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Sample records for resources supply document

  1. 1992 Conversion Resources Supply Document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    In recent years conservation of electric power has become an integral part of utility planning. The 1980 Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act) requires that the region consider conservation potential in planning acquisitions of resources to meet load growth. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) developed its first estimates of conservation potential in 1982. Since that time BPA has updated its conservation supply analyses as a part of its Resource Program and other planning efforts. Major updates were published in 1985 and in January 1990. This 1992 document presents updated supply curves, which are estimates of the savings potential over time (cumulative savings) at different cost levels of energy conservation measures (ECMs). ECMs are devices, pieces of equipment, or actions that increase the efficiency of electricity use and reduce the amount of electricity used by end-use equipment.

  2. Generating Resources Supply Curves.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Division of Power Resources Planning.

    1985-07-01

    This report documents Pacific Northwest supply curve information for both renewable and other generating resources. Resources are characterized as ''Renewable'' and ''Other'' as defined in section 3 or the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act. The following resources are described: renewable: (cogeneration; geothermal; hydroelectric (new); hydroelectric (efficiency improvement); solar; and wind); other (nonrenewable generation resources: coal; combustion turbines; and nuclear. Each resource has the following information documented in tabular format: (1) Technical Characteristics; (2) Costs (capital and O and M); (3) Energy Distribution by Month; and (4) Supply Forecast (energy). Combustion turbine (CT) energy supply is not forecasted because of CT's typical peaking application. Their supply is therefore unconstrained in order to facilitate analysis of their operation in the regional electrical supply system. The generic nuclear resource is considered unavailable to the region over the planning horizon.

  3. Electronic Document Supply Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawkell, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    Describes electronic document delivery systems used by libraries and document image processing systems used for business purposes. Topics discussed include technical specifications; analogue read-only laser videodiscs; compact discs and CD-ROM; WORM; facsimile; ADONIS (Article Delivery over Network Information System); DOCDEL; and systems at the…

  4. Analyzing nonrenewable resource supply

    SciTech Connect

    Bohi, D.R.; Toman, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Starting with their vision of a useful model of supply behavior as dynamic and market oriented, the authors examine the literature to see what it offers, to fill in some of the missing elements, and to direct attention to the research that is required. Following an introduction, separate chapters deal with the basic theory of supply behavior; joint products, externalities, and technical change; uncertainty, expectations, and supply behavior; aggregate supply and market behavior; and empirical methods and problems. The authors argue that practical understanding of nonrenewable resource supply is hampered by gaps among theory, methodology, and data, and offer a standard designed to achieve consistency among theory, data, and estimation methods. Their recommendations for additional research focus on general specification issues, uncertainty and expectations, market-level analysis, and strategic behavioral issues. 151 references, 9 figures.

  5. IFLA General Conference, 1989. Pre-Session Seminar on Interlending and Document Supply. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The papers in this compilation address topics relating to interlending and document supply and include the following: (1) "Training in Interlending" (D. E. K. Wijasuriya, Malaysia); (2) "Resource Collections and Document Supply Centre" (Stephney Ferguson, Jamaica); (3) "Organizing for Interlibrary Loan and Document Supply" (Rodrick S. Mabomba);…

  6. Oil and Gas Supply Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Defines the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model's basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public.

  7. Understanding nonrenewable resource supply behavior.

    PubMed

    Bohi, D R; Toman, M A

    1983-02-25

    Decisions concerned with finding, developing, and extracting nonrenewable resources are dynamically interrelated in complex ways. Economic theory provides a description of this process that yields useful insights, but there are gaps between theory and empirical applications that hinder our understanding of how supply responds to changes in economic incentives. Consequently, many questions concerning market efficiency as opposed to government intervention remain open. PMID:17817917

  8. Superalloy resources: Supply and availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Joseph R.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past several decades there have been shortages of strategic materials because of our near total import dependence on such metals as chromium, cobalt, and tantalum. In response to the continued vulnerability of U.S. superalloy producers to disruptions in resource supplies, NASA has undertaken a program to address alternatives to the super-alloys containing significant quantities of the strategic materials such as chromium, cobalt, niobium, and tantalum. The research program called Conservation of Strategic Aerospace Materials (COSAM) focuses on substitution, processing, and alternate materials to achieve its goals. In addition to NASA Lewis Research Center, universities and industry play an important role in the COSAM Program. This paper defines what is meant by strategic materials in the aerospace community, presents a strategic materials index, and reviews the resource supply and availability picture from the U.S. point of view. In addition, research results from the COSAM Program are highlighted and future directions for the use of low strategic material alloys or alternate materials are discussed.

  9. Analyzing nonrenewable resource supply. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bohi, D.R.; Toman, M.A.

    1986-02-01

    Confusion about the determinants of nonrenewable resource supply is one of the vexing problems at the intersection of economics and public policy. Specifically, questions of oil and natural gas supply response have been at the core of arguments over price controls, taxes, and other policy measures. Supply responses also figure prominently in concern about future availability and cost of petroleum and minerals. What is needed to clear up the confusion is an approach that brings together a theory of resource supply, data to make that theory operational, and a methodology to bring the two together - all set within an institutional framework sufficiently rich to illuminate behavioral consequences. Without this amalgam, economists will not be able to answer questions of the sort suggested above with sufficient precision and certainty to provide specific and persuasive policy guidance. In a broader sense, their conclusions on resource supply trends over the longer term will remain conjectural. In market economies such as the US, approaches grounded in abstract social decision rules have limited relevance. An adequate theory must start with the behavior of individual actors and the interaction of incentives, expectations, and decisions over time. Moreover, the process of bringing resources to the market integrates across production stages and cannot be successfully modeled otherwise. Another issue that deserves special attention is the aggregation of individual behavior at the industry level.

  10. Renewable resources in the US electricity supply

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-05

    Renewable resources (solar, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, biomass, and waste) currently provide nearly 12 percent of the Nation`s electricity supply. Almost 10 of this 12 percent is provided by hydroelectric resources alone. Biomass and municipal solid waste (MSW) together contribute more than 1 percent. All other renewable resources, including geothermal, wind, and solar, together provide less than 1 percent of the total. Many renewable resources are relative newcomers to the electric power market. In particular, electricity generation using geothermal, wind, solar, and MSW resources have had their greatest expansion in the 1980`s. This was a result of significant technological improvements, the implementation of favorable Federal and State policies, and the reaction to the increasing costs of using fossil and nuclear fuels. The use of renewable resources for electricity generation has also been encouraged as less environmentally damaging than fossil fuels. Because renewable energy is available domestically, renewable resources are viewed as more secure than imported fossil fuels. This report, Renewable Resources in the US Electricity Supply, presents descriptions of the history, current use, and forecasted future applications of renewable resources for electricity generation and of the factors that influence those applications.

  11. Renewable resources in the US electricity supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    Renewable resources (solar, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, biomass, and waste) currently provide nearly 12 percent of the Nation's electricity supply. Almost 10 of this 12 percent is provided by hydroelectric resources alone. Biomass and municipal solid waste (MSW) together contribute more than 1 percent. All other renewable resources, including geothermal, wind, and solar, together provide less than 1 percent of the total. Many renewable resources are relative newcomers to the electric power market. In particular, electricity generation using geothermal, wind, solar, and MSW resources have had their greatest expansion in the 1980's. This was a result of significant technological improvements, the implementation of favorable Federal and State policies, and the reaction to the increasing costs of using fossil and nuclear fuels. The use of renewable resources for electricity generation has also been encouraged as less environmentally damaging than fossil fuels. Because renewable energy is available domestically, renewable resources are viewed as more secure than imported fossil fuels. Descriptions of the history, current use, and forecasted future applications of renewable resources for electricity generation and of the factors that influence those applications are presented.

  12. Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. Projected production estimates of US crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian/Antrim shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projections are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects US domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted profitability to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region. Foreign gas trade may occur via either pipeline (Canada or Mexico), or via transport ships as liquefied natural gas (LNG). These import supply functions are critical elements of any market modeling effort.

  13. Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-24

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. It is prepared in accordance with the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, Section 57(b)(2)). Projected production estimates of U.S. crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projections are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects U.S. domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted drilling expenditures and average drilling costs to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region. Foreign gas trade may occur via either pipeline (Canada or Mexico), or via transport ships as liquefied natural gas (LNG). These import supply functions are critical elements of any market modeling effort.

  14. Environmental projects. Volume 7: Environmental resources document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, Len; Kroll, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) in Barstow, California, is part of the NASA Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Goldstone is managed, directed and operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of Pasadena, California. The GDSCC includes five distinct operational sites: Echo, Venus, Mars, Apollo, and Mojave Base. Within each site is a Deep Space Station (DPS), consisting of a large dish antenna and its support facilities. As required by NASA directives concerning the implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act, each NASA field installation is to publish an Environmental Resources Document describing the current environment at the installation, including any adverse effects that NASA operations may have on the local environment.

  15. Documentation of the oil and gas supply module (OGSM)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSK, to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. It is prepared in accordance with the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, Section 57(b)(2). OGSM is a comprehensive framework with which to analyze oil and gas supply potential and related issues. Its primary function is to produce forecast of crude oil, natural gas production, and natural gas imports and exports in response to price data received endogenously (within NEMS) from the Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) and the Petroleum Market Model (PMM). To accomplish this task, OGSM does not provide production forecasts per se, but rather parameteres for short-term domestic oil and gas production functions and natural gas import functions that reside in PMM and NGTDM.

  16. 14 CFR 1216.319 - Environmental resources document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (see 14 CFR 1216.307). This document shall be coordinated with the Associate Administrator for... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental resources document. 1216.319... Environmental resources document. Each Field Installation Director shall ensure that there exists...

  17. 14 CFR 1216.319 - Environmental resources document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (see 14 CFR 1216.307). This document shall be coordinated with the Associate Administrator for... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental resources document. 1216.319... Environmental resources document. Each Field Installation Director shall ensure that there exists...

  18. 14 CFR 1216.319 - Environmental resources document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (see 14 CFR 1216.307). This document shall be coordinated with the Associate Administrator for... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Environmental resources document. 1216.319... Environmental resources document. Each Field Installation Director shall ensure that there exists...

  19. EIA model documentation: Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. Projected production estimates of US crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projects are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects US domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted drilling expenditures and average drilling costs to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region.

  20. A Process Algebraic Framework for Modeling Resource Demand and Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippou, Anna; Lee, Insup; Sokolsky, Oleg; Choi, Jin-Young

    As real-time embedded systems become more complex, resource partitioning is increasingly used to guarantee real-time performance. Recently, several compositional frameworks of resource partitioning have been proposed using real-time scheduling theory with various notions of real-time tasks running under restricted resource supply environments. However, these real-time scheduling-based approaches are limited in their expressiveness in that, although capable of describing resource-demand tasks, they are unable to model resource supply. This paper describes a process algebraic framework for reasoning about resource demand and supply inspired by the timed process algebra ACSR. In ACSR, real-time tasks are specified by enunciating their consumption needs for resources. To also accommodate resource-supply processes we define PADS where, given a resource CPU, the complimented resource overline{CPU} denotes for availability of CPU for the corresponding demand process. Using PADS, we define a supply-demand relation where a pair (S, T) belongs to the relation if the demand process T can be scheduled under supply S. We develop a theory of compositional schedulability analysis as well as a technique for synthesizing an optimal supply process for a set of tasks. We illustrate our technique via a number of examples.

  1. Water-Resources Manpower: Supply and Demand Patterns to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, James E.

    Relating the supply of scientific manpower to the educational potential of the general population and the productive capacity of the educational system, this study disaggregates independent projections of scientific manpower supply and demand to yield projections for water resources manpower. This supply of engineers, natural scientists, and…

  2. TECHNICAL RESOURCE DOCUMENT ON MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2005, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a document entitled Contaminated Sediment Remediation Guidance for Hazardous Waste Sites (EPA, 2005), which provides technical and policy guidance for project managers and teams making risk manageme...

  3. FIREX mission requirements document for renewable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, F.; Dixon, T.

    1982-01-01

    The initial experimental program and mission requirements for a satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system FIREX (Free-Flying Imaging Radar Experiment) for renewable resources is described. The spacecraft SAR is a C-band and L-band VV polarized system operating at two angles of incidence which is designated as a research instrument for crop identification, crop canopy condition assessments, soil moisture condition estimation, forestry type and condition assessments, snow water equivalent and snow wetness assessments, wetland and coastal land type identification and mapping, flood extent mapping, and assessment of drainage characteristics of watersheds for water resources applications. Specific mission design issues such as the preferred incidence angles for vegetation canopy measurements and the utility of a dual frequency (L and C-band) or dual polarization system as compared to the baseline system are addressed.

  4. FIREX mission requirements document for nonrenewable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, T.; Carsey, F.

    1982-01-01

    The proposed mission requirements and a proposed experimental program for satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system named FIREX (Free-Flying Imaging Radar Experiment) for nonrenewable resources is described. The recommended spacecraft minimum SAR system is a C-band imager operating in four modes: (1) low look angle HH-polarized; (2) intermediate look angle, HH-polarized; (3) intermediate look angle, IIV-polarized; and (4) high look angle HH-polarized. This SAR system is complementary to other future spaceborne imagers such as the Thematic Mapper on LANDSAT-D. A near term aircraft SAR based research program is outlined which addresses specific mission design issues such as preferred incidence angles or polarizations for geologic targets of interest.

  5. Econometrics of exhaustible resource supply: a theory and an application

    SciTech Connect

    Epple, D.

    1983-01-01

    This report takes a major step toward developing a fruitful approach to empirical analysis of resource supply. It is the first empirical application of resource theory that has successfully integrated the effects of depletion of nonrenewable resources with the effects of uncertainty about future costs and prices on supply behavior. Thus, the model is a major improvement over traditional engineering-optimization models that assume complete certainty, and over traditional econometrics models that are only implicitly related to the theory of resource supply. The model is used to test hypotheses about interdependence of oil and natural gas discoveries, depletion, ultimate recovery, and the role of price expectations. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of using exhaustible resource theory in the development of empirically testable models. 19 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  6. Community resiliency through recovery resource supply chain planning.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Charlotte; Todt, Kiersten

    2014-01-01

    Information in this paper is the result of recommendations and remedies developed at 'Local Supply Chain Capacity in a Crisis Summit Exercise' held in Arlington, VA on 30th-31st January,2013. At the event, which was funded through the Regional Catastrophic Preparedness Grant Program, national private sector and not-for-profit essential resource provider experts in sectors such as transportation, communication systems, energy/power, financial resources, medical supplies and other vital supplies, together with emergency managers, discussed best practices, major challenges and exchanged remedy recommendations. PMID:24578021

  7. Community resiliency through recovery resource supply chain planning.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Charlotte; Todt, Kiersten

    2014-01-01

    Information in this paper is the result of recommendations and remedies developed at 'Local Supply Chain Capacity in a Crisis Summit Exercise' held in Arlington, VA on 30th-31st January,2013. At the event, which was funded through the Regional Catastrophic Preparedness Grant Program, national private sector and not-for-profit essential resource provider experts in sectors such as transportation, communication systems, energy/power, financial resources, medical supplies and other vital supplies, together with emergency managers, discussed best practices, major challenges and exchanged remedy recommendations.

  8. Accurate Documentation of Malnutrition Diagnosis Reflects Increased Healthcare Resource Utilization.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Wendy

    2015-10-01

    Nutrition support professionals often care for the sickest of hospitalized patients. An understanding of healthcare payment models can help the nutrition support professional know how documentation of nutrition status can ensure maximum resources are available to care for these patients. Medicare is the major funding source for many hospitals in the United States. Hospitals receive payments using the Acute Care Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment System, which classifies patients into Medical Severity Diagnosis-Related Groups (MS-DRGs) to determine payment amounts. Documentation of comorbidities and complications can increase the payment hospitals receive to offset increased resource utilization. This article explains how malnutrition documentation and coding can influence the case mix index, an indicator of level of acuity of patients treated at the hospital, and the payment the hospital receives to care for the patient.

  9. The Role of Inter-Lending and Document Supply in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaacob, Raja Abdullah

    This paper on interlibrary loan and document supply in Malaysia covers the following topics: (1) trends and development in Malaysia; (2) the potential of inter-lending and document delivery programs, including the creation of a Malaysian bibliographic network; (3) number of libraries, including a table that shows the total number of libraries in…

  10. Future US energy supply: constraints by nonfuel mineral resources

    SciTech Connect

    Goeller, H.E.

    1980-12-01

    A continuing supply of energy for the domestic scene is of vital concern to our nation and is determined to a significant extent by the availability of sufficient nonfuel resources used in the production and utilization of various forms of energy. This report, taking a very comprehensive view, first establishes the current energy-related requirements for the various elements and mineral products. It then assesses domestic and world reserves and resources for each nonrenewable resource and determines a ranking of impending domestic scarcities by using resource-to-demand ratios. Special problems on by-products production are noted, followed by a discussion on import dependency. The roles of recycle and substitution are then assessed, and the possibilities for synthesis of nonelement commodities are reviewed. Detailed requirements for the more widely used materials in a large number of energy supply systems are then provided, followed by newer future requirements for more advanced energy systems anticipated to be in widespread use in the next century. Finally, the various problems associated with 16 elements deemed most likely to become scarce within the next 50 years are resummarized, and the general conclusions of this study are provided.

  11. Architecture Study for a Fuel Depot Supplied from Lunar Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrin, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Heretofore, discussions of space fuel depots assumed the depots would be supplied from Earth. However, the confirmation of deposits of water ice at the lunar poles in 2009 suggests the possibility of supplying a space depot with liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen produced from lunar ice. This architecture study sought to determine the optimum architecture for a fuel depot supplied from lunar resources. Four factors - the location of propellant processing (on the Moon or on the depot), the location of the depot (on the Moon or in cislunar space), and if in cislunar space, where (LEO, GEO, or Earth-Moon L1), and the method of propellant transfer (bulk fuel or canister exchange) were combined to identify 18 potential architectures. Two design reference missions (DRMs) - a satellite servicing mission and a cargo mission to Mars - were used to create demand for propellants, while a third DRM - a propellant delivery mission - was used to examine supply issues. The architectures were depicted graphically in a network diagram with individual segments representing the movement of propellant from the Moon to the depot, and from the depot to the customer

  12. Architecture Study for a Fuel Depot Supplied from Lunar Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrin, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Heretofore, discussions of space fuel depots assumed the depots would be supplied from Earth. However, the confirmation of deposits of water ice at the lunar poles in 2009 suggests the possibility of supplying a space depot with liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen produced from lunar ice. This architecture study sought to determine the optimum architecture for a fuel depot supplied from lunar resources. Four factors - the location of propellant processing (on the Moon or on the depot), the location of the depot (on the Moon, or at L1, GEO, or LEO), the location of propellant transfer (L1, GEO, or LEO), and the method of propellant transfer (bulk fuel or canister exchange) were combined to identify 18 potential architectures. Two design reference missions (DRMs) - a satellite servicing mission and a cargo mission to Mars - were used to create demand for propellants, while a third DRM - a propellant delivery mission - was used to examine supply issues. The architectures were depicted graphically in a network diagram with individual segments representing the movement of propellant from the Moon to the depot, and from the depot to the customer.

  13. Rare resource supply crisis and solution technology for semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Hitomi; Hu, Sophia; Yoo, Youngsun; Takahisa, Kenji; Enami, Tatsuo

    2016-03-01

    There are growing concerns over future environmental impact and earth resource shortage throughout the world and in many industries. Our semiconductor industry is not excluded. "Green" has become an important topic as production volume become larger and more powerful. Especially, the rare gases are widely used in semiconductor manufacturing because of its inertness and extreme chemical stability. One major component of an Excimer laser system is Neon. It is used as a buffer gas for Argon (Ar) and Krypton (Kr) gases used in deep ultraviolet (DUV) lithography laser systems. Since Neon gas accounting for more than 96% of the laser gas mixture, a fairly large amount of neon gas is consumed to run these DUV lasers. However, due to country's instability both in politics and economics in Ukraine, the main producer of neon gas today, supply reduction has become an issue and is causing increasing concern. This concern is not only based on price increases, but has escalated to the point of supply shortages in 2015. This poses a critical situation for the semiconductor industry, which represents the leading consumer of neon gas in the world. Helium is another noble gas used for Excimer laser operation. It is used as a purge gas for optical component modules to prevent from being damaged by active gases and impurities. Helium has been used in various industries, including for medical equipment, linear motor cars, and semiconductors, and is indispensable for modern life. But consumption of helium in manufacturing has been increased dramatically, and its unstable supply and price rise has been a serious issue today. In this article, recent global supply issue of rare resources, especially Neon gas and Helium gas, and its solution technology to support semiconductor industry will be discussed.

  14. The Vanuatu medical supply system – documenting opportunities and challenges to meet the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew; Gilbert, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Limited human resources are widely recognised as a barrier to achieve health-related Millennium Development Goals. Availability of medical supplies and suitably trained health personnel are crucial to ensuring a well-functioning medical supply system. The objective of this paper is to identify the factors which influence the availability of medical supplies within the health facilities of Vanuatu. Methods: A qualitative triangulated strategy using semi-structured interviews, observational workplace surveys and semi-structured focus groups was developed. This research was approved by the Human Ethics Committee of the University of Canberra and was funded through a direct grant from the United Nations Population Fund Suva, Pacific sub regional office. Results: During two weeks of data collection, 21 interviews were conducted, observational workplace surveys were completed in 19 facilities and 22 personnel participated in three focus groups across three provinces. The interviewees had a wide range of primary professional groupings and were representative of the Vanuatu health workforce. A complex array of medical supply issues are described from within the three tiered structure of the medical supply system. Conclusion: The results of this research have further informed our understanding of the competencies required by healthcare personnel to conduct medical supply management activities effectively in Pacific Island countries. As a result of this research, a platform is provided for the government of Vanuatu to engage development partners to work toward a sustainable medical supply system. PMID:23093895

  15. Technical resource document for assured thermal processing of wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Farrow, R.L.; Fisk, G.A.; Hartwig, C.M.; Hurt, R.H.; Ringland, J.T.; Swansiger, W.A.

    1994-06-01

    This document is a concise compendium of resource material covering assured thermal processing of wastes (ATPW), an area in which Sandia aims to develop a large program. The ATPW program at Sandia is examining a wide variety of waste streams and thermal processes. Waste streams under consideration include municipal, chemical, medical, and mixed wastes. Thermal processes under consideration range from various incineration technologies to non-incineration processes such as supercritical water oxidation or molten metal technologies. Each of the chapters describes the element covered, discusses issues associated with its further development and/or utilization, presents Sandia capabilities that address these issues, and indicates important connections to other ATPW elements. The division of the field into elements was driven by the team`s desire to emphasize areas where Sandia`s capabilities can lead to major advances and is therefore somewhat unconventional. The report will be valuable to Sandians involved in further ATPW program development.

  16. Balancing the scales: Data on electricity supply and demand resources

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.

    1990-09-01

    In the energy arena, the greatest data needs concern the costs and performance of demand-side management (DSM) programs, which are likely to grow in size and importance. It is difficult to assess the contributions that utility DSM programs could make to resolving national energy problems because comprehensive and accurate data on such programs do not exist. As debates continue over acid rain, global warming, integrated resource planning, competitive bidding to provide resources to utilities, and energy-efficiency and load-management programs, the need will increase for comprehensive and accurate information on utility DSM programs. Such programs will increase in scope and size because of concerns about environmental quality, because of the need to improve economic productivity, and because state regulatory commissions will provide financial incentives to utilities for implementation of successful DSM programs. This report discusses the data that utilities collect on the supply and delivery of electricity (i.e., the production, transmission, and distribution system) and the data collected on the DSM programs they operate. It will come as no surprise to most readers that there is a substantial imbalance between the information available on these two types of resources. 49 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) load and resource profiles.

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, Lauren; Skolnik, Edward G.; Marchionini, Brian; Fall, Ndeye K.

    2007-07-01

    In 1997, an international team interested in the development of Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) systems for rural electrification projects around the world was organized by the International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO) with the support of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The team focused on defining load and resource profiles for RAPS systems. They identified single family homes, small communities, and villages as candidates for RAPS applications, and defined several different size/power requirements for each. Based on renewable energy and resource data, the team devised a ''strawman'' series of load profiles. A RAPS system typically consists of a renewable and/or conventional generator, power conversion equipment, and a battery. The purpose of this report is to present data and information on insolation levels and load requirements for ''typical'' homes, small communities, and larger villages around the world in order to facilitate the development of robust design practices for RAPS systems, and especially for the storage battery component. These systems could have significant impact on areas of the world that would otherwise not be served by conventional electrical grids.

  18. Project Galaxy - Sustianable Resource Supply and Environmental Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, Mark; Wimmer, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Understanding what it takes to move from a corn-based liquid fuels industry to one that is cellulosic-based requires a complex transition over time. This transition implies, among other things, a shift from annual cropping systems considered under United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) policy as commodity crops, to perennial lignocellulosic crops that are herbaceous and wood-based. Because of changes in land use as well as biomass and other crop supplies, land-based environmental amenities such as water quality, soil health and tilth, air quality, and animal and avian species populations and their diversity change also. Environmental effects are measured as magnitudes (how much they are impacted), and direction of the impact (either positive or negative). By developing a series of quantitative and qualitative metrics, the larger issue of defining relative sustainability may be addressed, and this can be done at a finer detail of regional (scale) and environmental amenity-specific impacts. Although much literature exists about research relevant to specific environmental variables, there is no published, documented, nor research literature on direct application of environmental over-compliance with regards a 'biorefinery.' Our three goals were to (1) understand and quantify bioenergy sustainability and some key environmental effects in a generic set of examples; (2) explain the effort and means to define and quantify specific qualitative environmental measures, and to determine a way to understand changes in these measures over time and what their implications might be; and (3) use these outcomes to evaluate potential sites in any geographic area. This would permit assessment of candidate locations, combined with an understanding of co-production of fuels, chemicals, and electric power, to interpret sustainability measures and the relationship between environmental sustainability and economic sustainability. The process of determining environmental

  19. Analysis and decision document in support of acquisition of steam supply for the Hanford 200 Area

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Kavanaugh, D.C.; Reilly, R.W.; Shankle, D.L.; Smith, S.A.; Weakley, S.A.; Williams, T.A.; Grant, T.F.

    1992-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is now evaluating its facility requirements in support of its cleanup mission at Hanford. One of the early findings is that the 200-Area steam plants, constructed in 1943, will not meet future space heating and process needs. Because the 200 Area will serve as the primary area for waste treatment and long-term storage, a reliable steam supply is a critical element of Hanford operations. This Analysis and Decision Document (ADD) is a preliminary review of the steam supply options available to the DOE. The ADD contains a comprehensive evaluation of the two major acquisition options: line-term versus privatization. It addresses the life-cycle costs associated with each alternative, as well as factors such as contracting requirements and the impact of market, safety, security, and regulatory issues. Specifically, this ADD documents current and future steam requirements for the 200 Area, describes alternatives available to DOE for meeting these requirements, and compares the alternatives across a number of decision criteria, including life-cycle cost. DOE has currently limited the ADD evaluation alternatives to replacing central steam plants rather than expanding the study to include alternative heat sources, such as a distributed network of boilers or heat pumps. Thirteen project alternatives were analyzed in the ADD. One of the alternatives was the rehabilitation of the existing 200-East coal-fired facility. The other twelve alternatives are combinations of (1) coal- or gas-fueled plants, (2) steam-only or cogeneration facilities, (3) primary or secondary cogeneration of electricity, and (4) public or private ownership.

  20. Risk management measures for chemicals in consumer products: documentation, assessment, and communication across the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Bruinen de Bruin, Yuri; Hakkinen, Pertti Bert; Lahaniatis, Majlinda; Papameletiou, Demosthenes; Del Pozo, Carlos; Reina, Vittorio; Van Engelen, Jacqueline; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Viso, Anne Catherine; Rodriguez, Carlos; Jantunen, Matti

    2007-12-01

    This paper analyzes the way risk management measures (RMMs) for consumer products have been used to date in authority and industry risk assessments. A working concept for consumer product RMMs is developed, aimed at controlling, limiting or avoiding exposures, and helping to insure the safe use (or handling) of a substance as part of a consumer product. Particular focus is placed on new requirements introduced by REACH (registration, evaluation, and authorization of chemicals). A RMMs categorization approach is also developed, dividing consumer product RMMs into those that are product integrated and those that are communicated to consumers. For each of these categories, RMMs for normal use, accidental use or misuse need to be distinguished. The level of detail for documenting, assessing and communicating RMMs across supply chains can vary, depending on the type of the assessment (tiered approach). Information on RMMs was collected from published sources to demonstrate that a taxonomical approach using standard descriptors for RMMs libraries is needed for effective information exchange across supply chains. PMID:17609687

  1. Risk management measures for chemicals in consumer products: documentation, assessment, and communication across the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Bruinen de Bruin, Yuri; Hakkinen, Pertti Bert; Lahaniatis, Majlinda; Papameletiou, Demosthenes; Del Pozo, Carlos; Reina, Vittorio; Van Engelen, Jacqueline; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Viso, Anne Catherine; Rodriguez, Carlos; Jantunen, Matti

    2007-12-01

    This paper analyzes the way risk management measures (RMMs) for consumer products have been used to date in authority and industry risk assessments. A working concept for consumer product RMMs is developed, aimed at controlling, limiting or avoiding exposures, and helping to insure the safe use (or handling) of a substance as part of a consumer product. Particular focus is placed on new requirements introduced by REACH (registration, evaluation, and authorization of chemicals). A RMMs categorization approach is also developed, dividing consumer product RMMs into those that are product integrated and those that are communicated to consumers. For each of these categories, RMMs for normal use, accidental use or misuse need to be distinguished. The level of detail for documenting, assessing and communicating RMMs across supply chains can vary, depending on the type of the assessment (tiered approach). Information on RMMs was collected from published sources to demonstrate that a taxonomical approach using standard descriptors for RMMs libraries is needed for effective information exchange across supply chains.

  2. Timeline Resource Analysis Program (TRAP): User's manual and program document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sessler, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    The Timeline Resource Analysis Program (TRAP), developed for scheduling and timelining problems, is described. Given an activity network, TRAP generates timeline plots, resource histograms, and tabular summaries of the network, schedules, and resource levels. It is written in ANSI FORTRAN for the Honeywell SIGMA 5 computer and operates in the interactive mode using the TEKTRONIX 4014-1 graphics terminal. The input network file may be a standard SIGMA 5 file or one generated using the Interactive Graphics Design System. The timeline plots can be displayed in two orderings: according to the sequence in which the tasks were read on input, and a waterfall sequence in which the tasks are ordered by start time. The input order is especially meaningful when the network consists of several interacting subnetworks. The waterfall sequence is helpful in assessing the project status at any point in time.

  3. Planning for a Regional Learning Resources Service: An Exploratory Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giltrow, David

    An instrument was designed to elicit a direct reaction from colleagues as to the issues involved in the development of a metropolitan learning resource service. Sets of questions and items lay out the broadest range of functions, services, organization, governance, and funding which are feasible for such a service. It is assumed that any…

  4. Implementing the EuroFIR Document and Data Repositories as accessible resources of food composition information.

    PubMed

    Unwin, Ian; Jansen-van der Vliet, Martine; Westenbrink, Susanne; Presser, Karl; Infanger, Esther; Porubska, Janka; Roe, Mark; Finglas, Paul

    2016-02-15

    The EuroFIR Document and Data Repositories are being developed as accessible collections of source documents, including grey literature, and the food composition data reported in them. These Repositories will contain source information available to food composition database compilers when selecting their nutritional data. The Document Repository was implemented as searchable bibliographic records in the Europe PubMed Central database, which links to the documents online. The Data Repository will contain original data from source documents in the Document Repository. Testing confirmed the FoodCASE food database management system as a suitable tool for the input, documentation and quality assessment of Data Repository information. Data management requirements for the input and documentation of reported analytical results were established, including record identification and method documentation specifications. Document access and data preparation using the Repositories will provide information resources for compilers, eliminating duplicated work and supporting unambiguous referencing of data contributing to their compiled data.

  5. Implementing the EuroFIR Document and Data Repositories as accessible resources of food composition information.

    PubMed

    Unwin, Ian; Jansen-van der Vliet, Martine; Westenbrink, Susanne; Presser, Karl; Infanger, Esther; Porubska, Janka; Roe, Mark; Finglas, Paul

    2016-02-15

    The EuroFIR Document and Data Repositories are being developed as accessible collections of source documents, including grey literature, and the food composition data reported in them. These Repositories will contain source information available to food composition database compilers when selecting their nutritional data. The Document Repository was implemented as searchable bibliographic records in the Europe PubMed Central database, which links to the documents online. The Data Repository will contain original data from source documents in the Document Repository. Testing confirmed the FoodCASE food database management system as a suitable tool for the input, documentation and quality assessment of Data Repository information. Data management requirements for the input and documentation of reported analytical results were established, including record identification and method documentation specifications. Document access and data preparation using the Repositories will provide information resources for compilers, eliminating duplicated work and supporting unambiguous referencing of data contributing to their compiled data. PMID:26433292

  6. Modelling inter-supply chain competition with resource limitation and demand disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhaobo; Teng, Chunxian; Zhang, Ding; Sun, Jiayi

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive model for studying supply chain versus supply chain competition with resource limitation and demand disruption. We assume that there are supply chains with heterogeneous supply network structures that compete at multiple demand markets. Each supply chain is comprised of internal and external firms. The internal firms are coordinated in production and distribution and share some common but limited resources within the supply chain, whereas the external firms are independent and do not share the internal resources. The supply chain managers strive to develop optimal strategies in terms of production level and resource allocation in maximising their profit while facing competition at the end market. The Cournot-Nash equilibrium of this inter-supply chain competition is formulated as a variational inequality problem. We further study the case when there is demand disruption in the plan-execution phase. In such a case, the managers need to revise their planned strategy in order to maximise their profit with the new demand under disruption and minimise the cost of change. We present a bi-criteria decision-making model for supply chain managers and develop the optimal conditions in equilibrium, which again can be formulated by another variational inequality problem. Numerical examples are presented for illustrative purpose.

  7. Role of remote sensing in documenting living resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, P. E.; Anderson, R. R.; Brun, B.; Eisenberg, M.; Genys, J. B.; Lear, D. W., Jr.; Miller, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    Specific cases of known or potentially useful applications of remote sensing in assessing biological resources are discussed. It is concluded that the more usable remote sensing techniques relate to the measurement of population fluctuations in aquatic systems. Sensing of the flora and the fauna of the Bay is considered with emphasis on direct sensing of aquatic plant populations and of water quality. Recommendations for remote sensing projects are given.

  8. Mud Bugs: Supply, Demand, and Natural Resources in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Louisiana's land, coast, and inland waterways are home to many natural resources such as seafood, petroleum, natural gas, and timber--and freshwater crawfish, or "mudbugs" as the locals like to call them. These natural resources are vital to Louisiana's economy. The author describes a unit of study on economics in which a teacher taught and…

  9. Integrated Water Supply and Land Resource Management in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakeman, A. J.; Croke, B. F.; Croke, B. F.; Dietrich, C. R.; Letcher, R. A.; Merritt, W.; Perez, P.

    2001-05-01

    Intensification of agricultural development has led to water supply conflicts and exacerbation of environmental problems in many developing countries. In Thailand, for example, issues of water access between upstream and downstream users and on-site erosion and off-site water quality are common in the Northern Highlands. The authors report on a framework which has been developed to assist improved land use planning and water allocation. It can be used to assess the water supply, environmental and socioeconomic impacts of land use, climate and government policy. This framework utilises the integration of catchment supply models, crop, water allocation and erosion models, as well as models of household decision making. For the Mae Chaem catchment in Thailand, the authors present details of the particular method of integration of these models and results for the individual model components. The effects of changes in land use and climate variations on the distribution of water supply, crop yields and erosion illustrate the types of tradeoffs that have to be made. Crucial to the effectiveness of such integrated tools is an understanding of the reliability of the integrated model's predictions of different outcomes. The authors present a relevant framework for analysing model uncertainty in order to appreciate the degree to which one can confidently differentiate among different model outcomes resulting from different land use changes.

  10. Environmental resource document for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, J.S.

    1993-07-01

    This document contains information related to the environmental characterization of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL is a major US Department of Energy facility in southeastern Idaho dedicated to nuclear research, waste management, environmental restoration, and other activities related to the development of technology. Environmental information covered in this document includes land, air, water, and ecological resources; socioeconomic characteristics and land use; and cultural, aesthetic, and scenic resources.

  11. Environmental resource document for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, J.S.

    1993-07-01

    This document contains information related to the environmental characterization of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL is a major US Department of Energy facility in southeastern Idaho dedicated to nuclear research, waste management, environmental restoration, and other activities related to the development of technology. Environmental information covered in this document includes land, air, water, and ecological resources; socioeconomic characteristics and land use; and cultural, aesthetic, and scenic resources.

  12. Domestic water supply, competition for water resources and IWRM in Tanzania: a review and discussion paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maganga, Faustin P.; Butterworth, John A.; Moriarty, Patrick

    This paper reviews the historical development of domestic water supplies in Tanzania, the consequences of major policy shifts during the last seven decades, and some of the reasons for the failure of water supply systems. It considers the extent to which water resource issues are constraints in meeting the water supply needs of rural and urban populations, and the relevance of integrated water resources management to the WSS sector. Drawing upon case-study material from two major river basins, the Pangani and Rufiji, it reviews some of the practical steps being taken to implement IWRM principles in Tanzania.

  13. A Review of the Literature of Interlibrary Loan, Document Delivery, and Resources Sharing, 1995-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Gregg; Brunswick, John R.

    2002-01-01

    Surveys the literature from 1995 through 2002 related to interlibrary loan and document delivery services in libraries. Topics addressed include reference sources; national and international initiatives; theory, management, and practice; document delivery; resource sharing; and copyright and licensing. (Contains 228 references.) (Author/LRW)

  14. Rare Earths Supply Technology and Resources Transformation Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Murkowski, Lisa [R-AK

    2010-06-22

    09/30/2010 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 111-750. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Strategic Enterprise Resource Planning for Global Supply Chain Competitiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nageswararao, A. V.; Sahu, Dasarathi; Mohan, V. Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Strategic Enterprise Resource planning (SERP) systems are networked and integrated information mechanisms which are developed to achieve competitive advantage for organizations operating in global scale. It plays a vital role in Integrating various stake holders and channel partners involved in day to day operations. In the present Globalized…

  16. Renewable resources in the US electricity supply. [Contains a report on the electricity generating technologies which use renewable resources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-05

    Renewable resources (solar, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, biomass, and waste) currently provide nearly 12 percent of the Nation's electricity supply. Almost 10 of this 12 percent is provided by hydroelectric resources alone. Biomass and municipal solid waste (MSW) together contribute more than 1 percent. All other renewable resources, including geothermal, wind, and solar, together provide less than 1 percent of the total. Many renewable resources are relative newcomers to the electric power market. In particular, electricity generation using geothermal, wind, solar, and MSW resources have had their greatest expansion in the 1980's. This was a result of significant technological improvements, the implementation of favorable Federal and State policies, and the reaction to the increasing costs of using fossil and nuclear fuels. The use of renewable resources for electricity generation has also been encouraged as less environmentally damaging than fossil fuels. Because renewable energy is available domestically, renewable resources are viewed as more secure than imported fossil fuels. This report, Renewable Resources in the US Electricity Supply, presents descriptions of the history, current use, and forecasted future applications of renewable resources for electricity generation and of the factors that influence those applications.

  17. Fair sharing of resources in a supply network with constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Rui; Buzna, Lubos; Just, Wolfram; Helbing, Dirk; Arrowsmith, David K.

    2012-04-01

    This paper investigates the effect of network topology on the fair allocation of network resources among a set of agents, an all-important issue for the efficiency of transportation networks all around us. We analyze a generic mechanism that distributes network capacity fairly among existing flow demands. The problem can be solved by semianalytical methods on a nearest-neighbor graph with one source and sink pair, when transport occurs over shortest paths. For this setup, we uncover a broad range of patterns of intersecting shortest paths as a function of the distance between the source and the sink. When the number of intersections is the maximum and the distance between the source and the sink is large, we find that a fair allocation implies a decrease of at least 50% from the maximum throughput. We also find that the histogram of the flow allocations assigned to the agents decays as a power law with exponent -1. Our semianalytical framework suggests possible explanations for the well-known reduction of the throughput in fair allocations. It also suggests that the combination of network topology and routing rules can lead to highly uneven (but fair) distributions of resources, a remark of caution to network designers.

