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Sample records for respiratory allergies vers

  1. [Respiratory allergies].

    PubMed

    Chiriac, Anca Mirela; Demoly, Pascal

    2013-04-01

    Respiratory allergies represent a global and public health problem, due to their prevalence (still increasing), morbidity, impact on the quality of life and costs for the society. They mainly concern rhinitis (or rhinoconjunctivitis) and asthma. The diagnosis of allergy is dependent on a history of symptoms on exposure to an allergen together with the detection of allergen-specific IgE. Accurate diagnosis of allergies opens up therapeutic options that are otherwise not appropriate, such as allergen immunotherapy and allergen avoidance, that are prescribed following a stepwise approach. It has been a century since the first trial in specific immunotherapy was performed and this still remains the only disease modifying treatment for allergic individuals. In terms of route of administration, sublingual immunotherapy represents a good alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy, considering its proven efficacy and better safety profile.

  2. Infant feeding and respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Murray, A B

    1971-03-06

    In addition to the potential dangers of feeding cow's milk to the newborn which you list in your editorial on infant feeding (January 2, p.30), other hazards have been proposed. 1 apparent consequence, reported by Johnston and Dutton, is an increased prevalence of allergy later in childhood. We examined this thesis in the course of a study on hearing loss in Vancouver primary school children. A trained interviewer put precoded questions to the children's mothers, 1 of which was whether the child had received any food other than breastmilk in the 1st month of the child's life. Another was whether she or the father or any of the child's siblings had ever had asthma, eczema, or hay fever, i.e., whether there was an immediate family history of allergy. A smear of the child's nasal secretions was made and was subsequently examined for eosinophils by a technician. If there were 10 eosinophils/highpower field in any 2 highpower fields, the child was said to have a nasal secretion eosinophilia. This appears to be a useful sign of allergic rhinitis. In the group with an immediate family history of allergy, the association between early introduction of foreign food and the presence of nasal secretion eosinophilia was significantly positive at the 5% level by the chi square test of association. For those children who received supplemental foods in the 1st month, 22 (32%) showed evidence of nasal secretion eosinophilia; 46 (68%) did not. Only 2 (11%) of those on breastmilk alone displayed this sign and 16 (89%) did not. In the remaining 233 children who did not have an immediate family history of allergy the association was not significantly positive. The sequence of events leading to respiratory allergy may be as follows: a neonate not only drinks his weight in cow's milk in a week, but also absorbs a disproportionately large amount of immunologically intact protein. Thus it would not be surprising to find a relatively high incidence of cow's milk allergy in genetically

  3. Treatment of respiratory allergy with allergy immunotherapy tablets.

    PubMed

    Bachert, C

    2011-07-01

    Allergy immunotherapy tablets (AIT) have expanded the treatment options for patients suffering from respiratory allergies. Efficacy is established in adults and children for two different commercially available grass AITs. The ALK grass AIT has an efficacy comparable to subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT), with a proven disease-modifying effect after treatment completion. Safety profiles favour AIT over SCIT. Studies suggest that tablets in all aspects are superior to sublingual drops. AITs for other allergies including house dust mite and birch and ragweed pollen are in development.

  4. Respiratory allergy: what are the uncertainties?

    PubMed

    Karol, Meryl H

    2002-12-27

    The prevalence of asthma is increasing worldwide. The increase has been found for both sexes, for all races and age groups. The factors responsible are unclear. The short period of increase makes it unlikely that a genetic change is responsible but rather suggests that either air pollutants or a behavioral change may be involved. Behavioral changes may include decreased exercise and outdoor activity due to, for example increased usage of television and computers. What is the role of allergy in the development of asthma? In allergic sensitization, allergens initiate the inflammation and IgE antibodies are typically present. Once asthma has developed, factors such as irritants, infections and exercise may result in acute symptomatology. Infancy is a high risk period for allergic sensitization since natural defense mechanisms are not fully developed. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that microbial stimuli during early childhood can influence induction of atopic diseases. In animal studies, pre-infection with respiratory virus has resulted in enhanced response to allergens. Another factor implicated in the surge of allergic disease is airborne particulates. Evidence has been obtained for an association of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) with development of allergic sensitization. ETS enhances IgE production as does diesel and aluminum silicate, the latter a component of fly ash. What are the mechanisms responsible for the environmental influences on development of allergy? Th2 cytokine responses, with suppression of Th1 cytokines, are prominent in children. Th1 maturation appears to be promoted by microbial exposure. Increased understanding of the complex interactions of environmental factors with the developing immune system is essential to reverse the current upward trend in allergic respiratory disease.

  5. Mold Allergens in Respiratory Allergy: From Structure to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Twaroch, Teresa E; Curin, Mirela; Swoboda, Ines

    2015-01-01

    Allergic reactions to fungi were described 300 years ago, but the importance of allergy to fungi has been underestimated for a long time. Allergens from fungi mainly cause respiratory and skin symptoms in sensitized patients. In this review, we will focus on fungi and fungal allergens involved in respiratory forms of allergy, such as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Fungi can act as indoor and outdoor respiratory allergen sources, and depending on climate conditions, the rates of sensitization in individuals attending allergy clinics range from 5% to 20%. Due to the poor quality of natural fungal allergen extracts, diagnosis of fungal allergy is hampered, and allergen-specific immunotherapy is rarely given. Several factors are responsible for the poor quality of natural fungal extracts, among which the influence of culture conditions on allergen contents. However, molecular cloning techniques have allowed us to isolate DNAs coding for fungal allergens and to produce a continuously growing panel of recombinant allergens for the diagnosis of fungal allergy. Moreover, technologies are now available for the preparation of recombinant and synthetic fungal allergen derivatives which can be used to develop safe vaccines for the treatment of fungal allergy. PMID:25840710

  6. [Importance of air purifiers in the prevention of respiratory allergy].

    PubMed

    Sabbah, A

    2000-06-01

    Prevention of respiratory allergy and thus diminution of its prevalence consists of the application not only of preventative measures on the allergens themselves, but also on atmospheric pollutants such as NO, CO and diesel particles. These modify the allergens and increase synthesis of allergen-specific IgE. Use of air purifiers, on condition that they have HEPA or ULPA filters may contribute to reduction of allergenicity linked to pollutants and are one of the not-negligible means of protection from respiratory allergy and asthma in particular.

  7. Cockroach allergy in a group of Turkish children with respiratory allergies.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Aygen; Tuncer, Ayfer; Sekerel, Bülent E; Adalioğlu, Gönül; Saraçlar, Yildiz

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to cockroach may lead to exacerbations of bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhinitis in sensitized patients. Although there is a widespread belief that cockroach allergy is a common problem in patients with respiratory allergies, little is known in Turkish children. In order to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of cockroach allergy in respiratory allergic children, we performed a study in newly referred children with respiratory allergies. All patients underwent questionnaire-interview and skin prick tested with common inhalant allergens in addition to two cockroach allergens: Blatella germanica (Bg) and Periplaneta americana (Pa). A subgroup of patients was also serologically investigated for specific IgE against Bg and house dust mite. Three hundred- and thirty-seven children aged 2-16 years were recruited for the study and 77.7% of these were atopic, with the most common indoor and outdoor allergens of house dust mite (47.5%) and grass pollens (45.1%), respectively. According to the prick test results, allergies to Bg and Pa were 11.9% and 7.4%, respectively, and there was a weak correlation between size of the prick test and specific IgE levels for Bg allergen. Almost 30% of the cockroach-sensitive patients were allergic to both cockroach antigens. Seventy percent of cockroach-sensitive patients were also sensitive to house dust mite, and only 1% were monosensitive. Dwellings in the Middle Anatolia and Black Sea regions were less commonly infested by cockroach compared to the dwellings in other regions. In conclusion, our preliminary study showed that cockroach sensitization is common among children with respiratory allergies irrespective of infestation history, suggesting that addition of cockroach allergen to the routine allergy screening panel is critical.

  8. Respiratory sensitization and allergy: Current research approaches and needs

    SciTech Connect

    Boverhof, Darrell R. Billington, Richard; Gollapudi, B. Bhaskar; Hotchkiss, John A.; Krieger, Shannon M.; Poole, Alan; Wiescinski, Connie M.; Woolhiser, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    There are currently no accepted regulatory models for assessing the potential of a substance to cause respiratory sensitization and allergy. In contrast, a number of models exist for the assessment of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Research indicates that respiratory sensitizers may be identified through contact sensitization assays such as the local lymph node assay, although only a small subset of the compounds that yield positive results in these assays are actually respiratory sensitizers. Due to the increasing health concerns associated with occupational asthma and the impending directives on the regulation of respiratory sensitizers and allergens, an approach which can identify these compounds and distinguish them from contact sensitizers is required. This report discusses some of the important contrasts between respiratory allergy and ACD, and highlights several prominent in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches that are being applied or could be further developed to identify compounds capable of causing respiratory allergy. Although a number of animal models have been used for researching respiratory sensitization and allergy, protocols and endpoints for these approaches are often inconsistent, costly and difficult to reproduce, thereby limiting meaningful comparisons of data between laboratories and development of a consensus approach. A number of emerging in vitro and in silico models show promise for use in the characterization of contact sensitization potential and should be further explored for their ability to identify and differentiate contact and respiratory sensitizers. Ultimately, the development of a consistent, accurate and cost-effective model will likely incorporate a number of these approaches and will require effective communication, collaboration and consensus among all stakeholders.

  9. Contact allergy and respiratory/mucosal complaints from heroin (diacetylmorphine).

    PubMed

    Hogen Esch, A J; van der Heide, S; van den Brink, W; van Ree, J M; Bruynzeel, D P; Coenraads, P J

    2006-01-01

    After the start of heroin (diacetylmorphine)-assisted treatment to a selected group of chronic treatment-resistant heroin-dependent patients in the Netherlands, we reported about work-related eczema and positive patch tests to heroin in some nurses and nasal and respiratory complaints. To investigate the prevalence of heroin contact allergy, we started a questionnaire-based study with follow-up by allergological examinations. Of 120 questionnaires sent, 101 (84%) was returned: 67 from nurses and 34 from other employees. Of 101 workers, 38 (38%) had reported work-related complaints: 33 of 67 (49%) nurses and 5 of 34 (15%) other employees. Patch tests to heroin were performed in 24 nurses and were positive in 8 (33%). All the 8 had eyelid or facial eczema and, in 6, accompanied by mucosal or respiratory complaints. The prevalence of heroin contact allergy in this study was 8% (8/101) among all employees and 12% (8/67) among nurses. Respiratory and mucosal complaints could not be ascribed to a contact allergy, and in these cases, serum was analysed for specific immunoglobulin E to heroin. A type 1 allergy to heroin could not be shown. These complaints are possibly due to the histamine-liberating effect of heroin, to atopic constitution, to a combination of these factors or - less likely - to other non-allergic factors.

  10. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Effects on Respiratory Allergy.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Pawankar, Ruby; Vitale, Carolina; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; Stanziola, Anna; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Vatrella, Alessandro; D'Amato, Maria

    2016-09-01

    A body of evidence suggests that major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by anthropogenic factors, have impact on the biosphere and human environment. Studies on the effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases, asthma and environmental factors, such as meteorological variables, airborne allergens, and air pollution. Urbanization with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases and bronchial asthma observed over recent decades in most industrialized countries. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate changes and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in the general population and on the timing of asthma exacerbations, although the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity could also be an effect of air pollution and climate change. Since airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously in the atmosphere, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma in atopic subjects in the last 5 decades. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the relationship between air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases, such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions, and westernized lifestyle are correlated with an increased frequency of respiratory allergy prevalently in people who live in urban areas in comparison with people living in rural areas. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc.) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction.

