13% compared to continuous cotton farming.

6. Global physician budgets as common-property resources: some implications for physicians and medical associations.

PubMed Central

Hurley, J; Card, R

1996-01-01

Since 1990 payment for physician services in the fee-for-service sector has shifted from an open-ended system to fixed global budgets. This shift has created a new economic context for practising medicine in Canada. A global cap creates a conflict between physicians' individual economic self-interest and their collective interest in constraining total billings within the capped budget. These types of incentive problems occur in managing what are known in economics as "common-property resources." Analysts studying common-property resources have documented several management principles associated with successful, long-run use of such resources in the face of these conflicting incentives. These management principles include early defining the boundaries of the common-property resource, explicitly specifying rules for using the resource, developing collective decision-making arrangements and monitoring mechanisms, and creating low-cost conflict-resolution mechanisms. The authors argue that global physician budgets can usefully be viewed as common-property-resources. They describe some of the key management principles and note some implications for physicians and the provincial and territorial medical associations as they adapt to global budgets. PMID:8612251

7. Animal biotechnology: applications and economic implications in developing countries.

PubMed

2005-04-01

In most developing countries, biotechnological applications relating to livestock need to be suitable for animal owners who are resource-poor small-scale operators who own little or no land and few animals. Livestock is becoming increasingly important to economic growth in developing countries and the application of biotechnology is largely dictated by commercial considerations and socio-economic goals. Using technology to support livestock production is an integral part of viable agriculture in multi-enterprise systems. Livestock are part of a fragile ecosystem and a rich source of animal biodiversity, as local species and breeds possess genes and traits of excellence. Molecular markers are increasingly being used to identify and select the particular genes that lead to these desirable traits and it is now possible to select superior germ plasm and disseminate it using artificial insemination, embryo transfer and other assisted reproductive technologies. These technologies have been used in the genetic improvement of livestock, particularly in cattle and buffaloes, and the economic returns are significant. However, morbidity and mortality among animals produced using assisted reproductive technologies lead to high economic losses, so the principal application of animal biotechnology at present is in the production of cheap and dependable diagnostic kits and vaccines. Several obstacles limit the application of biotechnology at present: there is a lack of infrastructure and insufficient manpower, so funding is needed if resource-poor farmers are to benefit from biotechnology.

8. Climate Change Technology Scenarios: Energy, Emissions, and Economic Implications

SciTech Connect

Placet, Marylynn; Humphreys, Kenneth K.; Mahasenan, N Maha

2004-08-15

This report describes three advanced technology scenarios and various illustrative cases developed by staff of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program. These scenarios and illustrative cases explore the energy, emissions and economic implications of using advanced energy technologies and other climate change related technologies to reduce future emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The cases were modeled using the Mini Climate Assessment Model (MiniCAM) developed by PNNL. The report describes the scenarios, the specifications for the cases, and the results. The report also provides background information on current emissions of GHGs and issues associated with stabilizing GHG concentrations.

9. Human Resources and Economic Growth, an International Annotated Bibliography on the Role of Education and Training in Economic and Social Development.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alexander-Frutschi, Marian Crites, Ed.

In this publication, one of a series dealing with economic and social development, references to the literature on human resource development have been organized under nine major subject headings: human resources in economic development, economics of human resources, manpower requirements, rational utilization of human resources, the strategies of…

10. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

2013-03-27

... Act. The revised Principles and Guidelines consist of three key components: (1) The Principles and... QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources... Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation...

11. Evaluation of water resource economics within the Pasco Basin, Washington

SciTech Connect

Leaming, G F

1981-09-30

The Columbia River basalt beneath the Hanford Site in south-central Washington is being considered for possible use as a terminal repository medium for high-level nuclear waste. Such underground storage would require that the facility be contiguous to at least a portion of the ambient groundwater system of the Pasco Basin. This report attempts to evaluate the economic factors and conditions related to the water resources of the Pasco Basin and the probable economic effects associated with selected hypothetical changes in local water demand and supply as a basis for eventual selection of credible water supply alternatives and more detailed analyses of the consequences of such alternative selection. It is most likely that total demand for water for consumptive uses in the Pasco Basin will increase from nearly 2.0 million acre-feet per year in 1980 to almost 2.8 million acre-feet in 2010, with total demand slightly more than 3.6 million acre-feet per year in 2080. The Columbia River and other surface streams constitute the source of more than 99 percent of the water available each year for all uses, both consumptive and non-consumptive, in the Pasco Basin. It is estimated that pumped groundwater accounted for 3 percent of the value of all water supplied to consumers of water in the Pasco Basin in 1980. Groundwater's share of the total cost is proportionately higher than groundwater's share of total use because it is generally more costly to acquire than is surface water and the value of water is considered equivalent to its cost of acquisition. Because groundwater represents such a small part of the total water supply and demand within the Pasco Basin, it is concluded that if the development of a nuclear waste repository on the Hanford Site were to result in changes in the groundwater supply during the next 100 years, the economic impact on the overall water supply picture for the entire basin would be insignificant.

12. Use of the family resource scale in children's mental health: reliability and validity among economically diverse samples.

PubMed

Brannan, Ana María; Manteuffel, Brigitte; Holden, E Wayne; Heflinger, Craig Anne

2006-03-01

The adequacy of a family's resources has implications for child and family service processes and outcomes. The field needs tools to assess resources in a manner relevant to children's services research. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the FRS among families caring for children who are receiving mental health services and to compare its measurement quality across samples that differ on economic variables. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported similar factor structures across samples, and internal consistency was equivalent. Findings from the regression analyses provided evidence of construct validity for the FRS. Overall, findings indicated that the FRS holds promise as a reliable and valid tool for assessing perceived adequacy of concrete resources among economically diverse families of children with emotional and behavioral disorders. However, the FRS could benefit from some refinements; those recommendations are discussed.

13. Hemophilia home treatment. Economic analysis and implications for health policy.

PubMed

Ross-Degnan, D; Soumerai, S B; Avorn, J; Bohn, R L; Bright, R; Aledort, L M

1995-01-01

This analysis describes the development of technology for home self-infusion of factor VII in the treatment of hemophilia and its clinical, economic, and social consequences, and uses the case study of such home care treatment to illustrate the potentials and pitfalls of formal economic analyses of programs to treat chronically ill children. A comprehensive review of all original data on hemophilia programs, their related costs, and outcomes, conducted from 1966 through 1993, examined the economic outcomes for two hypothetical cohorts, one aged 0-4 years and the other aged 30-34 years. Including the measurement of treatment effects on the productivity of parental caregivers substantially increases the benefit-cost relationship of an intervention directed at chronically ill children. Increased economic productivity and societal return resulting from such a program for young adults exceeds those for a cohort of children, primarily due to assumptions related to discounting. However, estimation of quality-adjusted life years favors the younger age cohort, since children survive for a longer period of time and with each year survived comes a higher quality of life. Unlike simpler instances in which economic benefits can be shown to outweigh resource costs, policy decisions concerning services for chronically ill children raise an additional set of complex analytic issues. Inclusion of the benefits in productivity experienced by family caregivers provides an important added dimension to such analyses. The development of cost-benefit or cost-effectiveness analyses of these programs illustrates the importance of careful measurement of outcomes and explicit statements of underlying assumptions. Such an analysis of home care for children with hemophilia therefore demonstrates both the strengths and the limitations of this approach.

14. Economic Recession, Teacher-Reported Cuts to School Resources, and Children's Economic and Psychiatric Problems in Young Adulthood

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Huurre, Taina; Santalahti, Päivi; Kiviruusu, Olli; Solantaus, Tytti

2015-01-01

The study investigated whether cuts to school resources made during economic recession contribute to children's psychiatric and economic problems in early adulthood. The cohort consisted of 817 Finnish children. Data was gathered from teachers during a recession (child age 12) and from national registers on children's post-recession use of…

15. Economic Recession, Teacher-Reported Cuts to School Resources, and Children's Economic and Psychiatric Problems in Young Adulthood

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Huurre, Taina; Santalahti, Päivi; Kiviruusu, Olli; Solantaus, Tytti

2015-01-01

The study investigated whether cuts to school resources made during economic recession contribute to children's psychiatric and economic problems in early adulthood. The cohort consisted of 817 Finnish children. Data was gathered from teachers during a recession (child age 12) and from national registers on children's post-recession use of…

16. The Implications of Grandparent Coresidence for Economic Hardship among Children in Mother-Only Families.

PubMed

Mutchler, Jan E; Baker, Lindsey A

2009-11-01

Estimates suggest that more than 6 million children live with at least one grandparent. Despite evidence establishing the growing prevalence of this arrangement, limited research has focused on estimating the implications of co-residence for the economic well-being of grandchildren. Using data from the 2001 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, this paper examines levels of financial hardship among a particularly vulnerable group of children - those living in mother-only families. Findings suggest that children living in mother-only families that include a grandparent are substantially less likely to be living below or near the poverty level, compared to children living in mother-only families without a grandparent present. The financial security of children in these three-generation households is enhanced through significant economic contributions of the grandparents, and from household receipt of a wide range of financial resources, including means-tested cash transfers and other income such as Social Security.

17. Economic vulnerability of timber resources to forest fires

Treesearch

Francisco Rodriguez y Silva; Juan Ramon Molina; Armando Gonzalez-Caban; Miguel Angel Herrera Machuca

2012-01-01

The temporal-spatial planning of activities for a territorial fire management program requires knowing the value of forest ecosystems. In this paper we extend to and apply the economic valuation principle to the concept of economic vulnerability and present a methodology for the economic valuation of the forest production ecosystems. The forest vulnerability is...

18. 31 CFR 537.302 - Economic development of resources located in Burma.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-07-01

... which includes responsibility for the development or exploitation of resources located in Burma, including making or attempting to make those resources accessible or available for exploitation or economic... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Economic development of...

19. 31 CFR 537.302 - Economic development of resources located in Burma.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-07-01

... which includes responsibility for the development or exploitation of resources located in Burma, including making or attempting to make those resources accessible or available for exploitation or economic... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Economic development of...

20. 31 CFR 537.302 - Economic development of resources located in Burma.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-07-01

... which includes responsibility for the development or exploitation of resources located in Burma, including making or attempting to make those resources accessible or available for exploitation or economic... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Economic development of...

1. Environmental, resource conservation, and economic aspects of used oil recycling

SciTech Connect

Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.; Weinstein, N.J.; Emmerson, H.R.

1981-04-01

In order to provide current and updated information, the case for burning used automotive lubricating oil versus re-refining it has been reevaluated based upon the 1980 American economy and energy conservation posture. In these comparisons, the environment is considered within four scenarios ranging from unrestricted burning of used oil without government constraints to complete prohibition of burning thereby funneling all used automotive lube oils to re-refining. Two other areas have been reevaluated in the context of burning versus re-refining of automotive lube oils in the US. These are the material and energy advantages to be realized in terms of resource conservation through either burning or re-refining and an estimation of the economics and profit potential currently available in the disposition of used lube oil. It was found that environmental concerns as presently regulated do not alone provide a persuasive case for re-refining over burning of used automotive lubricating oil. However, in view of the increased use of paraffinic crude oil for the manufacture of automotive lubricating oil, production costs will rise and product yields will be lower. In this context, this study shows that the energy required to produce. As a produce a gallon of lube oil from paraffinic crude oil is greater than that to produce a gallon of lube oil from used lubricating oil. As a result, the re-refining of collectible used automotive lube oil could conserve 43 to 76 trillion Btu's per year, equivalent to 7 to 12 million barrels of imported crude oil worth between a quarter and a half billion dollars. Additionally, this study indicates that new technology such as solvent/distillation re-refining would provide a 26 percent after-tax return on investment based upon 1980 markets and costs.

2. U.S. shale gas trends - economic and global implications

Murphy, T.

2016-09-01

Natural gas from shale has moved the U.S., and North America more broadly, to become one of the largest producers of the commodity worldwide. Large technological gains have allowed reservoirs of unconventional hydrocarbons to become commercially viable to extract and market. The addition of this growing supply into the global marketplace, has upended longstanding trading patterns, and created new economic outcomes worth noting. This paper will discuss the recent trends of shale energy development in the U.S., the impact it is having on domestic and international markets, and the implications as the world shifts to a new low carbon energy paradigm. It will cover changes in workforce, midstream build out, power generation trends, petrochemicals, and emerging LNG export capacities.

3. Financial Literacy and Economic Outcomes: Evidence and Policy Implications

PubMed Central

Mitchell, Olivia S.; Lusardi, Annamaria

2017-01-01

This paper reviews what we have learned over the past decade about financial literacy and its relationship to financial decision-making around the world. Using three questions, we have surveyed people in several countries to determine whether they have the fundamental knowledge of economics and finance needed to function as effective decision-makers. We find that levels of financial literacy are low not only in the United States. but also in many other countries including those with well-developed financial markets. Moreover, financial illiteracy is particularly acute for some demographic groups, especially women and the less-educated. These findings are important since financial literacy is linked to borrowing, saving, and spending patterns. We also offer new evidence on financial literacy among high school students drawing on the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment implemented in 18 countries. Last, we discuss the implications of this research for policy. PMID:28553655

4. DIY-Bio - economic, epistemological and ethical implications and ambivalences.

PubMed

Keulartz, Jozef; van den Belt, Henk

2016-12-01

Since 2008, we witness the emergence of the Do-It-Yourself Biology movement, a global movement spreading the use of biotechnology beyond traditional academic and industrial institutions and into the lay public. Practitioners include a broad mix of amateurs, enthusiasts, students, and trained scientists. At this moment, the movement counts nearly 50 local groups, mostly in America and Europe, but also increasingly in Asia. Do-It-Yourself Bio represents a direct translation of hacking culture and practicesfrom the realm of computers and software into the realm of genes and cells. Although the movement is still in its infancy, and it is even unclear whether it will ever reach maturity, the contours of a new paradigm of knowledge production are already becoming visible. We will subsequently sketch the economic, the epistemological and the ethical profile of Do-It-Yourself Bio, and discuss its implications and also its ambivalences.

5. Resource Guide in Economic Education for Sauk Rapids Public Schools, Grades K-3.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Saint Cloud State Coll., Minn. Center for Economic Education.

This five-part resource guide, giving teachers clear identification of and access to economic concepts and activities, provides examples of how basic economic concepts and practices can be meaningfully and systematically incorporated in K-3 social studies. Part I lists major economic generalizations for grades K-3 to provide teachers with a…

6. Neoclassical and Institutional Economics as Foundations for Human Resource Development Theory

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wang, Greg G.; Holton, Elwood F., III

2005-01-01

In an effort to more comprehensively understand economics as a foundation of human resource development (HRD), this article reviews economic theories and models pertinent to HRD research and theory building. By examining neoclassical and neoinstitutional schools of contemporary economics, especially the screening model and the internal labor…

7. Surviving Unemployment: Economic Resources and Job Loss Duration in Blue Collar Households.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sales, Esther

1995-01-01

Examines the economic resources of displaced blue-collar workers (n=324) coping with job loss for varying lengths of time. Data revealed the pivotal role of unemployment benefits in maintaining a household's economic viability. Findings suggest that the service needs of unemployed workers may become much greater as their economic plight deepens.…

8. 31 CFR 537.410 - Contracts and subcontracts regarding economic development of resources in Burma.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... economic development of resources in Burma. 537.410 Section 537.410 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 537.410 Contracts and subcontracts regarding economic... supervision and guarantee of another person's performance of a contract that includes the economic development...

9. Assessing climate change and socio-economic uncertainties in long term management of water resources

Jahanshahi, Golnaz; Dawson, Richard; Walsh, Claire; Birkinshaw, Stephen; Glenis, Vassilis

2015-04-01

Long term management of water resources is challenging for decision makers given the range of uncertainties that exist. Such uncertainties are a function of long term drivers of change, such as climate, environmental loadings, demography, land use and other socio economic drivers. Impacts of climate change on frequency of extreme events such as drought make it a serious threat to water resources and water security. The release of probabilistic climate information, such as the UKCP09 scenarios, provides improved understanding of some uncertainties in climate models. This has motivated a more rigorous approach to dealing with other uncertainties in order to understand the sensitivity of investment decisions to future uncertainty and identify adaptation options that are as far as possible robust. We have developed and coupled a system of models that includes a weather generator, simulations of catchment hydrology, demand for water and the water resource system. This integrated model has been applied in the Thames catchment which supplies the city of London, UK. This region is one of the driest in the UK and hence sensitive to water availability. In addition, it is one of the fastest growing parts of the UK and plays an important economic role. Key uncertainties in long term water resources in the Thames catchment, many of which result from earth system processes, are identified and quantified. The implications of these uncertainties are explored using a combination of uncertainty analysis and sensitivity testing. The analysis shows considerable uncertainty in future rainfall, river flow and consequently water resource. For example, results indicate that by the 2050s, low flow (Q95) in the Thames catchment will range from -44 to +9% compared with the control scenario (1970s). Consequently, by the 2050s the average number of drought days are expected to increase 4-6 times relative to the 1970s. Uncertainties associated with urban growth increase these risks further

10. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

USGS Publications Warehouse

Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Menzie, W. David

2012-01-01

One implication of the economic filter results for undiscovered copper resources is that global copper supply will continue to be dominated by production from a small number of giant deposits. This domination of resource supply by a small number of producers may increase in the future, because an increasing proportion of new deposit discoveries are likely to occur in remote areas and be concealed deep beneath covering rock and sediments. Extensive mineral exploration activity will be required to meet future resource demand, because these deposits will be harder to find and more costly to mine than near-surface deposits located in more accessible areas. Relatively few of the new deposit discoveries in these high-cost settings will have sufficient tonnage and grade characteristics to assure positive economic returns on development and exploration costs.

11. [Evaluation of comprehensive capacity of resources and environments in Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone].

PubMed

Song, Yan-Chun; Yu, Dan

2014-10-01

With the development of the society and economy, the contradictions among population, resources and environment are increasingly worse. As a result, the capacity of resources and environment becomes one of the focal issues for many countries and regions. Through investigating and analyzing the present situation and the existing problems of resources and environment in Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone, seven factors were chosen as the evaluation criterion layer, namely, land resources, water resources, biological resources, mineral resources, ecological-geological environment, water environment and atmospheric environment. Based on the single factor evaluation results and with the county as the evaluation unit, the comprehensive capacity of resources and environment was evaluated by using the state space method in Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone. The results showed that it boasted abundant biological resources, quality atmosphere and water environment, and relatively stable geological environment, while restricted by land resource, water resource and mineral resource. Currently, although the comprehensive capacity of the resources and environments in Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone was not overloaded as a whole, it has been the case in some counties/districts. State space model, with clear indication and high accuracy, could serve as another approach to evaluating comprehensive capacity of regional resources and environment.

12. Economic vulnerability of timber resources to forest fires.

PubMed

y Silva, Francisco Rodríguez; Molina, Juan Ramón; González-Cabán, Armando; Machuca, Miguel Ángel Herrera

2012-06-15

The temporal-spatial planning of activities for a territorial fire management program requires knowing the value of forest ecosystems. In this paper we extend to and apply the economic valuation principle to the concept of economic vulnerability and present a methodology for the economic valuation of the forest production ecosystems. The forest vulnerability is analyzed from criteria intrinsically associated to the forest characterization, and to the potential behavior of surface fires. Integrating a mapping process of fire potential and analytical valuation algorithms facilitates the implementation of fire prevention planning. The availability of cartography of economic vulnerability of the forest ecosystems is fundamental for budget optimization, and to help in the decision making process.

13. The impact of economic resources on premarital childbearing and subsequent marriage among young American women.

PubMed

Aassve, Arnstein

2003-02-01

This paper extends previous work on premarital childbearing by modeling both the entry rates and the exit rates of unwed motherhood among young American women. In particular, I investigate the impact of economic resources on the likelihood of experiencing a premarital birth and then of subsequent marriage. Using a multiple-destination, multiple-spell hazard regression model and a microsimulation analysis, I analyze the accumulating effects of various economic variables. The results show that the economic resources are indeed important both for premarital childbearing and for subsequent marriage. However, the simulations show that large changes in these economic variables do not necessarily translate into large changes in nonmarital childbearing.

14. Incorporating understanding of informal economic activity in natural resource and economic development policy.

Treesearch

Rebecca J. McLain; Susan J. Alexander; Eric T. Jones

2008-01-01

This report synthesizes the literature on the role of informal economic activity in the United States postindustrial economy. Informal economic activity is expanding in the United States and is likely to continue in the foreseeable future. The formal and informal economic sectors are inextricably intertwined, with individuals and households combining elements of both...

15. The Family Medicine Curriculum Resource Project: implications for faculty development.

PubMed

Sheets, Kent J; Quirk, Mark E; Davis, Ardis K

2007-01-01

Faculty development implications related to implementing the Family Medicine Curriculum Resource (FMCR) Project provide an opportunity to look at the recommendations of the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine's federally funded Faculty Futures Initiative (FFI) and the recent Future of Family Medicine (FFM) project. Implications for faculty development include the importance of the clerkship setting, originally defined in 1991, with new features added in today's practice environment as outlined by the FFM and the changing assumptions in approaching faculty development. Previously, faculty development focused on teaching learners to master current knowledge. Now, faculty must teach learners how to master new competencies throughout their lives; learners need to learn how they and others learn now. Teaching must focus on how to learn in the future as well as what to learn for the present. Competence ("what individuals know or are able to do in terms of knowledge, skills, and attitudes") has become the focus of curriculum development efforts over the last few years and most appropriately serves as the focus of curriculum development in the FMCR Project. Implications for developing teachers and preceptors focus on the skills and circumstances required to teach and evaluate all types (cognitive, metacognitive, and affective) of competence. In the new culture, novel teaching methods will serve as the focus of faculty development in teaching and of educational ("best practices") research.

16. Sustaining the natural and economical resources of the Lac Courte Oreilles, Leslie Isham; Jason Weaver

SciTech Connect

Isham, Leslie; Weaver, Jason

2013-09-30

The Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, located in northwest Wisconsin has developed a project, entitled Sustaining the Natural and Economic Resources of the LCO Ojibwe. This technical report is a summary of the project.

17. Global Economics: A Multi-Media Resource Packet.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Potoker, Elaine S.; Taylor, H. Gene

This document contains instructional materials to illustrate economic perspectives relating to issues such as: (1) why nations trade; (2) challenges of the developing world; (3) north-south relations; (4) cross cultural awareness; (5) global integration of markets and products; and (6) trade barriers, controversy and consequences. The items are…

18. Spanish As an Economic Resource in Metropolitan Miami.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fradd, Sandra H.; Boswell, Thomas D.

1996-01-01

Examines growth of metropolitan Miami's Spanish-language economy and the economic and cultural advantages of a multilingual workforce. Discusses Hispanic and Latin American businesses, Spanish-language media, statewide and local Spanish instructional programs, Dade County census data on language use and educational attainment, a Miami business…

19. Economics and the 1995 National Assessment of U.S. oil and gas resources

USGS Publications Warehouse

Attanasi, E.D.

1995-01-01

This report summarizes the economic component of the U.S. Geological Survey's 1995 National Assessment of oil and gas resources for the US onshore areas and State waters. This area accounts for 80 percent of US hydrocarbon production and 85 percent of US proved reserves. The Minerals Management Service has released a parallel study for Federal offshore areas (1996). Estimates are as of January 1994. The economic evaluation uses mean values of the technically recoverable resources assessed by geologists.

20. Structural change and economic growth in modern Russia: The role of “resource-type” regions

Levin, SN; Kislitsyn, DV; Sablin, KS

2017-02-01

Authors carry out comparative analysis of economic growth of the subjects of the Russian Federation and highlight their three types: predominance of manufacturing, predominance of services and predominance of mining industries. Based on the results of the research authors make a number of assumptions about the potential of the resource sector and “resource-type” subjects of the Federation as the engines of economic growth.

1. Examining Extension's Capacity in Community Resource and Economic Development: Viewpoints of Extension Administrators on the Role of Community Resource and Economic Development in the Extension Portfolio

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urbanowitz, Seth C.; Wilcox, Michael D., Jr.

2013-01-01

The survey-based research reported here offers insights on community, resource, and economic development (CRED) Extension programming at the national and regional level. The results present a national picture of CRED programming, research, and potential future programming opportunities that Extension could capitalize on. The research shows that…

2. Examining Extension's Capacity in Community Resource and Economic Development: Viewpoints of Extension Administrators on the Role of Community Resource and Economic Development in the Extension Portfolio

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urbanowitz, Seth C.; Wilcox, Michael D., Jr.

2013-01-01

The survey-based research reported here offers insights on community, resource, and economic development (CRED) Extension programming at the national and regional level. The results present a national picture of CRED programming, research, and potential future programming opportunities that Extension could capitalize on. The research shows that…

3. Social and Economic Implications of Noncommunicable diseases in India

PubMed Central

Thakur, JS; Prinja, Shankar; Garg, Charu C; Mendis, Shanthi; Menabde, Nata

2011-01-01

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become a major public health problem in India accounting for 62% of the total burden of foregone DALYs and 53% of total deaths. In this paper, we review the social and economic impact of NCDs in India. We outline this impact at household, health system and the macroeconomic level. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) figure at the top among the leading ten causes of adult (25–69 years) deaths in India. The effects of NCDs are inequitable with evidence of reversal in social gradient of risk factors and greater financial implications for the poorer households in India. Out-of-pocket expenditure associated with the acute and long-term effects of NCDs is high resulting in catastrophic health expenditure for the households. Study in India showed that about 25% of families with a member with CVD and 50% with cancer experience catastrophic expenditure and 10% and 25%, respectively, are driven to poverty. The odds of incurring catastrophic hospitalization expenditure were nearly 160% higher with cancer than the odds of incurring catastrophic spending when hospitalization was due to a communicable disease. These high numbers also pose significant challenge for the health system for providing treatment, care and support. The proportion of hospitalizations and outpatient consultations as a result of NCDs rose from 32% to 40% and 22% to 35%, respectively, within a decade from 1995 to 2004. In macroeconomic term, most of the estimates suggest that the NCDs in India account for an economic burden in the range of 5–10% of GDP, which is significant and slowing down GDP thus hampering development. While India is simultaneously experiencing several disease burdens due to old and new infections, nutritional deficiencies, chronic diseases, and injuries, individual interventions for clinical care are unlikely to be affordable on a large scale. While it is clear that “treating our way out” of the NCDs may not be the efficient way, it has to be

4. Resource for Evaluating the Economic Impact of Local Food System Initiatives

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jablonski, Becca B. R.; O'Hara, Jeffrey K.; McFadden, Dawn Thilmany; Tropp, Debra

2016-01-01

Local food system stakeholders are confronted with challenges when attempting to ascertain the economic impacts of food system investments. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service commissioned a team of economists to develop a resource to provide support to stakeholders interested in understanding the economic impacts of…

5. Analyzing Crime and Crime Control: A Resource Guide. Economics-Political Science Series.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Butterfield, Ruth I.; And Others

This document, the fourth in a series of resource guides emphasizing economic-political analysis of contemporary public policies and issues, focuses on crime control. Designed as a three-week unit for secondary school students, the guide is presented in three sections. The introduction presents an economic and a political science framework for…

6. Resource for Evaluating the Economic Impact of Local Food System Initiatives

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jablonski, Becca B. R.; O'Hara, Jeffrey K.; McFadden, Dawn Thilmany; Tropp, Debra

2016-01-01

Local food system stakeholders are confronted with challenges when attempting to ascertain the economic impacts of food system investments. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service commissioned a team of economists to develop a resource to provide support to stakeholders interested in understanding the economic impacts of…

7. Achieving resource sustainability and enhancing economic development through biomass utilization

Treesearch

Jerrold E. Winandy

2005-01-01

As the problems associated with sustaining and enhancing the world's forest and agricultural resources compete with the needs of a rapidly increasing and affluent population, the management of our land becomes a much more complex and important issue. One of the most important environmental features of wood and other woody-like fibers is that they are renewable and...

8. Southern New Mexico low temperature geothermal resource economic analysis

Fischer, Carol L.; Whittier, Jack; Witcher, James C.; Schoenmackers, Rudi

1990-08-01

An economic evaluation of three low-temperature geothermal sites in New Mexico were performed. A hypothetical geothermal system was designed to supply sufficient energy to satisfy thermal loads for one, four, ten, and fifteen acre commercial greenhouses. Geothermal sites were evaluated to identify the important infrastructure requirements. Capital and operating costs were estimated. Annual levelized costs were calculated for the provision of hot water and fresh water for each site. Geothermal costs were compared with annual levelized costs for a natural gas system to supply the equivalent thermal load. Calculated results indicate that geothermal systems may be competitive with natural gas for larger installations. It is not economically attractive to develop a small geothermal system because the initial capital costs are not recovered with reduced operating costs, relative to natural gas.

9. Evaluation criteria for pharmacoeconomic and health economic Internet resources.

PubMed

McGhan, William F

2002-08-01

The purpose of this paper is to present criteria for evaluating Internet sites and supply a selective sample of sites that may be useful in improving the transfer of information and diffusion of innovation in pharmacoeconomics and health economics. The nine criteria deal with the following: 1) Expertise - Qualified individuals should generate the information. 2) Confidentiality - All patient data should be confidential and protected. 3) Referencing - Information should be supported with proper citations. 4) Justification - Rigorous evidence should support the claims relating to benefits, risks and costs of any intervention or service. 5) Authorship - provided in the clearest manner with contact addresses. 6) Sponsorship - Support for sites should be clearly identified. 7) Advertising & Editorial Policy - Advertising should be distinguishable from other informational content. 8) Study Evaluation - should comply with the standard economic evaluation checklists 9) Generalizability - Sites should define their target countries and audiences and discuss potential generalizability.

10. Everyday Metrics for Home Economics. A Resource Guide for Home Economics Teachers.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

The use of metrics in home economics taught at all levels is presented in this teacher's guide. Following an introduction on the history of the metric system and future use in the United States, section 2 presents information on bringing metrics into the classroom: changes in home economics (food and nutrition, clothing and textiles, and housing,…

11. Demographic and employment shifts: implications for benefits and economic security.

PubMed

Anzick, M

1993-08-01

This Issue Brief examines factors affecting the population's age distribution and composition, such as mortality rates, fertility rates, and immigration. In addition, it examines factors affecting labor force composition, such as immigration, increased labor force participation of women, and retirement trends, and discusses the potential impact of these changes on publicly financed programs: Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, and federal employee retirement systems. The discussion also highlights the implications of these population and labor force changes on employers, employees, and retirees. The elderly population--now 31.8 million, representing 12.6 percent of the population--is projected to experience tremendous growth between 2010 and 2030, when the baby boom generation reaches age 65, rising from 39.7 million, or 13.3 percent of the population, to 69.8 million, or 20.2 percent of the population. Growth in the elderly population has implications for retirement and health care systems. Population projections suggest that the traditionally pyramid-shaped work force, with a proportionately greater number of younger workers than older workers, will be replaced with a more even age distribution. Consequently, significant and continued modifications to benefit packages, such as changes in compensation structures in which earnings automatically rise with age, are likely to occur. Women's labor force participation began to accelerate in the mid-1950s, rising 75 percent among women aged 25-44 in 1991, although there is some indication that this growth may be flattening. With women comprising a greater part of the labor force, employers will be encouraged to develop and implement programs to better accommodate their needs. Increased life expectancy, a decreased percentage of entry level workers, changes in Social Security's normal retirement age from 65 to 67, and employer plans to raise the normal age of retirement or provide incentives to delay retirement, could

12. Alternative Resources for Curriculum Balance in Nutrition, Economics, Energy, Environmental, Consumer & Citizenship Education.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Harty, Sheila, Comp.

This annotated directory lists selected informational and educational resources in the subject areas predominant in corporate education efforts. Organized by categories of nutrition, economics, energy, environmental consumer and citizenship education, this list is intended to help provide a balance of resources and perspectives for the classroom…

13. Estimating the Economic Impacts of Recreation Response to Resource Management Alternatives

Treesearch

Donald B.K. English; J. Michael Bowker; John C. Bergstrom; H. Ken Cordell

1995-01-01

Managing forest resources involves tradeoffs and making decisions among resource management alternatives. Some alternatives will lead to changes in the level of recreation visitation and the amount of associated visitor spending. Thus, the alternatives can affect local economies. This paper reports a method that can be used to estimate the economic impacts of such...

14. Resource allocation in health care: health economics and beyond.

PubMed

Mitton, Craig; Donaldson, Cam

2003-09-01

As resources in health care are scarce, managers and clinicians must make difficult choices about what to fund and what not to fund. At the level of a regional health authority, limited approaches to aid decision makers in shifting resources across major service portfolios exist. A participatory action research project was conducted in the Calgary Health Region. Throughfive phases of action, including observation of senior management meetings, as well as two sets of one-on-one interviews and two focus groups, an approach to priority setting at the macro level within the health region was developed and implemented. The resulting macro level approach builds on the program budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA)framework. Using a multi-disciplinary expert panel, about dollar 45M (CAN) was released for the 2002/03 fiscal year and made available for re-allocation to service growth areas and the deficit. Important qualitative themes from the managers and clinicians informed both process development and refinement. The approach developed here not only facilitated re-allocation of resources, but also drew in both clinicians and managers to work together on this challenging task. The approach is pragmatic, transparent and evidence based, and should have application elsewhere.

15. Coming clean for economic development: A resource book on environmental cleanup and economic development

SciTech Connect

Bartsch, C.; Collaton, E.

1995-11-01

Economic Development practitioners increasingly confront environmental concerns and the added costs associated with site contamination. This report seeks to bring this knowledge to local officials who are struggling to increase economic activity in their communities. This guidebook offers detailed information on state and federal regulations and programs. It will help practitioners understand the problems, opportunities, and available tools needed to thoughtfuly integrate environmental cleanup into the economic development process. The report is laid out in five parts: (1) Framing the Issue, (2) Environmental Considerations, (3) Financing Tools, (4) Environmental Program Tools, and (5) Success Stories.

16. Poor Kids? Economic Resources and Adverse Peer Relations in a Nationally Representative Sample of Swedish Adolescents.

PubMed

2017-09-19

There is limited knowledge on the impact of economic resources on adverse peer relations during adolescence. This study used a nationally representative sample (n = 4725, 51% girls) of Swedish eighth-grade students (approximately age fourteen) to examine associations between economic resources and adverse peer relations in the form of peer rejection and bullying victimization. Adolescents from households in the lowest within-school household income quintile were found to be rejected by school class peers to a greater extent than more advantaged students, but an association was not found between relative household income and bullying victimization. In contrast, adolescents unable to participate in activities with peers for economic reasons experienced more rejection and were at higher risk of victimization. The results underline the multidimensionality of adverse peer relations and advance our knowledge on how economic resources relate to peer relations in youth.

17. Measuring health system resource use for economic evaluation: a comparison of data sources.

PubMed

Pollicino, Christine; Viney, Rosalie; Haas, Marion

2002-01-01

A key challenge for evaluators and health system planners is the identification, measurement and valuation of resource use for economic evaluation. Accurately capturing all significant resource use is particularly difficult in the Australian context where there is no comprehensive database from which researchers can draw. Evaluators and health system planners need to consider different approaches to data collection for estimating resource use for economic evaluation, and the relative merits of the different data sources available. This paper illustrates the issues that arise in using different data sources using a sub-sample of the data being collected for an economic evaluation. Specifically, it compares the use of Australia's largest administrative database on resource use, the Health Insurance Commission database, with the use of patient-supplied data. The extent of agreement and discrepancies between the two data sources is investigated. Findings from this study and recommendations as to how to deal with different data sources are presented.

18. Ecosystems, ecological restoration, and economics: does habitat or resource equivalency analysis mean other economic valuation methods are not needed?

PubMed

Shaw, W Douglass; Wlodarz, Marta

2013-09-01

Coastal and other area resources such as tidal wetlands, seagrasses, coral reefs, wetlands, and other ecosystems are often harmed by environmental damage that might be inflicted by human actions, or could occur from natural hazards such as hurricanes. Society may wish to restore resources to offset the harm, or receive compensation if this is not possible, but faces difficult choices among potential compensation projects. The optimal amount of restoration efforts can be determined by non-market valuation methods, service-to-service, or resource-to-resource approaches such as habitat equivalency analysis (HEA). HEA scales injured resources and lost services on a one-to-one trade-off basis. Here, we present the main differences between the HEA approach and other non-market valuation approaches. Particular focus is on the role of the social discount rate, which appears in the HEA equation and underlies calculations of the present value of future damages. We argue that while HEA involves elements of economic analysis, the assumption of a one-to-one trade-off between lost and restored services sometimes does not hold, and then other non-market economic valuation approaches may help in restoration scaling or in damage determination.

19. Health capabilities and diabetes self-management: the impact of economic, social, and cultural resources.

PubMed

Weaver, Robert R; Lemonde, Manon; Payman, Naghmeh; Goodman, William M

2014-02-01

While the "social determinants of health" view compels us to explore how social structures shape health outcomes, it often ignores the role individual agency plays. In contrast, approaches that focus on individual choice and personal responsibility for health often overlook the influence of social structures. Amartya Sen's "capabilities" framework and its derivative the "health capabilities" (HC) approach attempts to accommodate both points of view, acknowledging that individuals function under social conditions over which they have little control, while also acting as agents in their own health and well-being. This paper explores how economic, social, and cultural resources shape the health capability of people with diabetes, focusing specifically on dietary practices. Health capability and agency are central to dietary practices, while also being shaped by immediate and broader social conditions that can generate habits and a lifestyle that constrain dietary behaviors. From January 2011 to December 2012, we interviewed 45 people with diabetes from a primary care clinic in Ontario (Canada) to examine how their economic, social, and cultural resources combine to influence dietary practices relative to their condition. We classified respondents into low, medium, and high resource groups based on economic circumstances, and compared how economic resources, social relationships, health-related knowledge and values combine to enhance or weaken health capability and dietary management. Economic, social, and cultural resources conspired to undermine dietary management among most in the low resource group, whereas social influences significantly influenced diet among many in the medium group. High resource respondents appeared most motivated to maintain a healthy diet, and also had the social and cultural resources to enable them to do so. Understanding the influence of all three types of resources is critical for constructing ways to enhance health capability, chronic

20. Economic rent, economic efficiency, and the distribution of natural resource tax burdens: copper and coal

SciTech Connect

Church, A.M.

1982-07-01

Nearly all phases of extracting and processing natural resources are subject to taxation. These levies include taxes on output (severance, privilege,and resource excise taxes, as well as royalty and lease payments to government as resource owner), on inputs to the production process (taxes on labor, materials and investment goods), on profits (corporate income taxes and net proceeds and lease payments), and on the resource in situ (property taxes on reserves and bonus lease payments). Although the effect of taxes on extraction costs, the rate of extraction, exploration and development (as well as investments in processing facilities), ore grade, total recovery, and the time path of prices of the extracted resource and the resource in situ are relatively well developed in the literature, criteria for developing an optimum tax policy and evaluating actual tax policies are not included in this literature. The first section of this paper summarizes the economist's methods for evaluating tax policy. The next section reviews the simulation of the effects of alternative tax policies in models of the domestic (US) copper and coal industries. In the final section, the results of the simulations are evaluated in light of the methods discussed in the first section. 27 references, 3 figures, 9 tables.

1. Analysis of High Plains Resource Risk and Economic Impacts

SciTech Connect

Tidwell, Vincent C.; Vargas, Vanessa N; Jones, Shannon M; Dealy, Bern Caudill; Shaneyfelt, Calvin; Smith, Braeton James; Moreland, Barbara Denise

2016-04-01

The importance of the High Plains Aquifer is broadly recognized as is its vulnerability to continued overuse. T his study e xplore s how continued depletions of the High Plains Aquifer might impact both critical infrastructure and the economy at the local, r egional , and national scale. This analysis is conducted at the county level over a broad geographic region within the states of Kansas and Nebraska. In total , 140 counties that overlie the High Plains Aquifer in these two states are analyzed. The analysis utilizes future climate projections to estimate crop production. Current water use and management practices are projected into the future to explore their related impact on the High Plains Aquifer , barring any changes in water management practices, regulat ion, or policy. Finally, the impact of declining water levels and even exhaustion of groundwater resources are projected for specific sectors of the economy as well as particular elements of the region's critical infrastructure.

2. Exploring the Implications of Transaction Cost Economics on Joint and System-of-Systems Programs

DTIC Science & Technology

2008-09-23

Exploring the Implications of Transaction Cost Economics on Joint and System-of-Systems Programs 23 September 2008 Dr. Diana Angelis...SEP 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exploring the Implications of Transaction Cost Economics...needs to be overcome for the DoD to achieve the promises of joint service and SoS programs involves the challenge of “ transaction costs .” These are the

3. Age-Related Changes in Children's Associations of Economic Resources and Race.

PubMed

Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

2016-01-01

Age-related changes in children's associations of economic resources and race were investigated. The sample (N = 308) included 5-6 year-olds (n = 153, M = 6.01 years, SD = 0.33 years) and 10-11 year-olds (n = 155, M = 11.12 years, SD = 0.59 years) of African-American (n = 93), European-American (n = 92), Latino (n = 62), Asian-American (n = 23), and multi-racial or multi-ethnic (n = 26) background. Participants matched pairs of target children (African-American and European-American) with visual indicators of low, middle, and high economic status. Children's associations of economic resources with racial groups changed with age, and reflected different associations at high, middle, and low levels of the economic spectrum. Specifically, children associated targets of both races with middle economic status at a comparable rate, and with age, increasingly associated targets of both races with indicators of middle economic status. By contrast, both younger and older children associated African-American targets with indicators of low economic status more frequently than European-American targets. Finally, children associated African-American targets with indicators of high economic status less frequently with age, resulting in a perceived disparity in favor of European-American targets at high economic status among older children that was not present among younger children. No differences were found by participants' own racial or ethnic background. These results highlight the need to move beyond a dichotomized view (rich or poor) to include middle economic status when examining children's associations of economic resources and race.

4. Age-Related Changes in Children’s Associations of Economic Resources and Race

PubMed Central

Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

2016-01-01

Age-related changes in children’s associations of economic resources and race were investigated. The sample (N = 308) included 5–6 year-olds (n = 153, M = 6.01 years, SD = 0.33 years) and 10–11 year-olds (n = 155, M = 11.12 years, SD = 0.59 years) of African–American (n = 93), European–American (n = 92), Latino (n = 62), Asian–American (n = 23), and multi-racial or multi-ethnic (n = 26) background. Participants matched pairs of target children (African–American and European–American) with visual indicators of low, middle, and high economic status. Children’s associations of economic resources with racial groups changed with age, and reflected different associations at high, middle, and low levels of the economic spectrum. Specifically, children associated targets of both races with middle economic status at a comparable rate, and with age, increasingly associated targets of both races with indicators of middle economic status. By contrast, both younger and older children associated African–American targets with indicators of low economic status more frequently than European–American targets. Finally, children associated African–American targets with indicators of high economic status less frequently with age, resulting in a perceived disparity in favor of European–American targets at high economic status among older children that was not present among younger children. No differences were found by participants’ own racial or ethnic background. These results highlight the need to move beyond a dichotomized view (rich or poor) to include middle economic status when examining children’s associations of economic resources and race. PMID:27378981

5. Uranium resources and their implications for fission breeder and fusion hybrid development

SciTech Connect

Max, C.E.