  18. Nonregenerative natural resources in a sustainable system of energy supply.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Alex M; Hamacher, Thomas

    2012-03-12

    Following the lead of the European Union in introducing binding measures to promote the use of regenerative energy forms, it is not unreasonable to assume that the global demand for combustible raw materials for energy generation will be reduced considerably in the second half of this century. This will not only have a favourable effect on the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere, but will also help preserve fossil fuels-important as raw materials in the chemical industry-for future generations. Nevertheless, associated with the concomitant massive shift to regenerative energy forms, there will be a strong demand for other exhaustible raw materials, in particular metals, some of which are already regarded as scarce. After reviewing the debate on mineral depletion between "cornucopians" and "pessimists", we discuss the meaning of mineral "scarcity", particularly in the geochemical sense, and mineral "exhaustion". The expected drastic increase in demand for mineral resources caused by demographic and societal pressures, that is, due to the increase in in-use stock, is emphasised. Whilst not discussing the issue of "strong" versus "weak" sustainability in detail, we conclude that regenerative energy systems-like nearly all resource-consuming systems in our society-do not necessarily satisfy generally accepted sustainability criteria. In this regard, we discuss some current examples, namely, lithium and cobalt for batteries, rare earth-based permanent magnets for wind turbines, cadmium and tellurium for solar cells and copper for electrical power distribution.

  19. Stoichiometrically explicit competition between grazers: species replacement, coexistence, and priority effects along resource supply gradients.

    PubMed

    Hall, Spencer R

    2004-08-01

    Assuming key trade-offs among interactors, several models (resource ratio, keystone predation, intraguild predation) predict changes in species composition over resource supply gradients. Ecological stoichiometry could also predict compositional shifts of grazers over gradients of nutrient and light supply through a mechanism involving (mis)matches between elemental body composition of grazers and plants. This hypothesis is explored here using a suite of two-grazer, one-plant models that incorporate three key components: plant production depends on light and nutrients, nutrient content of plants can vary, and homeostatic grazers can be carbon or nutrient limited. The results from this suite closely resemble the classical resource ratio model describing plant competition for two resources. Here, the models predict shifts of grazer composition along resource supply gradients if species trade off competitive abilities for plant carbon and nutrients. Given this trade-off, superior nutrient competitors should dominate low nutrient environments, and superior carbon competitors should dominate high nutrient environments. At intermediate nutrient supply, species can coexist at a stable equilibrium, or alternative stable states emerge, depending on how grazers impact their resources. These results depend on food web architecture, however. For instance, predators can alter or reduce possibilities for stoichiometry-mediated coexistence of grazers.

  20. The supply of mammography resources in West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Artz, D R; Brown, M L; Barrett, M J

    1992-04-01

    The distribution of mammography machines and related resources in West Virginia, along with the distribution of breast cancer screen-eligible women, are examined using county-specific data. This data placed on a state map shows that it is not necessary to cross more than one county line anywhere within West Virginia in order to visit a mammography facility. The overall density of these machines is 20 per 100,000 women over 45, almost double the capacity needed for screening mammography. After taking into account the projected demand for mammography, the current average cost per exam is around $65-$100. If mammography machines were placed in all the counties without machines, the cost in those countries would be around $140 per exam. It would be cheaper to provide a travel allowance to women in rural counties than to install machines in these areas. Machines that are accredited by the American College of Radiologists, the most available indicator of quality mammography, are located only in densely populated areas of the state. PMID:1615640

  1. INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  2. INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  3. Microbial nitrogen metabolism: response to warming and resource supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckeridge, K. M.; Min, K.; Lehmeier, C.; Ballantyne, F.; Billings, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Ecosystem nitrogen (N) dynamics are dependent on microbial metabolic responses to a changing climate. Most studies that investigate soil microbial N dynamics in response to temperature employ measurements reflective of many interacting and confounding phenomena, as altering soil temperature can simultaneously alter moisture regime, substrate availability, and competitive dynamics between microbial populations. As a result, it is difficult to discern how temperature alone can alter patterns of microbial N metabolism using whole soils. Without that knowledge, it is impossible to parse temperature effects on soil N fluxes from other drivers. We address this issue by exploring the sensitivity of microbial partitioning of N between assimilation (growing biomass) and dissimilation (releasing N to the environment) in response to changes in temperature and quality (C:N ratio) of substrate, using a chemostat approach in which a microbial population is maintained at steady state. We perform our experiments using a Gram-negative bacterium (Pseudomonas fluorescens), ubiquitous in soils and dependent on organic compounds to satisfy its resource demand. Individual chemostat runs, all conducted at similar microbial growth rates, generate data describing microbial biomass N, solution N pools and microbial biomass and solution d15N. With these data we can calculate d15N enrichment (d15N microbial biomass - d15N nutrient solution) a proxy for microbial N partitioning. From a recently published model of microbial biomass d15N drivers, fractionation of N occurs with both uptake and excretion of NH3+ so that microbes with a net dissimilation become 15N enriched relative to their source. Because a related study has demonstrated increased microbial C demand with temperature, we predict that in a warming environment microorganisms will become relatively C limited. Accordingly, we hypothesize that warming will enhance microbial dissimilation, and that this N release will be exacerbated as

  4. Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Lorna; Lewandowski, Carol

    This workbook, designed for workplace literacy courses, contains materials for a course on documentation. The six sessions of the course cover the following topics: (1) general principles of procedure writing; (2) principles of clear communication (clarity, audience, visuals) and identification of systems types, accounts, and customer requests;…

  5. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Products Supply Module

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    The Petroleum Products Supply Module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model provides forecasts of petroleum refinery inputs (crude oil, unfinished oils, pentanes plus, liquefied petroleum gas, motor gasoline blending components, and aviation gasoline blending components) and refinery outputs (motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuel, residual fuel, liquefied petroleum gas, and other petroleum products).

  6. Health-related rehabilitation services: assessing the global supply of and need for human resources

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Human resources for rehabilitation are often a neglected component of health services strengthening and health workforce development. This may be partly related to weaknesses in the available research and evidence to inform advocacy and programmatic strategies. The objective of this study was to quantitatively describe the global situation in terms of supply of and need for human resources for health-related rehabilitation services, as a basis for strategy development of the workforce in physical and rehabilitation medicine. Methods Data for assessing supply of and need for rehabilitative personnel were extracted and analyzed from statistical databases maintained by the World Health Organization and other national and international health information sources. Standardized classifications were used to enhance cross-national comparability of findings. Results Large differences were found across countries and regions between assessed need for services requiring health workers associated to physical and rehabilitation medicine against estimated supply of health personnel skilled in rehabilitation services. Despite greater need, low- and middle-income countries tended to report less availability of skilled health personnel, although the strength of the supply-need relationship varied across geographical and economic country groupings. Conclusion The evidence base on human resources for health-related rehabilitation services remains fragmented, the result of limited availability and use of quality, comparable data and information within and across countries. This assessment offered the first global baseline, intended to catalyze further research that can be translated into evidence to support human resources for rehabilitation policy and practice. PMID:22004560

  7. Braille Literacy: Resources for Instruction, Writing Equipment, and Supplies. NLS Reference Circulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peaco, Freddie L., Comp.

    2004-01-01

    This reference circular lists instructional materials, supplies, and equipment currently available for learning braille, and cites sources about braille literacy. The resources given are intended to assist sighted individuals who are interested in learning braille or want to transcribe print materials into braille; instructors who teach braille;…

  8. Selected Offerings for Integrated and Applied Curriculum Development. Resource Document. Bulletin No. 95090.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This document was designed to help educators develop curriculum for secondary staff to implement the Tech Prep Initiative in Wisconsin. Resources listed were measured against guidelines that specified that the curriculum content and delivery must be integrated and applied, focusing on authentic tasks. The applied courses listed had to have high…

  9. Food First Resource Guide: Documentation on the Roots of World Hunger and Rural Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Food and Development Policy, San Francisco, CA.

    This guide reviews resources used to develop the analysis of world hunger in "Food First: Beyond the Myth of Scarcity," Houghton Mifflin, 1977. The objectives are to help people understand the economic and political factors that contribute to food deprivation, document this analysis with credible sources, and inform high school, college, and…

  10. Access to Corporate Information Systems: Datafiles, Classified Documents, and Information Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Kurt O.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Three articles discuss aspects of corporate information systems: (1) "Packet Switching Networks: Worldwide Access to Corporate Datafiles" (Kurt O. Baumgartner); "Classified Documents in the Corporate Library" (Patricia M. Shores); and "From Library to Information Center: Case Studies in the Evolution of Corporate Information Resources" (Eva M.…

  11. Comprehensive Planning Resource Document, 1990-91, for the Kern Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Lauraine

    This compilation of resources for district planning in 1990-91 provides an overview of demographic, personnel, financial, facilities, and curriculum issues for the Kern Community College District (California) and its member institutions, Bakersfield, Cerro Coso, and Porterville colleges. The 10 sections of the document cover: (1) General…

  12. The Papua New Guinea medical supply system - documenting opportunities and challenges to meet the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Limited human resources are widely recognised as an impediment to achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals in Pacific Island Countries, with the availability of medical supplies and suitably trained health personnel crucial to ensuring a well-functioning medical supply chain. This paper presents our findings as we seek to answer the research question ‘What factors influence the availability of medical supplies within the health facilities of Papua New Guinea?’ Methods We used a qualitative, triangulated strategy using semi-structured interviews, workplace observation and semi-structured focus groups. The parallel use of the interview tool and workplace observation tool allowed identification of ‘know-do’ gaps between what the interviewee said they did in their work practices, and the actual evidence of these practices. Focus groups provided further opportunities for raising and elaborating issues. Results During 2 weeks of data collection we conducted 17 interviews and 15 observational workplace surveys in 15 facilities. Sixteen health personnel participated in 3 focus groups across 2 provinces and one district. An array of medical supply issues across all levels of the medical supply chain were revealed, including standard operating procedures, facilities, transport, emergency medical kits, the cold chain and record keeping. The influence of health worker training and competency was found to be common across all of these issues. Conclusion The factors influencing the availability of medical supplies in PNG consist of a range of interrelating issues, consisting of both simple and complex problems involving the different levels and cadres of workers within the medical supply chain. Health systems sustainability theory suggests that a coordinated approach which addresses the inter-related nature of these issues, led by the PNG government and supported by suitable development partners, will be required for sustainable health

  13. Resource Document on Access to Firearms by People with Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Pinals, Debra A; Appelbaum, Paul S; Bonnie, Richard J; Fisher, Carl E; Gold, Liza H; Lee, Li-Wen

    2015-06-01

    The American Psychiatric Association, ("APA"), with more than 36,000 members at present, is the Nation's leading organization of physicians who specialize in psychiatry. APA provides for education and advocacy and develops policy through Position Statements. It promotes enhanced knowledge of particular topics relevant to psychiatric practice and patient care through Resource Documents. Since 1993, the APA has developed various positions and resource materials related to firearms and mental illness, incorporating evolving themes as new issues emerge. This paper reflects the APA's 2014 Resource Document on "Access to Firearms by People with Mental Disorders." This article is derived from work done on behalf of American Psychiatric Association and remains the property of APA. It has been altered only in response to the requirements of peer review. PMID:26095099

  14. Resource Document on Access to Firearms by People with Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Pinals, Debra A; Appelbaum, Paul S; Bonnie, Richard J; Fisher, Carl E; Gold, Liza H; Lee, Li-Wen

    2015-06-01

    The American Psychiatric Association, ("APA"), with more than 36,000 members at present, is the Nation's leading organization of physicians who specialize in psychiatry. APA provides for education and advocacy and develops policy through Position Statements. It promotes enhanced knowledge of particular topics relevant to psychiatric practice and patient care through Resource Documents. Since 1993, the APA has developed various positions and resource materials related to firearms and mental illness, incorporating evolving themes as new issues emerge. This paper reflects the APA's 2014 Resource Document on "Access to Firearms by People with Mental Disorders." This article is derived from work done on behalf of American Psychiatric Association and remains the property of APA. It has been altered only in response to the requirements of peer review.

  15. Forecast of long term coal supply and mining conditions: Model documentation and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A coal industry model was developed to support the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in its investigation of advanced underground coal extraction systems. The model documentation includes the programming for the coal mining cost models and an accompanying users' manual, and a guide to reading model output. The methodology used in assembling the transportation, demand, and coal reserve components of the model are also described. Results presented for 1986 and 2000, include projections of coal production patterns and marginal prices, differentiated by coal sulfur content.

  16. Too much information? A document analysis of sport safety resources from key organisations

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Caroline F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The field of sport injury prevention has seen a marked increase in published research in recent years, with concomitant proliferation of lay sport safety resources, such as policies, fact sheets and posters. The aim of this study was to catalogue and categorise the number, type and topic focus of sport safety resources from a representative set of key organisations. Design Cataloguing and qualitative document analysis of resources available from the websites of six stakeholder organisations in Australia. Setting This study was part of a larger investigation, the National Guidance for Australian Football Partnerships and Safety (NoGAPS) project. Participants The NoGAPS study provided the context for a purposive sampling of six organisations involved in the promotion of safety in Australian football. These partners are recognised as being highly representative of organisations at national and state level that reflect similarly in their goals around sport safety promotion in Australia. Results The catalogue comprised 284 resources. More of the practical and less prescriptive types of resources, such as fact sheets, than formal policies were found. Resources for the prevention of physical injuries were the predominant sport safety issue addressed, with risk management, environmental issues and social behaviours comprising other categories. Duplication of resources for specific safety issues, within and across organisations, was found. Conclusions People working within sport settings have access to a proliferation of resources, which creates a potential rivalry for sourcing of injury prevention information. Important issues that are likely to influence the uptake of safety advice by the general sporting public include the sheer number of resources available, and the overlap and duplication of resources addressing the same issues. The existence of a large number of resources from reputable organisations does not mean that they are necessarily evidence based

  17. The American Psychiatric Association's resource document on mental retardation and capital sentencing: implementing Atkins v. Virginia.

    PubMed

    Bonnie, Richard J

    2004-01-01

    State legislatures need guidance in implementing the United States Supreme Court's decision in Atkins v. Virginia barring execution of mentally retarded offenders. In this Resource Document, the American Psychiatric Association's Council on Psychiatry and Law, the component charged with developing policies and positions relating to forensic psychiatry, recommends statutory language addressing the definition of mental retardation, procedures relating to its assessment, and qualifications of testifying experts.

  18. The influence of balanced and imbalanced resource supply on biodiversity-functioning relationship across ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Aleksandra M; Biermann, Antje; Borer, Elizabeth T; Cebrián-Piqueras, Miguel A; Declerck, Steven A J; De Meester, Luc; Van Donk, Ellen; Gamfeldt, Lars; Gruner, Daniel S; Hagenah, Nicole; Harpole, W Stanley; Kirkman, Kevin P; Klausmeier, Christopher A; Kleyer, Michael; Knops, Johannes M H; Lemmens, Pieter; Lind, Eric M; Litchman, Elena; Mantilla-Contreras, Jasmin; Martens, Koen; Meier, Sandra; Minden, Vanessa; Moore, Joslin L; Venterink, Harry Olde; Seabloom, Eric W; Sommer, Ulrich; Striebel, Maren; Trenkamp, Anastasia; Trinogga, Juliane; Urabe, Jotaro; Vyverman, Wim; Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Widdicombe, Claire E; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2016-05-19

    Numerous studies show that increasing species richness leads to higher ecosystem productivity. This effect is often attributed to more efficient portioning of multiple resources in communities with higher numbers of competing species, indicating the role of resource supply and stoichiometry for biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships. Here, we merged theory on ecological stoichiometry with a framework of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning to understand how resource use transfers into primary production. We applied a structural equation model to define patterns of diversity-productivity relationships with respect to available resources. Meta-analysis was used to summarize the findings across ecosystem types ranging from aquatic ecosystems to grasslands and forests. As hypothesized, resource supply increased realized productivity and richness, but we found significant differences between ecosystems and study types. Increased richness was associated with increased productivity, although this effect was not seen in experiments. More even communities had lower productivity, indicating that biomass production is often maintained by a few dominant species, and reduced dominance generally reduced ecosystem productivity. This synthesis, which integrates observational and experimental studies in a variety of ecosystems and geographical regions, exposes common patterns and differences in biodiversity-functioning relationships, and increases the mechanistic understanding of changes in ecosystems productivity.

  19. The influence of balanced and imbalanced resource supply on biodiversity-functioning relationship across ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Aleksandra M; Biermann, Antje; Borer, Elizabeth T; Cebrián-Piqueras, Miguel A; Declerck, Steven A J; De Meester, Luc; Van Donk, Ellen; Gamfeldt, Lars; Gruner, Daniel S; Hagenah, Nicole; Harpole, W Stanley; Kirkman, Kevin P; Klausmeier, Christopher A; Kleyer, Michael; Knops, Johannes M H; Lemmens, Pieter; Lind, Eric M; Litchman, Elena; Mantilla-Contreras, Jasmin; Martens, Koen; Meier, Sandra; Minden, Vanessa; Moore, Joslin L; Venterink, Harry Olde; Seabloom, Eric W; Sommer, Ulrich; Striebel, Maren; Trenkamp, Anastasia; Trinogga, Juliane; Urabe, Jotaro; Vyverman, Wim; Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Widdicombe, Claire E; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2016-05-19

    Numerous studies show that increasing species richness leads to higher ecosystem productivity. This effect is often attributed to more efficient portioning of multiple resources in communities with higher numbers of competing species, indicating the role of resource supply and stoichiometry for biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships. Here, we merged theory on ecological stoichiometry with a framework of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning to understand how resource use transfers into primary production. We applied a structural equation model to define patterns of diversity-productivity relationships with respect to available resources. Meta-analysis was used to summarize the findings across ecosystem types ranging from aquatic ecosystems to grasslands and forests. As hypothesized, resource supply increased realized productivity and richness, but we found significant differences between ecosystems and study types. Increased richness was associated with increased productivity, although this effect was not seen in experiments. More even communities had lower productivity, indicating that biomass production is often maintained by a few dominant species, and reduced dominance generally reduced ecosystem productivity. This synthesis, which integrates observational and experimental studies in a variety of ecosystems and geographical regions, exposes common patterns and differences in biodiversity-functioning relationships, and increases the mechanistic understanding of changes in ecosystems productivity. PMID:27114584

  20. 12 CFR 617.7605 - How should System institutions document whether the borrower had the financial resources to avoid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... How should System institutions document whether the borrower had the financial resources to avoid... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How should System institutions document whether the borrower had the financial resources to avoid foreclosure? 617.7605 Section 617.7605 Banks...

  1. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Final Proposal : Load Resource Study and Documentation.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-07-01

    The Load Resource Study (Study) represents the compilation of the load and contract obligations, contact purchases, and resource data necessary for developing BPA's wholesale power rates. The results of this Study are used to: (1) provide data to determine resource costs for the Revenue Requirement Study, WP-07-FS-BPA-02; (2) provide data to derive billing determinants for the revenue forecast in the Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS), WP-07-FS-BPA-05; (3) provide load and resource data for use in the Risk Analysis Study, WP-07-FS-BPA-04; and (4) provide regional hydro data for use in the secondary revenue forecast for the Market Price Forecast Study, WP-07-FS-BPA-03. This Study provides a synopsis of BPA's load resource analyses. This Study illustrates how each component is completed, how components relate to each other, and how each component fits into the rate development process. Details and results supporting this Study are contained in the Load Resource Study Documentation, WP-07-FS-BPA-01A.

  2. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Load Resource Study and Documentation.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01

    The Load Resource Study (Study) represents the compilation of the loads, sales, contracts, and resource data necessary for developing BPA wholesale power rates. The results of this Study are used to: (1) provide base data to determine resource costs for the Revenue Requirement Study, WP-07-E-BPA-02; (2) provide regional hydro data for use in the secondary revenue forecast for the Market Power Study, WP-07-E-BPA-03; (3) provide base data to derive billing determinants for the revenue forecast in the Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS), WP-07-E-BPA-05; and (4) provide load and resource data for use in calculating risk in the Risk Analysis Study, WP-07-E-BPA-04. This Study provides a synopsis of BPA's load resource analyses. This Study illustrates how each component is completed, how components relate to each other, and how each component fits into the rate development process. Details and results supporting this Study are contained in the Load Resource Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-01A.

  3. The inter-relationships between urban dynamics and water resource and supply based on multitemporal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldea, Alexandru; Aldea, Mihaela

    2016-08-01

    The growth and concentration of population, housing and industry in urban and suburban areas in the continuous evolution of a city over time causes complex social, economic, and physical challenges. The population and its relationship with the use and development of the land and water is a critical issue of urban growth, and since ancient times land, water and man were directly involved in the human populations' survival. Nevertheless the current potential of study over this relationship between urban growth, water supply, drainage and water resources conditions becomes more and more attractive due to the possibility to make use of the broader variety of information sources and technologies readily available in recent years, with emphasis on the open data and on the big data as primary sources. In this regard we present some new possibilities of analyses over the demographics, land use/land cover and water supply and conservation based on a study over a Romanian region of development (Bucharest-Ilfov). As urban development usually outgrows the existing water supply systems, the resolution consists in drilling new and deeper wells, building new water distribution pipelines, building longer aqueducts and larger reservoirs, or finding new sources and constructing completely new water supply systems, water supplies may evolve this way from a result into a cause and driver of urban growth. The evolution trends of the studied area was estimated based on the open satellite time-series imagery and remote sensing techniques by land use/land cover extraction and the identification of the changes in urbanization. The survey is mainly focused on the expansion of the water network in terms of areal, total length and number of connections correlated with the amount of water produced, consumed and lost within a supply zone. Some urban human activities including the industrial ones alter water resource by pollution, over pumping of groundwater, construction of dams and reservoirs

  4. Resource supply overrides temperature as a controlling factor of marine phytoplankton growth.

    PubMed

    Marañón, Emilio; Cermeño, Pedro; Huete-Ortega, María; López-Sandoval, Daffne C; Mouriño-Carballido, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Ramos, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The universal temperature dependence of metabolic rates has been used to predict how ocean biology will respond to ocean warming. Determining the temperature sensitivity of phytoplankton metabolism and growth is of special importance because this group of organisms is responsible for nearly half of global primary production, sustains most marine food webs, and contributes to regulate the exchange of CO2 between the ocean and the atmosphere. Phytoplankton growth rates increase with temperature under optimal growth conditions in the laboratory, but it is unclear whether the same degree of temperature dependence exists in nature, where resources are often limiting. Here we use concurrent measurements of phytoplankton biomass and carbon fixation rates in polar, temperate and tropical regions to determine the role of temperature and resource supply in controlling the large-scale variability of in situ metabolic rates. We identify a biogeographic pattern in phytoplankton metabolic rates, which increase from the oligotrophic subtropical gyres to temperate regions and then coastal waters. Variability in phytoplankton growth is driven by changes in resource supply and appears to be independent of seawater temperature. The lack of temperature sensitivity of realized phytoplankton growth is consistent with the limited applicability of Arrhenius enzymatic kinetics when substrate concentrations are low. Our results suggest that, due to widespread resource limitation in the ocean, the direct effect of sea surface warming upon phytoplankton growth and productivity may be smaller than anticipated.

  5. Integrated water resource management under water supply and irrigation development uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, E.; Elshorbagy, A. A.; Nazemi, A.; Wheater, H. S.; Gober, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB) in Saskatchewan, Canada, supports various water demands including municipal, industrial, irrigated agriculture, hydropower and environmental sectors. Proposals for future development include significantly increased irrigation. However, proposing an appropriate level of irrigation development requires incorporation of water supply uncertainties in the water resources management analysis, including effects of climate variability and change. To evaluate potential climate change effects, a feasible range of shifts in annual volume and peak timing of headwater flows are considered to stochastically generate flows at the Alberta/Saskatchewan border. This envelope of flows, 30,800 realizations, is further combined with various irrigation expansion areas to form various future scenarios. Using an integrated water resources model developed for Saskatchewan, the impact of irrigation development on the system is assessed under the changing water supply conditions. The results of this study show that level of irrigation development as well as variation in volume and peak timing of flows can all contribute to change the water availability, vulnerability and economic productivity of the water resources system in Saskatchewan. In particular, the combined effect of large irrigation expansion, reduction in the volume of flows and earlier timing of the annual peak can exacerbate water resources system vulnerability, produce unstable net revenues, and decrease flood frequency in the Saskatchewan River Delta.

  6. Tools and data services registry: a community effort to document bioinformatics resources.

    PubMed

    Ison, Jon; Rapacki, Kristoffer; Ménager, Hervé; Kalaš, Matúš; Rydza, Emil; Chmura, Piotr; Anthon, Christian; Beard, Niall; Berka, Karel; Bolser, Dan; Booth, Tim; Bretaudeau, Anthony; Brezovsky, Jan; Casadio, Rita; Cesareni, Gianni; Coppens, Frederik; Cornell, Michael; Cuccuru, Gianmauro; Davidsen, Kristian; Vedova, Gianluca Della; Dogan, Tunca; Doppelt-Azeroual, Olivia; Emery, Laura; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Gatter, Thomas; Goldberg, Tatyana; Grosjean, Marie; Grüning, Björn; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Ienasescu, Hans; Ioannidis, Vassilios; Jespersen, Martin Closter; Jimenez, Rafael; Juty, Nick; Juvan, Peter; Koch, Maximilian; Laibe, Camille; Li, Jing-Woei; Licata, Luana; Mareuil, Fabien; Mičetić, Ivan; Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Moretti, Sebastien; Morris, Chris; Möller, Steffen; Nenadic, Aleksandra; Peterson, Hedi; Profiti, Giuseppe; Rice, Peter; Romano, Paolo; Roncaglia, Paola; Saidi, Rabie; Schafferhans, Andrea; Schwämmle, Veit; Smith, Callum; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; Stockinger, Heinz; Vařeková, Radka Svobodová; Tosatto, Silvio C E; de la Torre, Victor; Uva, Paolo; Via, Allegra; Yachdav, Guy; Zambelli, Federico; Vriend, Gert; Rost, Burkhard; Parkinson, Helen; Løngreen, Peter; Brunak, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Life sciences are yielding huge data sets that underpin scientific discoveries fundamental to improvement in human health, agriculture and the environment. In support of these discoveries, a plethora of databases and tools are deployed, in technically complex and diverse implementations, across a spectrum of scientific disciplines. The corpus of documentation of these resources is fragmented across the Web, with much redundancy, and has lacked a common standard of information. The outcome is that scientists must often struggle to find, understand, compare and use the best resources for the task at hand.Here we present a community-driven curation effort, supported by ELIXIR-the European infrastructure for biological information-that aspires to a comprehensive and consistent registry of information about bioinformatics resources. The sustainable upkeep of this Tools and Data Services Registry is assured by a curation effort driven by and tailored to local needs, and shared amongst a network of engaged partners.As of November 2015, the registry includes 1785 resources, with depositions from 126 individual registrations including 52 institutional providers and 74 individuals. With community support, the registry can become a standard for dissemination of information about bioinformatics resources: we welcome everyone to join us in this common endeavour. The registry is freely available at https://bio.tools. PMID:26538599

  7. Tools and data services registry: a community effort to document bioinformatics resources

    PubMed Central

    Ison, Jon; Rapacki, Kristoffer; Ménager, Hervé; Kalaš, Matúš; Rydza, Emil; Chmura, Piotr; Anthon, Christian; Beard, Niall; Berka, Karel; Bolser, Dan; Booth, Tim; Bretaudeau, Anthony; Brezovsky, Jan; Casadio, Rita; Cesareni, Gianni; Coppens, Frederik; Cornell, Michael; Cuccuru, Gianmauro; Davidsen, Kristian; Vedova, Gianluca Della; Dogan, Tunca; Doppelt-Azeroual, Olivia; Emery, Laura; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Gatter, Thomas; Goldberg, Tatyana; Grosjean, Marie; Grüning, Björn; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Ienasescu, Hans; Ioannidis, Vassilios; Jespersen, Martin Closter; Jimenez, Rafael; Juty, Nick; Juvan, Peter; Koch, Maximilian; Laibe, Camille; Li, Jing-Woei; Licata, Luana; Mareuil, Fabien; Mičetić, Ivan; Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Moretti, Sebastien; Morris, Chris; Möller, Steffen; Nenadic, Aleksandra; Peterson, Hedi; Profiti, Giuseppe; Rice, Peter; Romano, Paolo; Roncaglia, Paola; Saidi, Rabie; Schafferhans, Andrea; Schwämmle, Veit; Smith, Callum; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; Stockinger, Heinz; Vařeková, Radka Svobodová; Tosatto, Silvio C.E.; de la Torre, Victor; Uva, Paolo; Via, Allegra; Yachdav, Guy; Zambelli, Federico; Vriend, Gert; Rost, Burkhard; Parkinson, Helen; Løngreen, Peter; Brunak, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Life sciences are yielding huge data sets that underpin scientific discoveries fundamental to improvement in human health, agriculture and the environment. In support of these discoveries, a plethora of databases and tools are deployed, in technically complex and diverse implementations, across a spectrum of scientific disciplines. The corpus of documentation of these resources is fragmented across the Web, with much redundancy, and has lacked a common standard of information. The outcome is that scientists must often struggle to find, understand, compare and use the best resources for the task at hand. Here we present a community-driven curation effort, supported by ELIXIR—the European infrastructure for biological information—that aspires to a comprehensive and consistent registry of information about bioinformatics resources. The sustainable upkeep of this Tools and Data Services Registry is assured by a curation effort driven by and tailored to local needs, and shared amongst a network of engaged partners. As of November 2015, the registry includes 1785 resources, with depositions from 126 individual registrations including 52 institutional providers and 74 individuals. With community support, the registry can become a standard for dissemination of information about bioinformatics resources: we welcome everyone to join us in this common endeavour. The registry is freely available at https://bio.tools. PMID:26538599

  8. Tools and data services registry: a community effort to document bioinformatics resources.

    PubMed

    Ison, Jon; Rapacki, Kristoffer; Ménager, Hervé; Kalaš, Matúš; Rydza, Emil; Chmura, Piotr; Anthon, Christian; Beard, Niall; Berka, Karel; Bolser, Dan; Booth, Tim; Bretaudeau, Anthony; Brezovsky, Jan; Casadio, Rita; Cesareni, Gianni; Coppens, Frederik; Cornell, Michael; Cuccuru, Gianmauro; Davidsen, Kristian; Vedova, Gianluca Della; Dogan, Tunca; Doppelt-Azeroual, Olivia; Emery, Laura; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Gatter, Thomas; Goldberg, Tatyana; Grosjean, Marie; Grüning, Björn; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Ienasescu, Hans; Ioannidis, Vassilios; Jespersen, Martin Closter; Jimenez, Rafael; Juty, Nick; Juvan, Peter; Koch, Maximilian; Laibe, Camille; Li, Jing-Woei; Licata, Luana; Mareuil, Fabien; Mičetić, Ivan; Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Moretti, Sebastien; Morris, Chris; Möller, Steffen; Nenadic, Aleksandra; Peterson, Hedi; Profiti, Giuseppe; Rice, Peter; Romano, Paolo; Roncaglia, Paola; Saidi, Rabie; Schafferhans, Andrea; Schwämmle, Veit; Smith, Callum; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; Stockinger, Heinz; Vařeková, Radka Svobodová; Tosatto, Silvio C E; de la Torre, Victor; Uva, Paolo; Via, Allegra; Yachdav, Guy; Zambelli, Federico; Vriend, Gert; Rost, Burkhard; Parkinson, Helen; Løngreen, Peter; Brunak, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Life sciences are yielding huge data sets that underpin scientific discoveries fundamental to improvement in human health, agriculture and the environment. In support of these discoveries, a plethora of databases and tools are deployed, in technically complex and diverse implementations, across a spectrum of scientific disciplines. The corpus of documentation of these resources is fragmented across the Web, with much redundancy, and has lacked a common standard of information. The outcome is that scientists must often struggle to find, understand, compare and use the best resources for the task at hand.Here we present a community-driven curation effort, supported by ELIXIR-the European infrastructure for biological information-that aspires to a comprehensive and consistent registry of information about bioinformatics resources. The sustainable upkeep of this Tools and Data Services Registry is assured by a curation effort driven by and tailored to local needs, and shared amongst a network of engaged partners.As of November 2015, the registry includes 1785 resources, with depositions from 126 individual registrations including 52 institutional providers and 74 individuals. With community support, the registry can become a standard for dissemination of information about bioinformatics resources: we welcome everyone to join us in this common endeavour. The registry is freely available at https://bio.tools.

  9. Sustainability Analysis of the Water Resources and Supply of the Vieux Fort Region of Saint Lucia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, D.; Johnson, B.; Morgan, F.

    2005-05-01

    In the Vieux Fort region of the Caribbean island of St. Lucia, water needs are becoming acute. The water supply shortfalls during the dry season will continue to grow as population and development increase, unless action is taken. Actions to address the problem should include measures to optimize the present water delivery system and the development of a new supply, through new intakes, groundwater, or reservoir construction. An investigation into the potential for groundwater resources using electrical resistivity soundings indicated a likely pervasive, shallow aquitard of clay materials below the water table; the shallowness of this aquitard virtually precludes the existence of productive perched aquifers. Consequently, a model of Grande Riviere du Vieux Fort (Big Vieux Fort River) seasonal surface-water flow was developed, based on a digital elevation model and rainfall data, allowing us to analyze the possible productivity of any new intakes placed along the river. A specific site downstream of the present intake was recommended for potential development. Recommendations were given for short, medium and long-term development of the resources and supply of the Vieux Fort region of southern St. Lucia.

  10. An integrated study of earth resources in the State of California using remote sensing techniques. [supply, demand, and impact of California water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.; Burgy, R. H.; Algazi, V. R.; Draeger, W. C.; Estes, J. E.; Bowden, L. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The supply, demand, and impact relationships of California's water resources as exemplified by the Feather River project and other aspects of the California Water Plan are discussed.

  11. Future Oil and Gas Resources of the World: A Coming Supply Crisis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlbrandt, T. S.

    2002-05-01

    Is the world running out of oil? Where will future oil and gas supplies come from? To help answer these questions, the U.S. Geological Survey completed in 2000 a new assessment of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources and potential additions to reserves from field growth. One hundred and twenty-eight provinces were assessed in a 100 man-year effort from 1995-2000. The assessed provinces included 76 priority provinces containing 95 percent of the world's discovered oil and gas and an additional 52 "boutique" provinces, many of which may be highly prospective. Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were identified and described for each of these provinces along with associated Assessment Units (AU) that are the basic units for assessing undiscovered petroleum. The assessment process coupled geologic analysis with a probabilistic methodology to estimate remaining potential. Within the 128 assessed provinces, were 159 TPS and 274 AU. For these provinces, the endowment of recoverable oil, which includes cumulative production, remaining reserves, reserve growth, and undiscovered resources is estimated at about 3 trillion barrels of oil (TBO). The natural gas endowment is estimated at 2.6 trillion barrels of oil equivalent (TBOE). Oil reserves are currently 1.1 TBO; world consumption is about .028 TBO per year. Natural gas reserves are about .8 TBOE; world consumption is about .014 TBOE. Thus, without any additional discoveries of oil, gas or natural gas liquids, we have about 2 TBOE of proved petroleum reserves. Of the oil and gas endowment of about 5.6 TBOE, we estimate that the world has consumed about 1 TBOE, or 18 percent leaving about 82 percent of endowment to be utilized or found. Half of the world's undiscovered potential is offshore. Arctic basins with about 25 percent of undiscovered petroleum resources make up the next great frontier. An additional 279 provinces contain some oil and gas and, if considered, would increase the oil and gas endowment

  12. Information Resources Management. Nordic Conference on Information and Documentation (6th, Helsinki, Finland, August 19-22, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samfundet for Informationstjanst i Finland, Helsinki.

    The 54 conference papers compiled in this proceedings include plenary addresses; reviews of Nordic databases; and discussions of documents, systems, services, and products as they relate to information resources management (IRM). Almost half of the presentations are in English: (1) "What Is Information Resources Management?" (Forest Woody Horton);…

  13. Contaminants and remedial options at pesticides sites - a technical resource document

    SciTech Connect

    Koustas, R.N.

    1995-10-01

    Pesticide contamination includes a wide variety of compounds resulting from manufacturing, improper storage, handling, disposal, and/or agricultural processes. Remediation of pesticide-contaminated soils can be a complicated process, as most pesticides are mixtures of different compounds rather than pure pesticide. The remedial manager is faced with the task of selecting remedial options that will meet established cleanup levels. There are three principal options for dealing with pesticide contamination: containment/immobilization, destruction, and separation/concentration. This paper is condensed from the technical resource document (TRD){open_quotes}Contaminants and Remedial Options at Pesticide Sites{close_quotes} and provides a brief summary on treatment technologies that are available or those being developed for pesticide contamination. Technologies that have not produced performance data are not included nor are water treatment technologies. This paper focuses on potential remediation techniques of soils.

  14. Appropriate and safe utilization of helicopter emergency medical services: a joint position statement with resource document.

    PubMed

    Floccare, Douglas J; Stuhlmiller, David F E; Braithwaite, Sabina A; Thomas, Stephen H; Madden, John F; Hankins, Daniel G; Dhindsa, Harinder; Millin, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    This position statement with accompanying resource document is the result of a collaborative effort of a writing group comprised of members of the Air Medical Physician Association (AMPA), the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), the National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP), and the American Academy of Emergency Medicine (AAEM). This document has been jointly approved by the boards of all four organizations. Patients benefit from the appropriate utilization of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS). EMS and regional health care systems must have and follow guidelines for HEMS utilization to facilitate proper patient selection and ensure clinical benefit. Clinical benefit can be provided by Meaningfully shortening the time to delivery of definitive care to patients with time-sensitive medical conditions Providing necessary specialized medical expertise or equipment to patients before and/or during transport Providing transport to patients inaccessible by other means of transport The decision to use HEMS is a medical decision, separate from the aviation determination whether a transport can be completed safely. Physicians with specialized training and experience in EMS and air medical transport must be integral to HEMS utilization decisions, including guideline development and quality improvement activities. Safety management systems must be developed, adopted, and adhered to by air medical operators when making decisions to accept and continue every HEMS transport. HEMS must be fully integrated within the local, regional, and state emergency health care systems. HEMS programs cannot operate independently of the surrounding health care environment. The EMS and health care systems must be involved in the determination of the number of HEMS assets necessary to provide appropriate coverage for their region. Excessive resources may lead to competitive practices that can affect utilization and negatively impact safety. Inadequate resources will

  15. Appropriate and safe utilization of helicopter emergency medical services: a joint position statement with resource document.

    PubMed

    Floccare, Douglas J; Stuhlmiller, David F E; Braithwaite, Sabina A; Thomas, Stephen H; Madden, John F; Hankins, Daniel G; Dhindsa, Harinder; Millin, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    This position statement with accompanying resource document is the result of a collaborative effort of a writing group comprised of members of the Air Medical Physician Association (AMPA), the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), the National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP), and the American Academy of Emergency Medicine (AAEM). This document has been jointly approved by the boards of all four organizations. Patients benefit from the appropriate utilization of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS). EMS and regional health care systems must have and follow guidelines for HEMS utilization to facilitate proper patient selection and ensure clinical benefit. Clinical benefit can be provided by Meaningfully shortening the time to delivery of definitive care to patients with time-sensitive medical conditions Providing necessary specialized medical expertise or equipment to patients before and/or during transport Providing transport to patients inaccessible by other means of transport The decision to use HEMS is a medical decision, separate from the aviation determination whether a transport can be completed safely. Physicians with specialized training and experience in EMS and air medical transport must be integral to HEMS utilization decisions, including guideline development and quality improvement activities. Safety management systems must be developed, adopted, and adhered to by air medical operators when making decisions to accept and continue every HEMS transport. HEMS must be fully integrated within the local, regional, and state emergency health care systems. HEMS programs cannot operate independently of the surrounding health care environment. The EMS and health care systems must be involved in the determination of the number of HEMS assets necessary to provide appropriate coverage for their region. Excessive resources may lead to competitive practices that can affect utilization and negatively impact safety. Inadequate resources will

  16. A distinct latitudinal gradient of diatom diversity is linked to resource supply.

    PubMed

    Passy, Sophia I

    2010-01-01

    For over 200 years, scientists have recognized the nearly ubiquitous poleward decline of species richness, but none of the theories explaining its occurrence has been widely accepted. In this continental study of U.S. running waters, I report an exception to this general pattern, i.e., a U-shaped latitudinal distribution of diatom richness (DR), equally high in subtropical and temperate regions. This gradient is linked unequivocally to corresponding trends in basin and stream properties with impact on resource supply. Specifically, DR distribution was related to wetland area, soil composition, and forest cover in the watershed, which affected iron, manganese, and macronutrient fluxes into streams. These results imply that the large-scale biodiversity patterns of freshwater protists, which are seasonal, highly dispersive, and sheltered by their environment from extreme temperature fluctuations, are resource driven in contrast to more advanced, perennial, and terrestrial organisms with biogeography strongly influenced by climate. The finding that wetlands, through iron export, control DR in streams has important environmental implications. It suggests that wetlands loss, already exceeding 52 million hectares in the conterminous United States alone, poses a threat not only to local biota, but also to biodiversity of major stream producers with potentially harmful consequences for the entire ecosystem.