  11. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Effects on Respiratory Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Pawankar, Ruby; Vitale, Carolina; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; Stanziola, Anna; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Vatrella, Alessandro; D'Amato, Maria

    2016-01-01

    A body of evidence suggests that major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by anthropogenic factors, have impact on the biosphere and human environment. Studies on the effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases, asthma and environmental factors, such as meteorological variables, airborne allergens, and air pollution. Urbanization with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases and bronchial asthma observed over recent decades in most industrialized countries. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate changes and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in the general population and on the timing of asthma exacerbations, although the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity could also be an effect of air pollution and climate change. Since airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously in the atmosphere, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma in atopic subjects in the last 5 decades. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the relationship between air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases, such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions, and westernized lifestyle are correlated with an increased frequency of respiratory allergy prevalently in people who live in urban areas in comparison with people living in rural areas. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc.) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. PMID:27334776

  12. Respiratory allergies in Venezuela: are fungi responsible?

    PubMed

    Galante, David; Hartung de Capriles, Claudia; Mata-Essayag, Sofía; Conesa, Angela; Córdova, Yuraima; Trejo, Ernesto; Tassinari, Paolo

    2006-11-01

    Exposure to fungi in the indoor environment may trigger hypersensitivity to a variety of fungi and is known to be an influencing factor in allergic rhinitis and asthma. A wide list of airborne fungal spores and dust containing fungi have been described for different environments; however, their clinical relevance is seldom clear. In this survey we measure levels of fungi indoor and outdoor of domestic dwellings of 10 patients with known chronic allergic respiratory disease to fungi. To measure hypersensitivity to fungi, Prick (sensitivity to fungi), RAST (specific serum IgE levels) and PAR (persistent allergic rhinitis) severity are assessed in relation to fungal load in the environment. Only association of PAR and indoor fungal load were found to be significant (P = 0.1648). No direct causality with sensitivity to the amount of exposure, or a hypersensitivity to a specific fungal genus could be established. There is still no consensus on the most relevant methods for measuring personal exposure and 'no safe levels' have been established yet.

  13. State of World Allergy Report 2008: Allergy and Chronic Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the incidence of allergies and allergic diseases is on the rise globally. As an international umbrella organization for regional and national allergy and clinical immunology societies, the World Allergy Organization is at the forefront of a combined united effort across nations and organizations to address this global concern by promoting the science of allergy and clinical immunology, and advancing exchange of information. The World Allergy Organization's State of World Allergy Reports will provide a biennial review of allergic diseases worldwide, consider their medical and socioeconomic contexts, and propose effective approaches to addressing these problems. In this first State of World Allergy Report 2008, experts from different regions of the world have attempted to define the extent of the global allergy problem, examine recent trends, and provide a framework for the collaboration among world medicine, science, and government agencies that is needed to address the rapidly developing issues associated with allergy and allergic diseases. PMID:23282447

  14. Relationship between respiratory and food allergy and evaluation of preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Vega, F; Panizo, C; Dordal, M T; González, M L; Velázquez, E; Valero, A; Sánchez, M C; Rondón, C; Montoro, J; Matheu, V; Lluch-Bernal, M; González, R; Fernández-Parra, B; Del Cuvillo, A; Dávila, I; Colás, C; Campo, P; Antón, E; Navarro, A M

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy and respiratory allergy are two frequently associated diseases and with an increasing prevalence. Several reports show the presence of respiratory symptoms in patients with food allergy, while certain foods may be related to the development or exacerbation of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The present update focuses on this relationship, revealing a pathogenic and clinical association between food and respiratory allergy. This association is even more intense when the food hypersensitivity is persistent or starts in the early years of life. Food allergy usually precedes respiratory allergy and may be a risk factor for allergic rhinitis and asthma, becoming a relevant clinical marker for severe atopic asthma. Furthermore, the presence of co-existing asthma may enhance life-threatening symptoms occurring during a food allergic reaction. Recommendations for dietary restrictions during pregnancy and breastfeeding to prevent the development of respiratory allergy are controversial and not supported by consistent scientific data. Current recommendations from medical societies propose exclusive breastfeeding during the first four months of life, with the introduction of solid food in the fourth to the seventh month period of life. A delayed introduction of solid food after this period may increase the risk of developing subsequent allergic conditions. Further studies are encouraged to avoid unjustified recommendations involving useless dietary restrictions.

  15. [Latex proteins as the trigger of respiratory and systemic allergies].

    PubMed

    Baur, X; Jäger, D; Engelke, T; Rennert, S; Czuppon, A B

    1992-08-21

    56 patients (52 members of the hospital's staff, four with other employment) who had hypersensitivity reactions to latex articles and developed an immediate-type response to latex extract with the skin-prick test were studied. Specific IgE antibodies were present in the enzyme-allergo-sorbent test of 50 of the subjects. Latex-containing surgical and household gloves were the main cause of allergies. Patients with isolated contact urticaria (n = 8) had a tendency towards lower antibody concentrations than those with additional respiratory and/or systemic symptoms (n = 48). Occupation-related provocation tests triggered rhinitis in 19, conjunctivitis in ten, and bronchial obstruction in six. The main allergen was found to be a protein with a relative molecular mass of 58,000, originating from the latex milk and passing from the latex glove into the glove powder. In the course of usual activities considerable allergen inhalation can occur. Even small amounts (e.g. 400 ng/ml) can precipitate significant allergic reactions. The results show that the main latex allergen, a glycine-rich protein molecule, can cause cutaneous, inhalant and systemic hypersensitivity reactions.

  16. The contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and respiratory allergy in the Th2-prone Brown Norway rat.

    PubMed

    Kuper, C Frieke; Stierum, Rob H; Boorsma, Andre; Schijf, Marcel A; Prinsen, Menk; Bruijntjes, Joost P; Bloksma, Nanne; Arts, Josje H E

    2008-04-18

    All LMW respiratory allergens known to date can also induce skin allergy in test animals. The question here was if in turn skin allergens can induce allergy in the respiratory tract. Respiratory allergy was tested in Th2-prone Brown Norway (BN) rats by dermal sensitization with the contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB; 1%, day 0; 0.5%, day 7) and a head/nose-only inhalation challenge of 27mg/m3 of DNCB (15 min, day 21), using a protocol that successfully identified chemical respiratory allergens. Skin allergy to DNCB was examined in BN rats and Th1-prone Wistar rats in a local lymph node assay followed by a topical patch challenge of 0.1% DNCB. Sensitization of BN rats via the skin induced DNCB-specific IgG in serum, but not in all animals, and an increased number of CD4+ cells in the lung parenchyma. Subsequent inhalation challenge with DNCB did not provoke apneas or allergic inflammation (signs of respiratory allergy) in the BN rats. However, microarray analysis of mRNA isolated from the lung revealed upregulation of the genes for Ccl2 (MCP-1), Ccl4 (MIP-1beta), Ccl7 and Ccl17. Skin challenge induced considerably less skin irritation and allergic dermatitis in the BN rat than in the Wistar rat. In conclusion, the Th2-prone BN rat appeared less sensitive to DNCB than the Wistar rat; nevertheless, DNCB induced allergic inflammation in the skin of BN rats but even a relatively high challenge concentration did not induce allergy in the respiratory tract, although genes associated with allergy were upregulated in lung tissue.

  17. Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... use skin and blood tests to diagnose allergies. Treatments include medicines, allergy shots, and avoiding the substances that cause the reactions. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  18. Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Allergies Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... clear up within a week. Learn More about Allergies Food Allergies: What You Need to Know Environmental ...

  19. Chemical pollution, respiratory allergy and asthma: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gareth S; Cadogan, David; Flueckiger, Andreas; Hennes, Christa; Kimber, Ian

    2008-01-01

    The European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) convened a workshop in June 2005 to address the speculation that exposure to specific chemicals, and/or chemical pollutants in general, may play an important role in the increased prevalence of allergy and asthma in 'westernized' societies. This paper summarises one perspective arrived at during this workshop. It was acknowledged that certain chemicals and certain types of pollution might trigger or exacerbate asthmatic reactions in sensitised subjects. However, overall levels of pollution appear not to have had a major impact upon the prevalence of atopic allergy. Epidemiological studies suggest that pollution may in some circumstances protect from acquisition of sensitisation. Increasing exposure to household chemicals may enhance pre-existing allergies, but evidence for their causation of allergy is lacking. Other risk factors considered included societal dietary changes and exposure to endotoxins. Future research needs were identified which included epidemiological studies employing exposure and biomonitoring data, studies on domestic exposure to chemicals and their association with the incidence of allergy and asthma, and prospective birth cohort studies employing well-defined aspects of lifestyle, diet, chemical and endotoxin exposure as factors that may drive susceptibility to allergy and asthma.

  20. Chemical respiratory allergy and occupational asthma: what are the key areas of uncertainty?

    PubMed

    Isola, Daniel; Kimber, Ian; Sarlo, Katherine; Lalko, Jon; Sipes, I Glenn

    2008-04-01

    There is increasing concern about the association of respiratory disease with indoor air quality and environmental atmospheric pollution. Associated with this is the fact that in many countries there has been a significant increase in the prevalence of asthma. Against this background there is a need to address the toxicological, occupational and public health problems associated with the ability of some chemicals to cause allergic sensitization of the respiratory tract and occupational asthma. By definition allergic sensitization of the respiratory tract to chemicals is dependent upon the stimulation of an adaptive immune response that leads to development of respiratory allergy and/or asthma. Although IgE antibody is associated typically with respiratory sensitization to protein allergens, there is less certainty about the role played by antibodies of this type in chemical respiratory allergy and occupational asthma. There are currently no validated or widely accepted methods/models for the identification and characterization of chemicals that have the potential to induce allergic sensitization of the respiratory tract. These and other areas of uncertainty were debated during the course of and following a two day Workshop. The primary purpose of the Workshop was to consider the important clinical and toxicological issues associated with chemical respiratory allergy, and to identify key questions that need to be answered if real progress is to be made.

  1. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy: An Overview of Current Therapeutic Strategies.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan; De Blay, Frédéric; Hernandez Fernandez de Rojas, Dolores; Virchow, Johann Christian; Demoly, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the efficacy of pharmacotherapy treatment for known HDM-allergic patients is weaker. The standard diagnostic techniques--skin prick test and specific IgE testing--can be confounded by cross-reactivity. However, component-resolved diagnosis using purified and recombinant allergens can improve the accuracy of specific IgE testing, but availability is limited. Treatment options for HDM allergy are limited and include HDM avoidance, which is widely recommended as a strategy, although evidence for its efficacy is variable. Clinical efficacy of pharmacotherapy is well documented; however, symptom relief does not extend beyond the end of treatment. Finally, allergen immunotherapy has a poor but improving evidence base (notably on sublingual tablets) and its benefits last after treatment ends. This review identifies needs for deeper physician knowledge on the extent and impact of HDM allergy in respiratory disease, as well as further development and improved access to molecular allergy diagnosis. Furthermore, there is a need for the development of better-designed clinical trials to explore the utility of allergen-specific approaches, and uptake of data into guidance for physicians on more effective diagnosis and therapy of HDM respiratory allergy in practice.

  2. Consecutive Food and Respiratory Allergies Amplify Systemic and Gut but Not Lung Outcomes in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bouchaud, Gregory; Gourbeyre, Paxcal; Bihouée, Tiphaine; Aubert, Phillippe; Lair, David; Cheminant, Marie-Aude; Denery-Papini, Sandra; Neunlist, Michel; Magnan, Antoine; Bodinier, Marie

    2015-07-22

    Epidemiological data suggest a link between food allergies and the subsequent development of asthma. Although this progression may result from the additional effects of exposure to multiple allergens, whether both allergies amplify each other's effects remains unknown. This study investigated whether oral exposure to food allergens influences the outcomes of subsequent respiratory exposure to an asthma-inducing allergen. Mice were sensitized and orally challenged with wheat (FA) and then exposed to house dust mite (HDM) extract (RA). Immunoglobulin (Ig), histamine, and cytokine levels were assayed by ELISA. Intestinal and lung physiology was assessed. Ig levels, histamine release, and cytokine secretion were higher after exposure to both allergens than after separate exposure to each. Intestinal permeability was higher, although airway hyper-responsiveness and lung inflammation remained unchanged. Exposure to food and respiratory allergens amplifies systemic and gut allergy-related immune responses without any additional effect on lung function and inflammation.