1984-05-15

Present estimates of uranium resources and reserves in the US and the non-Communist world are reviewed. The resulting implications are considered for two proposed breeder technologies: the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) and the fusion hybrid reactor. Using both simple arguments and detailed scenarios from the published literature, conditions are explored under which the LMFBR and fusion hybrid could respectively have the most impact, considering both fuel-supply and economic factors. The conclusions emphasize strong potential advantages of the fusion hybrid, due to its inherently large breeding rate. A discussion is presented of proposed US development strategies for the fusion hybrid, which at present is far behind the LMFBR in its practical application and maturity.

6. Essays on environmental, energy, and natural resource economics

Zhang, Fan

My dissertation focuses on examining the interrelationship among the environment, energy and economic development. In the first essay, I explore the effects of increased uncertainty over future output prices, input costs and productivity levels on intertemporal emission permits trading. In a dynamic programming setting, a permit price is a convex function of each of these three sources of uncertainty. Increased uncertainty about future market conditions increases the expected permit price and causes risk-neutral firms to reduce ex ante emissions to smooth marginal abatement costs over time. Empirical analysis shows that increased price volatility induced by electricity market restructuring could explain 8-11% of the allowances banked during Phase I of the U.S. sulfur dioxide trading program. Numerical simulation suggests that high uncertainty may generate substantial initial compliance costs, thereby deterring new entrants and reducing efficiency; sharp emission spikes are also more likely to occur under industry-wide uncertainty shocks. In the second essay, I examine whether electricity restructuring improves the efficiency of U.S. nuclear power generation. Based on the full sample of 73 investor-owned nuclear plants in the United States from 1992 to 1998, I estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal efficiency changes associated with restructuring, at the plant level. Various modeling strategies are presented to deal with the policy endogeneity bias that high cost plants are more likely to be restructured. Overall, I find a strikingly positive relationship between the multiple steps of restructuring and plant operating efficiency. In the third essay, I estimate the economic impact of China's national land conversion program on local farm-dependent economies. The impact of the program on 14 industrial sectors in Gansu provinces are investigated using an input-output model. Due to regulatory restrictions, the agricultural sector cannot automatically expand or shrink

7. Alternative futures for health economics: implications for nursing management.

PubMed

Mannion, Russell; Small, Neil; Thompson, Carl

2005-09-01

As nursing has been subject to successive waves of 'managerialism' there has been a drive on the part of government and elements within the profession to enhance the science base and promote cost-effective health care interventions. This has generated new interest in the 'economics of nursing' as efficiency and 'value for money' are viewed as necessary precondition for the provision of a high quality nursing service. As an academic subject health economics has brought an elegant set of theories to bear on the topic of health and health care. However, mainstream health economics is premised on a series of simplifying assumptions that, if applied uncritically, can induce a range of unintended and adverse consequences. This paper asks how ideas developed in one sphere (health economics) can be become influential in another (nursing management and practice) and it seeks explanations in the theories of Michel Foucault, specifically in his exploration of the reciprocal relationship between power and knowledge. How are our assumptions about what is possible and desirable shaped, how far do mechanisms of surveillance and self-subjugation extend? A range of alternative economic approaches have been developed which challenge many mainstream health economics assumptions. Some of these are better suited to the complex social environment present within health care. Nurses, nurse managers and researchers should question the assumptions of dominant economic models and explore a range of economic frameworks when planning services and evaluating their practice.

8. Education Reform and Rural Economic Health: Policy Implications.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hobbs, Daryl

This paper examines and questions popular ideas about education and its relationship to the economic well-being of individuals, communities, regions, and the nation. It suggests that the criteria used to develop economic and educational strategies have produced mixed results at best, especially in rural areas. Since family income is related to…

9. Economic Value of Groundwater Protection: Implications for Drought Mitigation

Ward, F. A.

2014-12-01

In many arid regions, including parts of California, a common pattern of groundwater use is to cultivate crops needing high levels of irrigation annually and accept unsustainable drawdown of groundwater levels in the near term. Reducing current pumping rates to create a protected reserve of groundwater could produce an economic benefit by mitigating the high cost of future droughts. The objective of our investigation is to quantify the economic benefits of reducing current pumping rates to protect groundwater as a backup irrigation source for long-term conditions. We describe the development and use of an integrated model of aquifer pumping, surface-water use, and economic conditions to identify economic values of groundwater protection as a drought mitigation measure. An optimization framework is developed using GAMS software to investigate conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater and to solve an integrated economic model of crop irrigation and production. Data requirements for the analysis include precipitation, aquifer recharge, crop water requirements, size of groundwater reserve, surface water supplies, and economic factors such as crop prices, pumping costs and efficiency, and yields for selected crops. Our results indicate that economic values of groundwater reserve protection increase with future higher prices of crops and reduced costs of production. These economic values also increase with potential reductions in streamflows from future drought and climate variability that could raise the cost of irrigated agriculture. Results from the integrated GAMS optimization model are comparable to those obtained from simulations of the same conditions performed with MODFLOW-GWM software.

10. Legal and Economic Implications of Truancy. Truancy Prevention in Action

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smink, Jay; Heilbrunn, Joanna Zorn

2006-01-01

The myriad legal and economic issues that surround truancy are intertwined and interdependent. The first section describes school attendance laws, how they are applied, and the most commonly used methods of curbing truancy. Sections two and three discuss legal issues and economic issues, respectively. They address issues facing schools, truant…

11. Economic implications of Japan's aging population: a macro-economic demographic modeling approach.

PubMed

Ogawa, N

1982-01-01

This paper utilizes a macroeconomic demographic model to analyze the probable impact of population aging on various public programs in Japan. Rapid fertility decline aided by mortality decline has caused the proportion of the Japanese population aged 65 and over to increase from 4.9% in 1950 to 9.0% in 1980. A population projection based on the 1975 population census assumes a recovery of fertility from a total fertility rate (TFR) of 1.9 in 1976 to 2.16 in 1980 and a gradual decline to 2.1 by 1987, while an alternative projection assumes a continuing fertility decline to a TFR of 1.65 in 2025. According to these assumptions, in 2025 18.12% to 21.29% of the total population would be aged 65 or over and 38.66% to 43.80% of the working age population would be aged 45-64. A macroeconomic neoclassical growth model with some Keynesian features was formulated to evaluate the future impact of population aging on social security programs. Population changes are transmitted to economic variables in the model through the supply of labor, level of savings, public health care plans, and old-age pension schemes. The simulation experiments included the 2 population projections and 2 alternative production functions, 1 with the quality of labor incorporated and 1 without. The results indicated that, regardless of the population projection and production function used, the growth of the economy is likely to slow to 1 or 0% in the beginning of the next century due to decreased growth of the labor force and a change in its quality due to age-compositional variations. Public health insurance schemes and pension plans will require increasing financial resources as a result of accelerated population aging; depending on the choice of benefit levels, the proportion of national income allocated to them is expected to range from 14%-40% in the year 2010. Per capita gross national product will continue to grow despite decreased economic growth, but savings might be adversely affected if the

12. Gender Equity Issues in CTE and STEM Education: Economic and Social Implications

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Toglia, Thomas V.

2013-01-01

Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 has significant implications for gender equity in career and technical education (CTE) and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs--and the relatively low number of women and girls pursuing nontraditional careers has significant economic and social implications. From an…

13. Gender Equity Issues in CTE and STEM Education: Economic and Social Implications

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Toglia, Thomas V.

2013-01-01

Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 has significant implications for gender equity in career and technical education (CTE) and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs--and the relatively low number of women and girls pursuing nontraditional careers has significant economic and social implications. From an…

14. STAKEHOLDERS’ OPINIONS AND EXPECTATIONS OF THE GLOBAL FUND AND THEIR POTENTIAL ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS

PubMed Central

Galárraga, Omar; Bertozzi, Stefano M.

2009-01-01

Objective To analyze stakeholder opinions and expectations of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, and to discuss their potential economic and financial implications. Design The Global Fund commissioned an independent study, the “360° Stakeholder Assessment,” to canvas feedback on the organization’s reputation and performance with an on-line survey of 909 respondents representing major stakeholders worldwide. We created a proxy for expectations based on categorical responses for specific Global Fund attributes’ importance to the stakeholders, and current perceived performance. Methods Using multivariate regression, we analyzed 23 unfulfilled expectations related to: resource mobilization; impact measurement; harmonization and inclusion; effectiveness of the Global Fund partner environment; and portfolio characteristics. The independent variables are personal- and regional-level characteristics that affect expectations. Results The largest unfulfilled expectations relate to: mobilization of private sector resources; efficiency in disbursing funds; and assurance that people affected by the three diseases are reached. Stakeholders involved with the Fund through the Country Coordinating Mechanisms, those working in multilateral organizations, and persons living with HIV are more likely to have unfulfilled expectations. In contrast, higher levels of involvement with the Fund correlate with fulfilled expectations. Stakeholders living in sub-Saharan Africa were less likely to have their expectations met. Conclusions Stakeholders unfulfilled expectations result largely from factors external to them, but also from factors over which they have influence. In particular, attributes related to partnership score poorly even though stakeholders have influence in that area. Joint efforts to address perceived performance gaps may improve future performance, and positively influence investment levels and economic viability. PMID:18664957

15. Comparing relative effects of education and economic resources on infant mortality in developing countries.

PubMed

Pamuk, Elsie R; Fuchs, Regina; Lutz, Wolfgang

2011-01-01

Research on the social determinants of health has often considered education and economic resources as separate indicators of socioeconomic status. From a policy perspective, however, it is important to understand the relative strength of the effect of these social factors on health outcomes, particularly in developing countries. It is also important to examine not only the impact of education and economic resources of individuals, but also whether community and country levels of these factors affect health outcomes. This analysis uses multilevel regression models to assess the relative effects of education and economic resources on infant mortality at the family, community, and country level using data from demographic and Health Surveys in 43 low-and lower-middle-income countries. We find strong effects for both per capita gross national income and completed secondary education at the country level, but a greater impact of education within families and communities.

16. Early organic evolution: Implications for mineral and energy resources

SciTech Connect

Schidlowski, M.

1992-01-01

Early Organic Evolution is the proceedings of the ninth Alfred Wegener Conference, the final meeting of IGCP Project 157 held in Germany in 1988. Over the past 15 years, Project 157 has promoted the blending of organic geochemistry, economic geology, and evolutionary biology. This IGCP publication covers a diverse set of topics and truly reflects the interdisciplinary nature of the field of early organic evolution. In the second and largest section, seventeen papers on organic matter in ancient sediments discuss the chemical analysis of early sediments, gas, and oil. The reader is treated to a review of carbon isotope chemistry and a [delta][sup 13]C walk through the past 3.8 billion years, and even deeper yet into the mantle. Following this is a series of papers carefully describing elemental, isotopic, and organic geochemical (particularly biomarker) data from ancient sediments found throughout the earth. This section ends very strongly with the paper by Fowler on the influence of a single alga on Ordovician oils and rocks from Canada. He first gives a detailed account of the considerable chemical and microscopic evidence showing that minimally reworked Gloeocapsomorpha prisca is the main contributor of organic matter to the oil and rock and then goes on to discuss the nature of the organism. In general, this book reviews information presented in other places, but still serves as a good resource for those interested in the evolution of the Earth.

17. The Implications of China’s Economic Statecraft

DTIC Science & Technology

2012-03-19

and this anecdote clearly 6 speaks to China’s manufacturing capacity potential. It continues to contribute to China’s rapid economic rise...manufacturing capacities , it would only follow that these two countries share a complex trade relationship. Of all economic factors between both...estimates that it needs to grow at least eight percent annually to avoid excess unemployment and social unrest.60 Thus, it is clear that while a long

18. A review of the health and economic implications of patent protection, with a specific focus on Thailand.

PubMed

Yamabhai, Inthira; Smith, Richard D

2012-08-01

Although it has been two decades since the Thai Patent Act was amended to comply with the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), there has been little emphasis given to assessing the implications of this amendment. The purpose of this review is to summarize the health and economic impact of patent protection, with a focus on the experience of Thailand. A review of national and international empirical evidence on the health and economic implications of patents from 1980 to 2009 was undertaken. The findings illustrate the role of patent protection in four areas: price, present access, future access, and international trade and investment. Forty-three empirical studies were found, three of which were from Thai databases. Patenting does increase price, although the size of effect differs according to the methodology and country. Although weakening patent rights could increase present access, evidence suggests that strengthening patenting may benefit future access; although this is based on complex assumptions and estimations. Moreover, while patent protection appears to have a positive impact on trade flow, the implication for foreign direct investment (FDI) is equivocal. Empirical studies in Thailand, and other similar countries, are rare, compromising the robustness and generalizability of conclusions. However, evidence does suggest that patenting presents a significant inter-temporal challenge in balancing aspects of current versus future access to technologies. This underlines the urgent need to prioritize health research resources to assess the wider implications of patent protection.

19. A review of the health and economic implications of patent protection, with a specific focus on Thailand

PubMed Central

2012-01-01

Background Although it has been two decades since the Thai Patent Act was amended to comply with the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), there has been little emphasis given to assessing the implications of this amendment. The purpose of this review is to summarize the health and economic impact of patent protection, with a focus on the experience of Thailand. Methods A review of national and international empirical evidence on the health and economic implications of patents from 1980 to 2009 was undertaken. Results The findings illustrate the role of patent protection in four areas: price, present access, future access, and international trade and investment. Forty-three empirical studies were found, three of which were from Thai databases. Patenting does increase price, although the size of effect differs according to the methodology and country. Although weakening patent rights could increase present access, evidence suggests that strengthening patenting may benefit future access; although this is based on complex assumptions and estimations. Moreover, while patent protection appears to have a positive impact on trade flow, the implication for foreign direct investment (FDI) is equivocal. Conclusions Empirical studies in Thailand, and other similar countries, are rare, compromising the robustness and generalizability of conclusions. However, evidence does suggest that patenting presents a significant inter-temporal challenge in balancing aspects of current versus future access to technologies. This underlines the urgent need to prioritize health research resources to assess the wider implications of patent protection. PMID:22849392

20. Economics and coal resource appraisal: strippable coal in the Illinois Basin ( USA).

USGS Publications Warehouse

Attanasi, E.D.; Green, E.K.

1981-01-01

Because coal is expected to provide an increasing part of U.S. energy supply, it is crucial for long term planning that coal-resource appraisals convey sufficient information regarding the degree of economic resource scarcity as coal consumption increases. Argues that coal-resource estimates, as they are now made, will not give warning of future supply difficulties. A method for incorporating an economic dimension into appraisals of strippable coal resources is presented and applied to a major producing region, the Illinois part of the Illinois basin? In particular, a long-run incremental cost function (that is unit costs vs. cumulative reserves extracted) is estimated for strippable coal in Illinois. -from Authors

1. Project Galaxy - Sustianable Resource Supply and Environmental Implications

SciTech Connect

Downing, Mark; Wimmer, Robert

2012-03-01

Understanding what it takes to move from a corn-based liquid fuels industry to one that is cellulosic-based requires a complex transition over time. This transition implies, among other things, a shift from annual cropping systems considered under United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) policy as commodity crops, to perennial lignocellulosic crops that are herbaceous and wood-based. Because of changes in land use as well as biomass and other crop supplies, land-based environmental amenities such as water quality, soil health and tilth, air quality, and animal and avian species populations and their diversity change also. Environmental effects are measured as magnitudes (how much they are impacted), and direction of the impact (either positive or negative). By developing a series of quantitative and qualitative metrics, the larger issue of defining relative sustainability may be addressed, and this can be done at a finer detail of regional (scale) and environmental amenity-specific impacts. Although much literature exists about research relevant to specific environmental variables, there is no published, documented, nor research literature on direct application of environmental over-compliance with regards a 'biorefinery.' Our three goals were to (1) understand and quantify bioenergy sustainability and some key environmental effects in a generic set of examples; (2) explain the effort and means to define and quantify specific qualitative environmental measures, and to determine a way to understand changes in these measures over time and what their implications might be; and (3) use these outcomes to evaluate potential sites in any geographic area. This would permit assessment of candidate locations, combined with an understanding of co-production of fuels, chemicals, and electric power, to interpret sustainability measures and the relationship between environmental sustainability and economic sustainability. The process of determining environmental

2. Developing models that analyze the economic/environmental trade-offs implicit in water resource management

Howitt, R. E.

2016-12-01

Hydro-economic models have been used to analyze optimal supply management and groundwater use for the past 25 years. They are characterized by an objective function that usually maximizes economic measures such as consumer and producer surplus subject to hydrologic equations of motion or water distribution systems. The hydrologic and economic components are sometimes fully integrated. Alternatively they may use an iterative interactive process. Environmental considerations have been included in hydro-economic models as inequality constraints. Representing environmental requirements as constraints is a rigid approximation of the range of management alternatives that could be used to implement environmental objectives. The next generation of hydro-economic models, currently being developed, require that the environmental alternatives be represented by continuous or semi-continuous functions which relate water resource use allocated to the environment with the probabilities of achieving environmental objectives. These functions will be generated by process models of environmental and biological systems which are now advanced to the state that they can realistically represent environmental systems and flexibility to interact with economic models. Examples are crop growth models, climate modeling, and biological models of forest, fish, and fauna systems. These process models can represent environmental outcomes in a form that is similar to economic production functions. When combined with economic models the interacting process models can reproduce a range of trade-offs between economic and environmental objectives, and thus optimize social value of many water and environmental resources. Some examples of this next-generation of hydro-enviro- economic models are reviewed. In these models implicit production functions for environmental goods are combined with hydrologic equations of motion and economic response functions. We discuss models that show interaction between

3. Opelika resource recovery project: Report on the technological and economic evaluation

1981-07-01

A resource recovery facility for the city of Opelika, Alabama was investigated and surrounding areas were examined for waste stream characteristics. Technological options for waste disposal were examined. The technological options were ranked according to specific criteria of market characteristics, compatibility, and commercial viability. A particular resource recovery system applicable to Opelika was identified and an economic analysis performed to compare its relative costs to that of landfilling.

4. Resource regulation by a twig-girdling beetle has implications for desertification

USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

1. Resource regulation by insects is the phenomenon by which herbivory enhances resources for the progeny of the herbivore. This report provides an example of resource regulation with implications for desertification in the Chihuahuan Desert of North America. 2. Female Oncideres rhodosticta beetles...

5. The Culture of the College: Its Implications for the Organization of Learning Resources.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clark, Burton R.

The need to identify the mode of integration of learning resources on contemporary US campuses grows as institutional expansion becomes a primary organizational concern. The implications drawn in this paper from the culture of the campus to the organization of learning resources is that many of these resources must be drastically decentralized…

6. Economic and environmental evaluations of extractable coal resources conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ellis, M.S.; Rohrbacher, T.J.; Carter, M.D.; Molnia, C.L.; Osmonson, L.M.; Scott, D.C.

2001-01-01

The Economic and Environmental Evaluations of Extractable Coal Resources (E4CR) project integrates economic analyses of extractable coal resources with environmental and coal quality considerations in order to better understand the contribution that coal resources can make to help meet the Nation’s future energy needs. The project utilizes coal resource information derived from the recent National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA), National Oil and Gas Assessment (NOGA), and Coal Availability and Recoverability Studies (CARS) conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and other State and Federal cooperating agencies. The E4CR evaluations are designed to augment economic models created by the U.S. Geological Survey CARS and NCRA projects and by the Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA). E4CR evaluations are conducted on potentially minable coal beds within selected coalfields in the United States. Emphasis is placed on coalfields containing Federally owned coal and within or adjacent to Federal lands, as shown in U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheets 012-98, 145-99, and 011-00 (U.S. Geological Survey, 1998, 1999, 2000). Other considerations for the selection of study areas include coal quality, potential environmental impact of coal production activities and coal utilization, the potential for coalbed methane development from the coal, and projected potential for future mining. Completion dates for the E4CR studies loosely follow the schedule for analogous NOGA studies to allow for a comparison of different energy resources in similar geographic areas.

7. The economic characteristics of registries and their policy implications.

PubMed

Connelly, Luke B

2009-02-01

The discipline of economics supplies principles that may contribute to the discourse about investments in trauma registries and the role of the public sector, as well as the optimal use of the datasets those investments create. Principles from production economics, information economics, and public economics are employed to explore the reasons that trauma registries may be prone to underfunding, relative to their value, and to describe a threat to value maximization. The typical production activities and cost structures of registries are analyzed, along with the way registries generate social benefits. Assuming that the purpose of a trauma registry is to maximize the value or social good it creates, a number of investment, governance, and pricing principles are then proposed. Trauma registries are multiproduct enterprises. They are generally characterized by large and indivisible fixed, joint costs, and relatively low marginal costs. This implies that registries are subject to strong economies of scale and scope. Additionally, because registry data are not depleted by use, the registry's output is, technically, nonrival in consumption. The value created by registries may be maximized when a marginal-cost pricing policy is adopted. This means that the optimal price schedule for access to trauma registry data are likely to be zero, or close to zero, for some users. The economic principles presented here complement the contributions from other disciplines in discussions about the establishment of new registries or about improving some aspects of existing registries.

8. Economic models for management of resources in peer-to-peer and grid computing

Buyya, Rajkumar; Stockinger, Heinz; Giddy, Jonathan; Abramson, David

2001-07-01

The accelerated development in Peer-to-Peer (P2P) and Grid computing has positioned them as promising next generation computing platforms. They enable the creation of Virtual Enterprises (VE) for sharing resources distributed across the world. However, resource management, application development and usage models in these environments is a complex undertaking. This is due to the geographic distribution of resources that are owned by different organizations or peers. The resource owners of each of these resources have different usage or access policies and cost models, and varying loads and availability. In order to address complex resource management issues, we have proposed a computational economy framework for resource allocation and for regulating supply and demand in Grid computing environments. The framework provides mechanisms for optimizing resource provider and consumer objective functions through trading and brokering services. In a real world market, there exist various economic models for setting the price for goods based on supply-and-demand and their value to the user. They include commodity market, posted price, tenders and auctions. In this paper, we discuss the use of these models for interaction between Grid components in deciding resource value and the necessary infrastructure to realize them. In addition to normal services offered by Grid computing systems, we need an infrastructure to support interaction protocols, allocation mechanisms, currency, secure banking, and enforcement services. Furthermore, we demonstrate the usage of some of these economic models in resource brokering through Nimrod/G deadline and cost-based scheduling for two different optimization strategies on the World Wide Grid (WWG) testbed that contains peer-to-peer resources located on five continents: Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America.

9. A Social, Economic, and Cultural Study of the Crow Reservation: Implications for Energy Development. Summary Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Crow Impact Study Office, MT.

Crow people want their resource decisions to benefit and strengthen the tribe socially and economically and to minimize damage to the tribal way of life, culture, and reservation environment. Based on a survey of 1016 reservation and non-reservation Crow families, conducted as part of a study of the impact of resource development on the…

10. A Social, Economic, and Cultural Study of the Crow Reservation: Implications for Energy Development. Summary Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Crow Impact Study Office, MT.

Crow people want their resource decisions to benefit and strengthen the tribe socially and economically and to minimize damage to the tribal way of life, culture, and reservation environment. Based on a survey of 1016 reservation and non-reservation Crow families, conducted as part of a study of the impact of resource development on the…

11. Economic implications of alternative potato cropping systems in Maine

USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

Sustainable cropping systems and management practices are needed to improve agricultural viability and rural economic vitality in Maine and the surrounding region. Research is being conducted to 1) identify the constraints to potato system sustainability and 2) develop practices and management strat...

12. Economic Competency: Implications for Programs for the Educable Mentally Retarded.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

1975-01-01

One of the major objectives of programing for the educable mentally retarded is the development of the individual's economic competency or efficiency. In order to reinforce this objective it is necessary that classroom activities employ real money and that some type of work experience be provided so that students learn to manage a given amount of…

13. Analyzing Government Regulation: A Resource Guide. Economics-Political Science Series.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bibby, John F.; And Others

Part of a series which offers educational resources and teaching techniques related to major social issues to high school social studies classroom teachers, the guide focuses on government regulation. The document is presented in four major chapters. Chapter I explores how economic and political science frameworks can be used to analyze policy…

14. Making the Connection: Disarmament, Development and Economic Conversion. A Resource Guide.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gold, Howard, Ed.

This nine-part guide provides resources on various topics and issues related disarmament, development, and economic conversion. They include: (1) recent publications (with their tables of contents provided, when applicable); (2) research institutes; (3) non-governmental organizations with primary contacts for information; (4) research and…

15. Teaching Strategies - Grades K-2. Master Curriculum Guide in Economics. Teacher Resource Manual [and] Student Activities.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phipps, Barbara J.; Hopkins, Martha C.; Littrell, Rita L.

This teacher resource manual uses K-2 student 'wants' as a starting place for teaching economic education. The manual contains step-by-step lesson plans and reductions of the student pages for quick reference. Each lesson is divided into four parts: focus, prepare, teach, and connect. Part 1 shows how goods and services satisfy all people's…

16. Labor Resources in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Four Corners Agricultural and Development Study.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. Agricultural Experiment Station.

One of five reports developed to summarize research efforts conducted as part of an Agricultural-Forestry Development Project, this report presents the results of an inventory of human resources used in the agricultural and forestry industries in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Explored are such aspects of labor as: (1) employment…

17. Community Choices Public Policy Education Program: Exploring the Human Resources/Economic Development Connection.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beaulieu, Lionel J.; Bolton, Kenneth, Jr.

The Community Choices program is designed to engage communities in a systematic assessment of the linkages between their human resource attributes and their economic development opportunities. This document contains seven modules. Modules 1-3 lay the foundation for doing public policy education work by (1) defining public policy education and…

18. Resourceful Thinking about Printing and Related Industries: Economic Considerations and Environmental Sustainability

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wikina, Suanu Bliss; Thompson, Cynthia Carlton; Blackwell, Elinor

2010-01-01

Increasing population, total economic volume, and human consumption levels have resulted in problems of resource shortages, climate change, ozone layer depletion, land regression, and deteriorating environmental pollution. Printing and related industries constitute one of the major sources of environmental pollution due to heavy energy and…

19. A Guide to Free Resources for Teachers of Economics and Commerce

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brierley, Richard C.

1976-01-01

Lists 52 organizations in Britain which provide free economics materials to secondary students or are places students can visit. Address, specific resources (booklets, games, mobile units), and author's comments are elaborated for each entry. For journal availability, see SO 505 393. (AV)

20. Concepts of 'personalization' in personalized medicine: implications for economic evaluation.

PubMed

Rogowski, Wolf; Payne, Katherine; Schnell-Inderst, Petra; Manca, Andrea; Rochau, Ursula; Jahn, Beate; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Leidl, Reiner; Siebert, Uwe

2015-01-01

This study assesses if, and how, existing methods for economic evaluation are applicable to the evaluation of personalized medicine (PM) and, if not, where extension to methods may be required. A structured workshop was held with a predefined group of experts (n = 47), and was run using a modified nominal group technique. Workshop findings were recorded using extensive note taking, and summarized using thematic data analysis. The workshop was complemented by structured literature searches. The key finding emerging from the workshop, using an economic perspective, was that two distinct, but linked, interpretations of the concept of PM exist (personalization by 'physiology' or 'preferences'). These interpretations involve specific challenges for the design and conduct of economic evaluations. Existing evaluative (extra-welfarist) frameworks were generally considered appropriate for evaluating PM. When 'personalization' is viewed as using physiological biomarkers, challenges include representing complex care pathways; representing spillover effects; meeting data requirements such as evidence on heterogeneity; and choosing appropriate time horizons for the value of further research in uncertainty analysis. When viewed as tailoring medicine to patient preferences, further work is needed regarding revealed preferences, e.g. treatment (non)adherence; stated preferences, e.g. risk interpretation and attitude; consideration of heterogeneity in preferences; and the appropriate framework (welfarism vs. extra-welfarism) to incorporate non-health benefits. Ideally, economic evaluations should take account of both interpretations of PM and consider physiology and preferences. It is important for decision makers to be cognizant of the issues involved with the economic evaluation of PM to appropriately interpret the evidence and target future research funding.

1. Managing Human Resources--Implications for Training Policies.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tenne, Ruth

1979-01-01

The author discusses some important MHR (management of human resources) issues and stresses the importance of considering human resources problems in relation to the present socioeconomic system and the changing needs of society. (CT)

2. The Interaction of Economic Rewards and Moral Convictions in Predicting Attitudes toward Resource Use

PubMed Central

Bastian, Brock; Zhang, Airong; Moffat, Kieren

2015-01-01

When people are morally convicted regarding a specific issue, these convictions exert a powerful influence on their attitudes and behavior. In the current research we examined whether there are boundary conditions to the influence of this effect. Specifically, whether in the context of salient economic rewards, moral convictions may become weaker predictors of attitudes regarding resource use. Focusing on the issue of mining we gathered large-scale samples across three different continents (Australia, Chile, and China). We found that moral convictions against mining were related to a reduced acceptance of mining in each country, while perceived economic rewards from mining increased acceptance. These two motivations interacted, however, such that when perceived economic benefit from mining was high, the influence of moral conviction was weaker. The results highlight the importance of understanding the roles of both moral conviction and financial gain in motivating attitudes towards resource use. PMID:26267904

3. Beyond income: Material resources among drug users in economically-disadvantaged New York City neighborhoods

PubMed Central

Ompad, Danielle C.; Nandi, Vijay; Cerdá, Magdalena; Crawford, Natalie; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

2011-01-01

Background Little is known about material resources among drug users beyond income. Income measures can be insensitive to variation among the poor, do not account for variation in cost-of-living, and are subject to non-response bias and underreporting. Further, most do not include illegal income sources that may be relevant to drug-using populations. Methods We explored the reliability and validity of an 18-item material resource scale and describe correlates of adequate resources among 1593 current, former and non-drug users recruited in New York City. Reliability was determined using coefficient α, ωh, and factor analysis. Criterion validity was explored by comparing item and mean scores by income and income source using ANOVA; content validity analyses compared scores by drug use. Multiple linear regression was used to describe correlates of adequate resources. Results The coefficient α and ωh for the overall scale were 0.91 and 0.68, respectively, suggesting reliability was at least adequate. Legal income >\$5000 (vs. ≤ \$5000) and formal (vs. informal) income sources were associated with more resources, supporting criterion validity. We observed decreasing resources with increasing drug use severity, supporting construct validity. Three factors were identified: basic needs, economic resources and services. Many did not have their basic needs met and few had adequate economic resources. Correlates of adequate material resources included race/ethnicity, income, income source, and homelessness. Conclusions The 18-item material resource scale demonstrated reliability and validity among drug users. These data provide a different view of poverty, one that details specific challenges faced by low-income communities. PMID:21835561

4. Voices of impoverished Brazilian women: health implications of roles and resources.

PubMed

Messias, D K; Hall, J M; Meleis, A I

1996-01-01

This qualitative study was based on individual interviews with 75 Brazilian women in an impoverished peri-urban squatter community (favela) in southeastern Brazil. The purposes of the study were to describe women's role involvement in domestic and employment contexts; identify stresses and satisfactions of maternal, spousal, and employment roles; and assess personal and environmental role constraints and resources from the perspective of women's health. The analytic approach to the interview data was qualitative content analysis, through which thematic categories of maternal, spousal, and employment role satisfactions and stresses were identified by the researchers. Women's unrelenting work in the face of harsh social and economic environments was a broad theme woven throughout the women's descriptions of their lives. The confluence of role constraints affecting the participants' lives included poverty, marginalization, abuse, and lack of support and recognition by partners and society. In order to overcome great adversity and meet heavy role demands, these women relied on self, faith in God, family, and health resources. Implications for women's health promotion are discussed.

5. Advanced fission and fossil plant economics-implications for fusion

SciTech Connect

Delene, J.G.

1994-09-01

In order for fusion energy to be a viable option for electric power generation, it must either directly compete with future alternatives or serve as a reasonable backup if the alternatives become unacceptable. This paper discusses projected costs for the most likely competitors with fusion power for baseload electric capacity and what these costs imply for fusion economics. The competitors examined include advanced nuclear fission and advanced fossil-fired plants. The projected costs and their basis are discussed. The estimates for these technologies are compared with cost estimates for magnetic and inertial confinement fusion plants. The conclusion of the analysis is that fusion faces formidable economic competition. Although the cost level for fusion appears greater than that for fission or fossil, the costs are not so high as to preclude fusion`s potential competitiveness.

6. Preliminary estimates of the economic implications of addiction in the United Arab Emirates.

PubMed

Doran, C M

2017-01-23

This study aimed to provide preliminary estimates of the economic implications of addiction in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Local and international data sources were used to derive estimates of substancerelated healthcare costs, lost productivity and criminal behaviour. From an estimated population of 8.26 million: ~1.47 million used tobacco (20.5% of adults); 380 085 used cannabis (> 5%); 14 077 used alcohol in a harmful manner (0.2%); and 1408 used opiates (0.02%). The cost of addiction was estimated at US\$ 5.47 billion in 2012, equivalent to 1.4% of gross domestic product. Productivity costs were the largest contributor at US\$ 4.79 billion (88%) followed by criminal behaviour at US\$ 0.65 billion (12%). There were no data to estimate cost of: treating tobacco-related diseases, community education and prevention efforts, or social disharmony. Current data collection efforts are limited in their capacity to fully inform an appropriate response to addiction in the UAE. Resources are required to improve indicators of drug use, monitor harm and evaluate treatment.

7. Climate Change Implications For Western U.s. Water Resources

Wood, A.; Christensen, N.; van Rheenen, N. T.; Payne, J. T.; Hamlet, A. F.; Palmer, R. N.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

Implications of climate change through the year 2098 for the hydrology of the west- ern U.S. were assessed using three ensembles from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Cli- mate Model (PCM) for a business-as-usual (BAU) global emissions scenario. The study area included three river basins, the Columbia (CRB), Sacramento-San Joaquin (SSJB) and Colorado (CORB). The archived PCM simulation outputs (monthly total precipitation and average temperature at T42 grid resolution) were first bias-corrected, disaggregated from a monthly to daily time step and then downscaled to 1/8 or 1/4 de- gree spatial resolution using the Variable Infiltration Capacity macroscale hydrology model. The hydrology model simulated streamflow at selected locations within the study domains, for three ensembles, each of length 103 years. Water resource simula- tion models in the CRB and SSJB were then used to predict, on a monthly time-step, the effects of the climate change scenarios on streamflow timing and volume. By the 2080s, the scenarios predict a warming of about 2 degrees Celsius in the PNW and CORB, and slightly higher in California. Based on the transient hydrologic simula- tions, the key results were: a) CRB hydrology was more robust to the types of changes envisioned by the scenarios than SSJB hydrology, where streamflow volumes were severely diminished during parts of the evaluation period; b) decadal-scale variations in precipitation were as large a driver of hydrologic effects as the mild increase in tem- perature; c) the temperature-driven seasonality changes found in prior climate change studies - a decline in summer streamflow and/or an increase in winter runoff - were corroborated for the SSJB, but were present to a lesser extent for the CRB and CORB; d) the climate simulations exhibit decadal-scale variability in temperature of compara- ble magnitude to the eventual warming; the compounding of the two dynamics (trend and variability) complicates understanding of hydrologic vulnerability

8. Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions

Archer, D. R.; Forsythe, N.; Fowler, H. J.; Shah, S. M.

2010-08-01

Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with projected population changes. Potential changes to supply through declining reservoir storage, the impact of waterlogging and salinity or over-abstraction of groundwater, or reallocations for environmental remediation of the Indus Delta or to meet domestic demands, will reduce water availability for irrigation. The impact of climate change on resources in the Upper Indus is considered in terms of three hydrological regimes - a nival regime dependent on melting of winter snow, a glacial regime, and a rainfall regime dependent on concurrent rainfall. On the basis of historic trends in climate, most notably the decline in summer temperatures, there is no strong evidence in favour of marked reductions in water resources from any of the three regimes. Evidence for changes in trans-Himalayan glacier mass balance is mixed. Sustainability of water resources appears more threatened by socio-economic changes than by climatic trends. Nevertheless, analysis and the understanding of the linkage of climate, glaciology and runoff is still far from complete; recent past climate experience may not provide a reliable guide to the future.

9. Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions

Archer, D. R.; Forsythe, N.; Fowler, H. J.; Shah, S. M.

2010-03-01

Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with projected population changes. Potential changes to supply through declining reservoir storage, the impact of waterlogging and salinity or over-abstraction of groundwater, or reallocations for environmental remediation of the Indus Delta or to meet domestic demands, will reduce water availability for irrigation. The impact of climate change on resources in the Upper Indus is considered in terms of three hydrological regimes - a nival regime dependent on melting of winter snow, a glacial regime, and a rainfall regime dependent on concurrent rainfall. On the basis of historic trends in climate, most notably the decline in summer temperatures, there is no strong evidence in favour of marked reductions in water resources from any of the three regimes. Evidence for changes in trans-Himalayan glacier mass balance is mixed. Sustainability of water resources appears more threatened by socio-economic changes than by climatic trends. Nevertheless, analysis and the understanding of the linkage of climate, glaciology and runoff is still far from complete; recent past climate experience may not provide a reliable guide to the future.

10. Global water resources modeling with an integrated model of the social-economic-environmental system

Davies, Evan G. R.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

2011-06-01

Awareness of increasing water scarcity has driven efforts to model global water resources for improved insight into water resources infrastructure and management strategies. Most water resources models focus explicitly on water systems and represent socio-economic and environmental change as external drivers. In contrast, the system dynamics-based integrated assessment model employed here, ANEMI, incorporates dynamic representations of these systems, so that their broader changes affect and are affected by water resources systems through feedbacks. Sectors in ANEMI therefore include the global climate system, carbon cycle, economy, population, land use and agriculture, and novel versions of the hydrological cycle, global water use and water quality. Since the model focus is on their interconnections through explicit nonlinear feedbacks, simulations with ANEMI provide insight into the nature and structure of connections between water resources and socio-economic and environmental change. Of particular interest to water resources researchers and modelers will be the simulated effects of a new water stress definition that incorporates both water quality and water quantity effects into the measurement of water scarcity. Five simulation runs demonstrate the value of wastewater treatment and reuse programs and the feedback-effects of irrigated agriculture and greater consumption of animal products.

11. Workplace Democracy: A Review of Literature and Implications for Human Resource Development

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hatcher, Tim

2007-01-01

A review of workplace democracy revealed that both practice and research need updating. The results are discussed in terms of history, theory, research and practice. Implications for human resource development research and practice are also included. (Contains 2 tables.)

12. In retirement migration, who counts? A methodological question with economic policy implications.

PubMed

Haas, William H; Bradley, Don E; Longino, Charles F; Stoller, Eleanor P; Serow, William J

2006-12-01

We examine the methodological and economic policy implications of three operations of retirement migration. We compared the traditional age-based definition of retirement migration and two retirement-based definitions, based on degree of labor-force participation and retirement income, by using the 2000 U.S. Census Public Use Microdata Sample. The age-based definition overestimated the number of retired migrants, although the ranking of host and donor states remained relatively stable; nevertheless, states revealed different rates of change in inmigration and outmigration and income streams declined. Retirement-based definitions are more useful and precise for those researchers considering the economic implication of retirement migration.

13. Implications and management of resource constraints: a community model for international development

SciTech Connect

Laitner, S.

1985-01-01

In the current economic climate and for the foreseeable future, resource policy (especially with respect to energy consumption) has the potential to make a profound impact upon the economic life of our communities. Energy and economic policies should be viewed as catalysts that can help a community - and ultimately a state, or even a nation - achieve larger societal goals such as enhanced employment opportunities. To achieve this potential, we must divorce ourselves from unproductive past concepts and understand the inherent constraints associated with resource utilization to better work them to the advantage of the community. The key element here is to ensure that community economic goals shape the policymaking process. Without such considerations neither communities nor their respective nations will be able to offset fully the growing economic burden imposed by restrictions arising from a ''business-as-usual'' approach to resource utilization.

14. Economic and policy implications of the cumulative carbon budget

Allen, M. R.; Otto, F. E. L.; Otto, A.; Hepburn, C.

2014-12-01

The importance of cumulative carbon emissions in determining long-term risks of climate change presents considerable challenges to policy makers. The traditional notion of "total CO2-equivalent emissions", which forms the backbone of agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol and the European Emissions Trading System, is fundamentally flawed. Measures to reduce short-lived climate pollutants benefit the current generation, while measures to reduce long-lived climate pollutants benefit future generations, so there is no sense in which they can ever be considered equivalent. Debates over the correct metric used to compute CO2-equivalence are thus entirely moot: both long-lived and short-lived emissions will need to be addressed if all generations are to be protected from dangerous climate change. As far as long-lived climate pollutants are concerned, the latest IPCC report highlights the overwhelming importance of carbon capture and storage in determining the cost of meeting the goal of limiting anthropogenic warming to two degrees. We will show that this importance arises directly from the cumulative carbon budget and the role of CCS as the technology of last resort before economic activity needs to be restricted to meet ambitious climate targets. It highlights the need to increase the rate of CCS deployment by orders of magnitude if the option of avoiding two degrees is to be retained. The difficulty of achieving this speed of deployment through conventional incentives and carbon-pricing mechanisms suggests a need for a much more direct mandatory approach. Despite their theoretical economic inefficiency, the success of recent regulatory measures in achieving greenhouse gas emissions reductions in jurisdictions such as the United States suggests an extension of the regulatory approach could be a more effective and politically acceptable means of achieving adequately rapid CCS deployment than conventional carbon taxes or cap-and-trade systems.

15. Nigerian population growth and its implications for economic development.

PubMed

Okpala, A O

1990-12-01

The population of Nigeria is growing at a rate of 3.75%/year indicating a doubling of the population every 22 years. Demographers estimated the population to be 91,178,000 in 1985. Even though population density is high (288 people/square mile), it is not equally distributed. It is highest in the south and southwest urban areas such as Lagos (1045 people/square mile) and lowest in the northeast (75 people/square mile). Moreover rural-urban migration is growing. A major reason for rural-urban migration is the dual nature of the economy in Nigeria. In urban areas, economic development brings about higher standards of living, but, in rural areas, a subsistence economy predominates. This coupled with rapid population growth results in small or no growth in per capita income. Only if the government were to integrate redistribution policies into complete economic development plans should it consider redistributing the population. It should stress rural development (e.g., incentives for firms to set up in rural areas). Further it should move some government offices to rural areas. The government also needs to adopt population policies encouraging the lowering of fertility levels. If it were to provide education through the secondary and prevocational education level free of charge, educated women will lower their fertility. Sex education should be included in the curriculum. Further the government must play an active role in family planning programs, especially educating rural women about family planning. It should also use the mass media to promote small family size, but it should not dictate family size. It also needs to recognize that population growth puts much pressure on the environment. For example, population growth causes soil erosion, nutrient exhaustion, rapid deforestation, and other problems which render the land unusable for agriculture.

16. Economics and the 1995 National Assessment of United States Oil and Gas Resources

USGS Publications Warehouse

Attanasi, E.D.

1998-01-01

This report summarizes the economic component of the 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey for onshore and State offshore areas of the United States. Province and regional incremental cost functions for conventional undiscovered oil and gas fields, and selected unconventional oil and gas accumulations, allowing the ranking of areas by the incremental costs finding, developing, and producing these resources. Regional projections of additions to reserves from previously discovered fields to 2015 are also presented.

17. Economic Implications of Japan's Ageing Population: A Macro-economic Demographic Modelling Approach.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ogawa, Naohiro

1982-01-01

This study discusses the impact of the aging of the Japanese population upon various socioeconomic factors. Major findings are that the rate of real gross national product growth will decline continuously and that more financial resources will be required for government social security programs. (Editor/CT)

18. Geothermal resource, engineering and economic feasibility study for the City of Ouray, Colorado. Final report

SciTech Connect

Meyer, R.T.; Raskin, R.; Zocholl, J.R.