  17. Resource limits and conversion efficiency with implications for climate change and California's energy supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Gregory Donald

    There are two commonly-used approaches to modeling the future supply of mineral resources. One is to estimate reserves and compare the result to extraction rates, and the other is to project from historical time series of extraction rates. Perceptions of abundant oil supplies in the Middle East and abundant coal supplies in the United States are based on the former approach. In both of these cases, an approach based on historical production series results in a much smaller resource estimate than aggregate reserve numbers. This difference is not systematic; natural gas production in the United States shows a strong increasing trend even though modest reserve estimates have resulted in three decades of worry about the gas supply. The implication of a future decline in Middle East oil production is that the market for transportation fuels is facing major changes, and that alternative fuels should be analyzed in this light. Because the U.S. holds very large coal reserves, synthesizing liquid hydrocarbons from coal has been suggested as an alternative fuel supply. To assess the potential of this process, one has to look at both the resource base and the net efficiency. The three states with the largest coal production declines in the 1996 to 2006 period are among the top 5 coal reserve holders, suggesting that gross coal reserves are a poor indicator of future production. Of the three categories of coal reserves reported by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, reserves at existing mines is the narrowest category and is approximately the equivalent of proved developed oil reserves. By this measure, Wyoming has the largest coal reserves in the U.S., and it accounted for all of U.S. coal production growth over the 1996 to 2006 time period. In Chapter 2, multi-cycle Hubbert curve analysis of historical data of coal production from 1850 to 2007 demonstrates that U.S. anthracite and bituminous coal are past their production peak. This result contradicts estimates based

  18. Resource limits and conversion efficiency with implications for climate change and California's energy supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Gregory Donald

    There are two commonly-used approaches to modeling the future supply of mineral resources. One is to estimate reserves and compare the result to extraction rates, and the other is to project from historical time series of extraction rates. Perceptions of abundant oil supplies in the Middle East and abundant coal supplies in the United States are based on the former approach. In both of these cases, an approach based on historical production series results in a much smaller resource estimate than aggregate reserve numbers. This difference is not systematic; natural gas production in the United States shows a strong increasing trend even though modest reserve estimates have resulted in three decades of worry about the gas supply. The implication of a future decline in Middle East oil production is that the market for transportation fuels is facing major changes, and that alternative fuels should be analyzed in this light. Because the U.S. holds very large coal reserves, synthesizing liquid hydrocarbons from coal has been suggested as an alternative fuel supply. To assess the potential of this process, one has to look at both the resource base and the net efficiency. The three states with the largest coal production declines in the 1996 to 2006 period are among the top 5 coal reserve holders, suggesting that gross coal reserves are a poor indicator of future production. Of the three categories of coal reserves reported by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, reserves at existing mines is the narrowest category and is approximately the equivalent of proved developed oil reserves. By this measure, Wyoming has the largest coal reserves in the U.S., and it accounted for all of U.S. coal production growth over the 1996 to 2006 time period. In Chapter 2, multi-cycle Hubbert curve analysis of historical data of coal production from 1850 to 2007 demonstrates that U.S. anthracite and bituminous coal are past their production peak. This result contradicts estimates based

  19. Benefits of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation on the Supply, Management, and Use of Water Resources in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change impacts on water resources in the U.S. are likely to be far-reaching and substantial, because the water sector spans many parts of the economy, from supply and demand for agriculture, industry, energy production, transportation and municipal use to damages from nat...

  20. A Guide to Documenting a Local Program: The Child Welfare Resource Information Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott-McDonald Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this guide is to assist child welfare program managers in the documentation of their program efforts by providing both a recommended process and format. Section I provides a general discussion of the documentation process as well as suggestions for how to document a program. Section II presents the recommended format to be used in…

  1. Economic impact of public resource supply constraints in northeast Oregon. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, E.C.; Holland, D.W.; Haynes, R.W.; Quigley, T.M.

    1997-04-01

    Traditional, fixed-price (input-output) economic models provide a useful framework for conceptualizing links in a regional economy. Apparent shortcomings in these models, however, severely restrict our ability to deduce valid prescriptions for public policy and economic development. A more efficient approach using regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) models as well as a brief survey of relevant literature is presented. Computable general equilibrium results under several different resource policy scenarios are examined and contrasted with a fixed-price analysis. In the most severe CGE scenario, elimination of Federal range programs caused the loss of 1,371 jobs (2.3 percent of regional employment) and $29 million (1.6 percent) of house income; and an 80-percent reduction in Federal log supplies resulted in the loss of 3,329 jobs (5.5 percent of regional employment), and $76 millin (4.2 percent) of household income. These results do not include positive economic impacts associated with improvement in salmon runs. Economic counter scenarios indicate that increases in tourism and high-technology manufacturing and growth in the population of retirees can largely offset total employment and income losses.

  2. Efficiency and supply resource options for the upgrade of the Plzen district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    We examined options for meeting the district heating system steam and hot water heating loads associated with the Plzefi Central Heating Plant, two interconnected boilers serving the Kosutka and Bory regions, and the distributed systems in the Letna/Doubravka and Svetovar regions. The assessment applied integrated resource planning to combine the separate supply and demand-side assessments conducted for the system. Four system load scenarios were examined-high and low growth with and without programmatic efficiency. Hot water loads ranged from the current level of 277 megawatts thermal (MW{sub t}) to 320 MW{sub t} in a high growth scenario without efficiency to 253 MW{sub t} in a low growth scenario with programmatic efficiency. The high growth scenario includes an addition of approximately 50 MW{sub t} load from the connection of distributed boilers. An additional 250 MW{sub t} load served by distributed boilers may provide additional potential for system expansion. Steam loads are projected to increase from 93 MW{sub t} to 100 MW{sub t} in the high growth scenario and. decrease to 89 MW{sub t}, in the low growth scenario. Two system expansion cases were considered. The moderate system expansion provided for the Heat Line East I connection to serve the Letna/Doubravka region and the fall system expansion case further provided for the Heat Line East II connection to serve the Svetovar region. In the moderate case, the life of the Svetovar plant is extended to continue as a stand-alone system. Four central plant supply configurations providing for additional cogeneration capacity were applied to the load scenarios: 1. Life extension to existing facilities with a new coal-fired cogeneration unit in 2003, 2. Retirement of some existing units and a new coal-fired cogeneration unit in 1997, 3. Retirement of some existing units and a new gas- fired cogeneration unit in 1997, 4. Gas: Retirement of some exiting units a new gas-fired cogeneration unit in 1997.

  3. Wyoming Academic Libraries Resource Project: Developing a Statewide Ariel Document Delivery Network. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Karen

    The Wyoming Academic Libraries Resource Project was initiated to improve cooperation and resource sharing by developing an interconnected information access and delivery system among Wyoming's academic libraries and the State Library. The goal was to formalize communication, cooperation, and resource sharing by developing an Ariel document…

  4. Water supply, demand, and quality indicators for assessing the spatial distribution of water resource vulnerability in the Columbia River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, Heejun; Jung, Il-Won; Strecker, Angela; Wise, Daniel; Lafrenz, Martin; Shandas, Vivek; ,; Yeakley, Alan; Pan, Yangdong; Johnson, Gunnar; Psaris, Mike

    2013-01-01

    We investigated water resource vulnerability in the US portion of the Columbia River basin (CRB) using multiple indicators representing water supply, water demand, and water quality. Based on the US county scale, spatial analysis was conducted using various biophysical and socio-economic indicators that control water vulnerability. Water supply vulnerability and water demand vulnerability exhibited a similar spatial clustering of hotspots in areas where agricultural lands and variability of precipitation were high but dam storage capacity was low. The hotspots of water quality vulnerability were clustered around the main stem of the Columbia River where major population and agricultural centres are located. This multiple equal weight indicator approach confirmed that different drivers were associated with different vulnerability maps in the sub-basins of the CRB. Water quality variables are more important than water supply and water demand variables in the Willamette River basin, whereas water supply and demand variables are more important than water quality variables in the Upper Snake and Upper Columbia River basins. This result suggests that current water resources management and practices drive much of the vulnerability within the study area. The analysis suggests the need for increased coordination of water management across multiple levels of water governance to reduce water resource vulnerability in the CRB and a potentially different weighting scheme that explicitly takes into account the input of various water stakeholders.

  5. A Resource Document for Implementating Recruitment of Minorities and Women at The Florida State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee.

    The suggestions and recruitment sources contained in this document are compiled with the idea of aiding in the search for minorities and women to fill positions at all levels in the universities. The document contains: (1) innovative approach to increasing the number of minority and women faculty; (2) predominately black colleges and universities;…

  6. Present Situation of Unesco Resources in Educational Documentation and Information and Its Future Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Bureau of Education, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This document provides a broad description of the different documentation and information activities developed by the Education Sector of Unesco, including those undertaken at headquarters, regional offices, and other units of the sector, with the exception of the International Bureau of Education (IBE). A recent decision to reorganize the largely…

  7. Human Resource Management in Australian Registered Training Organisations: Literature Review and Discussion Starter. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This project seeks to establish the current state of human resource management practice in RTOs in Australia. The project takes a strategic approach, particularly in the case study phase where the research will attempt to examine the links between human resource management and the strategy of the organisation. The results of the project will…

  8. 18 CFR 1316.4 - Buy American Act supply contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Buy American Act supply... Conditions and Certifications § 1316.4 Buy American Act supply contracts. When so indicated in TVA contract documents or actions, the following clause is included by reference in such documents or actions:...

  9. 18 CFR 1316.4 - Buy American Act supply contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Buy American Act supply... Conditions and Certifications § 1316.4 Buy American Act supply contracts. When so indicated in TVA contract documents or actions, the following clause is included by reference in such documents or actions:...

  10. 18 CFR 1316.4 - Buy American Act supply contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Buy American Act supply... Conditions and Certifications § 1316.4 Buy American Act supply contracts. When so indicated in TVA contract documents or actions, the following clause is included by reference in such documents or actions:...

  11. 18 CFR 1316.4 - Buy American Act supply contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Buy American Act supply... Conditions and Certifications § 1316.4 Buy American Act supply contracts. When so indicated in TVA contract documents or actions, the following clause is included by reference in such documents or actions:...

  12. Water resource impacts of climate and land cover change in New Zealand: Balancing scientific supply and policy demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, D. B.; Rouse, H. L.; Duncan, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic changes in climate and land cover have a range of effects on water resources. The policies in place to manage these potential changes depend on the biophysical drivers, the societal and environmental vulnerabilities, and the environmental (or resource management) governance institutions in place. As the science advances, so too will the policy, and as policy needs are identified, so too will the science advance. To illustrate the co-evolution of water resource science and policy, their dependence on environmental and social contexts, and their potential for further evolution, examples are drawn from New Zealand. Climate change is projected to have a range of impacts on the water resource system, including both increases and decreases in water supply, more severe droughts and floods, and degraded aquatic ecosystems. This is expected to have significant implications for the country's water-based agricultural economy and other societal values. Consequently, recent central government policy has directed all regional resource managers to take into consideration the foreseeable impacts of climate change, yet in many places projections of potential water resource change are lacking. In a similar vein, land cover change, such as the clearance of forest for dairy farming or the expansion of forests for carbon farming, also alters the quantity, quality and timing of water supply. In contrast to climate change, however, there has been no specific direction given from central government regarding land cover management, but rather a requirement to integrate land use change in broader limit setting. Going beyond this, two of the 16 regional authorities have already put in place policies that restrict forest expansion based on the potential reductions in catchment water supply. The differential responses to potential climate and land cover change depend on a range of scientific and societal factors, including the vulnerability of the water resource system and

  13. Documentation for the U.S. Geological Survey Public-Supply Database (PSDB): a database of permitted public-supply wells, surface-water intakes, and systems in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Curtis V.; Maupin, Molly A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the PSDB and explain the methods used to populate and update the data from the SDWIS, State datasets, and map and geospatial imagery. This report describes 3 data tables and 11 domain tables, including field contents, data sources, and relations between tables. Although the PSDB database is not available to the general public, this information should be useful for others who are developing other database systems to store and analyze public-supply system and facility data.

  14. DOCUMENTING THE U.S. LANDFILL/IMPOUNDMENT PERMIT: A GUIDE TO TECHNICAL RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1976, beginning with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the United States government has legislated standards for landfills and surface impoundments to make certain that when disposing of hazardous wstes, human health and the environment will be protected. ...

  15. Benefits of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation on the Supply, Management, and Use of Water Resources in the United States

    DOE PAGES

    Strzepek, K.; Neumann, Jim; Smith, Joel; Martinich, Jeremy; Boehlert, Brent; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Henderson, Jim; Wobus, Cameron; Jones, Russ; Calvin, Katherine V.; et al

    2014-11-29

    Climate change impacts on water resources in the U.S. are likely to be far-reaching and substantial, because the water sector spans many parts of the economy, from supply and demand for agriculture, industry, energy production, transportation and municipal use to damages from natural hazards. This paper provides impact and damage estimates from five water resource-related models in the CIRA frame work, addressing drought risk, flooding damages, water supply and demand, and global water scarcity. The four models differ in the water system assessed, their spatial scale, and the units of assessment, but together they provide a quantitative and descriptive richnessmore » in characterizing water resource sector effects of climate change that no single model can capture. The results also address the sensitivity of these estimates to greenhouse gas emission scenarios, climate sensitivity alternatives, and global climate model selection. While calculating the net impact of climate change on the water sector as a whole may be impractical, because each of the models applied here uses a consistent set of climate scenarios, broad conclusions can be drawn regarding the patterns of change and the benefits of GHG mitigation policies for the water sector. Two key findings emerge: 1) climate mitigation policy substantially reduces the impact of climate change on the water sector across multiple dimensions; and 2) the more managed the water resources system, the more tempered the climate change impacts and the resulting reduction of impacts from climate mitigation policies.« less

  16. Benefits of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation on the Supply, Management, and Use of Water Resources in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Strzepek, K.; Neumann, Jim; Smith, Joel; Martinich, Jeremy; Boehlert, Brent; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Henderson, Jim; Wobus, Cameron; Jones, Russ; Calvin, Katherine V.; Johnson, D.; Monier, Erwan; Strzepek, J.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2014-11-29

    Climate change impacts on water resources in the U.S. are likely to be far-reaching and substantial, because the water sector spans many parts of the economy, from supply and demand for agriculture, industry, energy production, transportation and municipal use to damages from natural hazards. This paper provides impact and damage estimates from five water resource-related models in the CIRA frame work, addressing drought risk, flooding damages, water supply and demand, and global water scarcity. The four models differ in the water system assessed, their spatial scale, and the units of assessment, but together they provide a quantitative and descriptive richness in characterizing water resource sector effects of climate change that no single model can capture. The results also address the sensitivity of these estimates to greenhouse gas emission scenarios, climate sensitivity alternatives, and global climate model selection. While calculating the net impact of climate change on the water sector as a whole may be impractical, because each of the models applied here uses a consistent set of climate scenarios, broad conclusions can be drawn regarding the patterns of change and the benefits of GHG mitigation policies for the water sector. Two key findings emerge: 1) climate mitigation policy substantially reduces the impact of climate change on the water sector across multiple dimensions; and 2) the more managed the water resources system, the more tempered the climate change impacts and the resulting reduction of impacts from climate mitigation policies.

  17. Migrant labor supply in a booming non-renewable resource economy: Cure and transmission mechanism for de-industrialization?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nulle, Grant Mark

    This paper challenges the determinism that booming resource economies suffer from de-industrialization, the "Dutch Disease". For several decades, economists have attempted to explain how a sudden surge in mineral and energy extraction affects an economy's output and employment from an aggregate and sectoral perspective. Economic theory shows that a "boom" in mineral and energy production is welfare enhancing to the economy experiencing it. However, the phenomenon also induces inter-sectoral adjustments among non-renewable resource (NRR), traditional traded, and non-traded industries that tend to crowd out traditional export sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing. In turn, this paper asks two fundamental questions: 1) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments wrought by a boom in NRR production be mitigated in the resource-abundant economy experiencing it; 2) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments be exported to a neighboring non-resource economy by movements in migrant labor supply? The theoretical model and empirical estimation approach presented in this paper introduces an endogenous migrant labor supply response to booms in NRR output to test the extent traditional tradable sectors shrink in the NRR-abundant economy during the boom and if such effects are exported to a neighboring jurisdiction. Using data at the U.S. county level, the empirical results show that booming economies experience positive and statistically significant rates of real income and traded sector job growth during the boom, attributable to the influx of migrant labor. By contrast, little evidence is found that non-booming counties adjacent to the booming counties experience declines in income or job growth because of labor supply outflows. Instead, the results suggest the larger the number of potential "donor" counties that can supply labor to the booming economies, the more likely the transmission of booming economy effects, namely evidence of de-industrialization, is diffused across all of the

  18. Sectoral Vulnerabilities to Changing Water Resources: Current and Future Tradeoffs between Supply and Demand in the Conterminous U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meldrum, J.; Averyt, K.; Caldwell, P.; Sun, G.; Huber-lee, A. T.; McNulty, S.

    2012-12-01

    ., Rogers, J., and Tellinghuisen, S. 2011. Freshwater use by US power plants: electricity's thirst for a precious resource. A report of the Energy and Water in a Warming World initiative, Cambridge, MA: Union of Concerned Scientists, 52 pp. Caldwell, P., Sun, G., McNulty, S., Cohen, E., and Moore Myers, J. 2011. Modeling Impacts of Environmental Change on Ecosystem Services across the Conterminous United States, in: Proceedings of the Fourth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds, Fairbanks, AK, 26-30 Sept 2011, 63-69. Kenny, J., Barber, N., Hutson, S., Linsey, K., Lovelace, J., and Maupin, M. 2009. Estimated use of water in the United States in 2005. US Geological Survey Circular 1344, 52 pp. Milly, P. C. D., Dunne, K. A., and Vecchia, A. V. 2005. Global pattern of trends in streamflow and water availability in a changing climate. Nature 438(7066):347-350. Sun, G., McNulty, S., Moore Myers, J., and Cohen, E. 2008. Impacts of multiple stresses on water demand and supply across the Southeastern United States. Journal of American Water Resources Association 44(6):1441-1457. Sun, G., Caldwell, P., Noormets, A., Cohen, E., McNulty, S., Treasure, E., Domec, J., Mu, Q., Xiao, J., John, R., and Chen, J. 2011. Upscaling key ecosystem functions across the Conterminous United States by a water-centric ecosystem model, J. Geophys. Res., 116.

  19. Large-Scale Water Resources Management within the Framework of GLOWA-Danube - Part B: The Water Supply Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickel, D.; Barthel, R.; Schmid, C.; Braun, J.

    2003-04-01

    of this type of modelling for water supply systems is something very new. The initial step is the development of a conceptual water supply model (using JAVA), in which both the model boundaries and area of expertise as well as parameters to be exchanged between the Water Supply model and other models are defined. The data required to create model for such a large area is not available from the authorities, common interest organisations or in the public statistics. In order to gain access to more specific information regarding individual water supply companies, the Water Supply group is currently carrying out a wide-spread questionnaire addressed to all water supply companies in the GLOWA-Danube model area - well over 1000 in total in Bavaria, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Austria and Switzerland. The questionnaire contains questions pertaining to the two distinct fields, "economics and pricing" and "technical aspects", and aims at gathering information regarding the present day situation of the water supply system, the developments over the past 10 years as well as planned developments for the immediate future. Later, the focus will shift towards the stakeholders from the field of water resources management. A catalogue of decision-making rules will be prepared as a basis for discussion and will be debated with the relevant stakeholders. These rules will provide the basis for decision-making algorithms which will allow model agents to respond to their environment, communicate with one anther and behave in a goal-oriented manner to bring about change in the water supply system in response to changing conditions with regard to the climate, water quality, political and social boundary conditions, and changing demand.

  20. Impacts of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act on energy supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnes, S. A.; Copenhaver, E. D.; Weeter, D. W.; Calzonetti, F. J.; Tevepaugh, C. W.; Parzyck, D. C.

    1980-10-01

    The signficant characteristics of the waste streams of representative technologies of different energy supply alternatives are reported, including coal combustion and conversion, solar, geothermal, oil sands, oil shales, and petroleum refining. The overall relationship of RCRA and energy issues was examined, with special emphasis on how RCRA's hazardous waste provisions impact with these technologies. The issues addressed were: the magnitude of energy related waste; public and private sector responses to RCRA and energy waste problems; the relationship of RCRA to other environmental and public health protection policies; the effect of RCRA on the deployment of energy supply; the role of reuse, recovery, and utilization of energy waste; and possible health and environmental effects associated with solid or hazardous wastes of various energy supply systems.

  1. Supporting Learning and Information Sharing in Natural Resource Management with Technologies for Electronic Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alem, Leila; McLean, Alistair

    2005-01-01

    Community participation is central to achieving sustainable natural resource management. A prerequisite to informed participation is that community and stakeholder groups have access to different knowledge sources, are more closely attuned to the different issues and viewpoints, and are sufficiently equipped to understand and maybe resolve complex…

  2. Case Studies of 19 School Resource Officer (SRO) Programs. Document Number 209271

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; McDevitt, Jack; Lassiter, William; Shively, Michael; Rich, Tom

    2005-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in placing sworn law enforcement officers in schools as School Resource Officers (SROs) as a means of improving school safety and improving relations between police officers and youth. However, when this project began in May 2000, relatively little was known about SRO programs. The purpose of the National…

  3. Physician Assistant. Curriculum Resource Document. Volume I: Role Delineation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Academy of Physicians' Assistants, Arlington, VA.

    Both the project report and the resultant role delineation for entry level physician assistants are included in this first volume of a two-volume report of a study which had two major purposes: (1) To further develop a role delineation for the assistant to the primary care physician and (2) to provide an educational resource for those involved in…

  4. Metadata: Standards for Retrieving WWW Documents (and Other Digitized and Non-Digitized Resources)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusch-Feja, Diann

    The use of metadata for indexing digitized and non-digitized resources for resource discovery in a networked environment is being increasingly implemented all over the world. Greater precision is achieved using metadata than relying on universal search engines and furthermore, meta-data can be used as filtering mechanisms for search results. An overview of various metadata sets is given, followed by a more focussed presentation of Dublin Core Metadata including examples of sub-elements and qualifiers. Especially the use of the Dublin Core Relation element provides connections between the metadata of various related electronic resources, as well as the metadata for physical, non-digitized resources. This facilitates more comprehensive search results without losing precision and brings together different genres of information which would otherwise be only searchable in separate databases. Furthermore, the advantages of Dublin Core Metadata in comparison with library cataloging and the use of universal search engines are discussed briefly, followed by a listing of types of implementation of Dublin Core Metadata.

  5. Resources for Law-Related Education: Documents and Journal Articles in ERIC, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leming, Robert S., Ed.; Downey, James, Ed.

    A guide to the vast array of available resources for law-related education (LRE), this annotated bibliography is intended to assist any one concerned with the civic education of youth, especially teachers and other members of the K-12 educational community. It offers information about the law, innovative teaching methods, and guides to national…

  6. Effects of irrigation water supply variations on limited resource farming in Conejos County, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Jerry B.; Wang, Erda

    1993-02-01

    Farms in NE Conejos County, Colorado, are characterized by limited resources, uncertain surface flow irrigation systems, and mixed crop-livestock enterprise combinations which are dependent on public grazing resources. To model decision making on these farms, a linear program is developed stressing enterprise choices under conditions of multiple resource constraints. Differential access to grazing resources and irrigation water is emphasized in this research. Regarding the water resource, the model reflects farms situated alternatively on high-, medium-, and low-priority irrigation ditches within the Alamosa-La Jara river system, each with and without supplemental pumping. Differences are found in optimum enterprise mixes, net returns, choice of cropping technology, level of marketings, and other characteristics in response to variations in the availability of irrigation water. Implications are presented for alternative improvement strategies.

  7. WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION'S RESPONSE TO WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The WSWRD in NRMRL/ORD has had a successful collaborative relationship with the Cetners for Disease Control & Prevention (CDCP) for over twenty years. When invited, EPA has supplied technical assistance and advice on traking causative events, evaluation of drinking water problems...

  8. Stable isotopes document resource partitioning and effects of forest disturbance on sympatric cheirogaleid lemurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, B. E.; Blanco, M. B.; Arrigo-Nelson, S. J.; Irwin, M. T.

    2013-10-01

    The future of Madagascar’s forests and their resident lemurs is precarious. Determining how species respond to forest fragmentation is essential for management efforts. We use stable isotope biogeochemistry to investigate how disturbance affects resource partitioning between two genera of cheirogaleid lemurs ( Cheirogaleus and Microcebus) from three humid forest sites: continuous and fragmented forest at Tsinjoarivo, and selectively logged forest at Ranomafana. We test three hypotheses: (H1) cheirogaleids are unaffected by forest fragmentation, (H2) species respond individually to disturbance and may exploit novel resources in fragmented habitat, and (H3) species alter their behavior to rely on the same key resource in disturbed forest. We find significant isotopic differences among species and localities. Carbon data suggest that Microcebus feed lower in the canopy than Cheirogaleus at all three localities and that sympatric Cheirogaleus crossleyi and C. sibreei feed at different canopy heights in the fragmented forest. Microcbus have higher nitrogen isotope values than Cheirogaleus at all localities, indicating more faunivory. After accounting for baseline isotope values in plants, our results provide the most support for H3. We find similar isotopic variations among localities for both genera. Small differences in carbon among localities may reflect shifts in diet or habitat use. Elevated nitrogen values for cheirogaleid lemurs in fragments may reflect increased arthropod consumption or nutritional stress. These results suggest that cheirogaleids are affected by forest disturbance in Eastern Madagascar and stress the importance of accounting for baseline isotopic differences in plants in any work comparing localities.

  9. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding - resources Bulimia - resources Burns - resources Cancer - resources Cerebral palsy - resources Celiac disease - resources Child abuse - resources Chronic fatigue syndrome - resources Chronic pain - ...

  10. SITC/iSBTc Cancer Immunotherapy Biomarkers Resource Document: Online resources and useful tools - a compass in the land of biomarker discovery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Recent positive clinical results in cancer immunotherapy point to the potential of immune-based strategies to provide effective treatment of a variety of cancers. In some patients, the responses to cancer immunotherapy are durable, dramatically extending survival. Extensive research efforts are being made to identify and validate biomarkers that can help identify subsets of cancer patients that will benefit most from these novel immunotherapies. In addition to the clear advantage of such predictive biomarkers, immune biomarkers are playing an important role in the development, clinical evaluation and monitoring of cancer immunotherapies. This Cancer Immunotherapy Resource Document, prepared by the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC, formerly the International Society for Biological Therapy of Cancer, iSBTc), provides key references and online resources relevant to the discovery, evaluation and clinical application of immune biomarkers. These key resources were identified by experts in the field who are actively pursuing research in biomarker identification and validation. This organized collection of the most useful references, online resources and tools serves as a compass to guide discovery of biomarkers essential to advancing novel cancer immunotherapies. PMID:21929757

  11. Water Resources and Supply Adaptation: A paradigm Shifting for Future Climate?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change adds another layer of complexity in planning, engineering and management of water resources and urban water infrastructures. Yet our current practice is confined to the traditional approach that evaluates developmental scenarios and their sustainability mostly by a...

  12. Sexual reproduction prevails in a world of structured resources in short supply.

    PubMed

    Scheu, S; Drossel, B

    2007-05-01

    We present a model for the maintenance of sexual reproduction based on the availability of resources, which is the strongest factor determining the growth of populations. The model compares completely asexual species to species that switch between asexual and sexual reproduction (sexual species). Key features of the model are that sexual reproduction sets in when resources become scarce, and that at a given place only a few genotypes can be present at the same time. We show that under a wide range of conditions the sexual species outcompete the asexual ones. The asexual species win only when survival conditions are harsh and death rates are high, or when resources are so little structured or consumer genotypes are so manifold that all resources are exploited to the same extent. These conditions largely represent the conditions in which sexuals predominate over asexuals in the field.

  13. Technical guide on documentation requirements for open market contract acquisitions of information resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Asa L., Jr.; Kivett, William R.; Taylor, James Y.

    1990-01-01

    A guide is presented to assist requestors in formulating and submitting the required Complete Package for Information Resources (IR) acquisitions. Advance discussions with cognizant procurement personnel are strongly recommended for complex IR requirements or for those requestors new to the acquisition process. Open Market means the requirement either is not available on GSA Schedule Contract or exceeds the $300,000 threshold and/or the quantity Maximum Order Limitation of the GSA Schedule Contract. Only open market contract acquisitions (i.e., in excess of the $25,000 small purchase threshold), are addressed.

  14. Demand management in healthcare IT. Controlling IT demand to meet constrained IT resource supply.

    PubMed

    Mohrmann, Gregg; Schlusberg, Craig; Kropf, Roger

    2007-01-01

    Healthcare is behind other industries in the ability to manage and control increasing demand for IT services, and to ensure that IT staff are available when and where needed. From everyday support requests to large capital projects, the IT department's ability to meet demand is limited. Organizational and IT leaders need to proactively address this issue and do a better job of predicting when services will be needed and whether appropriate resources will be available. This article describes the common issues that healthcare IT departments face in the efficient delivery of services as a result of factors such as budget constraints, skill sets and project dependencies. Best practices for controlling demand are discussed, including resource allocation, governance processes and a graphical analysis of forecasted vs. actual thresholds. Using specific healthcare provider examples, the article intends to provide IT management with an approach to predicting and controlling resource demand. PMID:19195282

  15. GM`s PICOS initiative on resource conservation and pollution prevention: Greening the supply chain

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchett, T.

    1997-12-31

    This paper is comprised of reprints of several related articles from business publications. The first article, on supply-side economics, describes efforts by General Motors to cut costs by encouraging suppliers to reduce the environmental impacts of their products. The PICOS{trademark} program of General Motors helps industrial identify and implement energy efficiency and pollution prevention projects that lower operating costs while reducing emissions linked to global climate change. The second article also describes the program, focusing on aspects of global competition.

  16. Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources and Water Supply Security through Adaptation

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation is to describe the water resources adaptation program (WRAP) at the U.S.EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory, and to highlight initial research results on hydroclimatic periodicity and changes and on adaptation measures including sustainable water in...

  17. Mass Gathering Medical Care: Resource Document for the National Association of EMS Physicians Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Brian; Nafziger, Sarah; Milsten, Andrew; Luk, Jeffrey; Yancey, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Mass gatherings are heterogeneous in terms of size, duration, type of event, crowd behavior, demographics of the participants and spectators, use of recreational substances, weather, and environment. The goals of health and medical services should be the provision of care for participants and spectators consistent with local standards of care, protection of continuing medical service to the populations surrounding the event venue, and preparation for surge to respond to extraordinary events. Pre-event planning among jurisdictional public health and EMS, acute care hospitals, and event EMS is essential, but should also include, at a minimum, event security services, public relations, facility maintenance, communications technicians, and the event planners and organizers. Previous documented experience with similar events has been shown to most accurately predict future needs. Future work in and guidance for mass gathering medical care should include the consistent use and further development of universally accepted consistent metrics, such as Patient Presentation Rate and Transfer to Hospital Rate. Only by standardizing data collection can evaluations be performed that link interventions with outcomes to enhance evidence-based EMS services at mass gatherings. Research is needed to evaluate the skills and interventions required by EMS providers to achieve desired outcomes. The event-dedicated EMS Medical Director is integral to acceptable quality medical care provided at mass gatherings; hence, he/she must be included in all aspects of mass gathering medical care planning, preparations, response, and recovery. Incorporation of jurisdictional EMS and community hospital medical leadership, and emergency practitioners into these processes will ensure that on-site care, transport, and transition to acute care at appropriate receiving facilities is consistent with, and fully integrated into the community's medical care system, while fulfilling the needs of event

  18. Mass Gathering Medical Care: Resource Document for the National Association of EMS Physicians Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Brian; Nafziger, Sarah; Milsten, Andrew; Luk, Jeffrey; Yancey, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Mass gatherings are heterogeneous in terms of size, duration, type of event, crowd behavior, demographics of the participants and spectators, use of recreational substances, weather, and environment. The goals of health and medical services should be the provision of care for participants and spectators consistent with local standards of care, protection of continuing medical service to the populations surrounding the event venue, and preparation for surge to respond to extraordinary events. Pre-event planning among jurisdictional public health and EMS, acute care hospitals, and event EMS is essential, but should also include, at a minimum, event security services, public relations, facility maintenance, communications technicians, and the event planners and organizers. Previous documented experience with similar events has been shown to most accurately predict future needs. Future work in and guidance for mass gathering medical care should include the consistent use and further development of universally accepted consistent metrics, such as Patient Presentation Rate and Transfer to Hospital Rate. Only by standardizing data collection can evaluations be performed that link interventions with outcomes to enhance evidence-based EMS services at mass gatherings. Research is needed to evaluate the skills and interventions required by EMS providers to achieve desired outcomes. The event-dedicated EMS Medical Director is integral to acceptable quality medical care provided at mass gatherings; hence, he/she must be included in all aspects of mass gathering medical care planning, preparations, response, and recovery. Incorporation of jurisdictional EMS and community hospital medical leadership, and emergency practitioners into these processes will ensure that on-site care, transport, and transition to acute care at appropriate receiving facilities is consistent with, and fully integrated into the community's medical care system, while fulfilling the needs of event

  19. Lack of School Supplies, Materials and Resources as an Elementary Cause of Frustration and Burnout in South Texas Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufhold, John A.; Alverez, Velma G.; Arnold, Mitylene

    2006-01-01

    The research in this article examined an often neglected, but nevertheless equally important, factor in the burnout and attrition rate of special education teachers. This factor was a lack of school supplies, materials and resources. This shortage was largely due to a constant "tug-of-war" with regular education personnel for the same resources.…

  20. Performance assessment of Saskatchewan's water resource system under uncertain inter-provincial water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Nazemi, Ali; Wheater, Howard

    2014-05-01

    The trans-boundary Saskatchewan River Basin supports livelihoods and the economy of the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Water users include irrigated agriculture, hydropower, potash mining, urban centers, and ecosystem services. Water availability in Saskatchewan is highly dependent on the flows from the upstream province of Alberta. These flows mostly originate from the Rocky Mountains headwaters and are highly regulated, due to intensive water use and redistribution before they get to the Alberta/Saskatchewan border. Warming climate and increasing water demands in Alberta have changed the incoming flow characteristics from Alberta to Saskatchewan. It is critical to assess the performance and the viability of Saskatchewan's water resources system under uncertain future inter-provincial inflows. For this purpose, a possible range of future changes in the inflows from Alberta to Saskatchewan is considered in this study. The considered changes include various combinations of shifts in the timing of the annual peak and volumetric change in the annual flow volumes. These shifts are implemented using a copula-based stochastic simulation method to generate multiple realizations of weekly flow series at two key locations of inflow to Saskatchewan's water resources system, in a way that the spatial dependencies between weekly inflows are maintained. Each flow series is of 31-years length and constitutes a possible long term water availability scenario. The stochastically generated flows are introduced as an alternative to the historical inflows for water resources planning and management purposes in Saskatchewan. Both historical and reconstructed inflows are fed into a Sustainability-oriented Water Allocation, Management, and Planning (SWAMP) model to analyze the effects of inflow changes on Saskatchewan's water resources system. The SWAMP model was developed using the System Dynamics approach and entails irrigation/soil moisture, non-irrigation uses and economic

  1. Linguistic confusion in economics: utility, causality, product differentiation, and the supply of natural resources.

    PubMed

    Simon, J L

    1982-01-01

    Lack of careful attention to the language used in the discussion of economic concepts has resulted in considerable confusion and error. 2 frequent sources of confusion include tautology and the absence of operational definitions of concepts. This paper outlines a more effective scientific practice through reference to 2 economic examples: 1) the concept of utility, where it is demonstrated that choice of an operational definition of the concept facilitates interpersonal comparisons; and 2) causality, where a multidimensional operational definition is needed to discriminate among the various meanings of the term in theoretical, empirical, and policy contexts. The paper further discusses the example of natural resource scarcity, where application of the term "finite" reveals that there is no empirical evidence of physical limits to growth in the use of resources. A more appropriate measure of scarcity is the economic concept of price.

  2. Motor protein traffic regulation by supply-demand balance of resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciandrini, Luca; Neri, Izaak; Walter, Jean Charles; Dauloudet, Olivier; Parmeggiani, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    In cells and in in vitro assays the number of motor proteins involved in biological transport processes is far from being unlimited. The cytoskeletal binding sites are in contact with the same finite reservoir of motors (either the cytosol or the flow chamber) and hence compete for recruiting the available motors, potentially depleting the reservoir and affecting cytoskeletal transport. In this work we provide a theoretical framework in which to study, analytically and numerically, how motor density profiles and crowding along cytoskeletal filaments depend on the competition of motors for their binding sites. We propose two models in which finite processive motor proteins actively advance along cytoskeletal filaments and are continuously exchanged with the motor pool. We first look at homogeneous reservoirs and then examine the effects of free motor diffusion in the surrounding medium. We consider as a reference situation recent in vitro experimental setups of kinesin-8 motors binding and moving along microtubule filaments in a flow chamber. We investigate how the crowding of linear motor proteins moving on a filament can be regulated by the balance between supply (concentration of motor proteins in the flow chamber) and demand (total number of polymerized tubulin heterodimers). We present analytical results for the density profiles of bound motors and the reservoir depletion, and propose novel phase diagrams that present the formation of jams of motor proteins on the filament as a function of two tuneable experimental parameters: the motor protein concentration and the concentration of tubulins polymerized into cytoskeletal filaments. Extensive numerical simulations corroborate the analytical results for parameters in the experimental range and also address the effects of diffusion of motor proteins in the reservoir. We then propose experiments for validating our models and discuss how the ‘supply-demand’ effects can regulate motor traffic also in in vivo

  3. A Set of Resources and Tools for Identifying, Building and Sustaining the Learning and Development Needs of Managers and Leaders. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Victor; Mitchell, John; Clayton, Berwyn; Smith, Larry

    2007-01-01

    This document provides three resources in support of "Approaches for Sustaining and Building Management and Leadership Capability in VET Providers" (ED499670), which examines the existing and potential strategies for sustaining and building greater levels of management and leadership capability in training organisations. The resources are: (1)…

  4. Tombs, tunnels, and terraces a cultural resources survey of a former ammunition supply point in Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Verhaaren, B. T.; Levenson, J. B.; Komine, G.

    2000-02-09

    U.S. forces serving at military bases on foreign soil are obligated to act as good stewards of the cultural and natural resources under their control. However, cultural resources management presents special challenges at U.S. bases in other countries where cultural properties laws differ in emphasis and detail from those in the United States and issues of land ownership and occupancy are not always clear. Where status of forces agreements (SOFAs) exist, environmental governing standards bridge the gap between U.S. and host nation cultural priorities. In Japan, the Department of Defense Japan Environmental Governing Standards (JEGS) fill this function. Under Criteria 12-4.2 and 12-4.3 of the JEGS, U.S. Forces Japan commit themselves to inventory and protect cultural properties found on the lands they control or use. Cultural properties include archaeological sites, tombs, historic buildings, and shrines. Natural monuments, such as landscape features or plant and animal species, may also be designated as cultural properties. As part of this commitment, in February 1999 a cultural resources inventory was conducted in Area 1, part of Kadena Air Base (AB), Okinawa, Japan. Area 1, the former U.S. army Ammunition Supply Point 1, is currently used primarily for training exercises and recreational paint ball.

  5. Integrated assessment of supply and efficiency resources for the district heating system, City of Handlova, Republic of Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This city needs to replace its old district heating system which is unreliable and expensive to maintain. Current plant is owned by a state-run utility; the plant is scheduled for privatization, and the city is examining options for its upgrade. Analysis and preparation for this activity is documented in demand-side and supply-side technical and economic analyses and in this integrated demand/supply report. Preliminary projections indicate the cost of heating from a cost per unit of energy basis and from the perspective of an apartment dweller in Handlova on a total cost per year basis. The centralized coal cogeneration option is the least expensive on a levelized energy cost both with and without energy efficiency. Centralized coal/gas dual-fuel cogeneration is a close second, and the decentralized gas natural gas boilers is significantly more expensive. When the effect of building efficiency measures is evaluated, efficiency always increases the cost on a levelized energy cost basis, but on a levelized cost per flat basis, both centralized systems with buildings efficiency are less expensive than without.

  6. Petroleum resources of Libya, Algeria, and Egypt. Foreign energy supply assessment series

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    Part 1 of the report is a synopsis of each country's location, its exploration and development history, crude oil field production history, and markets. Part 2 discusses the production and reserve characteristics of the oil fields and status of the known crude oil resources. Part 3 provides an assessment of the ultimately recoverable crude oil and the possible future rate of availability of the crude oil. Part 4 discusses the status of the known and undiscovered natural gas resources, production, and markets. Part 5 is an overview of the petroleum geology of the three countries and the physical characteristics of their crude oils. Appendix A presents an annual resume of historical production by field and by basin for Libya; Appendix B shows the historical production by field and by basin for Algeria; Appendix C shows the historical production by field and by basin for Egypt; Appendix D provides production tables for each country. Data presented in Appendixes A through D are derived mostly from the April 1982 publication, Libya, Algeria and Egypt-Crude Oil Potential From Known Deposits DOE/EIA-0338, by William D. Dietzman, Naim R. Rafidi, and Thomas A. Ross. Appendix E is a geologic timetable.