  3. CURRENT STATE OF PREDICTING THE RESPIRATORY ALLERGY POTENTIAL OF CHEMICALS: WHAT ARE THE ISSUES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current State of Predicting the Respiratory Allergy Potential of Chemicals: What Are the Issues? M I. Gilmour1 and S. E. Loveless2, 1USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC and 2DuPont Haskell Laboratory, Newark, DE.

    Many chemicals are clearly capable of eliciting immune respon...

  4. Effects on asthma and respiratory allergy of Climate change and air pollution.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Vitale, Carolina; De Martino, Annamaria; Viegi, Giovanni; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Vatrella, Alessandro; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; D'Amato, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The major changes to our world are those involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by anthropogenic factors, with impact on the biosphere and human environment. Studies on the effects of climate changes on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases, asthma and environmental factors, like meteorological variables, airborne allergens and air pollution. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions and westernized lifestyle are correlated with an increased frequency of respiratory allergy, mainly in people who live in urban areas in comparison with people living in rural areas. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate changes and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in general and on the timing of asthma exacerbations, although the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity could be also considered an effect of air pollution and climate changes. Since airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously in the atmosphere, enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma in atopic subjects in the last five decades. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. Scientific societies should be involved in advocacy activities, such as those realized by the Global Alliance against chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD).

  5. Food allergy is associated with recurrent respiratory tract infections during childhood

    PubMed Central

    Woicka-Kolejwa, Katarzyna; Zaczeniuk, Magdalena; Majak, Paweł; Pawłowska-Iwanicka, Kamila; Kopka, Monika; Stelmach, Wlodzimierz; Jerzyńska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To find out whether children with food allergy have an increased risk of recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections and of asthma. Aim To describe the clinical profile of children diagnosed with food allergy referred to the Allergy Clinic. Material and methods We conducted a retrospective study to assess the patients’ demographic, anthropometric and clinical data. The analysis included data of all children by the age of 10 years (registered with the Allergy Clinic between 2012 and 2013) in whom IgE mediated food allergy had been diagnosed during 18 months of observation. Results We included 280 children into the analysis. Recurrent respiratory tract infections (rRTI), asthma and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms were observed in 153 (54.6%), 96 (34.3%), 39 (13.9%), respectively, with a significant increasing trend across age-subgroups. In children from 1 to 2 years old, sensitization to β-lactoglobulin increased the risk of rRTI (OR = 3.91; 95% CI: 1.03–14.87). In older children sensitization to allergens other than milk or egg decreases the risk of rRTI (OR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.10–0.62); sensitization to egg decreased the risk of asthma diagnosis (OR = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.01–0.75). We did not identify food allergens which change the risk of GI symptoms in children. This finding was consistent throughout all age-subgroups. Conclusions Sensitization to β-lactoglobulin increased the risk of rRTI in children under 2 years of age nearly four times. The presence of sensitization to food allergens above 3 years of age did not increase the risk of developing clinical presentation of food allergy other than atopic dermatitis. PMID:27279819

  6. Evidence in immunotherapy for paediatric respiratory allergy: Advances and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Tortajada-Girbés, M; Mesa Del Castillo, M; Larramona, H; Lucas, J M; Álvaro, M; Tabar, A I; Jerez, M J; Martínez-Cañavate, A

    2016-11-01

    Allergic respiratory diseases are major health problems in paediatric population due their high level of prevalence and chronicity, and to their relevance in the costs and quality of life. One of the most important risk factors for the development of airway diseases in children and adolescents is atopy. The mainstays for the treatment of these diseases are avoiding allergens, controlling symptoms, and preventing them through sustained desensitization by allergen immunotherapy (AIT). AIT is a treatment option that consists in the administration of increasing amounts of allergens to modify the biological response to them, inducing long-term tolerance even after treatment has ended. This treatment approach has shown to decrease symptoms and improve quality of life, becoming cost effective for a large number of patients. In addition, it is considered the only treatment that can influence the natural course of the disease by targeting the cause of the allergic inflammatory response. The aim of this publication is to reflect the advances of AIT in the diagnosis and treatment of allergic respiratory diseases in children and adolescents reviewing articles published since 2000, establishing evidence categories to support the strength of the recommendations based on evidence. The first part of the article covers the prerequisite issues to understand how AIT is effective, such as the correct etiologic and clinical diagnosis of allergic respiratory diseases. Following this, the article outlines the advancements in understanding the mechanisms by which AIT achieve immune tolerance to allergens. Administration routes, treatment regimens, dose and duration, efficacy, safety, and factors associated with adherence are also reviewed. Finally, the article reviews future advances in the research of AIT.

  7. Allergies

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... which are white blood cells containing the chemical histamine. As more antibodies are produced, they cause the mast cells to release histamine. Histamine then produces allergy symptoms. A stuffy and ...

  8. [Respiratory allergies in children and adolescents: the role of component-resolved diagnosis and specific immunotherapy].

    PubMed

    Horak, Fritz

    2015-09-01

    Respiratory allergies of children and adolescents are an important issue in allergology. In parallel to increasing prevalence rates also research has rapidly been developing for the last 10 years. Today we can better understand complex systems to improve our diagnostic and therapeutic accuracy. In addition to medical history, skin-prick-testing and analysis of specific IgE to allergen extracts, component resolved diagnosis has gained importance in the last years. While being increasingly helpful in the diagnosis of insect-venom and food-allergies, component-based diagnosis can also improve the management of patients with respiratory allergies. Concerning different therapeutic approaches like allergen-avoidance or symptomatic therapy, specific immunotherapy (SIT) is one of the most interesting therapy-options, as it is still the only causal therapy available. After reasonable patient-selection and the selection of the right allergen and product, SIT has a very good risk/benefit-ration and can induce long-term immuno-tolerance to specific allergens.

  9. Impact of domestic air pollution from cooking fuel on respiratory allergies in children in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Nagar, Jitendra K; Raj, Neelima; Kumar, Pawan; Kushwah, Alka S; Meena, Mahesh; Gaur, S N

    2008-12-01

    This study undertaken in India was aimed at identifying the effects of the indoor air pollutants SO2, NO2 and total suspended particulate mater (SPM) generated from fuel used for cooking on respiratory allergy in children in Delhi. A total of 3,456 children were examined (59.2% male and 40.8% female). Among these, 31.2% of the children's families were using biomass fuels for cooking and 68.8% were using liquefied petroleum gas. Levels of indoor SO2, NO2 and SPM, measured using a Handy Air Sampler (Low Volume Sampler), were 4.60 +/- 5.66 microg/m3, 30.70 +/- 23.95 microg/m3 and 705 +/- 441.6 microg/m3, respectively. The mean level of indoor SO2 was significantly higher (p = 0.016) for families using biomass fuels (coal, wood, cow dung cakes and kerosene) for cooking as compared to families using LP gas. The mean level of indoor NO2 for families using biomass fuels for cooking was significantly higher in I.T.O. (p = 0.003) and Janakpuri (p = 0.007), while indoor SPM was significantly higher in Ashok Vihar (p = 0.039) and I.T.O. (p = 0.001), when compared to families using LP gas. Diagnoses of asthma, rhinitis and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) were made in 7.7%, 26.1% and 22.1% of children, respectively. Respiratory allergies in children, which included asthma, rhinitis and URTI, could be associated with both types of fuels (liquefied petroleum gas [LPG] and biomass) used for cooking in the different study areas. This study suggests that biomass fuels increased the concentrations of indoor air pollutants that cause asthma, rhinitis and URTI in children. LP gas smoke was also associated with respiratory allergy.

  10. Respiratory Allergies: A General Overview of Remedies, Delivery Systems, and the Need to Progress

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Giselda; Celenza, Cinzia

    2014-01-01

    The spread of respiratory allergies is increasing in parallel with the alarm of the scientific community. Evidently, our knowledge of the onset mechanisms of these diseases and, as a consequence, of the available remedies is inadequate. This review provides a brief, general description of current therapeutic resources and the state of research with regard to both drugs and medical devices in order to highlight their limits and the urgent need for progress. Increasing the amount of basic biochemical research will improve our knowledge of such onset mechanisms and the potential efficacy of therapeutic preparations. PMID:25006500

  11. Alternaria alternata allergens: Markers of exposure, phylogeny and risk of fungi-induced respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Marta F; Postigo, Idoia; Tomaz, Cândida T; Martínez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria alternata spores are considered a well-known biological contaminant and a very common potent aeroallergen source that is found in environmental samples. The most intense exposure to A. alternata allergens is likely to occur outdoors; however, Alternaria and other allergenic fungi can colonize in indoor environments and thereby increase the fungal aeroallergen exposure levels. A consequence of human exposure to fungal aeroallergens, sensitization to A. alternata, has been unequivocally associated with increased asthma severity. Among allergenic proteins described in this fungal specie, the major allergen, Alt a 1, has been reported as the main elicitor of airborne allergies in patients affected by a mold allergy and considered a marker of primary sensitization to A. alternata. Moreover, A. alternata sensitization seems to be a triggering factor in the development of poly-sensitization, most likely because of the capability of A. alternata to produce, in addition to Alt a 1, a broad and complex array of cross-reactive allergens that present homologs in several other allergenic sources. The study and understanding of A. alternata allergen information may be the key to explaining why sensitization to A. alternata is a risk factor for asthma and also why the severity of asthma is associated to this mold. Compared to other common environmental allergenic sources, such as pollens and dust mites, fungi are reported to be neglected and underestimated. The rise of the A. alternata allergy has enabled more research into the role of this fungal specie and its allergenic components in the induction of IgE-mediated respiratory diseases. Indeed, recent research on the identification and characterization of A. alternata allergens has allowed for the consideration of new perspectives in the categorization of allergenic molds, assessment of exposure and diagnosis of fungi-induced allergies.

  12. Respiratory diseases and allergies in two polluted areas in East Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, J; Hoelscher, B; Wjst, M; Ritz, B; Cyrys, J; Wichmann, H

    1999-01-01

    This cross-sectional epidemiological study collected health data for 2,470 school children between 5 and 14 years of age (89% of eligible children) who had lived most of their lives in either one of two counties strongly impacted by industrial pollution (Bitterfeld and Hettstedt) or in a neighboring county without any sources of industrial pollution (Zerbst). The objective of the study was to examine whether regional differences--with respect to the occurrence of childhood respiratory diseases and symptoms or allergies--exist and, if such differences are found, whether they persist when we adjust for the effects of known risk factors such as medical and sociodemographic factors or factors related to the indoor environment. Controlling for medical, sociodemographic, and indoor factors, according to parental reports, children residing in Hettstedt have about a 50% increased lifetime prevalence for physician-diagnosed allergies, eczema, and bronchitis compared to children from Zerbst and about twice the number of respiratory symptoms such as wheeze, shortness of breath, and cough without cold. Sensitization to common aeroallergens according to skin prick tests [odds ratio (OR) = 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.86] and specific IgE levels (OR = 1.75; CI, 1.31-2.33) was more common for children from Hettstedt than children from the nonpolluted county. Bitterfeld children, on the other hand, more often received a diagnosis of asthma and eczema than children residing in Zerbst and also showed slightly increased sensitization rates. In conclusion, industrial pollution related to mining and smelting operations in the county of Hettstedt were associated with a higher lifetime prevalence of respiratory disorders and an increased rate of allergic sensitization in children between the ages of 5 and 14 years. Further studies are needed to determine what role the high dust content of heavy metals plays in Hettstedt. PMID:9872717

  13. Respiratory allergy caused by house dust mites: What do we really know?

    PubMed

    Calderón, Moisés A; Linneberg, Allan; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; De Blay, Frédéric; Hernandez Fernandez de Rojas, Dolores; Virchow, Johann Christian; Demoly, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The house dust mite (HDM) is a major perennial allergen source and a significant cause of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. However, awareness of the condition remains generally low. This review assesses the links between exposure to HDM, development of the allergic response, and pathologic consequences in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We investigate the epidemiology of HDM allergy to explore the interaction between mites and human subjects at the population, individual, and molecular levels. Core and recent publications were identified by using "house dust mite" as a key search term to evaluate the current knowledge of HDM epidemiology and pathophysiology. Prevalence data for HDM allergen sensitization vary from 65 to 130 million persons in the general population worldwide to as many as 50% among asthmatic patients. Heterogeneity of populations, terminology, and end points in the literature confound estimates, indicating the need for greater standardization in epidemiologic research. Exposure to allergens depends on multiple ecological strata, including climate and mite microhabitats within the domestic environment, with the latter providing opportunity for intervention measures to reduce allergen load. Inhaled mite aeroallergens are unusually virulent: they are able to activate both the adaptive and innate immune responses, potentially offering new avenues for intervention. The role of HDM allergens is crucial in the development of allergic rhinitis and asthma, but the translation of silent sensitization into symptomatic disease is still incompletely understood. Improved understanding of HDMs, their allergens, and their microhabitats will enable development of more effective outcomes for patients with HDM allergy.