1982-07-31

A geothermal energy feasibility study has been performed for the City of Ouray, Colorado, to determine the potential economic development opportunities to the City. The resource assessment indicates the resource to be associated with the Ouray fault zone, the Leadville limestone formation, the high thermal gradient in the area of the San Juan mountains, and the recharge from precipitation in the adjacent mountains. Four engineering designs of alternative sizes, costs, applications, and years of start-up have been defined to offer the City a range of development scales. Life cycle cost analyses have been conducted for cases of both public and private ownership. All systems are found to be feasible on both economic and technical grounds. 49 refs., 8 figs.

19. To make or buy patient safety solutions: a resource dependence and transaction cost economics perspective.

PubMed

Fareed, Naleef; Mick, Stephen S

2011-01-01

For almost a decade, public and private organizations have pressured hospitals to improve their patient safety records. Since 2008, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services has no longer been reimbursing hospitals for secondary diagnoses not reported during the point of admission. This ruling has motivated some hospitals to engage in safety-oriented programs to decrease adverse events. This study examined which hospitals may engage in patient safety solutions and whether they create these patient safety solutions within their structures or use suppliers in the market. We used a theoretical model that incorporates the key constructs of resource dependence theory and transaction cost economics theory to predict a hospital's reaction to Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services "never event" regulations. We present propositions that speculate on how forces conceptualized from the resource dependence theory may affect adoption of patient safety innovations and, when they do, whether the adopting hospitals will do so internally or externally according to the transaction cost economics theory. On the basis of forces identified by the resource dependence theory, we predict that larger, teaching, safety net, horizontally integrated, highly interdependent, and public hospitals in concentrated, high public payer presence, competitive, and resource-rich environments will be more likely to engage in patient safety innovations. Following the logic of the transaction cost economics theory, we predict that of the hospitals that react positively to the never event regulation, most will internalize their innovations in patient safety solutions rather than approach the market, a choice that helps hospitals economize on transaction costs. This study helps hospital managers in their strategic thinking and planning in relation to current and future regulations related to patient safety. For researchers and policy analysts, our propositions provide the basis for empirical testing.

20. In Retirement Migration, Who Counts? A Methodological Question with Economic Policy Implications

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Haas, William H., III; Bradley, Don E.; Longino, Charles F., Jr.; Stoller, Eleanor P.; Serow, William J.

2006-01-01

Purpose: We examine the methodological and economic policy implications of three operationalizations of retirement migration. Design and Methods: We compared the traditional age-based definition of retirement migration and two retirement-based definitions, based on degree of labor-force participation and retirement income, by using the 2000 U.S.…

1. Interactions of Economics of Science and Science Education: Investigating the Implications for Science Teaching and Learning

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Erduran, Sibel; Mugaloglu, Ebru Z.

2013-01-01

In recent years, there has been upsurge of interest in the applications of interdisciplinary perspectives on science in science education. Within this framework, the implications of the so-called "economics of science" is virtually an uncharted territory. In this paper, we trace a set of arguments that provide a dialectic engagement with…

2. The Implications of Grandparent Coresidence for Economic Hardship among Children in Mother-Only Families

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mutchler, Jan E.; Baker, Lindsey A.

2009-01-01

Estimates suggest that more than 6 million children live with at least one grandparent. Despite evidence establishing the growing prevalence of this arrangement, limited research has focused on estimating the implications of coresidence for the economic well-being of grandchildren. Using data from the 2001 panel of the Survey of Income and Program…

3. Awareness of the Social Implications of Clothing in Relation to Fashion Awareness and Clothing Economic Practices.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Horridge, Patricia; Richards, Mary Lynne

1986-01-01

The Sproles Consumer Interests and Priorities questionnaire was administered to 3,036 home economists. Awareness of social implications of clothing, correlated positively with fashion awareness and clothing economic practices. Results suggest that persons exhibiting substantial awareness of social importance of clothing also tend to evidence…

4. Interactions of Economics of Science and Science Education: Investigating the Implications for Science Teaching and Learning

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Erduran, Sibel; Mugaloglu, Ebru Z.

2013-01-01

In recent years, there has been upsurge of interest in the applications of interdisciplinary perspectives on science in science education. Within this framework, the implications of the so-called "economics of science" is virtually an uncharted territory. In this paper, we trace a set of arguments that provide a dialectic engagement with…

5. Women Education and Economic Development in Kenya: Implications for Curriculum Development and Implementation Processes

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Syomwene, Anne; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga

2015-01-01

This paper is a discussion of the relationship between women education and sustainable economic development in Kenya and its implications for curriculum development and implementation processes. The argument advanced in this paper is that the solution to the development problems in Kenya and other developing nations lies on women education.…

6. Awareness of the Social Implications of Clothing in Relation to Fashion Awareness and Clothing Economic Practices.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Horridge, Patricia; Richards, Mary Lynne

1986-01-01

The Sproles Consumer Interests and Priorities questionnaire was administered to 3,036 home economists. Awareness of social implications of clothing, correlated positively with fashion awareness and clothing economic practices. Results suggest that persons exhibiting substantial awareness of social importance of clothing also tend to evidence…

7. In Retirement Migration, Who Counts? A Methodological Question with Economic Policy Implications

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Haas, William H., III; Bradley, Don E.; Longino, Charles F., Jr.; Stoller, Eleanor P.; Serow, William J.

2006-01-01

Purpose: We examine the methodological and economic policy implications of three operationalizations of retirement migration. Design and Methods: We compared the traditional age-based definition of retirement migration and two retirement-based definitions, based on degree of labor-force participation and retirement income, by using the 2000 U.S.…

8. CIM-EARTH: Community integrated model of economic and resource trajectories for humankind.

SciTech Connect

Elliott, J.; Foster, I.; Judd, K.; Moyer, E.; Munson, T.; Univ. of Chicago; Hoover Inst.

2010-01-01

Climate change is a global problem with local climatic and economic impacts. Mitigation policies can be applied on large geographic scales, such as a carbon cap-and-trade program for the entire U.S., on medium geographic scales, such as the NOx program for the northeastern U.S., or on smaller scales, such as statewide renewable portfolio standards and local gasoline taxes. To enable study of the environmental benefits, transition costs, capitalization effects, and other consequences of mitigation policies, we are developing dynamic general equilibrium models capable of incorporating important climate impacts. This report describes the economic framework we have developed and the current Community Integrated Model of Economic and Resource Trajectories for Humankind (CIM-EARTH) instance.

9. Dispositional Optimism: A Psychological Resource for Mexican-Origin Mothers Experiencing Economic Stress

PubMed Central

Taylor, Zoe E.; Widaman, Keith F.; Robins, Richard W.; Jochem, Rachel; Early, Dawnte R.; Conger, Rand D.

2013-01-01

Dispositional optimism is believed to be an important psychological resource that buffers families against the deleterious consequences of economic adversity. Using data from a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin families (N = 674), we tested a family stress model specifying that maternal dispositional optimism and economic pressure affect maternal internalizing symptoms, which, in turn, affects parenting behaviors and children’s social adjustment. As predicted, maternal optimism and economic pressure had both independent and interactive effects on maternal internalizing symptoms, and the effects of these variables on changes over time in child social adjustment were mediated by nurturant and involved parenting. The findings replicate and extend previous research on single-parent African American families (Taylor, Larsen-Rife, Conger, Widaman, & Cutrona, 2010), and demonstrate the generalizability of the positive benefits of dispositional optimism in another ethnic group and type of family structure. PMID:22201249

10. Dispositional optimism: a psychological resource for Mexican-origin mothers experiencing economic stress.

PubMed

Taylor, Zoe E; Widaman, Keith F; Robins, Richard W; Jochem, Rachel; Early, Dawnte R; Conger, Rand D

2012-02-01

Dispositional optimism is believed to be an important psychological resource that buffers families against the deleterious consequences of economic adversity. Using data from a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin families (N = 674), we tested a family stress model specifying that maternal dispositional optimism and economic pressure affect maternal internalizing symptoms, which, in turn, affects parenting behaviors and children's social adjustment. As predicted, maternal optimism and economic pressure had both independent and interactive effects on maternal internalizing symptoms, and the effects of these variables on changes over time in child social adjustment were mediated by nurturant and involved parenting. The findings replicate and extend previous research on single-parent African American families (Taylor, Larsen-Rife, Conger, Widaman, & Cutrona, 2010), and demonstrate the generalizability of the positive benefits of dispositional optimism in another ethnic group and type of family structure.

11. Peer outreach work as economic activity: implications for HIV prevention interventions among female sex workers.

PubMed

George, Annie; Blankenship, Kim M

2015-01-01

Female sex workers (FSWs) who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers' economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers' relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers.

12. Peer Outreach Work as Economic Activity: Implications for HIV Prevention Interventions among Female Sex Workers

PubMed Central

George, Annie; Blankenship, Kim M.

2015-01-01

Female sex workers (FSWs) who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers’ economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers’ relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers. PMID:25775122

13. Economic analysis of HIV prevention interventions in Andhra Pradesh state of India to inform resource allocation.

PubMed

Dandona, Lalit; Kumar, S G Prem; Kumar, G Anil; Dandona, Rakhi

2009-01-14

To conduct composite economic analysis of HIV prevention interventions to inform efficient utilization of resources in India. We obtained output and economic cost data for the 2005-2006 fiscal year from a representative sample of 128 public-funded HIV prevention programmes of 14 types in Andhra Pradesh state of India. Using data from various sources, we developed a model to estimate the number of HIV infections averted. We estimated the additional HIV infections that could be averted if each intervention reached optimal coverage and the associated cost. In a year, 9688 HIV infections were averted by public-funded HIV prevention interventions in Andhra Pradesh. Scaling-up interventions to the optimal level would require US\$38.8 million annually, 2.8 times the US\$13.8 million economic cost in 2005-2006. This could increase the number of HIV infections averted by 2.4-fold, if with higher resources there were many-fold increases in the proportional allocation for programmes for migrant labourers, men who have sex with men and voluntary counselling and testing, and reduction of the high proportion for mass media campaigns to one-third of the 2005-2006 proportion of resource utilization. If the proportions of resource allocation for interventions remained similar to 2005-2006, the higher resources would avert 54% of the additional avertable HIV infections. The recent four-fold increase in public funding for HIV/AIDS control in India should be adequate to scale-up HIV prevention interventions to an optimal level in Andhra Pradesh, but the prevention would be suboptimal if additional investments were not preferentially directed to some particular interventions.

14. Household economic resources, labour-market advantage and health problems - a study on causal relationships using prospective register data.

PubMed

Aittomäki, Akseli; Martikainen, Pekka; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

2012-10-01

Our aim was to find out whether the associations between health and both individual and household economic position reflected a causal effect on health of household affluence and consumption potential. We attempted to separate this effect from health-selection effects, in other words the potential effect of health on economic position, and from various effects related to occupational position and prestige that might correlate with the economic indicators. We made a distinction between individual labour-market advantage and household economic resources in order to reflect these theoretical definitions. Our aim was to test and compare two hypotheses: 1) low household economic resources lead to an increase in health problems later on, and 2) health problems are disadvantageous on the labour market, and consequently decrease the level of economic resources. We used prospective register data obtained from the databases of Statistics Finland and constituting an 11-per-cent random sample of the Finnish population in 1993-2006. Health problems were measured in terms of sickness allowance paid by the Finnish Social Insurance Institution, household economic resources in terms of household-equivalent disposable income and taxable wealth, and labour-market advantage in terms of individual taxable income and months of unemployment. We used structural equation models (n = 211,639) to examine the hypothesised causal pathways. Low household economic resources predicted future health problems, and health problems predicted future deterioration in labour-market advantage. The effect of economic resources on health problems was somewhat stronger. These results suggest that accumulated exposure to low economic resources leads to increasing health problems, and that this causal mechanism is a more significant source of persistent health inequalities than health problems that bring about a permanent decrease in economic resources.

15. The role of carbon in fungal nutrient uptake and transport: implications for resource exchange in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

PubMed

Fellbaum, Carl R; Mensah, Jerry A; Pfeffer, Philip E; Kiers, E Toby; Bücking, Heike

2012-11-01

The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, which forms between plant hosts and ubiquitous soil fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota, plays a key role for the nutrient uptake of the majority of land plants, including many economically important crop species. AM fungi take up nutrients from the soil and exchange them for photosynthetically fixed carbon from the host. While our understanding of the exact mechanisms controlling carbon and nutrient exchange is still limited, we recently demonstrated that (i) carbon acts as an important trigger for fungal N uptake and transport, (ii) the fungus changes its strategy in response to an exogenous supply of carbon, and that (iii) both plants and fungi reciprocally reward resources to those partners providing more benefit. Here, we summarize recent research findings and discuss the implications of these results for fungal and plant control of resource exchange in the AM symbiosis.

16. The Linked Systems Project: Its Implications for Resource Sharing.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Avram, Henriette D.

1986-01-01

Reviews history of events leading to the Linked Systems Project and describes two major components: communications facility and applications programs. The initial application--sharing of authority data based on the Library of Congress Name Authority Cooperative Project--is discussed, and future applications and their implications are briefly…

17. Economic resources consumption structure in severe hypoglycemia episodes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

PubMed

Jakubczyk, Michał; Rdzanek, Elżbieta; Niewada, Maciej; Czech, Marcin

2015-08-13

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with severe hypoglycemia events (SHEs) that vary in severity and resource consumption. Here we perform a systematic review in Medline of studies evaluating SHE-related health resource use. Eligible studies investigated patients with DM and included ≥10 SHEs. We also assessed studies identified in another systematic review, and through references from the included studies. We identified 14 relevant studies and used data from 11 (encompassing 6075 patients). Study results were interpreted to fit our definitions, which sometimes required assumptions. SHE type structure was synthesized using Bayesian modeling. Estimating Type 1 & 2 DM separately revealed only small differences; therefore, we used joint results. Of the analyzed SHEs, 9.97% were hospital-treated, 22.3% medical professional-treated, and 67.73% family-treated. These meta-analysis results help in understanding the structure of resource consumption following SHE and can be used in economic studies.

18. Economic resources consumption structure in severe hypoglycemia episodes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

PubMed

Jakubczyk, Michał; Rdzanek, Elżbieta; Niewada, Maciej; Czech, Marcin

2015-01-01

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with severe hypoglycemia events (SHEs) that vary in severity and resource consumption. Here we perform a systematic review in Medline of studies evaluating SHE-related health resource use. Eligible studies investigated patients with DM and included ≥10 SHEs. We also assessed studies identified in another systematic review, and through references from the included studies. We identified 14 relevant studies and used data from 11 (encompassing 6075 patients). Study results were interpreted to fit our definitions, which sometimes required assumptions. SHE type structure was synthesized using Bayesian modeling. Estimating Type 1 & 2 DM separately revealed only small differences; therefore, we used joint results. Of the analyzed SHEs, 9.97% were hospital-treated, 22.3% medical professional-treated, and 67.73% family-treated. These meta-analysis results help in understanding the structure of resource consumption following SHE and can be used in economic studies.

19. Threshold concepts: implications for the management of natural resources

USGS Publications Warehouse

Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Gross, John

2014-01-01

Threshold concepts can have broad relevance in natural resource management. However, the concept of ecological thresholds has not been widely incorporated or adopted in management goals. This largely stems from the uncertainty revolving around threshold levels and the post hoc analyses that have generally been used to identify them. Natural resource managers have a need for new tools and approaches that will help them assess the existence and detection of conditions that demand management actions. Recognition of additional threshold concepts include: utility thresholds (which are based on human values about ecological systems) and decision thresholds (which reflect management objectives and values and include ecological knowledge about a system) as well as ecological thresholds. All of these concepts provide a framework for considering the use of threshold concepts in natural resource decision making.

20. Implications of Postharvest Food Loss/Waste Prevention to Energy and Resources Conservation

Cai, X.; Shafiee-Jood, M.

2015-12-01

World's growing demand for food is driven by population and income growth, dietary changes, and the ever-increasing competition between food, feed and bioenergy challenges food security; meanwhile agricultural expansion and intensification threats the environment by the various detrimental impacts. Researchers have attempted to explore strategies to overcome this grand challenge. One of the promising solutions that have attracted considerable attention recently is to increase the efficiency of food supply chain by reducing food loss and waste (FLW). According to recent studies conducted by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nation, almost one third of the food produced for human consumption globally is lost or wasted along the food supply chain. This amount of food discarded manifests a missing, yet potential, opportunity to sustainably enhance both food security and environmental sustainability. However, implementing the strategies and technologies for tackling FLW does not come up as an easy solution since it requires economic incentives, benefit and cost analysis, infrastructure development, and appropriate market mechanism. In this presentation I will provide a synthesis of knowledge on the implications of postharvest food loss/waste prevention to energy and resource conservation, environmental protection, as well as food security. I will also discuss how traditional civil and environmental engineering can contribute to the reduction of postharvest food loss, an important issue of sustainable agriculture.

1. HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among African American Women Who Trade Sex for Drugs Versus Economic Resources.

PubMed

Dunne, Eugene M; Dyer, Typhanye Penniman; Khan, Maria R; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Melnikov, Alex; Latimer, William W

2014-07-01

Trading sex for money, drugs, goods, services, or a place to stay is prevalent among women who use drugs and has been associated with women's risk of HIV acquisition. There is evidence that trading sex for drugs only may be associated with elevated risk of HIV compared with trading sex for money. The purpose of this study was to assess whether HIV risk behaviors and HIV prevalence differ among African American drug using women (N = 92) who traded sex for drugs only, traded sex for economic resources (defined as money, shelter, or other resources) only, or traded sex for both economic resources and drugs. In this study, lower rates of condom use and higher rates of HIV were found among women who traded sex for drugs only compared to women who traded sex for economic resources or for economic resources and drugs. These findings suggest that African American women who trade sex for drugs only represent an understudied yet highly vulnerable group.

2. Economic Promises and Challenges of Productive Resources: A Study of Man's Use of Productive Resources over the Ages (From the Stone Age to the Space Age).

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bourbonnais, Mary Kathryn

Research and study of economic discoveries, inventions, improvements, and man's use of natural and human resources and capital goods from the Stone Age to the present helped fifth graders understand and appreciate the foundation and structure of the U.S. economic system and today's standards of living. The year-long study, which was integrated…

3. Economic Promises and Challenges of Productive Resources: A Study of Man's Use of Productive Resources over the Ages (From the Stone Age to the Space Age).

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bourbonnais, Mary Kathryn

Research and study of economic discoveries, inventions, improvements, and man's use of natural and human resources and capital goods from the Stone Age to the present helped fifth graders understand and appreciate the foundation and structure of the U.S. economic system and today's standards of living. The year-long study, which was integrated…

4. Benefits and resource implications of family meetings for hospitalized palliative care patients: research protocol.

PubMed

Hudson, Peter L; Girgis, Afaf; Mitchell, Geoffrey K; Philip, Jenny; Parker, Deborah; Currow, David; Liew, Danny; Thomas, Kristina; Le, Brian; Moran, Juli; Brand, Caroline

2015-12-10

Palliative care focuses on supporting patients diagnosed with advanced, incurable disease; it is 'family centered', with the patient and their family (the unit of care) being core to all its endeavours. However, approximately 30-50% of carers experience psychological distress which is typically under recognised and consequently not addressed. Family meetings (FM) are recommended as a means whereby health professionals, together with family carers and patients discuss psychosocial issues and plan care; however there is minimal empirical research to determine the net effect of these meetings and the resources required to implement them systematically. The aims of this study were to evaluate: (1) if family carers of hospitalised patients with advanced disease (referred to a specialist palliative care in-patient setting or palliative care consultancy service) who receive a FM report significantly lower psychological distress (primary outcome), fewer unmet needs, increased quality of life and feel more prepared for the caregiving role; (2) if patients who receive the FM experience appropriate quality of end-of-life care, as demonstrated by fewer hospital admissions, fewer emergency department presentations, fewer intensive care unit hours, less chemotherapy treatment (in last 30 days of life), and higher likelihood of death in the place of their choice and access to supportive care services; (3) the optimal time point to deliver FM and; (4) to determine the cost-benefit and resource implications of implementing FM meetings into routine practice. Cluster type trial design with two way randomization for aims 1-3 and health economic modeling and qualitative interviews with health for professionals for aim 4. The research will determine whether FMs have positive practical and psychological impacts on the family, impacts on health service usage, and financial benefits to the health care sector. This study will also provide clear guidance on appropriate timing in the disease

5. Trust for Cultural Resources Legislation: Implications for Urban Design.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stephens, Suzanne

1978-01-01

In New York City, the Trust for Cultural Resources legislation continues the direction taken by incentive zoning by trading unused or underused air space with developers for certain public amenities. Since the legislation could easily be expanded, it could drastically affect the physical character of the city. (JMD)

6. ICT and Resource-Based Learning: Implications for the Future.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

McNicol, Sarah; Nankivell, Clare; Ghelani, Tilusha

2002-01-01

Describes a study conducted at the University of Central England that investigated resource-based learning and secondary school students; the availability of information and communication technology (ICT), including access to computers at school, at home, and in the community, including public libraries; and attitudes toward ICT; and suggests…

7. Implications of fire management on cultural resources [Chapter 9

Treesearch

Rebecca S. Timmons; Leonard deBano; Kevin C. Ryan

2012-01-01

Previous chapters in this synthesis have identified the important fuel, weather, and fire relationships associated with damage to cultural resources (CR). They have also identified the types of effects commonly encountered in various fire situations and provided some guidance on how to recognize damages and minimize their occurrence. This chapter describes planning...

8. Infant Mental Health: Implications for Parenting in Limited Resource Families.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Honig, Alice Sterling

Parents of babies have many tasks to master. Beyond basic physical skills needed to care for children, such as diapering or preparing formula, parents need emotional wisdom to relate to their child. Parents with limited resources should know that as long as they provide the emotional nourishment that babies need, their baby will flourish. The…

9. Global mega forces: Implications for the future of natural resources

Treesearch

George H. Kubik

2012-01-01

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of leading global mega forces and their importance to the future of natural resource decisionmaking, policy development, and operation. Global mega forces are defined as a combination of major trends, preferences, and probabilities that come together to produce the potential for future high-impact outcomes. These...

10. Integrating remediation and resource recovery: On the economic conditions of landfill mining

SciTech Connect

Frändegård, Per Krook, Joakim; Svensson, Niclas

2015-08-15

Highlights: • We compare two remediation scenarios; one with resource recovery and one without. • Economic analysis includes relevant direct costs and revenues for the landfill owner. • High degrees of metal and/or combustible contents are important economic factors. • Landfill tax and the access to a CHP can have a large impact on the result. • Combining landfill mining and remediation may decrease the project cost. - Abstract: This article analyzes the economic potential of integrating material separation and resource recovery into a landfill remediation project, and discusses the result and the largest impact factors. The analysis is done using a direct costs/revenues approach and the stochastic uncertainties are handled using Monte Carlo simulation. Two remediation scenarios are applied to a hypothetical landfill. One scenario includes only remediation, while the second scenario adds resource recovery to the remediation project. Moreover, the second scenario is divided into two cases, case A and B. In case A, the landfill tax needs to be paid for re-deposited material and the landfill holder does not own a combined heat and power plant (CHP), which leads to disposal costs in the form of gate fees. In case B, the landfill tax is waived on the re-deposited material and the landfill holder owns its own CHP. Results show that the remediation project in the first scenario costs about €23/ton. Adding resource recovery as in case A worsens the result to −€36/ton, while for case B the result improves to −€14/ton. This shows the importance of landfill tax and the access to a CHP. Other important factors for the result are the material composition in the landfill, the efficiency of the separation technology used, and the price of the saleable material.

11. The Nature of Work and Problems of Rural Women in Kenya: Implication for Home Economics.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tumuti, Dinah W.

Home Economics is a profession which helps families and individuals to improve their quality of life. The majority of families in Kenya live and work in rural areas where facilities and resources are limited. Women provide 60-80% of the farm labor. Despite the hard working conditions, rural women have a major responsibility in promoting the…

12. Resources

MedlinePlus

... Gastrointestinal disorders - resources Hearing impairment - resources Hearing or speech impairment - resources Heart disease - resources Hemophilia - resources Herpes - resources Incest - resources Incontinence - ...

13. An economic analysis of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources in the state of Indiana

Giraldo, Juan S.

Anaerobic digestion is a process that is a common part of organic waste management systems and is used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The process produces biogas, which contains methane, and it can be burned to generate electricity. Previous reports have indicated that based on the availability of feedstocks there is a large potential for biogas production and use for electricity generation in the state of Indiana. However, these reports varied in their consideration of important factors that affect the technical and economic feasibility of being able to develop the resources available. The goal of this thesis is to make a more targeted assessment of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills in Indiana. A capital budgeting model is used to estimate the net present value (NPV) of biogas electricity projects at facilities that are identified as technically suitable. A statewide estimate of the potential generation capacity is made by estimating the number of facilities that could profitably undertake a biogas electricity project. In addition this thesis explored the impact that different incentive policies would have on the economic viability of these projects. The results indicated that the electricity generation potential is much smaller when technical and economic factors are taken into account in addition to feedstock availability. In particular it was found that projects at hog farms are unlikely to be economically feasible in the present even when financial incentives are considered. In total, 47.94 MW of potential generating capacity is estimated from biogas production at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills. Though results indicated that 37.10 MW of capacity are economically feasible under current operating conditions, sensitivity analysis reveals that these projects are very sensitive to capital cost assumptions

14. Assessment of the regional economic impacts of catastrophic events: CGE analysis of resource loss and behavioral effects of an RDD attack scenario.

PubMed

Giesecke, J A; Burns, W J; Barrett, A; Bayrak, E; Rose, A; Slovic, P; Suher, M

2012-04-01

We investigate the regional economic consequences of a hypothetical catastrophic event-attack via radiological dispersal device (RDD)-centered on the downtown Los Angeles area. We distinguish two routes via which such an event might affect regional economic activity: (i) reduction in effective resource supply (the resource loss effect) and (ii) shifts in the perceptions of economic agents (the behavioral effect). The resource loss effect relates to the physical destructiveness of the event, while the behavioral effect relates to changes in fear and risk perception. Both affect the size of the regional economy. RDD detonation causes little capital damage and few casualties, but generates substantial short-run resource loss via business interruption. Changes in fear and risk perception increase the supply cost of resources to the affected region, while simultaneously reducing demand for goods produced in the region. We use results from a nationwide survey, tailored to our RDD scenario, to inform our model values for behavioral effects. Survey results, supplemented by findings from previous research on stigmatized asset values, suggest that in the region affected by the RDD, households may require higher wages, investors may require higher returns, and customers may require price discounts. We show that because behavioral effects may have lingering long-term deleterious impacts on both the supply-cost of resources to a region and willingness to pay for regional output, they can generate changes in regional gross domestic product (GDP) much greater than those generated by resource loss effects. Implications for policies that have the potential to mitigate these effects are discussed. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

15. How much will be economic impact of climate change on water resources? A Meta-Analytic Review of previous literature

Yoshikawa, S.; Iseri, Y.; Kanae, S.

2016-12-01

Water resources is vital in social and economic activities. Total global water use is increasing, mainly due to economic and population growth in developing countries. It has one of risk with high agreement and robust evidence that freshwater-related risks of climate change increase significantly with increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. It is difficult to compare the risk with other field risk (e.g. agriculture, forestry, sea level rise) for considering both adaptation and mitigation policy with the level of decision makers and public servants. Economic impacts of climate change on water scarcity has been estimated by economic researchers. We have no certainty at all about integration between hydrological and economical fields on global scale. In this study, we highlight key concerns about conventional estimations of economic impact on water resources through meta-analysis. The economic impact on water resource in same base year using consumer price index is shown with increase in the global mean temperature. We clarified four concerns which are involved in 1) classification of economic mechanism, 2) estimated items of economic impact, 3) difference in estimating equations, and 4) definition of parameters related with economic impact of climate change. This study would be essential to next challenge as transdisciplinary research between hydrologic and economic fields.

16. Healing and/or breaking? The mental health implications of repeated economic insecurity.

PubMed

Watson, Barry; Osberg, Lars

2017-09-01

Current literature confirms the negative consequences of contemporaneous economic insecurity for mental health, but ignores possible implications of repeated insecurity. This paper asks how much a person's history of economic insecurity matters for psychological distress by contrasting the implications of two models. Consistent with the health capital literature, the Healing model suggests psychological distress is a stock variable affected by shocks from life events, with past events having less impact than more recent shocks. Alternatively, the Breaking Point model considers that high levels of distress represent a distinct shift in life state, which occurs if the accumulation of past life stresses exceeds some critical value. Using five cycles of Canadian National Population Health Survey data (2000-2009), we model the impact of past economic insecurity shocks on current psychological distress in a way that can distinguish between these hypotheses. In our sample of 1775 males and 1883 females aged 25 to 64, we find a robust healing effect for one-time economic insecurity shocks. For males, only a recent one-time occurrence of economic insecurity is predictive of higher current psychological distress (0.19 standard deviations). Moreover, working age adults tend to recover from past accumulated experiences of economic insecurity if they were recently economically secure. However, consistent with the Breaking Point hypothesis, males experiencing three or four cycles of recent insecurity are estimated to have a level of current psychological distress that is 0.26-0.29 standard deviations higher than those who were employed and job secure throughout the same time period. We also find, consistent with other literature, distinct gender differences - for working age females, all economic insecurity variables are statistically insignificant at conventional levels. Our results suggest that although Canadians are resilient to one-time insecurity shocks, males most

17. Forest economics and policy in a changing environment: how market, policy, and climate transformations affect forests -- Proceedings of the 2016 Meeting of the International Society of Forest Resource Economics

Treesearch

Gregory E. Frey; Prakash Nepal

2016-01-01

Economics can affect decisions about forest resource management and utilization, and in turn, the ecosystem benefits received. In a time of market, policy, and climate transformations, economic analyses are critical to help policy-makers and resource managers make appropriate decisions. At the 2016 Meeting of the International Society of Forest Resource Economics (...

18. The implications of health sector reform for human resources development.

PubMed Central

Alwan, Ala'; Hornby, Peter

2002-01-01

The authors argue that "health for all" is not achievable in most countries without health sector reform that incorporates a process of coordinated health and human resources development. They examine the situation in countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of the World Health Organization. Though advances have been made, further progress is inhibited by the limited adaptation of traditional health service structures and processes in many of these countries. National reform strategies are needed. These require the active participation of health professional associations and academic training institutions as well as health service managers. The paper indicates some of the initiatives required and suggests that the starting point for many countries should be a rigorous appraisal of the current state of human resources development in health. PMID:11884974

19. Economic, social and resource management factors influencing groundwater trade: Evidence from Victoria, Australia

Gill, Bruce; Webb, John; Stott, Kerry; Cheng, Xiang; Wilkinson, Roger; Cossens, Brendan

2017-07-01

In Victoria, Australia, most groundwater resources are now fully allocated and opportunities for new groundwater development can only occur through trading of license entitlements. Groundwater usage has rarely exceeded 50% of the available licensed volume, even in the 2008/9 drought year, and 50 to 70% of individual license holders use less than 5% of their allocation each year. However, little groundwater trading is occurring at present. Interviews were conducted with groundwater license holders and water brokers to investigate why the Victorian groundwater trade market is underdeveloped. Responses show there is a complex mix of social, economic, institutional and technical reasons. Barriers to trade are influenced by the circumstances of each groundwater user, administrative process and resource management rules. Water brokers deal with few trades at low margins and noted unrealistic selling prices and administrative difficulties. Irrigators who have successfully traded identify that there are few participants in trading, technical appraisals are expensive and administrative requirements and fees are burdensome, especially when compared to surface water trading. Opportunities to facilitate trade include groundwater management plan refinement and improved information provision. Simplifying transaction processes and costs, demonstrating good resource stewardship and preventing third party impacts from trade could address some concerns raised by market participants. There are, however, numerous individual circumstances that inhibit groundwater trading, so it is unlikely that policy and process changes alone could increase usage rates without greater demand for groundwater or more favourable farming economic circumstances.

20. Optimal conservation resource allocation under variable economic and ecological time discounting rates in boreal forest.

PubMed

Mazziotta, Adriano; Pouzols, Federico Montesino; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Kotiaho, Janne S; Strandman, Harri; Moilanen, Atte

2016-09-15

Resource allocation to multiple alternative conservation actions is a complex task. A common trade-off occurs between protection of smaller, expensive, high-quality areas versus larger, cheaper, partially degraded areas. We investigate optimal allocation into three actions in boreal forest: current standard forest management rules, setting aside of mature stands, or setting aside of clear-cuts. We first estimated how habitat availability for focal indicator species and economic returns from timber harvesting develop through time as a function of forest type and action chosen. We then developed an optimal resource allocation by accounting for budget size and habitat availability of indicator species in different forest types. We also accounted for the perspective adopted towards sustainability, modeled via temporal preference and economic and ecological time discounting. Controversially, we found that in boreal forest set-aside followed by protection of clear-cuts can become a winning cost-effective strategy when accounting for habitat requirements of multiple species, long planning horizon, and limited budget. It is particularly effective when adopting a long-term sustainability perspective, and accounting for present revenues from timber harvesting. The present analysis assesses the cost-effective conditions to allocate resources into an inexpensive conservation strategy that nevertheless has potential to produce high ecological values in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Environmental and socio-economic methodologies and solutions towards integrated water resources management.

PubMed

Friesen, Jan; Rodriguez Sinobas, Leonor; Foglia, Laura; Ludwig, Ralf

2017-03-01

Semi-arid regions are facing the challenge of managing water resources under conditions of increasing scarcity and drought. These are recently pressured by the impact of climate change favoring the shifting from using surface water to groundwater without taking sustainability issues into account. Likewise, water scarcity raises the competition for water among users, increasing the risk of social conflicts, as the availability of fresh water in sufficient quality and quantity is already one of the major factors limiting socio-economic development. In terms of hydrology, semi-arid regions are characterized by very complex hydro- and hydrogeological systems. The complexity of the water cycle contrasts strongly with the poor data availability, (1) which limits the number of analysis techniques and methods available to researchers, (2) limits the accuracy of models and predictions, and (3) consequently challenges the capabilities to develop appropriate management measures to mitigate or adapt the environment to scarcity and drought conditions. Integrated water resources management is a holistic approach to focus on both environmental as well as on socio-economic factors influencing water availability and supply. The management approaches and solutions adopted, e.g. in form of decision support for specific water resources systems, are often highly specific for individual case studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2. Implications of Social Support as a Self-Control Resource

PubMed Central

Pilcher, June J.; Bryant, Stewart A.

2016-01-01

Self-control is an intricate component of decision making and effectively managing day-to-day life. Failing to maintain adequate self-control can have negative effects on many desired goals and social experiences. As such, understanding how different facets of the human experience may affect self-control is an important undertaking. One area that is yet unclear is the possible relationships between social support and self-control. Research suggests that social support can be an effective resource in reducing stress and promoting health and well-being. Research has also indicated that stress can be a limiting factor on self-control. In contrast, few studies have focused on social support as a potential resource for self-control. The goal of this mini-review article is to explore the intersections between self-control and social support and encourage integration of these two relatively independent areas of research. This review will help provide a broader understanding of self-control resources and how we can better understand the relationships between social well-being and our ability to monitor and utilize our capacity to maintain self-control. PMID:27965551

3. Some Implications of Space Tourism for Extraterrestrial Resources

Rogers, T. F.

1999-01-01

The Purpose and Scope of the Roundtable "to bring together people with ideas about what will be useful products in the space environment with those who know how to produce materials on Earth." When considering extraterrestrial resources in the context of their use in support of general public space tourism it is important to broaden this definition of Scope in certain ways. The first stages of extraterrestrial space tourism will probably take place in the Earth's lower atmosphere - far from the Moon or the planets, and even well below Earth orbit. Sophisticated aircraft could take tourists up to altitudes approaching 20 miles for short periods. And the earliest of fully reusable space transportation vehicles should be able to reach some 50 miles in altitude for short trips. Later, Earth multi-orbit trips could be offered, to be followed by stays in residence in LEO hotels for days. In time, trips could take place to/from the Moon, eventually with stays there. It should be appreciated that there are two most important extraterrestrial resources immediately available for space tourism use. They are not "materials" or "products," but are two vital space "resource intangibles."

4. Development and practical implications of the Exercise Resourcefulness Inventory.

PubMed

Fast, Hilary V; Kennett, Deborah J

2015-05-01

To determine the validity and reliability of the Exercise Resourcefulness Inventory (ERI) designed to assess the self-regulatory strategies used to promote regular exercise. In Study 1, the inventory's relationship with other established scales in the exercise behavior change field was examined. In Study 2, the test-retest reliability and predictive validity of the ERI was established by having participants from Study 1 complete the inventory a second time. Internal consistency, and convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validity were supported in both studies. The test-retest correlation of the ERI was .80. As well, participants scoring higher on the ERI in Study 1 were more likely to be at a higher stage of change in Study 2, and greater increases in exercise resourcefulness over time were predictive of advancement to higher stages of change. ERI is a reliable and valid measure to assess the self-regulatory strategies used to promote regular exercise. Facilitators may want to tailor exercise programs for individuals scoring lower in resourcefulness to prevent them from relapsing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

5. Managing resources in NHS dentistry: using health economics to inform commissioning decisions.

PubMed

Holmes, Richard D; Steele, Jimmy; Exley, Catherine E; Donaldson, Cam

2011-05-31

The aim of this study is to develop, apply and evaluate an economics-based framework to assist commissioners in their management of finite resources for local dental services. In April 2006, Primary Care Trusts in England were charged with managing finite dental budgets for the first time, yet several independent reports have since criticised the variability in commissioning skills within these organisations. The study will explore the views of stakeholders (dentists, patients and commissioners) regarding priority setting and the criteria used for decision-making and resource allocation. Two inter-related case studies will explore the dental commissioning and resource allocation processes through the application of a pragmatic economics-based framework known as Programme Budgeting and Marginal Analysis. The study will adopt an action research approach. Qualitative methods including semi-structured interviews, focus groups, field notes and document analysis will record the views of participants and their involvement in the research process. The first case study will be based within a Primary Care Trust where mixed methods will record the views of dentists, patients and dental commissioners on issues, priorities and processes associated with managing local dental services. A Programme Budgeting and Marginal Analysis framework will be applied to determine the potential value of economic principles to the decision-making process. A further case study will be conducted in a secondary care dental teaching hospital using the same approach. Qualitative data will be analysed using thematic analysis and managed using a framework approach. The recent announcement by government regarding the proposed abolition of Primary Care Trusts may pose challenges for the research team regarding their engagement with the research study. However, whichever commissioning organisations are responsible for resource allocation for dental services in the future; resource scarcity is highly

6. Managing resources in NHS dentistry: using health economics to inform commissioning decisions

PubMed Central

2011-01-01

Background The aim of this study is to develop, apply and evaluate an economics-based framework to assist commissioners in their management of finite resources for local dental services. In April 2006, Primary Care Trusts in England were charged with managing finite dental budgets for the first time, yet several independent reports have since criticised the variability in commissioning skills within these organisations. The study will explore the views of stakeholders (dentists, patients and commissioners) regarding priority setting and the criteria used for decision-making and resource allocation. Two inter-related case studies will explore the dental commissioning and resource allocation processes through the application of a pragmatic economics-based framework known as Programme Budgeting and Marginal Analysis. Methods/Design The study will adopt an action research approach. Qualitative methods including semi-structured interviews, focus groups, field notes and document analysis will record the views of participants and their involvement in the research process. The first case study will be based within a Primary Care Trust where mixed methods will record the views of dentists, patients and dental commissioners on issues, priorities and processes associated with managing local dental services. A Programme Budgeting and Marginal Analysis framework will be applied to determine the potential value of economic principles to the decision-making process. A further case study will be conducted in a secondary care dental teaching hospital using the same approach. Qualitative data will be analysed using thematic analysis and managed using a framework approach. Discussion The recent announcement by government regarding the proposed abolition of Primary Care Trusts may pose challenges for the research team regarding their engagement with the research study. However, whichever commissioning organisations are responsible for resource allocation for dental services in the

7. Transforming river basins: Post-livelihood transition agricultural landscapes and implications for natural resource governance.

PubMed

Sreeja, K G; Madhusoodhanan, C G; Eldho, T I

2015-08-15

The agricultural and livelihood transitions post globalization are redefining resource relations and redrawing landscapes in the Global South and have major implications for nascent natural resource governance regimes such as Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM). A mosaic of divergent reciprocations in resource relations were noticed due to livelihood transitions in the rural areas where previous resource uses and relations had been primarily within agriculture. The reconstitution of rural spaces and the attendant changes in the resource equations are observed to be creating new sites of conformity, contestation and conflicts that often move beyond local spaces. This paper critically reviews studies across the Global South to explore the nature and extent of changes in resource relations and agricultural landscapes post livelihood diversification and the implication and challenges of these changes for natural resource governance. Though there is drastic reduction in agricultural livelihoods throughout the Global South, changes in agricultural area are found to be inconsistent and heterogeneous in the region. Agriculture continues in the countrysides but in widely differentiated capacities and redefined value systems. The transformed agrarian spaces are characterized by a mosaic of scenarios from persistence and sustainable subsistence to differentiation and exploitative commercial practices to abandonment and speculation. The reconfigured resource relations, emergent multiple and multi-scalar interest groups, institutional and policy changes and altered power differentials in these diversified landscapes are yet to be incorporated into natural resource governance frameworks such as IRBM.

8. Spatial Analysis on Future Housing Markets: Economic Development and Housing Implications

PubMed Central

Liu, Xin; Wang, Lizhe

2014-01-01

A coupled projection method combining formal modelling and other statistical techniques was developed to delineate the relationship between economic and social drivers for net new housing allocations. Using the example of employment growth in Tyne and Wear, UK, until 2016, the empirical analysis yields housing projections at the macro- and microspatial levels (e.g., region to subregion to elected ward levels). The results have important implications for the strategic planning of locations for housing and employment, demonstrating both intuitively and quantitatively how local economic developments affect housing demand. PMID:24892097

9. Young Stroke Mortality in Fiji Islands: An Economic Analysis of National Human Capital Resource Loss

PubMed Central

Maharaj, Jagdish C.; Reddy, Mahendra

2012-01-01

Introduction. The objective of this study was to perform an economic analysis in terms of annual national human capital resource loss from young stroke mortality in Fiji. The official retirement age is 55 years in Fiji. Method. Stroke mortality data, for working-age group 15–55 years, obtained from the Ministry of Health and per capita national income figure for the same year was utilised to calculate the total output loss for the economy. The formula of output loss from the economy was used. Results. There were 273 stroke deaths of which 53.8% were of working-age group. The annual national human capital loss from stroke mortality for Fiji for the year was calculated to be F\$8.85 million (US\$5.31 million). The highest percentage loss from stroke mortality was from persons in their forties; that is, they still had more then 10 years to retirement. Discussion. This loss equates to one percent of national government revenue and 9.7% of Ministry of Health budget for the same year. The annual national human capital loss from stroke mortality is an important dimension in the overall economic equation of total economic burden of stroke. Conclusion. This study demonstrates a high economic burden for Fiji from stroke mortality of young adults in terms of annual national human capital loss. PMID:22778993

10. Economic impact of public resource supply constraints in northeast Oregon. Forest Service general technical report

SciTech Connect

Waters, E.C.; Holland, D.W.; Haynes, R.W.; Quigley, T.M.