  7. Re-engineering the urban drainage system for resource recovery and protection of drinking water supplies.

    PubMed

    Gumbo, B

    2000-01-01

    The Harare metropolis in Zimbabwe, extending upstream from Manyame Dam in the Upper Manyame River Basin, consists of the City of Harare and its satellite towns: Chitungwiza, Norton, Epworth and Ruwa. The existing urban drainage system is typically a single-use-mixing system: water is used and discharged to "waste", excreta are flushed to sewers and eventually, after "treatment", the effluent is discharged to a drinking water supply source. Polluted urban storm water is evacuated as fast as possible. This system not only ignores the substantial value in "waste" materials, but it also exports problems to downstream communities and to vulnerable fresh-water sources. The question is how can the harare metropolis urban drainage system, which is complex and has evolved over time, be rearranged to achieve sustainability (i.e. water conservation, pollution prevention at source, protection of the vulnerable drinking water sources and recovery of valuable materials)? This paper reviews current concepts regarding the future development of the urban drainage system in line with the new vision of "Sustainable Cities of the Future". The Harare Metropolis in Zimbabwe is taken as a case, and philosophical options for re-engineering the drainage system are discussed. PMID:10842788

  8. [Mercury in ASGM and its impact on water resources used for domestic water supply].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Arriaga, Farith A

    2014-01-01

    In regions affected by artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM), the inhalation of mercury vapor and the ingestion of fish contaminated with this metal constitute the main sources of mercury contamination that affect human health. Nevertheless, according to the World Health Organization, another source of contamination is polluted water. Although mercury in freshwater is usually found in very low concentrations because it is swiftly consumed by aquatic microorganisms, evidence shows that under specific circumstances its concentration in water can reach high levels, even surpassing the 2.0 μg/L stipulated by Colombian legislation for use as a domestic water supply. Mercury concentrations above 3.0 μg/L have been found in some Colombian municipalities, and above 8.0 μg/L in other regions around the world. Even though mercury consumption via water is a minor concern, along with other alimentary sources this low mercury concentration contributes to the total burden that affects human health. PMID:26120863

  9. Linking genotype and phenotype in protein synthesizing liposomes with external supply of resources.

    PubMed

    Nourian, Zohreh; Danelon, Christophe

    2013-04-19

    Reconstituting an elementary gene expression system inside self-assembled lipid vesicles to mimic the cellular synthesis machinery is at the core of the development of a minimal cell following a bottom-up synthetic biology approach. The ability to operate the expression of multiple genes in a controlled manner and to generate the output proteins with predictable dynamics in liposomes relies on the link between genotype and phenotype. Here, we established this link in surface-tethered liposomes producing proteins from a linear DNA template using a reconstituted transcription/translation/aminoacylation apparatus fuelled by external supply of feedstock. The amounts of entrapped DNA molecules and synthesized proteins were visualized by fluorescence confocal microscopy in individual vesicles. We showed that there exists no linear correlation between the amount of encapsulated genes and the level of output proteins, which is a consequence of the compositional heterogeneity between liposomes due to the low-copy number of some constituents, as well as interfacing differences with the nutrient-containing environment. In order to decouple gene activity from those sources of variability and, thus, infer the probabilistic occupancy of transcriptionally active genes in protein synthesizing liposomes, we developed a dual gene expression assay consisting of the production of two fluorescent reporter proteins of distinguishable colors from two different DNA templates. The stochastic color-coding of the vesicles was analyzed and compared to the color pattern expected from a Poisson distribution of encapsulated genes. Unexpectedly, we found that the apparent number of transcriptionally active DNA molecules in liposomes corresponds only to ca. 10% of the bulk concentration. We believe that our study provides new insights about the relationship between the genotype and phenotype in protein synthesizing liposomes, which is of primary importance toward the construction of a programmable

  10. Exploring Tradeoffs in Demand-side and Supply-side Management of Urban Water Resources using Agent-based Modeling and Evolutionary Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanta, L.; Berglund, E. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Urban water supply systems may be managed through supply-side and demand-side strategies, which focus on water source expansion and demand reductions, respectively. Supply-side strategies bear infrastructure and energy costs, while demand-side strategies bear costs of implementation and inconvenience to consumers. To evaluate the performance of demand-side strategies, the participation and water use adaptations of consumers should be simulated. In this study, a Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) framework is developed to simulate consumer agents that change their consumption to affect the withdrawal from the water supply system, which, in turn influences operational policies and long-term resource planning. Agent-based models are encoded to represent consumers and a policy maker agent and are coupled with water resources system simulation models. The CAS framework is coupled with an evolutionary computation-based multi-objective methodology to explore tradeoffs in cost, inconvenience to consumers, and environmental impacts for both supply-side and demand-side strategies. Decisions are identified to specify storage levels in a reservoir that trigger (1) increases in the volume of water pumped through inter-basin transfers from an external reservoir and (2) drought stages, which restrict the volume of water that is allowed for residential outdoor uses. The proposed methodology is demonstrated for Arlington, Texas, water supply system to identify non-dominated strategies for an historic drought decade. Results demonstrate that pumping costs associated with maximizing environmental reliability exceed pumping costs associated with minimizing restrictions on consumer water use.

  11. Effects of resource availability and propagule supply on native species recruitment in sagebrush ecosystems invaded by Bromus tectorum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazzola, Monica B.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Blank, Robert R.; Pyke, David A.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Allcock, Kimberly G.; Doescher, Paul S.; Nowak, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Resource availability and propagule supply are major factors influencing establishment and persistence of both native and invasive species. Increased soil nitrogen (N) availability and high propagule inputs contribute to the ability of annual invasive grasses to dominate disturbed ecosystems. Nitrogen reduction through carbon (C) additions can potentially immobilize soil N and reduce the competitiveness of annual invasive grasses. Native perennial species are more tolerant of resource limiting conditions and may benefit if N reduction decreases the competitive advantage of annual invaders and if sufficient propagules are available for their establishment. Bromus tectorum, an exotic annual grass in the sagebrush steppe of western North America, is rapidly displacing native plant species and causing widespread changes in ecosystem processes. We tested whether nitrogen reduction would negatively affect B. tectorum while creating an opportunity for establishment of native perennial species. A C source, sucrose, was added to the soil, and then plots were seeded with different densities of both B. tectorum (0, 150, 300, 600, and 1,200 viable seeds m-2) and native species (0, 150, 300, and 600 viable seeds m-2). Adding sucrose had short-term (1 year) negative effects on available nitrogen and B. tectorum density, biomass and seed numbers, but did not increase establishment of native species. Increasing propagule availability increased both B. tectorum and native species establishment. Effects of B. tectorum on native species were density dependent and native establishment increased as B. tectorum propagule availability decreased. Survival of native seedlings was low indicating that recruitment is governed by the seedling stage.

  12. 18 CFR 1316.4 - Buy American Act supply contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Buy American Act supply contracts. 1316.4 Section 1316.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY GENERAL CONDITIONS AND CERTIFICATIONS FOR INCORPORATION IN CONTRACT DOCUMENTS OR ACTIONS Text...

  13. Report of the Public's Comments on the RCA Draft Documents, January-March 1980. [Soil and Water Resources Conservation Act].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    The Soil and Water Resources Conservation Act of 1977 (RCA) directed the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to assess the country's nonfederal soil and water resources and to develop a program to conserve these and related natural resources. During this process, the USDA prepared and circulated for public comment a draft appraisal,…

  14. [The scientific bases of the document "Health Standards and Regulations for the Design and Operation of Centralized Hot Water Supply Systems"].

    PubMed

    Krasovskiĭ, G N; Dergacheva, T S; Kudriavitseva, B M

    1990-10-01

    Scientific substantiation of the choice of a heat supply system, of temperature regimen for the hot water, of the scale of laboratory-production control over the hot water quality, conditions for the hydrochemical washing out of the tubes depending on the heat supply system is given in the article. Requirements to accumulating tanks which, in case of disturbances in the operational regimen, may produce unfavourable effects on the hot water quality. PMID:2074035

  15. Updated U.S. Geothermal Supply Curve

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, C.; Young, K. R.; Anderson, A.

    2010-02-01

    This paper documents the approach used to update the U.S. geothermal supply curve. The analysis undertaken in this study estimates the supply of electricity generation potential from geothermal resources in the United States and the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), capital costs, and operating and maintenance costs associated with developing these geothermal resources. Supply curves were developed for four categories of geothermal resources: identified hydrothermal (6.4 GWe), undiscovered hydrothermal (30.0 GWe), near-hydrothermal field enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) (7.0 GWe) and deep EGS (15,900 GWe). Two cases were considered: a base case and a target case. Supply curves were generated for each of the four geothermal resource categories for both cases. For both cases, hydrothermal resources dominate the lower cost range of the combined geothermal supply curve. The supply curves indicate that the reservoir performance improvements assumed in the target case could significantly lower EGS costs and greatly increase EGS deployment over the base case.

  16. A risk-based framework to assess long-term effects of policy and water supply changes on water resources systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Wheater, Howard; Gober, Patricia

    2015-04-01

    Climate uncertainty can affect water resources availability and management decisions. Sustainable water resources management therefore requires evaluation of policy and management decisions under a wide range of possible future water supply conditions. This study proposes a risk-based framework to integrate water supply uncertainty into a forward-looking decision making context. To apply this framework, a stochastic reconstruction scheme is used to generate a large ensemble of flow series. For the Rocky Mountain basins considered here, two key characteristics of the annual hydrograph are its annual flow volume and the timing of the seasonal flood peak. These are perturbed to represent natural randomness and potential changes due to future climate. 30-year series of perturbed flows are used as input to the SWAMP model - an integrated water resources model that simulates regional water supply-demand system and estimates economic productivity of water and other sustainability indicators, including system vulnerability and resilience. The simulation results are used to construct 2D-maps of net revenue of a particular water sector; e.g., hydropower, or for all sectors combined. Each map cell represents a risk scenario of net revenue based on a particular annual flow volume, timing of the peak flow, and 200 stochastic realizations of flow series. This framework is demonstrated for a water resources system in the Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB) in Saskatchewan, Canada. Critical historical drought sequences, derived from tree-ring reconstructions of several hundred years of annual river flows, are used to evaluate the system's performance (net revenue risk) under extremely low flow conditions and also to locate them on the previously produced 2D risk maps. This simulation and analysis framework is repeated under various reservoir operation strategies (e.g., maximizing flood protection or maximizing water supply security); development proposals, such as irrigation

  17. Generic safety documentation model

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

  18. Web document engineering

    SciTech Connect

    White, B.

    1996-05-01

    This tutorial provides an overview of several document engineering techniques which are applicable to the authoring of World Wide Web documents. It illustrates how pre-WWW hypertext research is applicable to the development of WWW information resources.

  19. Inventory of Information Resources for the U.S. House of Representatives. Part I; Internal Resources. House Document No. 94-537.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    Pursuant to Section 204 of House Resolution 988, 93rd Congress, this annotated inventory of the internal information resources of the U.S. House of Representatives is part of a larger project intended to study the information needs and problems of the House in relation to existing institutions and services. Categories of information covered in…

  20. Supply/Demand Information System for Vocational Education in Texas. (A Subsystem of the Human Resources Information System).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Office of Information Services, Austin.

    To help develop a conceptual design and determine resources necessary to establish a Human Resources Information System (HRIS) in Texas, a task force investigated factors influencing the balance between individuals in training and demand for trained people. State data forms and federal forms used to collect data in Texas are reviewed. HRIS systems…

  1. National Assessment of School Resource Officer Programs: Survey of Students in Three Large New SRO Programs. Document Number 209270

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDevitt, Jack; Panniello, Jenn

    2005-01-01

    In this report, School Resource Officer (SRO) programs in four school districts are examined. The study was primarily concerned with what variables affect students' comfort level in reporting crimes to the SRO, and their perceptions of safety. The analysis was driven by data obtained through surveys of 907 students. Using these data, seven…

  2. Comparison of Program Activities and Lessons Learned among 19 School Resource Officer (SRO) Programs. Document Number 209272

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; Shively, Michael; McDevitt, Jack; Lassiter, William; Rich, Tom

    2005-01-01

    There has been growing interest in placing sworn law enforcement officers in schools as School Resource Officers (SROs) to improve school safety and improve relations between police officers and youth. The purpose of this National Assessment was to identify what program "models" have been implemented, how programs have been implemented, and what…

  3. Cardiovascular risk assessment in low-resource settings: a consensus document of the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Hypertension and Cardiovascular Risk in Low Resource Settings.

    PubMed

    Modesti, Pietro A; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Agyemang, Charles; Basu, Sanjay; Benetos, Athanase; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Ceriello, Antonio; Del Prato, Stefano; Kalyesubula, Robert; O'Brien, Eoin; Kilama, Michael O; Perlini, Stefano; Picano, Eugenio; Reboldi, Gianpaolo; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Stuckler, David; Twagirumukiza, Marc; Van Bortel, Luc M; Watfa, Ghassan; Zhao, Dong; Parati, Gianfranco

    2014-05-01

    The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 confirms ischemic heart disease and stroke as the leading cause of death and that hypertension is the main associated risk factor worldwide. How best to respond to the rising prevalence of hypertension in resource-deprived settings is a topic of ongoing public-health debate and discussion. In low-income and middle-income countries, socioeconomic inequality and cultural factors play a role both in the development of risk factors and in the access to care. In Europe, cultural barriers and poor communication between health systems and migrants may limit migrants from receiving appropriate prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. To use more efficiently resources available and to make treatment cost-effective at the patient level, cardiovascular risk approach is now recommended. In 2011, The European Society of Hypertension established a Working Group on 'Hypertension and Cardiovascular risk in low resource settings', which brought together cardiologists, diabetologists, nephrologists, clinical trialists, epidemiologists, economists, and other stakeholders to review current strategies for cardiovascular risk assessment in population studies in low-income and middle-income countries, their limitations, possible improvements, and future interests in screening programs. This report summarizes current evidence and presents highlights of unmet needs. PMID:24577410

  4. Cardiovascular risk assessment in low-resource settings: a consensus document of the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Hypertension and Cardiovascular Risk in Low Resource Settings

    PubMed Central

    Modesti, Pietro A.; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Agyemang, Charles; Basu, Sanjay; Benetos, Athanase; Cappuccio, Francesco P.; Ceriello, Antonio; Del Prato, Stefano; Kalyesubula, Robert; O’Brien, Eoin; Kilama, Michael O.; Perlini, Stefano; Picano, Eugenio; Reboldi, Gianpaolo; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Stuckler, David; Twagirumukiza, Marc; Van Bortel, Luc M.; Watfa, Ghassan; Zhao, Dong; Parati, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 confirms ischemic heart disease and stroke as the leading cause of death and that hypertension is the main associated risk factor worldwide. How best to respond to the rising prevalence of hypertension in resource-deprived settings is a topic of ongoing public-health debate and discussion. In low-income and middle-income countries, socioeconomic inequality and cultural factors play a role both in the development of risk factors and in the access to care. In Europe, cultural barriers and poor communication between health systems and migrants may limit migrants from receiving appropriate prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. To use more efficiently resources available and to make treatment cost-effective at the patient level, cardiovascular risk approach is now recommended. In 2011, The European Society of Hypertension established a Working Group on ‘Hypertension and Cardiovascular risk in low resource settings’, which brought together cardiologists, diabetologists, nephrologists, clinical trialists, epidemiologists, economists, and other stakeholders to review current strategies for cardiovascular risk assessment in population studies in low-income and middle-income countries, their limitations, possible improvements, and future interests in screening programs. This report summarizes current evidence and presents highlights of unmet needs. PMID:24577410

  5. A Retrospective Analysis on the Occurrence of Arsenic in Ground-Water Resources of the United States and Limitations in Drinking-Water-Supply Characterizations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Focazio, Michael J.; Welch, Alan H.; Watkins, Sharon A.; Helsel, Dennis R.; Horn, Marilee A.

    2000-01-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended in 1996, requires the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to review current drinking-water standards for arsenic, propose a maximum contaminant level for arsenic by January 1, 2000, and issue a final regulation by January, 2001. Quantification of the national occurrence of targeted ranges in arsenic concentration in ground water used for public drinking-water supplies is an important component of USEPA's regulatory process. Data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) were used in a retrospective analysis of arsenic in the ground-water resources of the United States. The analysis augments other existing sources of data on the occurrence of arsenic collected in ground water at public water-supply systems.The USGS, through its District offices and national programs, has been compiling data for many years on arsenic concentrations collected from wells used for public water supply, research, agriculture, industry, and domestic water supply throughout the United States. These data have been collected for a variety of purposes ranging from simple descriptions of the occurrence of arsenic in local or regional ground-water resources to detailed studies on arsenic geochemistry associated with contamination sites. A total of 18,864 sample locations were selected from the USGS NWIS data base regardless of well type, of which 2,262 were taken from public water-supply sources. Samples with non-potable water (dissolved-solids concentration greater than 2,000 milligrams per liter and water temperature greater than 50o Celsius) were not selected for the retrospective analysis and other criteria for selection included the amount and type of ancillary data available for each sample. The 1,528 counties with sufficient data included 76 percent of all large public water-supply systems (serving more than 10,000 people) and 61 percent of all small public water-supply systems (serving more than 1

  6. Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 4 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Pueblo Chemical Depot.

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T.; Folga, S., Frey, G.; Molberg, J.; Kier, P.; Templin, B.; Goldberg, M.

    2001-04-30

    This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the ''Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001c) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored at Pueblo Chemical Depot (PCD), located outside Pueblo, Colorado. This volume presents technical and process information on each of the destruction technologies applicable to treatment of the specific ACW stored at PCD. The destruction technologies described are those that have been demonstrated during Phase I of the Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) demonstration process (see Volume 1).

  7. Petroleum resources of South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program series

    SciTech Connect

    Dietzman, W.D.; Rafidi, N.R.

    1983-01-01

    This report is an analysis of discovered crude oil reserves, undiscovered recoverable crude oil resources, and estimated annual oil field production. The countries analyzed are Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. All of the countries in this report have a history of petroleum exploration and development. Also, they maintain policies which support the search for, and exploitation of, petroleum resources. This systematic assessment provides estimates of the quantities of remaining known petroleum reserves and undiscovered recoverable resources. The future feasible production rates from the respective countries are also discussed. The FESAP assessments are limited to petroleum resources recoverable by conventional primary and secondary extraction technology. It is estimated that over 29.4 billion barrels of recoverable oil (both discovered and undiscovered) originally existed within the sedimentary basins of these countries, as follows: Argentina (9.4 billion barrels); Brazil (6.5 billion barrels); Colombia (5.0 billion barrels); Peru (3.6 billion barrels); Ecuador (over 3.0 billion barrels); Chile (1.1 billion barrels); and Bolivia (over 0.8 billion barrels). Through 1982, about 10.2 billion barrels of the oil had been produced. Thus, some 19.2 billion barrels constitute the remaining recoverable petroleum resource base. It is estimated that the most likely volume of crude oil remaining to be found in the seven countries is 12 billion barrels. 91 refs., 59 figs., 82 tabs.

  8. Updated U.S. Geothermal Supply Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, S.; Porro, G.

    2007-03-01

    This paper documents the approach taken to characterize and represent an updated assessment of U.S. geothermal supply for use in forecasting the penetration of geothermal electrical generation in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). This work is motivated by several factors: The supply characterization used as the basis of several recent U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts of geothermal capacity is outdated; additional geothermal resource assessments have been published; and a new costing tool that incorporates current technology, engineering practices, and associated costs has been released.

  9. Updated U.S. Geothermal Supply Characterization and Representation for Market Penetration Model Input

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, C.

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) tasked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with conducting the annual geothermal supply curve update. This report documents the approach taken to identify geothermal resources, determine the electrical producing potential of these resources, and estimate the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), capital costs, and operating and maintenance costs from these geothermal resources at present and future timeframes under various GTP funding levels. Finally, this report discusses the resulting supply curve representation and how improvements can be made to future supply curve updates.

  10. Computer-program documentation of an interactive-accounting model to simulate streamflow, water quality, and water-supply operations in a river basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes an interactive-accounting model used to simulate streamflow, chemical-constituent concentrations and loads, and water-supply operations in a river basin. The model uses regression equations to compute flow from incremental (internode) drainage areas. Conservative chemical constituents (typically dissolved solids) also are computed from regression equations. Both flow and water quality loads are accumulated downstream. Optionally, the model simulates the water use and the simplified groundwater systems of a basin. Water users include agricultural, municipal, industrial, and in-stream users , and reservoir operators. Water users list their potential water sources, including direct diversions, groundwater pumpage, interbasin imports, or reservoir releases, in the order in which they will be used. Direct diversions conform to basinwide water law priorities. The model is interactive, and although the input data exist in files, the user can modify them interactively. A major feature of the model is its color-graphic-output options. This report includes a description of the model, organizational charts of subroutines, and examples of the graphics. Detailed format instructions for the input data, example files of input data, definitions of program variables, and listing of the FORTRAN source code are Attachments to the report. (USGS)

  11. Documenting the use of the Long Term Resource Monitoring element’s fish monitoring methodologies throughout the Midwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solomon, Levi E.; Casper, Andrew F.

    2016-08-16

    The Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program’s Long Term Resource Monitoring (LTRM) element is designed to monitor and assess long term trends in the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS). To accomplish this, standardized methods are used that allow for comparisons across pools and rivers. In recent years, other projects and other agencies have adopted the LTRM fish methodologies for use outside the UMRR. To determine how widespread the use of the Fish Component’s methods are, a twelve question survey was delivered via SurveyMonkey.com through the states comprising the American Fisheries Society (AFS) North Central Division and the Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee. Approximately 2,000 professionals were reached with ≈11 percent participating. Results indicate that nearly all (95 percent) respondents use standardized methods in their sampling and 48 percent are familiar with the LTRM fish methodologies. Roughly one-third (35 percent) of all respondents have used the methods in the past and most (78 percent) of those have modified the methods to suit the information needs specific to their fishery. Results indicate that the LTRM methods have indeed spread outside the UMRR and are now a well-known and potentially widely used technique to sample fish communities.

  12. Progressive development of water resources in the Middle East for sustainable water supply in a period of climate change.

    PubMed

    Issar, Arie S; Adar, Eilon

    2010-11-28

    The history of the Middle East has been influenced by past global climatic changes. Warm periods caused droughts, resulting in desertification, migration and war. Cold periods were humid and brought prosperity and agricultural settlement to the desert fringes. The forecast based on this correlation is that the present global warming will cause the drying up of the Middle East. As in the past, this negative impact should be mitigated by using the groundwater resources stored from past wetter times. This will involve deep drilling, pumping and modern irrigation methods within the framework of a new policy of 'progressive development', which will entail the use of currently undeveloped natural water resources beyond that of present water replenishment. While the use of the one-time groundwater reserves is taking place, a master long-term comprehensive progressive development plan for the Middle East will be prepared. This plan will include the step-by-step development of other water resources such as treated effluents, desalinated brackish groundwater and desalination of seawater. PMID:20956375

  13. Progressive development of water resources in the Middle East for sustainable water supply in a period of climate change.

    PubMed

    Issar, Arie S; Adar, Eilon

    2010-11-28

    The history of the Middle East has been influenced by past global climatic changes. Warm periods caused droughts, resulting in desertification, migration and war. Cold periods were humid and brought prosperity and agricultural settlement to the desert fringes. The forecast based on this correlation is that the present global warming will cause the drying up of the Middle East. As in the past, this negative impact should be mitigated by using the groundwater resources stored from past wetter times. This will involve deep drilling, pumping and modern irrigation methods within the framework of a new policy of 'progressive development', which will entail the use of currently undeveloped natural water resources beyond that of present water replenishment. While the use of the one-time groundwater reserves is taking place, a master long-term comprehensive progressive development plan for the Middle East will be prepared. This plan will include the step-by-step development of other water resources such as treated effluents, desalinated brackish groundwater and desalination of seawater.

  14. Changes in the water supply in the Upper Republican Natural Resources District, Southwest Nebraska, from 1952-75

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lappala, E.G.

    1976-01-01

    Use of ground water for irrigation has increased rapidly in the Upper Republican Natural Resources District in southwestern Nebraska in recent years. The principal aquifer being developed is composed of saturated and gravel of the Ogallala Formation of Tertiary age. Water-level declines of as much as 16 feet (4.9 meters) have occured. Base flow of major streams draining the aquifer was reduced by as much as 19 percent between 1967 and 1975. Recoverable ground water in storage was reduced by about 1 percent. New withdrawal of ground water in 1975 was about 250 ,000 acre-feet (308 million cubic meters), compared with estimated recharge from precipitation of 176,000 acre-feet (217 million cubic meters). Water levels and streamflow will continue to decline if ground-water withdrawals continue at or greater than the 1975. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Pohnpei, FSM case study in a global health project documents its local food resources and successfully promotes local food for health.

    PubMed

    Englberger, L; Kuhnlein, H V; Lorens, A; Pedrus, P; Albert, K; Currie, J; Pretrick, M; Jim, R; Kaufer, L

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a summary of Pohnpei, Federated States Micronesia's involvement in a global health study focused on documenting traditional food systems in different parts of the world and providing evidence that local resources are critical for food security, nutrition and health. The Pohnpei study was based in Mand Community, Madolenihmw. The study found that there was a great diversity of foods locally available (381 food items documented), but these were underused. Overweight, obesity, diabetes, and vitamin A deficiency were identified as serious problems. Interventions included community meetings, school activities, and agriculture workshops, cooking classes, charcoal oven development, weight loss and planting competitions, poster campaigns and other relevant mass media. Significant dietary improvements were achieved following the intervention efforts, as well as positive changes in attitude towards local food including: decrease in average daily rice consumption from 846 g/person in 2005 to 544 g/person in 2007 (p = 0.0002); increase in provitamin A carotenoid intake from 227 microg/person in 2005 to 475 microg/person in 2007 (p = 0.02); increased frequency of consumption of local banana (53%), giant swamp taro (476%), local vegetables (130%); and increased dietary diversity (4.8 local food groups consumed in 2005 to 5.5 in 2007). Another positive outcome in Pohnpei was the popularization of the slogan "Let's Go Local."

  16. On inclusion of water resource management in Earth system models - Part 2: Representation of water supply and allocation and opportunities for improved modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazemi, A.; Wheater, H. S.

    2015-01-01

    Human water use has significantly increased during the recent past. Water withdrawals from surface and groundwater sources have altered terrestrial discharge and storage, with large variability in time and space. These withdrawals are driven by sectoral demands for water, but are commonly subject to supply constraints, which determine water allocation. Water supply and allocation, therefore, should be considered together with water demand and appropriately included in Earth system models to address various large-scale effects with or without considering possible climate interactions. In a companion paper, we review the modeling of demand in large-scale models. Here, we review the algorithms developed to represent the elements of water supply and allocation in land surface and global hydrologic models. We note that some potentially important online implications, such as the effects of large reservoirs on land-atmospheric feedbacks, have not yet been fully investigated. Regarding offline implications, we find that there are important elements, such as groundwater availability and withdrawals, and the representation of large reservoirs, which should be improved. We identify major sources of uncertainty in current simulations due to limitations in data support, water allocation algorithms, host large-scale models as well as propagation of various biases across the integrated modeling system. Considering these findings with those highlighted in our companion paper, we note that advancements in computation and coupling techniques as well as improvements in natural and anthropogenic process representation and parameterization in host large-scale models, in conjunction with remote sensing and data assimilation can facilitate inclusion of water resource management at larger scales. Nonetheless, various modeling options should be carefully considered, diagnosed and intercompared. We propose a modular framework to develop integrated models based on multiple hypotheses for

  17. Present and future water resources supply and demand in the Central Andes of Peru: a comprehensive review with focus on the Cordillera Vilcanota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drenkhan, Fabian; Huggel, Christian; Salzmann, Nadine; Giráldez, Claudia; Suarez, Wilson; Rohrer, Mario; Molina, Edwin; Montoya, Nilton; Miñan, Fiorella

    2014-05-01

    Glaciers have been an important element of Andean societies and livelihoods as direct freshwater supply for agriculture irrigation, hydropower generation and mining activities. Peru's mainly remotely living population in the Central Andes has to cope with a strong seasonal variation of precipitations and river runoff interannually superimposed by El Niño impacts. Direct glacier and lake water discharge thus constitute a vital continuous water supply and represent a regulating buffer as far as hydrological variability is concerned. This crucial buffer effect is gradually altered by accelerated glacier retreat which leads most likely to an increase of annual river runoff variability. Furthermore, a near-future crossing of the 'peak water' is expected, from where on prior enhanced streamflow decreases and levels out towards a new still unknown minimum discharge. Consequently, a sustainable future water supply especially during low-level runoff dry season might not be guaranteed whereas Peru's water demand increases significantly. Here we present a comprehensive review, the current conditions and perspectives for water resources in the Cusco area with focus on the Vilcanota River, Cordillera Vilcanota, Southern Peru. With 279 km2 the Cordillera Vilcanota represents the second largest glacierized mountain range of the tropics worldwide. Especially as of the second half of the 1980s, it has been strongly affected by massive ice loss with around 30% glacier area decline until present. Furthermore, glacier vanishing triggers the formation of new lakes and increase of lake levels and therefore constitutes determining hazardous drivers for mass movements related to deglaciation effects. The Vilcanota River still lacks more profound hydrological studies. It is likely that its peak water has already been or might be crossed in near-future. This has strong implications for the still at 0.9% (2.2%) annually growing population of the Cusco department (Cusco city). People mostly

  18. Spatial Heterogeneity of Fine Root Biomass and Soil Carbon in a California Oak Savanna Illuminates Plant Functional Strategy Across Periods of High and Low Resource Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koteen, L. E.; Raz Yaseef, N.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    We sampled isolated trees and tree clusters from a blue oak, Quercus douglasii, savanna in California USA to determine the spatial heterogeneity of fine root biomass and soil carbon across the landscape as a function of tree size, age and configuration. Our goal was to understand how fine root structure enables sustained ecosystem metabolism through a summer of very limited moisture availability and high heat, and facilitates resource acquisition during the short spring period of high resource supply. An additional goal was to provide a basis for upscaling root biomass and soil carbon to the landscape scale. We sampled trees of different size and tree clusters via a stratified sampling scheme that accounted for spatial heterogeneity in root biomass and soil carbon with lateral distance from the tree bole, or cluster center, and soil depth. We upscaled these estimates using site-specific information from a lidar survey conducted in the same region over a 36 ha area in 2009. We found that fine roots and soil carbon are spatially heterogeneous in their landscape distribution in oak savanna habitat, and that they greatly increase with tree size and age. We also found that Q. douglasii possesses a dimorphic fine root architecture, uniquely suited to the region's climatic constraints, and exhibits morphological plasticity among trees of different size, age, and physical setting.

  19. [The status quo and future prospects of emergency medical service systems in Japan in view of the tight supply-demand situation for medical resources].

    PubMed

    Aruga, Tohru

    2016-02-01

    Considering the tight supply-demand situation for medical resources contributing to emergency medical service(EMS) systems at present and in the future in Japan, the author has explained the present states and future prospects of EMS systems in our country. EMS in remote places in this country is now consisting of the concentration of limited human resources, and is therefore suggestive of the EMS systems in the future, because we will have to deal with the possible exhaustion of EMS in our superannuated society progressing now and in the future. And also EMS systems will have to be maintained in the future with concerted efforts of all the medical staffs. The transferring the medical doctors' tasks to those of nurses and other staffs, that is to say the task shifting has just authorized by recent laws, and so the task shifting will be useful in the future EMS systems performed by all kinds of medical workers, in whom general physicians will be included as they are to be distributed throughout this country in the future.

  20. Teaching medical student geriatrics competencies in 1 week: an efficient model to teach and document selected competencies using clinical and community resources.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Hal H; Lambros, Ann; Davis, Brooke R; Lawlor, Janice S; Lovato, James; Sink, Kaycee M; Demons, Jamehl L; Lyles, Mary F; Watkins, Franklin S; Callahan, Kathryn E; Williamson, Jeff D

    2013-07-01

    The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and the John A. Hartford Foundation published geriatrics competencies for medical students in 2008 defining specific knowledge and skills that medical students should be able to demonstrate before graduation. Medical schools, often with limited geriatrics faculty resources, face challenges in teaching and assessing these competencies. As an initial step to facilitate more-efficient implementation of the competencies, a 1-week geriatrics rotation was developed for the third year using clinical, community, and self-directed learning resources. The Wake Forest University School of Medicine Acute Care for the Elderly Unit serves as home base, and each student selects a half-day outpatient or long-term care experience. Students also perform a home-based falls-risk assessment with a Meals-on-Wheels client. The objectives for the rotation include 20 of the 26 individual AAMC competencies and specific measurable tracking tasks for seven individual competencies. In the evaluation phase, 118 students completed the rotation. Feedback was positive, with an average rating of 7.1 (1 = worst, 10 = best). Students completed a 23-item pre- and post-knowledge test, and average percentage correct improved by 15% (P < .001); this improvement persisted at graduation (2 years after the pretest). On a 12-item survey of attitudes toward older adults, improvement was observed immediately after the rotation that did not persist at graduation. Ninety-seven percent of students documented completion of the competency-based tasks. This article provides details of development, structure, evaluation, and lessons learned that will be useful for other institutions considering a brief, concentrated geriatrics experience in the third year of medical school.

  1. Expert witness qualifications and ethical guidelines for emergency medical services litigation: resource document for the National Association of EMS Physicians position statement.

    PubMed

    Maggiore, W Ann Winnie; Kupas, Douglas F; Glushak, Cai

    2011-01-01

    The clinical provision of medical care by emergency medical services (EMS) providers in the out-of-hospital environment and the operation of EMS systems to provide that care are unique in the medical arena. There is a substantive difference in the experience of individuals who provide medical care in the out-of-hospital setting and the experience of those who provide similar care in the hospital or other clinical settings. Furthermore, physicians who provide medical direction for EMS personnel have a clinical and oversight relationship with EMS personnel. This relationship uniquely qualifies EMS medical directors to provide expert opinions related to care provided by nonphysician EMS personnel. Physicians without specific EMS oversight experience are not uniformly qualified to provide expert opinion regarding the provision of EMS. This resource document reviews the current issues in expert witness testimony in cases involving EMS as these issues relate to the unique qualifications of the expert witness, the standard of care, and the ethical expectations. PMID:21539461

  2. Theoretical Organization of Information: Research Review of a Sample of ERIC's Innovation Diffusion and Planned Change Documents Organized According to the Configuration, Linkage, Environment, Resource (CLER) Model of Planned Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gary

    This document is a review of research on the subject of innovation diffusion and planned change, organized according to a theoretical model. The organizational scheme used is derived from Bhola's Configurational, Linkages, Environmental, and Resources (CLER) model of planned change. Conventional reviews of research identify accomplishments in…

  3. Development of Electrolysis System Powered by Solar-Cell Array to Supply Hydrogen Gas for Fuel-Cell Energy Resource Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priambodo, Purnomo Sidi; Yusivar, Feri; Subiantoro, Aries; Gunawan, Ridwan

    2009-09-01

    The huge demand of energy worldwide and the depletion of fossil based energy, is a strong reason to rapidly develop any kind of renewable energy resources, which has economical advantages and zero pollution effect. One of the renewable energy technologies aimed in this paper is the generation of electric-energy based on fuel-cell technology, where the input hydrogen (H2) gas is supplied by electrolysis system powered by renewable energy system based on solar cell. In this paper, the authors explain the development of electrolysis system which is powered by solar cell array to supply hydrogen for fuel-cell system. The authors explain in detail how to design an efficient electrolysis system to obtain high ratio conversion of electric energy to hydrogen gas volume. It includes the explanation of the usage of multiple anodes with a single cathode for many solar cell inputs in a single electrolysis system. Hereinafter this is referred as multiple anode electrolysis system. This multiple anode electrolysis system makes the management of hydrogen gas becomes more efficient and effective by using only a single hydrogen gas storage system. This paper also explain the careful design of the resistance value of the electrolysis system to protect or avoid the solar cell panel to deliver excessive current to the electrolysis system which can cause damage on the solar cell panel. Moreover, the electrolyte volume detector is applied on the system as a tool to measure the electrolyte concentration to assure the system resistance is still in the allowed range. Further, the hydrogen gas produced by electrolysis system is stored into the gas storage which consists of silica-gel purifier, first stage low pressure gas bottle, vacuum pump, and second stage high pressure gas bottle. In the first step, the pump will vacuum the first bottle. The first bottle will collect the hydrogen from the electrolysis system through the silica gel to get rid of water vapor. When the first bottle

  4. Online NASTRAN documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Horace Q.; Harper, David F.

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of NASTRAN User Manual information has been difficult because of the delay in printing and difficulty in identification of all the users. This has caused many users not to have the current information for the release of NASTRAN that could be available to them. The User Manual updates have been supplied with the NASTRAN Releases, but distribution within organizations was not coordinated with access to releases. The Executive Control, Case Control, and Bulk Data sections are supplied in machine readable format with the 91 Release of NASTRAN. This information is supplied on the release tapes in ASCII format, and a FORTRAN program to access this information is supplied on the release tapes. This will allow each user to have immediate access to User Manual level documentation with the release. The sections on utilities, plotting, and substructures are expected to be prepared for the 92 Release.

  5. Tobacco documents research methodology.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacey J; McCandless, Phyra M; Klausner, Kim; Taketa, Rachel; Yerger, Valerie B

    2011-05-01

    Tobacco documents research has developed into a thriving academic enterprise since its inception in 1995. The technology supporting tobacco documents archiving, searching and retrieval has improved greatly since that time, and consequently tobacco documents researchers have considerably more access to resources than was the case when researchers had to travel to physical archives and/or electronically search poorly and incompletely indexed documents. The authors of the papers presented in this supplement all followed the same basic research methodology. Rather than leave the reader of the supplement to read the same discussion of methods in each individual paper, presented here is an overview of the methods all authors followed. In the individual articles that follow in this supplement, the authors present the additional methodological information specific to their topics. This brief discussion also highlights technological capabilities in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and updates methods for organising internal tobacco documents data and findings.

  6. Documents and Symbols of American Freedom. Elementary Grade Activity. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchens, Dorothy

    This lesson plan for elementary-age children studies some of the primary source documents and symbols of freedom which were and are important for the nation. The lesson plan uses the following documents: "The Mayflower Compact"; "The Declaration of Independence"; "The Constitution"; and the "Bill of Rights." It studies these symbols: the "Bald…

  7. Graduates of Higher Education in the Food and Agricultural Sciences: An Analysis of Supply/Demand Relationships. Volume I--Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Kyle Jane, Ed.; Stanton, Marge, Ed.

    Information on the current and projected supply of and demand for graduates of higher education in the food and agricultural sciences is presented, based on federal data bases. The supply data are aggregated by 11 educational clusters, and employment demand data are aggregated by eight occupational clusters. Analysis reveals imbalances in the…

  8. APS power supply controls

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, C.W.; Despe, O.D.

    1994-03-31

    The purpose of this document is to provide comprehensive coverage of the APS power supply control design. This includes application software, embedded controller software, networks, and hardware. The basic components will be introduced first, followed by the requirements driving the overall design. Subsequent sections will address each component of the design one by one. Latter sections will address specific applications.

  9. Fossil energy program. Summary document

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    This program summary document presents a comprehensive overview of the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities that will be performed in FY 1981 by the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy (ASFE), US Department of Energy (DOE). The ASFE technology programs for the fossil resources of coal, petroleum (including oil shale) and gas have been established with the goal of making substantive contributions to the nation's future supply and efficienty use of energy. On April 29, 1977, the Administration submitted to Congress the National Energy Plan (NEP) and accompanying legislative proposals designed to establish a coherent energy policy structure for the United States. Congress passed the National Energy Act (NEA) on October 15, 1978, which allows implementation of the vital parts of the NEP. The NEP was supplemented by additional energy policy statements culminating in the President's address on July 15, 1979, presenting a program to further reduce dependence on imported petroleum. The passage of the NEA-related energy programs represent specific steps by the Administration and Congress to reorganize, redirect, and clarify the role of the Federal Government in the formulation and execution of national energy policy and programs. The energy technology RD and D prog4rams carried out by ASFE are an important part of the Federal Government's effort to provide the combination and amounts of energy resources needed to ensure national security and continued economic growth.