  14. Role of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant allergies and respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Shek, Lynette P; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Lim, Jia Yi; Soh, Shu-E; Chong, Yap-Seng

    2012-01-01

    Maternal nutrition has critical effects on the developing structures and functions of the fetus. Malnutrition during pregnancy can result in low birth weight and small for gestational age babies, increase risk for infection, and impact the immune system. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been reported to have immunomodulatory effects. Decreased consumption of omega-6 PUFAs, in favor of more anti-inflammatory omega-3 PUFAs in modern diets, has demonstrated the potential protective role of omega-3 PUFAs in allergic and respiratory diseases. In this paper, we examine the role of PUFAs consumption during pregnancy and early childhood and its influence on allergy and respiratory diseases. PUFAs act via several mechanisms to modulate immune function. Omega-3 PUFAs may alter the T helper (Th) cell balance by inhibiting cytokine production which in turn inhibits immunoglobulin E synthesis and Th type 2 cell differentiation. PUFAs may further modify cellular membrane, induce eicosanoid metabolism, and alter gene expression. These studies indicate the benefits of omega-3 PUFAs supplementation. Nevertheless, further investigations are warranted to assess the long-term effects of omega-3 PUFAs in preventing other immune-mediated diseases, as well as its effects on the later immunodefense and health status during early growth and development.

  15. Whole-Genome Saliva and Blood DNA Methylation Profiling in Individuals with a Respiratory Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Declerck, Ken; Traen, Sophie; Koppen, Gudrun; Van Camp, Guy; Schoeters, Greet; Vanden Berghe, Wim; De Boever, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of respiratory allergies (RA) can be partly explained by DNA methylation changes caused by adverse environmental and lifestyle factors experienced early in life. Longitudinal, prospective studies can aid in the unravelment of the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the disease development. High compliance rates can be expected in these studies when data is collected using non-invasive and convenient procedures. Saliva is an attractive biofluid to analyze changes in DNA methylation patterns. We investigated in a pilot study the differential methylation in saliva of RA (n = 5) compared to healthy controls (n = 5) using the Illumina Methylation 450K BeadChip platform. We evaluated the results against the results obtained in mononuclear blood cells from the same individuals. Differences in methylation patterns from saliva and mononuclear blood cells were clearly distinguishable (PAdj<0.001 and |Δβ|>0.2), though the methylation status of about 96% of the cg-sites was comparable between peripheral blood mononuclear cells and saliva. When comparing RA cases with healthy controls, the number of differentially methylated sites (DMS) in saliva and blood were 485 and 437 (P<0.05 and |Δβ|>0.1), respectively, of which 216 were in common. The methylation levels of these sites were significantly correlated between blood and saliva. The absolute levels of methylation in blood and saliva were confirmed for 3 selected DMS in the PM20D1, STK32C, and FGFR2 genes using pyrosequencing analysis. The differential methylation could only be confirmed for DMS in PM20D1 and STK32C genes in saliva. We show that saliva can be used for genome-wide methylation analysis and that it is possible to identify DMS when comparing RA cases and healthy controls. The results were replicated in blood cells of the same individuals and confirmed by pyrosequencing analysis. This study provides proof-of-concept for the applicability of saliva-based whole-genome methylation analysis in the field

  16. Whole-Genome Saliva and Blood DNA Methylation Profiling in Individuals with a Respiratory Allergy.

    PubMed

    Langie, Sabine A S; Szarc Vel Szic, Katarzyna; Declerck, Ken; Traen, Sophie; Koppen, Gudrun; Van Camp, Guy; Schoeters, Greet; Vanden Berghe, Wim; De Boever, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of respiratory allergies (RA) can be partly explained by DNA methylation changes caused by adverse environmental and lifestyle factors experienced early in life. Longitudinal, prospective studies can aid in the unravelment of the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the disease development. High compliance rates can be expected in these studies when data is collected using non-invasive and convenient procedures. Saliva is an attractive biofluid to analyze changes in DNA methylation patterns. We investigated in a pilot study the differential methylation in saliva of RA (n = 5) compared to healthy controls (n = 5) using the Illumina Methylation 450K BeadChip platform. We evaluated the results against the results obtained in mononuclear blood cells from the same individuals. Differences in methylation patterns from saliva and mononuclear blood cells were clearly distinguishable (PAdj<0.001 and |Δβ|>0.2), though the methylation status of about 96% of the cg-sites was comparable between peripheral blood mononuclear cells and saliva. When comparing RA cases with healthy controls, the number of differentially methylated sites (DMS) in saliva and blood were 485 and 437 (P<0.05 and |Δβ|>0.1), respectively, of which 216 were in common. The methylation levels of these sites were significantly correlated between blood and saliva. The absolute levels of methylation in blood and saliva were confirmed for 3 selected DMS in the PM20D1, STK32C, and FGFR2 genes using pyrosequencing analysis. The differential methylation could only be confirmed for DMS in PM20D1 and STK32C genes in saliva. We show that saliva can be used for genome-wide methylation analysis and that it is possible to identify DMS when comparing RA cases and healthy controls. The results were replicated in blood cells of the same individuals and confirmed by pyrosequencing analysis. This study provides proof-of-concept for the applicability of saliva-based whole-genome methylation analysis in the field

  17. Climate change and air pollution: Effects on pollen allergy and other allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Bergmann, Karl Christian; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Liccardi, Gennaro; Vitale, Carolina; Stanziola, Anna; D'Amato, Maria

    and air pollution - Effects on pollen allergy and other allergic respiratory diseases. Allergo J Int 2014; 23: 17-23 DOI 10.1007/s40629-014-0003-7 A factor clouding the problem is that laboratory evaluations do not reflect what happens during natural exposition. Considering these aspects, governments worldwide, international organizations, and cooperations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the European Health Policy of the European Union (EU) are facing a growing problem of the respiratory effects induced by gaseous and particulate pollutants arising from motor vehicle emissions.

  18. Enumerating outdoor aeromycota in suburban West Bengal, India, with reference to respiratory allergy and meteorological factors.

    PubMed

    Das, Shaonli; Gupta-Bhattacharya, Swati

    2008-01-01

    Aeromycota may act as a reservoir of aeroallergens and upon inhalation may induce IgE-mediated Type I hypersensitivity reaction in pre-sensitized individuals. The total aerospora of an outdoor occupational setting (agricultural farm) in suburban West Bengal was sampled for two years (2002-2004) by a Burkard sampler. Concurrently, the cultivable aeromycota were trapped by an Andersen 2-stage sampler, cultured and tested for allergenic potential by skin prick test. The relationships between various climatic factors (temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and wind speed) and the distribution of aerospora were explored by Spearman correlation test. The antigenic extracts of 15 fungal species belonging to Alternaria, Aspergilli/Penicilli, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Drechslera, and Nigrospora evoked 10.8-54.8% skin reactivity in subjects with clinical history of respiratory allergy. The aerospora with skin sensitizing potential collectively represented a considerable fraction (52.3-58.4%) of the total aeromycota. The airborne concentration of Alternaria spores was higher than its borderline value of 100 spores m(-3) in May and June, whereas Cladosporium spore count exceeded its threshold limit value (3,000 spores m(-3)) in December, suggesting that this particular time of the year poses allergenic risk for individuals sensitive to these aerospora. Daily minimum temperature and rainfall appeared to be the most important meteorological factors to affect the concentration of aerospora in the study area.

  19. Cockroach Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... immune response to allergens. Medical Review October 2015. Insect Allergies Cockroach Allergy Dust Mite Allergy Types of Allergies Drug Allergy Food Allergy Insect Allergy Latex Allergy Mold Allergy Pet Allergy Pollen ...

  20. Respiratory allergy induced by exclusive polysensitization to serum albumins of furry animals.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, G; Dente, B; Restani, P; Senna, G; Falagiani, P; Ballabio, C; D'Amato, G

    2010-06-01

    In this report we describe un unusual case of exclusive allergic sensitization to furry animals, as a possible study model to speculate about different modalities ofsensitization to allergens of common and less common mammalian species. A 27-year-old woman referred in our Allergological Centre for the occurrence of conjunctival and severe respiratory symptoms after contact with several animals such as cats, dogs, rabbits, horses, cows etc. Patient underwent clinical and anamnestic evaluation including a detailed information on the modality of exposure to different furry animals. Skin-prick-test (SPT) was performed with our routine panel of commercial standardized extracts (Lofarma Laboratories, Milan, Italy). Some animal allergenic extracts (rabbit, horse, rat, mouse, cavia, cow and hamster) have been tested by SPT one week after the routine SPT A blood sample was taken for measurement of total IgE and specific IgE (CAP System, Phadia, Uppsala, Sweden) as well as Immunoblotting procedures. The results of in vivo and in vitro procedures revealed allergic sensitization only to animal-derived allergens. Total IgE were 59.3 kU/L. Immunoblotting showed a specific IgE-mediated sensitization of the patient to cow's, rabbit's and horse's serum albumins (SA). In conclusion, our case report confirms the role of SA as cross-reacting agent in allergic sensitization to furry animals. This finding suggests to perform SPTs to several furry animal allergens in all individuals with high level of allergic sensitization to common pets (cats and/or dogs) in order to identify allergy to other animals and consequently to avoid future exposures at risk.

  1. Popliteal lymph node (PLN) assay to study adjuvant effects on respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Løvik, Martinus; Alberg, Torunn; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Samuelsen, Mari; Groeng, Else-Carin; Gaarder, Per Ivar

    2007-01-01

    Different variants of the popliteal lymph node (PLN) assay have been published. Here we describe the adjuvant popliteal lymph node assay, an immune response assay to study the adjuvant activity of soluble substances as well as particulate matter. The substance to be studied for adjuvant activity is injected into the hind footpad of mice or rats together with an antigen. Adjuvant activity is determined as the increase in PLN weight and cell numbers in animals receiving antigen together with the substance under study, compared with PLN weight and cell numbers in animals given the antigen without the substance in question, and animals given the putative adjuvant alone. Because lymph node weight and cell numbers are immunologically non-specific parameters, specific immune response assays like serum antibody responses or antibody-forming cell numbers should additionally be performed. Different antigens and immune response assays may be used, depending on the research question asked. In relation to respiratory (or food) allergy, the assays should as a minimum include determination of specific IgE in serum, and preferably also IgG1 (mouse). Serum specific IgG2a antibody determination may be added to get an indication of the Th1-Th2-balance of the response. The adjuvant PLN assay, with cellular response assays performed in the draining popliteal lymph node and antibody determinations in serum, requires small amounts of test material. The assay offers a practical, sensitive and reproducible method to determine the adjuvant activity of soluble substances as well as particulate material, with the possibility to also perform mechanistic studies.