1997-04-01

Traditional, fixed-price (input-output) economic models provide a useful framework for conceptualizing links in a regional economy. Apparent shortcomings in these models, however, severely restrict our ability to deduce valid prescriptions for public policy and economic development. A more efficient approach using regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) models as well as a brief survey of relevant literature is presented. Computable general equilibrium results under several different resource policy scenarios are examined and contrasted with a fixed-price analysis. In the most severe CGE scenario, elimination of Federal range programs caused the loss of 1,371 jobs (2.3 percent of regional employment) and \$29 million (1.6 percent) of house income; and an 80-percent reduction in Federal log supplies resulted in the loss of 3,329 jobs (5.5 percent of regional employment), and \$76 millin (4.2 percent) of household income. These results do not include positive economic impacts associated with improvement in salmon runs. Economic counter scenarios indicate that increases in tourism and high-technology manufacturing and growth in the population of retirees can largely offset total employment and income losses.

11. Shale Gas Boom or Bust? Estimating US and Global Economically Recoverable Resources

Brecha, R. J.; Hilaire, J.; Bauer, N.

2014-12-01

One of the most disruptive energy system technological developments of the past few decades is the rapid expansion of shale gas production in the United States. Because the changes have been so rapid there are great uncertainties as to the impacts of shale production for medium- and long-term energy and climate change mitigation policies. A necessary starting point for incorporating shale resources into modeling efforts is to understand the size of the resource, how much is technically recoverable (TRR), and finally, how much is economically recoverable (ERR) at a given cost. To assess production costs of shale gas, we combine top-down data with detailed bottom-up information. Studies solely based on top-down approaches do not adequately account for the heterogeneity of shale gas deposits and are unlikely to appropriately estimate extraction costs. We design an expedient bottom-up method based on publicly available US data to compute the levelized costs of shale gas extraction. Our results indicate the existence of economically attractive areas but also reveal a dramatic cost increase as lower-quality reservoirs are exploited. Extrapolating results for the US to the global level, our best estimate suggests that, at a cost of 6 US\$/GJ, only 39% of the technically recoverable resources reported in top-down studies should be considered economically recoverable. This estimate increases to about 77% when considering optimistic TRR and estimated ultimate recovery parameters but could be lower than 12% for more pessimistic parameters. The current lack of information on the heterogeneity of shale gas deposits as well as on the development of future production technologies leads to significant uncertainties regarding recovery rates and production costs. Much of this uncertainty may be inherent, but for energy system planning purposes, with or without climate change mitigation policies, it is crucial to recognize the full ranges of recoverable quantities and costs.

12. A critical review of health-related economic evaluations in Australia: implications for health policy.

PubMed

Salkeld, G; Davey, P; Arnolda, G

1995-02-01

In Australia, as in many other countries, economic evaluation is increasingly seen by health care policy makers as a useful aid to priority setting and resource allocation. In Australia, economic evaluation is now a requirement for new drugs to be listed on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme which provides a government subsidy on the price of listed drugs for purchasers. Yet, despite recognition of the importance of economic evaluation by policy makers, there is a paucity of published evaluations in Australia. We reviewed all of the 33 health-related economic evaluations conducted in Australia and subsequently published since 1978. This study assesses how well informed decision makers might be if they used the results and conclusions of published economic evaluations as an aid to resource allocation. The review highlights several issues: (i) it is difficult to interpret the conclusions or assess the generalisability of individual papers without information on the context of the original study; (ii) the choice of comparator(s) was often unexplained and most papers did not employ marginal analysis; (iii) in the absence of marginal analysis, the comparability of cost-effectiveness ratios in league tables must be questioned as well as the completeness (were all the relevant alternatives included?) of studies; and (iv) the quality of effectiveness evidence varies enormously, with some authors content to use the best available evidence (even if it is of poor quality). The development of standards for economic evaluation methods might ensure a more consistent and scientific approach to evaluative work, but they cannot guarantee it. A more concerted effort to disseminate the principles and methods of economic evaluation to policy makers and non-economist evaluators might be a more important precursor to improving the credibility and usefulness of economic evaluations in priority setting.

13. Economics of large-scale thorium oxide production: assessment of domestic resources

SciTech Connect

Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.; Enderlin, W.I.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Drost, M.K.; Weakley, S.A.

1980-02-01

The supply curve illustrates that sufficient amounts of thorium exist supply a domestic thorium-reactor economy. Most likely costs of production range from \$3 to \$60/lb ThO/sub 2/. Near-term thorium oxide resources include the stockpiles in Ohio, Maryland, and Tennessee and the thorite deposits at Hall Mountain, Idaho. Costs are under \$10/lb thorium oxide. Longer term economic deposits include Wet Mountain, Colorado; Lemhi Pass, Idaho; and Palmer, Michigan. Most likely costs are under \$20/lb thorium oxide. Long-term deposits include Bald Mountain, Wyoming; Bear Lodge, Wyoming; and Conway, New Hampshire. Costs approximately equal or exceed \$50/lb thorium oxide.

14. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 4: Forestry, wildlife and rangeland

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Andrews, J.; Stevenson, P.

1974-01-01

The economic value of ERS information in the resource management area of extensive use of living resources, forestry, wildlife, and rangeland, is determined. Timber and forage resources are quantitatively evaluated. It is shown that these resources have economic value in the tens of billions of dollars, but the economic benefits of improved management of the forests and rangelands are not limited to efficiency in the production of these commercial resources. Multiple-use values including watershed, wildlife, and recreation are also involved.

15. Economic Analysis in the Pacific Northwest Land Resources Project: Theoretical Considerations and Preliminary Results

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Morse, D. R. A.; Sahlberg, J. T.

1977-01-01

The Pacific Northwest Land Resources Inventory Demonstration Project i s an a ttempt to combine a whole spectrum of heterogeneous geographic, institutional and applications elements in a synergistic approach to the evaluation of remote sensing techniques. This diversity is the prime motivating factor behind a theoretical investigation of alternative economic analysis procedures. For a multitude of reasons--simplicity, ease of understanding, financial constraints and credibility, among others--cost-effectiveness emerges as the most practical tool for conducting such evaluation determinatIons in the Pacific Northwest. Preliminary findings in two water resource application areas suggest, in conformity with most published studies, that Lands at-aided data collection methods enjoy substantial cost advantages over alternative techniques. The pntential for sensitivity analysis based on cost/accuracy tradeoffs is considered on a theoretical plane in the absence of current accuracy figures concerning the Landsat-aided approach.

16. Economic principles for resource allocation decisions at national level to mitigate the effects of disease in farm animal populations.

PubMed

Howe, K S; Häsler, B; Stärk, K D C

2013-01-01

This paper originated in a project to develop a practical, generic tool for the economic evaluation of surveillance for farm animal diseases at national level by a state veterinary service. Fundamental to that process is integration of epidemiological and economic perspectives. Using a generalized example of epidemic disease, we show that an epidemic curve maps into its economic equivalent, a disease mitigation function, that traces the relationship between value losses avoided and mitigation resources expended. Crucially, elementary economic principles show that mitigation, defined as loss reduction achieved by surveillance and intervention, must be explicitly conceptualized as a three-variable process, and the relative contributions of surveillance and intervention resources investigated with regard to the substitution possibilities between them. Modelling the resultant mitigation surfaces for different diseases should become a standard approach to animal health policy analysis for economic efficiency, a contribution to the evolving agenda for animal health economics research.

17. Interactions of Economics of Science and Science Education: Investigating the Implications for Science Teaching and Learning

Erduran, Sibel; Mugaloglu, Ebru Z.

2013-10-01

In recent years, there has been upsurge of interest in the applications of interdisciplinary perspectives on science in science education. Within this framework, the implications of the so-called "economics of science" is virtually an uncharted territory. In this paper, we trace a set of arguments that provide a dialectic engagement with two conflicting agendas: (a) the broadening of science education to include the contextual positioning of science including economical dimensions of science, and (b) the guarding of the proliferation and reinforcement of those aspects of economics of science such as commodification of scientific knowledge that embraces inequity and restricted access to the products of the scientific enterprise. Our aim is broadly to engage, as science education researchers, in the debates in economics of science so as to investigate the reciprocal interactions that might exist with science education. In so doing, we draw out some recommendations whereby the goals of science education might provide as much input into the intellectual debates within philosophy of science on issues related to the commercialisation and commodification of scientific knowledge. We explore some implications of commodification of science in the context of modelling and argumentation in science education.

18. Economic and operational implications of a complex of wind-driven generators on a power system

Farmer, E. D.; Newman, V. G.; Ashmole, P. H.

1980-06-01

An assessment is presented of the technical and economic implications of integrating a sizeable complex of aerogenerators into a power system. An important economic and operational factor is the variable and uncertain nature of the wind. However, it is shown that the effects of the more rapid fluctuations are mitigated by the incoherency of different machine outputs; a diversity factor is defined in terms of the spacing of an array of machines and the turbulence length scale. In contrast, the slower variations require a significant enhancement of the operational reserve capacity without addition of dedicated storage in order to accommodate wind-power penetration up to 20% of maximum demand. The increased uncertainty of the residual generation affects the economics of utilization of pumped-storage and gas-turbines as standby plant. The results of an analysis of a year's data, pertaining to demand and wind speed at 4 well separated sites, are presented.

19. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

SciTech Connect

Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

1993-01-01

In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ``market barriers`` to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland`s attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

20. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

SciTech Connect

Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

1993-01-01

In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

1. L.I.S.T.: Local Information Sources for Teachers - A Community Resource Guide for Consumer and Home Economics Education.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Burk, Marilyn

This guide for teachers of consumer and home economics education suggests agencies, groups, and organizations to be considered when exploring the resource possibilities which exist within a specific community. The format is that of a personal directory to be filled in with the telephone number, address, and contact person for each resource listed.…

2. Use of Online Information Resources by RMIT University Economics, Finance, and Marketing Students Participating in a Cooperative Education Program

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Costa, Cathy

2009-01-01

This paper examines the use of online information resources by Economics, Finance, and Marketing 3rd year students in a cooperative education program and explores some possible factors and issues that influence how students use these resources. The nature of Work Integrated Learning (WIL) programs, the business information environment, and the…

3. L.I.S.T.: Local Information Sources for Teachers - A Community Resource Guide for Consumer and Home Economics Education.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Burk, Marilyn

This guide for teachers of consumer and home economics education suggests agencies, groups, and organizations to be considered when exploring the resource possibilities which exist within a specific community. The format is that of a personal directory to be filled in with the telephone number, address, and contact person for each resource listed.…

4. Trends and corresponding policies related to population, resources, environment and economic development in northwest China.

PubMed

Zhang, Z; Zhu, L

1994-01-01

A model is presented of the interaction between population, resources, environment, and the economic system in the northwest region of China. Population pressure is yielding important impacts on the environment. Development should be guided by effective population control and continuous agricultural development. Alternative strategies include: 1) Identify effective ways to curb population growth, e.g., investment in social and economic development, and formation of a social environment with social security assurances conducive to population control. Public campaigns need to address the links between poverty and population, to awaken people's sense of responsibility, and to change people's desire for more children. 2) Give education a priority as a means of upgrading the quality of rural labor. Mass media must popularize elementary school education and nine years of education. 3) Encourage migration out of the northwest. 4) Use technology to protect and correct land resources. Local regulations are needed on land management to guarantee proper planning, use, protection, and conservation of land. 5) Upgrade agricultural structures, develop forestry and grasslands, protect water and soil, and improve the ecological conditions. 6) Invest capital in such farm constructions as irrigation systems. 7) Increase investments in agriculture in order to assure productivity and reserves and to speed the transition to modern agricultural practices. 8) Raise land efficiency by increasing imports of grain and cereals from outside the region. 9) Develop township enterprises and the rural economy.

5. The water-energy-food-climate-economics nexus: solving hunger and resource scarcity

Lall, U.

2011-12-01

A nexus refers to the core or to interconnectivity across issues. Addressing the boundary interactions of traditional sectors in an interconnected world as human activities change the physical boundaries of land and climate is an emerging academic and governance discourse. Through contrasting examples from the US and India, I shed light on the descriptive aspects of these connections and feedbacks that define potential impacts or traps for societies, and ponder whether a massive conceptual or numerical Earth System Model can help inform outcomes, or whether there are dominant links at particular scales (physical, social, economic or biological) that characterize the emergent dynamics and define critical equilibrium or transient solutions in certain places. However, the real question is what next given the definition of the nexus? Here, I argue that given the current valuation and management structure of different resource sectors and the associated information flows and sensitivities, the interlinked energy-climate issues can emerge as useful drivers of improved productivity in water-food systems, thus promoting resource and environmental sustainability while promoting economic development. Thus, levers can be found that help steer the course of these complex interacting systems towards desirable sectoral outcomes.

6. Fair reckoning: a qualitative investigation of responses to an economic health resource allocation survey.

PubMed

Giacomini, Mita; Hurley, Jeremiah; DeJean, Deirdre

2014-04-01

To investigate how participants in an economic resource allocation survey construct notions of fairness. Qualitative interview study guided by interpretive grounded theory methods. Qualitative interviews were conducted with volunteer university- (n=39) and community-based (n =7) economic survey participants. INTERVENTION OR MAIN VARIABLES STUDIED: We explored how participants constructed meanings to guide or explain fair survey choices, focusing on rationales, imagery and additional desired information not provided in the survey scenarios. Data were transcribed and coded into qualitative categories. Analysis iterated with data collection iterated through three waves of interviews. Participants compared the survey dilemmas to domains outside the health system. Most compared them with other micro-level, inter-personal sharing tasks. Participants raised several fairness-relevant factors beyond need or capacity to benefit. These included age, weight, poverty, access to other options and personal responsibility for illness; illness duration, curability or seriousness; life expectancy; possibilities for sharing; awareness of other's needs; and ability to explain allocations to those affected. They also articulated a fairness principle little considered by equity theories: that everybody must get something and nobody should get nothing. Lay criteria for judging fairness are myriad. Simple scenarios may be used to investigate lay commitments to abstract principles. Although principles are the focus of analysis and inference, participants may solve simplified dilemmas by imputing extraneous features to the problem or applying unanticipated principles. These possibilities should be taken into account in the design of resource allocation surveys eliciting the views of the public. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

7. Quick-start guide for version 3.0 of EMINERS - Economic Mineral Resource Simulator

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bawiec, Walter J.; Spanski, Gregory T.

2012-01-01

Quantitative mineral resource assessment, as developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consists of three parts: (1) development of grade and tonnage mineral deposit models; (2) delineation of tracts permissive for each deposit type; and (3) probabilistic estimation of the numbers of undiscovered deposits for each deposit type (Singer and Menzie, 2010). The estimate of the number of undiscovered deposits at different levels of probability is the input to the EMINERS (Economic Mineral Resource Simulator) program. EMINERS uses a Monte Carlo statistical process to combine probabilistic estimates of undiscovered mineral deposits with models of mineral deposit grade and tonnage to estimate mineral resources. It is based upon a simulation program developed by Root and others (1992), who discussed many of the methods and algorithms of the program. Various versions of the original program (called "MARK3" and developed by David H. Root, William A. Scott, and Lawrence J. Drew of the USGS) have been published (Root, Scott, and Selner, 1996; Duval, 2000, 2012). The current version (3.0) of the EMINERS program is available as USGS Open-File Report 2004-1344 (Duval, 2012). Changes from version 2.0 include updating 87 grade and tonnage models, designing new templates to produce graphs showing cumulative distribution and summary tables, and disabling economic filters. The economic filters were disabled because embedded data for costs of labor and materials, mining techniques, and beneficiation methods are out of date. However, the cost algorithms used in the disabled economic filters are still in the program and available for reference for mining methods and milling techniques included in Camm (1991). EMINERS is written in C++ and depends upon the Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 programming environment. The code depends heavily on the use of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) for implementation of the Windows interface. The program works only on Microsoft Windows XP or newer

8. Human resources in science and engineering: Policy implications

SciTech Connect

Leggon, C.B.

1995-12-31

Recently, there has been much debate concerning the adequacy of the United States` (U.S.) human resources base to meet its future needs for science and engineering (S/E) talent. Science policy analysts - and scientists and engineers themselves - disagree about whether there will be any shortages of scientists and engineers, and if so, what they will mean for the U.S. Whether or not these shortages materialize, it is necessary for the U.S. to expand the pool from which it recruits its S/E talent. This paper addresses the question of how to increases the diversity of the S/E talent pool to include those who are projected by the year 2000 to be the majority of entry-level workers in the U.S. workforce: women and racial/ethnic minorities. Market forces alone cannot increase the size and diversity of the U.S. S/E workforce. Policy intervention will continue to be required to increase the diversity of the S/E workforce.

9. Socio-economic development with regard to the availability of resources in Benin, West Africa

Mbarek, R.; Behle, C.; Doevenspeck, M.; Mulindabigwi, V.; Schopp, M.; Singer, U.; Henrichsmeyer, W.; Janssens, M.; Schug, W.

2003-04-01

The socio-economic part within the IMPETUS-Project analyses interdependencies between resource availability and socio-economic development in Benin. The results of various research activities of natural and social sciences are integrated in a modelling system, in order to calculate development scenarios of resource utilisation and food security in Benin for the next two decades. Missing data concerning water usage and economic parameters are collected in field surveys, in co-operation with other disciplines and stakeholders on site, investigating the upper Ouémé-catchment in particular. The demand of water is analysed by water frequency observation, household analysis and interviews with experts and shows the effects of changing socio-economic parameters on demand growth. The analysis of water availability investigates the question, how the gap between water demand and water availability, due to demographic, social and natural conditions, may be closed by improved management systems and improved technical equipment. A further field of interest is to measure the influence of land use systems and rain variability on carbon balance and food security. Rain variability associated with inadequate land use systems has become the most important factor for determining food insecurity and emission of (global )greenhouse gases in Benin. Therefore, farmers in Benin need efficient water management systems, otherwise they are obliged to extend their agricultural areas or to migrate towards less occupied regions. The results of the above mentioned research activities are introduced in the modelling system BenIMPACT (Benin Integrated Modelling System for Policy Analysis, Climate and Technology Change). It consists of an agricultural sector model (spatial, synthetic, non-linear), a tool to calculate water balances and a basic data system, which provides data and results in a mapping tool (BenMap). Establishing BenIMPACT as a decision support system in corresponding institutions

10. Theory Development and Convergence of Human Resource Fields: Implications for Human Performance Technology

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cho, Yonjoo; Yoon, Seung Won

2010-01-01

This study examines major theory developments in human resource (HR) fields and discusses implications for human performance technology (HPT). Differentiated HR fields are converging to improve organizational performance through knowledge-based innovations. Ruona and Gibson (2004) made a similar observation and analyzed the historical evolution…

11. Theory Development and Convergence of Human Resource Fields: Implications for Human Performance Technology

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cho, Yonjoo; Yoon, Seung Won

2010-01-01

This study examines major theory developments in human resource (HR) fields and discusses implications for human performance technology (HPT). Differentiated HR fields are converging to improve organizational performance through knowledge-based innovations. Ruona and Gibson (2004) made a similar observation and analyzed the historical evolution…

12. Integrating remediation and resource recovery: On the economic conditions of landfill mining.

PubMed

Frändegård, Per; Krook, Joakim; Svensson, Niclas

2015-08-01

This article analyzes the economic potential of integrating material separation and resource recovery into a landfill remediation project, and discusses the result and the largest impact factors. The analysis is done using a direct costs/revenues approach and the stochastic uncertainties are handled using Monte Carlo simulation. Two remediation scenarios are applied to a hypothetical landfill. One scenario includes only remediation, while the second scenario adds resource recovery to the remediation project. Moreover, the second scenario is divided into two cases, case A and B. In case A, the landfill tax needs to be paid for re-deposited material and the landfill holder does not own a combined heat and power plant (CHP), which leads to disposal costs in the form of gate fees. In case B, the landfill tax is waived on the re-deposited material and the landfill holder owns its own CHP. Results show that the remediation project in the first scenario costs about €23/ton. Adding resource recovery as in case A worsens the result to -€36/ton, while for case B the result improves to -€14/ton. This shows the importance of landfill tax and the access to a CHP. Other important factors for the result are the material composition in the landfill, the efficiency of the separation technology used, and the price of the saleable material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

13. Autoshaped choice in artificial neural networks: implications for behavioral economics and neuroeconomics.

PubMed

Burgos, José E; García-Leal, Óscar

2015-05-01

An existing neural network model of conditioning was used to simulate autoshaped choice. In this phenomenon, pigeons first receive an autoshaping procedure with two keylight stimuli X and Y separately paired with food in a forward-delay manner, intermittently for X and continuously for Y. Then pigeons receive unreinforced choice test trials of X and Y concurrently present. Most pigeons choose Y. This preference for a more valuable response alternative is a form of economic behavior that makes the phenomenon relevant to behavioral economics. The phenomenon also suggests a role for Pavlovian contingencies in economic behavior. The model used, in contrast to others, predicts autoshaping and automaintenance, so it is uniquely positioned to predict autoshaped choice. The model also contemplates neural substrates of economic behavior in neuroeconomics, such as dopaminergic and hippocampal systems. A feedforward neural network architecture was designed to simulate a neuroanatomical differentiation between two environment-behavior relations X-R1 and Y-R2, [corrected] where R1 and R2 denote two different emitted responses (not unconditionally elicited by the reward). Networks with this architecture received a training protocol that simulated an autoshaped-choice procedure. Most networks simulated the phenomenon. Implications for behavioral economics and neuroeconomics, limitations, and the issue of model appraisal are discussed.

14. The integral indicator of socio-economic assessment in regard to resource-oriented territories development in Russia

Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Zelenkov, P. V.; Petrosyan, M. O.

2016-04-01

Economic peculiarity of Russian resource-oriented territories are based on a focal type of industrial complex, differentiation of economies within a principle of mining and processing of natural resources. To improve the economic condition and integrate into the world innovative process is essential to solve the problem of eliminating the prevalence of resourse focus in the industrial economic structure that could ensure the overcoming of the existing spa- cial dissociation and market mechanisms development in innovative promotion. The monitoring system, involving the integral indicator of socioeconomic and territorial potential assessment, has suggested by the authors. The integral indicator could guarantee the objective evaluation of economic condition within a territory that is vital for the governmental authorities to design strategies providing the economic development of administrative territories.

15. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 5: Inland water resources

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wetzler, E.; Peterson, W.; Putnam, M.

1974-01-01

The economic value of an ERTS system in the area of inland water resources management is investigated. Benefits are attributed to new capabilities for managing inland water resources in the field of power generation, agriculture, and urban water supply. These benefits are obtained in the area of equal capability (cost savings) and increased capability (equal budget), and are estimated by applying conservative assumptions to Federal budgeting information, Congressional appropriation hearings, and ERTS technical capabilities.

16. Educational Resources "Over the Head" of Neurosurgical Patients: The Economic Impact of Inadequate Health Literacy.

PubMed

Agarwal, Nitin; Shah, Kush; Stone, Jeremy G; Ricks, Christian B; Friedlander, Robert M

2015-11-01

Health literacy is the ability with which individuals can obtain, understand, and apply basic health information. Approximately 36% of Americans have basic or below basic health literacy skills. This low health literacy is particularly prevalent in neurosurgery, a growing field of medicine with considerable complexity and a patient population commonly affected with disease-related cognitive impairment. Consequences of poor patient understanding range from increased emergency department admissions rates to reduced adherence to preoperative medication instructions. Economic implications include increasing health care expenditures, decreasing access to health care, and decreasing quality of care. Health literacy costs the United States \$106-236 billion per year. Consequences of inadequate patient understanding vary widely. This article reviews and addresses the economic impact of the failure to address low health literacy in neurosurgery. Various groups have proposed techniques and devised outlines to improve health literacy, such as detailing principles targeting the underlying issues of health care illiteracy. The government, through legislation including the Affordable Care Act and the National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy, has also shown its desire to remedy the effects of insufficient health literacy. Despite current efforts, further action is still needed. Health literacy is a key determinant in ensuring longevity and quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

17. Exploring the association between women's access to economic resources and intimate partner violence in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania.

PubMed

Vyas, Seema; Jansen, Henrica Afm; Heise, Lori; Mbwambo, Jessie

2015-12-01

The relationship between women's access to economic resources, e.g. employment or access to micro-credit, and experience of intimate partner violence is complex. Empirical evidence documents that in some settings women's employment is associated with higher risk of partner violence but in other settings with lower risk. Evidence also shows that these conflicting associations exist not only between countries but also within different country settings. Using two population-based data sets gathered in 2002 in contrasting Tanzania settings-Dar es Salaam and Mbeya-, we used multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationship between women's access to economic resources and partner violence. Two indicators of economic resources were examined: whether women earned money and whether women owned a business either with someone or exclusively. In Dar es Salaam we found evidence of a higher risk association among women who earned money and who owned a business exclusively by themselves and a lower risk association among women who owned a business with someone. We found no relationship between either indicator of economic resources and partner violence in Mbeya. Other factors were similarly associated with partner violence in both settings and the strongest associations found were related to the respondents' partners: refusal to give money; alcohol use and relationships with other women. The findings support the assertion that women's access to economic resources operate differently in different country settings, thus highlighting the need for targeted prevention efforts that are relevant for the context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

18. Using economic valuation techniques to inform water resources management: a survey and critical appraisal of available techniques and an application.

PubMed

Birol, Ekin; Karousakis, Katia; Koundouri, Phoebe

2006-07-15

The need for economic analysis for the design and implementation of efficient water resources management policies is well documented in the economics literature. This need is also emphasised in the European Union's recent Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), and is relevant to the objectives of Euro-limpacs, an EU funded project which inter alia, aims to provide a decision-support system for valuing the effects of future global change on Europe's freshwater ecosystems. The purpose of this paper is to define the role of economic valuation techniques in assisting in the design of efficient, equitable and sustainable policies for water resources management in the face of environmental problems such as pollution, intensive land use in agriculture and climate change. The paper begins with a discussion of the conceptual economic framework that can be used to inform water policy-making. An inventory of the available economic valuation methods is presented and the scope and suitability of each for studying various aspects of water resources are critically discussed. Recent studies that apply these methods to water resources are reviewed. Finally, an application of one of the economic valuation methods, namely the contingent valuation method, is presented using a case study of the Cheimaditida wetland in Greece.

19. [Water resource quality as related to economic activity and health patterns in Sonora, Mexico].

PubMed

Manzanares Rivera, José Luis

2016-01-01

The aim of this work is to analyze the spatial distribution of potential pollution pathways of water resources given the economic activity in the Mexican border state of Sonora and propose a regional distribution in relation to cancer mortality rates across the state. The methodology is based in an exploratory and inferential data analysis using two sources of primary data: wastewater discharge concessions registered in the Public Registry on Water Rights [Registro Público de Derechos de Agua] (REPDA) and the records generated by the National Health Information System [Sistema Nacional de Información en Salud] (SINAIS) in the period 1998-2011 based on the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10). The spatial concentration analysis allows for the identification of specific cancer mortality causes at the regional level. Results indicate that the projected adjustments to the regulation NOM-250-SSA1-2014, which controls a subset of pollutants common in mining activity surroundings, is a matter of regional concern.

20. A Hydro-Economic Approach to Representing Water Resources Impacts in Integrated Assessment Models

SciTech Connect

Kirshen, Paul H.; Strzepek, Kenneth, M.

2004-01-14

Grant Number DE-FG02-98ER62665 Office of Energy Research of the U.S. Department of Energy Abstract Many Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) divide the world into a small number of highly aggregated regions. Non-OECD countries are aggregated geographically into continental and multiple-continental regions or economically by development level. Current research suggests that these large scale aggregations cannot accurately represent potential water resources-related climate change impacts. In addition, IAMs do not explicitly model the flow regulation impacts of reservoir and ground water systems, the economics of water supply, or the demand for water in economic activities. Using the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT) model of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) as a case study, this research implemented a set of methodologies to provide accurate representation of water resource climate change impacts in Integrated Assessment Models. There were also detailed examinations of key issues related to aggregated modeling including: modeling water consumption versus water withdrawals; ground and surface water interactions; development of reservoir cost curves; modeling of surface areas of aggregated reservoirs for estimating evaporation losses; and evaluating the importance of spatial scale in river basin modeling. The major findings include: - Continental or national or even large scale river basin aggregation of water supplies and demands do not accurately capture the impacts of climate change in the water and agricultural sector in IAMs. - Fortunately, there now exist gridden approaches (0.5 X 0.5 degrees) to model streamflows in a global analysis. The gridded approach to hydrologic modeling allows flexibility in aligning basin boundaries with national boundaries. This combined with GIS tools, high speed computers, and the growing availability of socio-economic gridded data bases allows assignment of

1. Effects of marital status and economic resources on survival after cancer: A population-based study.

PubMed

Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Hurley, Susan; Canchola, Alison J; Keegan, Theresa H M; Cheng, Iona; Murphy, James D; Clarke, Christina A; Glaser, Sally L; Martínez, María Elena

2016-05-15

Although married cancer patients have more favorable survival than unmarried patients, reasons underlying this association are not fully understood. The authors evaluated the role of economic resources, including health insurance status and neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES), in a large California cohort. From the California Cancer Registry, we identified 783,167 cancer patients (386,607 deaths) who were diagnosed during 2000 through 2009 with a first primary, invasive cancer of the 10 most common sites of cancer-related death for each sex and were followed through 2012. Age-stratified and stage-stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality associated with marital status, adjusted for cancer site, race/ethnicity, and treatment. Compared with married patients, unmarried patients had an elevated risk of mortality that was higher among males (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.26-1.29) than among females (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.18-1.20; Pinteraction < .001). Adjustment for insurance status and nSES reduced the marital status HRs to 1.22 for males and 1.15 for females. There was some evidence of synergistic effects of marital status, insurance, and nSES, with relatively higher risks observed for unmarried status among those who were under-insured and living in high nSES areas compared with those who were under-insured and living in low nSES areas (Pinteraction = 6.8 × 10(-9) among males and 8.2 × 10(-8) among females). The worse survival of unmarried than married cancer patients appears to be minimally explained by differences in economic resources. Cancer 2016;122:1618-25. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

2. Fair reckoning: a qualitative investigation of responses to an economic health resource allocation survey

PubMed Central

Giacomini, Mita; Hurley, Jeremiah; DeJean, Deirdre

2012-01-01

Abstract Objective  To investigate how participants in an economic resource allocation survey construct notions of fairness. Design  Qualitative interview study guided by interpretive grounded theory methods. Setting and participants  Qualitative interviews were conducted with volunteer university‐ (n = 39) and community‐based (n = 7) economic survey participants. Intervention or main variables studied  We explored how participants constructed meanings to guide or explain fair survey choices, focusing on rationales, imagery and additional desired information not provided in the survey scenarios. Main outcome measures  Data were transcribed and coded into qualitative categories. Analysis iterated with data collection iterated through three waves of interviews. Results  Participants compared the survey dilemmas to domains outside the health system. Most compared them with other micro‐level, inter‐personal sharing tasks. Participants raised several fairness‐relevant factors beyond need or capacity to benefit. These included age, weight, poverty, access to other options and personal responsibility for illness; illness duration, curability or seriousness; life expectancy; possibilities for sharing; awareness of other’s needs; and ability to explain allocations to those affected. They also articulated a fairness principle little considered by equity theories: that everybody must get something and nobody should get nothing. Discussion and conclusions  Lay criteria for judging fairness are myriad. Simple scenarios may be used to investigate lay commitments to abstract principles. Although principles are the focus of analysis and inference, participants may solve simplified dilemmas by imputing extraneous features to the problem or applying unanticipated principles. These possibilities should be taken into account in the design of resource allocation surveys eliciting the views of the public. PMID:22390183

3. Allocation of resources in the Soviet Union and China - 1985. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Economic Resources, Competitiveness, and Security Economics of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, March 19, 1986

SciTech Connect

Not Available

1986-01-01

Part II of the hearing record covers a March 19 Executive session, with statements by Douglas MacEachin of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), submissions for the record by MacEachin and Admiral Robert Schmitt, and supporting documentation. The purpose of the hearings was to examine economic indicators of the Soviet Union and China in the context of military and national security interests. The study and report represent a cooperative effort on the part of the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency. The report focuses on Gorbachev's modernization program, its potential for success, and the military implications if it should fail. The witnesses felt that unlike the Soviets, the Chinese probably understate military expenditures; and the military triangle involving the US, Soviet Union, and China has benefited both the US and China. Submissions for the record make up most of the document.

4. Anaerobic digestion for bioenergy production: Global status, environmental and techno-economic implications, and government policies.

PubMed

Vasco-Correa, Juliana; Khanal, Sami; Manandhar, Ashish; Shah, Ajay

2017-09-05

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a mature technology that can transform organic matter into a bioenergy source - biogas (composed mainly of methane and carbon dioxide), while stabilizing waste. AD implementation around the world varies significantly, from small-scale household digesters in developing countries to large farm-scale or centralized digesters in developed countries. These differences in the implementation of AD technology are due to a complex set of conditions, including economic and environmental implications of the AD technology, and stimulus provided by a variety of polices and incentives related to agricultural systems, waste management, and renewable energy production. This review explores the current status of the AD technology worldwide and some of the environmental, economic and policy-related drivers that have shaped the implementation of this technology. The findings show that the regulations and incentives have been the primary factor influencing the steady growth of this technology, in both developing and developed countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

5. Energy, economic and environmental implications of production of grasses as biomass feedstocks

SciTech Connect

Downing, M.; McLaughlin, S.; Walsh, M.

1995-08-01

Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

6. Hospital employee job resourcefulness: an empirical study and implications for health care marketing.

PubMed

Harris, Eric G; Artis, Andrew B; Fogliasso, Chris; Fleming, David E

2007-01-01

In today's competitive hospital marketing environment, it is imperative that administrators ensure that their hospitals are operating as efficiently and as effectively as possible. "Doing more with less" has become a mandate for hospital administrators and employees. The current research replicates and extends previous work devoted to this topic by examining the job resourcefulness construct in a hospital setting. Job resourcefulness, an individual difference variable, assesses the degree to which employees are able to overcome resource constraints in the pursuit of job-related goals. The work builds upon previous work and contributes to the hospital marketing literature by examining the relationships between resourcefulness, personality influencers, role stressors, and job tenure. Research implications and suggestions for future work in the area are presented.

7. Food consumption patterns and economic growth. Increasing affluence and the use of natural resources.

PubMed

Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Nonhebel, S; Krol, M S

2010-12-01

This study analyzes relationships between food supply, consumption and income, taking supply, meat and dairy, and consumption composition (in macronutrients) as indicators, with annual per capita GDP as indicator for income. It compares food consumption patterns for 57 countries (2001) and gives time trends for western and southern Europe. Cross-sectional and time series relationships show similar patterns of change. For low income countries, GDP increase is accompanied by changes towards food consumption patterns with large gaps between supply and actual consumption. Total supply differs by a factor of two between low and high income countries. People in low income countries derive nutritional energy mainly from carbohydrates; the contribution of fats is small, that of protein the same as for high income countries and that of meat and dairy negligible. People in high income countries derive nutritional energy mainly from carbohydrates and fat, with substantial contribution of meat and dairy. Whenever and wherever economic growth occurs, food consumption shows similar change in direction. The European nutrition transition happened gradually, enabling agriculture and trade to keep pace with demand growth. Continuation of present economic trends might cause significant pressure on natural resources, because changes in food demand occur much faster than in the past, especially in Asia.

8. Mars Colony in situ resource utilization: An integrated architecture and economics model

Shishko, Robert; Fradet, René; Do, Sydney; Saydam, Serkan; Tapia-Cortez, Carlos; Dempster, Andrew G.; Coulton, Jeff

2017-09-01

This paper reports on our effort to develop an ensemble of specialized models to explore the commercial potential of mining water/ice on Mars in support of a Mars Colony. This ensemble starts with a formal systems architecting framework to describe a Mars Colony and capture its artifacts' parameters and technical attributes. The resulting database is then linked to a variety of ;downstream; analytic models. In particular, we integrated an extraction process (i.e., ;mining;) model, a simulation of the colony's environmental control and life support infrastructure known as HabNet, and a risk-based economics model. The mining model focuses on the technologies associated with in situ resource extraction, processing, storage and handling, and delivery. This model computes the production rate as a function of the systems' technical parameters and the local Mars environment. HabNet simulates the fundamental sustainability relationships associated with establishing and maintaining the colony's population. The economics model brings together market information, investment and operating costs, along with measures of market uncertainty and Monte Carlo techniques, with the objective of determining the profitability of commercial water/ice in situ mining operations. All told, over 50 market and technical parameters can be varied in order to address ;what-if; questions, including colony location.

9. Scale Issues in Modeling the Water Resources Sector in National Economic Models: A Case study of China

Strzepek, K. M.; Kirshen, P.; Yohe, G.

2001-05-01

The fundamental theme of this research was to investigate tradeoffs in model resolution for modeling water resources in the context of national economic development and capital investment decisions.. Based on a case study of China, the research team has developed water resource models at relatively fine scales, then investigated how they can be aggregated to regional or national scales and for use in national level planning decisions or global scale integrated assessment models of food and/or environmental change issues. The team has developed regional water supply and water demand functions.. Simplifying and aggregating the supply and demand functions will allow reduced form functions of the water sector for inclusion in large scale national economic models. Water Supply Cost functions were developed looking at both surface and groundwater supplies. Surface Water: Long time series of flows at the mouths of the 36 major river sub-basins in China are used in conjunction with different basin reservoir storage quantities to obtain storage-yield curves. These are then combined with reservoir and transmission cost data to obtain yield-cost or surface water demand curves. The methodology to obtain the long time series of flows for each basin is to fit a simple abcd water balance model to each basin. The costs of reservoir storage have been estimated by using a methodology developed in the USA that relates marginal storage costs to existing storage, slope and geological conditions. USA costs functions have then been adjusted to Chinese costs. The costs of some actual dams in China were used to "ground-truth" the methodology. Groundwater: The purpose of the groundwater work is to estimate the recharge in each basin, and the depths and quality of water of aquifers. A byproduct of the application of the abcd water balance model is the recharge. Depths and quality of aquifers are being taken from many separate reports on groundwater in different parts of China; we have been

10. Ecological network analysis for economic systems: growth and development and implications for sustainable development.

PubMed

Huang, Jiali; Ulanowicz, Robert E

2014-01-01

The quantification of growth and development is an important issue in economics, because these phenomena are closely related to sustainability. We address growth and development from a network perspective in which economic systems are represented as flow networks and analyzed using ecological network analysis (ENA). The Beijing economic system is used as a case study and 11 input-output (I-O) tables for 1985-2010 are converted into currency networks. ENA is used to calculate system-level indices to quantify the growth and development of Beijing. The contributions of each direct flow toward growth and development in 2010 are calculated and their implications for sustainable development are discussed. The results show that during 1985-2010, growth was the main attribute of the Beijing economic system. Although the system grew exponentially, its development fluctuated within only a small range. The results suggest that system ascendency should be increased in order to favor more sustainable development. Ascendency can be augmented in two ways: (1) strengthen those pathways with positive contributions to increasing ascendency and (2) weaken those with negative effects.

11. Ecological Network Analysis for Economic Systems: Growth and Development and Implications for Sustainable Development

PubMed Central

Huang, Jiali; Ulanowicz, Robert E.

2014-01-01

The quantification of growth and development is an important issue in economics, because these phenomena are closely related to sustainability. We address growth and development from a network perspective in which economic systems are represented as flow networks and analyzed using ecological network analysis (ENA). The Beijing economic system is used as a case study and 11 input–output (I-O) tables for 1985–2010 are converted into currency networks. ENA is used to calculate system-level indices to quantify the growth and development of Beijing. The contributions of each direct flow toward growth and development in 2010 are calculated and their implications for sustainable development are discussed. The results show that during 1985–2010, growth was the main attribute of the Beijing economic system. Although the system grew exponentially, its development fluctuated within only a small range. The results suggest that system ascendency should be increased in order to favor more sustainable development. Ascendency can be augmented in two ways: (1) strengthen those pathways with positive contributions to increasing ascendency and (2) weaken those with negative effects. PMID:24979465

12. Engineering and Economics of the USGS Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal (CARA) Project

USGS Publications Warehouse

Verma, Mahendra K.; White, Loring P.; Gautier, Donald L.

2008-01-01

This Open-File report contains illustrative materials, in the form of PowerPoint slides, used for an oral presentation given at the Fourth U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on Reserve Growth of petroleum resources held on March 10-11, 2008. The presentation focused on engineering and economic aspects of the Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal (CARA) project, with a special emphasis on the costs related to the development of hypothetical oil and gas fields of different sizes and reservoir characteristics in the North Danmarkshavn Basin off the northeast coast of Greenland. The individual PowerPoint slides highlight the topics being addressed in an abbreviated format; they are discussed below, and are amplified with additional text as appropriate. Also included in this report are the summary results of a typical ?run? to generate the necessary capital and operating costs for the development of an offshore oil field off the northeast coast of Greenland; the data are displayed in MS Excel format generated using Questor software (IHS Energy, Inc.). U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acknowledges that this report includes data supplied by IHS Energy, Inc.; Copyright (2008) all rights reserved. IHS Energy has granted USGS the permission to publish this report.

13. Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource

SciTech Connect

Tham, M.K.; Burchfield, T.; Chung, Ting-Horng; Lorenz, P.; Bryant, R.; Sarathi, P.; Chang, Ming Ming; Jackson, S.; Tomutsa, L. ); Dauben, D.L. )

1991-10-01

NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs.

14. Quantification of spatially differentiated resource footprints for products and services through a macro-economic and thermodynamic approach.

PubMed

Huysman, Sofie; Schaubroeck, Thomas; Dewulf, Jo

2014-08-19

Although natural resources form the basis of our economy, they are not always used in a sustainable way. To achieve a more sustainable economic growth, resource consumption needs to be measured. Therefore, resource footprint frameworks (RFF) are being developed. To easily provide results, these RFF integrate inventory methodologies, at macrolevel mostly input-output (IO) models, with resource accounting methodologies, of which the Ecological Footprint is probably the best known one. The objective of this work is the development of a new RFF, in which a world IO-model (Exiobase), providing a global perspective, is integrated with the CEENE methodology (Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment), offering a more complete resource range: fossil fuels, metals, minerals, nuclear resources, water resources, land resources, abiotic renewable resources, and atmospheric resources. This RFF, called IO-CEENE, allows one to calculate resource footprints for products or services consumed in different countries as the exergy extracted from nature. The way the framework is constructed makes it possible to show which resources and countries contribute to the total footprint. This was illustrated by a case study, presenting the benefits of the framework's worldwide perspective. Additionally, a software file is provided to easily calculate results.

15. Neuroscience Evidence for Economic Humanism in Management Science: Organizational Implications and Strategy.

PubMed

Lattanzi, Nicola; Menicagli, Dario; Dal Maso, Lorenzo

2016-04-01

Globalization phenomena and Information Communication Technology (ICT) are producing deep changes worldwide. The economic environment and society where firms both cooperate and compete with each other are rapidly changing leading firms towards recognizing the role of intangible resources as a source of fresh competitive advantage. Experience, innovation and the ability to create new knowledge completely arise from the act of human resources inviting firms to focus on how to generate and shape knowledge. Therefore, the future of firms depends greatly on how managers are able to explore and exploit human resources. However, without a clear understanding of the nature of human beings and the complexity behind human interactions, we cannot understand the theory of organizational knowledge creation. Thus, how can firms discover, manage and valorize this "human advantage"? Neuroscience can increase the understanding of how cognitive and emotional processes work; in doing so, we may be able to better understand how individuals involved in a business organization make decisions and how external factors influence their behavior, especially in terms of commitment activation and engagement level. In this respect, a neuroscientific approach to business can support managers in decision-making processes. In a scenario where economic humanism plays a central role in the process of fostering firms' competitiveness and emerging strategies, we believe that a neuroscience approach in a business organization could be a valid source of value and inspiration for manager decision-making processes.