  10. Evaluation of the Impact of Vocational Training in a Territorial Context. The Evaluation of Training, Human Resources and Regional Development in Rural Wales. CEDEFOP Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Elliot

    A series of seven case studies examined vocational training, human resources development, and regional development in rural Mid-Wales. The case studies focused on the following: a business mentor program that uses the Welsh language and culture as a development resource, adult training in the county of Powys, integrated development at the…

  11. Termination Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

  12. Declassified Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Karen M.

    Journalists and other investigators are daily using declassified government documents to shed light on historical and current events, but few have discovered how to tap the wealth of documents once classified but now in the public realm. An executive order from President Reagan eliminating declassification procedures and allowing released…

  13. Document control and document management.

    PubMed

    Djemal, K K

    1999-12-01

    Most schemes for the accreditation (e.g. United Kingdom Accreditation Service) and certification (e.g. BS EN ISO 9002) of laboratories include a requirement to establish and maintain procedures for the management and control of documents generated internally. Such documents include policy statements, procedures, specifications, and some notices and memoranda. Organisations benefit from using agreed and approved information and from knowing that staff are using agreed and approved methods in their operating procedures. Document control systems are likely to become compulsory as accreditation schemes, such as Clinical Pathology Accreditation (CPA) for clinical microbiology laboratories, align with international standards. The Technical Services Division (TSD) in PHLS Headquarters has been developing a control system for various documents that it issues to the PHLS and control of documentation that forms the TSD quality system. The document control system has recently developed into a document management system that provides a mechanism for managing all documents generated or received by the division. TSD's approach is described here to provide laboratories and other organisations with ideas for how they could set up or develop their own document management system to improve accessibility to information. PMID:10598395

  14. Oxygen supplies in disaster management.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Thomas C; Branson, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    Mass casualty events and disasters, both natural and human-generated, occur frequently around the world and can generate scores of injured or ill victims in need of resources. Of the available medical supplies, oxygen remains the critical consumable resource in disaster management. Strategic management of oxygen supplies in disaster scenarios remains a priority. Hospitals have large supplies of liquid oxygen and a supply of compressed gas oxygen cylinders that allow several days of reserve, but a large influx of patients from a disaster can strain these resources. Most backup liquid oxygen supplies are attached to the main liquid system and supply line. In the event of damage to the main system, the reserve supply is rendered useless. The Strategic National Stockpile supplies medications, medical supplies, and equipment to disaster areas, but it does not supply oxygen. Contracted vendors can deliver oxygen to alternate care facilities in disaster areas, in the form of concentrators, compressed gas cylinders, and liquid oxygen. Planning for oxygen needs following a disaster still presents a substantial challenge, but alternate care facilities have proven to be valuable in relieving pressure from the mass influx of patients into hospitals, especially for those on home oxygen who require only an electrical source to power their oxygen concentrator. PMID:23271827

  15. Oxygen supplies in disaster management.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Thomas C; Branson, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    Mass casualty events and disasters, both natural and human-generated, occur frequently around the world and can generate scores of injured or ill victims in need of resources. Of the available medical supplies, oxygen remains the critical consumable resource in disaster management. Strategic management of oxygen supplies in disaster scenarios remains a priority. Hospitals have large supplies of liquid oxygen and a supply of compressed gas oxygen cylinders that allow several days of reserve, but a large influx of patients from a disaster can strain these resources. Most backup liquid oxygen supplies are attached to the main liquid system and supply line. In the event of damage to the main system, the reserve supply is rendered useless. The Strategic National Stockpile supplies medications, medical supplies, and equipment to disaster areas, but it does not supply oxygen. Contracted vendors can deliver oxygen to alternate care facilities in disaster areas, in the form of concentrators, compressed gas cylinders, and liquid oxygen. Planning for oxygen needs following a disaster still presents a substantial challenge, but alternate care facilities have proven to be valuable in relieving pressure from the mass influx of patients into hospitals, especially for those on home oxygen who require only an electrical source to power their oxygen concentrator.

  16. Optics Supply Planning System

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, J

    2009-04-30

    The purpose of this study is to specify the design for an initial optics supply planning system for NIF, and to present quality assurance and test plans for the construction of the system as specified. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large laser facility that is just starting operations. Thousands of specialized optics are required to operate the laser, and must be exchanged over time based on the laser shot plan and predictions of damage. Careful planning and tracking of optic exchanges is necessary because of the tight inventory of spare optics, and the long lead times for optics procurements and production changes. Automated inventory forecasting and production planning tools are required to replace existing manual processes. The optics groups members who are expected to use the supply planning system are the stakeholders for this project, and are divided into three groups. Each of these groups participated in a requirements specification that was used to develop this design. (1) Optics Management--These are the top level stakeholdersk, and the final decision makers. This group is the interface to shot operations, is ultimately responsible for optics supply, and decides which exchanges will be made. (2) Work Center Managers--This group manages the on site optics processing work centers. They schedule the daily work center operations, and are responsible for developing long term processing, equipment, and staffing plans. (3) Component Engineers--This group manages the vendor contracts for the manufacture of new optics and the off site rework of existing optics. They are responsible for sourcing vendors, negotiating contracts, and managing vendor processes. The scope of this analysis is to describe the structure and design details of a system that will meet all requirements that were described by stakeholders and documented in the analysis model for this project. The design specifies the architecture, components, interfaces, and data stores of the system

  17. New Models and Metaphors for Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains two reports from a poster session on new ideas and models in human resource development (HRD). The first presentation, "Two-way Customer-Service Provider Cycle" (Harriet V. Lawrence, Albert K. Wiswell), discusses a two-way supply cycle model that illustrates relational issues in customer service, including needs and wants,…

  18. Low Cost Equipment for Science and Technology Education. A Resource Document on Low Cost Equipment That You Can Make and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, N. K., Ed.

    This document provides technical information and simple instructions for constructing 84 different pieces of science equipment. Each entry includes: (1) name of item; (2) purpose of the equipment; (3) person who submitted the information; (4) line drawing of prototype; (5) list of low-cost materials needed; (6) construction procedures; (7)…

  19. Learning About Wisconsin: Activities, Historical Documents, and Resources Linked to Wisconsin's Model Academic Standards for Social Studies in Grades 4-12. Bulletin No. 99238.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortier, John D.; Grady, Susan M.; Prickette, Karen R.

    Wisconsin's Model Academic Standards for Social Studies provide direction for curriculum, instruction, assessment, and professional development. The standards identify eras and themes in Wisconsin history. Many of these standards can be taught using content related to the study of Wisconsin. The sample lessons included in this document identify…

  20. 18 CFR 801.6 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water supply. 801.6 Section 801.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.6 Water supply. (a) The Susquehanna River Basin is rich in water resources. With...

  1. 18 CFR 801.6 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 801.6 Section 801.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.6 Water supply. (a) The Susquehanna River Basin is rich in water resources. With...

  2. Interoperable Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermann, T.

    2011-12-01

    Documentation provides the context that adds understanding and knowledge to data. The ISO Standards for documenting data (19115, 19115-2), and services (19119) extend the range of standard documentation considerably beyond previously available approaches. They include increased utilization of technologies like UML, XML and linking and content areas like data quality and processing history. These extensions can build an emerging foundation of data interoperability into an infrastructure for interoperable understanding. This process will involve active collaboration between many environmental data providers and archives all over the world that are currently in the process of adopting and understanding how to effectively use the ISO Standards. I will describe ISO capabilities in the context of parallels between metadata tools and data interoperability approaches currently used by scientists and decision-makers. I will demonstrate how directories shared over the web, transport standards, and community conventions build the foundation for documentation access and data understanding. I will also demonstrate crosswalks and connections between ISO, THREDDS, and NetCDF documentation and some ideas and approaches to improving documentation across the entire spectrum of environmental data and products.

  3. Building an efficient supply chain.

    PubMed

    Scalise, Dagmara

    2005-08-01

    Realizing at last that supply chain management can produce efficiencies and save costs, hospitals are beginning to adopt practices from other industries, such as the concept of extended supply chains, to improve product flow. They're also investing in enterprise planning resource software, radio frequency identification and other technologies, using quality data to drive standardization and streamlining processes.

  4. The Sophia-Antipolis Conference: General presentation and basic documents. [remote sensing for agriculture, forestry, water resources, and environment management in France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The procedures and techniques used in NASA's aerospace technology transfer program are reviewed for consideration in establishing priorities and bases for joint action by technicians and users of remotely sensed data in France. Particular emphasis is given to remote sensing in agriculture, forestry, water resources, environment management, and urban research.

  5. Skylab 3 preliminary reference Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP) pass planning document. Volume 2: EREP sites and S190 swath study of selected revs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunde, A. N.

    1971-01-01

    The ground tracks and S190 swaths are presented of selected revolutions over areas containing earth resources experiment package (EREP) sites. The following eight EREP disciplines are shown: sensor performance evaluation, forestry, geology, hydrology, land use mapping, oceanography, pollution, and weather. Most of the data reported consists of passes over the continental United States.

  6. Document Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The charters of Freedom Monitoring System will periodically assess the physical condition of the U.S. Constitution, Declaration of Independence and Bill of Rights. Although protected in helium filled glass cases, the documents are subject to damage from light vibration and humidity. The photometer is a CCD detector used as the electronic film for the camera system's scanning camera which mechanically scans the document line by line and acquires a series of images, each representing a one square inch portion of the document. Perkin-Elmer Corporation's photometer is capable of detecting changes in contrast, shape or other indicators of degradation with 5 to 10 times the sensitivity of the human eye. A Vicom image processing computer receives the data from the photometer stores it and manipulates it, allowing comparison of electronic images over time to detect changes.

  7. Nursing Supplies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Nursing Supplies Page Content Article Body Throughout most of ... budget. (Nursing equipment also makes wonderful baby gifts.) Nursing Bras A well-made nursing bra that comfortably ...

  8. The Public Health Implications of Resource Wars

    PubMed Central

    Klare, Michael T.; Sidel, Victor W.

    2011-01-01

    Competition for resources between or within nations is likely to become an increasingly common cause of armed conflict. Competition for petroleum is especially likely to trigger armed conflict because petroleum is a highly valuable resource whose supply is destined to contract. Wars fought over petroleum and other resources can create public health concerns by causing morbidity and mortality, damaging societal infrastructure, diverting resources, uprooting people, and violating human rights. Public health workers and the organizations with which they are affiliated can help prevent resource wars and minimize their consequences by (1) promoting renewable energy and conservation, (2) documenting the impact of past and potential future resource wars, (3) protecting the human rights of affected noncombatant civilian populations during armed conflict, and (4) developing and advocating for policies that promote peaceful dispute resolution. PMID:21778501

  9. Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Maxwell Laboratories capacitor charging power supply is the first commercial spinoff from the NASA CCDS program - a consortia of industries and government establishments to accelerate development of ground and space based commercial applications of NASA technology. The power supply transforms and conditions large voltages to charge capacitors used in x-ray sources, medical accelerators, etc. It is lighter, more reliable, more compact and efficient. Originally developed for space lasers, its commercial potential was soon recognized.

  10. Coal supply/demand, 1980 to 2000. Task 3. Resource applications industrialization system data base. Final review draft. [USA; forecasting 1980 to 2000; sector and regional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, W.M.; Hasson, V.

    1980-10-10

    This report is a compilation of data and forecasts resulting from an analysis of the coal market and the factors influencing supply and demand. The analyses performed for the forecasts were made on an end-use-sector basis. The sectors analyzed are electric utility, industry demand for steam coal, industry demand for metallurgical coal, residential/commercial, coal demand for synfuel production, and exports. The purpose is to provide coal production and consumption forecasts that can be used to perform detailed, railroad company-specific coal transportation analyses. To make the data applicable for the subsequent transportation analyses, the forecasts have been made for each end-use sector on a regional basis. The supply regions are: Appalachia, East Interior, West Interior and Gulf, Northern Great Plains, and Mountain. The demand regions are the same as the nine Census Bureau regions. Coal production and consumption in the United States are projected to increase dramatically in the next 20 years due to increasing requirements for energy and the unavailability of other sources of energy to supply a substantial portion of this increase. Coal comprises 85 percent of the US recoverable fossil energy reserves and could be mined to supply the increasing energy demands of the US. The NTPSC study found that the additional traffic demands by 1985 may be met by the railways by the way of improved signalization, shorter block sections, centralized traffic control, and other modernization methods without providing for heavy line capacity works. But by 2000 the incremental traffic on some of the major corridors was projected to increase very significantly and is likely to call for special line capacity works involving heavy investment.

  11. Performance Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview with experts on performance documentation. Suggests that educators should strive to represent performance appraisal writing to students in a way that reflects the way it is perceived and evaluated in the workplace. Concludes that educators can enrich their pedagogy with practice by helping students understand the importance…

  12. Documents and Symbols of Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond. Div. of Humanities and Secondary Administration.

    A three-part handbook for Virginia K-12 social studies teachers presents methods for introducing students to documents and symbols which reflect the principles and ideals of the American democratic system. Although a portion of the material focuses on resources specific to the state of Virginia, information on national documents and symbols can be…

  13. Teaching with Documents: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This bibliography of government documents for use in classroom instruction is meant to aid teachers and students, from upper elementary through secondary levels, in identifying resources from two primary providers: National Archives and Records Administration and the publishing company SIRS, Inc. The bibliographic entries point to documents that…

  14. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Melody, Moya; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Brown, Richard

    2010-09-30

    As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.

  15. Video document

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Bob; Lienhart, Rainer W.; Yeo, Boon-Lock

    1999-08-01

    The metaphor of film and TV permeates the design of software to support video on the PC. Simply transplanting the non- interactive, sequential experience of film to the PC fails to exploit the virtues of the new context. Video ont eh PC should be interactive and non-sequential. This paper experiments with a variety of tools for using video on the PC that exploits the new content of the PC. Some feature are more successful than others. Applications that use these tools are explored, including primarily the home video archive but also streaming video servers on the Internet. The ability to browse, edit, abstract and index large volumes of video content such as home video and corporate video is a problem without appropriate solution in today's market. The current tools available are complex, unfriendly video editors, requiring hours of work to prepare a short home video, far more work that a typical home user can be expected to provide. Our proposed solution treats video like a text document, providing functionality similar to a text editor. Users can browse, interact, edit and compose one or more video sequences with the same ease and convenience as handling text documents. With this level of text-like composition, we call what is normally a sequential medium a 'video document'. An important component of the proposed solution is shot detection, the ability to detect when a short started or stopped. When combined with a spreadsheet of key frames, the host become a grid of pictures that can be manipulated and viewed in the same way that a spreadsheet can be edited. Multiple video documents may be viewed, joined, manipulated, and seamlessly played back. Abstracts of unedited video content can be produce automatically to create novel video content for export to other venues. Edited and raw video content can be published to the net or burned to a CD-ROM with a self-installing viewer for Windows 98 and Windows NT 4.0.

  16. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  17. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  18. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies. [Contains glossary and address list of geothermal project developers and owners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Hamilton, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  20. Orbitmpi Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa L. Lowe

    2000-10-05

    Orbitmpi is a parallelized version of Roscoe White's Orbit code. The code has been parallelized using MPI, which makes it portable to many types of machines. The guidelines used for the parallelization were to increase code performance with minimal changes to the code's original structure. This document gives a general description of how the parallel sections of the code run. It discusses the changes made to the original code and comments on the general procedure for future additions to Orbitmpi, as well as describing the effects of a parallelized random number generator on the code's output. Finally, the scaling results from Hecate and from Puffin are presented. Hecate is a 64-processor Origin 2000 machine, with MIPS R12000 processors and 16GB of memory, and Puffin is a PC cluster with 9 dual-processor 450 MHz Pentium III (18 processors max.), with 100Mbits ethernet communication.

  1. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Hart, Edward J.; Leeman, James E.; MacDougall, Hugh R.; Marron, John J.; Smith, Calvin C.

    1976-01-01

    An electric power supply employs a striking means to initiate ferroelectric elements which provide electrical energy output which subsequently initiates an explosive charge which initiates a second ferroelectric current generator to deliver current to the coil of a magnetic field current generator, creating a magnetic field around the coil. Continued detonation effects compression of the magnetic field and subsequent generation and delivery of a large output current to appropriate output loads.

  2. Discontinuous Mode Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagadinos, John; Poulos, Ethel

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses the changes made to a standard push-pull inverter circuit to avoid saturation effects in the main inverter power supply. Typically, in a standard push-pull arrangement, the unsymmetrical primary excitation causes variations in the volt second integral of each half of the excitation cycle that could lead to the establishment of DC flux density in the magnetic core, which could eventually cause saturation of the main inverter transformer. The relocation of the filter reactor normally placed across the output of the power supply solves this problem. The filter reactor was placed in series with the primary circuit of the main inverter transformer, and is presented as impedance against the sudden changes on the input current. The reactor averaged the input current in the primary circuit, avoiding saturation of the main inverter transformer. Since the implementation of the described change, the above problem has not reoccurred, and failures in the main power transistors have been avoided.

  3. Will the Needs-Based Planning of Health Human Resources Currently Undertaken in Several Countries Lead to Excess Supply and Inefficiency?

    PubMed

    Basu, Kisalaya; Pak, Maxwell

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the emphasis on health human resources (HHR) planning has shifted away from a utilization-based approach toward a needs-based one in which planning is based on the projected health needs of the population. However, needs-based models that are currently in use rely on a definition of 'needs' that include only the medical circumstances of individuals and not personal preferences or other socio-economic factors. We examine whether planning based on such a narrow definition will maximize social welfare. We show that, in a publicly funded healthcare system, if the planner seeks to meet the aggregate need without taking utilization into consideration, then oversupply of HHR is likely because 'needs' do not necessarily translate into 'usage.' Our result suggests that HHR planning should track the healthcare system as access gradually improves because, even if health care is fully accessible, individuals may not fully utilize it to the degree prescribed by their medical circumstances.

  4. Resource Use Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Marion

    Although there is valid concern with the limited supply of natural resources and how this supply is affected by increasing population and a life style based on consumption, a more important concern is with the future quality of those natural resources. The focus in the past has been on the production of goods for sale, very little on the welfare…

  5. Omega documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1983-08-01

    OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos.

  6. Evolution of document networks.

    PubMed

    Menczer, Filippo

    2004-04-01

    How does a network of documents grow without centralized control? This question is becoming crucial as we try to explain the emergent scale-free topology of the World Wide Web and use link analysis to identify important information resources. Existing models of growing information networks have focused on the structure of links but neglected the content of nodes. Here I show that the current models fail to reproduce a critical characteristic of information networks, namely the distribution of textual similarity among linked documents. I propose a more realistic model that generates links by using both popularity and content. This model yields remarkably accurate predictions of both degree and similarity distributions in networks of web pages and scientific literature.

  7. Transforming Resource Sharing Services at an Australian Academic Library: The Case of the University of Wollongong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Rebecca; Baker, Liz; McIntosh, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 the University of Wollongong Library undertook a significant review of its Resource Sharing services. This was prompted by constraints in the systems supporting this service, changes to the Library's key suppliers, Infotrieve Australia and the British Library Document Supply Service, and the need to deliver effective library services…

  8. Analysis of potential water-supply management options, 2010-60, and documentation of revisions to the model of the Irwin Basin Aquifer System, Fort Irwin National Training Center, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voronin, Lois M.; Densmore, Jill N.; Martin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Fort Irwin National Training Center is considering several alternatives to manage their limited water-supply sources in the Irwin Basin. An existing three-dimensional, finite-difference groundwater-flow model—the U.S. Geological Survey’s MODFLOW—of the aquifer system in the basin was updated and the initial input dataset was supplemented with groundwater withdrawal data for the period 2000–10. The updated model was then used to simulate four combinations, or scenarios, of groundwater withdrawal and recharge over the next 50 years (January 2011 through December 2060). The scenarios included combinations of continuing withdrawals from currently active production wells, supplementing any increases in demand with withdrawals from an inactive production well, reducing withdrawal amounts and rates, and reducing the discharge of treated wastewater to infiltration ponds that provide a recharge source to the underlying aquifer. Results of the simulations indicated that, depending on the scenario implemented, groundwater levels would rise (over the next 50 years) from 40 feet to as much as 65 feet in the northwestern part of the Irwin Basin, and from 5 feet to 10 feet in the southeastern part.

  9. International applications of renewable energy resources. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy Conservation and Supply of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session, August 19 and September 5, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Witnesses at the August 19 and September 5, 1980 hearings focused on the potential impact of solar applications in developing countries and on government involvement in the process. The international market represents an area for commercialization to take place until domestic markets develop. It also presents an opportunity to introduce alternative energy sources to countries not already dependent on fossil fuels and to countries that are overharvesting indigenous resources. The statements of nine witnesses include testimony from the solar industry and government agencies involved in export and international development. (DCK)

  10. Energy and Resources: A plan is outlined according to which solar and wind energy would supply Denmark's needs by the year 2050.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, B

    1975-07-25

    Two possible futures for the industrial world may be distinguished: (i) Large amounts of low-cost energy become available and the more energy-intensive methods for extracting resources from lowergrade deposits continue to sustain industrial expansion until either the environmental impact becomes unacceptable or ultimate limits, such as climate disruptions, put an end to such growth. (ii) The cost of nonrenewable energy resources continue to rise, but a fixed amount of energy from continuous sources may be utilized at constant cost. In this case a lower production level may be set by the amount of energy that is available from renewable sources, and society may thus have to be reshaped with energy economization in focus. If it is possible to choose between these two alternatives, the choice should be based on a discussion of the pros and cons of each one, and in particular on the desirability of having to process an increasing fraction of the earth's crust in search of raw materials in order to maintain growth as long as possible. However, the availability, of the first option is far from certain and it thus seems reasonable to plan for the second alternative. I have tried to propose such a plan for a small, homogeneous geographical region, namely Denmark. The ceiling on the consumption of energy from continuous sources is chosen in accordance with the criterion of not having to convert a major part of the land area to energy-collecting systems. The proposed annual average energy consumption of 19 gigawatts by the year 2050 corresponds to solar energy collecting panels (in use only 50 percent of the time) with an area of roughly 180 square kilometers and a windmill swept area of about 150 square kilometers. These (vertical) areas constitute less than 1 percent of the total land area. The selection of solar or wind energy for different applications has been based on known technology and may be subject to adjustments. The project has been shown to be economically

  11. Energy and Resources: A plan is outlined according to which solar and wind energy would supply Denmark's needs by the year 2050.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, B

    1975-07-25

    Two possible futures for the industrial world may be distinguished: (i) Large amounts of low-cost energy become available and the more energy-intensive methods for extracting resources from lowergrade deposits continue to sustain industrial expansion until either the environmental impact becomes unacceptable or ultimate limits, such as climate disruptions, put an end to such growth. (ii) The cost of nonrenewable energy resources continue to rise, but a fixed amount of energy from continuous sources may be utilized at constant cost. In this case a lower production level may be set by the amount of energy that is available from renewable sources, and society may thus have to be reshaped with energy economization in focus. If it is possible to choose between these two alternatives, the choice should be based on a discussion of the pros and cons of each one, and in particular on the desirability of having to process an increasing fraction of the earth's crust in search of raw materials in order to maintain growth as long as possible. However, the availability, of the first option is far from certain and it thus seems reasonable to plan for the second alternative. I have tried to propose such a plan for a small, homogeneous geographical region, namely Denmark. The ceiling on the consumption of energy from continuous sources is chosen in accordance with the criterion of not having to convert a major part of the land area to energy-collecting systems. The proposed annual average energy consumption of 19 gigawatts by the year 2050 corresponds to solar energy collecting panels (in use only 50 percent of the time) with an area of roughly 180 square kilometers and a windmill swept area of about 150 square kilometers. These (vertical) areas constitute less than 1 percent of the total land area. The selection of solar or wind energy for different applications has been based on known technology and may be subject to adjustments. The project has been shown to be economically

  12. Country Information Available in Government Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richey, Debora J., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography lists federal and international documents at the library of California State University at Fullerton which provide information on foreign countries. Documents are organized under the following subject headings: (1) general information; (2) aging; (3) agriculture/food supply and consumption; (4) children; (5) civil…

  13. International Document Delivery: The ADONIS Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Barrie; Campbell, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Describes the development of a project to test whether publishers can gain copyright revenue by supplying their journals in machine readable form for document delivery centers. Areas discussed include technical considerations; document delivery centers involved; workstation development; and statistical analyses to be reported at the end of the…

  14. Organising European technical documentation to avoid duplication.

    PubMed

    Donawa, Maria

    2006-04-01

    The development of comprehensive accurate and well-organised technical documentation that demonstrates compliance with regulatory requirements is a resource-intensive, but critically important activity for medical device manufacturers. This article discusses guidance documents and method of organising technical documentation that may help avoid costly and time-consuming duplication.

  15. Organising European technical documentation to avoid duplication.

    PubMed

    Donawa, Maria

    2006-04-01

    The development of comprehensive accurate and well-organised technical documentation that demonstrates compliance with regulatory requirements is a resource-intensive, but critically important activity for medical device manufacturers. This article discusses guidance documents and method of organising technical documentation that may help avoid costly and time-consuming duplication. PMID:16736662

  16. Technical approach document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

  17. Water supply at Los Alamos during 1993. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Purtymun, W.D.; Stoker, A.K.; McLin, S.G.; Maes, M.N.; Glasco, T.A.

    1995-10-01

    This report summarizes production and aquifer conditions for water wells in the Guaje, Pajarito, and Otowi Well Fields. These wells supplied all of the potable water used for municipal and some industrial purposes in Los Alamos County and the Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1993. The wells in the Los Alamos Well Field were transferred to San Ildefonso Pueblo in 1992. Four of the wells in the Los Alamos Well Field were plugged in 1993. One of the two new wells in the Otowi Well Field became operational in 1993. The spring gallery in Water Canyon supplied nonpotable water for industrial use, while surface water from the Los Alamos Reservoir was diverted for irrigation. In 1993 no water was used from the Guaje Reservoir. Due to the maintenance and operating cost of diverting water from the reservoirs, it is not economically feasible to continue their use for irrigation. This report fulfills some of the requirements of the Los Alamos Groundwater Protection Management Program by documenting use of the groundwater for water supply and providing information hydrologic characteristics of the main aquifer. This report is a joint effort between the Laboratory Water Quality and Hydrology Group and the Utilities Department of Johnson Controls World Services Inc. (JCI). The purpose of this report is to ensure a continuing historical record and to provide guidance for management of water resources in long-range planning for the water supply system. We have issued one summary report for the period of 1947 to 1971 and 22 annual reports that contain the results of our studies of these water supplies. An additional report summarized the hydrology of the main aquifer with reference to future development of groundwater supplies. A report was issued in 1988 that examined the status of wells and future water supply.

  18. Electricity Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the Electricity Market Module as it was used for the Annual Energy Outlook 2013. The Electricity Market Module (EMM) is the electricity supply component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The EMM represents the generation, transmission, and pricing of electricity. It consists of four submodules: the Electricity Capacity Planning (ECP) Submodule, the Electricity Fuel Dispatch (EFD) Submodule, the Electricity Finance and Pricing (EFP) Submodule, and the Electricity Load and Demand (ELD) Submodule.

  19. Earth resources*

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Brian J.

    1979-01-01

    Reliable supplies of metals have historically been the keys to industrial and technological development. But many metals are subject to the possible exhaustion of traditional kinds of deposits. A continued supply of such metals, which include tin, tungsten, silver, lead, zinc, and many others, will require their recovery from common rocks, in which they are found in solid solution in common silicate minerals. Recovery from unconventional sources will be so energy intensive that we may eventually have to stop mining such metals. The greatest challenge facing the U.S. Geological Survey in its second century will be the problem of resource limitations. PMID:16592706

  20. Autonomous uninterruptable power supply apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, J. H.

    1984-12-01

    This invention relates broadly to a power supply apparatus, and in particular to an autonomous uninterruptable power supply apparatus. The purpose of an uninterruptable power supply (UPS) is to protect critical electrical loads from transient or steady stage outages or disturbances in the primary power source. The basic configuration of a typical, commercially available, uninterruptable power supply is comprised at a minimum of a standby battery and a battery charger and may also include an inverter for AC applications. Systems of this type can be found in most computer installations and laboratory systems which cannot tolerate even momentary disturbances of input power. This document describes an autonomous uninterruptable power supply apparatus utilizing a digital processor unit as a control and monitor unit to measure and control input and output parameters in the power supply. A battery charger is utilized to maintain the voltage and current levels with the backup battery supply source which powers an inverter unit that converts the DC power to an AC output.

  1. 78 FR 41412 - Notice of Availability of Policy Document

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Notice of Availability of Policy Document AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Final Agency Guidance and... . Background: HHS' Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) provides grants to eligible...

  2. The Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER): A Water-Budget Modeling Approach for Managing Water-Supply Resources in Kentucky - Phase I: Data Processing, Model Development, and Application to Non-Karst Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Odom, Kenneth R.; Newson, Jeremy K.; Downs, Aimee C.; Nelson, Hugh L.; Cinotto, Peter J.; Ayers, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    The Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) was developed in cooperation with the Kentucky Division of Water to provide a consistent and defensible method of estimating streamflow and water availability in ungaged basins. WATER is process oriented; it is based on the TOPMODEL code and incorporates historical water-use data together with physiographic data that quantitatively describe topography and soil-water storage. The result is a user-friendly decision tool that can estimate water availability in non-karst areas of Kentucky without additional data or processing. The model runs on a daily time step, and critical source data include a historical record of daily temperature and precipitation, digital elevation models (DEMs), the Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO), and historical records of water discharges and withdrawals. The model was calibrated and statistically evaluated for 12 basins by comparing the estimated discharge to that observed at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations. When statistically evaluated over a 2,119-day time period, the discharge estimates showed a bias of -0.29 to 0.42, a root mean square error of 1.66 to 5.06, a correlation of 0.54 to 0.85, and a Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency of 0.26 to 0.72. The parameter and input modifications that most significantly improved the accuracy and precision of streamflow-discharge estimates were the addition of Next Generation radar (NEXRAD) precipitation data, a rooting depth of 30 centimeters, and a TOPMODEL scaling parameter (m) derived directly from SSURGO data that was multiplied by an adjustment factor of 0.10. No site-specific optimization was used.

  3. Document Update and Compare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoch, C. F.; Caldwell, D. C.; Caldwell, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Document Update and Compare programs provide simple computerized documentmaintenance system on Data General NOVA 840 computer. Document Update program allows user to update document either by batch or terminal input. Documents are modified and lists of modifications printed out.

  4. New Evidence on Teacher Labor Supply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Mimi; Jacob, Brian A.; Curran, F. Chris

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence on the large variance in teacher effectiveness has spurred interest in teacher labor markets. Research documents that better qualified teachers typically work in more advantaged schools but cannot determine the relative importance of supply versus demand. To isolate teacher preferences, we document which schools prospective…

  5. Model documentation, Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the Annual Energy Outlook 1998 (AEO98) forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. For AEO98, the RFM was modified in three principal ways, introducing capital cost elasticities of supply for new renewable energy technologies, modifying biomass supply curves, and revising assumptions for use of landfill gas from municipal solid waste (MSW). In addition, the RFM was modified in general to accommodate projections beyond 2015 through 2020. Two supply elasticities were introduced, the first reflecting short-term (annual) cost increases from manufacturing, siting, and installation bottlenecks incurred under conditions of rapid growth, and the second reflecting longer term natural resource, transmission and distribution upgrade, and market limitations increasing costs as more and more of the overall resource is used. Biomass supply curves were also modified, basing forest products supplies on production rather than on inventory, and expanding energy crop estimates to include states west of the Mississippi River using information developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Finally, for MSW, several assumptions for the use of landfill gas were revised and extended.

  6. Plant Signaling: HY5 Synchronizes Resource Supply.

    PubMed

    Palme, Klaus; Teale, William; Dovzhenko, Alexander

    2016-04-25

    A new report shows that the HY5 transcription factor moves from shoots to roots in plants, mediating light regulation of root growth and nitrate uptake. This finding offers not only a mechanistic insight into shoot-root communication, but also scope for increasing crop yields. PMID:27115690

  7. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  8. Customer system efficiency improvement assessment: Supply curves for transmission and distribution conservation options

    SciTech Connect

    Tepel, R.C.; Callaway, J.W.; De Steese, J.G.

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the results of Task 6 in the Customer System Efficiency Improvement (CSEI) Assessment Project. A principal objective of this project is to assess the potential for energy conservation in the transmission and distribution (TandD) systems of electric utilities in the BPA service area. The scope of this assessment covers BPA customers in the Pacific Northwest region and all non-federal TandD systems, including those that currently place no load on the BPA system. Supply curves were developed to describe the conservation resource potentially available from TandD-system efficiency improvements. These supply curves relate the levelized cost of upgrading existing equipment to the estimated amount of energy saved. Stated in this form, the resource represented by TandD loss reductions can be compared with other conservation options and regional electrical generation resources to determine the most cost-effective method of supplying power to the Pacific Northwest. The development of the supply curves required data acquisition and methodology development that are also described in this report. 11 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. 37 CFR 1.19 - Document supply fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions Fees and Payment of Money § 1.19... the Office within one business day of receipt and delivery to an Office Box or by electronic means (e.g., facsimile, electronic mail)—$3.00 (2) Printed copy of a plant patent in color: $15.00. (3)...

  10. World petroleum supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A number of conclusions by political conservatives about the fate of world petroleum supplies have been emerging lately. Among the most recent of them arose from discussions, held at the 1983 spring meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), which focused on the environment and resource study entitled “The Global 2000 Report” (New Scientist, June 9, 1983). Fred Singer, representing the Heritage Foundation of Washington, D.C., criticized the report, which predicted shortages in the near future, saying that the current world-wide oil glut will continue beyond the year 2000. Alternatives to the use of petroleum are a part of the cause. Singer argued that conservation, nuclear energy, and other petroleum substitutes will continue to suppress the demand for petroleum. In addition, according to other evaluations, exploration for petroleum and natural gas has not really begun.

  11. 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-12-01

    This study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates our 1990 study. BPS's long-range planning incorporates resource availability with a range of forecasted electrical consumption. The forecasted future electrical demands-firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, then additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. This study analyzes the Pacific Northwest's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional profile, which includes loads and resources in addition to the federal system. This study presents the federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for 1992- 2012.

  12. 18 CFR 801.6 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... distribution facilities, the high potential of the basin to provide water of suitable quality for a wide array... potential surface and ground water resources, and the interrelationships to meet these needs through... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Water supply....

  13. 18 CFR 801.6 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... distribution facilities, the high potential of the basin to provide water of suitable quality for a wide array... potential surface and ground water resources, and the interrelationships to meet these needs through... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water supply....

  14. 18 CFR 801.6 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distribution facilities, the high potential of the basin to provide water of suitable quality for a wide array... potential surface and ground water resources, and the interrelationships to meet these needs through... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water supply....

  15. Notable Government Documents 2007: Blogs, Battles, & Bees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Jim

    2008-01-01

    The world of government information mirrors the headlines. The resources in this list of Notable Government Documents from the American Library Association's Government Documents Round Table reflect the diversity of the profession, with topics ranging from "underappreciated fish" in Alaska to the Colonial papers of Sir William Johnson; from an…

  16. Student Outcomes 2009: Data Dictionary. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document was produced as an added resource for the report "Outcomes from the Productivity Places Program, 2009." The study reported the outcomes for students who completed their vocational education and training (VET) under the Productivity Places Program (PPP) during 2008. This document presents an alphabetical arrangement of the data used…

  17. Towards New Documentation Systems for Mathematics Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gueudet, Ghislaine; Trouche, Luc

    2009-01-01

    We study in this article mathematics teachers' "documentation work": looking for resources, selecting/designing mathematical tasks, planning their succession, managing available artifacts, etc. We consider that this documentation work is at the core of teachers' professional activity and professional development. We introduce a distinction between…

  18. Space Resources Roundtable VI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The topics addressed in the conference paper abstracts contained in this document include: extracting resources from the Moon and Mars, equipment for in situ resource utilization, mission planning for resource extraction, drilling on Mars, and simulants for lunar soil and minerals.

  19. The future of oil supply

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Richard G.; Sorrell, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Abundant supplies of oil form the foundation of modern industrial economies, but the capacity to maintain and grow global supply is attracting increasing concern. Some commentators forecast a peak in the near future and a subsequent terminal decline in global oil production, while others highlight the recent growth in ‘tight oil’ production and the scope for developing unconventional resources. There are disagreements over the size, cost and recoverability of different resources, the technical and economic potential of different technologies, the contribution of different factors to market trends and the economic implications of reduced supply. Few debates are more important, more contentious, more wide-ranging or more confused. This paper summarizes the main concepts, terms, issues and evidence that are necessary to understand the ‘peak oil’ debate. These include: the origin, nature and classification of oil resources; the trends in oil production and discoveries; the typical production profiles of oil fields, basins and producing regions; the mechanisms underlying those profiles; the extent of depletion of conventional oil; the risk of an approaching peak in global production; and the potential of various mitigation options. The aim is to introduce the subject to non-specialist readers and provide a basis for the subsequent papers in this Theme Issue. PMID:24298085

  20. 18 CFR 2.105 - Gas supply charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gas supply charges. 2... Gas supply charges. An interstate natural gas pipeline that transports under part 284 of this chapter may include in its tariff a charge, not related to facilities, for standing ready to supply gas...

  1. 18 CFR 2.105 - Gas supply charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gas supply charges. 2... Gas supply charges. An interstate natural gas pipeline that transports under part 284 of this chapter may include in its tariff a charge, not related to facilities, for standing ready to supply gas...

  2. Computer software documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comella, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    A tutorial in the documentation of computer software is presented. It presents a methodology for achieving an adequate level of documentation as a natural outgrowth of the total programming effort commencing with the initial problem statement and definition and terminating with the final verification of code. It discusses the content of adequate documentation, the necessity for such documentation and the problems impeding achievement of adequate documentation.

  3. 19 CFR 10.24 - Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... warrant, provided the data and information required to be supplied in these documents are presented. For... knowledge and belief the _____ were assembled in whole or in part from fabricated components listed and... the following form, shall be signed by the importer: I declare that to the best of my knowledge...

  4. The AFI Film/Television Documentation Workshop: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Paul B.

    1986-01-01

    Very briefly describes a workshop on film and television documentation that informed participants about available reference and resource materials for information about films and television shows. (CLB)

  5. Developing Our Water Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volker, Adriaan

    1977-01-01

    Only very recently developed as a refined scientific discipline, hydrology has to cope with a complexity of problems concerning the present and future management of a vital natural resource, water. This article examines available water supplies and the problems and prospects of water resource development. (Author/MA)

  6. NEMS integrating module documentation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-14

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer modeling system that produces a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand in the US energy markets. The model achieves a supply and demand balance in the end-use demand regions, defined as the nine Census Divisions, by solving for the prices of each energy type such that the quantities producers are willing to supply equal the quantities consumers wish to consume. The system reflects market economics, industry structure, and energy policies and regulations that influence market behavior. The NEMS Integrating Module is the central integrating component of a complex modeling system. As such, a thorough understanding of its role in the modeling process can only be achieved by placing it in the proper context with respect to the other modules. To that end, this document provides an overview of the complete NEMS model, and includes brief descriptions of the modules with which the Integrating Module interacts. The emphasis and focus, however, is on the structure and function of the Integrating Module of NEMS.

  7. Semantic Metadata for Heterogeneous Spatial Planning Documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaniak, A.; Kaczmarek, I.; Łukowicz, J.; Strzelecki, M.; Coetzee, S.; Paluszyński, W.

    2016-09-01

    Spatial planning documents contain information about the principles and rights of land use in different zones of a local authority. They are the basis for administrative decision making in support of sustainable development. In Poland these documents are published on the Web according to a prescribed non-extendable XML schema, designed for optimum presentation to humans in HTML web pages. There is no document standard, and limited functionality exists for adding references to external resources. The text in these documents is discoverable and searchable by general-purpose web search engines, but the semantics of the content cannot be discovered or queried. The spatial information in these documents is geographically referenced but not machine-readable. Major manual efforts are required to integrate such heterogeneous spatial planning documents from various local authorities for analysis, scenario planning and decision support. This article presents results of an implementation using machine-readable semantic metadata to identify relationships among regulations in the text, spatial objects in the drawings and links to external resources. A spatial planning ontology was used to annotate different sections of spatial planning documents with semantic metadata in the Resource Description Framework in Attributes (RDFa). The semantic interpretation of the content, links between document elements and links to external resources were embedded in XHTML pages. An example and use case from the spatial planning domain in Poland is presented to evaluate its efficiency and applicability. The solution enables the automated integration of spatial planning documents from multiple local authorities to assist decision makers with understanding and interpreting spatial planning information. The approach is equally applicable to legal documents from other countries and domains, such as cultural heritage and environmental management.

  8. 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-12-01

    The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity t6 BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility; and (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1993. This technical appendix provides utility specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility: (1) electrical demand-firm loads; (2) generating resources; and (3) contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1994, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here. This BPA planning document incorporates Pacific Northwest generating resources and the 1994 medium load forecast prepared by BPA. Each utility`s forecasted future firm loads are subtracted from its existing resources to determine whether it will be surplus or deficit. If a utility`s resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which the utility can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if its firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet the utility`s load.

  9. Documentation and knowledge acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel; Moseley, Warren

    1990-01-01

    Traditional approaches to knowledge acquisition have focused on interviews. An alternative focuses on the documentation associated with a domain. Adopting a documentation approach provides some advantages during familiarization. A knowledge management tool was constructed to gain these advantages.

  10. Intranet Document Management Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, H. Joseph; Yen, David C.; Lin, Binshan

    1998-01-01

    Explains how intranets facilitate documentation availability within a company at substantial cost savings. Topics include intranet document management systems (IDMS); publication costs for printed materials; hardware and software specifications; performance; and security. (Author/LRW)

  11. JSC document index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document index is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The index contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.

  12. Feedstock Supply System Logistics

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    Feedstock supply is a significant cost component in the production of biobased fuels, products, and power. The uncertainty of the biomass feedstock supply chain and associated risks are major barriers to procuring capital funding for start-up biorefineries.