  2. Allergy to house dust mites in primary health care subjects with chronic or recurrent inflammatory states of respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Paszkowski, Jacek; Łopatyński, Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    Chronic and recurrent respiratory tract disorders are a frequent problem in general practice. The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of hypersensitivity to house dust mites in respiratory tract diseases in general practice patients. We tried to assess the influence of determined risk factors exposure on development of respiratory tract allergy. Patients from family practitioners surgeries with chronic or recurrent respiratory tract symptoms who had no diagnosis of allergy were recruited to the study (n = 89). All patients responded to a questionnaire focused on history of symptoms, atopic conditions in family and exposure to determined environmental factors like dwelling conditions, obstetrician history, diet in the first year of life. All patients underwent skin prick test with common inhalant allergens. Families of the patients were asked to participate in the study. Families who agreed to take part also responded to the questionnaire and underwent skin tests. In patients and their families blood samples were taken to determine total IgE and specific IgE antibodies to mites allergens. Dust samples were collected by vacuuming of patients' bedroom carpets and mattresses to determine house dust mites allergens concentration. Data on 30 complete patients family sets of their brotherhood, mother and father were collected. Total and specific serum IgE antibodies were determined by disc enzyme-immunoassay (Analco). Mites allergens concentration in dust was measured by simple Acarex strip test (Nexter). The results of the assays (positive skin tests and/or elevated levels of specific IgE) showed allergy to house dust mites in 24 of 89 study patients from general practitioners surgeries (27%). The prevalence of chronic rhinitis, recurrent bronchitis, chronic or recurrent cough, wheezing, dyspnoea was higher in allergic than in nonallergic subjects. Patients with the diagnosis of allergy to house dust mites had usually worse dwelling conditions. Especially

  3. Respiratory Illness and Allergy Related to Work and Home Environment among Commercial Pilots

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xi; Lindgren, Torsten; Wieslander, Gunilla; Janson, Christer; Norbäck, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to study associations between work and home environment and prevalence and incidence of respiratory health and a history of atopy in a 3-y cohort of commercial pilots. A questionnaire was mailed in 1997 to all pilots in a Scandinavian airline company (N = 622); 577 (93%) participated. The same questionnaire was sent to the participants 3 years later, 436 participated (76%). There were questions on asthma, respiratory symptoms and infections, allergies, the cabin environment, psychosocial environment and the home environment. Associations were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, calculating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). The incidence of doctors’ diagnosed asthma and atopy were 2.4 and 16.6 per 1000 person years, respectively. Pilots changing type of flight during follow-up got more airway infections (OR = 11.27; 95% CI 2.39–53.14). Those reporting decreased work control (OR = 1.85; 95% CI 1.03–3.31 for 1 unit change) and those with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home (OR = 3.73; 95% CI 1.09–12.83) had a higher incidence of atopy during follow up. Dampness or mould at home was associated with a higher prevalence of asthma symptoms (OR = 3.55; 95% CI 1.43–8.82) and airway infections (OR = 3.12 95% CI 1.27–7.68). Window pane condensation in winter at home, reported at baseline, was associated with increased incidence of asthma symptoms (OR = 4.14; 95% CI 1.32–12.97) and pilots living in newer buildings at baseline had a higher incidence of airway infections (OR = 5.23; 95% CI 1.43–19.10). In conclusion, lack of work control and ETS at home can be a risk factors for development of allergic symptoms in pilots. Window pane condensation at home can be a risk factor for incidence of asthma symptoms. Dampness and mould at home can be a risk factor for prevalence of asthma symptoms and airway infections and living in newer buildings can be a risk factor for incidence of airway infections. PMID:27741314

  4. Pets and cockroaches: two increasing causes of respiratory allergy in indoor environments. Characteristics of airways sensitization and prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, G; Cazzola, M; D'Amato, M; D'Amato, G

    2000-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of allergic sensitization to indoor allergens such as dust mites, pets and cockroaches is the result of the changes in indoor environments induced by human activities. The Westernized lifestyle and the increasing time spent indoors determine a reduction in natural air ventilation and, consequently, higher levels of allergen concentrations and longer exposure to allergens. The major cat allergen Fel d 1 is carried by small-dimension particles (< 5 microm diameter) that readily become airborne and persist immodified for a long time. Fel d 1 must be considered a ubiquitous allergen because it has been found in indoor environments and even in public places where a cat has never been kept. Recent research has demonstrated that clothing of cat owners may contribute to the dispersal of Fel d 1 in cat-free environments. Therefore, washing Fel d 1-contaminated clothes should be considered a simple and effective method for removing this allergen from clothing and, consequently, reducing the risk of Fel d 1 dispersion. Cockroach allergens constitute another important cause of environment-related respiratory allergy and may trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. In the prevention of cockroach allergy, the use of chemical agents associated with an intensive vacuum cleaning of indoor environments is an important tool in removing cockroach material containing allergenic proteins. Early recognition of allergy-predisposed babies, monitoring indoor allergens and adequate strategies of allergen avoidance are likely to be important means for reducing the prevalence of bronchial asthma.

  5. Inhaled multiwalled carbon nanotubes modulate the immune response of trimellitic anhydride-induced chemical respiratory allergy in brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Staal, Yvonne C M; van Triel, Jos J; Maarschalkerweerd, Thérèse V P; Arts, Josje H E; Duistermaat, Evert; Muijser, Hans; van de Sandt, Johannes J M; Kuper, C Frieke

    2014-10-01

    The interaction between exposure to nanomaterials and existing inflammatory conditions has not been fully established. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT; Nanocyl NC 7000 CAS no. 7782-42-5; count median diameter in atmosphere 61 ± 5 nm) were tested by inhalation in high Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-responding Brown Norway (BN) rats with trimellitic anhydride (TMA)-induced respiratory allergy. The rats were exposed 2 days/week over a 3.5-week period to a low (11 mg/m(3)) or a high (22 mg/m(3)) concentration of MWCNT. Nonallergic animals exposed to MWCNT and unexposed allergic and nonallergic rats served as controls. At the end of the exposure period, the allergic animals were rechallenged with TMA. Histopathological examination of the respiratory tract showed agglomerated/aggregated MWCNT in the lungs and in the lung-draining lymph nodes. Frustrated phagocytosis was observed as incomplete uptake of MWCNT by the alveolar macrophages and clustering of cells around MWCNT. Large MWCNT agglomerates/aggregates were found in granulomas in the allergic rats, suggesting decreased macrophage clearance in allergic rats. In allergic rats, MWCNT exposure decreased serum IgE levels and the number of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage. In conclusion, MWCNT did not aggravate the acute allergic reaction but modulated the allergy-associated immune response.

  6. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Food Allergy Share | Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, your ...

  7. Sensitization to Alternaria and Cladosporium in patients with respiratory allergy and outdoor counts of mold spores in Ankara atmosphere, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bavbek, Sevim; Erkekol, Ferda Oner; Ceter, Talip; Mungan, Dilşad; Ozer, Faruk; Pinar, Münevver; Misirligil, Zeynep

    2006-08-01

    Sensitization to Alternaria and Cladosporium has been reported to be 3% to 30% in European countries. However, in Turkey, there is limited data about the prevalence of sensitization to these molds and the intensity of the two mold spores in Ankara atmosphere. This study was designed to evaluate the sensitization to Alternaria and Cladosporium in patients with respiratory allergy in Ankara and also the concentration of the two molds in Ankara atmosphere. Allergic rhinitis and asthma patients living in Ankara were included in the study. Demographic and diagnostic data of the patients were recorded. A skin prick test with extracts supplied by three different laboratories was used to evaluate the sensitization to Alternaria and Cladosporium. Mold spores were measured using a Burkard 7-day recording volumetric spore trap in Ankara atmosphere during a year. Overall sensitization to the two molds was found to be 14.8%, and isolated Alternaria or Cladosporiumsensitization was 3%. Considering the positive reaction to at least one of the three suppliers, the sensitization rate was 11.9% and 8.1% for Alternaria and Cladosporium, respectively. Cochran's Q homogenization test demonstrated that the positive and negative reaction were not homogeneous among three laboratories. The total number of mold spores in Ankara atmosphere was 429,264 spores/m3 of which 75.5% and 6% were constituted by Cladosporium and Alternaria, respectively. The prevalence of Cladosporium and Alternaria sensitization in respiratory allergy patients is quite similar to European countries; however, our data indicate that commercial mold extracts should be standardized to establish the real sensitization rates. Additionally, considering the great numbers of these mold spores in Ankara atmosphere, long-term follow-up studies are needed to evaluate the relationship between the mold load and sensitization patterns.

  8. Inhalant allergies in children.

    PubMed

    Mims, James W; Veling, Maria C

    2011-06-01

    Children with chronic or recurrent upper respiratory inflammatory disease (rhinitis) should be considered for inhalant allergies. Risk factors for inhalant allergies in children include a first-degree relative with allergies, food allergy in infancy, and atopic dermatitis. Although inhalant allergies are rare in infancy, inhalant allergies are common in older children and impair quality of life and productivity. Differentiating between viral and allergic rhinitis can be challenging in children, but the child's age, history, and risk factors can provide helpful information. Allergic rhinitis is a risk factor for asthma, and if one is present, medical consideration of the other is warranted.

  9. Evaluation of a sublingual immunotherapy solution in olive-induced respiratory allergy in Jordan: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asad, Khaled; Al-Nazer, Sayed; Al-Faqih, Anan; Hashem, Mohammad Jamil

    2017-01-01

    Background Olive pollen is an important cause of respiratory allergy in the Middle East. In this study, the clinical characteristics of adults and children with confirmed allergic rhinitis (AR; with or without asthma) in Jordan were described, and the use of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in a real-life clinical setting was assessed. Methods This retrospective observational study evaluated the clinical features of olive-induced allergy and the use of an SLIT solution of standardized extracts toward Ole e 1 given in a pre- and coseasonal scheme with a daily dose of 300 index of reactivity for two consecutive seasons. Inclusion criteria were as follows: ≥5 years of age, AR, proven olive sensitization, and at least 2 years follow-up after SLIT initiation. The following data were recorded at SLIT initiation: clinical characteristics, rhinitis and asthma symptom scores, and concomitant symptomatic medications. During follow-up and at the end of each season, the following data were recorded: symptom progression/scores, any changes to symptomatic medications, and treatment compliance. The secondary objective was to determine any effect on quality of life, use of concomitant AR medications, and treatment compliance. Results Eighty-six patients with seasonal AR were included in this analysis (52.3% with coexisting asthma). Between the initiation of treatment and the end of second pollen season, symptoms of AR and asthma were decreased by 79.5% and 41.7%, respectively, with an improvement in quality of life score in 71.5% of the patients (P<0.0001 for all). Physicians reported that after 2 years of SLIT, there was an improvement in the symptoms of both AR (95.2%) and asthma (93.3%), with 98.8% of the patients showing good treatment compliance. A reduction in symptomatic medications was also found. SLIT was well tolerated with no systemic reactions being reported. Conclusion In children and adults with olive-associated respiratory allergy in Jordan, the use of a pre- and

  10. Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Of Age Older Adults Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine Women Infant, Children and Teenagers Living With Lung ... written by Respiratory Experts Like no other health magazine, Allergy & Asthma Health Magazine is published by people ...

  11. Effects of Cissampelos sympodialis Eichl. and its alkaloid, warifteine, in an experimental model of respiratory allergy to Blomia tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira-Lima, Ana Tereza; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza Maria; de Carvalho, Lain Carlos Pontes; Costa, Ryan Santos; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Piuvezam, Márcia; Momtchilo, Russo; Barboza, Renato; de Jesus Oliveira, Eduardo; Marinho, Alexsandro; Figueiredo, Camila Alexandrina

    2010-11-01

    Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases worldwide. Medicinal plants are historically used in its treatment. The plant Cissampelos sympodialis, known in Northeastern Brazil as "Jarrinha" or "Milona", is used to treat some inflammatory conditions, including asthma. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Cissampelos sympodialis EICHL. extract (CsE) and its isolated alkaloids, especially warifteine (Wa) on a Blomia tropicalis extract (BtE)-induced experimental model of allergy. The respiratory allergy was induced in AJ mice by the administration of BtE. Mice were orally treated with the 400 mg/kg of CsE or 8 mg/kg of total alkaloids fraction (TAF) or 4 mg/kg of Wa and the following parameters were analyzed: (a) total cell numbers in bronchoalveolar fluid (BAF); (b) differential cell numbers in BAF; (c) eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) activity in BAF; (d) IgE serum levels by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis; (e) IL-5, IL-13, IL-10, and IFN-γ levels in BAF; (f) histopathological alterations in the lung. The treatment of the animals with CsE, Wa or TAF led to a reduction in the numbers of total cells and eosinophils in BAF. The same reduction was observed in EPO levels in the BAF. The levels of IL-5 and IL-13 were also reduced in animals treated with Cissampelos sympodialis, while IL-10 levels were significantly increased in the BAF of CsE-treated animals. The treatment also decreased the density of inflammatory cells in the lung by histopathological examination demonstrating the potential of this medicinal plant as new agent for asthma treatment.