16. Evaluation of resources and environment carrying capacity and socio-economic pressure in typical ecological regions, China

Qiusen, Huang; Xinyi, Xu

2017-04-01

Since the reform and opening up, the socio-economic pressures have led to increasingly tight resource constraints and serious environmental pollution problems in China, especially for typical ecological regions. The ecological system is under a severe situation and resource and environmental issues have become the bottleneck of economic development. Taking the Chen Barag Banner which has been considered as typical ecological regions as an example, the evaluation indexes system of resources and environment carrying capacity was divided into three subsystems: natural driving force, socio-economic pressure and ecological health. On the basis of the indexes system and related data of Chen Barag Banner in 2014, the evaluation model of resources and environment carrying capacity based on spring model were proposed to analysis the state of resources and environment carrying, and an assessment of influence of socio-economic pressure on the resources and environment system has been conducted by using the discretization method of socio-economic data. The results showed that:(1) The resources and environment system of Baorixile Town, Huhenuoer Town and Bayankuren Town were overloaded among the ten towns, the values of Resources and Environment Carrying Capacity(RECC) / Resources and Environment Carrying State(RECS) were 9.86, 1.37 and 1.22, respectively;(2) The natural driving force index of Xiwuzhuer Town, Hadatu state-owned farm and Bayanhada Town were 0.40, 0.42 and 0.43, respectively, which were lower than others and indicated that the natural conditions in these areas were better than others;(3) The situation of ecological environment Ewenke Town, Hadatu state-owned farm and Tenihe state-owned farm were the best due to the result that the ecological health index of these three towns were 0.21, 0.22 and 0.26, respectively, which were lower than others;(4) The influence of socio-economic pressure on the system of resources and environment in Baorixile Town, Hadatu state

17. Sources and implications of lead ammunition and fishing tackle on natural resources

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rattner, B.A.; Franson, J. Christian; Sheffield, S.R.; Goddard, C.I.; Leonard, N.J.; Stang, D.; Wingate, P.J.

2008-01-01

A technical review of lead sources that originate from hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities was undertaken by the American Fisheries Society and The Wildlife Society. The report addresses (1) sources of lead that originate from hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities, (2) the hazard and risk that lead from these activities pose to natural resources, and (3) the management implications for fish and wildlife professionals and policy makers.

18. Risking Life and Limb: Estimating a Measure of Medical Care Economic Risk and Considering its Implications.

PubMed

Abramowitz, Joelle; O'Hara, Brett; Morris, Darcy Steeg

2017-04-01

This paper considers the risk of incurring future medical expenditures in light of a family's resources available to pay for those expenditures as well as their choice of health insurance. We model non-premium medical out-of-pocket expenditures and use the estimates from our model to develop a prospective measure of medical care economic risk estimating the proportion of families who are at risk of incurring high non-premium out-of-pocket medical care expenses in relation to its resources. We further use the estimates from our model to compare the extent to which different types of insurance mitigate the risk of incurring non-premium expenditures by providing for increased utilization of medical care. We find that while 21.3% of families lack the resources to pay for the median expenditures for their insurance type, 42.4% lack the resources to pay for the 99(th) percentile of expenditures for their insurance type. We also find the mediating effect of insurance on non-premium expenditures to outweigh the associated premium expense for expenditures above \$1804 for employer-sponsored insurance and \$4337 for direct purchase insurance for those younger than age 65; and above \$12 118 of expenditures for Medicare supplementary plans for those aged 65 or older. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

19. The economics of amenities and migration in the Pacific Northwest: review of selected literature with implications for national forest management.

Treesearch

Brian E. Garber-Yonts

2004-01-01

This paper reviews literature on the influence of nonmarket amenity resources on population migration. Literature reviewed includes migration and demographic studies; urban and regional economics studies of amenities in labor markets, retirement migration, and firm location decisions; nonmarket valuation studies using hedonic price analysis of amenity resource values;...

20. Climate variability and El Niño Southern Oscillation: implications for natural coastal resources and management

Thatje, Sven; Heilmayer, Olaf; Laudien, Jürgen

2008-03-01

The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) significantly influences marine ecosystems and the sustained exploitation of marine resources in the coastal zone of the Humboldt Current upwelling system. Both its warm (El Niño: EN) and cold (La Niña: LN) phase have drastic implications for the ecology, socio-economy and infrastructure along most of Pacific South America. Local artisanal fisheries, which especially suffer from the effects of EN, represent a major part for the domestic economy of Chile and Peru and in consequence a huge amount of published and unpublished studies exists aiming at identifying effects of EN and LN. However, most processes and underlying mechanisms fostering the ecology of organisms along Pacific South America have not been analyzed yet and for the marine realm most knowledge is traditionally based on rather descriptive approaches. We herein advocate that small-scale comparative and interdisciplinary process studies work as one possible solution to understand better the variability observed in EN/LN effects at local scale. We propose that differences in small-scale impacts of ENSO along the coast rather than the macro-ecological and oceanographic view are essential for the sustainable management of costal ecosystems and the livelihood of the people depending on it. Based on this, we summarize the conceptual approach from the EU-funded International Science and Technology Cooperation (INCO) project “Climate variability and El Niño Southern Oscillation: Implications for Natural Coastal Resources and Management (CENSOR)” that aims at enhancing the detection, compilation, and understanding of EN and LN effects on the coastal zone and its natural resources. We promote a multidisciplinary avenue within present international funding schemes, with the intention to bridge the traditional gap between basic and applied coastal research. The long-term aim is an increased mitigation of harm caused by EN as well as a better use of beneficial effects

1. Review of economic and energy sector implications of adopting global climate change policies

SciTech Connect

Novak, M.H.

1997-12-31

This paper summarizes a number of studies examining potential economic impacts of global climate change policies. Implications for the United States as a whole, the U.S. energy sector, the U.S. economy, businesses and consumers, and world economies are considered. Impact assessments are performed of U.S. carbon emissions, carbon taxes, and carbon restrictions by comparing estimates from various organizations. The following conclusions were made from the economic studies: (1) the economic cost of carbon abatement is expensive; (2) the cost of unilateral action is very expensive with little quantifiable evidence that global emissions are reduced; (3) multilateral actions of developed countries are also very expensive, but there is quantifiable evidence of global emissions reductions; and (4) global actions have only been theoretically addressed. Paralleling these findings, the energy analyses show that the U.S. is technologically unprepared to give up fossil fuels. As a result: (1) carbon is not stabilized without a high tax, (2) stabilization of carbon is elusive, (3) technology is the only long-term answer, and (4) targeted programs may be appropriate to force technology development. 8 tabs.

2. Implications of Climate Policies for Future Aerosol: Health and Economic Impacts

Selin, N. E.; Wang, C.; Sokolov, A. P.; Paltsev, S.; Webster, M. D.; Reilly, J. M.

2010-12-01

We quantify the global changes in atmospheric aerosol (PM2.5) and their related health and economic impacts under a reference case and four greenhouse gas stabilization scenarios to 2050. Policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions could reduce emissions of aerosol precursors, due to reduced energy use or cleaner energy generation. We assess these potential benefits using climate policy scenarios from the MIT Integrated Global Systems Model (IGSM) framework, which consists of a set of coupled models for the climate, ecosystem, atmospheric chemistry and economy, at global scale. We use aerosol precursor emissions and greenhouse gas forcings from the IGSM to drive the MIT/NCAR version of the Community Atmospheric Model version 3 (CAM3). We calculate the influence of future aerosol precursor emissions changes, climatic changes, and their combined effects on population-weighted average PM2.5 in sixteen global regions. We then use an economic and health model to quantify the implications of these changes for human disease and the global economy. Finally, we compare the magnitude of these changes to the cost of greenhouse gas policies. We find that global aerosol-related health and economic benefits associated with climate policies are smaller than estimated global costs of climate policy, but not negligible in the context of policy analysis.

3. Economic Insights into Providing Access to Improved Groundwater Sources in Remote, Low-Resource Areas

Abramson, A.; Lazarovitch, N.; Adar, E.

2013-12-01

Groundwater is often the most or only feasible drinking water source in remote, low-resource areas. Yet the economics of its development have not been systematically outlined. We applied CBARWI (Cost-Benefit Analysis for Remote Water Improvements), a recently developed Decision Support System, to investigate the economic, physical and management factors related to the costs and benefits of non-networked groundwater supply in remote areas. Synthetic profiles of community water services (n = 17,962), defined across 14 parameters' values and ranges relevant to remote areas, were imputed into the decision framework, and the parameter effects on economic outcomes were investigated through regression analysis (Table 1). Several approaches were included for financing the improvements, after Abramson et al, 2011: willingness-to -pay (WTP), -borrow (WTB) and -work (WTW) in community irrigation (';water-for-work'). We found that low-cost groundwater development approaches are almost 7 times more cost-effective than conventional boreholes fitted with handpumps. The costs of electric, submersible borehole pumps are comparable only when providing expanded water supplies, and off-grid communities pay significantly more for such expansions. In our model, new source construction is less cost-effective than improvement of existing wells, but necessary for expanding access to isolated households. The financing approach significantly impacts the feasibility of demand-driven cost recovery; in our investigation, benefit exceeds cost in 16, 32 and 48% of water service configurations financed by WTP, WTB and WTW, respectively. Regressions of total cost (R2 = 0.723) and net benefit under WTW (R2 = 0.829) along with analysis of output distributions indicate that parameters determining the profitability of irrigation are different from those determining costs and other measures of net benefit. These findings suggest that the cost-benefit outcomes associated with groundwater-based water

4. Is there an economic rationale for cancer drugs to have a separate reimbursement review process for resource allocation purposes?

PubMed

McDonald, Heather; Charles, Cathy; Elit, Laurie; Gafni, Amiram

2015-03-01

In Canada, there are two separate review processes for the public reimbursement of drugs: one for cancer drugs (originally called the Joint Oncology Drug Review [JODR] and now called the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review [pCODR]) and one for drugs in all other disease areas (called the Common Drug Review). We explore whether a justification that is derived from an economic perspective has been provided, in Canada or elsewhere, for cancer drugs to have a separate reimbursement review process (i.e. to be 'treated separately') relative to drugs in all other disease areas. Literature reviews and internet searches were undertaken to identify, collect and analyze relevant documents that would provide information regarding whether an economic rationale has been provided for cancer drugs to be treated separately for resource allocation purposes. Although a number of reasons for cancer drugs to be treated separately were cited both by the JODR and pCODR and in the peer-reviewed literature, a rationale derived from an economic perspective did not appear to be documented. From an economic perspective, separating cancer drugs for resource allocation purposes is likely to impede drug plan decision makers' ability to allocate resources in a manner that maximizes the total aggregate health benefit for the population from available resources. While we acknowledge the challenges that cancer drugs pose to drug reimbursement decision makers, we suggest that separating the reimbursement review of cancer drugs requires further scrutiny.

5. A Profile of Oregon Counties: Human Resources, Educational, and Economic Indicators Associated with Young Children and Families.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Student Services Section.

This profile of counties in Oregon covers factors that may predispose youth to grow up at risk of dropping out of high school or not acquiring the skills needed for adult life. The profile presents data on human resources and educational and economic indicators that were collected from state agencies and organizations. For the state as a whole,…

6. Allocating Resources to Academic or Vocational Secondary Education for Economic Development? Empirical Evidence for Priorities of Investment in Education.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kuroda, Kazuo

Education is a key for the economic growth and social development of developing countries. This paper presents findings of a study that analyzed how scarce resources should be allocated to the two types of secondary education--academic and vocational. Methodology involved correlation and regression analysis of World Bank data on the Gross National…

7. Teaching Strategies - Grades 3-4. Master Curriculum Guide in Economics. Teacher Resource Manual [and] Student Activities.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lieb, Cynthia; Stout, Robert L.

This teacher resource manual for 3rd-and 4th-grade student's uses a wide variety of instructional activities for teaching economics education. The activities include role playing in small groups, producing bookmarks, and making decisions. Students are given the opportunity to interview adults, perform services for their families, do independent…

8. Does Rapid and Sustained Economic Growth Lead to Convergence in Health Resources: The Case of China From 1980 to 2010.

PubMed

Liang, Di; Zhang, Donglan; Huang, Jiayan; Schweitzer, Stuart

2016-01-01

China's rapid and sustained economic growth offers an opportunity to ask whether the advantages of growth diffuse throughout an economy, or remain localized in areas where the growth has been the greatest. A critical policy area in China has been the health system, and health inequality has become an issue that has led the government to broaden national health insurance programs. This study investigates whether health system resources and performance have converged over the past 30 years across China's 31 provinces. To examine geographic variation of health system resources and performance at the provincial level, we measure the degree of sigma convergence and beta convergence in indicators of health system resources (structure), health services utilization (process), and outcome. All data are from officially published sources: the China Health Statistics Year Book and the China Statistics Year Book. Sigma convergence is found for resource indicators, whereas it is not observed for either process or outcome indicators, indicating that disparities only narrowed in health system resources. Beta convergence is found in most indicators, except for 2 procedure indicators, reflecting that provinces with poorer resources were catching up. Convergence found in this study probably reflects the mixed outcome of government input, and market forces. Thus, left alone, the equitable distribution of health care resources may not occur naturally during a period of economic growth. Governmental and societal efforts are needed to reduce geographic health variation and promote health equity. © The Author(s) 2016.

9. Can we do better? Economic analysis of human resource investment to improve home care service for the elderly in Serbia.

PubMed

Mihic, Marko M; Todorovic, Marija Lj; Obradovic, Vladimir Lj; Mitrovic, Zorica M

2016-01-01

Social services aimed at the elderly are facing great challenges caused by progressive aging of the global population but also by the constant pressure to spend funds in a rational manner. This paper focuses on analyzing the investments into human resources aimed at enhancing home care for the elderly since many countries have recorded progress in the area over the past years. The goal of this paper is to stress the significance of performing an economic analysis of the investment. This paper combines statistical analysis methods such as correlation and regression analysis, methods of economic analysis, and scenario method. The economic analysis of investing in human resources for home care service in Serbia showed that the both scenarios of investing in either additional home care hours or more beneficiaries are cost-efficient. However, the optimal solution with the positive (and the highest) value of economic net present value criterion is to invest in human resources to boost the number of home care hours from 6 to 8 hours per week and increase the number of the beneficiaries to 33%. This paper shows how the statistical and economic analysis results can be used to evaluate different scenarios and enable quality decision-making based on exact data in order to improve health and quality of life of the elderly and spend funds in a rational manner.

10. Can we do better? Economic analysis of human resource investment to improve home care service for the elderly in Serbia

PubMed Central

Mihic, Marko M; Todorovic, Marija Lj; Obradovic, Vladimir Lj; Mitrovic, Zorica M

2016-01-01

Background Social services aimed at the elderly are facing great challenges caused by progressive aging of the global population but also by the constant pressure to spend funds in a rational manner. Purpose This paper focuses on analyzing the investments into human resources aimed at enhancing home care for the elderly since many countries have recorded progress in the area over the past years. The goal of this paper is to stress the significance of performing an economic analysis of the investment. Methods This paper combines statistical analysis methods such as correlation and regression analysis, methods of economic analysis, and scenario method. Results The economic analysis of investing in human resources for home care service in Serbia showed that the both scenarios of investing in either additional home care hours or more beneficiaries are cost-efficient. However, the optimal solution with the positive (and the highest) value of economic net present value criterion is to invest in human resources to boost the number of home care hours from 6 to 8 hours per week and increase the number of the beneficiaries to 33%. Conclusion This paper shows how the statistical and economic analysis results can be used to evaluate different scenarios and enable quality decision-making based on exact data in order to improve health and quality of life of the elderly and spend funds in a rational manner. PMID:26869778

11. An economic approach that links volumetric estimates of resources with cost and price information

SciTech Connect

Nesbitt, D.M. )

1993-01-01

For many years, organizations such as the US Geological Survey have assembled volumetric estimates of gas and oil in place. It is legitimate for people in industry to ask: [open quotes]What do such estimates mean to me What do they mean to my business What do they mean for commodity prices [close quotes] In a world of ideal, efficient markets, such estimates would have little relevance; the best use of one's time would be to merely survey the various markets. In reality, markets are not completely efficient, and methods other than market observations are required. Volumetric estimates can contribute to better decisionmaking if they can be associated with cost and price information and if their implications in the market can thereby be determined. Until the generalized equilibrium approach, volumetric information has never been linked with the market. It has never entered the decision process of private companies the United States, Canada, or the rest of the world. With the approach outlined, the US Geological Survey volumetric estimates can be used to support such decisionmaking and lead to better industry profits, more enlightened regulation and Government administration, and more efficient use of resources. 66 refs., 28 figs.

12. HERO (Health Economics in Radiation Oncology): a pan-European project on radiotherapy resources and needs.

PubMed

Lievens, Y; Dunscombe, P; Defourny, N; Gasparotto, C; Borras, J M; Grau, C

2015-02-01

Radiotherapy continues to evolve at a rapid rate in technology and techniques, with both driving up costs in an era in which health care budgets are of increasing concern at every governmental level. Against this background, it is clear that the radiotherapy community needs to quantify the costs of state of the art practice and then to justify those costs through rigorous cost-effectiveness analyses. The European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology-Health Economics in Radiation Oncology project is directed towards tackling this issue in the European context. The first step has been to provide a validated picture of the European radiotherapy landscape in terms of the availability of equipment, personnel and guidelines. An 84-item questionnaire was distributed to the 40 countries of the European Cancer Observatory, of which 34 provided partial or complete responses. There was a huge variation in the availability and sophistication of treatment equipment and staffing levels across Europe. The median number of MV units per million inhabitants was 5.3, but there was a seven-fold variation across the European countries. Likewise, although average staffing figures per million inhabitants were 12.8 for radiation oncologists, 7.6 for physicists, 3.5 for dosimetrists, 26.6 for radiation therapists and 14.8 for nurses, there was a 20-fold variation, even after grouping personnel with comparable duties in the radiotherapy process. Guidelines for capital and human resources were declared for most countries, but without explicitly providing metrics for developing capital and human resource inventories in many cases. Although courses delivered annually per resource item – be it equipment or staff – increase with decreasing gross national income (GNI) per capita, differences were observed in equipment and staff availability in countries with a higher GNI/n, indicating that health policy has a significant effect on the provision of services. Although more needs to be done to

13. Economics.

PubMed

Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

2016-10-01

A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

14. A method to evaluate coordination between regional economic, social development and water resources

Zhou, S. B.; Qi, W. T.; Du, A. M.; He, H.

2016-08-01

Coordination between regional economic, social development and water resources is the key factor for the sustainable development of regions. Scientific evaluation of the coordination and analysis of similar reasons will improve the management level of decision-makers. The Coupling Coordination Degree model (CCD) developed on synergistic theory is now considered as a better method to evaluate coordination between systems. But, there are still some deficiencies. This paper attempts to improve the method in two aspects,: (1) introduce Full Permutation Polygon Synthesis Illustration method (FPPSI) to replace the two key steps of the present CCD model. To realize the data standardization and the comprehensive evaluation of system state, and to achieve the analysis of corresponding reasons. And (2) calculate the coupling coordination degrees of systems’ evolution speeds instead of comprehensive evaluation indexes, which will fully reflect the dynamic interaction between systems. To verify the feasibility of the method, Taihu Basin is taken as a case study. Results demonstrate that the improved CCD model is not only able to reflect the dynamic interaction between systems adequately, but also visually presents the specific reasons through geometrical illustration.

15. The resource economics of chemical and structural defenses across nitrogen supply gradients.

PubMed

Craine, Joseph; Bond, William; Lee, William G; Reich, Peter B; Ollinger, Scott

2003-12-01

In order to better understand the role of nutrient supplies in determining the prevalence of plant defense types, we investigated the theoretical relationships between ecosystem N supply and the net C gain of shoots that were undefended or defended in one of three ways: (1) by N-free chemical compounds, (2) by N-containing chemical compounds, or (3) by structural defenses. By extending economic models of shoot resource balance to include the relative value of C and N, depreciation, and amortization, we were able to show that the relative net C gain of the three defense types were similar to changes in their generally understood abundance along an N supply gradient. At low N supply, the additional C acquired when investing C in defense is much higher than investing N in defenses. Only at high N supply is it better to invest large quantities of N in defense rather than additional photosynthesis. In a sensitivity analysis, net C gain of shoots was most sensitive to factors that affect the relative value of C and N and the rate of herbivory. Although there is support for the relative value of C and N influencing defense strategies, more research is necessary to understand why tannins are not more prevalent at high N supply and why moderate amounts of N-based defenses are not used at low N supply.

16. Geologic setting of the Central Alaskan Hot Springs Belt: Implications for geothermal resource capacity and sustainable energy production

Kolker, Amanda M.

The Central Alaskan Hot Springs Belt (CAHSB) is a vast stretch of low-temperature hydrothermal systems that has the potential to be a geothermal energy resource for remote communities in Alaska. Little exploration has occurred in the CAHSB and the resource is poorly understood. A geothermal power plant was installed in 2006 at Chena Hot Springs (CHS), one of the 30-plus hot springs in the CAHSB. This, in addition to the multiple direct use projects at CHS, could serve as a model for geothermal development elsewhere in the CAHSB. This dissertation evaluates the geologic setting of the CAHSB and explores the implications for resource capacity and sustainable energy production. The local geology and geochemical characteristics of CHS are characterized, with a focus on identifying ultimate heat source responsible for the hot springs. A radiogenic heat source model is proposed and tested for the entire CAHSB, wherein the anomalously radioactive plutons that are associated with nearly every hot spring are providing the source of heat driving the geothermal activity. This model appears to be feasible mechanism for the observed heat transfer. This implies that CAHSB "reservoir" fluids are probably low-temperature. It also suggests that individual hydrothermal systems are small-scale and localized features, unlike the types of hydrothermal systems that are conventionally exploited for energy (i.e., those that derive their heat from magmatic or deep crustal sources, which have higher reservoir temperatures and larger spatial extent). In this context, the individual capacity of several CAHSB resources close to communities is assessed, and a preliminary evaluation of the sustainability of the power production scheme at CHS is given. As another approach to the question of sustainability, this dissertation explores the ways in which external benefits of geothermal energy can influence the economics of a project. In sum, producing geothermal energy from CAHSB resources is

17. Resource limits and conversion efficiency with implications for climate change and California's energy supply

Croft, Gregory Donald

There are two commonly-used approaches to modeling the future supply of mineral resources. One is to estimate reserves and compare the result to extraction rates, and the other is to project from historical time series of extraction rates. Perceptions of abundant oil supplies in the Middle East and abundant coal supplies in the United States are based on the former approach. In both of these cases, an approach based on historical production series results in a much smaller resource estimate than aggregate reserve numbers. This difference is not systematic; natural gas production in the United States shows a strong increasing trend even though modest reserve estimates have resulted in three decades of worry about the gas supply. The implication of a future decline in Middle East oil production is that the market for transportation fuels is facing major changes, and that alternative fuels should be analyzed in this light. Because the U.S. holds very large coal reserves, synthesizing liquid hydrocarbons from coal has been suggested as an alternative fuel supply. To assess the potential of this process, one has to look at both the resource base and the net efficiency. The three states with the largest coal production declines in the 1996 to 2006 period are among the top 5 coal reserve holders, suggesting that gross coal reserves are a poor indicator of future production. Of the three categories of coal reserves reported by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, reserves at existing mines is the narrowest category and is approximately the equivalent of proved developed oil reserves. By this measure, Wyoming has the largest coal reserves in the U.S., and it accounted for all of U.S. coal production growth over the 1996 to 2006 time period. In Chapter 2, multi-cycle Hubbert curve analysis of historical data of coal production from 1850 to 2007 demonstrates that U.S. anthracite and bituminous coal are past their production peak. This result contradicts estimates based

18. Generalized DSS shell for developing simulation and optimization hydro-economic models of complex water resources systems

Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Lopez-Nicolas, Antonio; Harou, Julien J.; Andreu, Joaquin

2013-04-01

Hydrologic-economic models allow integrated analysis of water supply, demand and infrastructure management at the river basin scale. These models simultaneously analyze engineering, hydrology and economic aspects of water resources management. Two new tools have been designed to develop models within this approach: a simulation tool (SIM_GAMS), for models in which water is allocated each month based on supply priorities to competing uses and system operating rules, and an optimization tool (OPT_GAMS), in which water resources are allocated optimally following economic criteria. The characterization of the water resource network system requires a connectivity matrix representing the topology of the elements, generated using HydroPlatform. HydroPlatform, an open-source software platform for network (node-link) models, allows to store, display and export all information needed to characterize the system. Two generic non-linear models have been programmed in GAMS to use the inputs from HydroPlatform in simulation and optimization models. The simulation model allocates water resources on a monthly basis, according to different targets (demands, storage, environmental flows, hydropower production, etc.), priorities and other system operating rules (such as reservoir operating rules). The optimization model's objective function is designed so that the system meets operational targets (ranked according to priorities) each month while following system operating rules. This function is analogous to the one used in the simulation module of the DSS AQUATOOL. Each element of the system has its own contribution to the objective function through unit cost coefficients that preserve the relative priority rank and the system operating rules. The model incorporates groundwater and stream-aquifer interaction (allowing conjunctive use simulation) with a wide range of modeling options, from lumped and analytical approaches to parameter-distributed models (eigenvalue approach). Such

19. Economic implications of cardiovascular disease management programs: moving beyond one-off experiments.

PubMed

Maru, Shoko; Byrnes, Joshua; Carrington, Melinda J; Stewart, Simon; Scuffham, Paul A

2015-01-01

Substantial variation in economic analyses of cardiovascular disease management programs hinders not only the proper assessment of cost-effectiveness but also the identification of heterogeneity of interest such as patient characteristics. The authors discuss the impact of reporting and methodological variation on the cost-effectiveness of cardiovascular disease management programs by introducing issues that could lead to different policy or clinical decisions, followed by the challenges associated with net intervention effects and generalizability. The authors conclude with practical suggestions to mitigate the identified issues. Improved transparency through standardized reporting practice is the first step to advance beyond one-off experiments (limited applicability outside the study itself). Transparent reporting is a prerequisite for rigorous cost-effectiveness analyses that provide unambiguous implications for practice: what type of program works for whom and how.

20. Public perception and economic implications of bottled water consumption in underprivileged urban areas.

PubMed

Massoud, M A; Maroun, R; Abdelnabi, H; Jamali, I I; El-Fadel, M

2013-04-01

This paper presents a comparative assessment of public perception of drinking water quality in two underprivileged urban areas in Lebanon and Jordan with nearly similar cultural and demographic characteristics. It compares the quality of bottled water to the quality of the drinking water supplied through the public network and examines the economic implications of bottled water consumption in the two study areas. Participants' perception of the quality of drinking water provided via the public network was generally negative, and bottled water was perceived to be of better quality in both areas, thus affecting drinking water preferences and consumption patterns. The results reveal that the quality of bottled water is questionable in areas that lack enforcement of water quality standards, thus adding to the burden of an already disadvantaged community. Both areas demonstrated a considerable cost incurred for purchasing bottled water in low income communities reaching up to 26 % of total income.

1. Identification of two distinct fire regimes in Southern California: implications for economic impact and future change

Jin, Yufang; Goulden, Michael L.; Faivre, Nicolas; Veraverbeke, Sander; Sun, Fengpeng; Hall, Alex; Hand, Michael S.; Hook, Simon; Randerson, James T.

2015-09-01

The area burned by Southern California wildfires has increased in recent decades, with implications for human health, infrastructure, and ecosystem management. Meteorology and fuel structure are universally recognized controllers of wildfire, but their relative importance, and hence the efficacy of abatement and suppression efforts, remains controversial. Southern California’s wildfires can be partitioned by meteorology: fires typically occur either during Santa Ana winds (SA fires) in October through April, or warm and dry periods in June through September (non-SA fires). Previous work has not quantitatively distinguished between these fire regimes when assessing economic impacts or climate change influence. Here we separate five decades of fire perimeters into those coinciding with and without SA winds. The two fire types contributed almost equally to burned area, yet SA fires were responsible for 80% of cumulative 1990-2009 economic losses (3.1 Billion). The damage disparity was driven by fire characteristics: SA fires spread three times faster, occurred closer to urban areas, and burned into areas with greater housing values. Non-SA fires were comparatively more sensitive to age-dependent fuels, often occurred in higher elevation forests, lasted for extended periods, and accounted for 70% of total suppression costs. An improved distinction of fire type has implications for future projections and management. The area burned in non-SA fires is projected to increase 77% (±43%) by the mid-21st century with warmer and drier summers, and the SA area burned is projected to increase 64% (±76%), underscoring the need to evaluate the allocation and effectiveness of suppression investments.

2. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 3: Applied and direct uses, resource feasibility, economics

SciTech Connect

John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

1998-06-01

The US Department of Energy established a geopressured-geothermal energy program in the mid 1970`s as one response to America`s need to develop alternate energy resources in view of the increasing dependence on imported fossil fuel energy. This program continued for 17 years and approximately two hundred million dollars were expended for various types of research and well testing to thoroughly investigate this alternative energy source. This volume describes the following studies: Geopressured-geothermal hybrid cycle power plant: design, testing, and operation summary; Feasibility of hydraulic energy recovery from geopressured-geothermal resources: economic analysis of the Pelton turbine; Brine production as an exploration tool for water drive gas reservoirs; Study of supercritical Rankine cycles; Application of the geopressured-geothermal resource to pyrolytic conversion or decomposition/detoxification processes; Conclusions on wet air oxidation, pyrolytic conversion, decomposition/detoxification process; Co-location of medium to heavy oil reservoirs with geopressured-geothermal resources and the feasibility of oil recovery using geopressured-geothermal fluids; Economic analysis; Application of geopressured-geothermal resources to direct uses; Industrial consortium for the utilization of the geopressured-geothermal resource; Power generation; Industrial desalination, gas use and sales, pollutant removal, thermal EOR, sulfur frasching, oil and natural gas pipelining, coal desulfurization and preparation, lumber and concrete products kilning; Agriculture and aquaculture applications; Paper and cane sugar industries; Chemical processing; Environmental considerations for geopressured-geothermal development. 27 figs., 25 tabs.

3. Economics.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

4. Economics.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

James, L. D.

1978-01-01

Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

5. Science and Math Activities and Resources for Teaching Home Economics (S.M.A.R.T.).

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Levine, Marjorie C.

This guide was written to aid home economics teachers in developing a greater understanding and use of basic skills in the home economics curriculum. The objectives of this guide are (1) to expand the awareness of underlying mathematics and science principles in the consumer and vocational home economics curriculum and (2) to provide a bank of…

6. Economies in Transition: Command to Market. Teacher Resource Manual. EconomicsAmerica.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anderson, Curt; Dick, Robert; Prager, Jeffrey; Stivers, Nolan; Ware, Judith; Burke, Francis; Keay, Thomas; Rothweiler, Deborah; Tepe, Henry; Suiter, Mary, Ed.; McCorkle, Sarapage, Ed.

The materials in this publication were developed by nine high school teachers from St. Louis, Missouri, and a U.S. economic educator after they attended a program in Kharkiv, Ukraine, to learn about the difficulties of economic transition in that country. This book is designed to provide lessons about basic economic reform issues facing the…

7. Our Economic System: Essays and Teacher's Guides. Sears Educator Resource Series.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Campbell, Sally R., Comp.

This series of 12 short essays with teacher's guides is designed to provide secondary students with practical skills and knowledge of our economic system. Objectives are for students to: (1) identify basic concepts which underlie our economic system, (2) understand how systems operate, (3) analyze strengths and weaknesses of the economic system,…

8. Our Economic System: Essays and Teacher's Guides. Sears Educator Resource Series.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Campbell, Sally R., Comp.

This series of 12 short essays with teacher's guides is designed to provide secondary students with practical skills and knowledge of our economic system. Objectives are for students to: (1) identify basic concepts which underlie our economic system, (2) understand how systems operate, (3) analyze strengths and weaknesses of the economic system,…

9. Analyzing Inflation and Its Control: A Resource Guide. Economics-Political Science Series.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Salemi, Michael K.; Leak, Sarah

Background information for teachers on inflation and self-contained learning activities to help students view inflation from both economic and political perspectives are provided. The introduction contains economics and political science frameworks for analyzing policy issues. How to integrate economics and political science is also discussed.…

10. Life cycle economic and environmental implications of using nanocomposites in automobiles.

PubMed

Lloyd, Shannon M; Lave, Lester B

2003-08-01

By reducing the energy and materials required to provide goods and services, nanotechnology has the potential to provide more appealing products while improving environmental performance and sustainability. Whether and how soon this potential could be realized depends on phrasing the right research and development (R&D) questions and pursuing commercialization intelligently. A sufficiently broad perspective at the outset is required to understand economic and technical feasibility, estimate life cycle environmental implications, and minimize unanticipated negative impacts. The rapid rise in federally funded nanotechnology R&D dictates that consideration of societal benefits will have a large role in setting the R&D agenda. We estimate potential selected economic and environmental impacts associated with the use of nanotechnology in the automotive industry. In particular, we project the material processing and fuel economy benefits associated with using a clay-polypropylene nanocomposite instead of steel or aluminum in light-duty vehicle body panels. Although the manufacturing cost is currently higher, a life cycle analysis shows potential benefits in reducing energy use and environment discharges by using a nanocomposite design.

11. The economic burden of dementia in China, 1990–2030: implications for health policy

PubMed Central

Xu, Junfang; Wang, Jian; Wimo, Anders; Fratiglioni, Laura

2017-01-01

Abstract Objective To quantify and predict the economic burden of dementia in China for the periods 1990–2010 and 2020–2030, respectively, and discuss the potential implications for national public health policy. Methods Using a societal, prevalence-based, gross cost-of-illness approach and data from multiple sources, we estimated or predicted total annual economic costs of dementia in China. We included direct medical costs in outpatient and inpatient settings, direct non-medical costs – e.g. the costs of transportation – and indirect costs due to loss of productivity. We excluded comorbidity-related costs. Findings The estimated total annual costs of dementia in China increased from 0.9 billion United States dollars (US\$) in 1990 to US\$ 47.2 billion in 2010 and were predicted to reach US\$ 69.0 billion in 2020 and US\$ 114.2 billion in 2030. The costs of informal care accounted for 94.4%, 92.9% and 81.3% of the total estimated costs in 1990, 2000 and 2010, respectively. In China, population ageing and the increasing prevalence of dementia were the main drivers for the increasing predicted costs of dementia between 2010 and 2020, and population ageing was the major factor contributing to the growth of dementia costs between 2020 and 2030. Conclusion In China, demographic and epidemiological transitions have driven the growth observed in the economic costs of dementia since the 1990s. If the future costs of dementia are to be reduced, China needs a nationwide dementia action plan to develop an integrated health and social care system and to promote primary and secondary prevention. PMID:28053361

12. Perspectives on the Present State and Future of Higher Education Faculty Development in Kazakhstan: Implications for National Human Resource Development

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seitova, Dinara

2016-01-01

The article aims at examining the present state of higher education faculty development in Kazakhstan in the context of multidimensional nationwide development reforms and exploring implications for the National Human Resource Development of the country. For the purpose of this research, theoretical human resource development (HRD) and…

13. The economic value of drought information: Application to water resources management decisions in Spain

Garrote, Luis; Sordo, Alvaro; Iglesias, Ana

2016-04-01

Information is valuable when it improves decision-making (e.g., actions can be adjusted to better suit the situation at hand) and enables the mitigation of damage. However, quantifying the value of information is often difficult. Here we explore a general approach to understand the economic value of drought information for water managers framing our approach in the precautionary principle that reminds us that uncertainty is not a reason to postpone or avoid action. We explore how decision making can disregard uncertain effects, taking a short-term approach and focusing instead on the certain costs and benefits of taking action. Two main questions arise: How do we know that advanced drought information is actually helping decisions?; and What is the value of information in the decision process? The approach is applied to several regulated water resources systems in Spain. It first views drought information as a factor in the decision process which can be used by water managers to reduce uncertainty. Second, the value of drought information is the expected gain in a decision outcome (utility) from using additional information. Finally, the gains of improved information are compared with the information collection costs. Here we estimate the value by taking into account the accuracy of the drought information, the subjective probabilities about the value, analyzed as Bayesian probabilities, and the ability or skill of the stakeholders to apply the drought information to modify their actions. Since information may be considered a public good (non-rivalry and non-excludability), it may justify public policy in the provision of information, considering social costs and benefits. The application of the framework to the Spanish case studies shows that information benefits exceeds to costs when drought frequency is 20-40% above normal values; below these values uncertainty in the decisions dominate the results; above these values, the management decisions are limited even

14. A new and integrated hydro-economic accounting and analytical framework for water resources: a case study for North China.

PubMed

Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

2008-09-01

Water is a critical issue in China for a variety of reasons. China is poor of water resources with 2,300 m(3) of per capita availability, which is less than 13 of the world average. This is exacerbated by regional differences; e.g. North China's water availability is only about 271 m(3) of per capita value, which is only 125 of the world's average. Furthermore, pollution contributes to water scarcity and is a major source for diseases, particularly for the poor. The Ministry of Hydrology [1997. China's Regional Water Bullets. Water Resource and Hydro-power Publishing House, Beijing, China] reports that about 65-80% of rivers in North China no longer support any economic activities. Previous studies have emphasized the amount of water withdrawn but rarely take water quality into consideration. The quality of the return flows usually changes; the water quality being lower than the water flows that entered the production process initially. It is especially important to measure the impacts of wastewater to the hydro-ecosystem. Thus, water consumption should not only account for the amount of water inputs but also the amount of water contaminated in the hydro-ecosystem by the discharged wastewater. In this paper we present a new accounting and analytical approach based on economic input-output modelling combined with a mass balanced hydrological model that links interactions in the economic system with interactions in the hydrological system. We thus follow the tradition of integrated economic-ecologic input-output modelling. Our hydro-economic accounting framework and analysis tool allows tracking water consumption on the input side, water pollution leaving the economic system and water flows passing through the hydrological system thus enabling us to deal with water resources of different qualities. Following this method, the results illustrate that North China requires 96% of its annual available water, including both water inputs for the economy and contaminated

15. Water resources in the twenty-first century; a study of the implications of climate uncertainty

USGS Publications Warehouse

Moss, Marshall E.; Lins, Harry F.

1989-01-01

The interactions of the water resources on and within the surface of the Earth with the atmosphere that surrounds it are exceedingly complex. Increased uncertainty can be attached to the availability of water of usable quality in the 21st century, therefore, because of potential anthropogenic changes in the global climate system. For the U.S. Geological Survey to continue to fulfill its mission with respect to assessing the Nation's water resources, an expanded program to study the hydrologic implications of climate uncertainty will be required. The goal for this program is to develop knowledge and information concerning the potential water-resources implications for the United States of uncertainties in climate that may result from both anthropogenic and natural changes of the Earth's atmosphere. Like most past and current water-resources programs of the Geological Survey, the climate-uncertainty program should be composed of three elements: (1) research, (2) data collection, and (3) interpretive studies. However, unlike most other programs, the climate-uncertainty program necessarily will be dominated by its research component during its early years. Critical new concerns to be addressed by the research component are (1) areal estimates of evapotranspiration, (2) hydrologic resolution within atmospheric (climatic) models at the global scale and at mesoscales, (3) linkages between hydrology and climatology, and (4) methodology for the design of data networks that will help to track the impacts of climate change on water resources. Other ongoing activities in U.S. Geological Survey research programs will be enhanced to make them more compatible with climate-uncertainty research needs. The existing hydrologic data base of the Geological Survey serves as a key element in assessing hydrologic and climatologic change. However, this data base has evolved in response to other needs for hydrologic information and probably is not as sensitive to climate change as is

16. Review article: gastro-oesophageal reflux disease--the health economic implications.

PubMed

Mason, J; Hungin, A P S

2005-08-01

For the vast majority of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease appropriate care involves the management of symptoms with lifestyle advice and drugs. However, there is dissension about the appropriate use of endoscopy, whether drugs should be stepped up or down according to potency, how long drugs should be used for, the role of lifestyle advice, and, related to this, the role of patients' lifestyle choices. This exploration of the economics of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease reviews its cost burden to the UK, assesses published economic models for their strengths and weaknesses and examines current recommendations for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease management from a socioeconomic perspective. Drugs prescribed predominantly for dyspepsia cost the UK National Health Service a projected pound sterling 625 million in 2004, 7% of the primary care prescribing budget. When general practitioners consultations, endoscopies, over-the-counter sales and sickness absences are included the UK cost rises to pound sterling 1.5 billion: approximately half of this cost can be ascribed to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Emphasis upon regular review and stepping down treatment (while maintaining adequate symptom relief) is both clinically appropriate and resource efficient. Other cost-effectiveness issues largely lack objective answers because investment in treatment for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease depends upon how much more, at the margin, society wishes to invest for further but diminishing symptom relief.

17. The economics of water reuse and implications for joint water quality-quantity management

Kuwayama, Y.

2015-12-01

Traditionally, economists have treated the management of water quality and water quantity as separate problems. However, there are some water management issues for which economic analysis requires the simultaneous consideration of water quality and quantity policies and outcomes. Water reuse, which has expanded significantly over the last several decades, is one of these issues. Analyzing the cost effectiveness and social welfare outcomes of adopting water reuse requires a joint water quality-quantity optimization framework because, at its most basic level, water reuse requires decision makers to consider (a) its potential for alleviating water scarcity, (b) the quality to which the water should be treated prior to reuse, and (c) the benefits of discharging less wastewater into the environment. In this project, we develop a theoretical model of water reuse management to illustrate how the availability of water reuse technologies and practices can lead to a departure from established rules in the water resource economics literature for the optimal allocation of freshwater and water pollution abatement. We also conduct an econometric analysis of a unique dataset of county-level water reuse from the state of Florida over the seventeen-year period between 1996 and 2012 in order to determine whether water quality or scarcity concerns drive greater adoption of water reuse practices.

18. The family in Romania: cultural and economic context and implications for treatment.

PubMed

2012-04-01

The study of family structures, functioning, roles and values is fundamental in family therapist's activities for better understanding the psychological, cultural and social specificity of different clients and interventions. In this paper we describe the Romanian family and the family therapies which are available in Romania. We illustrate basic needs using demographic data and research available from Romania. The nuclear family remains dominant instead of other alternatives, the age of marriage is earlier than in western European countries and celibate and consensual living are exceptions or only for the transitional period before marriage. The role of marriage and childbirth within the marital setting is still important. The model of a single child appears increasingly common due to an improvement in financial resources and better living conditions. Relations with family of origin remain close. The difficulties for children with parents working in different countries raise problems and have implications for the extended family, educators and psychotherapists as well as mental health service providers. Family therapists should keep in mind the structure, function, role and values of the Romanian family for better understanding the issues and resources and use these accordingly in therapy. Policy-makers should be aware of the difficulties concerning availability and access to this therapeutic approach.