  13. Automated Management Of Documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy

    1995-01-01

    Report presents main technical issues involved in computer-integrated documentation. Problems associated with automation of management and maintenance of documents analyzed from perspectives of artificial intelligence and human factors. Technologies that may prove useful in computer-integrated documentation reviewed: these include conventional approaches to indexing and retrieval of information, use of hypertext, and knowledge-based artificial-intelligence systems.

  14. Program analysis for documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lolmaugh, G. H.

    1970-01-01

    A program analysis for documentation (PAD) written in FORTRAN has three steps: listing the variables, describing the structure and writing the program specifications. Technical notes on editing criteria for reviewing program documentation, technical notes for PAD, and FORTRAN program analyzer for documentation are appended.

  15. 10 CFR 215.4 - Production of contracts and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL COLLECTION OF FOREIGN OIL SUPPLY AGREEMENT INFORMATION § 215.4 Production of contracts and documents. Whenever the Administrator determines that certain foreign crude oil... relating to foreign oil supply arrangements or reports related thereto. Such material shall be...

  16. Energy resources - cornucopia or empty barrel?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    Over the last 25 yr, considerable debate has continued about the future supply of fossil fuel. On one side are those who believe we are rapidly depleting resources and that the resulting shortages will have a profound impact on society. On the other side are those who see no impending crisis because long-term trends are for cheaper prices despite rising production. The concepts of resources and reserves have historically created considerable misunderstanding in the minds of many nongeologists. Hubbert-type predictions of energy production assume that there is a finite supply of energy that is measurable; however, estimates of resources and reserves are inventories of the amounts of a fossil fuel perceived to be available over some future period of time. As those resources/reserves are depleted over time, additional amounts of fossil fuels are inventoried. Throughout most of this century, for example, crude oil reserves in the United States have represented a 10-14-yr supply. For the last 50 yr, resource crude oil estimates have represented about a 60-70-yr supply for the United States. Division of reserve or resource estimates by current or projected annual consumption therefore is circular in reasoning and can lead to highly erroneous conclusions. Production histories of fossil fuels are driven more by demand than by the geologic abundance of the resource. Examination of some energy resources with well-documented histories leads to two conceptual models that relate production to price. The closed-market model assumes that there is only one source of energy available. Although the price initially may fall because of economies of scale long term, prices rise as the energy source is depleted and it becomes progressively more expensive to extract. By contrast, the open-market model assumes that there is a variety of available energy sources and that competition among them leads to long-term stable or falling prices. At the moment, the United States and the world

  17. Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    Use of this purchase specification is not mandatory. User should review the document and determine if it meets the user`s purpose. This document contains a fill-in-the-blanks guide specification for the procurement of uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems greater than 10 kVA, organized as follows: Parts 1 through 7--technical requirements; Appendix A--technical requirements to be included in the proposal; Appendix B--UPS system data sheets to be completed by each bidder (Seller) and submitted with the proposal; Appendix C--general guidelines giving the specifier parameters for selecting a UPS system; it should be read before preparing an actual specification, and is not attached to the specification; Attachment 1--sketches prepared by the purchaser (Owner); Attachment 2--sample title page.

  18. Rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland: Toward achieving millennium development goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwendera, E. J.

    An assessment of rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland was conducted in 2004/2005 as part of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI). The initiative was developed by the African Development Bank with the aim of implementing it in the Regional Member Countries (RMCs), including Swaziland. Information on the RWSS sector programmes, costs, financial requirements and other related activities was obtained from a wide range of national documents, including sector papers and project files and progress reports. Interviews were held with staff from the central offices and field stations of Government of Swaziland (GOS) ministries and departments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), bilateral and multilateral external support agencies, and private sector individuals and firms with some connection to the sector and/or its programmes. The assessment also involved field visits to various regions in order to obtain first hand information about the various technologies and institutional structures used in the provision of water supplies and sanitation services in the rural areas of the country. The results showed that the RWSS sector has made significant progress towards meeting the national targets of providing water and sanitation to the entire rural population by the year 2022. The assessment indicated that rural water supply coverage was 56% in 2004 while sanitation coverage was 63% in the same year. The results showed that there is some decline in the incidence of water-related diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, probably due to improved water supply and sanitation coverage. The study also showed that, with adequate financial resources, Swaziland is likely to achieve 100% coverage of both water supply and sanitation by the year 2022. It was concluded that in achieving its own national goals Swaziland will exceed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, such achievement is subject to adequate financial resources being

  19. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs

  20. Document Flowdown Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-31

    DFTool performs the following: • A tool to conduct, capture, document, and manage a systematic review and flowdown of contractual requirements/documents to the site, facility, and project-level implementing documents. • Ability to alert/email document owners to impending changes/updates and impacts to upper-level linked documents. • Custom ability to generate reports and/or include custom functionalities based on other needs or consideration for site use. • Ability to be accessed by all personnel (particularly document owners). • Shows both document flow-up and flow-down. • Provides visibility where links/flowdown does not currently exist or is incorrect so it can be changed/updated (no visibility currently exists). • Ability to capture requirements and ultimately link to an existing/proven requirements-based commitment tracking system which can be used (electively) at the facility/organizational-level

  1. Document Flowdown Tool

    2010-12-31

    DFTool performs the following: • A tool to conduct, capture, document, and manage a systematic review and flowdown of contractual requirements/documents to the site, facility, and project-level implementing documents. • Ability to alert/email document owners to impending changes/updates and impacts to upper-level linked documents. • Custom ability to generate reports and/or include custom functionalities based on other needs or consideration for site use. • Ability to be accessed by all personnel (particularly document owners). •more » Shows both document flow-up and flow-down. • Provides visibility where links/flowdown does not currently exist or is incorrect so it can be changed/updated (no visibility currently exists). • Ability to capture requirements and ultimately link to an existing/proven requirements-based commitment tracking system which can be used (electively) at the facility/organizational-level« less

  2. Water resources of Sedgwick County, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bevans, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrologic data from streams, impoundments, and wells are interpreted to: (1) document water resources characteristics; (2) describe causes and extent of changes in water resources characteristics; and (3) evaluate water resources as sources of supply. During 1985, about 134,200 acre-ft of water (84% groundwater) were used for public (42%), irrigation, (40%), industrial (14%), and domestic (4%) supplies. Streamflow and groundwater levels are related directly to precipitation, and major rivers are sustained by groundwater inflow. Significant groundwater level declines have occurred only in the Wichita well field. The Arkansas and Ninnescah Rivers have sodium chloride type water; the Little Arkansas River, calcium bicarbonate type water. Water quality characteristics of water in small streams and wells depend primarily on local geology. The Wellington Formation commonly yields calcium sulfate type water; Ninnescah Shale and unconsolidated deposits generally yield calcium bicarbonate type water. Sodium chloride and calcium sulfate type water in the area often have dissolved-solids concentrations exceeding 1,000 mg/L. Water contamination by treated sewage effluent was detected inparts of the Arkansas River, Little Arkansas River, and Cowskin Creek. Nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen contamination was detected in 11 of 101 wells; oilfield brine was detected in the Wichita-Valley Center Floodway, Prairie Creek, Whitewater Creek, and 16 of 101 wells; and agricultural pesticides were detected in 8 of 14 impoundments and 5 of 19 wells. Generally, the water is acceptable for most uses. (USGS)

  3. Space resources. Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Mary Fae; McKay, David S.; Duke, Michael B.

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and in the exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. This overview describes the findings of a study on the use of space resources in the development of future space activities and defines the necessary research and development that must precede the practical utilization of these resources. Space resources considered included lunar soil, oxygen derived from lunar soil, material retrieved from near-Earth asteroids, abundant sunlight, low gravity, and high vacuum. The study participants analyzed the direct use of these resources, the potential demand for products from them, the techniques for retrieving and processing space resources, the necessary infrastructure, and the economic tradeoffs.

  4. Space resources. Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Mary Fae (Editor); Mckay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael B. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and in the exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. This overview describes the findings of a study on the use of space resources in the development of future space activities and defines the necessary research and development that must precede the practical utilization of these resources. Space resources considered included lunar soil, oxygen derived from lunar soil, material retrieved from near-Earth asteroids, abundant sunlight, low gravity, and high vacuum. The study participants analyzed the direct use of these resources, the potential demand for products from them, the techniques for retrieving and processing space resources, the necessary infrastructure, and the economic tradeoffs.

  5. 30 CFR 250.1904 - Documents incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environmental Management Systems (SEMS) § 250.1904 Documents incorporated by reference. The effect of... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Documents incorporated by reference. 250.1904 Section 250.1904 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 30 CFR 250.1904 - Documents incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS) § 250.1904 Documents incorporated by reference. The effect... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Documents incorporated by reference. 250.1904 Section 250.1904 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND...

  7. Environment: A Learning Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasmanian Education Dept., Hobart (Australia).

    The aim of this document is to give teachers in Tasmania an understanding of the importance and usefulness of the environment as a learning resource both as an immediate stimulus for learning and for the long term process of forming sound community values. The document provides schools with a basis for the development of environmental resources…

  8. Rhode Island Water Supply System Management Plan Database (WSSMP-Version 1.0)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, Gregory E.

    2004-01-01

    In Rhode Island, the availability of water of sufficient quality and quantity to meet current and future environmental and economic needs is vital to life and the State's economy. Water suppliers, the Rhode Island Water Resources Board (RIWRB), and other State agencies responsible for water resources in Rhode Island need information about available resources, the water-supply infrastructure, and water use patterns. These decision makers need historical, current, and future water-resource information. In 1997, the State of Rhode Island formalized a system of Water Supply System Management Plans (WSSMPs) to characterize and document relevant water-supply information. All major water suppliers (those that obtain, transport, purchase, or sell more than 50 million gallons of water per year) are required to prepare, maintain, and carry out WSSMPs. An electronic database for this WSSMP information has been deemed necessary by the RIWRB for water suppliers and State agencies to consistently document, maintain, and interpret the information in these plans. Availability of WSSMP data in standard formats will allow water suppliers and State agencies to improve the understanding of water-supply systems and to plan for future needs or water-supply emergencies. In 2002, however, the Rhode Island General Assembly passed a law that classifies some of the WSSMP information as confidential to protect the water-supply infrastructure from potential terrorist threats. Therefore the WSSMP database was designed for an implementation method that will balance security concerns with the information needs of the RIWRB, suppliers, other State agencies, and the public. A WSSMP database was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the RIWRB. The database was designed to catalog WSSMP information in a format that would accommodate synthesis of current and future information about Rhode Island's water-supply infrastructure. This report documents the design and implementation of

  9. Resource use efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Sheriff, D.W.; Margolis, H.A.; Kaufmann, M.R.; Reich, P.B.

    1995-07-01

    In this chapter we concentrate on the efficiency of use in fixing carbon and accumulating biomass of those resources most often of interest to ecophysiologists: light, nutrients, water, and carbon. A plant uses these in a variety of ways to enable it to survive, grow, and reproduce. Resources also have a role in the gathering of other resources. In most natural environments, one or more resources will be in limited supply, at least for a portion of each year or for a part of the plant`s life cycle, or both. This shortage will limit physiological activity and growth. Knowledge of how plants use resources is basic to an understanding of the biology of ecosystems and of competition between species. Efficiency of use of resources has traditionally been determined by calculating ratios of productivity per unit of resource [i.e., resource use efficiencies (RUEs); carbon use is often expressed as relative growth rate (RGR)]. Although RUEs and comparisons of values from different species can often be useful, they are frequently used incautiously. Comparisons have been made at a range of physical and temporal scales, often using the same terminology at each level of scale, frequently incorporating different meanings of productivity or different measures of resource use, sometimes with both different. Species will have evolved a higher RUE in response to a shortage of the resource in their environment. A resource shortage can result from an inherently poor supply of the resource in the environment and from competition for the resource by other plants. Mechanisms that allow plants to grow in an environment that is resource limited can be physiological, anatomical, morphological, ontogenetic, or phenological. RUEs of different resources will evolve separately, presumably in relation to the limitations of the resources in that environment and to other selective pressures.

  10. 10 CFR 215.4 - Production of contracts and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production of contracts and documents. 215.4 Section 215.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL COLLECTION OF FOREIGN OIL SUPPLY AGREEMENT INFORMATION § 215.4 Production of contracts and documents. Whenever the Administrator determines that certain foreign crude...

  11. 22 CFR 202.7 - Documentation required for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Documentation required for reimbursement. 202.7 Section 202.7 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.7 Documentation required for reimbursement. Claims...

  12. Toward Parallel Document Clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Mogill, Jace A.; Haglin, David J.

    2011-09-01

    A key challenge to automated clustering of documents in large text corpora is the high cost of comparing documents in a multimillion dimensional document space. The Anchors Hierarchy is a fast data structure and algorithm for localizing data based on a triangle inequality obeying distance metric, the algorithm strives to minimize the number of distance calculations needed to cluster the documents into “anchors” around reference documents called “pivots”. We extend the original algorithm to increase the amount of available parallelism and consider two implementations: a complex data structure which affords efficient searching, and a simple data structure which requires repeated sorting. The sorting implementation is integrated with a text corpora “Bag of Words” program and initial performance results of end-to-end a document processing workflow are reported.

  13. The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real

  14. Safety and Health Training Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Safety Advisory Council, Washington, DC.

    Information obtained from a survey of safety and health training activities undertaken by Federal agencies is provided in the document which serves as a resource guide and directory of agency safety programs. The document, intended to help Federal managers meet their safety training needs with available government resources, is divided into four…

  15. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 2, Book 1, Energy.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific and Northwest generating utility, (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources, and (3) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads. This analysis updates the 1992 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1992. This technical appendix provides utility-specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility (1) Electrical demand firm loads; (2) Generating resources; and (3) Contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here.

  16. World energy projection system: Model documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-06-01

    The World Energy Project System (WEPS) is an accounting framework that incorporates projects from independently documented models and assumptions about the future energy intensity of economic activity (ratios of total energy consumption divided by gross domestic product) and about the rate of incremental energy requirements met by hydropower, geothermal, coal, and natural gas to produce projections of world energy consumption published annually by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in the International Energy Outlook (IEO). Two independently documented models presented in Figure 1, the Oil Market Simulation (OMS) model and the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES), provide projections of oil and nuclear power consumption published in the IEO. Output from a third independently documented model, and the International Coal Trade Model (ICTM), is not published in the IEO but is used in WEPS as a supply check on projections of world coal consumption produced by WEPS and published in the IEO. A WEPS model of natural gas production documented in this report provides the same type of implicit supply check on the WEPS projections of world natural gas consumption published in the IEO. Two additional models are included in Figure 1, the OPEC Capacity model and the Non-OPEC Oil Production model. These WEPS models provide inputs to the OMS model and are documented in this report.

  17. Heterogeneous light supply affects growth and biomass allocation of the understory fern Diplopterygium glaucum at high patch contrast.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Song, Yao-Bin; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2011-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity in resource supply is common and responses to heterogeneous resource supply have been extensively documented in clonal angiosperms but not in pteridophytes. To test the hypotheses that clonal integration can modify responses of pteridophytes to heterogeneous resource supply and the integration effect is larger at higher patch contrast, we conducted a field experiment with three homogeneous and two heterogeneous light treatments on the rhizomatous, understory fern Diplopterygium glaucum in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in East China. In homogeneous treatments, all D. glaucum ramets in 1.5 m×1.5 m units were subjected to 10, 40 and 100% natural light, respectively. In the heterogeneous treatment of low patch contrast, ramets in the central 0.5 m×0.5 m plots of the units were subjected to 40% natural light and their interconnected ramets in the surrounding area of the units to 100%; in the heterogeneous treatment of high patch contrast, ramets in the central plots were subjected to 10% natural light and those in the surrounding area to 100%. In the homogeneous treatments, biomass and number of living ramets in the central plots decreased and number of dead ramets increased with decreasing light supply. At low contrast heterogeneous light supply did not affect performance or biomass allocation of D. glaucum in the central plots, but at high contrast it increased lamina biomass and number of living ramets older than annual and modified biomass allocation to lamina and rhizome. Thus, clonal integration can affect responses of understory ferns to heterogeneous light supply and ramets in low light patches can be supported by those in high light. The results also suggest that effects of clonal integration depend on the degree of patch contrast and a significant integration effect may be found only under a relatively high patch contrast.

  18. Automated documentation generator for advanced protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddux, Gary A.; Provancha, Anna; Chattam, David

    1994-01-01

    To achieve an environment less dependent on the flow of paper, automated techniques of data storage and retrieval must be utilized. This software system, 'Automated Payload Experiment Tool,' seeks to provide a knowledge-based, hypertext environment for the development of NASA documentation. Once developed, the final system should be able to guide a Principal Investigator through the documentation process in a more timely and efficient manner, while supplying more accurate information to the NASA payload developer. The current system is designed for the development of the Science Requirements Document (SRD), the Experiment Requirements Document (ERD), the Project Plan, and the Safety Requirements Document.

  19. FOSSIL2 energy policy model documentation: FOSSIL2 documentation

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    This report discusses the structure, derivations, assumptions, and mathematical formulation of the FOSSIL2 model. Each major facet of the model - supply/demand interactions, industry financing, and production - has been designed to parallel closely the actual cause/effect relationships determining the behavior of the United States energy system. The data base for the FOSSIL2 program is large, as is appropriate for a system dynamics simulation model. When possible, all data were obtained from sources well known to experts in the energy field. Cost and resource estimates are based on DOE data whenever possible. This report presents the FOSSIL2 model at several levels. Volumes II and III of this report list the equations that comprise the FOSSIL2 model, along with variable definitions and a cross-reference list of the model variables. Volume III lists the model equations and a one line definition for equations, in a short, readable format.

  20. Food supply reliance on groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, Carole; Puma, Michael; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Water resources, essential to sustain human life, livelihoods and ecosystems, are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development and global climate change. As the largest freshwater resource on Earth, groundwater is key for human development and food security. Yet, excessive abstraction of groundwater for irrigation, driven by an increasing demand for food in recent decades, is leading to fast exhaustion of groundwater reserves in major agricultural areas of the world. Some of the highest depletion rates are observed in Pakistan, India, California Central Valley and the North China Plain aquifers. In addition, the growing economy and population of several countries, such as India and China, makes prospects of future available water and food worrisome. In this context, it is becoming particularly challenging to sustainably feed the world population, without exhausting our water resources. Besides, food production and consumption across the globe have become increasingly interconnected, with many areas' agricultural production destined to remote consumers. In this globalisation era, trade is crucial to the world's food system. As a transfer of water-intensive goods, across regions with varying levels of water productivity, food trade can save significant volumes of water resources globally. This situation makes it essential to address the issue of groundwater overuse for global food supply, accounting for international food trade. To do so, we quantify the current, global use of non-renewable groundwater for major crops, accounting for various water productivity and trade flows. This will highlight areas requiring quickest attention, exposing major exporters and importers of non-renewable groundwater, and thus help explore solutions to improve the sustainability of global food supply.

  1. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands--firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and ''contracted for'' resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy

  2. Cockpit resource management training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yocum, M.; Foushee, C.

    1984-01-01

    Cockpit resource management which is a multifaceted concept is outlined. The system involves the effective coordination of many resources: aircraft systems, company, air traffic control, equipment, navigational aids, documents, and manuals. The main concept, however, is group interaction. Problems which arise from lack of coordination, decision making, and lack of communication are pointed out. Implementation by the regional airline industry of cockpit resource management, designed to deal with human interactions problems in the most cost effective manner, is discussed.

  3. Warming and Resource Availability Shift Food Web Structure and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Mary I.; Piehler, Michael F.; Leech, Dina M.; Anton, Andrea; Bruno, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change disrupts ecological systems in many ways. Many documented responses depend on species' life histories, contributing to the view that climate change effects are important but difficult to characterize generally. However, systematic variation in metabolic effects of temperature across trophic levels suggests that warming may lead to predictable shifts in food web structure and productivity. We experimentally tested the effects of warming on food web structure and productivity under two resource supply scenarios. Consistent with predictions based on universal metabolic responses to temperature, we found that warming strengthened consumer control of primary production when resources were augmented. Warming shifted food web structure and reduced total biomass despite increases in primary productivity in a marine food web. In contrast, at lower resource levels, food web production was constrained at all temperatures. These results demonstrate that small temperature changes could dramatically shift food web dynamics and provide a general, species-independent mechanism for ecological response to environmental temperature change. PMID:19707271

  4. Penumatic-power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Portable compressed air supply has two or more outputs at pressures from 20 to 100 psi. Applications include operating production equipment, spraying paint and lubricants, and pressurizing refrigeration systems. Supply filters air from standard high-pressure line, reduces it to working pressure, and adds lubricant when required. Regulator supplies low-pressure air to output channels. On channel lines, vernier-control valves select output pressures.

  5. Tobacco document research reporting

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S

    2005-01-01

    Design: Interpretive analysis of published research. Sample: 173 papers indexed in Medline between 1995 and 2004 that cited tobacco industry documents. Analysis: Information about year published, journal and author, and a set of codes relating to methods reporting, were managed in N*Vivo. This coding formed the basis of an interpretation of tobacco document research reporting. Results: Two types of papers were identified. The first used tobacco documents as the primary data source (A-papers). The second was dedicated to another purpose but cited a small number of documents (B-papers). In B-papers documents were used either to provide a specific example or to support an expansive contention. A-papers contained information about purpose, sources, searching, analysis, and limitations that differed by author and journal and over time. A-papers had no clear methodological context, but used words from three major traditions—interpretive research, positivist research, and history—to describe analysis. Interpretation: A descriptive mainstream form of tobacco document reporting is proposed, initially typical but decreasing, and a continuum of positioning of the researcher, from conduit to constructor. Reporting practices, particularly from experienced researchers, appeared to evolve towards researcher as constructor, with later papers showing more complex purposes, diverse sources, and detail of searching and analysis. Tobacco document research could learn from existing research traditions: a model for planning and evaluating tobacco document research is presented. PMID:16319359

  6. Bibliography, Documentation, Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coudert-Schklowski, C., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    Published periodically by the United Nations Education, Social, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Department of Documentation, Libraries, and Archives, this edition contains information on: (1) recent meetings and publications relating to international documentation and library conventions; (2) an update of the information contained in the…

  7. NASA Software Documentation Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as "Standard") is designed to support the documentation of all software developed for NASA; its goal is to provide a framework and model for recording the essential information needed throughout the development life cycle and maintenance of a software system. The NASA Software Documentation Standard can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. The Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. The basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

  8. System Documentation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmel, Melvyn I.; Olson, Jerry

    The document is a system documentation manual of the Computer-Assisted Teacher Training System (CATTS) developed by the Center for Innovation in Teaching the Handicapped (Indiana University). CATTS is characterized as a system capable of providing continuous, instantaneous, and/or delayed feedback of relevant teacher-student interaction data to a…

  9. Retrieving Product Documentation Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racine, Sam J.; Crandall, Irving B.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses demands users face when searching for information in online libraries of product documentation. Demonstrates how physical libraries provide a helpful metaphor for design. Offers heuristics and a conceptual prototype for facilitating electronic document retrieval. Argues that the search form itself should communicate the way materials are…

  10. IDC System Specification Document.

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, David J.

    2014-12-01

    This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  11. Water supply and needs for West Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation focused on the water supplies and needs of West Texas, Texas High Plains. Groundwater is the most commonly used water resources on the Texas High Plains, with withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer dominating. The saturation thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas is such that t...

  12. Instructional Aids, Materials, and Supplies--Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    This resource guide produced for the Follow Through Program, primarily lists instructional aids and supplies; it also suggests practical implications for provisioning the classroom environment, gives specific suggestions for Project Follow Through directors, and lists addresses of suppliers. The materials are divided into nine categories, which…

  13. Mixed waste characterization reference document

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Waste characterization and monitoring are major activities in the management of waste from generation through storage and treatment to disposal. Adequate waste characterization is necessary to ensure safe storage, selection of appropriate and effective treatment, and adherence to disposal standards. For some wastes characterization objectives can be difficult and costly to achieve. The purpose of this document is to evaluate costs of characterizing one such waste type, mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. For the purpose of this document, waste characterization includes treatment system monitoring, where monitoring is a supplement or substitute for waste characterization. This document establishes a cost baseline for mixed waste characterization and treatment system monitoring requirements from which to evaluate alternatives. The cost baseline established as part of this work includes costs for a thermal treatment technology (i.e., a rotary kiln incinerator), a nonthermal treatment process (i.e., waste sorting, macronencapsulation, and catalytic wet oxidation), and no treatment (i.e., disposal of waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)). The analysis of improvement over the baseline includes assessment of promising areas for technology development in front-end waste characterization, process equipment, off gas controls, and monitoring. Based on this assessment, an ideal characterization and monitoring configuration is described that minimizes costs and optimizes resources required for waste characterization.

  14. NEMS integrating module documentation report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of U.S. energy markets for the midterm period. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to a variety of assumptions. The assumptions encompass macroeconomic and financial factors, world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavioral and technological choice criteria, technology characteristics, and demographics. NEMS produces a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand in the U.S. energy markets on an annual basis through 2015. Baseline forecasts from NEMS are published in the Annual Energy Outlook. Analyses are also prepared in response to requests by the U.S. Congress, the DOE Office of Policy, and others. NEMS was first used for forecasts presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 1994.

  15. Competing for supply.

    PubMed

    Stolle, B

    2001-02-01

    The Internet was supposed to make it possible for anybody anywhere to get anything anytime. Instead, it's magnified suppliers' miscalculations into global shortages. But if the Net caused these supply chain woes, it's also the solution, says the CEO of a supply-chain software manufacturer. PMID:11213695

  16. Newspaper Advertising Trends and Teacher Supply in the Carolinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewalt, Mark W.; Graham, Patricia L.

    This year-long research project documented critical issues of supply and demand for teachers in the Carolinas. Researchers focused on the number of public and private school education positions advertised in the four major newspapers serving South Carolina and the Charlotte metropolitan region of North Carolina. They documented advertising trends…

  17. NACA documents database project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ruth S.

    1991-01-01

    The plan to get all the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) collection online, with quality records, led to the NACA Documents Data base Project. The project has a two fold purpose: (1) to develop the definitive bibliography of NACA produced and/or held documents; and (2) to make that bibliography and the associated documents available to the aerospace community. This study supports the first objective by providing an analysis of the NACA collection and its bibliographic records, and supports the second objective by defining the NACA archive and recommending methodologies for meeting the project objectives.

  18. Power supply conditioning circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, L. E.; Loveland, R.

    1987-01-01

    A power supply conditioning circuit that can reduce Periodic and Random Deviations (PARD) on the output voltages of dc power supplies to -150 dBV from dc to several KHz with no measurable periodic deviations is described. The PARD for a typical commercial low noise power supply is -74 dBV for frequencies above 20 Hz and is often much worse at frequencies below 20 Hz. The power supply conditioning circuit described here relies on the large differences in the dynamic impedances of a constant current diode and a zener diode to establish a dc voltage with low PARD. Power supplies with low PARD are especially important in circuitry involving ultrastable frequencies for the Deep Space Network.

  19. Spatial Data Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadharajulu, P.; Azeem Saqiq, M.; Yu, F.; McMeekin, D. A.; West, G.; Arnold, L.; Moncrieff, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes current research into the supply of spatial data to the end user in as close to real time as possible via the World Wide Web. The Spatial Data Infrastructure paradigm has been discussed since the early 1990s. The concept has evolved significantly since then but has almost always examined data from the perspective of the supplier. It has been a supplier driven focus rather than a user driven focus. The current research being conducted is making a paradigm shift and looking at the supply of spatial data as a supply chain, similar to a manufacturing supply chain in which users play a significant part. A comprehensive consultation process took place within Australia and New Zealand incorporating a large number of stakeholders. Three research projects that have arisen from this consultation process are examining Spatial Data Supply Chains within Australia and New Zealand and are discussed within this paper.

  20. Accessing Distributed Multimedia Documents for Instructional Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourdeau, J.; And Others

    Students, teachers, and authors need to access multimedia documents over heterogeneous networks. The efficient handling of time-dependent multimedia information such as audio and video in distributed systems requires considerable network and computing resources. The term Quality of Service (QoS) refers collectively to the specifications of these…

  1. Document Delivery: An Annotated Selective Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalil, Mounir A.; Katz, Suzanne R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a selective annotated bibliography of 61 items that deal with topics related to document delivery, including networks; hypertext; interlibrary loan; computer security; electronic publishing; copyright; online catalogs; resource sharing; electronic mail; electronic libraries; optical character recognition; microcomputers; liability issues;…

  2. Concern about Lost Talent: Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikora, Joanna; Saha, Lawrence J.

    2011-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report "Lost talent? The occupational ambitions and attainments of young Australians", and is an added resource for further information. The purpose of this supplement is to provide greater detail about the background of research into the topic of human talent in society.…

  3. Part B Excess Cost Quick Reference Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Wayne; Beridon, Virginia; Hamre, Kent; Morse, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    This Quick Reference Document has been prepared by the Regional Resource Center Program ARRA/Fiscal Priority Team to aid RRCP State Liaisons and other (Technical Assistance) TA providers in understanding the general context of state questions surrounding excess cost. As a "first-stop" for TA providers in investigating excess cost questions on…

  4. School Completion: Data Appendix. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homel, Jacqueline; Mavisakalyan, Astghik; Nguyen, Ha Trong; Ryan, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report "School Completion: What We Learn from Different Measures of Family Background," and is an added resource for further information. This study relies on two main sources to analyse how Year 12 completion is related to disadvantage: the Longitudinal Surveys of…

  5. Ex-Situ Documentation of Ethnobiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahe-Deklin, Francesca; Si, Aung

    2014-01-01

    Migrant speakers of endangered languages living in urban centers in developed countries represent a valuable resource through which these languages may be conveniently documented. Here, we first present a general methodology by which linguists can compile a meaningful set of visual (and sometimes audio) stimuli with which to carry out a reasonably…

  6. [Information supply for scientific research in occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, N B; Lysukhin, V N

    2007-01-01

    Using materials of 2-year comparative study of information supply for scientific research in occupational medicine, conducted through social hygienic polls, the authors demonstrated peculiarities of informational supply and its significance for optimizing the scientific work. Informational supply of scientific research in occupational medicine requires complex approach including availability of information resources and technologies, increased material and technical basis of research organizations, developed intraregional and international cooperation with similar national and foreign organizations.

  7. Controlled Document Tracking Software

    1992-08-24

    MANTRACK is an automated, controlled document tracking system which does the following and reduces staff time required to perform these tasks: generates transmittal letters/receipts for every controlled copy issued (merged from a current distribution list), tracks the return of transmittal receipts, facilitates the check-in of the large number of transmittal receipts returned (using a barcode reader), generates a reminder list which prompts the cyclic review and evaluation of existing documents, generates overdue reminders for themore » return of past-due transmittal receipts, tracks the number of Procedure Change Directives (PCD) currently in effect for each procedure, generates and maintains current distribution lists for each document, generates a current table of contents when updates to the document (usually a procedure manual) are made.« less

  8. Controlled Document Tracking Software

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Roswitha T.

    1992-08-24

    MANTRACK is an automated, controlled document tracking system which does the following and reduces staff time required to perform these tasks: generates transmittal letters/receipts for every controlled copy issued (merged from a current distribution list), tracks the return of transmittal receipts, facilitates the check-in of the large number of transmittal receipts returned (using a barcode reader), generates a reminder list which prompts the cyclic review and evaluation of existing documents, generates overdue reminders for the return of past-due transmittal receipts, tracks the number of Procedure Change Directives (PCD) currently in effect for each procedure, generates and maintains current distribution lists for each document, generates a current table of contents when updates to the document (usually a procedure manual) are made.

  9. Geochemistry Technical Basis Document

    SciTech Connect

    Benedict, Jr, F Christopher; Rose, Timothy P; Thomas, James M; Waddell, Richard; Jacobson, Roger

    2004-03-18

    This document presents a methodology whereby geochemical data can more effectively contribute to the development , calibration, and verification of groundwater flow and slute transport models for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project.

  10. Transportation System Requirements Document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

  11. Computerized classified document accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, C.B.; Lewin, R.

    1988-08-01

    This step-by-step procedure was established as a guideline to be used with the Savvy PC Database Program for the accountability of classified documents. Its purpose is to eventually phase out the use of logbooks for classified document tracking. The program runs on an IBM PC or compatible computer using a Bernoulli Box, a Hewlett Packard 71B Bar Code Reader, an IOMEGA Host Adapter Board for creating mirror images of data for backup purposes, and the Disk Operating System (DOS). The DOS batch files ''IN'' and ''OUT'' invoke the Savvy Databases for either entering incoming or outgoing documents. The main files are DESTRUCTION, INLOG, OUTLOG, and NAME-NUMBER. The fields in the files are Adding/Changing, Routing, Destroying, Search-Print by document identification, Search/Print Audit by bar code number, Print Holdings of a person, and Print Inventory of an office.

  12. Oahu, Hawaii's Water Supply: 1848-2020 A.D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, John Henry

    Demand projections indicate that Oahu's natural ground water supply will be fully developed by the year 2000. Supplementary water resources will need to be developed in keeping with the growth of the economy and population. The author, chairman of the Honolulu Board of Water Supply, authoritatively discusses types of ground water in Hawaii, and…

  13. LCS Content Document Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstadt, Jake

    2011-01-01

    My project at KSC during my spring 2011 internship was to develop a Ruby on Rails application to manage Content Documents..A Content Document is a collection of documents and information that describes what software is installed on a Launch Control System Computer. It's important for us to make sure the tools we use everyday are secure, up-to-date, and properly licensed. Previously, keeping track of the information was done by Excel and Word files between different personnel. The goal of the new application is to be able to manage and access the Content Documents through a single database backed web application. Our LCS team will benefit greatly with this app. Admin's will be able to login securely to keep track and update the software installed on each computer in a timely manner. We also included exportability such as attaching additional documents that can be downloaded from the web application. The finished application will ease the process of managing Content Documents while streamlining the procedure. Ruby on Rails is a very powerful programming language and I am grateful to have the opportunity to build this application.

  14. Lifting BLS Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Sarychev, Michael

    2007-08-01

    This note describes BLS power supplies lifting techniques and provides stress calculations for lifting plate and handles bolts. BLS power supply weight is about 120 Lbs, with the center of gravity shifted toward the right front side. A lifting plate is used to attach a power supply to a crane or a hoist. Stress calculations show that safety factors for lifting plate are 12.9 (vs. 5 required) for ultimate stress and 5.7 (vs. 3 required) for yield stress. Safety factor for shackle bolt thread shear load is 37, and safety factor for bolts that attach handles is 12.8.

  15. A synthetic document image dataset for developing and evaluating historical document processing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Daniel; Lund, William; Ringger, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Document images accompanied by OCR output text and ground truth transcriptions are useful for developing and evaluating document recognition and processing methods, especially for historical document images. Additionally, research into improving the performance of such methods often requires further annotation of training and test data (e.g., topical document labels). However, transcribing and labeling historical documents is expensive. As a result, existing real-world document image datasets with such accompanying resources are rare and often relatively small. We introduce synthetic document image datasets of varying levels of noise that have been created from standard (English) text corpora using an existing document degradation model applied in a novel way. Included in the datasets is the OCR output from real OCR engines including the commercial ABBYY FineReader and the open-source Tesseract engines. These synthetic datasets are designed to exhibit some of the characteristics of an example real-world document image dataset, the Eisenhower Communiqúes. The new datasets also benefit from additional metadata that exist due to the nature of their collection and prior labeling efforts. We demonstrate the usefulness of the synthetic datasets by training an existing multi-engine OCR correction method on the synthetic data and then applying the model to reduce word error rates on the historical document dataset. The synthetic datasets will be made available for use by other researchers.

  16. Library resources on the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  17. Supply and Demand

    MedlinePlus

    ... a good breastfeeding rhythm with your baby. In reality, the efficient supply-and-demand rhythm of normal ... is one reason it’s a good idea to alternate which breast you use to begin nursing. A ...

  18. Tuning magnet power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.M.; Karady, G.G.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    The particles in a Rapid Cycling Accelerator are accelerated by rf cavities, which are tuned by dc biased ferrite cores. The tuning is achieved by the regulation of bias current, which is produced by a power supply. The tuning magnet power supply utilizes a bridge circuit, supplied by a three phase rectifier. During the rise of the current, when the particles are accelerated, the current is controlled with precision by the bridge which operates a power amplifier. During the fall of the current, the bridge operates in a switching mode and recovers the energy stored in the ferrites. The recovered energy is stored in a capacitor bank. The bridge circuit is built with 150 power transistors. The drive, protection and control circuit were designed and built from commercial component. The system will be used for a rf cavity experiment in Los Alamos and will serve as a prototype tuning power supply for future accelerators. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  19. Document Concurrence System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhsin, Mansour; Walters, Ian

    2004-01-01

    The Document Concurrence System is a combination of software modules for routing users expressions of concurrence with documents. This system enables determination of the current status of concurrences and eliminates the need for the prior practice of manually delivering paper documents to all persons whose approvals were required. This system runs on a server, and participants gain access via personal computers equipped with Web-browser and electronic-mail software. A user can begin a concurrence routing process by logging onto an administration module, naming the approvers and stating the sequence for routing among them, and attaching documents. The server then sends a message to the first person on the list. Upon concurrence by the first person, the system sends a message to the second person, and so forth. A person on the list indicates approval, places the documents on hold, or indicates disapproval, via a Web-based module. When the last person on the list has concurred, a message is sent to the initiator, who can then finalize the process through the administration module. A background process running on the server identifies concurrence processes that are overdue and sends reminders to the appropriate persons.

  20. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  1. Information Technology Resources Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is being published as a companion document to the Department of Energy (DOE) FY 1994--FY 1998 Information Resources Management Long-Range Plan. This document represents a collaborative effort between the Office of Information Resources Management and the Office of Energy Research that was undertaken to achieve, in part, the Technology Strategic Objective of IRM Vision 21. An integral part of this objective, technology forecasting provides an understanding of the information technology horizon and presents a perspective and focus on technologies of particular interest to DOE program activities. Specifically, this document provides site planners with an overview of the status and use of new information technology for their planning consideration.

  2. Resources and References for Sex-Fair Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Shirley, Comp.

    Designed for use in facilitating sex-fairness in vocational education, this volume documents over 600 resources in the following areas: resources of interest to all educators; administrative resources; instructional resources; counseling resources; outreach, recruitment, and placement resources; inservice/preservice and student workshop resources;…

  3. System Documentation: A Symposium on Printer Documentation for Computer Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Denise, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This symposium on printed documentation covers (1) Tacoma Public Library's documentation (Lare Mischo); (2) characteristics of bad documentation (Linda Bills); (3) GEAC manuals (Joe Matthews); (4) Personal Bibliographic Software manuals (Victor Rosenberg); (5) DIALOG documentation (Barbara E. Anderson); (6) documentation problems and improvements…

  4. Computer integrated documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy

    1991-01-01

    The main technical issues of the Computer Integrated Documentation (CID) project are presented. The problem of automation of documents management and maintenance is analyzed both from an artificial intelligence viewpoint and from a human factors viewpoint. Possible technologies for CID are reviewed: conventional approaches to indexing and information retrieval; hypertext; and knowledge based systems. A particular effort was made to provide an appropriate representation for contextual knowledge. This representation is used to generate context on hypertext links. Thus, indexing in CID is context sensitive. The implementation of the current version of CID is described. It includes a hypertext data base, a knowledge based management and maintenance system, and a user interface. A series is also presented of theoretical considerations as navigation in hyperspace, acquisition of indexing knowledge, generation and maintenance of a large documentation, and relation to other work.

  5. Hazard baseline documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This DOE limited technical standard establishes uniform Office of Environmental Management (EM) guidance on hazards baseline documents that identify and control radiological and nonradiological hazards for all EM facilities. It provides a road map to the safety and health hazard identification and control requirements contained in the Department`s orders and provides EM guidance on the applicability and integration of these requirements. This includes a definition of four classes of facilities (nuclear, non-nuclear, radiological, and other industrial); the thresholds for facility hazard classification; and applicable safety and health hazard identification, controls, and documentation. The standard applies to the classification, development, review, and approval of hazard identification and control documentation for EM facilities.

  6. Mineral Resources and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings and recommendations of panels created by the Committee on Mineral Resources and the Environment (COMRATE) to study four topic areas of mineral resources and the environment. The topic areas studied by the panels were: technology, supply, the environment, and demand. Section I, the report of the technology panel,…

  7. SRS ECOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Wike, L; Doug Martin, D; Eric Nelson, E; Nancy Halverson, N; John Mayer, J; Michael Paller, M; Rodney Riley, R; Michael Serrato, M

    2006-03-01

    The SRS Ecology Environmental Information Document (EEID) provides a source of information on the ecology of Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)--owned property on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina, centered approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) southeast of Augusta, Georgia. The entire site was designated a National Environmental Research Park in 1972 by the Atomic Energy Commission, the predecessor of DOE. This document summarizes and synthesizes ecological research and monitoring conducted on the three main types of ecosystems found at SRS: terrestrial, wetland and aquatic. It also summarizes the available information on the threatened and endangered species found on the Savannah River Site. SRS is located along the Savannah River and encompasses an area of 80,267 hectares (310 square miles) in three South Carolina counties. It contains diverse habitats, flora, and fauna. Habitats include upland terrestrial areas, wetlands, streams, reservoirs, and the adjacent Savannah River. These diverse habitats support a variety of plants and animals, including many commercially or recreationally valuable species and several rare, threatened, or endangered species. Soils are the basic terrestrial resource, influencing the development of terrestrial biological communities. Many different soils exist on the SRS, from hydric to well-drained, and from sand to clay. In general, SRS soils are predominantly well-drained loamy sands.