  12. Search for Allergens from the Pollen Proteome of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): A Major Sensitizer for Respiratory Allergy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Bodhisattwa; Pandey, Naren; Gupta Bhattacharya, Swati

    2015-01-01

    Background Respiratory allergy triggered by pollen allergens is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Sunflower pollen is thought to be an important source of inhalant allergens. Present study aims to identify the prevalence of sunflower pollinosis among the Indian allergic population and characterizes the pollen allergens using immuno-proteomic tools. Methodology Clinico-immunological tests were performed to understand the prevalence of sensitivity towards sunflower pollen among the atopic population. Sera from selected sunflower positive patients were used as probe to detect the IgE-reactive proteins from the one and two dimensional electrophoretic separated proteome of sunflower pollen. The antigenic nature of the sugar moiety of the glycoallergens was studied by meta-periodate modification of IgE-immunoblot. Finally, these allergens were identified by mass-spectrometry. Results Prevalence of sunflower pollen sensitization was observed among 21% of the pollen allergic population and associated with elevated level of specific IgE and histamine in the sera of these patients. Immunoscreening of sunflower pollen proteome with patient sera detected seven IgE-reactive proteins with varying molecular weight and pI. Hierarchical clustering of 2D-immunoblot data highlighted three allergens characterized by a more frequent immuno-reactivity and increased levels of IgE antibodies in the sera of susceptible patients. These allergens were considered as the major allergens of sunflower pollen and were found to have their glycan moiety critical for inducing IgE response. Homology driven search of MS/MS data of these IgE-reactive proteins identified seven previously unreported allergens from sunflower pollen. Three major allergenic proteins were identified as two pectate lyases and a cysteine protease. Conclusion Novelty of the present report is the identification of a panel of seven sunflower pollen allergens for the first time at immuno-biochemical and proteomic level

  13. Allergy Capitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ...

  14. Mold Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Mold Allergy Share | Mold Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Mold Allergy Overview Molds are tiny fungi whose spores float ...

  15. Urban air pollution and climate change as environmental risk factors of respiratory allergy: an update.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Cecchi, L; D'Amato, M; Liccardi, G

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of allergic respiratory diseases and bronchial asthma appears to be increasing worldwide, and people living in urban areas more frequently experience these conditions than those living in rural areas. One of the several causes of the rise in morbidity associated with allergic respiratory diseases is the increased presence of outdoor air pollutants resulting from more intense energy consumption and exhaust emissions from cars and other vehicles. Urban air pollution is now a serious public health hazard. Laboratory studies confirm epidemiologic evidence that air pollution adversely affects lung function in asthmatics. Damage to airway mucous membranes and impaired mucociliary clearance caused by air pollution may facilitate access of inhaled allergens to the cells of the immune system, thus promoting sensitization of the airway. Consequently, a more severe immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated response to aeroallergens and airway inflammation could account for increasing prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases in polluted urban areas. The most abundant components of urban air pollution in urban areas with high levels of vehicle traffic are airborne particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone. In addition, the earth's temperature is increasing, mainly as a result of anthropogenic factors (e.g., fossil fuel combustion and greenhouse gas emissions from energy supply, transport, industry, and agriculture), and climate change alters the concentration and distribution of air pollutants and interferes with the seasonal presence of allergenic pollens in the atmosphere by prolonging these periods.

  16. TDI can induce respiratory allergy with Th2-dominated response in mice.

    PubMed

    Ban, Masarin; Morel, Georges; Langonné, Isabelle; Huguet, Nelly; Pépin, Elsa; Binet, Stéphane

    2006-01-20

    administered by topical application plus tracheal instillation for sensitisation and by intra-tracheal instillation for challenge (model number 4). This mouse Th2 model of TDI-induced airway allergy can, in several aspects, mimic occupational TDI asthma in humans and may prove to be useful in determining the mechanistic basis behind this disease.

  17. Exposure to maternal smoking in the first year of life interferes in breast-feeding protective effect against the onset of respiratory allergy from birth to 5 yr.

    PubMed

    Guedes, H T V; Souza, L S F

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction between the exclusive breast-feeding protective effect and the exposure to tobacco smoke at domicile in the first year of life, on the onset of respiratory allergy (asthma and rhinitis) in children until 5 yr of age. This is prospective cohort study, observational, institutional based. Three hundred children born in a public hospital of Salvador-Bahia (Brazil) were followed from birth to 5 yr of age. Data from 268 children at 60 months of life were analyzed. Occurrence of allergic symptoms were studied and correlated with gender, allergic relatives in first degree, exclusive breast-feeding duration, smoking mother, and presence of other smoker at home, considering the first year of life. Exclusive breast-feeding for at least 6 months showed a protection effect against the onset of respiratory allergy in children from birth to 5 yr (p < 0.05); odds ratio (OR): 0.33 (95% CI: 0.18-0.59). Breast-fed children for less then 6 months compared with those breast-fed for 6 months or more, presented a higher risk (OR: 2.34-95% CI: 1.4-3.74) for developing allergic respiratory symptoms just to 5 yr. The protective effect of exclusive prolonged breast-feeding on the onset of respiratory allergy in children from birth until 5 yr was lost when their mothers were smokers (OR: 2.50-95% CI 1.19-5.19). Therefore, the protective effect of breast-feeding in the first year of life on the onset of allergic symptoms until the age of 5 yr was confirmed. This study proposes a confounding effect of maternal smoking on this protection, exposed by a higher risk for present allergic symptoms until the age of 5 yr, in children exclusively breast-fed for 6 months or more, when their mothers smoked.

  18. Latex Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergy if you have other allergies — such as hay fever or a food allergy — or they're common ... your symptoms? Do you have allergies, such as hay fever or allergies to certain foods? Is there a ...

  19. A two-centre study for the evaluation and validation of an animal model for the assessment of the potential of small molecular weight chemicals to cause respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Blaikie, L; Morrow, T; Wilson, A P; Hext, P; Hartop, P J; Rattray, N J; Woodcock, D; Botham, P A

    1995-01-19

    This study evaluated a single intradermal injection model in the guinea pig with subsequent inhalation challenge and serological analysis as a method to predict the potential of chemicals to induce respiratory allergy. Four known respiratory allergens (trimellitic anhydride, diphenyl methane diisocyanate, phthalic anhydride and toluene diisocyanate (TDI)) were screened by two industrial research laboratories using this protocol. Dinitrochlorobenzene, a potent contact allergen, was included as a negative control material. In both laboratories, the respiratory allergens, but not the contact allergen, induced high titre antigen-specific antibodies in treated animals. The inhalation challenge results were similar in both laboratories but were less conclusive in that exposure to free TDI failed to induce pulmonary responses, probably because it fails to penetrate to the deep lung in sufficient concentration. Although the assay shows promise as a means of identifying chemical respiratory sensitisers, its use as a routine screen for the prediction of the ability of materials to induce respiratory allergy in man is probably questionable.

  20. Progress in Pediatrics in 2012: choices in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hematology, infectious diseases, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Vottero, Alessandra; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2013-05-08

    In this review, we summarize the progresses in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hematology, infectious diseases, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses that have been published in The Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2012. The induction of Treg activity by probiotics might be effective for promoting tolerance towards food allergens. Nasal cytology is useful in patients with rhinitis for diagnosing chronic non-allergic non-infectious diseases. Atopic eczema is associated both with an aberrant skin matrix and impaired systemic immune response. Therefore, isolated topical treatment may have suboptimal effect. Diagnostic work-up of exercise-induced anaphylaxis, including exercise challenge test, is necessary to reach a diagnosis. Studies may support a role for nutrition on prevention of asthma and cardiovascular diseases. Clinicians need to early identify adolescent menstrual abnormalities to minimize sequelae, and to promote health information. In Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2B investigations include acetylcholinesterase study of rectal mucosa followed by the molecular analysis of RET mutation. Low adherence to gluten-free diet and osteopenia are common problems in children with diabetes mellitus type 1 and celiac disease. In infantile colic, laboratory tests are usually unnecessary and the treatment is based on reassurance. Prevalence of obesity and stunting is elucidated by several studies. Evidences are growing that dietetic measures are needed to prevent obesity in children with acute leukemia. Treatment studies for infectious diseases show promise for probiotics along with standard triple therapy in children with Helicobacter pilori infection, while zinc has no effect on pneumonia. Educational programs about the proper management of the febrile child are warranted. A new hour-specific total serum bilirubin nomogram has been shown to be able to predict newborns without hyperbilirubinemia after 48 to 72 hours of life. Newborns with

  1. Progress in Pediatrics in 2012: choices in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hematology, infectious diseases, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we summarize the progresses in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hematology, infectious diseases, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses that have been published in The Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2012. The induction of Treg activity by probiotics might be effective for promoting tolerance towards food allergens. Nasal cytology is useful in patients with rhinitis for diagnosing chronic non-allergic non-infectious diseases. Atopic eczema is associated both with an aberrant skin matrix and impaired systemic immune response. Therefore, isolated topical treatment may have suboptimal effect. Diagnostic work-up of exercise-induced anaphylaxis, including exercise challenge test, is necessary to reach a diagnosis. Studies may support a role for nutrition on prevention of asthma and cardiovascular diseases. Clinicians need to early identify adolescent menstrual abnormalities to minimize sequelae, and to promote health information. In Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2B investigations include acetylcholinesterase study of rectal mucosa followed by the molecular analysis of RET mutation. Low adherence to gluten-free diet and osteopenia are common problems in children with diabetes mellitus type 1 and celiac disease. In infantile colic, laboratory tests are usually unnecessary and the treatment is based on reassurance. Prevalence of obesity and stunting is elucidated by several studies. Evidences are growing that dietetic measures are needed to prevent obesity in children with acute leukemia. Treatment studies for infectious diseases show promise for probiotics along with standard triple therapy in children with Helicobacter pilori infection, while zinc has no effect on pneumonia. Educational programs about the proper management of the febrile child are warranted. A new hour-specific total serum bilirubin nomogram has been shown to be able to predict newborns without hyperbilirubinemia after 48 to 72 hours of life. Newborns with

  2. Allergy immunotherapy: the future of allergy treatment.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jørgen Nedergaard; Broge, Louise; Jacobi, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Allergic respiratory disease represents a significant and expanding health problem worldwide. Allergic symptoms, such as asthma and hay fever, cause sleep impairment and reduce school and work performance. The cost to society is substantial. Allergen avoidance and pharmacotherapy cannot control the disease. Only allergy immunotherapy has disease-modifying potential and should be included in optimal treatment strategies. Allergy immunotherapy was first administered as subcutaneous injections and has been practiced for the past 100 years or so. Recently, tablet-based sublingual allergy immunotherapy (SLIT) was introduced with comprehensive clinical documentation. SLIT tablets represent a more patient-friendly concept because they can be used for self-treatment at home.