19. 78 FR 31521 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

2013-05-24

... Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation Studies; Extension of Public Comment Period on... period. SUMMARY: Section 2031 of the Water Resources Development Act of 2007 (Pub. L. 110-114) directed... Water and Related Land Resources Implementation Studies'' (Principles and Guidelines), dated March 10...

20. Assessment of impacts of proposed coal-resource and related economic development on water resources, Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming; a summary

USGS Publications Warehouse

Steele, Timothy Doak; Hillier, Donald E.

1981-01-01

Expanded mining and use of coal resources in the Rocky Mountain region of the western United States will have substantial impacts on water resources, environmental amenities, and social and economic conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey has completed a 3-year assessment of the Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming, where increased coal-resource development has begun to affect the environment and quality of life. Economic projections of the overall effects of coal-resource development were used to estimate water use and the types and amounts of waste residuals that need to be assimilated into the environment. Based in part upon these projections, several physical-based models and other semiquantitative assessment methods were used to determine possible effects upon the basin's water resources. Depending on the magnitude of mining and use of coal resources in the basin, an estimated 0.7 to 2.7 million tons (0.6 to 2.4 million metric tons) of waste residuals may be discharged annually into the environment by coal-resource development and associated economic activities. If the assumed development of coal resources in the basin occurs, annual consumptive use of water, which was approximately 142,000 acre-feet (175 million cubic meters) during 1975, may almost double by 1990. In a related analysis of alternative cooling systems for coal-conversion facilities, four to five times as much water may be used consumptively in a wet-tower, cooling-pond recycling system as in once-through cooling. An equivalent amount of coal transported by slurry pipeline would require about one-third the water used consumptively by once-through cooling for in-basin conversion. Current conditions and a variety of possible changes in the water resources of the basin resulting from coal-resource development were assessed. Basin population may increase by as much as threefold between 1975 and 1990. Volumes of wastes requiring treatment will increase accordingly. Potential problems associated

1. Economic implications for management of structural retention on harvest units at the Blue River Ranger District, Willamette National Forest, Oregon.

Treesearch

James F. Weigand; A. Lynn Burditt

1992-01-01

Timber sales offered at the Blue River Ranger District since the 1988 introduction of management for stand structural retention were studied to describe and quantify, where possible, economic implications of that management. Values for the potential lumber from merchantable green trees ranged from \$102 to \$1114 per acre among the harvest units surveyed thus far....

2. Economics.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kemp, Rodger

This course presents basic economic concepts and explores issues such as how goods and services are produced and distributed, what affects costs and profits, and how wealth is spread around or concentrated. The course is designed to be used with students enrolled in an adult high school diploma program; course content is appropriate to meet social…

3. Tribal Sovereignty and Resource Exploitation.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pratt, Raymond B.

1979-01-01

Definitive analysis of tribal sovereignty from political, economic, legal, historical, and tribal viewpoints. Discusses the nature and implications of the U.S. government-native American "trust" relationship. Details strategies for gaining greater economic return on tribal resource development. Journal availability: see RC 503 522. (SB)

4. Tribal Sovereignty and Resource Exploitation.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pratt, Raymond B.

1979-01-01

Definitive analysis of tribal sovereignty from political, economic, legal, historical, and tribal viewpoints. Discusses the nature and implications of the U.S. government-native American "trust" relationship. Details strategies for gaining greater economic return on tribal resource development. Journal availability: see RC 503 522. (SB)

5. Roadmap of Federal Reserve Resources for Teaching Economics and Personal Finance

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Messina, Sara; Hennessy, Amy; Rossiter, Caryn

2011-01-01

Many textbooks define economics as the social science that studies how people make choices when faced with scarcity; or how a society decides what to produce, how to produce, and for whom to produce. Regardless of the definition, students' economic understanding is fundamental to their financial well-being and their ability to build successful…

6. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 5. Social and economic impacts of geothermal development in Hawaii

SciTech Connect

Canon, P.

1980-06-01

The overview statement of the socio-economic effects of developing geothermal energy in the State of Hawaii is presented. The following functions are presented: (1) identification of key social and economic issues, (2) inventory of all available pertinent data, (3) analysis and assessment of available data, and (4) identification of what additional information is required for adequate assessment.

7. Roadmap of Federal Reserve Resources for Teaching Economics and Personal Finance

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Messina, Sara; Hennessy, Amy; Rossiter, Caryn

2011-01-01

Many textbooks define economics as the social science that studies how people make choices when faced with scarcity; or how a society decides what to produce, how to produce, and for whom to produce. Regardless of the definition, students' economic understanding is fundamental to their financial well-being and their ability to build successful…

8. Resource Limitations, the Demand for Education and Economic Growth--A Macroeconomic View.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stam, Jerome M.

To develop a theoretical framework for explaining the observed change in demand for human skill and knowledge that occurs with economic growth, a macroeconomic analysis was made of economic variables which are influenced by political, social, and cultural factors. In the three-dimensional framework, total output (Y) of all final goods and services…

9. Economic Impact Studies in Community Colleges: The Short Cut Method. Resource Paper. Second Edition.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ryan, G. Jeremiah; Malgieri, Patricia

This paper offers a model for determining the economic impact of a community college on its locality. The paper argues that strict adherence to the Caffrey and Isaacs (1971) model revealed three significant problems. First, several of the Caffrey and Isaacs economic estimates are either inappropriate or less appropriate for use by community…

10. Southeast Alaska economics: a resource-abundant region competing in a global marketplace.

Treesearch

Lisa K. Crone

2005-01-01

Questions related to economics figured prominently in the priority information needs identified in the 1997 Tongass Land Management Plan. Follow-on studies in economics werc designed to improve understanding of aspects of the competitiveness of the Alaska forest sector, links between Alaska timber markets and other markets as evident in prices, and the relationship...

11. The economic impact of public resource supply constraints in northeast Oregon.

Treesearch

Edward C Waters; David W. Holland; Richard W. Haynes

1977-01-01

Traditional, fixed-price (input-output) economic models provide a useful framework for conceptualizing links in a regional economy. Apparent shortcomings in these models, however, can severely restrict our ability to deduce valid prescriptions for public policy and economic development. A more efficient approach using regional computable general equilibrium (CGE)...

12. The Economic, repository and proliferation implications of advanced nuclear fuel cycle

SciTech Connect

2011-09-04

The goal of this project was to compare the effects of recycling actinides using fast burner reactors, with recycle that would be done using inert matrix fuel burned in conventional light water reactors. In the fast reactor option, actinides from both spent light water and fast reactor fuel would be recycled. In the inert matrix fuel option, actinides from spent light water fuel would be recycled, but the spent inert matrix fuel would not be reprocessed. The comparison was done over a limited 100-year time horizon. The economic, repository and proliferation implications of these options all hinge on the composition of isotopic byproducts of power production. We took the perspective that back-end economics would be affected by the cost of spent fuel reprocessing (whether conventional uranium dioxide fuel, or fast reactor fuel), fuel manufacture, and ultimate disposal of high level waste in a Yucca Mountain like geological repository. Central to understanding these costs was determining the overall amount of reprocessing needed to implement a fast burner, or inert matrix fuel, recycle program. The total quantity of high level waste requiring geological disposal (along with its thermal output), and the cost of reprocessing were also analyzed. A major advantage of the inert matrix fuel option is that it could in principle be implemented using the existing fleet of commercial power reactors. A central finding of this project was that recycling actinides using an inert matrix fuel could achieve reductions in overall actinide production that are nearly very close to those that could be achieved by recycling the actinides using a fast burner reactor.

13. Carbon mitigation with biomass: An engineering, economic and policy assessment of opportunities and implications

Rhodes, James S., III

2007-12-01

C"), equivalent to roughly 3% of U.S. GHG emissions. In the medium or longer term, integration of carbon capture and storage technologies with advanced bio-energy conversion technologies ("biomass-CCS"), in both liquid fuels production and electric sector applications, will likely be feasible. These systems are capable of generating useful energy products with negative net atmospheric carbon emissions at carbon prices between 100 and 200 per tC. Negative emissions from biomass-CCS could be applied to offset emissions sources that are difficult or expensive to abate directly. Such indirect mitigation may prove cost competitive and provide important flexibility in achieving stabilization of atmospheric GHG concentrations at desirable levels. With increasing deployments, alternate bio-energy systems will eventually compete for limited biomass resources and inputs to agricultural production--particularly land. In this context, resource allocation decisions will likely turn on the relative economic performance of alternate bio-energy systems in their respective energy markets. The relatively large uncertainty in forecasts of energy futures confounds reliable prediction of economically efficient uses for available biomass resources. High oil prices or large valuation of energy security benefits will likely enable bio-fuels production to dominate electric-sector options. In contrast, low oil prices and low valuation of energy security benefits will likely enable electric-sector applications to dominate. In the latter scenario, indirect mitigation of transportation-sector emissions via emissions offsets from electric-sector biomass-CCS could prove more efficient than direct fuel substitution with biofuels, both economically and in terms of the transportation-sector mitigation of available biomass resources [tC tbiomass-1]. The policy environment surrounding industrial bio-energy development is systematically examined. Specifically, the policy objectives that may be advanced with bio

14. To survive or to slay: Resource-foraging role of metabolites implicated in allelopathy.

PubMed

Tharayil, Nishanth

2009-07-01

The ecological relevance of allelopathy is highly debated due to the lack of phytotoxic concentrations of allelochemical in natural field conditions. Most of the putative allelochemicals are exuded at low concentrations, and subsequently undergo rapid chemical and biological degradation in soil matrices. At sub-toxic concentrations, due to hormesis effect, these compounds could possibly have a stimulatory effect on plant growth. Many of the suggested allelopathic compounds are chelants and can complex-with and mobilize metal ions in soil. These complexation reactions will detoxify the compound, but will increase the chemical-nutrient-foraging ability of the donor plant. The concentration in which these compounds are exuded matches with other similar secondary metabolites facilitating plant nutrient acquisition. Irrespective of whether the implicated PSMs facilitate donor plant in chemical nutrient-foraging or in poisoning the neighbors, the conferred advantage translates in terms of resource availability-in first case the donor enjoys uncontested nutrient uptake efficiency, where as in the latter the donor gain an uncontested access to resources. This further reaffirms the notion that resource competition and allelopathy are inextricable. Since most of the secondary metabolites could mobilize nutrients from soil, along with its phytotoxic effect, complementary self-facilitation roles of these compounds should be investigated.

15. Economic planning and equilibrium growth of human resources and capital in health-care sector: Case study of Iran

PubMed Central

Mahboobi-Ardakan, Payman; Kazemian, Mahmood; Mehraban, Sattar

2017-01-01

CONTEXT: During different planning periods, human resources factor has been considerably increased in the health-care sector. AIMS: The main goal is to determine economic planning conditions and equilibrium growth for services level and specialized workforce resources in health-care sector and also to determine the gap between levels of health-care services and specialized workforce resources in the equilibrium growth conditions and their available levels during the periods of the first to fourth development plansin Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the study after data collection, econometric methods and EViews version 8.0 were used for data processing. The used model was based on neoclassical economic growth model. RESULTS: The results indicated that during the former planning periods, although specialized workforce has been increased significantly in health-care sector, lack of attention to equilibrium growth conditions caused imbalance conditions for product level and specialized workforce in health-care sector. CONCLUSIONS: In the past development plans for health services, equilibrium conditions based on the full employment in the capital stock, and specialized labor are not considered. The government could act by choosing policies determined by the growth model to achieve equilibrium level in the field of human resources and services during the next planning periods. PMID:28616419

16. Economic planning and equilibrium growth of human resources and capital in health-care sector: Case study of Iran.

PubMed

Mahboobi-Ardakan, Payman; Kazemian, Mahmood; Mehraban, Sattar

2017-01-01

During different planning periods, human resources factor has been considerably increased in the health-care sector. The main goal is to determine economic planning conditions and equilibrium growth for services level and specialized workforce resources in health-care sector and also to determine the gap between levels of health-care services and specialized workforce resources in the equilibrium growth conditions and their available levels during the periods of the first to fourth development plansin Iran. In the study after data collection, econometric methods and EViews version 8.0 were used for data processing. The used model was based on neoclassical economic growth model. The results indicated that during the former planning periods, although specialized workforce has been increased significantly in health-care sector, lack of attention to equilibrium growth conditions caused imbalance conditions for product level and specialized workforce in health-care sector. In the past development plans for health services, equilibrium conditions based on the full employment in the capital stock, and specialized labor are not considered. The government could act by choosing policies determined by the growth model to achieve equilibrium level in the field of human resources and services during the next planning periods.

17. Rhamnolipid biosurfactants: evolutionary implications, applications and future prospects from untapped marine resource.

PubMed

Kiran, George Seghal; Ninawe, Arun Shivanth; Lipton, Anuj Nishanth; Pandian, Vijayalakshmi; Selvin, Joseph

2016-01-01

Rhamnolipid-biosurfactants are known to be produced by the genus Pseudomonas, however recent literature reported that rhamnolipids (RLs) are distributed among diverse microbial genera. To integrate the evolutionary implications of rhamnosyl transferase among various groups of microorganisms, a comprehensive comparative motif analysis was performed amongst bacterial producers. Findings on new RL-producing microorganism is helpful from a biotechnological perspective and to replace infective P. aeruginosa strains which ultimately ensure industrially safe production of RLs. Halotolerant biosurfactants are required for efficient bioremediation of marine oil spills. An insight on the exploitation of marine microbes as the potential source of RL biosurfactants is highlighted in the present review. An economic production process, solid-state fermentation using agro-industrial and industrial waste would increase the scope of biosurfactants commercialization. Potential and prospective applications of RL-biosurfactants including hydrocarbon bioremediation, heavy metal removal, antibiofilm activity/biofilm disruption and greener synthesis of nanoparticles are highlighted in this review.

18. Biofuels and Their Co-Products as Livestock Feed: Global Economic and Environmental Implications.

PubMed

Popp, József; Harangi-Rákos, Mónika; Gabnai, Zoltán; Balogh, Péter; Antal, Gabriella; Bai, Attila

2016-02-29

This review studies biofuel expansion in terms of competition between conventional and advanced biofuels based on bioenergy potential. Production of advanced biofuels is generally more expensive than current biofuels because products are not yet cost competitive. What is overlooked in the discussion about biofuel is the contribution the industry makes to the global animal feed supply and land use for cultivation of feedstocks. The global ethanol industry produces 44 million metric tonnes of high-quality feed, however, the co-products of biodiesel production have a moderate impact on the feed market contributing to just 8-9 million tonnes of protein meal output a year. By economically displacing traditional feed ingredients co-products from biofuel production are an important and valuable component of the biofuels sector and the global feed market. The return of co-products to the feed market has agricultural land use (and GHG emissions) implications as well. The use of co-products generated from grains and oilseeds can reduce net land use by 11% to 40%. The proportion of global cropland used for biofuels is currently some 2% (30-35 million hectares). By adding co-products substituted for grains and oilseeds the land required for cultivation of feedstocks declines to 1.5% of the global crop area.

19. Abattoir condemnation due to parasitic infections and its economic implications in the region of Trikala, Greece.

PubMed

Theodoropoulos, G; Theodoropoulou, E; Petrakos, G; Kantzoura, V; Kostopoulos, J

2002-08-01

The prevalence of parasitic infections responsible for the condemnation of carcasses and viscera during meat inspection, and their economic implication, was estimated in a year long abattoir survey of 10 277 slaughtered farm animals in the region of Trikala, Greece. The organs examined for the presence of parasitic lesions during meat inspection were: liver and lungs of all animals, rumen of cattle, small intestine of lambs and kids, and muscles of cattle and swine. The parasitic lesions observed in the lungs of cattle, sheep and goats were caused only by hydatid cysts. No hydatid cysts were observed in the lungs of swine. The parasitic lesions observed in the liver of cattle, sheep and goats were as a result of hydatid cysts and flukes of Fasciola hepatica and Dicrocoelium dendriticum, while those of swine were due to milk spots only. Moniezia sp. proglottids were found in the small intestine of lambs only. The prevalence of parasites responsible for the condemnation of marketable organs was low (0.26%). Parasites were responsible for 22% of the total of condemned organs, and their annual cost was 99, 00 GDR (approximately 292 Euros). The parasites most contributing to marketable organ condemnation were hydatid cysts (26%) and D. dendriticum flukes (26%).

20. The economic implications of greater global trade in livestock and livestock products.

PubMed

Leslie, J; Upton, M

1999-08-01

The Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established the World Trade Organization to supervise the reduction of barriers to, and liberalisation of, world trade. The application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures will be standardised to avoid use for protectionist purposes by countries or regional trade blocks. Harmonisation of animal disease control measures within regional blocks is essential if benefits to freer trade are to occur, but this harmonisation must be balanced against potential disease risks and costs associated with disease outbreaks. World trade in livestock products is concentrated among developed countries, although developing countries are responsible for approximately a third of poultry meat imports and exports. Despite liberalisation, the share of global trade by developing countries is unlikely to increase greatly in the short term. The benefits of trade and of freer trade are emphasised. Examples are given of the impacts of trade barriers on developing countries and of the harmonisation of European Union animal health standards. Economic implications for the future of greater global trade are assessed.

1. Socio-economic implications of cancer survivorship: results from the PROFILES registry.

PubMed

Mols, Floortje; Thong, Melissa S Y; Vissers, Pauline; Nijsten, Tamar; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V

2012-09-01

The goal of this large population-based study was to examine the socio-economic implications of cancer survivorship. Individuals alive and diagnosed with colorectal cancer and melanoma between 1998 and 2007 or Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma or multiple myeloma between 1999 and 2008 as registered in the Eindhoven Cancer Registry received a questionnaire on work changes and problems with obtaining a new (or extended) health care insurance, life insurance or a home loan; 70% (n = 2892) responded. Results showed that 28% of all cancer patients experienced changes in their work situation after cancer. Most of them switched to part-time work or stopped working entirely. Patients (3.4%) who tried to obtain a different or upgrade their health care insurance experienced problems and in most cases, these were eventually resolved. Problems with life insurance were somewhat more common with 18% of those who tried to obtain a life insurance experiencing problems. The majority of these patients was rejected by the insurance company (61%) or was accepted at a higher premium (22%). Of the 21% who tried to obtain a home loan, 9% experienced problems. However, 22.2% got accepted eventually, 27.8% got accepted but at a higher mortgage payment and 22.2% got rejected but were eventually accepted by another bank. Almost a third of cancer survivors experienced changes in their work situation after cancer. Problems with obtaining health insurance, life insurance and home loans were also common. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2. Assessing the Previous Economic Knowledge of Beginning Students in Germany: Implications for Teaching Economics in Basic Courses

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Happ, Roland; Förster, Manuel; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Carstensen, Vivian

2016-01-01

Study-related prior knowledge plays a decisive role in business and economics degree courses. Prior knowledge has a significant influence on knowledge acquisition in higher education, and teachers need information on it to plan their introductory courses accordingly. Very few studies have been conducted of first-year students' prior economic…

3. Assessing the Previous Economic Knowledge of Beginning Students in Germany: Implications for Teaching Economics in Basic Courses

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Happ, Roland; Förster, Manuel; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Carstensen, Vivian

2016-01-01

Study-related prior knowledge plays a decisive role in business and economics degree courses. Prior knowledge has a significant influence on knowledge acquisition in higher education, and teachers need information on it to plan their introductory courses accordingly. Very few studies have been conducted of first-year students' prior economic…

4. Analysis of survival in HIV-infected subjects according to socio-economic resources in the HAART era.

PubMed

Liotta, G; Caleo, G M; Mancinelli, S

2008-01-01

Availability of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Treatment (HAART) has modified the natural history of HIV infection, resulting in increase of seropositive subjects survival. The aim of the study was to assess patients' survival in relation to socio-economic status in HAART era using Functional Multidimensional Evaluation questionnaire. A three-level Socio-Economic Index (SEI) combining results from self-perception of unmet needs and objective data from the assessment of the two dimensions has been set up by the authors. Of the 382 subjects interviewed, 102 had been lost to follow-up. SEI showed that 66.4% of the sample faced unmet social or economic needs and 17.1% had unmet needs in both areas. There was a significant relationship between the self-sufficiency in performing Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Clinical Staging, CD4 cell count, SEI and risk of death. The lowest level of SEI was associated with a doubled risk of death compared to SEI upper level. Availability of social and economics support have a positive effect upon survival in patients with HIV infection, also in case of availability of HAART. The combination of subjective and objective assessment of socio-economic resources allows a better understanding of their impact on survival.

5. Extension Resources To Support Rural Families Experiencing Economic Stress. The Families in Transition Subcommittee Report.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, Ames, IA.

The report and resource directory contained in this document represent the efforts of the Rural Families in Transition Work Group, one of six such groups recently created to respond to key issues arising from the farm financial crisis. The directory is intended for use by extension agents in identifying educational resources across the region that…

6. The Resource Curse in Mongolia: Mineral Wealth, Institutional Quality, and Economic Performance

DTIC Science & Technology

2014-06-01

mongoila/mining-sector- mongolia/. Mendee, Jargalsaikhan. “Mongolia’s Quest for Third Neighbours : Why the European Union?” EUCAM Policy Brief 25 (2012...32 IV. EFFECTS OF RESOURCE WEALTH ON DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN POLICIES ...MANAGEMENT ..............................61 D. EFFECTS OF RESOURCE WEALTH ON DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN POLICIES

7. Growth and allocation of resources in economics: The agent-based approach

Scalas, Enrico; Gallegati, Mauro; Guerci, Eric; Mas, David; Tedeschi, Alessandra

2006-10-01

Some agent-based models for growth and allocation of resources are described. The first class considered consists of conservative models, where the number of agents and the size of resources are constant during time evolution. The second class is made up of multiplicative noise models and some of their extensions to continuous time.

8. Economic resources and HIV preventive behaviors among school-enrolled young women in rural South Africa (HPTN 068)

PubMed Central

Jennings, Larissa; Pettifor, Audrey; Hamilton, Erica; Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Gómez-Olivé, F. Xavier; MacPhail, Catherine; Hughes, James; Selin, Amanda; Kahn, Kathleen

2016-01-01

Individual economic resources may have greater influence on school-enrolled young women's sexual decision-making than household wealth measures. However, few studies have investigated the effects of personal income, employment, and other financial assets on young women's sexual behaviors. Using baseline data from the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 068 study, we examined the association of ever having sex and adopting sexually-protective practices with individual-level economic resources among school-enrolled women, aged 13-20 years (n=2,533). Age-adjusted results showed that among all women employment was associated with ever having sex (OR=1.56, 95%CI:1.28-1.90). Among sexually-experienced women, paid work was associated with changes in partner selection practices (OR=2.38, 95%CI:1.58-3.58) and periodic sexual abstinence to avoid HIV (OR=1.71,95%CI:1.07-2.75). Having money to spend on oneself was associated with reducing the number of sexual partners (OR=1.94, 95%CI:1.08-3.46), discussing HIV testing (OR=2.15, 95%CI:1.13-4.06), and discussing condom use (OR=1.99, 95%CI:1.04-3.80). Having a bank account was associated with condom use (OR=1.49, 95%CI:1.01-2.19). Economic hardship was positively associated with ever having sex, but not with sexually-protective behaviors. Maximizing women's individual economic resources may complement future prevention initiatives. PMID:27260180

9. Economic Resources and HIV Preventive Behaviors Among School-Enrolled Young Women in Rural South Africa (HPTN 068).

PubMed

Jennings, Larissa; Pettifor, Audrey; Hamilton, Erica; Ritchwood, Tiarney D; Xavier Gómez-Olivé, F; MacPhail, Catherine; Hughes, James; Selin, Amanda; Kahn, Kathleen

2017-03-01

Individual economic resources may have greater influence on school-enrolled young women's sexual decision-making than household wealth measures. However, few studies have investigated the effects of personal income, employment, and other financial assets on young women's sexual behaviors. Using baseline data from the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 068 study, we examined the association of ever having sex and adopting sexually-protective practices with individual-level economic resources among school-enrolled women, aged 13-20 years (n = 2533). Age-adjusted results showed that among all women employment was associated with ever having sex (OR 1.56, 95 % CI 1.28-1.90). Among sexually-experienced women, paid work was associated with changes in partner selection practices (OR 2.38, 95 % CI 1.58-3.58) and periodic sexual abstinence to avoid HIV (OR 1.71, 95 % CI 1.07-2.75). Having money to spend on oneself was associated with reducing the number of sexual partners (OR 1.94, 95 % CI 1.08-3.46), discussing HIV testing (OR 2.15, 95 % CI 1.13-4.06), and discussing condom use (OR 1.99, 95 % CI 1.04-3.80). Having a bank account was associated with condom use (OR 1.49, 95 % CI 1.01-2.19). Economic hardship was positively associated with ever having sex, but not with sexually-protective behaviors. Maximizing women's individual economic resources may complement future prevention initiatives.

10. The Role of Economic Geology in the Future of Space Resources

Blair, B. R.

2017-02-01

Economic geology could offer unprecedented and abundant access to planetary samples for future scientists. Today's geoscientific partnerships offer lessons learned. Future mining scenarios will be presented. Key decision variables will be developed.

11. Ethical, Political and Societal Implications of the Open Access Journal Movement in the Era of Economic Crisis, with Emphasis on Public Health Pharmacogenomics.

PubMed

Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi

2013-12-01

Publication of the research outputs is a vital step of the research processes and a gateway between the laboratory and the global society. Open Access is revolutionizing the dissemination of scientific ideas, particularly in the field of public health pharmacogenomics that examines the ways in which pharmacogenomics impacts health systems and services at a societal level, rather than a narrow bench to bedside model of translation science. This manuscript argues that despite some limitations and drawbacks, open access has profound ethical, political and societal implications especially on underdeveloped and developing countries, and that it provides opportunities for science to grow in these resource-limited countries, particularly in the era of a severe economic and financial crisis that is imposing cuts and restrictions to research.

12. Troubled times, troubled relationships: how economic resources, gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence intimate partner violence.

PubMed

Golden, Shelley D; Perreira, Krista M; Durrance, Christine Piette

2013-07-01

We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N = 1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mothers' reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age 3, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women's risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women's economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV.

13. Troubled Times, Troubled Relationships: How Economic Resources, Gender Beliefs, and Neighborhood Disadvantage Influence Intimate Partner Violence

PubMed Central

Golden, Shelley D.; Perreira, Krista M.; Durrance, Christine Piette

2013-01-01

We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV), and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N=1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mother’s reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age three, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women’s risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the race/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women’s economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV. PMID:23300198

14. Delimiting 'rural': implications of an agreed 'rurality' index for healthcare planning and resource allocation.

PubMed

Humphreys, J S

1998-11-01

Rural and remote Australia is characterised by considerable geographical and social diversity. There is no 'natural' classification of what constitutes 'rural' or 'remote', and precise definition of what is meant by the term 'rural' has proved to be an elusive goal. Nonetheless, it is recognised that the differentiation of rural areas has important implications for healthcare planning and the research that underpins it. Whether it be the development of resource allocation formulae that determine the provision, location and type of rural health services, measuring service utilisation rates as an indicator of need for services or health outcome measures, the way in which populations and communities are delimited as urban, rural and remote will always influence and sometimes may even determine the assessment. The time is ripe for the development of an agreed classification for the investigation of rural health issues.

15. Economic efficiency and cost implications of habitat conservation: An example in the context of the Edwards Aquifer region

Gillig, Dhazn; McCarl, Bruce A.; Jones, Lonnie L.; Boadu, Frederick

2004-04-01

Groundwater management in the Edwards Aquifer in Texas is in the process of moving away from a traditional right of capture economic regime toward a more environmentally sensitive scheme designed to preserve endangered species habitats. This study explores economic and environmental implications of proposed groundwater management and water development strategies under a proposed regional Habitat Conservation Plan. Results show that enhancing the habitat by augmenting water flow costs \$109-1427 per acre-foot and that regional water development would be accelerated by the more extreme possibilities under the Habitat Conservation Plan. The findings also indicate that a water market would improve regional welfare and lower water development but worsen environmental attributes.

16. Resource implications of expanding the use of donation after circulatory determination of death in liver transplantation.

PubMed

Broomhead, Robert Hayden; Patel, Sanjiv; Fernando, Bimbi; O'Beirne, James; Mallett, Susan

2012-07-01

In the United Kingdom, liver transplantation using donation after circulatory determination of death (DCDD) organs has increased steadily over the last few years and now accounts for 20% of UK transplant activity. The procurement of DCDD livers is actively promoted as a means of increasing the donor pool and bridging the evolving disparity between the wait-list length and the number of transplants performed. The objective of this retrospective study of a cohort of patients who were matched for age, liver disease etiology, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score was to determine whether differences in perioperative costs and resource utilization are associated with the use of such organs. Our results showed an increased prevalence of reperfusion syndrome in the DCDD cohort (P < 0.001), a prolonged heparin effect (P = 0.01), a greater incidence of hyperfibrinolysis (P = 0.002), longer periods of postoperative ventilator use (P = 0.03) and vasopressor support (P = 0.002), and a prolonged length of stay in the intensive therapy unit (ITU; P = 0.02). The peak posttransplant aspartate aminotransferase level was higher in the DCDD group (P = 0.007), and there was significantly more graft failure at 12 months (P = 0.03). In conclusion, we have demonstrated different perioperative and early postoperative courses for DCDD and donation after brain death (DBD) liver transplants. The overall quality of DCDD grafts is poorer; as a result, the length of the ITU stay and the need for multiorgan support are increased, and this has significant financial and resource implications. We believe that these implications require a careful real-life consideration of benefits. It is essential for DCDD not to be seen as a like-for-like alternative to DBD and for every effort to be continued to be made to increase the number of donations from brain-dead patients as a first resort. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

17. Dairy manure resource recovery utilizing two-stage anaerobic digestion - Implications of solids fractionation.

PubMed

Stowe, Edmond J; Coats, Erik R; Brinkman, Cynthia K

2015-12-01

Dairy manure management is increasingly becoming an environmental challenge. In this regard, manure anaerobic digestion (AD) can be applied to address environmental concerns; however, dairy manure AD remains economically uncompetitive. Ongoing research is focused on enhanced resource recovery from manure, including maximizing AD methane yield through a novel multi-stage AD configuration. Research presented herein centered on the hypothesis that separately digesting fine and coarse solids from fermented dairy manure would improve methane production; the hypothesis was disproven. While maximum methane concentration was realized on fine solids, combined solids AD yielded enhanced VS destruction. The diverse combined-solids substrate enriched for a more heterogeneous bacterial/archaeal consortium that balanced fermentation and methanogenesis to yield maximum product (methane). However, results suggest that targeted AD of the fat-rich fine solids could be a more optimal approach for processing manure; alternate (non-AD) methods could then be applied to extract value from the fibrous fraction.

18. Assessing the Total Economic Value of Improving Water Quality to Inform Water Resources Management: Evidence and Challenges from Southeast Asia

Jalilov, S.; Fukushi, K.

2016-12-01

Population growth, high rates of economic development and rapid urbanization in the developing countries of Southeast Asia (SEA) have resulted in degradation and depletion of natural resources, including water resources and related ecosystem services. Many urban rivers in the region are highly polluted with domestic, industrial and agricultural wastes. Policymakers are often aware of the direct value of water resources for domestic and industrial consumption, but they often underestimate the indirect value of these functions, since they are not exchanged in the market and do not appear in national income accounts. Underestimation of pollution and over-exploitation of water resources result in a loss of these benefits and have adverse impacts on nearby residents, threatening the long-term sustainable development of natural resources in the region. Behind these constraints lies a lack of knowledge (ignorance) from governments that a clean water environment could bring significant economic benefits. This study has been initiated to tackle this issue and to foster a more rational approach for sustainable urban development in Metro Manila in the Philippines. We applied a Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) based on Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) technique. Results show that users are willing to pay up to PHP 102.42 (2.18) monthly to improve quality of urban waterbodies whereas nonusers are willing to pay up to PHP 366.53 (7.80) as one-time payment towards water quality improvement. The estimated monetary value of water quality improvements would be a useful variable in cost-benefit analyses of various water quality-related policies, in both public and private sectors in Metro Manila. This survey design could serve as a useful template for similar water quality studies in other SEA countries.

19. Economic feasibility of ethanol production from biomass and waste resources via catalytic reaction.

PubMed

Yeon, Sun-Hwa; Shin, Dae-Hyun; Nho, Nam-Sun; Shin, Kyoung-Hee; Jin, Chang-Soo

2013-04-01

An economic evaluation of ethanol (EtOH) production from a thermo-chemical process derived from biomass/waste feedstocks was conducted. The influence of feed amounts, catalytic conversions, and EtOH selling prices was examined as these are the major variables for the economic evaluation of biomass/wastes conversion to EtOH. Among the three feedstock systems of biomass, high-moisture municipal solid waste (MSW), and plastic waste, the plastic waste has far better economic feasibility, with a payback period of 2-5 years at maximum CO conversion (40%) from syngas to ethanol, due to its higher heating value in comparison with biomass and high-moisture MSW. The heating value of the feedstock is a key factor in determining the overall economic efficiency in a thermo-chemical EtOH production system. Furthermore, enhancement of the CO conversion (related to catalytic activity) from syngas to EtOH using a low cost catalyst is necessary to retain economic efficiency because the CO conversion and cost consideration of catalyst are crucial factors to reduce the payback period.

20. International service trade and its implications for human resources for health: a case study of Thailand

PubMed Central

Wibulpolprasert, Suwit; Pachanee, Cha-aim; Pitayarangsarit, Siriwan; Hempisut, Pintusorn

2004-01-01

This study aims at analysing the impact of international service trade on the health care system, particularly in terms of human resources for health (HRH), using Thailand as a case study. Information was gathered through a literature review and interviews of relevant experts, as well as a brainstorming session. It was found that international service trade has greatly affected the Thai health care system and its HRH. From 1965 to 1975 there was massive emigration of physicians from Thailand in response to increasing demand in the United States of America. The country lost about 1,500 physicians, 20% of its total number, during that period. External migration of health professionals occurred without relation to agreements on trade in services. It was also found that free trade in service sectors other than health could seriously affect the health care system and HRH. Free trade in financial services with free flow of low-interest foreign loans, which started in 1993 in Thailand, resulted in the mushrooming of urban private hospitals between 1994 and 1997. This was followed by intensive internal migration of health professionals from rural public to urban private hospitals. After the economic crisis in 1997, with the resulting downturn of the private health sector, reverse brain drain was evident. At the same time, foreign investors started to invest in the bankrupt private hospitals. Since 2001, the return of economic growth and the influx of foreign patients have started another round of internal brain drain. PMID:15225376

1. The Identification of Filters and Interdependencies for Effective Resource Allocation: Coupling the Mitigation of Natural Hazards to Economic Development.

Agar, S. M.; Kunreuther, H.

2005-12-01

Policy formulation for the mitigation and management of risks posed by natural hazards requires that governments confront difficult decisions for resource allocation and be able to justify their spending. Governments also need to recognize when spending offers little improvement and the circumstances in which relatively small amounts of spending can make substantial differences. Because natural hazards can have detrimental impacts on local and regional economies, patterns of economic development can also be affected by spending decisions for disaster mitigation. This paper argues that by mapping interdependencies among physical, social and economic factors, governments can improve resource allocation to mitigate the risks of natural hazards while improving economic development on local and regional scales. Case studies of natural hazards in Turkey have been used to explore specific "filters" that act to modify short- and long-term outcomes. Pre-event filters can prevent an event from becoming a natural disaster or change a routine event into a disaster. Post-event filters affect both short and long-term recovery and development. Some filters cannot be easily modified by spending (e.g., rural-urban migration) but others (e.g., land-use practices) provide realistic spending targets. Net social benefits derived from spending, however, will also depend on the ways by which filters are linked, or so-called "interdependencies". A single weak link in an interdependent system, such as a power grid, can trigger a cascade of failures. Similarly, weak links in social and commercial networks can send waves of disruption through communities. Conversely, by understanding the positive impacts of interdependencies, spending can be targeted to maximize net social benefits while mitigating risks and improving economic development. Detailed information on public spending was not available for this study but case studies illustrate how networks of interdependent filters can modify

2. Chronic disease prevention and management: implications for health human resources in 2020.

PubMed

Orchard, Margo; Green, Esther; Sullivan, Terrence; Greenberg, Anna; Mai, Verna

2008-01-01

Through improved screening, detection, better and more targeted therapies and the uptake of evidence-based treatment guidelines, cancers are becoming chronic diseases. However, this good-news story has implications for human resource planning and resource allocation. Population-based chronic disease management is a necessary approach to deal with the growing burden of chronic disease in Canada. In this model, an interdisciplinary team works with and educates the patient to monitor symptoms, modify behaviours and self-manage the disease between acute episodes. In addition, the community as a whole is more attuned to disease prevention and risk factor management. Trusted, high-quality evidence-based protocols and healthy public policies that have an impact on the entire population are needed to minimize the harmful effects of chronic disease. Assuming we can overcome the challenges in recruitment, training and new role development, enlightened healthcare teams and community members will work together to maintain the population's health and wellness and to reduce the incidence and burden of chronic disease in Ontario.

3. Cost implications of uncertainty in CO2 storage resource estimates: A review

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anderson, Steven T.

2017-01-01

Carbon capture from stationary sources and geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important option to include in strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. However, the potential costs of commercial-scale CO2 storage are not well constrained, stemming from the inherent uncertainty in storage resource estimates coupled with a lack of detailed estimates of the infrastructure needed to access those resources. Storage resource estimates are highly dependent on storage efficiency values or storage coefficients, which are calculated based on ranges of uncertain geological and physical reservoir parameters. If dynamic factors (such as variability in storage efficiencies, pressure interference, and acceptable injection rates over time), reservoir pressure limitations, boundaries on migration of CO2, consideration of closed or semi-closed saline reservoir systems, and other possible constraints on the technically accessible CO2 storage resource (TASR) are accounted for, it is likely that only a fraction of the TASR could be available without incurring significant additional costs. Although storage resource estimates typically assume that any issues with pressure buildup due to CO2 injection will be mitigated by reservoir pressure management, estimates of the costs of CO2 storage generally do not include the costs of active pressure management. Production of saline waters (brines) could be essential to increasing the dynamic storage capacity of most reservoirs, but including the costs of this critical method of reservoir pressure management could increase current estimates of the costs of CO2 storage by two times, or more. Even without considering the implications for reservoir pressure management, geologic uncertainty can significantly impact CO2 storage capacities and costs, and contribute to uncertainty in carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems. Given the current state of available information and the scarcity of (data from) long-term commercial-scale CO2

4. Implications of the Projected Future Climate on Water Resources in the Indian Sub-continent Basins

Shah, H. L.; Mishra, V.

2014-12-01

Sustainability of water resources is vital for agricultural and socio-economic development in India. In the recent few decades, India has been witnessing erratic nature of the Indian summer monsoon, which accounts for about 80% of the total annual rainfall. While there is a large uncertainty in the precipitation projections during the summer monsoon from the regional and global climate models, we need to understand sensitivity of water resources in the Indian sub-continental river basins under the projected future climate. This is particularly important as the Indian sub-continent is one of the most populated regions of the world. We evaluated changes in water budget in the 18 Indian sub-continental basins under the projected future climate using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. The VIC model was calibrated and evaluated using the observed streamflow as well as satellite derived evapotranspiration and soil moisture. After the successful calibration and evaluation, we performed a sensitivity analysis for the water balance variables. Finally, we used downscaled and bias corrected climate forcings to develop scenarios of changes in water balance under the future climate. Despite the intermodal variation, Indian basins are projected to experience wetter and warmer climate in future. Results indicate positive changes in evapotranspiration and runoff under the projected future climate; however, increases in total runoff are projected to be significant in most of the basins in the sub-continent.

5. Phosphorus utilization and environmental and economic implications of reducing phosphorus pollution from Ontario dairy cows.

PubMed

Kebreab, E; Odongo, N E; McBride, B W; Hanigan, M D; France, J

2008-01-01

A major source of environmental pollution has been overfeeding P to dairy cows, caused by the "safety margins" added to diets in order not to compromise the health and production of animals. An extant whole-animal model was evaluated using an experiment conducted in Ontario to assess its applicability for predicting P excretion. The objective of the study was to use the model to estimate P excretion levels and the economic and environmental implications of implementing mitigating options by following recommendations from studies that have reported sufficient levels of P inclusion in the diet. Mean square prediction error and concordance coefficient analysis showed that the overall predictions were close to the mean and that there was only a slight underprediction of fecal P output by the model. The majority of the error was random, with only 8.9% coming from error caused by deviation from the regression line, and the model did not show a systematic trend of over- or underprediction. The model was then used to predict P excretion in Ontario by using diets commonly fed to dairy cows on Ontario farms. It is estimated that Ontario dairy farms produce 7 kt of P annually at current levels of P inclusion in the diet. Reducing P levels from the current 0.41% P of dry matter to 0.35% is estimated to save producers CAN \$20/cow per year and the environment 1.3 kt/yr without impairing cow health or productivity. Additionally, the reductions might be from inorganic P sources added to the feed, which are more polluting than organic sources because of their water-soluble nature and liability to leaching and runoff.

6. Defining criteria and resource use for high dependency care in children: an observational economic study.

PubMed

Morris, Kevin P; Oppong, Raymond; Holdback, Nicola; Coast, Joanna

2014-07-01

Internationally there is no consensus on defining and funding of paediatric high dependency care (HDC). This study tested whether a new UK Healthcare Resource Group (HRG) classification for HDC, with two categories of basic and advanced HDC, can identify children who consume greater staff resource. It also explored the impact of a change in basic HDC HRG criteria introduced in April 2011. Observational study of medical and nursing staff resource use. 16 paediatric wards across 6 regional hospitals; 1 tertiary children's hospital (November 2010 to March 2011). 1098 infants and children admitted to paediatric wards. Number of children meeting criteria for basic and advanced HDC HRGs; care in a cubicle; medical and nursing staff costs, extrapolated from time spent at patient bedside. 223 (20.3%) children met original HDC criteria (15.9% basic, 4.4% advanced). This fell to 88 (8.0%) with the change in basic HDC definition (3.6% basic, 4.4% advanced). Children who met original HDC criteria consumed greater bedside staff resource than those not meeting criteria (cost ratio 1.0:1.75:2.96 (non-HDC:basic HDC:advanced HDC)), with revised criteria identifying a (smaller) basic group with greater staff resource use (cost ratio 1.0:2.35:2.76). Being cared for in a cubicle was not associated with greater staff costs. HDC HRG criteria identify children who consume significantly greater staff resources. Revision of the definition has resulted in a large reduction of cases meeting the criteria but identifies a group consuming greater staff resources. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

7. Economic potential of alternative land and natural resource uses at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

SciTech Connect

Richard-Haggard, K.

1983-03-01

The economic potentials of several alternative land uses at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are estimated. Alternatives considered include mining, agriculture, grazing, and hunting. There are two known tungsten ore bodies located in the Oak Spring mining district. The economic potential of the reserves is estimated to be \$42,840. It is also possible that there are other economic mineral resources on the NTS whose values are yet unknown. There are an estimated 5000 ha of agricultural land on the Test Site; the cash value of alfalfa grown on this acreage is approximately \$564,030. The economic potential of grazing at the Test Site lies somewhere in the range of \$10,340 to \$41,220. The assumed annual worth of mule deer to hunters is \$90,440. The gross potential of hunting at the NTS is probably somewhat higher if trophy species, game birds and fur-bearing animals are also considered. It should be noted that the above values indicate gross worth; no costs are included in the estimates.