  8. Related environmental documents

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report is a listing of related environmental documents used in the drafting of this report. Specifically, the documents are the final environmental impact statements for: (1) Bellefonte Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (2) Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant 1, 2, & 3, (3) Sequoyah Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (4) Watts Bar Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (5) Raccoon Mountain Pumped Storage Facility, (6) Policies relating to rates, (7) Tennessee River and reservoir system operation and planning, (8) Policies related to the use of coal.

  9. An Automated FORTRAN documenter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, T.

    1982-01-01

    A set of programs designed to help R&D programmers document their FORTRAN programs more effectively were written. The central program reads FORTRAN source code and asks the programmer questions about things it has not heard of before. It inserts the answers to these questions as comments into the FORTRAN code. The comments, as well as extensive cross-reference information, are also written to an unformatted file. Other programs read this file to produce printed information or to act as an interactive document.

  10. Customer Communication Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This procedure communicates to the Customers of the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division (AR&SD) Dynamics Systems Test Branch (DSTB) how to obtain services of the Six-Degrees-Of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS). The scope includes the major communication documents between the SDTS and its Customer. It established the initial communication and contact points as well as provides the initial documentation in electronic media for the customer. Contact the SDTS Manager (SM) for the names of numbers of the current contact points.

  11. Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Sanfilippo, Antonio; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2009-12-22

    Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a document clustering method includes providing a document set comprising a plurality of documents, providing a cluster comprising a subset of the documents of the document set, using a plurality of terms of the documents, providing a cluster label indicative of subject matter content of the documents of the cluster, wherein the cluster label comprises a plurality of word senses, and selecting one of the word senses of the cluster label.

  12. Imaged Document Optical Correlation and Conversion System (IDOCCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalcup, Bruce W.; Dennis, Phillip W.; Dydyk, Robert B.

    1999-03-01

    Today, the paper document is fast becoming a thing of the past. With the rapid development of fast, inexpensive computing and storage devices, many government and private organizations are archiving their documents in electronic form (e.g., personnel records, medical records, patents, etc.). In addition, many organizations are converting their paper archives to electronic images, which are stored in a computer database. Because of this, there is a need to efficiently organize this data into comprehensive and accessible information resources. The Imaged Document Optical Correlation and Conversion System (IDOCCS) provides a total solution to the problem of managing and retrieving textual and graphic information from imaged document archives. At the heart of IDOCCS, optical correlation technology provides the search and retrieval capability of document images. The IDOCCS can be used to rapidly search for key words or phrases within the imaged document archives and can even determine the types of languages contained within a document. In addition, IDOCCS can automatically compare an input document with the archived database to determine if it is a duplicate, thereby reducing the overall resources required to maintain and access the document database. Embedded graphics on imaged pages can also be exploited, e.g., imaged documents containing an agency's seal or logo, or documents with a particular individual's signature block, can be singled out. With this dual capability, IDOCCS outperforms systems that rely on optical character recognition as a basis for indexing and storing only the textual content of documents for later retrieval.

  13. Extremely secure identification documents

    SciTech Connect

    Tolk, K.M.; Bell, M.

    1997-09-01

    The technology developed in this project uses biometric information printed on the document and public key cryptography to ensure that an adversary cannot issue identification documents to unauthorized individuals or alter existing documents to allow their use by unauthorized individuals. This process can be used to produce many types of identification documents with much higher security than any currently in use. The system is demonstrated using a security badge as an example. This project focused on the technologies requiring development in order to make the approach viable with existing badge printing and laminating technologies. By far the most difficult was the image processing required to verify that the picture on the badge had not been altered. Another area that required considerable work was the high density printed data storage required to get sufficient data on the badge for verification of the picture. The image processing process was successfully tested, and recommendations are included to refine the badge system to ensure high reliability. A two dimensional data array suitable for printing the required data on the badge was proposed, but testing of the readability of the array had to be abandoned due to reallocation of the budgeted funds by the LDRD office.

  14. Discussion Documents as Neonarratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Don

    1992-01-01

    Following a brief examination of postmodernism as an emerging framework of social life, this paper examines linkages among postmodern theory, bureaucracy, professional practice, and official documents. These elements are presented as interconnected, with each making demands and responding to one another. Such interactions constitute the framework…

  15. Client Oriented Management Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limaye, Mohan R.; Hightower, Rick

    Noting that accounting reports, including management advisory service (MAS) studies, reports on internal control, and tax memoranda, often appear rather dense and heavy in style--partly because of the legal environment's demand for careful expression and partly because such documents convey very complex information--this paper presents four…

  16. Automating clinical dietetics documentation.

    PubMed

    Grace-Farfaglia, P; Rosow, P

    1995-06-01

    A review of commonly used charting formats discussed in the dietetics literature revealed that the subjective, objective assessment and planning (SOAP) approach is most frequently used by dietitians. Formats reported in the nursing literature were charting by exception (CBE); problem, intervention, evaluation (PIE); and focus/data, action, response (Focus/DAR). The strengths and weaknesses of the charting styles as they apply to the needs of clinical dietetic specialists were reviewed. We then decided to test in house the Focus/DAR format by assessing chart entries for adherence to style, brevity, and physician response. Dietitians pilot tested all the methods, but found them time consuming to use. The consensus was that SOAP could be adapted to the documentation needs of the individual situation and required little additional staff training. Often because of time limitations, a narrative summary was most appropriate. Chart entry length was reduced as much as 200% when staff were given brief clinical communication as a goal, and a further reduction when line limits were imposed. The physician response was positive, with recommendations followed in 50% of charts, compared with 34% in a previous audit. A nutrition documentation system was developed by the researchers by reviewing medical chart structure, documentation standards, methods of risk identification, and terminology for clinical documentation style. The resulting system affected the decision making of physicians, who could now scan notes more quickly and implement nutrition recommendations in a more timely fashion.

  17. Document Delivery Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computers in Libraries, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Describes new products that relate to document delivery, including a wireless electronic mail connection; multivendor office integration software to exchange electronic mail; analog film recorders; an electronic messaging system for personal computer local area networks; software for transferring data files; voice message delivery systems; and…

  18. The Iranian Documentation Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, John F.

    The purpose of the Iranian Documentation Centr (Irandoc) was to collect that portion of the world's literature which was pertinent to Iran's research interests, to organize that material, and to promote its use by Iranian researchers. Stated more succinctly, Irandoc's purpose was to obtain ready access to the world's scientific literature in order…

  19. Electronic document interchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, Jim

    1993-01-01

    The operational impact of various storage formats related to electronic publishing of documents in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program is discussed. Questions are raised about the development of full text, surrogate, and hybrid storage formats. It appears that the eventual configuration will contain a mix of storage formats based on user demand.

  20. Multimedia Document Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkarahan, Esen

    1995-01-01

    This study develops an integrated conceptual representation scheme for multimedia documents that are viewed to comprise an object-oriented database; the necessary abstractions for the conceptual model and extensions to the relational model used as the search structure; a retrieval model that includes associative, semantic and media-specific…

  1. Using Primary Source Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Explores the use of primary sources when teaching about U.S. slavery. Includes primary sources from the Gilder Lehrman Documents Collection (New York Historical Society) to teach about the role of slaves in the Revolutionary War, such as a proclamation from Lord Dunmore offering freedom to slaves who joined his army. (CMK)

  2. Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. The pioneers refilled their water barrels at each river they forded; moonbase inhabitants may use chemical reactors to combine hydrogen brought from Earth with oxygen found in lunar soil to make their water. The pioneers sought temporary shelter under trees or in the lee of a cliff and built sod houses as their first homes on the new land; settlers of the Moon may seek out lava tubes for their shelter or cover space station modules with lunar regolith for radiation protection. The pioneers moved further west from their first settlements, using wagons they had built from local wood and pack animals they had raised; space explorers may use propellant made at a lunar base to take them on to Mars. The concept for this report was developed at a NASA-sponsored summer study in 1984. The program was held on the Scripps campus of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). It was jointly managed under the California Space Inst. and the NASA Johnson Space Center, under the direction of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) at NASA Headquarters. The study participants (listed in the addendum) included a group of 18 university teachers and researchers (faculty fellows) who were present for the entire 10-week period and a larger group of attendees from universities, Government, and industry who came for a series of four 1-week workshops. The organization of this report follows that of the summer study. Space Resources consists of a brief overview and four detailed technical volumes: (1) Scenarios; (2) Energy, Power, and Transport; (3) Materials; (4

  3. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  4. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  5. 18 CFR 2.105 - Gas supply charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas supply charges. 2.105 Section 2.105 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statement of General Policy...

  6. 18 CFR 2.105 - Gas supply charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gas supply charges. 2.105 Section 2.105 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statement of General Policy...

  7. Sustainable Supply Chain Design: A Configurational Approach

    PubMed Central

    Masoumik, S. Maryam; Raja Ghazilla, Raja Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Although there are a considerable number of studies on issues relating to sustainable supply chain design (SSCD) in terms of designing the practices, processes, and structures, they have rarely demonstrated how these components can be aligned to form an effective sustainable supply chain (SSC). Considering this gap in the literature, this study adopts the configurational approach to develop a conceptual framework that could configure the components of a SSC. In this respect, a process-oriented approach is utilized to classify and harmonize the design components. A natural-resource-based view (NRBV) is adopted to determine the central theme to align the design components around. The proposed framework presents three types of SSC, namely, efficient SSC, innovative SSC, and reputed SSC. The study culminates with recommendations concerning the direction for future research. PMID:24523652

  8. Sustainable supply chain design: a configurational approach.

    PubMed

    Masoumik, S Maryam; Abdul-Rashid, Salwa Hanim; Olugu, Ezutah Udoncy; Raja Ghazilla, Raja Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Although there are a considerable number of studies on issues relating to sustainable supply chain design (SSCD) in terms of designing the practices, processes, and structures, they have rarely demonstrated how these components can be aligned to form an effective sustainable supply chain (SSC). Considering this gap in the literature, this study adopts the configurational approach to develop a conceptual framework that could configure the components of a SSC. In this respect, a process-oriented approach is utilized to classify and harmonize the design components. A natural-resource-based view (NRBV) is adopted to determine the central theme to align the design components around. The proposed framework presents three types of SSC, namely, efficient SSC, innovative SSC, and reputed SSC. The study culminates with recommendations concerning the direction for future research. PMID:24523652

  9. Women, water supply and sanitation: INSTRAW's training initiatives.

    PubMed

    Tavares, J

    1997-01-01

    The International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW) has worked on women, water supply and sanitation since 1986. The program aims to establish the relationship between women, water supply and sanitation and the promotion of the needs of women and their participation in Water Supply and Sanitation projects. Using a multimedia and modular approach, the training package on Women, Water Supply and Sanitation aims to provide an overview for the different government agencies, engineers, trainers and managers involved in water supply and sanitation projects. The six modules contained in this package include: 1) The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade and beyond; 2) The Participation of Women in planning, Choice of Technology and Implementation of Sustainable Water Supply and Sanitation Projects; 3) Role of Women in Hygiene Education and Training Activities for Water Supply and Sanitation Projects; 4) Involvement of Women in Management of Water resources, Water Supply and Waste Disposal; 5) Women and Waste Management; and 6) Evaluation and Monitoring of Water Supply and Sanitation Programs, Projects and the Role of Women. In addition, each module comprises five components including objective description, detailed bibliography, feedback tools for each modular unit, lesson plan and guides for trainers and users, and audiovisual aids. In the face of water scarcity, INSTRAW highlights the importance of women¿s participation in the sustainable use of water supply.

  10. Perioperative supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Feistritzer, N R; Keck, B R

    2000-09-01

    Faced with declining revenues and increasing operating expenses, hospitals are evaluating numerous mechanisms designed to reduce costs while simultaneously maintaining quality care. Many facilities have targeted initial cost reduction efforts in the reduction of labor expenses. Once labor expenses have been "right sized," facilities have continued to focus on service delivery improvements by the optimization of the "supply chain" process. This report presents a case study of the efforts of Vanderbilt University Medical Center in the redesign of its supply chain management process in the department of Perioperative Services. Utilizing a multidisciplinary project management structure, 3 work teams were established to complete the redesign process. To date, the project has reduced costs by $2.3 million and enhanced quality patient care by enhancing the delivery of appropriate clinical supplies during the perioperative experience.

  11. A tale of integrated regional water supply planning: Meshing socio-economic, policy, governance, and sustainability desires together

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asefa, Tirusew; Adams, Alison; Kajtezovic-Blankenship, Ivana

    2014-11-01

    In 1998, Tampa Bay Water, the largest wholesale water provider in South East USA with over 2.3 million customers, assumed the role of planning, developing, and operating water supply sources from six local water supply utilities through an Interlocal Agreement. Under the agreement, cities and counties served by the agency would have their water supply demands met unequivocally and share the cost of delivery and/or development of new supplies based on their consumption, allowing a more holistic approach to manage resources in the region. Consequently, the agency was able to plan and execute several components of its Long-Term Master Water Plan to meet the region's demand, as well as diversify its sources of water supply. Today, the agency manages a diverse and regionally interconnected water supply system that includes 13 wellfields, two surface water supply sources, off-site reservoir storage, a sea water desalination plant, a surface water treatment plant, and 14 pumping/booster stations. It delivers water through 390 km of large diameter pipe to 19 potable water connections. It uses state-of-the-practice computer tools to manage short and long-term operations and planning. As a result, after the agency's inception, groundwater pumpage was reduced by more than half in less than a decade-by far one of the largest cutback and smaller groundwater utilization rate compared to other utilities in Florida or elsewhere. The region was able to witness a remarkable recovery in lake and wetland water levels through the agency's use of this diverse mix of supply sources. For example, in the last three years, 45-65% of water supply came from groundwater sources, 35-45% from surface water sources and 1-9% from desalinated seawater-very different from 100% groundwater only supply just few years ago. As an "on demand" wholesale water provider, the agency forecasts water supply availability and expected water demands from seasonal to decadal time frames using a suite of

  12. Training of Existing Workers: Issues, Incentives and Models. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawer, Giselle; Jackson, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report, "Training of Existing Workers: Issues, Incentives and Models," (ED495138) and is an added resource for further information. This support document is divided into the following sections: (1) The Retail Industry--A Snapshot; (2) Case Studies--Hardware, Retail Industry…

  13. Indigenous VET Research and Statistics: Terms and Definitions. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    This document covers the data terms used in the "Indigenous Research and Statistics" resources. It covers information contained in the "Apprentices and Trainees June Quarter 2009 report," the "Students and Courses 2009" report and the "Student Outcomes 2009" report and their associated data tables. The primary purpose of this document is to assist…

  14. Coal supply for California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yancik, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The potential sources and qualities of coals available for major utility and industrial consumers in California are examined and analyzed with respect to those factors that would affect the reliability of supplies. Other considerations, such as the requirements and assurances needed by the coal producers to enter into long-term contracts and dedicate large reserves of coal to these contracts are also discussed. Present and potential future mining contraints on coal mine operators are identified and analyzed with respect to their effect on availability of supply.

  15. Biology Curriculum Support Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This biology curriculum supplement includes the North Carolina Standard Course of Study Goals, helpful resources, and suggested activities supported by inquiry-based laboratory activities. Contents include a detailed description of content which provides the goals and standards being sough), a materials list for inquiry support labs and…

  16. SANSMIC design document.

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Paula D.; Rudeen, David Keith

    2015-07-01

    The United States Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) maintains an underground storage system consisting of caverns that were leached or solution mined in four salt domes located near the Gulf of Mexico in Texas and Louisiana. The SPR comprises more than 60 active caverns containing approximately 700 million barrels of crude oil. Sandia National Labo- ratories (SNL) is the geotechnical advisor to the SPR. As the most pressing need at the inception of the SPR was to create and fill storage volume with oil, the decision was made to leach the caverns and fill them simultaneously (leach-fill). Therefore, A.J. Russo developed SANSMIC in the early 1980s which allows for a transient oil-brine interface (OBI) making it possible to model leach-fill and withdrawal operations. As the majority of caverns are currently filled to storage capacity, the primary uses of SANSMIC at this time are related to the effects of small and large withdrawals, expansion of existing caverns, and projecting future pillar to diameter ratios. SANSMIC was identified by SNL as a priority candidate for qualification. This report continues the quality assurance (QA) process by documenting the "as built" mathematical and numerical models that comprise this document. The pro- gram flow is outlined and the models are discussed in detail. Code features that were added later or were not documented previously have been expounded. No changes in the code's physics have occurred since the original documentation (Russo, 1981, 1983) although recent experiments may yield improvements to the temperature and plume methods in the future.

  17. Mediagraphy: Print and Nonprint Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Media and Technology Yearbook, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Lists educational media-related journals, books, ERIC documents, journal articles, and nonprint resources classified by Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, Electronic Performance Support Systems; Computer-Assisted Instruction; Distance Education; Educational Research; Educational Technology; Electronic Publishing; Information Science and…

  18. Content Documents Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, R.; Hochstadt, J.; Boelke J.; Dalton, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Content Documents are created and managed under the System Software group with. Launch Control System (LCS) project. The System Software product group is lead by NASA Engineering Control and Data Systems branch (NEC3) at Kennedy Space Center. The team is working on creating Operating System Images (OSI) for different platforms (i.e. AIX, Linux, Solaris and Windows). Before the OSI can be created, the team must create a Content Document which provides the information of a workstation or server, with the list of all the software that is to be installed on it and also the set where the hardware belongs. This can be for example in the LDS, the ADS or the FR-l. The objective of this project is to create a User Interface Web application that can manage the information of the Content Documents, with all the correct validations and filters for administrator purposes. For this project we used one of the most excellent tools in agile development applications called Ruby on Rails. This tool helps pragmatic programmers develop Web applications with Rails framework and Ruby programming language. It is very amazing to see how a student can learn about OOP features with the Ruby language, manage the user interface with HTML and CSS, create associations and queries with gems, manage databases and run a server with MYSQL, run shell commands with command prompt and create Web frameworks with Rails. All of this in a real world project and in just fifteen weeks!

  19. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  20. Power Supplies for Precooler Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Fuja, Raymond; Praeg, Walter

    1980-12-12

    Eight power supplies will energize the antiproton Precooler ring. there will be two series connected supplies per quadrant. These supplies will power 32 dipole and 19 quadrupole magnets. The resistance and inductance per quadrant is R = 1.4045 Ohms and L = 0.466. Each powr supply will have 12-phase series bridge rectifiers and will be energized from the 480 V 3-phase grid. The total of eight power supplies are numbered IA, IIA, IIIA, IVA, and IB, IIB, IIIB, and IVB. Each quadrant will contain one A and one B supply. A block diagram of the Precooler ring with its power supplies is shown in Figure 1.

  1. Supply chain quality.

    PubMed

    Feary, Simon

    2009-01-01

    As the development of complex manufacturing models and virtual companies become more prevalent in today's growing global markets, it is increasingly important to support the relationships between manufacturer and supplier. Utilising these relationships will ensure that supply chains operate more effectively and reduce costs, risks and time-to-market time frames, whilst maintaining product quality. PMID:20058652

  2. Supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Palevich, R F

    1999-02-01

    This article describes how Do It Best Corp. has used technology to improve its supply chain management. Among other topics it discusses the company's use of electronic data interchange, the Internet, electronic forecasting, and warehouse management systems to gain substantial savings and increase its competitiveness. PMID:10345634

  3. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  4. Lightweight Regulated Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Power-supply circuit regulates output voltage by adjusting frequency of chopper circuit according to variations. Currently installed in battery charger for electric wheelchair, circuit is well suited to other uses in which light weight is important - for example, in portable computers, radios, and test instruments.

  5. Maintenance and supply options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The object of the Maintenance and Supply Option was to develop a high level operational philosophy related to maintenance and supply operations and incorporate these concepts into the Lunar Base Study. Specific products to be generated during this task were three trade studies and a conceptual design of the Logistic Supply Module. The crew size study was performed to evaluate crew sizes from the baseline size of four to a crew size of eight and determine the preferred crew size. The second trade study was to determine the impact of extending surface stay times and recommend a preferred duration of stay time as a function of crew, consumables, and equipment support capabilities. The third trade study was an evaluation of packaging and storage methods to determine the preferred logistics approach to support the lunar base. A modified scenario was developed and served as the basis of the individual trade studies. Assumptions and guidelines were also developed from experience with Apollo programs, Space Shuttle operations, and Space Station studies. With this information, the trade studies were performed and a conceptual design for the Logistic Supply Module was developed.

  6. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren d’Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008–2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  7. 75 FR 26709 - Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA AGENCY... Water Supply Project, Clarke County, Iowa. ] FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Sims, State... comments by NRCS information related to water supply demand requirements for permitting by the State...

  8. 43 CFR 404.3 - What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... financial resources assist rural communities to identify their water supply problems and needs, and evaluate... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.3 What is...

  9. 43 CFR 404.3 - What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... financial resources assist rural communities to identify their water supply problems and needs, and evaluate... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.3 What is...

  10. 7 CFR 612.2 - Snow survey and water supply forecast activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. 612... RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND WATER SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.2 Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. To carry out the...

  11. 7 CFR 612.2 - Snow survey and water supply forecast activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. 612... RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND WATER SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.2 Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. To carry out the...

  12. 7 CFR 612.2 - Snow survey and water supply forecast activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. 612... RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND WATER SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.2 Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. To carry out the...

  13. 7 CFR 612.2 - Snow survey and water supply forecast activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. 612... RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND WATER SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.2 Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. To carry out the...

  14. 7 CFR 612.2 - Snow survey and water supply forecast activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. 612... RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND WATER SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.2 Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. To carry out the...

  15. Proton driver power supply system

    SciTech Connect

    C. Jach and D. Wolff

    2002-06-03

    This paper describes magnet power supply system for a proposed Proton Driver at Fermilab. The magnet power supply system consists of resonant dipole/quadrupole power supply system, quadrupole tracking, dipole correction (horizontal and vertical) and sextupole power supply systems. This paper also describes preliminary design of the power distribution system supplying 13.8 kV power to all proton Driver electrical systems.

  16. Interim report on revising the resource allocation and mine costing model. [By states for 8 sulfur content ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    The purpose of this contract is to provide the Coal and Electric Power Analysis Division, EIA, with a revised and fully documented Resource Allocation and Mine Costing (RAMC) model to be used in developing coal supply curves for use in the Mid-range Energy Forecasting System and the National Coal Model. The project is structured in three phases, as follows: establish conceptual underpinnings of revised supply curve methodology; revise mine costing methodology; and revise resource allocation methodology. The first three tasks in Phase I were to review and critique the current RAMC approach, review and critique the NUS deep mine and the Fluor Utah surface mine costing methodologies, and to propose revisions to the current approach. This Interim Report documents our findings under these three tasks. Our review of the current RAMC concludes that the resource allocation methodology is reasonable; however, the mine costing methodology has a number of deficiencies. Hence, Section 5 presents a number of alternative approaches for implementing an improved costing methodology in the RAMC model. Although the resource allocation approach is reasonable, the data used to drive the model need to be improved. The Appendices discuss a number of these data issues, affecting both mine costing and resource allocation.

  17. [Techniques of iconographic documentation].

    PubMed

    Motta, G; Valentino, G; Di Lorenzo, G

    1996-04-01

    The Authors describe modalities of photography and videorecording that should be used in stapes surgery and report the solutions they adopted to get iconographic documentation of high quality standard. As regards videorecording systems, the authors used both S-VHS and U-Matic equipment; with both types high fidelity shootings are obtained in the active documentation of each phase of the operation. Moreover, U-Matic master copying guarantees a final copy of higher quality. Technical difficulties that the authors met in videorecording are connected to the restricted field of view, limited by the speculum, which may itself cause dazzling phenomena or light refraction. A 2/3 inch CCD Sony camera, with a modified ELC(Electronic Light Control), was used to get round these problems, so as to eliminate the reflection of surgical instruments. In order to build up a photographic archive, it is also possible to get slides from single pictures of the recorded tapes, although their definition quality is lower than the one obtained foff photos; these, however, must be taken with reference to precise optical parameters and in particular: for shooting view pictures low enlargements (1,6x) were used with an intermediate aperture (f44), while, to better visualize details(footplate hole, stapedial tendon), it was considered right to u se restricted frames (2,5x) and a low aperture (f22). Such a technical solution, in fact, gives a better relation between depth of field and brightness. Finally the Authors underline that the constant use of the intraoperative videorecording system allows: greater participation of every member of the team in the operation; a delayed critical revision of th e operation; medico-legal documentation of possible intraoperative complications; iconographic material available both for scientific and didactic purposes.

  18. [Techniques of iconographic documentation].

    PubMed

    Motta, G; Valentino, G; Di Lorenzo, G

    1996-04-01

    The Authors describe modalities of photography and videorecording that should be used in stapes surgery and report the solutions they adopted to get iconographic documentation of high quality standard. As regards videorecording systems, the authors used both S-VHS and U-Matic equipment; with both types high fidelity shootings are obtained in the active documentation of each phase of the operation. Moreover, U-Matic master copying guarantees a final copy of higher quality. Technical difficulties that the authors met in videorecording are connected to the restricted field of view, limited by the speculum, which may itself cause dazzling phenomena or light refraction. A 2/3 inch CCD Sony camera, with a modified ELC(Electronic Light Control), was used to get round these problems, so as to eliminate the reflection of surgical instruments. In order to build up a photographic archive, it is also possible to get slides from single pictures of the recorded tapes, although their definition quality is lower than the one obtained foff photos; these, however, must be taken with reference to precise optical parameters and in particular: for shooting view pictures low enlargements (1,6x) were used with an intermediate aperture (f44), while, to better visualize details(footplate hole, stapedial tendon), it was considered right to u se restricted frames (2,5x) and a low aperture (f22). Such a technical solution, in fact, gives a better relation between depth of field and brightness. Finally the Authors underline that the constant use of the intraoperative videorecording system allows: greater participation of every member of the team in the operation; a delayed critical revision of th e operation; medico-legal documentation of possible intraoperative complications; iconographic material available both for scientific and didactic purposes. PMID:8928672

  19. SSC Safety Review Document

    SciTech Connect

    Toohig, T.E.

    1988-11-01

    The safety strategy of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Central Design Group (CDG) is to mitigate potential hazards to personnel, as far as possible, through appropriate measures in the design and engineering of the facility. The Safety Review Document identifies, on the basis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) and related studies, potential hazards inherent in the SSC project independent of its site. Mitigative measures in the design of facilities and in the structuring of laboratory operations are described for each of the hazards identified.

  20. International Directory of Libraries and Documentation Centres in Terminology = Repertoire international des biblioteques et des centres de documentation en terminologie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousineau, Marie-Josee, Comp.

    Designed to assist terminologists, translators, librarians, and documentalists by promoting resource-sharing, networking, and cooperation in the transfer and dissemination of international terminological data, this directory lists information resources and reference services available from 60 libraries and documentation centers around the world.…

  1. 22 CFR 202.7 - Documentation required for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 202.7 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY... reimbursement of freight charges must be supported by the following documents: (a) Voucher SF 1034. “Public... prepared by the agency requesting reimbursement of freight charges. (b) Bills of lading—(1) To ports...

  2. Interlibrary Loan and Document Delivery in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonk, Sharon

    1990-01-01

    Describes the structure of the interlibrary loan system in the United Kingdom and suggests implications for American libraries. The British Library Document Supply Centre (DSC) is explained; costs to borrowers and lenders are discussed; and strategic planning involving changing technology, politics, and economics is considered. (24 references)…

  3. 48 CFR 32.905 - Payment documentation and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... receiving report or other Government documentation authorizing payment (e.g., Government certified voucher... applicable. (4) Date supplies delivered or services performed. (5) Date that the designated Government... interim payments on cost reimbursement contracts for services): (i) Name and address of the...

  4. Regulatory guidance document

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM`s evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7.

  5. Supply Curves for Solar PV-Generated Electricity for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2008-11-01

    Energy supply curves attempt to estimate the relationship between the cost of an energy resource and the amount of energy available at or below that cost. In general, an energy supply curve is a series of step functions with each step representing a particular group or category of energy resource. The length of the step indicates how much of that resource is deployable or accessible at a given cost. Energy supply curves have been generated for a number of renewable energy sources including biomass fuels and geothermal, as well as conservation technologies. Generating a supply curve for solar photovoltaics (PV) has particular challenges due to the nature of the resource. The United States has a massive solar resource base -- many orders of magnitude greater than the total consumption of energy. In this report, we examine several possible methods for generating PV supply curves based exclusively on rooftop deployment.

  6. Troubled waters: managing our vital resources.

    PubMed

    1999-03-01

    Presented are articles from Global Issues, an electronic journal of the US Information Agency that focuses on managing the water resources of the world. The three main articles are as follows: 1) ¿The Quiet Revolution to Restore Our Aquatic Ecosystems¿, 2) ¿Charting a New Course to Save America's Waters¿, and 3) ¿Freshwater: Will the World's Future Needs be Met?¿ The journal also presents commentaries on the age-old water shortage in the Middle East; solutions to water waste on the farm and in cities; managing water scarcity in the driest region of the US; and a new approach to environmental management in the Bermejo River in Argentina and Bolivia. Furthermore, this issue contains statistics on water usage and supplies and a report that examines proposals for policies that could set the world on a better course for water management. Lastly, this issue provides a bibliography of books, documents, and articles on freshwater issues as well as a list of Internet sites offering further information on water quality, supplies, and conservation. PMID:12290381

  7. High voltage power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruitberg, A. P.; Young, K. M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage power supply is formed by three discrete circuits energized by a battery to provide a plurality of concurrent output signals floating at a high output voltage on the order of several tens of kilovolts. In the first two circuits, the regulator stages are pulse width modulated and include adjustable ressistances for varying the duty cycles of pulse trains provided to corresponding oscillator stages while the third regulator stage includes an adjustable resistance for varying the amplitude of a steady signal provided to a third oscillator stage. In the first circuit, the oscillator, formed by a constant current drive network and a tuned resonant network included a step up transformer, is coupled to a second step up transformer which, in turn, supplies an amplified sinusoidal signal to a parallel pair of complementary poled rectifying, voltage multiplier stages to generate the high output voltage.

  8. Streamlining the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Lydon

    2003-07-01

    Effective management of the supply chain requires attention to: Product management--formulary development and maintenance, compliance, clinical involvement, standardization, and demand-matching. Sourcing and contracting--vendor consolidation, GPO portfolio management, price leveling, content management, and direct contracting Purchasing and payment-cycle--automatic placement, web enablement, centralization, evaluated receipts settlement, and invoice matching Inventory and distribution management--"unofficial" and "official" locations, vendor-managed inventory, automatic replenishment, and freight management.

  9. Streamlining the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Lydon

    2003-07-01

    Effective management of the supply chain requires attention to: Product management--formulary development and maintenance, compliance, clinical involvement, standardization, and demand-matching. Sourcing and contracting--vendor consolidation, GPO portfolio management, price leveling, content management, and direct contracting Purchasing and payment-cycle--automatic placement, web enablement, centralization, evaluated receipts settlement, and invoice matching Inventory and distribution management--"unofficial" and "official" locations, vendor-managed inventory, automatic replenishment, and freight management. PMID:12866156

  10. Recycling Study Guide [Resource Packet].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    This resource packet contains six documents developed by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in order to help teachers infuse the environmental education topics of recycling and solid waste into social studies, art, English, health, mathematics, science, and environmental education classes. "Recycling Study Guide" contains 19 activities…

  11. Resources in Environmental Chemistry: 1. An Annotated Bibliography of the Chemistry of Pollution and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John W.; Moore, Elizabeth A.

    1976-01-01

    References are divided into three areas: general; air; and resources, wastes, and recycling. Includes books, periodicals, abstracts, government documents, experiments, computer models, simulations, and films. (MLH)

  12. Herpes - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... The following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications-herpes The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists -- ...

  13. Resources Description in the Digital Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younger, Jennifer A.

    1997-01-01

    Resource description (cataloging or indexing) is undergoing scrutiny with the growth of and access to digital resources. This article describes the evolving means of making documents and document-like objects bibliographically accessible by the library cataloging community. Discusses metadata elements, library cataloging objectives and record…

  14. Managing Documents in the Wider Area: Intelligent Document Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittleston, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Discusses techniques for managing documents in wide area networks, reviews technique limitations, and offers recommendations to database designers. Presented techniques include: increasing bandwidth, reducing data traffic, synchronizing documentation, partial synchronization, audit trials, navigation, and distribution control and security. Two…

  15. Bird specimens and documentation: critical data for a critical resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, M.S.; Cannell, P.

    1990-01-01

    As governments impose increasingly stringent regulations on the collection of bird specimens and as man alters ever greater areas of habitat with the loss of many of their contained species, museum specimens increase immeasurably in importance. Yet at present, museum collections do not contain an adequate representation of the world's avifauna and, unfortunately, are not likely to do so. Thus, it is imperative that data associated with specimens that are obtained be as complete as possible. To this end, we describe categories of information with wide application to many types of studies, outline character states, and recommend standard forms of data notation. We recognize that under certain circumstances, it may be appropriate to record more limited data. However, we encourage at least those engaged in general collecting to record as many of these standard data as possible.

  16. 18 CFR 707.7 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decisionmaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ensuring that... Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Water Resources Council Implementing Procedures § 707.7 Ensuring that environmental documents...

  17. 30 CFR 874.14 - Water supply restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water supply restoration. 874.14 Section 874.14... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.14 Water supply restoration. (a) Any... 411(a) of SMCRA may expend funds under §§ 872.16, 872.19, 872.23, and 872.31 of this chapter for...

  18. 30 CFR 874.14 - Water supply restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water supply restoration. 874.14 Section 874.14... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.14 Water supply restoration. (a) Any... 411(a) of SMCRA may expend funds under §§ 872.16, 872.19, 872.23, and 872.31 of this chapter for...

  19. Unconventional Energy Resources: 2011 Review

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists

    2011-12-15

    This report contains nine unconventional energy resource commodity summaries prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division (EMD) of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. These resources include coal, coalbed methane, gas hydrates, tight gas sands, gas shale and shale oil, geothermal resources, oil sands, oil shale, and uranium resources. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy commodity in the topical sections of this report. Coal and uranium are expected to supply a significant portion of the world's energy mix in coming years. Coalbed methane continues to supply about 9% of the U.S. gas production and exploration is expanding in other countries. Recently, natural gas produced from shale and low-permeability (tight) sandstone has made a significant contribution to the energy supply of the United States and is an increasing target for exploration around the world. In addition, oil from shale and heavy oil from sandstone are a new exploration focus in many areas (including the Green River area of Wyoming and northern Alberta). In recent years, research in the areas of geothermal energy sources and gas hydrates has continued to advance. Reviews of the current research and the stages of development of these unconventional energy resources are described in the various sections of this report.

  20. Westinghouse programs in pulsed homopolar power supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litz, D. C.; Mullan, E.

    1984-01-01

    This document details Westinghouse's ongoing study of homopolar machines since 1929 with the major effort occurring in the early 1970's to the present. The effort has enabled Westinghouse to develop expertise in the technology required for the design, fabrication and testing of such machines. This includes electrical design, electromagnetic analysis, current collection, mechanical design, advanced cooling, stress analysis, transient rotor performance, bearing analysis and seal technology. Westinghouse is using this capability to explore the use of homopolar machines as pulsed power supplies for future systems in both military and commercial applications.

  1. Computerized documentation in home health.

    PubMed

    Noone, C; Cavanaugh, J; McKillip, C

    1995-01-01

    Computerized documentation in community health nursing is only now receiving the attention it deserves. The authors explain one agency's experience with adapting a computerized clinical documentation system to visiting nurses' needs and the nurses' responses to the process.

  2. Residential Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.

  3. Water resources and the urban environment

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, E.D.

    1998-07-01

    140 abstracts from the conference cover topics such as urban stormwater management; geographic information systems, hydrologic and hydraulic computer modeling; groundwater analysis and management; drinking water supply and quality; and international water resources issues.

  4. Food and water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  5. DOCUMENT: an interactive, online solution to four documentation problems

    SciTech Connect

    Girill, T.R.; Luk, C.H.

    1983-05-01

    An adequate delivery system for user documentation addresses the problems of easy access, versatile publication, convenient administration, and good document quality. At the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center the DOCUMENT program helps solve these problems by providing a high level of service through strategies that can readily be exported to other contexts. Dividing machine-readable documents into keyword windows permits fully online, subject-oriented access to all passages. An adaptive, three-tier user interface extends flexible viewing control to novices and experts alike. DOCUMENT also supports online subject, title, and date catalogs, and provides on-demand output of hard-copy and microfiche. Several other document delivery systems are compared with DOCUMENT, and all have more rigid human interfaces, more structural display units for text, or more cumbersome output options.

  6. The Practicalities of Document Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Ian

    1993-01-01

    Describes steps involved in the conversion of source documents to scanned digital image format. Topics addressed include document preparation, including photographs and oversized material; indexing procedures, including automatic indexing possibilities; scanning documents, including resolution and throughput; quality control; backfile conversion;…

  7. Software design and documentation language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleine, H.

    1977-01-01

    A communications medium to support the design and documentation of complex software applications is studied. The medium also provides the following: (1) a processor which can convert design specifications into an intelligible, informative machine reproducible document; (2) a design and documentation language with forms and syntax that are simple, unrestrictive, and communicative; and (3) methodology for effective use of the language and processor.

  8. TREC Document Database: Disk 4

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST TREC Document Database: Disk 4 (PC database for purchase)   NIST TREC Document Databases (Special Database 22) are distributed for the development and testing of information retrieval (IR) systems and related natural language processing research. The document collections consist of the full text of various newspaper and newswire articles plus government proceedings.

  9. TREC Document Database: Disk 5

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST TREC Document Database: Disk 5 (PC database for purchase)   NIST TREC Document Databases (Special Database 23) are distributed for the development and testing of information retrieval (IR) systems and related natural language processing research. The document collections consist of the full text of various newspaper and newswire articles plus government proceedings.

  10. Language Documentation in the Americas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franchetto, Bruna; Rice, Keren

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, the documentation of endangered languages has advanced greatly in the Americas. In this paper we survey the role that international funding programs have played in advancing documentation in this part of the world, with a particular focus on the growth of documentation in Brazil, and we examine some of the major opportunities…

  11. Tool Gear Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    May, J; Gyllenhaal, J

    2002-04-03

    Tool Gear is designed to allow tool developers to insert instrumentation code into target programs using the DPCL library. This code can gather data and send it back to the Client for display or analysis. Tools can use the Tool Gear client without using the DPCL Collector. Any collector using the right protocols can send data to the Client for display and analysis. However, this document will focus on how to gather data with the DPCL Collector. There are three parts to the task of using Tool Gear to gather data through DPCL: (1) Write the instrumentation code that will be loaded and run in the target program. The code should be in the form of one or more functions, which can pass data structures back to the Client by way of DPCL. The collections of functions is compiled into a library, as described in this report. (2) Write the code that tells the DPCL Collector about the instrumentation and how to forward data back to the Client. (3) Extend the client to accept data from the Collector and display it in a useful way. The rest of this report describes how to carry out each of these steps.

  12. 78 FR 59706 - Secure Supply Chain Pilot Program; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Secure Supply Chain Pilot Program; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is correcting a document that appeared in the Federal Register of August 20, 2013 (78 FR...

  13. Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project: water-resources activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.; Heiny, Janet S.

    1998-01-01

    Infrastructure, such as roads, buildings, airports, and dams, is built and maintained by use of large quantities of natural resources such as aggregate (sand and gravel), energy, and water. As urban area expand, local sources of these resource are becoming inaccessible (gravel cannot be mined from under a subdivision, for example), or the cost of recovery of the resource becomes prohibitive (oil and gas drilling in urban areas is costly), or the resources may become unfit for some use (pollution of ground water may preclude its use as a water supply). Governmental land-use decision and environmental mandates can further preclude development of natural resources. If infrastructure resources are to remain economically available. current resource information must be available for use in well-reasoned decisions bout future land use. Ground water is an infrastructure resource that is present in shallow aquifers and deeper bedrock aquifers that underlie much of the 2,450-square-mile demonstration area of the Colorado Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project. In 1996, mapping of the area's ground-water resources was undertaken as a U.S. Geological Survey project in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, and the Colorado Water Conservation Board.

  14. Energy and other non-renewable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Anticipated U.S. demands for non-renewable energy and mineral resources exceed domestic supplies essential for economic growth. For the long term changes necessary in the energy supply and demand gap, new technologies and substitute materials as well as legislation and socio-economic strategies are elaborated.