  3. Advances in pediatrics in 2014: current practices and challenges in allergy, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nutrition, oncology and respiratory tract illnesses.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Cesari, Silvia; Sciorio, Elisa; Povesi-Dascola, Carlotta; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2015-10-31

    Major advances in the conduct of pediatric practice have been reported in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2014. This review highlights developments in allergy, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nutrition, oncology and respiratory tract illnesses. Investigations endorse a need to better educate guardians and improve nutritional management in food allergy. Management of hyperbilirubinemia in neonates and of bronchiolitis have been improved by position statements of scientific societies. Novel treatments for infant colic and inflammatory bowel diseases have emerged. Studies suggest the diagnostic utility of ultrasonography in diagnosing community-acquired pneumonia. Progress in infectious diseases should include the universal varicella vaccination of children. Recommendations on asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome have been highlighted in neonatology. Studies have evidenced that malnutrition remains a common underestimated problem in developing countries, while exposure to cancer risk factors in children is not negligible in Western countries. Advances in our understanding of less common diseases such as cystic fibrosis, plastic bronchitis, idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis facilitate diagnosis and management. Researches have led to new therapeutic approaches in patent ductus arteriosus and pediatric malignancies.

  4. Drug Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of other allergies, such as food allergy or hay fever Allergic reaction to another drug A family history ... so, what drug was it? Do you have hay fever, food allergy or other allergies? Is there a ...

  5. Soy Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinic Staff Allergy to soy, a product of soybeans, is a common food allergy. Often, soy allergy ... broth and vegetable starch Besides "soy," "soya" and "soybeans," other words on food labels may indicate that ...

  6. Work-related psychosocial stress as a risk factor for asthma, allergy, and respiratory infections in the Swedish workforce.

    PubMed

    Runeson-Broberg, Roma; Norbäck, Dan

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the association between work-related psychosocial stress and asthma, atopy, and respiratory infections. 532 randomly selected occupationally active people (272 men, 260 women; M age = 41 yr., SD = 13) in Sweden participated. Information on history of asthma, atopy, and respiratory infections was collected by a postal self-report questionnaire. Work stress was assessed based on the demands-control-support model. Current asthma and respiratory infections were associated with work-related psychosocial stress. When stratified for sex, these associations were only found in men. Associations between low control, low support, and current asthma were found among young participants (< 40 years), whereas among older participants (> 40 years) low supervisor support was associated with frequent respiratory infections.

  7. Viral infections and allergies.

    PubMed

    Xepapadaki, Paraskevi; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory viral infections have been implicated in the origin of, protection from and exacerbation of allergy-related symptoms in a variety of ways. Viral infections are closely linked to infantile wheezing. Severe bronchiolitis in early infancy may predispose to chronic childhood asthma as well as allergic sensitization; alternatively it could represent a marker of susceptible individuals. In contrast, repeated mild infections in early life may have a protective role in the development of asthma or atopy by driving the immune system towards Th1 responses. However, evidence on this hypothesis is not consistent as far as respiratory viruses are concerned. Several factors, including the presence of an atopic environment, timing of exposure and severity of the infection, interactively contribute to the allergy-infection relationship. In the present report, recent data on the role of viral infections in the development and progression of allergy and asthma are reviewed.

  8. Optimization of route of administration for coexposure to ovalbumin and particle matter to induce adjuvant activity in respiratory allergy in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Steerenberg, P A; van Dalen, W J; Withagen, C E T; Dormans, J A M A; van Loveren, H

    2003-11-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have not only shown that air pollution induces increased pulmonary morbidity, and mortality, but also that air pollution components may potentiate allergic responses. The respiratory allergy model to ovalbumin in the mouse has been shown a useful tool to characterize the adjuvant potency of air pollution components. However, the choice for the most effective route of administration for testing small amounts of air pollution component is hampered by the diversity of routes of administration used. To test the adjuvant activity of airborne particles (Ottawa dust EHC-93), we studied the optimal route of respiratory administration: intranasally (in) and aerosol (aero) in comparison with responses observed by intraperitoneal (ip) with diesel exhaust particles (DEP) as a positive control. Our results show that the combination of in/aero with ovalbumin caused almost similar immunoglobulin (Ig)E and inflammatory responses compared to the ip/aero. In/in application induced less responses for IgE, less inflammation in the lung, and less increased numbers of eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). This response increased dramatically when ovalbumin was coadministered with DEP. Subsequently, EHC-93, which is made up of airborne particles, was tested via the in/in route of administration. EHC-93 induced similar IgE responses, inflammation, and eosinophilic response in BAL compared to DEP. In addition, EHC-93 increased the airway responsiveness of the ovalbumin-sensitized mice measured in unrestrained condition and not in nonsensitized control mice. It is concluded that intranasal sensitization with intranasal challenge with airborne particles (EHC-93) is an effective route of administration to show potency of adjuvant activity of airborne particles.

  9. Allergies - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... that are caused by allergies (such as asthma, hay fever, and eczema) may need other treatments. Medicines that ... shots are most effective when used to treat hay fever and insect sting allergies. They are not used ...

  10. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... food allergy syndrome In many people who have hay fever, fresh fruits and vegetables and certain nuts and ... if asthma, eczema, hives or allergies such as hay fever are common in your family. A past food ...

  11. Nickel Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    Nickel allergy Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Nickel allergy is a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis — an itchy rash that appears where your skin touches a usually harmless substance. Nickel ...

  12. Soy Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Create Your Own Events Educational Events Soy Allergy Soybean allergy is one of the more common food ... Always read ingredient labels to identify soy ingredients. Soybeans are a member of the legume family, which ...

  13. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... November 2016 by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. If you have a food allergy ... clinical trials below: Idiopathic Anaphylaxis Natural History and Genetics of Food Allergy and Related Conditions Featured Research ...

  14. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  15. Eye Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... It is usually a temporary condition associated with seasonal allergies. You can get eye allergies from pet dander, ... Privacy Policy Related Is El Niño Making Your Allergies Worse? May 16, 2016 The link between seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, 2015 Eye ...

  16. Allergy to Uncommon Pets: New Allergies but the Same Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Perales, Araceli; González-de-Olano, David; Pérez-Gordo, Marina; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of exotic pet allergies has been increasing over the last decade. Years ago, the main allergy-causing domestic animals were dogs and cats, although nowadays there is an increasing number of allergic diseases related to insects, rodents, amphibians, fish, and birds, among others. The current socio-economic situation, in which more and more people have to live in small apartments, might be related to this tendency. The main allergic symptoms related to exotic pets are the same as those described for dog and cat allergy: respiratory symptoms. Animal allergens are therefore, important sensitizing agents and an important risk factor for asthma. There are three main protein families implicated in these allergies, which are the lipocalin superfamily, serum albumin family, and secretoglobin superfamily. Detailed knowledge of the characteristics of allergens is crucial to improvement treatment of uncommon-pet allergies. PMID:24416032

  17. [Atopic dermatitis and allergy].

    PubMed

    Karila, C

    2013-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a very common chronic inflammatory skin disease in childhood, often the first step in the atopic march. It seems justified to look for a food or a respiratory allergy, being worsening or responsible for the AD. At infant age, some clinical features are consistent with a food allergy: a severe AD, with an early onset, uncontrolled by topical corticosteroids, and a history of immediate-type reactions. As sensitization to food allergens is very common (positive skin prick-test, atopy patch-test or specific IgE), the role of food allergens in worsening AD is difficult to affirm. So, it could be necessary to ask the advice of an allergist, to avoid unnecessary elimination diets. At older age, exposure to aeroallergens cans worsen AD. Looking for an aeroallergen allergy can help to choose the specific immunotherapy, which clinical efficacy on AD seems interesting.

  18. Food Allergies.

    PubMed

    Grief, Samuel N

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are common and seem to be increasing in prevalence. Preventive measures have become far more evident in the public arena (schools, camps, sports venues, and so forth). Evaluation and management of food allergies has evolved such that primary care practitioners may choose to provide initial diagnostic and treatment care or refer to allergists for similar care. Food allergies, once considered incurable, are now being diminished in intensity by new strategies.

  19. Allergy Skin Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic rhinitis) Allergic asthma Dermatitis (eczema) Food allergies Penicillin allergy Bee venom allergy Latex allergy Skin tests are ... may recommend this test to check for an allergy to insect venom or penicillin. Patch test Patch testing is generally done to ...

  20. Drug allergies

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The ...

  1. Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Liu, Changqi; Zaffran, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is receiving increased attention in recent years. Because there is currently no known cure for food allergy, avoiding the offending food is the best defense for sensitive individuals. Type I food allergy is mediated by food proteins, and thus, theoretically, any food protein is a potential allergen. Variability of an individual's immune system further complicates attempts to understand allergen-antibody interaction. In this article, we briefly review food allergy occurrence, prevalence, mechanisms, and detection. Efforts aimed at reducing/eliminating allergens through food processing are discussed. Future research needs are addressed.

  2. Food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Watson, J. B. G.; Timmins, J.

    1979-01-01

    Two children with food allergy could not be successfully managed on dietary restriction alone. There was a good response to treatment with oral sodium cromoglycate but none to placebo treatment. The use of sodium cromoglycate in the management of food allergy should be studied further. PMID:105671

  3. Penicillin Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other conditions resulting from penicillin allergy Less common penicillin allergy reactions occur days or weeks after exposure to the drug and may persist for some time after you stop taking it. These conditions include: Serum sickness, which may cause fever, joint pain, rash, swelling ...

  4. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... The same sort of thing happens with any allergy, whether it's a medicine (like penicillin), pollen in the air (from grasses, weeds, and trees), or a food, like peanuts. So the thing itself isn't harmful, but the way your body reacts to it ... a Reaction Like? If a kid with peanut allergy would have eaten that peanut-topped brownie, here's ...

  5. Food allergies in rural areas

    PubMed Central

    Stoma, Monika; Ślaska-Grzywna, Beata; Kostecka, Małgorzata; Bojanowska, Monika; Dudziak, Agnieszka; Kuna-Broniowska, Agnieszka; Adamczuk, Piotr; Sobczak, Paweł; Andrejko, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A food allergy is a group of symptoms occurring in the organism and resulting from consuming some food, where the problems are conditioned by immunological mechanisms. The symptoms may become apparent first in adulthood and they may be an initial manifestation of a latent allergy. Typical symptoms of a food allergy occur in different organs, thus not only in the digestive system, but also in the skin, respiratory system and circulatory system. Aim To assess the frequency of food allergy onset in rural areas of the Lublin region as well as to determine which factors induce such allergies. Material and methods A survey was conducted, involving the participation of 340 inhabitants of rural areas. The study monitored the knowledge and situation of the disease, concerning allergens, allergy symptoms, methods of treatment and opinions regarding such treatment. Results The analysis focused on 124 people with diagnosed allergies. Conclusions Introducing a diet did not result in a statistically significant difference regarding elimination of the symptoms, as compared to the patients who did not follow any diet. On the other hand, pharmacological treatment causes statistically worse results than using other methods or not being treated at all. The patients in whom allergy symptoms disappeared were more convinced about the positive character of their diet than those in whom the symptoms were not eliminated. The age when the allergy becomes evident does not affect its duration, yet it matters as to the time of its later elimination. The more symptoms were experienced by a patient, the longer the duration of the allergy was. PMID:27605899

  6. Allergy shots

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Mold spores Dust mites Animal dander Pollen Insect venom A health care provider gives you the ... that allergies make worse Allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis Insect bite sensitivity Eczema , a skin condition that a ...

  7. Sun Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurs on skin that has been exposed to sunlight. The most common form of sun allergy is ... have unusual, bothersome skin reactions after exposure to sunlight. For severe or persistent symptoms, you may need ...

  8. Mold Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reduce Mold in Your Whole House: Use an electric dehumidifier to remove moisture and keep humidity in ... Find a Local Support Group Join Our Action Network Kids With Food Allergies AAFA Research Grants Health ...

  9. [Ocular allergies].

    PubMed

    Messmer, E M

    2005-05-01

    Recent developments indicate that ocular allergy is more than an IgE-mediated allergic conjunctivitis. Ocular allergy is a disease affecting the entire ocular surface including conjunctiva, lids, cornea, lacrimal gland and tear film. Besides an IgE-mediated reaction, a complex chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of many ocular allergies. According to their pathogenesis and clinical picture, ocular allergies are classified into mild forms, such as seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis as well as giant papillary conjunctivitis, and chronic, potentially blinding forms such as atopic keratoconjunctivitis and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. New therapeutics act on the entire inflammatory process or try to modulate the allergic reaction early and specifically. The association with non-ocular allergic symptoms requires an interdisciplinary approach.