8. A socio-economic evaluation of the lunar environment and resources. I. Principles and overall system strategy

Ehricke, Krafft A.

This first of several study papers, based on a fundamental paper presented in 1972, provides an independent conceptual analysis and evaluation of the lunar environment as industrial base and habitat. A selenosphere system strategy is outlined. The underlying concept is that of one or several lunar industrial zones for resource extraction and on-surface processing, integrated with a circumlunar zero-g processing capability, serving markets in geolunar space. A classification of lunar elements by utilization category is presented. Lunar oxygen is a prime candidate for being an initial economic "drawing card", because of its value for fast transportation in geolunar space, requiring significantly fewer ships for equal transfer capability per unit time than electric transports which, however, have value, especially between geosynchronous and lunar orbit. The reduced development difficulties of controlled fusion outside the atmosphere and its advantages for extracting oxygen and other elements in quantity are summarized. Examples of lunar cycle management as fundamental exoindustrial requirement for economic resource enhancement are presented. The principal initial socio-economic value of lunar industry lies in the use of lunar resources for exoindustrial products and operations designed to accelerate, intensify and diversify Earth-related benefits. In the longer run, lunar settlements are a highly suitable proving ground for studying and testing the complex matrix of technological, biological, cultural, social and psychological aspects that must be understood and manageable before large settlements beyond Earth can have a realistic basis for viability. The lunar environment is more suitable for experimentation and comparatively more "forgiving" in case of failures than is orbital space.

9. Use of SERTS (Socio-Economic, health Resources and Technologic Supplies) models to estimate cancer survival at provincial geographical level.

PubMed

Vercelli, Marina; Lillini, Roberto; Capocaccia, Riccardo; Quaglia, Alberto

2012-12-01

The main aim of this work is to compute expected cancer survival for Italian provinces by Socio-Economic and health Resources and Technologic Supplies (SERTS) models, based on demographic, socioeconomic variables and information describing the health care system (SEH). Five-year age-standardised relative survival rates by gender for 11 cancer sites and all cancers combined of patients diagnosed in 1995-1999, were obtained from the Italian Association of Cancer Registries (CRs) database. The SEH variables describe at provincial level macro-economy, demography, labour market, health resources in 1995-2005. A principal components factor analysis was applied to the SEH variables to control their strong mutual correlation. For every considered cancer site, linear regression models were estimated considering the 5-RS% as dependent variable and the principal components factors of the SEH variables as independent variables. The model composition was correlated to the characteristics of take in charge of patients. SEH factors were correlated with the observed survival for all cancer combined and colon-rectum in both sexes, prostate, kidney and non Hodgkin's lymphomas in men, breast, corpus uteri and melanoma in women (R(2) from 40% to 85%). In the provinces without any CR the survival was very similar with that of neighbouring provinces with analogous social, economic and health characteristics. The SERTS models allowed us to interpret the survival outcome of oncologic patients with respect to the role of the socio-economic and health related system characteristics, stressing how the peculiarities of the take in charge at the province level could address the decisions regarding the allocation of resources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

10. Social, economic and political factors associated with earth resources observation and information analyses.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hall, J. J.

1972-01-01

Discussion of some of the interest conflicts between ecology and economics that arise, particularly in riparian environments, when a population-increase entailed growth in public service requirements is met by indiscriminate technology applications. Reviewed instances of such conflicts include the aborted cross-Florida barge canal project and the Florida Power and Light Company facility at Turkey point.

11. Resources for Economic Educators from the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suiter, Mary C.; Taylor, Keith G.

2016-01-01

The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis has a long history of providing economic and financial information to the public that continues today, although the format, delivery, and amount of information have changed over the years. Today, the St. Louis Fed provides Web-based data and information services, including FRED® and FRASER®, and publications,…

12. Social, economic and political factors associated with earth resources observation and information analyses.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hall, J. J.

1972-01-01

Discussion of some of the interest conflicts between ecology and economics that arise, particularly in riparian environments, when a population-increase entailed growth in public service requirements is met by indiscriminate technology applications. Reviewed instances of such conflicts include the aborted cross-Florida barge canal project and the Florida Power and Light Company facility at Turkey point.

13. Analyzing Growth Policies of Developing Countries: A Resource Guide. Economics-Political Science Series.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highsmith, Robert J.; And Others

Background material for teachers and learning activities for secondary students dealing with the growth policies of developing countries are included in this guide, one in a series intended to help students learn to view society and its problems from both economic and political perspectives. Following the guide's introduction, which provides a…

14. Culture loss and sense of place in resource valuation: Economics, anthropology and indigenous cultures

Treesearch

Robert Snyder; Daniel R. Williams; George Peterson

2003-01-01

The Exxon-Valdez oil tanker ran aground on Bligh Reef outside the Valdez Arm of Prince William Sound, Alaska on March 24th 1989. Aside from attracting enormous media attention, this disaster focused a great deal of research and analysis on the ecological (Brown et al. 1993), political (Piper 1997), economic (Cohen 1993), and social (Jorgensen 1995; Gill and Picou 1997...

15. Neighborhood Economic Enterprises: An Analysis, Survey, and Guide to Resources in Starting Up Neighborhood Enterprises.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kotler, Neil G.

This pamphlet provides information on the history of and current trends toward neighborhood economic enterprises and provides guidance for setting up such enterprises. A bibliography of books, articles, and newsletters that have information on how to start and sustain neighborhood businesses and cooperatives is provided. Also included is a list of…

16. Social Capital: A Neglected Resource to Create Viable and Sustainable Youth Economic Groups in Urban Tanzania

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Manyerere, David J.

2015-01-01

There has been an alarming increase in the rate of unemployment among active urban population in Tanzania whereby the youth are severely affected. In this regard Youth Economic Groups (YEGs) program was formed as one among the best alternative strategies to address this perennial problem. Membership in YEGs act as a means to complement youth…

17. Economic impacts of climate change on water resources in the coterminous United States

EPA Science Inventory

A national-scale simulation-optimization model was created to generate estimates of economic impacts associated with changes in water supply and demand as influenced by climate change. Water balances were modeled for the 99 assessment sub-regions, and are presented for 18 water r...

18. Neighborhood Economic Enterprises: An Analysis, Survey, and Guide to Resources in Starting Up Neighborhood Enterprises.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kotler, Neil G.

This pamphlet provides information on the history of and current trends toward neighborhood economic enterprises and provides guidance for setting up such enterprises. A bibliography of books, articles, and newsletters that have information on how to start and sustain neighborhood businesses and cooperatives is provided. Also included is a list of…

19. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land Resources...

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

2013-03-27

... Guidelines consist of three key components: (1) The Principles and Requirements (formerly called Principles... agency missions and programs. This notice is to inform you that the Principles and Requirements, one key... QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land...

20. Resources for Economic Educators from the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suiter, Mary C.; Taylor, Keith G.

2016-01-01

The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis has a long history of providing economic and financial information to the public that continues today, although the format, delivery, and amount of information have changed over the years. Today, the St. Louis Fed provides Web-based data and information services, including FRED® and FRASER®, and publications,…

1. Beyond Economic Growth: Meeting the Challenges of Global Development. WBI Learning Resources Series.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Soubbotina, Tatyana P.

This book is designed primarily to help readers broaden their knowledge of global issues, gain insight into their country's situation in a global context, and understand the problems of sustainable development nationally and globally. Because development is a comprehensive process involving economic as well as social and environmental changes, the…

2. Conservation of Resources and the Common Pool Problem: A Classroom Exercise for High School Economics Teachers.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Holahan, William L.; Schug, Mark C.

1997-01-01

Describes a classroom exercise designed to illustrate the economic aspects of common ownership, individual ownership, government regulation and to examine how these relate to conservation. The exercise involves the incremental distribution (via a turkey baster) of water between buckets marked "now" and "future." Different rules replicate different…

3. Economic impacts of climate change on water resources in the coterminous United States

EPA Science Inventory

A national-scale simulation-optimization model was created to generate estimates of economic impacts associated with changes in water supply and demand as influenced by climate change. Water balances were modeled for the 99 assessment sub-regions, and are presented for 18 water r...

4. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 10: Industry

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lietzke, K. R.

1974-01-01

The economic benefits of an ERS system in the area of industrial resources are discussed. Contributions of ERTS imagery to the improvement of shipping routes, detection of previously unknown and potentially active faults in construction areas, and monitoring industrial pollution are described. Due to lack of economic research concerning the subject of ERS applications in this resource area the benefit estimations reported are regarded as tentative and preliminary.

5. Characterizing China's energy consumption with selective economic factors and energy-resource endowment: a spatial econometric approach

Jiang, Lei; Ji, Minhe; Bai, Ling

2014-09-01

Coupled with intricate regional interactions, the provincial disparity of energy-resource endowment and other economic conditions in China have created spatially complex energy consumption patterns that require analyses beyond the traditional ones. To distill the spatial effect out of the resource and economic factors on China's energy consumption, this study recast the traditional econometric model in a spatial context. Several analytic steps were taken to reveal different aspects of the issue. Per capita energy consumption (AVEC) at the provincial level was first mapped to reveal spatial clusters of high energy consumption being located in either well developed or energy resourceful regions. This visual spatial autocorrelation pattern of AVEC was quantitatively tested to confirm its existence among Chinese provinces. A Moran scatterplot was employed to further display a relatively centralized trend occurring in those provinces that had parallel AVEC, revealing a spatial structure with attraction among high-high or low-low regions and repellency among high-low or low-high regions. By a comparison between the ordinary least square (OLS) model and its spatial econometric counterparts, a spatial error model (SEM) was selected to analyze the impact of major economic determinants on AVEC. While the analytic results revealed a significant positive correlation between AVEC and economic development, other determinants showed some intricate influential patterns. The provinces endowed with rich energy reserves were inclined to consume much more energy than those otherwise, whereas changing the economic structure by increasing the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries also tended to consume more energy. Both situations seem to underpin the fact that these provinces were largely trapped in the economies that were supported by technologies of low energy efficiency during the period, while other parts of the country were rapidly modernized by adopting advanced

6. Characterizing China's energy consumption with selective economic factors and energy-resource endowment: a spatial econometric approach

Jiang, Lei; Ji, Minhe; Bai, Ling

2015-06-01

Coupled with intricate regional interactions, the provincial disparity of energy-resource endowment and other economic conditions in China have created spatially complex energy consumption patterns that require analyses beyond the traditional ones. To distill the spatial effect out of the resource and economic factors on China's energy consumption, this study recast the traditional econometric model in a spatial context. Several analytic steps were taken to reveal different aspects of the issue. Per capita energy consumption (AVEC) at the provincial level was first mapped to reveal spatial clusters of high energy consumption being located in either well developed or energy resourceful regions. This visual spatial autocorrelation pattern of AVEC was quantitatively tested to confirm its existence among Chinese provinces. A Moran scatterplot was employed to further display a relatively centralized trend occurring in those provinces that had parallel AVEC, revealing a spatial structure with attraction among high-high or low-low regions and repellency among high-low or low-high regions. By a comparison between the ordinary least square (OLS) model and its spatial econometric counterparts, a spatial error model (SEM) was selected to analyze the impact of major economic determinants on AVEC. While the analytic results revealed a significant positive correlation between AVEC and economic development, other determinants showed some intricate influential patterns. The provinces endowed with rich energy reserves were inclined to consume much more energy than those otherwise, whereas changing the economic structure by increasing the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries also tended to consume more energy. Both situations seem to underpin the fact that these provinces were largely trapped in the economies that were supported by technologies of low energy efficiency during the period, while other parts of the country were rapidly modernized by adopting advanced

7. Strain selection, biomass to biofuel conversion, and resource colocation have strong impacts on the economic performance of algae cultivation sites

SciTech Connect

Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard

2014-09-16

Decisions involving strain selection, biomass to biofuel technology, and the location of cultivation facilities can strongly influence the economic viability of an algae-based biofuel enterprise. In this contribution we summarize our past results in a new analysis to explore the relative economic impact of these design choices. We present strain-specific growth model results from two saline strains (Nannocloropsis salina, Arthrospira sp.), a fresh to brackish strain (Chlorella sp., DOE strain 1412), and a freshwater strain of the order Sphaeropleales. Biomass to biofuel conversion is compared between lipid extraction (LE) and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) technologies. National-scale models of water, CO2 (as flue gas), land acquisition, site leveling, construction of connecting roads, and transport of HTL oil to existing refineries are used in conjunction with estimates of fuel value (from HTL) to prioritize and select from 88,692 unit farms (UF, 405 ha in pond area), a number sufficient to produce 136E+9 L yr-1 of renewable diesel (36 billion gallons yr-1, BGY). Strain selection and choice of conversion technology have large economic impacts, with differences between combinations of strains and biomass to biofuel technologies being up to \$10 million dollars yr-1 UF-1. Results based on the most productive species, HTL-based fuel conversion, and resource costs show that the economic potential between geographic locations within the selection can differ by up to \$4 million yr-1 UF-1, with 2.0 BGY of production possible from the most cost-effective sites. The local spatial variability in site rank is extreme, with very high and low rank sites within 10s of km of each other. Colocation with flue gas sources has a strong influence on site rank, but the most costly resource component varies from site to site. The highest rank sites are located predominantly in Florida and Texas, but most states south of 37°N latitude contain promising locations. Keywords: algae

8. Advanced Burner Reactor with Breed-and-Burn Thorium Blankets for Improved Economics and Resource Utilization

SciTech Connect

Greenspan, Ehud

2015-11-04

This study assesses the feasibility of designing Seed and Blanket (S&B) Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) to generate a significant fraction of the core power from radial thorium fueled blankets that operate on the Breed-and-Burn (B&B) mode without exceeding the radiation damage constraint of presently verified cladding materials. The S&B core is designed to maximize the fraction of neutrons that radially leak from the seed (or “driver”) into the subcritical blanket and reduce neutron loss via axial leakage. The blanket in the S&B core makes beneficial use of the leaking neutrons for improved economics and resource utilization. A specific objective of this study is to maximize the fraction of core power that can be generated by the blanket without violating the thermal hydraulic and material constraints. Since the blanket fuel requires no reprocessing along with remote fuel fabrication, a larger fraction of power from the blanket will result in a smaller fuel recycling capacity and lower fuel cycle cost per unit of electricity generated. A unique synergism is found between a low conversion ratio (CR) seed and a B&B blanket fueled by thorium. Among several benefits, this synergism enables the very low leakage S&B cores to have small positive coolant voiding reactivity coefficient and large enough negative Doppler coefficient even when using inert matrix fuel for the seed. The benefits of this synergism are maximized when using an annular seed surrounded by an inner and outer thorium blankets. Among the high-performance S&B cores designed to benefit from this unique synergism are: (1) the ultra-long cycle core that features a cycle length of ~7 years; (2) the high-transmutation rate core where the seed fuel features a TRU CR of 0.0. Its TRU transmutation rate is comparable to that of the reference Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) with CR of 0.5 and the thorium blanket can generate close to 60% of the core power; but requires only one sixth of the reprocessing and

9. The Medical and Economic Burden of Narcolepsy: Implications for Managed Care

PubMed Central

Thorpy, Michael J.; Hiller, George

2017-01-01

Background The neurologic disorder narcolepsy results from dysregulation of the sleep-wake cycle and is primarily characterized by chronic, severely excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, an emotionally induced muscle weakness. The prevalence of narcolepsy is approximately 0.05%, and onset generally occurs during the first 2 decades of life. Narcolepsy is believed to be an autoimmune disorder with destruction of hypocretin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Objectives To provide an enhanced understanding of narcolepsy and establish the need for early diagnosis and rapid initiation of effective treatment for patients with narcolepsy. Discussion Narcolepsy reduces daily functioning and is associated with a substantial medical and economic burden, with many patients being on full disability. The annual direct medical costs are approximately 2-fold higher in patients with narcolepsy than in matched controls without this condition (\$11,702 vs \$5261, respectively; P <.0001). Further contributing to the overall burden is a lack of recognition of the signs and symptoms of narcolepsy and an absence of easily measurable biomarkers, resulting in a diagnostic delay that often exceeds 10 years and may be associated with misdiagnosis and inappropriate resource utilization. Because narcolepsy generally has an onset in childhood or in adolescence, is often misdiagnosed, has no known cure, and requires lifelong treatment, it is an important disease from a managed care perspective. Clinical features, as well as objective testing, should be used to ensure the timely diagnosis and treatment of patients with narcolepsy. Conclusion Policies for the diagnosis and treatment of narcolepsy should be based on the current treatment guidelines, but they should also encourage shared decisions between clinicians and patients to allow for individualized diagnostic and treatment choices, as suggested in best practice recommendations.

10. Land Use/Cover Change in the Middle Reaches of the Heihe River Basin over 2000-2011 and Its Implications for Sustainable Water Resource Management

PubMed Central

Hu, Xiaoli; Lu, Ling; Li, Xin; Wang, Jianhua; Guo, Ming

2015-01-01

The Heihe River Basin (HRB) is a typical arid inland river basin in northwestern China. From the 1960s to the 1990s, the downstream flow in the HRB declined as a result of large, artificial changes in the distribution of water and land and a lack of effective water resource management. Consequently, the ecosystems of the lower reaches of the basin substantially deteriorated. To restore these degraded ecosystems, the Ecological Water Diversion Project (EWDP) was initiated by the Chinese government in 2000. The project led to agricultural and ecological changes in the middle reaches of the basin. In this study, we present three datasets of land use/cover in the middle reaches of the HRB derived from Landsat TM/ETM+ images in 2000, 2007 and 2011. We used these data to investigate changes in land use/cover between 2000 and 2011 and the implications for sustainable water resource management. The results show that the most significant land use/cover change in the middle reaches of the HRB was the continuous expansion of farmland for economic interests. From 2000 to 2011, the farmland area increased by 12.01%. The farmland expansion increased the water resource stress; thus, groundwater was over-extracted and the ecosystem was degraded in particular areas. Both consequences are negative and potentially threaten the sustainability of the middle reaches of the HRB and the entire river basin. Local governments should therefore improve the management of water resources, particularly groundwater management, and should strictly control farmland reclamation. Then, water resources could be ecologically and socioeconomically sustained, and the balance between upstream and downstream water demands could be ensured. The results of this study can also serve as a reference for the sustainable management of water resources in other arid inland river basins. PMID:26115484

11. Land Use/Cover Change in the Middle Reaches of the Heihe River Basin over 2000-2011 and Its Implications for Sustainable Water Resource Management.

PubMed

Hu, Xiaoli; Lu, Ling; Li, Xin; Wang, Jianhua; Guo, Ming

2015-01-01

The Heihe River Basin (HRB) is a typical arid inland river basin in northwestern China. From the 1960s to the 1990s, the downstream flow in the HRB declined as a result of large, artificial changes in the distribution of water and land and a lack of effective water resource management. Consequently, the ecosystems of the lower reaches of the basin substantially deteriorated. To restore these degraded ecosystems, the Ecological Water Diversion Project (EWDP) was initiated by the Chinese government in 2000. The project led to agricultural and ecological changes in the middle reaches of the basin. In this study, we present three datasets of land use/cover in the middle reaches of the HRB derived from Landsat TM/ETM+ images in 2000, 2007 and 2011. We used these data to investigate changes in land use/cover between 2000 and 2011 and the implications for sustainable water resource management. The results show that the most significant land use/cover change in the middle reaches of the HRB was the continuous expansion of farmland for economic interests. From 2000 to 2011, the farmland area increased by 12.01%. The farmland expansion increased the water resource stress; thus, groundwater was over-extracted and the ecosystem was degraded in particular areas. Both consequences are negative and potentially threaten the sustainability of the middle reaches of the HRB and the entire river basin. Local governments should therefore improve the management of water resources, particularly groundwater management, and should strictly control farmland reclamation. Then, water resources could be ecologically and socioeconomically sustained, and the balance between upstream and downstream water demands could be ensured. The results of this study can also serve as a reference for the sustainable management of water resources in other arid inland river basins.

12. Lake States natural resource managers' perspectives on forest land parcelization and its implications for public land management

Treesearch

Michael A. Kilgore; Stephanie A. Snyder

2016-01-01

Field-based public natural resource managers in the Lake States (MI, MN, WI) were surveyed for theirperspectives on various aspects of private forest land parcelization. This includes their perceptions ofrecent changes in parcelization activity, drivers and impacts, mitigation strategies, and ability to influenceparcelization. Their perspectives on the implications...

13. Potential implications for expansion of freeze-tolerant eucalyptus plantations on water resources in the southern United States

Treesearch

James M. Vose; Chelcy F. Miniat; Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell

2014-01-01

The potential expansion of freeze-tolerant (FT) Eucalyptus plantations in the United States has raised concerns about the implications for water resources. Modeling was used to examine the potential effects of expanding the distribution of FT Eucalyptus plantations in US Department of Agriculture Plant Hardiness Zones 8b and...

14. QUESTIONS AND OUTLINE FOR A COMPENDIUM OF PAPERS PROVIDING AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FEDERAL PROGRAMS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON ECONOMIC PROGRESS HAS PLANNED A COMPENDIUM OF PAPERS TO PROVIDE AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FEDERAL PROGRAMS OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO PROGRAMS IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR. THIS OUTLINE FOLLOWS THE FIRST PHASE OF THE SUBCOMMITTEE'S INVESTIGATION, A SURVEY OF FEDERAL PROGRAMS REPORTED IN "FEDERAL…

15. South Asia river flow projections and their implications for water resources

Mathison, C.; Wiltshire, A. J.; Falloon, P.; Challinor, A. J.

2015-06-01

benchmark for comparison against the downscaled GCMs. On the basis that these simulations are among the highest resolution climate simulations available we examine how useful they are for understanding the changes in water resources for the South Asia region. In general the downscaled GCMs capture the seasonality of the river flows, with timing of maximum river flows broadly matching the available observations and the downscaled ERA-Interim simulation. Typically the RCM simulations over-estimate the maximum river flows compared to the observations probably due to a positive rainfall bias and a lack of abstraction in the model although comparison with the downscaled ERA-Interim simulation is more mixed with only a couple of the gauges showing a bias compared with the downscaled GCM runs. The simulations suggest an increasing trend in annual mean river flows for some of the river gauges in this analysis, in some cases almost doubling by the end of the century; this trend is generally masked by the large annual variability of river flows for this region. The future seasonality of river flows does not change with the future maximum river flow rates still occuring during the ASM period, with a magnitude in some cases, greater than the present day natural variability. Increases in river flow during peak flow periods means additional water resource for irrigation, the largest usage of water in this region, but also has implications in terms of inundation risk. Low flow rates also increase which is likely to be important at times of the year when water is historically more scarce. However these projected increases in resource from rivers could be more than countered by changes in demand due to reductions in the quantity and quality of water available from groundwater, increases in domestic use due to a rising population or expansion of other industries such as hydro-electric power generation.

16. The End of Flat Earth Economics & the Transition to Renewable Resource Societies.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Henderson, Hazel

1978-01-01

A post-industrial revolution is predicted for the future with an accompanying shift of focus from simple, brute force technolgies, based on cheap, accessible resources and energy, to a second generation of more subtle, refined technologies grounded in a much deeper understanding of biological and ecological realities. (Author/BB)

17. The Productivity Factor. Comparing Japanese and American Modes of Production. A Resource for Teachers of Economics.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Copley, Paul

Focusing on the human element through a cross-cultural comparison of U.S. and Japanese modes of production, this resource guide features an assessment of the major factors that affect productivity performance. Each section contains a goal statement and an overview outline of the featured topics. The text includes primary sources, such as documents…

18. The End of Flat Earth Economics & the Transition to Renewable Resource Societies.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Henderson, Hazel

1978-01-01

A post-industrial revolution is predicted for the future with an accompanying shift of focus from simple, brute force technolgies, based on cheap, accessible resources and energy, to a second generation of more subtle, refined technologies grounded in a much deeper understanding of biological and ecological realities. (Author/BB)

19. Cerebral Economics: Resource Competition Within But Not Between Hemispheres. Technical Report No. 3.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Friedman, Alinda; And Others

A model was tested in which it was assumed that the left and right cerebral hemispheres have access to independent supplies of resources, which they may use in most kinds of information processing situations. Eight male subjects were specifically selected for having demonstrated a strong right-hand superiority on several manual tasks, and a strong…

20. The Productivity Factor. Comparing Japanese and American Modes of Production. A Resource for Teachers of Economics.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Copley, Paul

Focusing on the human element through a cross-cultural comparison of U.S. and Japanese modes of production, this resource guide features an assessment of the major factors that affect productivity performance. Each section contains a goal statement and an overview outline of the featured topics. The text includes primary sources, such as documents…

1. The Impact of Resource Wealth On Economic Growth, Governance, and Conflict in Afghanistan

DTIC Science & Technology

2013-09-01

theory proposed by Catherine Andre and Jean-Philippe Platteau in 1998.32 While much has been written on the systemic corruption and patronage...and Bulte, “Fractionalization,” 1. 32 Catherine Andre and Jean-Philippe Platteau, “Land Relations Under Unbearable Stress: Rwanda Caught in a...quarterlyreports/2013-01-30qr.pdf. 81 Carl -Johan Dalgaard and Ola Olsson, “Windfall Gains, Political Economy, and Economic Development,” Working Paper

2. From economics to resources: Teaching environmental sustainability in Peru's public education

This dissertation examines the teaching of environmental awareness in Peru's public educational system and how it needs to be consciously taught and improved in order to overcome contamination and pollution of resources and decrease poverty. This is a situation afflicting a significant percentage of Peruvians, who face difficulty in surviving and living well because the scarcity of clean air and water, unpolluted land, and affordable energy, which are basic environmental resources. The teaching of environmental awareness, as mandated by Educational Peruvian Laws and curriculum, should be redesigned to promote environmental ethical awareness and sustainability to guard Peru's natural and cultural resources, bounty and beauty before it is too late. In this way, education will promote a better level of life for the majority of Peruvians. Peruvian public education is presently in a state of emergency, as has been recognized by the former minister of education Javier Sota Nadal (2004-2006). Only 10% of students leaving high school understand what they read and only 4% do well in mathematics. A number of reasons contribute to this tragedy. Among them is principally the low quality of teaching and the inadequate budget available for public education. Peru's laws, echoing the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and mandate good and free education and guarantee the right to live well. The reality is that none of these rights are properly given to the majority of poor Peruvians. This dissertation offers a course of action to teach and spread out not only environmental awareness, but also environmental ethics and sustainability from a personal perspective. This rounded concept, if applied, will form citizens able to guard, protect, and preserve natural and cultural resources. The needed environmental ethics and sustainability education will gradually guarantee, from early in life, a truthful way to love, care, protect and preserve the ecosystem. Also encompassed within

3. Results of a modeling workshop concerning economic and environmental trends and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hamilton, David B.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Johnson, Richard A.; Roelle, James E.; Staley, Michael J.

1982-01-01

During the past decade, the southern regions of the U.S. have experienced rapid change which is expected to continue into the foreseeable future. Growth in population, industry, and resource development has been attributed to a variety of advantages such as an abundant and inexpensive labor force, a mild climate, and the availability of energy, water, land, and other natural resources. While this growth has many benefits for the region, it also creates the potential for increased air, water, and solid waste pollution, and modification of natural habitats. A workshop was convened to consider the Mobile Bay area as a site-specific case of growth and its environmental consequences in the southern region. The objectives of the modeling workshop were to: (1) identify major factors of economic development as they relate to growth in the area over the immediate and longer term; (2) identify major environmental and resource management issues associated with this expected growth; and (3) identify and characterize the complex interrelationships among economic and environmental factors. This report summarizes the activities and results of a modeling workshop concerning economic growth and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area. The workshop was organized around construction of a simulation model representing the relationships between a series of actions and indicators identified by participants. The workshop model had five major components. An Industry Submodel generated scenarios of growth in several industrial and transportation sectors. A Human Population/Economy Submodel calculated human population and economic variables in response to employment opportunities. A Land Use/Air Quality Submodel tabulated changes in land use, shoreline use, and air quality. A Water Submodel calculated indicators of water quality and quantity for fresh surface water, ground water, and Mobile Bay based on discharge information provided by the Industry and Human

4. Bioconversion of renewable resources into ethanol: An economic evaluation of selected hydrolysis, fermentation, and membrane technologies

SciTech Connect

Qureshi, N.; Manderson, G.J.

1995-03-01

Four renewable agricultural resources were considered in a process design analysis for the industrial production of ethanol. Raw materials considered were wood, molasses, whey permeate, and starch. Final fermentation substrates were diluted and/or concentrated to give equivalent sugar concentrations for each case. Renewable resource costs were expressed as \$/kg of sugar rather than /kg of the raw material. Molasses sugars were cheaper than sugars derived from the other raw materials. Various fermentation technologies were considered, including continuous culture and cell recycle. Ethanol recovery was examined using pervaporation and costs compared with distillation. The effects on ethanol prices of raw material costs, fermentation technology, product recovery, tax, plant size, and Lang factor are presented. Cultures of Candida shehatae, Zymomonas mobilis, Kluyveromyces marxianus var. lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (with Zymomonas mobilis) were used, depending on the substrate. The report identifies the most appropriate technologies in terms of final ethanol price.

5. Contrasting fish behavior in artificial seascapes with implications for resources conservation.

PubMed

Koeck, Barbara; Alós, Josep; Caro, Anthony; Neveu, Reda; Crec'hriou, Romain; Saragoni, Gilles; Lenfant, Philippe

2013-01-01

Artificial reefs are used by many fisheries managers as a tool to mitigate the impact of fisheries on coastal fish communities by providing new habitat for many exploited fish species. However, the comparison between the behavior of wild fish inhabiting either natural or artificial habitats has received less attention. Thus the spatio-temporal patterns of fish that establish their home range in one habitat or the other and their consequences of intra-population differentiation on life-history remain largely unexplored. We hypothesize that individuals with a preferred habitat (i.e. natural vs. artificial) can behave differently in terms of habitat use, with important consequences on population dynamics (e.g. life-history, mortality, and reproductive success). Therefore, using biotelemetry, 98 white seabream (Diplodus sargus) inhabiting either artificial or natural habitats were tagged and their behavior was monitored for up to eight months. Most white seabreams were highly resident either on natural or artificial reefs, with a preference for the shallow artificial reef subsets. Connectivity between artificial and natural reefs was limited for resident individuals due to great inter-habitat distances. The temporal behavioral patterns of white seabreams differed between artificial and natural reefs. Artificial-reef resident fish had a predominantly nocturnal diel pattern, whereas natural-reef resident fish showed a diurnal diel pattern. Differences in diel behavioral patterns of white seabream inhabiting artificial and natural reefs could be the expression of realized individual specialization resulting from differences in habitat configuration and resource availability between these two habitats. Artificial reefs have the potential to modify not only seascape connectivity but also the individual behavioral patterns of fishes. Future management plans of coastal areas and fisheries resources, including artificial reef implementation, should therefore consider the

6. Contrasting Fish Behavior in Artificial Seascapes with Implications for Resources Conservation

PubMed Central

Koeck, Barbara; Alós, Josep; Caro, Anthony; Neveu, Reda; Crec'hriou, Romain; Saragoni, Gilles; Lenfant, Philippe

2013-01-01

Artificial reefs are used by many fisheries managers as a tool to mitigate the impact of fisheries on coastal fish communities by providing new habitat for many exploited fish species. However, the comparison between the behavior of wild fish inhabiting either natural or artificial habitats has received less attention. Thus the spatio-temporal patterns of fish that establish their home range in one habitat or the other and their consequences of intra-population differentiation on life-history remain largely unexplored. We hypothesize that individuals with a preferred habitat (i.e. natural vs. artificial) can behave differently in terms of habitat use, with important consequences on population dynamics (e.g. life-history, mortality, and reproductive success). Therefore, using biotelemetry, 98 white seabream (Diplodus sargus) inhabiting either artificial or natural habitats were tagged and their behavior was monitored for up to eight months. Most white seabreams were highly resident either on natural or artificial reefs, with a preference for the shallow artificial reef subsets. Connectivity between artificial and natural reefs was limited for resident individuals due to great inter-habitat distances. The temporal behavioral patterns of white seabreams differed between artificial and natural reefs. Artificial-reef resident fish had a predominantly nocturnal diel pattern, whereas natural-reef resident fish showed a diurnal diel pattern. Differences in diel behavioral patterns of white seabream inhabiting artificial and natural reefs could be the expression of realized individual specialization resulting from differences in habitat configuration and resource availability between these two habitats. Artificial reefs have the potential to modify not only seascape connectivity but also the individual behavioral patterns of fishes. Future management plans of coastal areas and fisheries resources, including artificial reef implementation, should therefore consider the

7. Environmental and resource implications of phosphorus recovery from waste activated sludge.

PubMed

Sørensen, Birgitte Lilholt; Dall, Ole Leinikka; Habib, Komal

2015-11-01

Phosphorus is an essential mineral resource for the growth of crops and thus necessary to feed the ever increasing global population. The essentiality and irreplaceability of phosphorus in food production has raised the concerns regarding the long-term phosphorus availability and the resulting food supply issues in the future. Hence, the recovery of phosphorus from waste activated sludge and other waste streams is getting huge attention as a viable solution to tackle the potential availability issues of phosphorus in the future. This study explores the environmental implications of phosphorus recovery from waste activated sludge in Denmark and further elaborates on the potential availability or scarcity issue of phosphorus today and 2050. Life cycle assessment is used to assess the possibility of phosphorus recovery with little or no environmental impacts compared to the conventional mining. The phosphorus recovery method assessed in this study consists of drying process, and thermal gasification of the waste activated sludge followed by extraction of phosphorus from the ashes. Our results indicate that the environmental impacts of phosphorus recovery in an energy efficient process are comparable to the environmental effects from the re-use of waste activated sludge applied directly on farmland. Moreover, our findings conclude that the general recommendation according to the waste hierarchy, where re-use of the waste sludge on farmland is preferable to material and energy recovery, is wrong in this case. Especially when phosphorus is a critical resource due to its life threatening necessity, lack of substitution options and potential future supply risk originating due to the high level of global supply concentration.

8. Global Preparedness and Human Resources: College and Corporate Perspectives.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bikson, T. K.; Law, S. A.

A research study explored the human resource implications of the emerging economic globalism, including the following questions: How is globalism understood by corporations and colleges in the United States? What are the perceived human resource implications of globalism? and What are corporations and colleges doing today to meet these human…

9. Assessment of Groundwater Resources of Dauphin Island and its Connection to Urban Sprawl and Economic Growth

Petty, K. S.

2009-12-01

Dauphin Island is a barrier island about 28 miles south of Mobile, Alabama. The island relies heavily on the shallow aquifer underlying the barrier island. Worldwide, the largest volume of water used for human consumption and use comes from groundwater resources. On barrier islands such as Dauphin Island, the proportion of water used by humans coming from groundwater resources is even higher. Additionally, tourism is very important to the economy of Dauphin Island, and the hotels and tourist attractions rely on groundwater. Because of the large influx of people there are peaks in water demand during tourist season. The goal of this project is to quantify the impacts of urban growth on the aquifer and provide an estimate for sustainable withdrawal rates. The project will be carried out in two main phases. In the first phase a water resource assessment and analysis will be conducted using the SEAWAT model. SEAWAT simulates three-dimensional variable-density ground-water flow coupled with multi-species solute and heat transport. In the second phase the calibrated groundwater model for the island will be used to perform a scenario analysis which would help link groundwater availability with urban sprawl. In this paper we will describe the research methodology and procedures that will be used in the project.

10. Economics of utilization of high sulfur coal resources - an integrated market approach

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bhagwat, S.B.

1993-01-01

Before the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, coal policies - especially coal research policies - were geared to find a solution to the sulfur emission problem. However, technologies to reduce sulfur emissions cannot be tailored for a single coal. A technology that will clean Illinois coal to compliance levels will do the same, or nearly the same, for most other types of coal. This paper will discuss an integrated approach to the analysis of the future of coals from different regions in the United States and its implications for coal-related policies by government and industry.

11. Balancing Public Trust Resources of Mono Lake and Los Angeles' Water Right: An Economic Approach

Loomis, John B.

1987-08-01

The contingent valuation method (CVM) is used to quantify the Public Trust values of Mono Lake at alternative lake levels. The dichotomous choice approach to contingent valuation is employed using a logit model. The economic benefit to California residents of preserving Mono Lake is estimated to be 1.5 billion. Purchase of replacement water and power would cost 26.2 million annually. On efficiency grounds, reallocation of water for maintenance of Public Trust values at Mono Lake is warranted. The CVM appears to be a useful methodology to evaluate the balancing and feasibility tests of the expanded Public Trust doctrine suggested by the California Supreme Court.

12. Cost-effectiveness and resource implications of aggressive action on TB in China, India and South Africa: a combined analysis of nine models

PubMed Central

Menzies, Nicolas A; Gomez, Gabriela B; Bozzani, Fiammetta; Chatterjee, Susmita; Foster, Nicola; Baena, Ines Garcia; Laurence, Yoko V; Qiang, Sun; Siroka, Andrew; Sweeney, Sedona; Verguet, Stéphane; Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Azman, Andrew S; Bendavid, Eran; Chang, Stewart T; Cohen, Ted; Denholm, Justin T; Dowdy, David W; Eckhoff, Philip A; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Handel, Andreas; Huynh, Grace H; Lalli, Marek; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Mandal, Sandip; McBryde, Emma S; Pandey, Surabhi; Salomon, Joshua A; Suen, Sze-chuan; Sumner, Tom; Trauer, James M; Wagner, Bradley G; Whalen, Christopher C; Wu, Chieh-Yin; Boccia, Delia; Chadha, Vineet K; Charalambous, Salome; Chin, Daniel P; Churchyard, Gavin; Daniels, Colleen; Dewan, Puneet; Ditiu, Lucica; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Grant, Alison D; Hippner, Piotr; Hosseini, Mehran; Mametja, David; Pretorius, Carel; Pillay, Yogan; Rade, Kiran; Sahu, Suvanand; Wang, Lixia; Houben, Rein MGJ; Kimerling, Michael E; White, Richard G; Vassall, Anna

2017-01-01

BACKGROUND The End TB Strategy sets global goals of reducing TB incidence and mortality by 50% and 75% respectively by 2025. We assessed resource requirements and cost-effectiveness of strategies to achieve these targets in China, India, and South Africa. METHODS We examined intervention scenarios developed in consultation with country stakeholders, which scaled-up existing interventions to high but feasible coverage by 2025. Nine independent TB modelling groups collaborated to estimate policy outcomes, and we costed each scenario by synthesizing service utilization estimates, empirical cost data, and expert opinion on implementation strategies. We estimated health impact and resource implications for 2016–2035, including patient-incurred costs. To assess resource requirements and cost-effectiveness, we compared scenarios to a base case representing continued current practice. FINDINGS Incremental TB service costs differed by scenario and country, and in some cases more than doubled current funding needs. In general, expanding TB services substantially reduced patient-incurred costs; and in India and China this produced net cost-savings for most interventions under a societal perspective. In all countries, expanding TB care access produced substantial health gains. Compared to current practice, most intervention approaches appeared highly cost-effective when compared to conventional cost-effectiveness thresholds. INTERPRETATION Expanding TB services appears cost-effective for high-burden countries and could generate substantial health and economic benefits for patients, though funding needs challenge affordability. Further work is required to determine the optimal intervention mix for each country. PMID:27720689

13. HIV/AIDS and lipodystrophy: Implications for clinical management in resource-limited settings

PubMed Central

Finkelstein, Julia L; Gala, Pooja; Rochford, Rosemary; Glesby, Marshall J; Mehta, Saurabh

2015-01-01

-limited settings, and has considerable implications for risk of metabolic diseases, quality of life and adherence. Comprehensive evidence-based interventions are urgently needed to reduce the burden of HIV and lipodystrophy, and inform clinical management in resource-limited settings. PMID:25598476

14. The Implications of Growing Bioenergy Crops on Water Resources, Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics

Jain, A. K.; Song, Y.; Kheshgi, H. S.; Landuyt, W.

2015-12-01

The bioenergy crops, Corn, Miscanthus and switchgrass have a potential to meet future energy demands in the US and mitigate climate change by partially replacing fossil fuels. However, the large-scale cultivation of these bioenergy crops may also impact climate change through changes in albedo, evapotranspiration (ET), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Whether these climate effects will mitigate or exacerbate climate change in the short and long terms is uncertain. The uncertainties come from our incomplete understanding of the effects of expanded bioenergy crop production on terrestrial water and energy balance, carbon and nitrogen dynamics, and their interactions. This study aims to understand the implications of growing large scale bioenergy crops on water resources, carbon and nitrogen dynamics in the United States using a data- modeling framework (ISAM) that we developed. Our study indicates that both Miscanthus and Cave-in-Rock switchgrass can attain high and stable yield over parts of the Midwest, however, this high production is attained at the cost of increased soil water loss as compared to current natural vegetation. Alamo switchgrass can attain high and stable yield in the southern US without significant influence on soil water quantity.

15. The Implications of Growing Bioenergy Crops on Water Resources, Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics

Jain, A. K.; Song, Y.; Kheshgi, H. S.

2016-12-01

What is the potential for the crops Corn, Miscanthus and switchgrass to meet future energy demands in the U.S.A., and would they mitigate climate change by offsetting fossil fuel greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions? The large-scale cultivation of these bioenergy crops itself could also drive climate change through changes in albedo, evapotranspiration (ET), and GHG emissions. Whether these climate effects will mitigate or exacerbate climate change in the short- and long-term is uncertain. This uncertainty stems from our incomplete understanding of the effects of expanded bioenergy crop production on terrestrial water and energy balance, carbon and nitrogen dynamics, and their interactions. This study aims to understand the implications of growing large-scale bioenergy crops on water resources, carbon and nitrogen dynamics in the United States using a data-modeling framework (ISAM) that we developed. Our study indicates that both Miscanthus and Cave-in-Rock switchgrass can attain high and stable yield over parts of the Midwest, however, this high production is attained at the cost of increased soil water loss as compared to current natural vegetation. Alamo switchgrass can attain high and stable yield in the southern US without significant influence on soil water quantity.

16. Toxic cyanobacteria and their toxins in standing waters of Kenya: implications for water resource use.

PubMed

Kotut, Kiplagat; Ballot, Andreas; Krienitz, Lothar

2006-06-01

Phytoplankton biodiversity studies in Kenya's standing waters were carried out between 2001 and 2003. Toxin producing cyanobacteria were recorded in twelve water bodies. Microcystis and Anabaena were the most common species in freshwaters while Anabaena and Anabaenopsis were common in alkaline saline lakes. Seven lakes with cyanobacteria blooms and a hot spring had detectable levels of microcystins and anatoxin-a. Cell bound microcystins (LR equivalents) concentration ranged from 1.6-19800 microgg(-1) Dry Weight (DW) while anatoxin-a varied from below the limit of detection to 1260 microgg(-1) DW. In alkaline-saline lakes, microcystins and anatoxin-a were also present in stomach contents and liver samples of dead flamingos. Monoculture strains of A. fusiformis from Lakes Sonachi and Bogoria had detectable levels of microcystins while anatoxin-a was present in strains isolated from Lakes Sonachi, Bogoria and Nakuru. Two freshwater sites, Nyanza Gulf (L. Victoria) and Lake Baringo recorded cyanotoxin concentration exceeding WHO'S upper limit of 1.0 microgl(-1) for drinking water. The results confirm that cyanotoxins could have played a role in the mortality of flamingos in Lakes Bogoria and Nakuru. The implications of these findings on water resource use, measures to be taken to reduce the risk of exposure and eutrophication control steps to reduce cyanobacteria bloom formation are considered in this paper.