  15. Quality tracing in meat supply chains

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Miriam; Dittmer, Patrick; Veigt, Marius; Kus, Mehmet; Nehmiz, Ulfert; Kreyenschmidt, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the development of a quality tracing model for vacuum-packed lamb that is applicable in different meat supply chains. Based on the development of relevant sensory parameters, the predictive model was developed by combining a linear primary model and the Arrhenius model as the secondary model. Then a process analysis was conducted to define general requirements for the implementation of the temperature-based model into a meat supply chain. The required hardware and software for continuous temperature monitoring were developed in order to use the model under practical conditions. Further on a decision support tool was elaborated in order to use the model as an effective tool in combination with the temperature monitoring equipment for the improvement of quality and storage management within the meat logistics network. Over the long term, this overall procedure will support the reduction of food waste and will improve the resources efficiency of food production. PMID:24797136

  16. Quality tracing in meat supply chains.

    PubMed

    Mack, Miriam; Dittmer, Patrick; Veigt, Marius; Kus, Mehmet; Nehmiz, Ulfert; Kreyenschmidt, Judith

    2014-06-13

    The aim of this study was the development of a quality tracing model for vacuum-packed lamb that is applicable in different meat supply chains. Based on the development of relevant sensory parameters, the predictive model was developed by combining a linear primary model and the Arrhenius model as the secondary model. Then a process analysis was conducted to define general requirements for the implementation of the temperature-based model into a meat supply chain. The required hardware and software for continuous temperature monitoring were developed in order to use the model under practical conditions. Further on a decision support tool was elaborated in order to use the model as an effective tool in combination with the temperature monitoring equipment for the improvement of quality and storage management within the meat logistics network. Over the long term, this overall procedure will support the reduction of food waste and will improve the resources efficiency of food production.

  17. Screwworm Eradication Data System (SEDS) preprocessor program documentation, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    To achieve the capability required by the Screwworm Eradication Data System (SEDS) and to process the 14-track analog tapes supplied by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the existing Earth Resources Preprocessor Software Subsystem (ERPSS) was enhanced. A brief overview of the ERPSS is given along with descriptions of only those computer program components that were modified to meet the SEDS requirements.

  18. Oil supply: the outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Velocci, T.

    1982-07-01

    The post oil-glut world will leave OPEC still in control of world production levels and prices. Some estimates show US imports rising as much as 35% to 4.3 million barrels a day as the recession ends, but others think the direct coupling of energy demand and economic growth has ended. The potential for a substantial comeback in energy-intensive industries and a replacement of business inventories could lead to a surge in demand. The current increase in gasoline demand is seasonal, and reflects an effort to replenish oil inventories. Industry spokesmen credit high prices for the moderating effect on demand. US investment in oil exploration will rise only 14% to $95.3 billion after a 39% increase in 1980 because of stable oil prices. Offshore and Alaskan exploration have a high, but expensive, potential for reducing future imports. US dependence has dropped from 48% to 30% of total supply since 1977 because of exploration efforts and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Any future supply crisis will depend on Middle East politics, a break in the price and production swings, and OPEC manipulation of the market. (DCK)

  19. Future natural gas supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despite recent optimism about the outlook for the future supply of domestic conventional natural gas, the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) finds insufficient evidence to clearly justify either an optimistic or a pessimistic view. In a technical memorandum entitled “U.S. Natural Gas Availability: Conventional Gas Supply Through the Year 2000,” released recently by Rep. Philip R. Sharp (D-Ind,), chairman of the Subcommittee on Fossil and Synthetic Fuels of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, OTA concluded that substantial technical uncertainties prevented a reliable estimation of the likely natural gas production rates for later in this century. Even ignoring the potential for significant changes in gas prices and technology, OTA estimated that conventional gas production by the lower 48 states in the year 2000 could range from 9 to 19 trillion cubic feet (TCF) (0.25 to 0.53 trillion cubic meters), compared to 1982 production of 17.5 TCF. Similarly, production in the year 1990 could range from 13 to 20 TCF.

  20. Exploring the undulating plateau: the future of global oil supply.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Peter M; Smith, Leta K

    2014-01-13

    In this paper, we analyse the factors that will influence long-term oil supply and describe the future form of the global oil supply profile as an 'undulating plateau' rather than an irreversible, short-term peak or an ever upward trend of increasing production. The ultimate transition from a world of relatively plentiful and cheap oil to one of tight supply and high cost will be slow and challenging. An understanding of the signposts for the future path of supply and the drivers of that profile will be critical to managing the transition. The ultimate form of the global supply curve may well be dictated by demand evolution rather than a limited resource endowment in the longer term. Several factors will probably control future global oil supply. We believe that the scale of global oil resource will not constitute a physical supply limit for at least the next two or three decades. However, all categories of oil resources are already more expensive to develop than in the past, requiring high oil prices to stimulate supply growth. Lower rates of oil demand growth relative to economic growth, combined with more challenging supply growth, will probably lead to an undulating plateau sometime after 2040, with demand from non-Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development states continuing to dominate. Upstream investment requirements and oil price volatility will increase towards and beyond the undulating production plateau. In this new world, high oil prices will induce demand destruction, fuel substitution and ever increasing energy efficiency. As we discuss below, the fundamental differences between the IHS Cambridge Energy Research Associates' (IHS CERA) view of the future of oil supply and many peak oil supply models are the timing of the onset of a dramatic slowdown in the rate of growth of supply and the existence or otherwise of a production plateau. We do not dispute that supply will plateau and eventually fall; the question is when, how and at what price

  1. Sociocultural and institutional drivers and constraints to mineral supply; the meaning of scarcity in the 21st century: drivers and constraints to the supply of minerals using regional, national and global perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, William M.

    2002-01-01

    The sociocultural dimensions of mineral supply at the outset of the 21st century are making the supply process increasingly complex. The dimensions encompass legal, financial, environmental, cultural, and global implications of mining, and are driving unprecedented change in the way minerals supply will be accomplished in the future. Minerals scarcity on a global scale is subordinate to other societal issues about mineral resources and reserves estimated to meet society's demands for decades to centuries in the future. This report reviews historical and present-day sociocultural drivers of change, and reactions of the minerals industry to these drivers. It is reflective primarily of conditions in the United States, but also uses examples from other countries. It expresses viewpoints on sociocultural drivers as seen by constituents of the minerals industry and several other communities of interest including Aboriginal peoples, non-government organizations; labor; mining-dependent communities; mining-affected communities; researchers; and government (federal, state/provincial, and local). It provides overviews of the demand for minerals in the United States, and the status of land available for mining. The report uses a case study of a metals mining project in Wisconsin to illustrate specific sociocultural drivers and constraints to minerals supply, and how these influence the minerals industry. Over the past 150 years, a progression of sociocultural movements under the headings of conservationism, environmentalism, and sustainable development have nurtured societal values that have come to influence the mineral supply process in important ways. These movements reflect a continuing tension between the demand for minerals and other resources, and the simultaneous demand for aesthetic, spiritual, ecological, cultural, and other attributes of the land. The tension is an important element in current international debates about the meaning and future of sustainable

  2. Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauchenschwandtner, H.; Pachel, M.

    2012-04-01

    Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply Within the project CC-WaterS the participating researchers of the Vienna University of Economics and B.A. have been responsible for the analysis of the socioeconomic aspects related to water supply and climate change, the assessment of future water demands in the City of Vienna, as well as an estimation of economic consequences of possible water shortages and possible scope for the introduction of new legal guidelines. The institutional and socioeconomic dimensions of drinking water and sanitation systems are being examined by utilisation of different prognostic scenarios in order to assess future costs of water provisioning and future demands of main water users, thus providing an information basis and recommendations for policy and decision makers in the water sector. These dimensions, for example, include EU legislation - especially the Water Framework Directive -, national legislations and strategies targeted at achieving sustainability in water usage, best practices and different forms of regulating water markets, and an analysis of the implications of demographic change. As a basis this task encompasses research of given institutional, social, and legal-political structures in the area of water supply. In this course we provide an analysis of the structural characteristics of water markets, the role of water prices, the increasing perception of water as an economic good as well as implications thereof, the public awareness in regard to climate change and water resources, as well as related legal aspects and involved actors from regional to international level; and show how water resources and the different systems of water provisioning are affected by (ideological) conflicts on various levels. Furthermore, and in order to provide a solid basis for management recommendations related to climate change and water supply, an analytical risk-assessment framework based on the concepts of new institutional

  3. COG Software Architecture Design Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, R M; Lent, E M

    2009-09-21

    This COG Software Architecture Design Description Document describes the organization and functionality of the COG Multiparticle Monte Carlo Transport Code for radiation shielding and criticality calculations, at a level of detail suitable for guiding a new code developer in the maintenance and enhancement of COG. The intended audience also includes managers and scientists and engineers who wish to have a general knowledge of how the code works. This Document is not intended for end-users. This document covers the software implemented in the standard COG Version 10, as released through RSICC and IAEA. Software resources provided by other institutions will not be covered. This document presents the routines grouped by modules and in the order of the three processing phases. Some routines are used in multiple phases. The routine description is presented once - the first time the routine is referenced. Since this is presented at the level of detail for guiding a new code developer, only the routines invoked by another routine that are significant for the processing phase that is being detailed are presented. An index to all routines detailed is included. Tables for the primary data structures are also presented.

  4. Public water supplies in western Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broadhurst, W.L.; Sundstrom, R.W.; Weaver, D.E.

    1951-01-01

    This report gives a summarized description of the public water supplies in a region comprising 81 counties of western Texas and lying generally west of the hundredth meridian. It is the fourth and last of this series of reports concerning the public water supplies of the State. It gives the available data for each of 142 communities, as follows: The population of the community; the name of the official from whom the information was obtained; the ownership of the waterworks, whether private or municipal; the source of supply, whether ground water or surface water; the amount of water consumed; the facilities for storage; the number of customers served; the character of the chemical and sanitary treatment of the water, if any; and the chemical analyses of the water. Where ground water is used the following also are given. Records of wells, including drillers' logs; character of the pumping equipment; and yield of the wells and water-level records where they are available. Of the 142 public supplies, 133 are obtained from ground water, 5 from surface water, and 4 from a combination of both. The total amount of water . used for public supply in the region averages about 78,000,000 gallons a day. Of this about 61,000,000 gallons a day is ground water and about 17,000,000 gallons a day is surface water. The ground-water resources of the region from which public water supplies are drawn are in rocks that range in age from Permian to Quaternary. The Ogallala formation of Tertiary age (Pliocene), which covers about 35,000 square miles of the High Plains in Texas, is the most important ground-water reservoir in the region. The formation furnishes water for 78 public supplies and for irrigating about 1,000,000 acres of land. The amount of water used for irrigating amounted to about 1,000,000 acre-feet in 1948. The Trinity and Fredericksburg groups of Lower Cretaceous age supply ground water in the western part of the Edwards Plateau, which constitutes an area of more than 22

  5. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

  6. Optimization and resilience of complex supply-demand networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Si-Ping; Huang, Zi-Gang; Dong, Jia-Qi; Eisenberg, Daniel; Seager, Thomas P.; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Supply-demand processes take place on a large variety of real-world networked systems ranging from power grids and the internet to social networking and urban systems. In a modern infrastructure, supply-demand systems are constantly expanding, leading to constant increase in load requirement for resources and consequently, to problems such as low efficiency, resource scarcity, and partial system failures. Under certain conditions global catastrophe on the scale of the whole system can occur through the dynamical process of cascading failures. We investigate optimization and resilience of time-varying supply-demand systems by constructing network models of such systems, where resources are transported from the supplier sites to users through various links. Here by optimization we mean minimization of the maximum load on links, and system resilience can be characterized using the cascading failure size of users who fail to connect with suppliers. We consider two representative classes of supply schemes: load driven supply and fix fraction supply. Our findings are: (1) optimized systems are more robust since relatively smaller cascading failures occur when triggered by external perturbation to the links; (2) a large fraction of links can be free of load if resources are directed to transport through the shortest paths; (3) redundant links in the performance of the system can help to reroute the traffic but may undesirably transmit and enlarge the failure size of the system; (4) the patterns of cascading failures depend strongly upon the capacity of links; (5) the specific location of the trigger determines the specific route of cascading failure, but has little effect on the final cascading size; (6) system expansion typically reduces the efficiency; and (7) when the locations of the suppliers are optimized over a long expanding period, fewer suppliers are required. These results hold for heterogeneous networks in general, providing insights into designing optimal and

  7. Updated United Nations Framework Classification for reserves and resources of extractive industries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Blaise, J.R.; Blystad, P.; Kelter, D.; Gabrielyants, G.; Heiberg, S.; Martinez, A.; Ross, J.G.; Slavov, S.; Subelj, A.; Young, E.D.

    2004-01-01

    The United Nations have studied how the oil and gas resource classification developed jointly by the SPE, the World Petroleum Congress (WPC) and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) could be harmonized with the United Nations Framework Classification (UNFC) for Solid Fuel and Mineral Resources (1). The United Nations has continued to build on this and other works, with support from many relevant international organizations, with the objective of updating the UNFC to apply to the extractive industries. The result is the United Nations Framework Classification for Energy and Mineral Resources (2) that this paper will present. Reserves and resources are categorized with respect to three sets of criteria: ??? Economic and commercial viability ??? Field project status and feasibility ??? The level of geologic knowledge The field project status criteria are readily recognized as the ones highlighted in the SPE/WPC/AAPG classification system of 2000. The geologic criteria absorb the rich traditions that form the primary basis for the Russian classification system, and the ones used to delimit, in part, proved reserves. Economic and commercial criteria facilitate the use of the classification in general, and reflect the commercial considerations used to delimit proved reserves in particular. The classification system will help to develop a common understanding of reserves and resources for all the extractive industries and will assist: ??? International and national resources management to secure supplies; ??? Industries' management of business processes to achieve efficiency in exploration and production; and ??? An appropriate basis for documenting the value of reserves and resources in financial statements.

  8. Documents from malicious terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, Istvan Z.; Vajda, Istvan

    2003-04-01

    The user wishes to communicate with a remote partner over an insecure network. Since the user is a human being, a terminal is needed for communication. Cryptographic algorithms running on the terminal may provide authenticity for the user's messages. In this paper the problem of sending authentic messages from insecure or untrusted terminals is analyzed. In this case attackers are able to gain total control over the terminal, so the user must consider the terminal a potential attacker. Smart cards are often considered the ultimate tool for secure messaging from untrusted terminals. However, their lack of user interface enables man-in-the middle attack from the terminal. The authors assume, that user is a human being with limited memory and computational power, and also makes mistakes in his calculations. They demnostrate, that only exceptional useres are able to authenticate messages without a trusted device. Several biometric media encapsulate the content of the message and the identity of the sender, such as speech, video and handwriting. The authors suggest, that such media is far more difficult to counterfeit than plaintext. Thus, the user must rely on his other resources, like biometric ones. In the protocol proposed by the authors, the user sends messages in a biometric format, strengthened by simple algorithmic authenticators. The smart card functions as a secure time gate ensuring, that the attacker has extremely little time to counterfeit both the biometric and the algorithmic protection on the message. The authors claim, that with the proper calibration of the biometric method and the time gate of the smart card, their protocol is strong enough for practical use.

  9. 30 CFR 402.6 - Water-Resources Research Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hydrologic cycle; (2) Supply and demand for water; (3) Demineralization of saline and other impaired waters... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water-Resources Research Program. 402.6 Section 402.6 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH...

  10. 30 CFR 402.6 - Water-Resources Research Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hydrologic cycle; (2) Supply and demand for water; (3) Demineralization of saline and other impaired waters... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water-Resources Research Program. 402.6 Section 402.6 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH...

  11. 30 CFR 402.6 - Water-Resources Research Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hydrologic cycle; (2) Supply and demand for water; (3) Demineralization of saline and other impaired waters... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water-Resources Research Program. 402.6 Section 402.6 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH...

  12. 30 CFR 402.6 - Water-Resources Research Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hydrologic cycle; (2) Supply and demand for water; (3) Demineralization of saline and other impaired waters... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water-Resources Research Program. 402.6 Section 402.6 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH...

  13. Interpreting dynamics of aquatic resources: A perspective for resource managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Gary L.

    1980-03-01

    Since the presentation of the Leopold Report (Leopold et al. 1963) to the United States Secretary of the Interior, recommendations in the document for managing natural park resources on the ecosystem level have been included in the management policies of the National Park Service. In many instances, however, management programs have continued to focus on individual resource problems, without apparent concern for the ecological consequences on ecosystems. Without knowledge of the interrelationships of ecosystem components, solving one problem may result in other resource problems. Graphic approaches are presented as potential tools to view these complex interrelationships relative to the needs of the resource manager. Interpreting the dynamics of aquatic systems is emphasized.

  14. Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

  15. Switching power supply

    DOEpatents

    Mihalka, A.M.

    1984-06-05

    The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

  16. Power Supply Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Cuk DC to DC Switching Converter was developed by Caltech Professors, Slobodan Cuk and R. D. Middlebrook. The converter changes unsuitable dc voltage into one or more voltages suitable for powering electronic equipment; it can also be used in converting dc current to ac and vice versa. It was named one of the 100 most significant technical advances of 1979. The Cuk converter is more efficient than previous conversion devices, simpler, smaller, lighter, cheaper and highly reliable. The first application of the technology is in the Compucorp 685 word/data processor, manufactured by Compucorp. NASA waived title rights; Caltech granted exclusive license to the inventors, who in turn, transferred their rights to a company they founded called TESLA Company, which sublicenses the converter design and related technology to companies making power supplies for use in their own products.

  17. NNSA TRITIUM SUPPLY CHAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrick, Steven; Cordaro, Joseph; Founds, Nanette; Chambellan, Curtis

    2013-08-21

    Savannah River Site plays a critical role in the Tritium Production Supply Chain for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The entire process includes: • Production of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) at the Westinghouse WesDyne Nuclear Fuels Plant in Columbia, South Carolina • Production of unobligated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) at the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) in Portsmouth, Ohio • Irradiation of TPBARs with the LEU at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Watts Bar Reactor • Extraction of tritium from the irradiated TPBARs at the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) at Savannah River Site • Processing the tritium at the Savannah River Site, which includes removal of nonhydrogen species and separation of the hydrogen isotopes of protium, deuterium and tritium.

  18. Petroleum engineering manpower supply

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfman, M.

    1982-09-01

    The supply of Petroleum Engineers within the U.S. has shown an exponential growth during the last decade due to increases in the price of petroleum and concommitant demand for engineers in the petroleum industry at all levels of activity. Schools currently have very large enrollments; many lack sufficient faculty and facilities to adequately handle the large loads. Recent uncertainty in long range forecasting of petroleum demand, coupled with uncertainty in the price of oil due to turmoil in the Middle East and the discovery of additional large reserves of petroleum as a result of increased drilling, has led to a decline of approximately 25% in the price of crude oil on the spot market and subsequent reductions in drilling in 1982 from a high of 4,500 rigs in the U.S. to 2528 rigs by August 31, 1982; a reduction of 44% this year. This reduction in activity will be reflected in reduced job opportunities for many new graduates in December 1982 and in 1983, and the ''pipelines'' within the schools are filled with students in expectation of good jobs in the private sector of the economy. Since Petroleum Engineering departments maintain a close tie with industry, it is essential that some balance be maintained between supply and demand, so as to try to prevent a glut of engineers descending upon the market. Steps are underway at many schools. to reduce enrollments by a variety of methods at the present time. An upturn in demand in petroleum prices may serve to mitigate the problem within the next two years, but a long-range interchange between industrial hiring forecasts and universities is essential in planning for the future.

  19. Robust document image binarization technique for degraded document images.

    PubMed

    Su, Bolan; Lu, Shijian; Tan, Chew Lim

    2013-04-01

    Segmentation of text from badly degraded document images is a very challenging task due to the high inter/intra-variation between the document background and the foreground text of different document images. In this paper, we propose a novel document image binarization technique that addresses these issues by using adaptive image contrast. The adaptive image contrast is a combination of the local image contrast and the local image gradient that is tolerant to text and background variation caused by different types of document degradations. In the proposed technique, an adaptive contrast map is first constructed for an input degraded document image. The contrast map is then binarized and combined with Canny's edge map to identify the text stroke edge pixels. The document text is further segmented by a local threshold that is estimated based on the intensities of detected text stroke edge pixels within a local window. The proposed method is simple, robust, and involves minimum parameter tuning. It has been tested on three public datasets that are used in the recent document image binarization contest (DIBCO) 2009 & 2011 and handwritten-DIBCO 2010 and achieves accuracies of 93.5%, 87.8%, and 92.03%, respectively, that are significantly higher than or close to that of the best-performing methods reported in the three contests. Experiments on the Bickley diary dataset that consists of several challenging bad quality document images also show the superior performance of our proposed method, compared with other techniques. PMID:23221822

  20. 32 CFR 701.102 - Online resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Online resources. 701.102 Section 701.102... THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.102 Online resources. (a) Navy PA... Web site (http://www.defenselink.mil/privacy). This Web site is an excellent resource that contains...

  1. 32 CFR 701.102 - Online resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Online resources. 701.102 Section 701.102... THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.102 Online resources. (a) Navy PA... Web site (http://www.defenselink.mil/privacy). This Web site is an excellent resource that contains...

  2. 32 CFR 701.102 - Online resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Online resources. 701.102 Section 701.102... THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.102 Online resources. (a) Navy PA... Web site (http://www.defenselink.mil/privacy). This Web site is an excellent resource that contains...

  3. 32 CFR 701.102 - Online resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Online resources. 701.102 Section 701.102... THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.102 Online resources. (a) Navy PA... Web site (http://www.defenselink.mil/privacy). This Web site is an excellent resource that contains...

  4. 32 CFR 701.102 - Online resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Online resources. 701.102 Section 701.102... THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.102 Online resources. (a) Navy PA... Web site (http://www.defenselink.mil/privacy). This Web site is an excellent resource that contains...

  5. Consolidated Development Objectives Document (CDOD) For MB-60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, William D.

    2013-01-01

    This document defines the objectives related to liquid rocket engine system development to be undertaken by JAXA in support of the Space Launch System (SLS) Program managed out of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). These objectives include furnishing the necessary management, labor, facilities, tools, equipment, and materials required to execute the specified activities. 1.1 Project Scope: The scope of this effort is to develop a rocket engine and associated products per the objectives and technical requirements established in this document. This engine, minus the engine controller, designated here as MB ]60, is to be developed through to a prequalification point of maturity. It is assumed that should JCNE ]1 development proceed beyond this maturity point towards actual flight qualification, the engine controller will be supplied and integrated by NASA. 1.2 Document Structure: The structure of this Consolidated Development Objectives Document (CDOD) includes a traditional description of objectives in a SOO, plus the associated Data Products Document (DPD) in an attached appendix, and then Engine Requirements Document (ERD) as another attached appendix. It is the intent that this document, in conjunction with the cited applicable documents, should constitute a complete programmatic and technical description of the development effort to be pursued.

  6. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program—Mineral resource science supporting informed decisionmaking

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkins, Aleeza M.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2016-09-19

    The USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP) delivers unbiased science and information to increase understanding of mineral resource potential, production, and consumption, and how mineral resources interact with the environment. The MRP is the Federal Government’s sole source for this mineral resource science and information. Program goals are to (1) increase understanding of mineral resource formation, (2) provide mineral resource inventories and assessments, (3) broaden knowledge of the effects of mineral resources on the environment and society, and (4) provide analysis on the availability and reliability of mineral supplies.

  7. Information systems on human resources for health: a global review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although attainment of the health-related Millennium Development Goals relies on countries having adequate numbers of human resources for health (HRH) and their appropriate distribution, global understanding of the systems used to generate information for monitoring HRH stock and flows, known as human resources information systems (HRIS), is minimal. While HRIS are increasingly recognized as integral to health system performance assessment, baseline information regarding their scope and capability around the world has been limited. We conducted a review of the available literature on HRIS implementation processes in order to draw this baseline. Methods Our systematic search initially retrieved 11 923 articles in four languages published in peer-reviewed and grey literature. Following the selection of those articles which detailed HRIS implementation processes, reviews of their contents were conducted using two-person teams, each assigned to a national system. A data abstraction tool was developed and used to facilitate objective assessment. Results Ninety-five articles with relevant HRIS information were reviewed, mostly from the grey literature, which comprised 84 % of all documents. The articles represented 63 national HRIS and two regionally integrated systems. Whereas a high percentage of countries reported the capability to generate workforce supply and deployment data, few systems were documented as being used for HRH planning and decision-making. Of the systems examined, only 23 % explicitly stated they collect data on workforce attrition. The majority of countries experiencing crisis levels of HRH shortages (56 %) did not report data on health worker qualifications or professional credentialing as part of their HRIS. Conclusion Although HRIS are critical for evidence-based human resource policy and practice, there is a dearth of information about these systems, including their current capabilities. The absence of standardized HRIS profiles

  8. Earth Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Tom

    1970-01-01

    Reviews some of the more concerted, large-scale efforts in the earth resources areas" in order to help the computer community obtain insights into the activities it can jointly particpate in withthe earth resources community." (Author)

  9. Incontinence - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - incontinence ... The following organizations are good resources for information on incontinence. Fecal incontinence : The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists -- www.acog.org/~/media/for%20patients/faq139.ashx ...

  10. Scleroderma - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - scleroderma ... The following organizations are good resources for information on scleroderma : American College of Rheumatology -- www.rheumatology.org/practice/clinical/patients/diseases_and_conditions/scleroderma.asp National Institute ...

  11. Epilepsy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - epilepsy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on epilepsy : Epilepsy Foundation -- www.efa.org National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/ ...

  12. Cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org Cancer Care -- www.cancercare.org National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov

  13. Breastfeeding - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - breastfeeding ... The following organizations are good resources for information on breastfeeding and breastfeeding problems : La Leche League International Inc. -- www.lalecheleague.org March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  14. Alzheimer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - Alzheimer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Alzheimer disease : Alzheimer's Association -- www.alz.org Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center -- www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers ...

  15. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  16. Scoliosis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - scoliosis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on scoliosis : American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00626 National Institute of Arthritis and ...

  17. Lupus - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - lupus ... The following organizations are good resources for information on systemic lupus erythematosus : The Lupus Foundation of America -- www.lupus.org The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal ...

  18. SIDS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - SIDS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on SIDS : American SIDS Institute -- www.sids.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/sids National ...

  19. Migraine - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - migraine ... The following organizations are good resources for information on migraines : American Migraine Foundation -- www.americanmigrainefoundation.org National Headache Foundation -- www.headaches.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  20. Blindness - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - blindness ... The following organizations are good resources for information on blindness : American Foundation for the Blind -- www.afb.org Foundation Fighting Blindness -- www.blindness.org National Eye Institute -- ...

  1. Psoriasis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - psoriasis ... The following organizations are good resources for information about psoriasis : American Academy of Dermatology -- www.aad.org/skin-conditions/dermatology-a-to-z/psoriasis National Institute of ...

  2. Infertility - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - infertility ... The following organizations are good resources for information on infertility : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc/gov/reproductivehealth/infertility March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  3. ALS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Registry -- ...

  4. Ostomy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ostomy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on ostomies: American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons -- www.fascrs.org/patients/treatments-screening and www.fascrs.org/ ...

  5. WEBCAP: Web Scheduler for Distance Learning Multimedia Documents with Web Workload Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habib, Sami; Safar, Maytham

    2008-01-01

    In many web applications, such as the distance learning, the frequency of refreshing multimedia web documents places a heavy burden on the WWW resources. Moreover, the updated web documents may encounter inordinate delays, which make it difficult to retrieve web documents in time. Here, we present an Internet tool called WEBCAP that can schedule…

  6. Imaged document information location and extraction using an optical correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalcup, Bruce W.; Dennis, Phillip W.; Dydyk, Robert B.

    1999-12-01

    Today, the paper document is fast becoming a thing of the past. With the rapid development of fast, inexpensive computing and storage devices, many government and private organizations are archiving their documents in electronic form (e.g., personnel records, medical records, patents, etc.). Many of these organizations are converting their paper archives to electronic images, which are then stored in a computer database. Because of this, there is a need to efficiently organize this data into comprehensive and accessible information resources and provide for rapid access to the information contained within these imaged documents. To meet this need, Litton PRC and Litton Data Systems Division are developing a system, the Imaged Document Optical Correlation and Conversion System (IDOCCS), to provide a total solution to the problem of managing and retrieving textual and graphic information from imaged document archives. At the heart of IDOCCS, optical correlation technology provide a means for the search and retrieval of information from imaged documents. IDOCCS can be used to rapidly search for key words or phrases within the imaged document archives and has the potential to determine the types of languages contained within a document. In addition, IDOCCS can automatically compare an input document with the archived database to determine if it is a duplicate, thereby reducing the overall resources required to maintain and access the document database. Embedded graphics on imaged pages can also be exploited, e.g., imaged documents containing an agency's seal or logo can be singled out. In this paper, we present a description of IDOCCS as well as preliminary performance results and theoretical projections.

  7. Contaminant transport pathways between urban sewer networks and water supply wells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water supply wells and sanitary sewers are critical components of urban infrastructure, but sewer leakage threatens the quality of groundwater in sewered areas. Previous work by our group has documented the presence of human enteric viruses in deep public supply wells. Our current research uses such...

  8. Developing sustainable food supply chains.

    PubMed

    Smith, B Gail

    2008-02-27

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into social and environmental performance within their own supply chains. Interpersonal trust and working to standards are both important to build more sustainable local and many conserved food supply chains, but inadequate to transform mainstream agriculture and raw material supplies to the manufactured and commodity food markets. Cooperation among food manufacturers, retailers, NGOs, governmental and farmers' organizations is vital in order to raise standards for some supply chains and to enable farmers to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices. PMID:17766237

  9. GeoDeepDive: Towards a Machine Reading-Ready Digital Library and Information Integration Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husson, J. M.; Peters, S. E.; Livny, M.; Ross, I.

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments in machine reading and learning approaches to text and data mining hold considerable promise for accelerating the pace and quality of literature-based data synthesis, but these advances have outpaced even basic levels of access to the published literature. For many geoscience domains, particularly those based on physical samples and field-based descriptions, this limitation is significant. Here we describe a general infrastructure to support published literature-based machine reading and learning approaches to information integration and knowledge base creation. This infrastructure supports rate-controlled automated fetching of original documents, along with full bibliographic citation metadata, from remote servers, the secure storage of original documents, and the utilization of considerable high-throughput computing resources for the pre-processing of these documents by optical character recognition, natural language parsing, and other document annotation and parsing software tools. New tools and versions of existing tools can be automatically deployed against original documents when they are made available. The products of these tools (text/XML files) are managed by MongoDB and are available for use in data extraction applications. Basic search and discovery functionality is provided by ElasticSearch, which is used to identify documents of potential relevance to a given data extraction task. Relevant files derived from the original documents are then combined into basic starting points for application building; these starting points are kept up-to-date as new relevant documents are incorporated into the digital library. Currently, our digital library stores contains more than 360K documents supplied by Elsevier and the USGS and we are actively seeking additional content providers. By focusing on building a dependable infrastructure to support the retrieval, storage, and pre-processing of published content, we are establishing a foundation for

  10. Reliability Estimates for Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader; Peter I. Petersen

    2005-09-01

    Failure rates for large power supplies at a fusion facility are critical knowledge needed to estimate availability of the facility or to set priorties for repairs and spare components. A study of the "failure to operate on demand" and "failure to continue to operate" failure rates has been performed for the large power supplies at DIII-D, which provide power to the magnet coils, the neutral beam injectors, the electron cyclotron heating systems, and the fast wave systems. When one of the power supplies fails to operate, the research program has to be either temporarily changed or halted. If one of the power supplies for the toroidal or ohmic heating coils fails, the operations have to be suspended or the research is continued at de-rated parameters until a repair is completed. If one of the power supplies used in the auxiliary plasma heating systems fails the research is often temporarily changed until a repair is completed. The power supplies are operated remotely and repairs are only performed when the power supplies are off line, so that failure of a power supply does not cause any risk to personnel. The DIII-D Trouble Report database was used to determine the number of power supply faults (over 1,700 reports), and tokamak annual operations data supplied the number of shots, operating times, and power supply usage for the DIII-D operating campaigns between mid-1987 and 2004. Where possible, these power supply failure rates from DIII-D will be compared to similar work that has been performed for the Joint European Torus equipment. These independent data sets support validation of the fusion-specific failure rate values.

  11. Increasing Capacity Exploitation in Food Supply Chains Using Grid Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Eugen; Müller, Marcus; Jacob, Ansger; Racz, Peter; Waldburger, Martin

    Food supply chains today are characterized by fixed trade relations with long term contracts established between heterogeneous supply chain companies. Production and logistics capacities of these companies are often utilized in an economically inefficient manner only. In addition, increased consumer awareness in food safety issues renders supply chain management even more challenging, since integrated tracking and tracing along the whole food supply chain is needed. Facing these issues of supply chain management complexity and completely documented product quality, this paper proposes a full lifecycle solution for dynamic capacity markets based on concepts used in the field of Grid [1], like management of Virtual Organization (VO) combined with Service Level Agreement (SLA). The solution enables the cost-efficient utilization of real world capacities (e.g., production capacities or logistics facilities) by using a simple, browser-based portal. Users are able to enter into product-specific negotiations with buyers and suppliers of a food supply chain, and to obtain real-time access to product information including SLA evaluation reports. Thus, business opportunities in wider market access, process innovation, and trustworthy food products are offered for participating supply chain companies.

  12. Cholangiocytes and blood supply

    PubMed Central

    Gaudio, Eugenio; Franchitto, Antonio; Pannarale, Luigi; Carpino, Guido; Alpini, Gianfranco; Francis, Heather; Glaser, Shannon; Alvaro, Domenico; Onori, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The microvascular supply of the biliary tree, the peribiliary plexus (PBP), stems from the hepatic artery branches and flows into the hepatic sinusoids. A detailed three-dimensional study of the PBP has been performed by using the Scanning Electron Microscopy vascular corrosion casts (SEMvcc) technique. Considering that the PBP plays a fundamental role in supporting the secretory and absorptive functions of the biliary epithelium, their organization in either normalcy and pathology is explored. The normal liver shows the PBP arranged around extra- and intrahepatic biliary tree. In the small portal tract PBP was characterized by a single layer of capillaries which progressively continued with the extrahepatic PBP where it showed a more complex vascular network. After common duct ligation (BDL), progressive modifications of bile duct and PBP proliferation are observed. The PBP presents a three-dimensional network arranged around many bile ducts and appears as bundles of vessels, composed by capillaries of homogeneous diameter with a typical round mesh structure. The PBP network is easily distinguishable from the sinusoidal network which appears normal. Considering the enormous extension of the PBP during BDL, the possible role played by the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is evaluated. VEGF-A, VEGF-C and their related receptors appeared highly immunopositive in proliferating cholangiocytes of BDL rats. The administration of anti-VEGF-A or anti-VEGF-C antibodies to BDL rats as well as hepatic artery ligation induced a reduced bile duct mass. The administration of rVEGF-A to BDL hepatic artery ligated rats prevented the decrease of cholangiocyte proliferation and VEGF-A expression as compared to BDL control rats. These data suggest the role of arterial blood supply of the biliary tree in conditions of cholangiocyte proliferation, such as it occurs during chronic cholestasis. On the other hand, the role played by VEGF as a tool of cross-talk between

  13. Chemical decontamination technical resources at Los Alamos National Laboratory (2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Murray E

    2008-01-01

    This document supplies information resources for a person seeking to create planning or pre-planning documents for chemical decontamination operations. A building decontamination plan can be separated into four different sections: Pre-planning, Characterization, Decontamination (Initial response and also complete cleanup), and Clearance. Of the identified Los Alamos resources, they can be matched with these four sections: Pre-planning -- Dave Seidel, EO-EPP, Emergency Planning and Preparedness; David DeCroix and Bruce Letellier, D-3, Computational fluids modeling of structures; Murray E. Moore, RP-2, Aerosol sampling and ventilation engineering. Characterization (this can include development projects) -- Beth Perry, IAT-3, Nuclear Counterterrorism Response (SNIPER database); Fernando Garzon, MPA-11, Sensors and Electrochemical Devices (development); George Havrilla, C-CDE, Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering; Kristen McCabe, B-7, Biosecurity and Public Health. Decontamination -- Adam Stively, EO-ER, Emergency Response; Dina Matz, IHS-IP, Industrial hygiene; Don Hickmott, EES-6, Chemical cleanup. Clearance (validation) -- Larry Ticknor, CCS-6, Statistical Sciences.

  14. Biomass Scenario Model Documentation: Data and References

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.; Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Peterson, S.; Stright, D.

    2013-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model that represents the entire biomass-to-biofuels supply chain, from feedstock to fuel use. The BSM is a complex model that has been used for extensive analyses; the model and its results can be better understood if input data used for initialization and calibration are well-characterized. It has been carefully validated and calibrated against the available data, with data gaps filled in using expert opinion and internally consistent assumed values. Most of the main data sources that feed into the model are recognized as baseline values by the industry. This report documents data sources and references in Version 2 of the BSM (BSM2), which only contains the ethanol pathway, although subsequent versions of the BSM contain multiple conversion pathways. The BSM2 contains over 12,000 total input values, with 506 distinct variables. Many of the variables are opportunities for the user to define scenarios, while others are simply used to initialize a stock, such as the initial number of biorefineries. However, around 35% of the distinct variables are defined by external sources, such as models or reports. The focus of this report is to provide insight into which sources are most influential in each area of the supply chain.

  15. NASA information resources management handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Handbook (NHB) implements recent changes to Federal laws and regulations involving the acquisition, management, and use of Federal Information Processing (FIP) resources. This document defines NASA's Information Resources Management (IRM) practices and procedures and is applicable to all NASA personnel. The dynamic nature of the IRM environment requires that the controlling management practices and procedures for an Agency at the leading edge of technology, such as NASA, must be periodically updated to reflect the changes in this environment. This revision has been undertaken to accommodate changes in the technology and the impact of new laws and regulations dealing with IRM. The contents of this document will be subject to a complete review annually to determine its continued applicability to the acquisition, management, and use of FIP resources by NASA. Updates to this document will be accomplished by page changes. This revision cancels NHB 2410.1D, dated April 1985.

  16. Can groundwater secure drinking-water supply and supplementary irrigation in new settlements of North-West Cambodia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vouillamoz, Jean Michel; Valois, Rémi; Lun, Sambo; Caron, Delphine; Arnout, Ludovic

    2016-02-01

    Since the end of the Cambodian Civil War in 1998, the population of the Oddar Meanchey province has drastically increased despite the lack of adequate infrastructure, including basic amenities such as drinking-water supply. To improve the access to drinking water, governmental and aid agencies have focussed on drilling shallow boreholes. The use of groundwater for irrigation is also a growing concern to cope with the occasional late arrival of the rainy season or to produce food during the dry season. Since the groundwater resource in the province has not been documented, a 4-year study was undertaken (2011-2014), aiming to estimate the capability of groundwater to supply domestic needs and supplementary irrigation for rice production. Aquifer properties were estimated by combined use of hydrogeological techniques with the geophysical magnetic resonance sounding method. Groundwater storage and recharge were estimated based on new developments in the application of the geophysical method for quantifying specific yield. The median groundwater storage of the targeted sandstone aquifer is 173 mm, the recharge is diffuse and annually ranges from 10 to 70 mm, and the transmissivity is low to medium. Simulations of pumping indicate that the aquifer can easily supply 100 L of drinking water per capita daily, even considering the estimated population in 2030. However, the shallow aquifer can generally not deliver enough water to irrigate paddy fields of several hectares during a 2-month delay in the onset of the monsoon.

  17. Possibilities of utilizing alternative energy sources for combined heat supply systems in the Baltic

    SciTech Connect

    Shipkovs, P.; Grislis, V.; Zebergs, V. )

    1991-01-01

    The problem of alternative energy sources is an issue of major importance for the Baltic republics because of the limited supply of conventional energy resources. One of the ways to solve this problem could be the introduction of combined heat supply systems (CHSS). The combined heat supply systems are such systems where various energy sources in different regimes are made use of to ensure the optimum temperature on residential and industrial premises. The influence of climatic conditions on the selection of heat supply systems has been studied at large. In the present paper the use of alternative energy sources (AES) in combined heat supply systems (CHSS) is described.

  18. Full-scale system impact analysis: Digital document storage project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Digital Document Storage Full Scale System can provide cost effective electronic document storage, retrieval, hard copy reproduction, and remote access for users of NASA Technical Reports. The desired functionality of the DDS system is highly dependent on the assumed requirements for remote access used in this Impact Analysis. It is highly recommended that NASA proceed with a phased, communications requirement analysis to ensure that adequate communications service can be supplied at a reasonable cost in order to validate recent working assumptions upon which the success of the DDS Full Scale System is dependent.

  19. 2003 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2003-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. The forecasted annual energy electricity retail load plus contract obligations are subtracted from the sum of the projected annual energy capability of existing resources and contract purchases to determine whether BPA and/or the region will be surplus or deficit. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Deficits occur when resources are less than loads. Energy deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions

  20. 2004 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2004-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of BPA and/or the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due to