17. Influence of economic restraints and reduced specialist resources on delivery and quality of orthodontic care.

PubMed

Josefsson, E; Halling, A

2000-01-01

In 1993 and 1994, economic restrictions were introduced in the County of Ostergötland. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence on delivery and quality of orthodontic care, i.e. any subsequent change in number of patients receiving orthodontic treatment both by General Public Dental Service (GPDS) and by specialist clinic, the choice of appliance, and treatment outcomes, and also any changes in the total number of appliance treatments by general practitioners. Records were examined for 236 and 213 patients registered in 1994 and 1997, respectively, at an orthodontic clinic in the western district of Ostergötland. The total number of appliance treatments by general practitioners was estimated. The number of patients receiving initial treatment by a general practitioner and subsequently by an orthodontist, was relatively unchanged during the period. Quad helix predominated in both 1994 and 1997. The best treatment outcomes were achieved by quad helix and maxillary removable appliances, and the poorest by activators and headgear. In conclusion the total number of appliance treatments by general practitioners decreased as well as treatments requiring patient compliance over an extended period, findings which might be a consequence of the coincident economic restriction.

18. Assessment of windfarm economics in relation to site wind resources applied to sites in Jordan

SciTech Connect

Amr, M. ); Habali, S.M. ); Petersen, H.

1990-01-01

This paper describes an analytical method for estimation of the economical feasibility of a project for wind energy utilization in Jordan. The method is applied to a windfarm and is based on the wind speed distribution at the site considered and on the financial parameters for the complete plant and its running costs. For this method, equations were derived to calculate the cost of a kWh generated by wind turbines with different characteristics as a function of the capital investment per kW installed capacity. The method was applied to the sites at which Royal Scientific Society performs wind speed measurements, and the results indicate that some of these sites are well suited for cost efficient generation of electricity by wind energy. The results also show that a wind tribine which is designed to have a relatively low rated speed has a wider range of economical operation than a wind turbine with a higher rated speed for the sites investigated assuming that the maximum rated power for all for the wind turbines is held constant.

19. Agro-economic evaluation of water resource project--a modeling approach.

PubMed

Thawale, Prashant; Ghosh, Tarunkanti; Kumar Singh, Sanjeev; Singh, Sanjiv; Kulkarni, Atul

2012-04-01

Feasibility of an irrigation project is evaluated by two criteria viz., reservoir capacity to irrigate its command area and economic returns by incremental crop production versus capital investment for dam construction. The annual water requirement of different crops in the command area is estimated and compared with the availability of water from the dam for irrigation purpose. The annual crop water requirement is estimated as the sum of evapotranspiration for crops and transmission and other losses. Evapotranspiration is estimated by modified Penman formula. Economics of crop production is analyzed by first estimating the monetary value of existing crop production under current rain fed conditions and then estimating the incremental production of irrigated command area for the proposed crop pattern. The proposed cropping pattern is prepared so as to maximize the benefit of crop production and fodder requirement while maintaining a better crop rotation to improve and maintain physical, chemical, and biological conditions of the soil. The dam is to be used for irrigation and water supply only. Command area served by this reservoir will be 76,500 ha. The existing annual agricultural return is Rs. 2995.56 lakhs and with the proposed irrigation scheme, it is estimated as Rs. 1,77,91.90 lakhs. The incremental annual return would be Rs. 1,47,96.35 lakhs i.e., 642.68% increase in annual return.

20. PCM Climate Change Scenario Implications for Western U.S. Water Resources Management

Palmer, R. N.; Van Rheenen, N. T.; Payne, J. T.; Hamlet, A. F.; Wood, A. W.

2001-12-01

This paper explores the water resources impacts associated with climate change scenarios produced by the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM) in the Columbia River basin (CRB) in the Pacific Northwest and the Sacramento-San Joaquin River basin (the Central Valley - CV) in California. Three transient climate ensembles from the PCM are used as inputs to a distributed macroscale hydrology model to produce daily transient streamflow scenarios throughout the two basins for the period 1998-2048. Water resource simulation models are then used to predict, on a monthly time-step, the effects of the climate change scenarios on streamflow timing and volume. In the strongly snowmelt dominated CRB, water resources impacts are associated primarily with changes in precipitation volumes (and secondarily by relatively small temperature changes) that reduce summer water supplies via reductions in winter snowpack. A one-month shift in the hydrologic peak endangers storage efficiencies for the CRB, which currently lacks sufficient capacity to accommodate winter flows in normal years. The shift exacerbates allocation problems during the late summer and early fall, while complicating the management of the flood season. Agricultural withdrawals, hydropower generation and federally-mandated streamflow requirements are threatened. In the CV, the climate change scenario temperature changes are larger than in the CRB, and the CV is affected more equally by changes in temperature and precipitation than is the CRB. Since water allocations in the CV are strongly dominated by irrigation, overall system reliability is reduced by the resulting streamflow timing and shifts and volume changes. The northern half of the CV experiences the greatest loss of snowpack, hence summer streamflows, when temperatures warm. Since the reservoirs in the northern portion of the CV serve agricultural, municipal, and industrial surface water needs for the entire region, even subtle shifts in streamflow timing and

1. Economic Education and Student Performance in the Business Discipline: Implications for Curriculum Planning

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2013-01-01

The authors conducted an empirical examination of the relationship between extra-normal ability (inability) in principles of economics courses and student performance in the various areas of the business discipline such as finance, marketing, management, and accounting. Extra-normal ability is defined as the part of an economics grade that cannot…

2. The G-20 and International Economic Cooperation: Background and Implications for Congress

DTIC Science & Technology

2009-12-09

The G-20 also pledged to use expansionary macroeconomic policies , both fiscal and monetary, to stimulate aggregate demand and encourage economic...including regulatory reform, expansionary macroeconomic policies , and commitments to free trade. In London, the G-20 leaders reached more...such negative outcomes. Another reason countries may want to coordinate policies is that some economic policies , like fiscal stimulus, are more

3. THE CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FISHER, NANETTE HUNT

THIS STUDY, BASED ON THE HYPOTHESIS THAT PREPARATION FOR MARRIAGE IS INADEQUATE IN OUR SOCIETY, INCLUDES A SURVEY OF LITERATURE RELATING TO THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF MODERN WOMEN AND THE PROPER ROLE OF HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION, TOGETHER WITH RESULTS OF A SURVEY OF HUNTER COLLEGE HOME ECONOMICS MAJORS AND OTHER WOMEN REGARDING PROBLEMS IN FAMILY…

4. Economic Education and Student Performance in the Business Discipline: Implications for Curriculum Planning

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2013-01-01

The authors conducted an empirical examination of the relationship between extra-normal ability (inability) in principles of economics courses and student performance in the various areas of the business discipline such as finance, marketing, management, and accounting. Extra-normal ability is defined as the part of an economics grade that cannot…

5. Two Traditions in Economics: Implications for Teaching U.S. and World History.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helburn, Suzanne

This paper discusses the neoclassical and the Marxist traditions in economics and the current treatment of capitalist development in history textbooks. Beginning with an overview of the classical economists, Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, and David Ricardo, the two traditions in economics are then discussed in terms of: (1) scope and focus of…

6. The Nigerian State and Global Economic Crises: Socio-Political Implications and Policy Challenges

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Olaopa, O. R.; Ogundari, I. O.; Akindele, S. T.; Hassan, O. M.

2012-01-01

This article discusses how economic reforms, as a reaction to the effects of the global financial crises, have intensified popular unrests and redefined the composition, interests, and socio-economic and political attitudes of Nigeria's increasingly complex social strata. We relied basically on secondary data to analyze some of the fundamental…

7. Rural Policy and the New Regional Economics: Implications for Rural America.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quigley, John M.

This paper discusses gross economic and demographic trends in rural and urban America during the past 30 years, the kinds of competitive advantages enjoyed by urban and rural regions, and insights offered by the new regional economics concerning exploitation of those advantages. The importance of agriculture has declined in rural areas, while that…

8. Two Traditions in Economics: Implications for Teaching U.S. and World History.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helburn, Suzanne

This paper discusses the neoclassical and the Marxist traditions in economics and the current treatment of capitalist development in history textbooks. Beginning with an overview of the classical economists, Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, and David Ricardo, the two traditions in economics are then discussed in terms of: (1) scope and focus of…

9. Differentiated Human Immunodeficiency Virus RNA Monitoring in Resource-Limited Settings: An Economic Analysis.

PubMed

Negoescu, Diana M; Zhang, Zhenhuan; Bucher, Heiner C; Bendavid, Eran

2017-06-15

Viral load (VL) monitoring for patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended worldwide. However, the costs of frequent monitoring are a barrier to implementation in resource-limited settings. The extent to which personalized monitoring frequencies may be cost-effective is unknown. We created a simulation model parameterized using person-level longitudinal data to assess the benefits of flexible monitoring frequencies. Our data-driven model tracked human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals for 10 years following ART initiation. We optimized the interval between viral load tests as a function of patients' age, gender, education, duration since ART initiation, adherence behavior, and the cost-effectiveness threshold. We compared the cost-effectiveness of the personalized monitoring strategies to fixed monitoring intervals every 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Shorter fixed VL monitoring intervals yielded increasing benefits (6.034 to 6.221 discounted quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs] per patient with monitoring every 24 to 1 month over 10 years, respectively, standard error = 0.005 QALY), at increasing average costs: US\$3445 (annual monitoring) to US\$5393 (monthly monitoring) per patient, respectively (standard error = US\$3.7). The adaptive policy optimized for low-income contexts achieved 6.142 average QALYs at a cost of US\$3524, similar to the fixed 12-month policy (6.135 QALYs, US\$3518). The adaptive policy optimized for middle-income resource settings yields 0.008 fewer QALYs per person, but saves US\$204 compared to monitoring every 3 months. The benefits from implementing adaptive vs fixed VL monitoring policies increase with the availability of resources. In low- and middle-income countries, adaptive policies achieve similar outcomes to simpler, fixed-interval policies.

10. An energy/emissions/economic analysis resource for north Moravia, upper Silesia, and Kisuca

SciTech Connect

Walder, V.

1995-12-31

The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is sponsoring the Technology Transfer Network (TTN) which is centered in Ostrava, Czech Republic. The primary objective of the TTN is to provide a resource for municipalities, industries, and companies interested in reducing air pollution, improving energy efficiency, and implementing projects in North Moravia, Upper Silesia, and Kisuca. The TTN is providing a communications network (newsletters, mailings, and other media), seminars, workshops, software, access to past and ongoing studies, and a database of U.S. vendors supporting the region. Seminars and major communication material of the TTN will be provided in Czech/Slovak, Polish, and English as appropriate.

11. Origins, characteristics, controls, and economic viabilities of deep- basin gas resources

USGS Publications Warehouse

Price, L.C.

1995-01-01

Dry-gas deposits (methane ???95% of the hydrocarbon (HC) gases) are thought to originate from in-reservoir thermal cracking of oil and C2+ HC gases to methane. However, because methanes from Anadarko Basin dry-gas deposits do not carry the isotopic signature characteristics of C15+ HC destruction, an origin of these methanes from this process is considered improbable. Instead, the isotopic signature of these methanes suggests that they were cogenerated with C15+ HC's. Only a limited resource of deep-basin gas deposits may be expected by the accepted model for the origin of dry-gas deposits because of a limited number of deep-basin oil deposits originally available to be thermally converted to dry gas. However, by the models of this paper (inefficient source-rock oil and gas expulsion, closed fluid systems in petroleum-basin depocenters, and most dry-gas methane cogenerated with C15+ HC's), very large, previously unrecognized, unconventional, deep-basin gas resources are expected. -from Author

12. Life-cycle evaluation of nitrogen-use in rice-farming systems: implications for economically-optimal nitrogen rates

Xia, Y.; Yan, X.

2011-11-01

Nitrogen (N) fertilizer plays an important role in agricultural systems in terms of food yield. However, N application rates (NARs) are often overestimated over the rice (Oryza sativa L.) growing season in the Taihu Lake region of China. This is largely because negative externalities are not entirely included when evaluating economically-optimal nitrogen rate (EONR), such as only individual N losses are taken into account, or the inventory flows of reactive N have been limited solely to the farming process when evaluating environmental and economic effects of N fertilizer. This study integrates important material and energy flows resulting from N use into a rice agricultural inventory that constitutes the hub of the life-cycle assessment (LCA) method. An economic evaluation is used to determine an environmental and economic NAR for the Taihu Lake region. The analysis reveals that production and exploitation processes consume the largest proportion of resources, accounting for 77.2 % and 22.3 % of total resources, respectively. Regarding environmental impact, global warming creates the highest cost with contributions stemming mostly from fertilizer production and farming processes. Farming process incurs the biggest environmental impact of the three environmental impact categories considered, whereas transportation has a much smaller effect. When taking account of resource consumption and environmental cost, the marginal benefit of 1 kg rice would decrease from 2.4 to only 1.05 yuan. Accordingly, our current EONR has been evaluated at 187 kg N ha-1 for a single rice-growing season. This could enhance profitability, as well as reduce the N losses associated with rice growing.

13. CIM-EARTH: Community Integrated Model of Economic and Resource Trajectories for Humankind

Foster, I.; Elliott, J.; Munson, T.; Judd, K.; Moyer, E. J.; Sanstad, A. H.

2010-12-01

We report here on the development of an open source software framework termed CIM-EARTH that is intended to aid decision-making in climate and energy policy. Numerical modeling in support of evaluating policies to address climate change is difficult not only because of inherent uncertainties but because of the differences in scale and modeling approach required for various subcomponents of the system. Economic and climate models are structured quite differently, and while climate forcing can be assumed to be roughly global, climate impacts and the human response to them occur on small spatial scales. Mitigation policies likewise can be applied on scales ranging from the better part of a continent (e.g. a carbon cap-and-trade program for the entire U.S.) to a few hundred km (e.g. statewide renewable portfolio standards and local gasoline taxes). Both spatial and time resolution requirements can be challenging for global economic models. CIM-EARTH is a modular framework based around dynamic general equilibrium models. It is designed as a community tool that will enable study of the environmental benefits, transition costs, capitalization effects, and other consequences of both mitigation policies and unchecked climate change. Modularity enables both integration of highly resolved component sub-models for energy and other key systems and also user-directed choice of tradeoffs between e.g. spatial, sectoral, and time resolution. This poster describes the framework architecture, the current realized version, and plans for future releases. As with other open-source models familiar to the climate community (e.g. CCSM), deliverables will be made publicly available on a regular schedule, and community input is solicited for development of new features and modules.

14. The Nature and Implications of a Resource Network as a Support System for Linking Agents.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reisinger, Carol

A resource network can serve as a strategy for personnel-multiplying by performing many activities and functions that the linking agent would otherwise have to perform; e.g., such a network can provide an organized method for identifying and collecting resources, as well surveying the kinds of resources available. The Illinois Resource and…

15. Methods and tools to simulate the effect of economic instruments in complex water resources systems. Application to the Jucar river basin.

Lopez-Nicolas, Antonio; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

2014-05-01

The main challenge of the BLUEPRINT to safeguard Europe's water resources (EC, 2012) is to guarantee that enough good quality water is available for people's needs, the economy and the environment. In this sense, economic policy instruments such as water pricing policies and water markets can be applied to enhance efficient use of water. This paper presents a method based on hydro-economic tools to assess the effect of economic instruments on water resource systems. Hydro-economic models allow integrated analysis of water supply, demand and infrastructure operation at the river basin scale, by simultaneously combining engineering, hydrologic and economic aspects of water resources management. The method made use of the simulation and optimization hydroeconomic tools SIMGAMS and OPTIGAMS. The simulation tool SIMGAMS allocates water resources among the users according to priorities and operating rules, and evaluate economic scarcity costs of the system by using economic demand functions. The model's objective function is designed so that the system aims to meet the operational targets (ranked according to priorities) at each month while following the system operating rules. The optimization tool OPTIGAMS allocates water resources based on an economic efficiency criterion: maximize net benefits, or alternatively, minimizing the total water scarcity and operating cost of water use. SIMGAS allows to simulate incentive water pricing policies based on marginal resource opportunity costs (MROC; Pulido-Velazquez et al., 2013). Storage-dependent step pricing functions are derived from the time series of MROC values at a certain reservoir in the system. These water pricing policies are defined based on water availability in the system (scarcity pricing), so that when water storage is high, the MROC is low, while low storage (drought periods) will be associated to high MROC and therefore, high prices. We also illustrate the use of OPTIGAMS to simulate the effect of ideal water

16. Poverty and Economic Decision-Making: Evidence from Changes in Financial Resources at Payday.

PubMed

Carvalho, Leandro S; Meier, Stephan; Wang, Stephanie W

2016-02-01

We study the effect of financial resources on decision-making. Low-income U.S. households are randomly assigned to receive an online survey before or after payday. The survey collects measures of cognitive function and administers risk and intertemporal choice tasks. The study design generates variation in cash, checking and savings balances, and expenditures. Before-payday participants behave as if they are more present-biased when making intertemporal choices about monetary rewards but not when making intertemporal choices about non-monetary real-effort tasks. Nor do we find before-after differences in risk-taking, the quality of decision-making, the performance in cognitive function tasks, or in heuristic judgments.

17. The patient-physician relationship and the allocation of scarce resources: a law and economics approach.

PubMed

Mehlman, M J; Massey, S R

1994-12-01

Patients with insufficient financial resources place physicians in a conflict of interest between the patients' needs and the financial interests of the physician, other patients, and society. Not only must physicians act ethically, but they must avoid liability for violating their legal duties to their patients. The traditional rules of contract and malpractice law that govern the patient-physician relationship do not provide satisfactory guidelines. Better answers are found in the rules of fiduciary law, but only with regard to direct conflicts between patients and physicians and only at the risk of reducing patient access to care. Certain types of legislative action can resolve these conflicts by altering the traditional legal rules, but care must be taken to preserve patient-physician trust, which the legal rules were designed to enhance.

18. Poverty and Economic Decision-Making: Evidence from Changes in Financial Resources at Payday

PubMed Central

Carvalho, Leandro S.; Meier, Stephan; Wang, Stephanie W.

2016-01-01

We study the effect of financial resources on decision-making. Low-income U.S. households are randomly assigned to receive an online survey before or after payday. The survey collects measures of cognitive function and administers risk and intertemporal choice tasks. The study design generates variation in cash, checking and savings balances, and expenditures. Before-payday participants behave as if they are more present-biased when making intertemporal choices about monetary rewards but not when making intertemporal choices about non-monetary real-effort tasks. Nor do we find before-after differences in risk-taking, the quality of decision-making, the performance in cognitive function tasks, or in heuristic judgments. PMID:28003681

19. Economic security, informational resources, and women's reproductive choices in urban Mozambique.

PubMed

1998-01-01

Reproductive changes in sub-Saharan Africa are contingent upon women's socioeconomic conditions and informational and cultural resources. This study focuses on socioeconomic and cultural determinants and correlates of the intention to stop childbearing and of contraceptive use among urban women in Mozambique. It uses data from a survey of 1,585 married women conducted in Greater Maputo in 1993, and it employs logistic regression for multivariate analysis. The results of the analysis indicate that although the stopping intention and contraceptive use are interrelated and similarly affected by such factors as education or the area of residence, the intention to stop childbearing is mainly driven by women's perception of their material conditions and socioeconomic security, while contraceptive use is largely a product of social diffusion and the legitimization of innovative, Western-origin information and technologies. The study proposes that these findings may help explain the unique features of the fertility transition in sub-Saharan Africa.

20. Economic Adjustment, Education and Human Resource Development in Africa: The Case of Nigeria

Geo-Jaja, Macleans A.; Mangum, Garth

2003-07-01

On the basis of the Nigerian experience, this article argues that the structural adjustment programs of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, when misapplied, can have a devastating effect on the educational systems that are essential to human resource development. The paper considers how the objectives of structural adjustment might have been accomplished without harming education, and recommends an outcomes-based educational policy for Nigeria which could serve equally well in other developing nations. The key message of the paper is that the ongoing austerity programs have been secured at excessively high human cost, and that it is time for a policy redirection that reaffirms education as the essential tool of all development.

1. Conceptual models underlying economic analysis of animal health and welfare with the inclusion of three components: people, products and resources.

PubMed

Hennessy, D A

2017-04-01

Infectious animal diseases can spill across farm boundaries, so effective management requires coordinated responses. Costs and benefits from the management of infectious diseases are such that those who make the decisions have weak incentives to act, the levels of goods and services produced from animal agriculture are probably smaller than is socially optimal and resources are likely wasted. This work provides an overview of the existing literature on conceptual economic models in animal disease management, paying particular attention to inadequate incentives to make the required biosecurity efforts. A disease transmission model follows, emphasising policy and management issues which need to be addressed to enhance the benefits that consumers and producers obtain from animal protein markets. The article concludes with comments and suggestions on tackling infectious disease as a public good, and on directions for future research.

2. The G-20 and International Economic Cooperation: Background and Implications for Congress

DTIC Science & Technology

2013-10-23

1. REPORT DATE 23 OCT 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The G-20 and International Economic...representatives from the European Commission; the European Council; the International Labour Organization (ILO); the International Monetary Fund...June 2012. The types of agreements reached at the G-20 summits have evolved as global economic conditions have changed, from the pressing height of

3. Future Challenges for the Arab World: The Implications of Demographic and Economic Trends

DTIC Science & Technology

2011-01-01

Group ILO International Labour Organization MBD million barrels per day OECD Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development OPEC Organization...Liquids, and Refinery Processing Gain, Most Recent Annual Estimates, 1980–2007,” December 19, 2008. NOTE: OECD = Organisation for Economic Co-Operation...and Development. RAND TR912-3.1 MBD production (2008) (%) Non-Arab OPECUnited States Russia Other OECD Saudi Arabia Other 20 Other Arab states19 14 9

4. The human resource implications of improving financial risk protection for mothers and newborns in Zimbabwe

PubMed Central

2013-01-01

Background A paradigm shift in global health policy on user fees has been evident in the last decade with a growing consensus that user fees undermine equitable access to essential health care in many low and middle income countries. Changes to fees have major implications for human resources for health (HRH), though the linkages are rarely explicitly examined. This study aimed to examine the inter-linkages in Zimbabwe in order to generate lessons for HRH and fee policies, with particular respect to reproductive, maternal and newborn health (RMNH). Methods The study used secondary data and small-scale qualitative fieldwork (key informant interview and focus group discussions) at national level and in one district in 2011. Results The past decades have seen a shift in the burden of payments onto households. Implementation of the complex rules on exemptions is patchy and confused. RMNH services are seen as hard for families to afford, even in the absence of complications. Human resources are constrained in managing current demand and any growth in demand by high external and internal migration, and low remuneration, amongst other factors. We find that nurses and midwives are evenly distributed across the country (at least in the public sector), though doctors are not. This means that for four provinces, there are not enough doctors to provide more complex care, and only three provinces could provide cover in the event of all deliveries taking place in facilities. Conclusions This analysis suggests that there is a strong case for reducing the financial burden on clients of RMNH services and also a pressing need to improve the terms and conditions of key health staff. Numbers need to grow, and distribution is also a challenge, suggesting the need for differentiated policies in relation to rural areas, especially for doctors and specialists. The management of user fees should also be reviewed, particularly for non-Ministry facilities, which do not retain their revenues

5. The human resource implications of improving financial risk protection for mothers and newborns in Zimbabwe.

PubMed

Chirwa, Yotamu; Witter, Sophie; Munjoma, Malvern; Mashange, Wilson; Ensor, Tim; McPake, Barbara; Munyati, Shungu

2013-05-28

A paradigm shift in global health policy on user fees has been evident in the last decade with a growing consensus that user fees undermine equitable access to essential health care in many low and middle income countries. Changes to fees have major implications for human resources for health (HRH), though the linkages are rarely explicitly examined. This study aimed to examine the inter-linkages in Zimbabwe in order to generate lessons for HRH and fee policies, with particular respect to reproductive, maternal and newborn health (RMNH). The study used secondary data and small-scale qualitative fieldwork (key informant interview and focus group discussions) at national level and in one district in 2011. The past decades have seen a shift in the burden of payments onto households. Implementation of the complex rules on exemptions is patchy and confused. RMNH services are seen as hard for families to afford, even in the absence of complications. Human resources are constrained in managing current demand and any growth in demand by high external and internal migration, and low remuneration, amongst other factors. We find that nurses and midwives are evenly distributed across the country (at least in the public sector), though doctors are not. This means that for four provinces, there are not enough doctors to provide more complex care, and only three provinces could provide cover in the event of all deliveries taking place in facilities. This analysis suggests that there is a strong case for reducing the financial burden on clients of RMNH services and also a pressing need to improve the terms and conditions of key health staff. Numbers need to grow, and distribution is also a challenge, suggesting the need for differentiated policies in relation to rural areas, especially for doctors and specialists. The management of user fees should also be reviewed, particularly for non-Ministry facilities, which do not retain their revenues, and receive limited investment in

6. Navajo Generating Station and Federal Resource Planning; Volume 1: Sectoral, Technical, and Economic Trends

SciTech Connect

Hurlbut, David; Haase, Scott; Barrows, Clayton; Bird, Lori; Brinkman, Greg; Cook, Jeff; Day, Megan; Diakov, Victor; Hale, Elaine; Keyser, David; Lopez, Anthony; Mai, Trieu; McLaren, Joyce; Reiter, Emerson; Stoll, Brady; Tian, Tian; Cutler, Harvey; Bain, Dominique; Acker, Tom

2016-11-01

This study for the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation examines conditions in the electricity sector that are likely to affect federal decisions with respect to Navajo Generating Station (NGS), the largest coal-fired power plant operating in the western United States. The federal government owns 24.3% of the 2.25-gigawatt plant, which amounts to 547 megawatts (MW) of capacity. By focusing on the unique public interests that depend on the federal share of NGS, this baseline study can help the federal government develop a road map for meeting all of its goals with respect to water delivery, clean energy, emission reduction, and economic development. There is no recommendation for action in this report. Rather, its aim is to provide a credible, thorough description of baseline conditions that might affect federal decisions regarding NGS. It describes facts and trends embedded in current data, but there are no conclusions about how Reclamation or DOI should respond to the trends. The interdependencies among the many sectoral trends and federal goals are complex, and the aim of this study is to provide a foundation from which options can be tested in a deliberate manner.

7. Multispecies resource management of economically important marine plant communites of eastern Canada

Pringle, J. D.; Sharp, G. J.

1980-03-01

The annual 45,000 t harvest of six marine plant taxa, consisting principally of the alga Chondrus crispus, is worth 5 million annually to maritime fishermen. The harvesting techniques enable capture of associated biota and alter the abiotic structure of the habitat. Methods developed to assess ecological impact include permanent transects which are sampled for vegetation composition and dry biomass. C. crispus represents 80% of the plant biomass in commercial beds; 27 other genera comprise the remainder. Thirty-five associated invertebrate species include only one of direct economic importance, the lobster, Homarus americanus. On commercial Chondrus beds off western Prince Edward Island, lobsters were captured in basket dragrakes up to 5.4 h-1 during 1975 and 1976. Of the total lobster catch, the percentage injured by Chondrus dragrakes was 2.7% in 1975 and 1.3% in 1976. Chondrus dragrakes, as used in southwestern Nova Scotia, disrupt the drumlin substrate. Controlled dragraking for 2-h periods disrupted 0.25% to 1.5% of the bottom area. One month of normal harvest activity displaced 0.5% to 2.9% of the bottom of surveyed sites. A harvest of 1000 t of Laminaria spp. is projected for 1979. Dragrakes harvest entire plants averaging 5.0 ± 2.3 m in length. The residual population averaged 2.3 ± 1.9 m. Indirect effects of kelp harvesting on the benthic community are the subject of ongoing research.

8. Economic and resource status of the chiropractic profession in Ontario, Canada: a challenge or an opportunity.

PubMed

Mior, Silvano A; Laporte, Audrey

2008-02-01

Chiropractic is one of the most frequently sought nonphysician provider groups. Despite its apparent recognition, the profession faces numerous challenges, including the economic reality of an increasing supply within a market of questionable demand. This paper evaluates the chiropractic manpower status in Ontario, Canada. Data collected from administrative and education databases, insurance billing data, and population health survey data between 1990 and 2004 were analyzed. Between 1990 and 2004, the total number of chiropractic registrants in Ontario doubled, with an average annual rate of growth of about 5.4%; however, recent data suggest that the number of nonpracticing chiropractors is increasing, whereas the number of new registrants is decreasing. The rate of applications to a chiropractic institution rose sharply and peaked in 1996-1997, thereafter declining but leveling off in 2002-2003. Despite the continued growth in the number of practicing chiropractors, the utilization of chiropractic services among the Ontario population has remained relatively stable, resulting in a decline in the average net annual incomes adjusted for inflation to 2002 dollars. Our results support previous reports projecting an oversupply of chiropractors and suggest that the chiropractic profession in Ontario is in long-run oversupply. Competition from other providers, changing population demographics, and the recent loss of public funding for services may present significant future challenges to current practitioners. Opportunities related to participation in multidisciplinary environments and accessing unmet population health needs may contribute to influencing the demand for chiropractic services. A concerted effort by professional and educational institutions is required.

9. Regional Glacier Sensitivity to Climate Change in the Monsoonal Himalaya: Implications for Water Resources

Rupper, S.; Maurer, J. M.; Schaefer, J. M.; Tsering, K.; Rinzin, T.; Dorji, C.; Johnson, E. S.; Cook, E. R.

2014-12-01

The rapid retreat of many glaciers in the monsoonal Himalaya is of potential societal concern. However, the retreat pattern in the region has been very heterogeneous, likely due in part to the inherent heterogeneity of climate and glaciers within the region. Assessing the impacts of glacier change on water resources, hydroelectric power, and hazard potential requires a detailed understanding of this potentially complex spatial pattern of glacier sensitivity to climate change. Here we quantify glacier surface-mass balance and meltwater flux across the entire glacierized region of the Bhutanese watershed using a full surface-energy and -mass balance model validated with field data. We then test the sensitivity of the glaciers to climatic change and compare the results to a thirty-year record of glacier volume changes. Bhutan is chosen because it (1) sits in the bulls-eye of the monsoon, (2) has >600 glaciers that exhibit the extreme glacier heterogeneity typical of the Himalayas, and (3) faces many of the economic and hazard challenges associated with glacier changes in the Himalaya. Therefore, the methods and results from this study should be broadly applicable to other regions of the monsoonal Himalaya. Our modeling results show a complex spatial pattern of glacier sensitivity to changes in climate across the Bhutanese Himalaya. However, our results also show that <15% of the glaciers in Bhutan account for >90% of the total meltwater flux, and that these glaciers are uniformly the glaciers most sensitive to changes in temperature (and less sensitive to other climate variables). We compare these results to a thirty-year record of glacier volume changes over the same region. In particular, we extract DEMs and orthorectified imagery from 1976 historical spy satellite images and 2006 ASTER images. DEM differencing shows that the glaciers that have changed most over the past thirty years also have the highest modeled temperature sensitivity. These results suggest that

10. Maternal investment influences expression of resource polymorphism in amphibians: implications for the evolution of novel resource-use phenotypes.

PubMed

Martin, Ryan A; Pfennig, David W

2010-02-09

Maternal effects--where an individual's phenotype is influenced by the phenotype or environment of its mother--are taxonomically and ecologically widespread. Yet, their role in the origin of novel, complex traits remains unclear. Here we investigate the role of maternal effects in influencing the induction of a novel resource-use phenotype. Spadefoot toad tadpoles, Spea multiplicata, often deviate from their normal development and produce a morphologically distinctive carnivore-morph phenotype, which specializes on anostracan fairy shrimp. We evaluated whether maternal investment influences expression of this novel phenotype. We found that larger females invested in larger eggs, which, in turn, produced larger tadpoles. Such larger tadpoles are better able to capture the shrimp that induce carnivores. By influencing the expression of novel resource-use phenotypes, maternal effects may play a largely underappreciated role in the origins of novelty.

11. Stoichiometric imbalances between terrestrial decomposer communities and their resources: mechanisms and implications of microbial adaptations to their resources.

PubMed

Mooshammer, Maria; Wanek, Wolfgang; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas

2014-01-01

Terrestrial microbial decomposer communities thrive on a wide range of organic matter types that rarely ever meet their elemental demands. In this review we synthesize the current state-of-the-art of microbial adaptations to resource stoichiometry, in order to gain a deeper understanding of the interactions between heterotrophic microbial communities and their chemical environment. The stoichiometric imbalance between microbial communities and their organic substrates generally decreases from wood to leaf litter and further to topsoil and subsoil organic matter. Microbial communities can respond to these imbalances in four ways: first, they adapt their biomass composition toward their resource in a non-homeostatic behavior. Such changes are, however, only moderate, and occur mainly because of changes in microbial community structure and less so due to cellular storage of elements in excess. Second, microbial communities can mobilize resources that meet their elemental demand by producing specific extracellular enzymes, which, in turn, is restricted by the C and N requirement for enzyme production itself. Third, microbes can regulate their element use efficiencies (ratio of element invested in growth over total element uptake), such that they release elements in excess depending on their demand (e.g., respiration and N mineralization). Fourth, diazotrophic bacteria and saprotrophic fungi may trigger the input of external N and P to decomposer communities. Theoretical considerations show that adjustments in element use efficiencies may be the most important mechanism by which microbes regulate their biomass stoichiometry. This review summarizes different views on how microbes cope with imbalanced supply of C, N and P, thereby providing a framework for integrating and linking microbial adaptation to resource imbalances to ecosystem scale fluxes across scales and ecosystems.

12. Water resources implications of integrating malaria control into the operation of an Ethiopian dam

Reis, Julia; Culver, Teresa B.; McCartney, Matthew; Lautze, Jonathan; Kibret, Solomon

2011-09-01

This paper investigates the water resources implications of using a method of hydrological control to reduce malaria around the Koka reservoir in central Ethiopia. This method is based on recent findings that malaria is transmitted from the shoreline of the Koka reservoir, and on a similar method that was used to control malaria some 80 yr ago in the United States. To assess the feasibility of implementing hydrological control at Koka, we considered the potential impact of the modified management regime on the benefits derived from current uses of the reservoir water (i.e., hydropower, irrigation, flood control, water supply, and downstream environmental flows). We used the HEC-ResSim model to simulate lowering the reservoir by a rate designed to disrupt larval development, which is expected to reduce the abundance of adult mosquito vectors and therefore reduce malaria transmission during the season in which transmission of the disease peaks. A comparison was made of major reservoir uses with and without the malaria control measure. In the 26-yr simulation, application of the malaria control measure increased total average annual electricity generation from 87.6 GWh × y-1 to 92.2 GWh × y-1 (i.e., a 5.3% increase) but resulted in a small decline in firm power generation (i.e., guaranteed at 99.5% reliability) from 4.16 MW to 4.15 MW (i.e., a 0.2% decrease). Application of the malaria control measure did not impact the ability of the reservoir to meet downstream irrigation demand and reduced the number of days of downstream flooding from 28 to 24 d. These results indicate that targeted use of hydrological control for malaria vector management could be undertaken without sacrificing the key benefits of reservoir operation.

13. Exploring parameter effects on the economic outcomes of groundwater-based developments in remote, low-resource settings

2014-06-01

Groundwater is often the most or only feasible safe drinking water source in remote, low-resource areas, yet the economics of its development have not been systematically outlined. We applied AWARE (Assessing Water Alternatives in Remote Economies), a recently developed Decision Support System, to investigate the costs and benefits of groundwater access and abstraction for non-networked, rural supplies. Synthetic profiles of community water services (n = 17,962), defined across 13 parameters' values and ranges relevant to remote areas, were applied to the decision framework, and the parameter effects on economic outcomes were investigated. Regressions and analysis of output distributions indicate that the most important factors determining the cost of water improvements include the technological approach, the water service target, hydrological parameters, and population density. New source construction is less cost-effective than the use or improvement of existing wells, but necessary for expanding access to isolated households. We also explored three financing approaches - willingness-to-pay, -borrow, and -work - and found that they significantly impact the prospects of achieving demand-driven cost recovery. The net benefit under willingness to work, in which water infrastructure is coupled to community irrigation and cash payments replaced by labor commitments, is impacted most strongly by groundwater yield and managerial factors. These findings suggest that the cost-benefit dynamics of groundwater-based water supply improvements vary considerably by many parameters, and that the relative strengths of different development strategies may be leveraged for achieving optimal outcomes.

14. A narrative review on the effect of economic downturns on the nursing labour market: implications for policy and planning.

PubMed

Alameddine, Mohamad; Baumann, Andrea; Laporte, Audrey; Deber, Raisa

2012-08-20

Economic downturns and recession lead to budget cuts and service reductions in the healthcare sector which often precipitate layoffs and hiring freezes. Nurses, being the largest professional group in healthcare, are strongly affected by cost reductions. Economic downturns destabilize the nursing labour market with potential negative outcomes, including serious shortages, extending beyond the recessionary period. The objectives of this manuscript are to provide an overview of the potential short- and long-run impact of economic downturns on the supply and demand of nurses, and present healthcare decision makers with a framework to enhance their ability to strategically manage their human resources through economic cycles.A narrative review of the literature on the effects of economic downturns on the nursing labour market in developed countries was carried out with a special focus on studies offering a longitudinal examination of labour force trends. Analysis indicates that economic downturns limit the ability of public payers and institutions to finance their existing health workforce. As salaried healthcare workers, nurses are especially susceptible to institutional budget cuts. In the short run, economic downturns may temporarily reduce the demand for and increase the supply of nurses, thereby influencing nursing wages and turnover rates. These effects may destabilise the nursing labour market in the long run. After economic downturns, the market would quickly display the pre-recessionary trends and there may be serious demand-supply imbalances resulting in severe shortages. Potential long-term effects of recession on the nursing labour market may include a downsized active workforce, difficulty in retaining younger nurses, a decreased supply of nurses and workforce casualisation.Lack of understanding of labour market dynamics and trends might mislead policy makers into making misinformed workforce downsizing decisions that are often difficult and expensive to

15. Resource engineering and economic studies for direct application of geothermal energy. Draft final report

SciTech Connect

Not Available

1981-12-01

The feasibility of utilizing geothermal energy at a selected plant in New York State was studied. Existing oil and gas records suggests that geothermal fluid is available in the target area and based on this potential. Friendship Dairies, Inc., Friendship, NY, was selected as a potential user of geothermal energy. Currently natural gas and electricity are used as its primary energy sources. Six geothermal system configurations were analyzed based on replacement of gas or oil-fired systems for producing process heat. Each system was evaluated in terms of Internal Rate of Return on Investment (IRR), and simple payback. Six system configurations and two replaced fuels, representative of a range of situations found in the state, are analyzed. Based on the potential geothermal reserves at Friendship, each of the six system configurations are shown to be economically viable, compared to continued gas or oil-firing. The Computed IRR's are all far in excess of projected average interest rates for long term borrowings: approximately 15% for guarantee backed loans or as high as 20% for conventional financing. IRR is computed based on the total investment (equity plus debt) and cash flows before financing costs, i.e., before interest expense, but after the tax benefit of the interest deduction. The base case application for the Friendship analysis is case B/20 yr-gas which produces an IRR of 28.5% and payback of 3.4 years. Even better returns could be realized in the cases of oil-avoidance and where greater use of geothermal energy can be made as shown in the other cases considered.

16. Resources.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aviation/Space, 1980

1980-01-01

The resources listed different types of materials related to the aerospace science under specified categories: free materials and inexpensive, selected government publication, audiovisual (government, nongovernment), aviation books, and space books. The list includes the publisher's name and the price for each publication. (SK)

17. Resources.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stewart, John; MacDonald, Ian

1980-01-01

Presents a guide to resources on television drama available to teachers for classroom use in television curriculum. Lists American and British television drama videorecordings of both series and individual presentations and offers a bibliography of "one-off" single fiction plays produced for British television. (JMF)

18. Resources.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aviation/Space, 1980

1980-01-01

The resources listed different types of materials related to the aerospace science under specified categories: free materials and inexpensive, selected government publication, audiovisual (government, nongovernment), aviation books, and space books. The list includes the publisher's name and the price for each publication. (SK)

19. Understanding the economic burden of heart failure in China: impact on disease management and resource utilization.

PubMed

Huang, Jun; Yin, Hongjun; Zhang, Milun; Ni, Qian; Xuan, Jianwei

2017-05-01

This study has two objectives: (1) to examine healthcare resource utilization in heart failure (HF) patients; and (2) to examine the treatment costs associated with HF in China. The data used in this study was from the 2014 national insurance database sponsored by the China Health Insurance Research Association (CHIRA), that covers national urban employees and residents. ICD-10 codes and keywords indicating heart failure diagnoses were used to identify patients with heart failure. Drug utilization, hospital visits, re-admission, and treatment costs in different service categories were examined. A total of 7,847 patients were included in this analysis, of which 1,157 patients had a 1-year complete follow-up period. In total, 48.16% of patients received the combination treatment of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)/angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) and beta-blockers (BB); and 22.87% of patients received the combination treatment of ACEI/ARB, beta-blockers and Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs). The annual treatment cost per patient with HF diagnosis was RMB 28,974, of which 66% was for inpatient care. The cost on HF medications accounted for 8.2% of annual cost. Treatment cost was much higher in provincial-level municipalities than that of prefecture-level and other cities. Hospitalization is a major driver of HF treatment cost. Compared to the requirements in international treatment guidelines, HF standard of care medication treatment was under-utilized among HF patients in China. The high re-admission rate among Chinese patients indicates that the management of HF needs to be improved. The percentage of GDP spent on treating HF patients was much lower than that in the developed countries.

20. Economic feasibility of a new method to estimate mortality in crisis-affected and resource-poor settings.

PubMed

Roberts, Bayard; Morgan, Oliver W; Sultani, Mohammed Ghaus; Nyasulu, Peter; Rwebangila, Sunday; Sondorp, Egbert; Chandramohan, Daniel; Checchi, Francesco

2011-01-01

Mortality data provide essential evidence on the health status of populations in crisis-affected and resource-poor settings and to guide and assess relief operations. Retrospective surveys are commonly used to collect mortality data in such populations, but require substantial resources and have important methodological limitations. We evaluated the feasibility of an alternative method for rapidly quantifying mortality (the informant method). The study objective was to assess the economic feasibility of the informant method. The informant method captures deaths through an exhaustive search for all deaths occurring in a population over a defined and recent recall period, using key community informants and next-of-kin of decedents. Between July and October 2008, we implemented and evaluated the informant method in: Kabul, Afghanistan; Mae La camp for Karen refugees, Thai-Burma border; Chiradzulu District, Malawi; and Lugufu and Mtabila refugee camps, Tanzania. We documented the time and cost inputs for the informant method in each site, and compared these with projections for hypothetical retrospective mortality surveys implemented in the same site with a 6 month recall period and with a 30 day recall period. The informant method was estimated to require an average of 29% less time inputs and 33% less monetary inputs across all four study sites when compared with retrospective surveys with a 6 month recall period, and 88% less time inputs and 86% less monetary inputs when compared with retrospective surveys with a 1 month recall period. Verbal autopsy questionnaires were feasible and efficient, constituting only 4% of total person-time for the informant method's implementation in Chiradzulu District. The informant method requires fewer resources and incurs less respondent burden. The method's generally impressive feasibility and the near real-time mortality data it provides warrant further work to develop the method given the importance of mortality measurement in