  10. Latex Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... for latex allergy. Health care workers who have hay fever have anespecially high chance of developing a latex ... as 25% of all health careworkers who have hay fever show signs of being sensitive to latex.People ...

  11. Allergy Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... For instance, if you have an allergy to pollen, your immune system identifies pollen as an invader or allergen. Your immune system ... was introduced. If you are allergic to ragweed pollen but not to cats, only the ragweed allergen ...

  12. Shellfish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... been diagnosed with a shellfish allergy, keep injectable epinephrine on hand in case of a severe reaction. ... mouth or throat or difficulty breathing, give the epinephrine auto-injector right away. Every second counts in ...

  13. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... been diagnosed with a fish allergy, keep injectable epinephrine on hand in case of a severe reaction. ... mouth or throat or difficulty breathing, give the epinephrine auto-injector right away. Every second counts in ...

  14. Wheat Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... see an allergist? Do I need to carry epinephrine in case of anaphylaxis? Do you have brochures ... the-counter allergy drug is appropriate for you. Epinephrine is an emergency treatment for anaphylaxis. If you' ...

  15. Food allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... a food allergy, learn how to use injectable epinephrine. You should have it with you at all ... even hives) after eating the food: Inject the epinephrine. Then go to the nearest hospital or emergency ...

  16. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... some people are allergic to certain foods, like peanuts or shrimp. When a person has a food ... are meat, poultry, fish, and legumes (beans and peanuts). If you have more than one food allergy, ...

  17. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... can react to touching fish or breathing in vapors from cooking fish. A fish allergy can cause ... hives red spots swelling a drop in blood pressure , causing lightheadedness or loss of consciousness Your child ...

  18. Shellfish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... can react to touching shellfish or breathing in vapors from cooking shellfish. Shellfish allergy can develop at ... hives red spots swelling a drop in blood pressure causing lightheadedness or loss of consciousness Your child ...

  19. Kiwifruit allergies.

    PubMed

    Bublin, Merima

    2013-01-01

    While kiwifruit has a high nutritive and health value, a small proportion of the world's population appears to be allergic to the fruit. IgE-mediated kiwifruit allergy is often associated with birch and grass pollinosis as well as with latex allergy. Isolated allergy to kiwifruit is also relatively common and often severe. Eleven green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) allergens recognized to date are termed as Act d 1 through Act d 11. Bet v 1 homologue (Act d 8) and profilin (Act d 9) are important allergens in polysensitized subjects, whereas actinidin (Act d 1) is important in kiwifruit monosensitized subjects. Differences in allergenicity have been found among kiwifruit cultivars. Allergy sufferers might benefit from the selection and breeding of low-allergenic kiwifruit cultivars.

  20. Allergies to Insect Venom

    MedlinePlus

    Allergies To Insect Venom Facts About Allergies The tendency to develop allergies may be inherited. If you have allergic tendencies and ... lives of those who are sensitive to it...insect venom! Although less common than pollen allergy, insect ...

  1. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... younger brother might develop it, too. He has seasonal allergies and I've heard that allergies can cause ... TOPIC Asthma Center Asthma Basics All About Allergies Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) If My Child Has Asthma, Can ...

  2. Asthma and allergy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - asthma and allergy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on asthma and allergies : Allergy and Asthma Network -- www.allergyasthmanetwork.org American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology -- www. ...

  3. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table ... More "Managing Allergies" Articles How to Control Your Seasonal Allergies / Allergy Diagnosis and Treatment / Seasonal Allergy Research at ...

  4. [Allergy-related emergencies].

    PubMed

    Kaufman, E; Garfunkel, A; Galili, D; Zusman, S P; Malamed, S F; Findler, M; Elad, S

    2002-01-01

    Allergic reactions can develop to any of the drugs or materials commonly used in dentistry. They exhibit a broad range of clinical signs and symptoms ranging from mild, delayed reactions to immediate and life-threatening reactions developing within seconds. Allergies usually manifest themselves in reactions that are related to histamine release in one of three ways: skin reactions, respiratory problems and anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is the most critical allergic reaction in the dental environment. Measures such as airway management, oxygen supplementation, antihistamine, adrenaline and corticosteroid medication, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and evacuation to the emergency room, may be necessary.

  5. Update on equine allergies.

    PubMed

    Fadok, Valerie A

    2013-12-01

    Horses develop many skin and respiratory disorders that have been attributed to allergy. These disorders include pruritic skin diseases, recurrent urticaria, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and reactive airway disease. Allergen-specific IgE has been detected in these horses, and allergen-specific immunotherapy is used to ameliorate clinical signs. The best understood atopic disease in horses is insect hypersensitivity, but the goal of effective treatment with allergen-specific immunotherapy remains elusive. In this review, updates in pathogenesis of allergic states and a brief mention of the new data on what is known in humans and dogs and how that relates to equine allergic disorders are discussed.

  6. Latex allergy.

    PubMed

    Gawchik, Sandra M

    2011-01-01

    Allergy to natural rubber latex is an important clinical condition that occurred after the institution of universal precautions to protect healthcare workers. A rapid increase and production of both examination and surgical gloves resulted in an epidemic of allergy to latex protein. Healthcare workers in both the medical and dental environments, as well as specific groups of individuals including those with spina bifida, myelodysplasia, and food allergies (banana, kiwi, avocado, and others), were at increased risk of sensitization. Clinical symptoms in the latex allergic individual ranged from type I hypersensitivity reaction including rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, and systemic reaction to type IV hypersensitivity reaction, which occur from the chemicals added during the manufacturing process. Diagnosis of latex allergy is based on a clinical history that correlates the development of symptoms in relationship to exposure. In the United States there are no skin tests approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Therefore a combination of clinical judgment and serologic testing such as ImmunoCAP and Immulite is helpful. The primary treatment of latex allergy is avoidance of exposure to the latex protein.

  7. Janus-faced Acrolein prevents allergy but accelerates tumor growth by promoting immunoregulatory Foxp3+ cells: Mouse model for passive respiratory exposure

    PubMed Central

    Roth-Walter, Franziska; Bergmayr, Cornelia; Meitz, Sarah; Buchleitner, Stefan; Stremnitzer, Caroline; Fazekas, Judit; Moskovskich, Anna; Müller, Mario A.; Roth, Georg A.; Manzano-Szalai, Krisztina; Dvorak, Zdenek; Neunkirchner, Alina; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2017-01-01

    Acrolein, a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde, is generated in large amounts during smoking and is best known for its genotoxic capacity. Here, we aimed to assess whether acrolein at concentrations relevant for smokers may also exert immunomodulatory effects that could be relevant in allergy or cancer. In a BALB/c allergy model repeated nasal exposure to acrolein abrogated allergen-specific antibody and cytokine formation, and led to a relative accumulation of regulatory T cells in the lungs. Only the acrolein-treated mice were protected from bronchial hyperreactivity as well as from anaphylactic reactions upon challenge with the specific allergen. Moreover, grafted D2F2 tumor cells grew faster and intratumoral Foxp3+ cell accumulation was observed in these mice compared to sham-treated controls. Results from reporter cell lines suggested that acrolein acts via the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor which could be inhibited by resveratrol and 3′-methoxy-4′-nitroflavone Acrolein- stimulation of human PBMCs increased Foxp3+ expression by T cells which could be antagonized by resveratrol. Our mouse and human data thus revealed that acrolein exerts systemic immunosuppression by promoting Foxp3+ regulatory cells. This provides a novel explanation why smokers have a lower allergy, but higher cancer risk. PMID:28332605

  8. Macrolides allergy.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Luis; Demoly, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    Macrolides are characterised by their basic structure which is made up of a lactonic cycle with 2 osidic chains. They are classified according to the number of carbon atoms in the cycle : 14 membered macrolides (erythromicin, roxithromycin, dirithromycin, clarithromycin), 15 membered (azithromycin) and 16 membered (spiramycin, josamycin, midecamycin) macrolides. Epidemiological studies show that macrolides are amongst the safest antibiotics, but in these series, no drug allergy work up was performed. An immediate IgE dependent hypersensitivity has been shown with erythromycin in some cases. The mechanism is unknown and the skin tests are negative in most other cases. It would appear that the macrolide allergies are unlikely to be class allergies. Eviction is the treatment of choice. Desensitization has been successful in a few cases.

  9. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... form of belly cramps, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Respiratory system. Symptoms can range from a runny or stuffy ... more of the body systems above (skin, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems), such as hives combined with abdominal pain, or ...

  10. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... delicious dessert, but then you see the crushed peanuts on top. Darn! You're allergic to peanuts. Maybe just one little bite? Nope. If you ... alone. These foods cause the most food allergies: peanuts and other nuts seafood, such as shrimp milk, ...

  11. Shellfish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the Food Allergy Research and Education website. Reading Food Labels Makers of foods sold in the ... outside of KidsHealth's control. About TeensHealth Nemours.org Reading BrightStart! Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Privacy Policy & ...

  12. Dust Mite Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... a pollen allergy may be noticeable because the allergy is seasonal. For example, you may have more difficulty managing your asthma for a short time during the summer. Dust mite allergy, on the other hand, is due to something ...

  13. Allergy-Friendly Gardening

    MedlinePlus

    ... an effective treatment for you. Another form of allergy immunotherapy was recently approved in the United States called sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) allergy tablets . Rather than shots, allergy tablets involve administering ...

  14. Allergies and Hay Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Allergies and Hay Fever Allergies and Hay Fever Patient Health Information News media interested in covering ... Americans suffer from nasal allergies, commonly known as hay fever. An ear, nose, and throat specialist can help ...

  15. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... may order allergy skin tests if you have: Hay fever ( allergic rhinitis ) and asthma symptoms that are not ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Allergy Food Allergy Hay Fever Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  16. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Nut and Peanut Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Nut and Peanut Allergy ... worse. previous continue How Is a Nut or Peanut Allergy Diagnosed? If your doctor thinks you might ...

  17. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video: Getting an X-ray Nut and Peanut Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Nut and Peanut Allergy Print ... previous continue How Is a Nut or Peanut Allergy Diagnosed? If your doctor thinks you might have ...

  18. Food allergy in Africa: myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Kung, Shiang-Ju; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Gray, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Food allergy has been traditionally perceived as being rare in Africa. However, the prevalence of other allergic manifestations such as asthma and atopic dermatitis continue to rise in the higher-income African countries. Since the food allergy epidemic in westernized countries has lagged behind that of allergic respiratory conditions, we hypothesize that food allergy is increasing in Africa. This article systematically reviews the evidence for food allergy in Africa, obtained through searching databases including PubMed, Medline, MD Consult, and scholarly Google. Articles are divided into categories based on strength of methodological diagnosis of food allergy. Information was found for 11 African countries: Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. Most studies reflect sensitization to food or self-reported symptoms. However, a few studies had more stringent diagnostic testing that is convincing for food allergy, mostly conducted in South Africa. Apart from the foods that commonly cause allergy in westernized countries, other regionally significant or novel food allergens may include pineapple (Ghana), okra (Nigeria), and mopane worm (Botswana). Food allergy is definitely an emerging disease in Africa and resources need to be diverted to study, diagnose, treat, and prevent this important disease.

  19. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... The release of these chemicals can affect the respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract, skin, and the cardiovascular system — causing ... a day and may affect these three body systems: the skin: in the form of ... vomiting the respiratory tract: symptoms can range from a runny nose, ...

  20. Managing Your Seasonal Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... antihistamines, topical nasal steroids, cromolyn sodium, decongestants, or immunotherapy. Read More "Seasonal Allergies" Articles Managing Your Seasonal Allergies / Diagnosis, Treatment & Research ...

  1. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker's asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  2. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker’s asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  3. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... redness and swelling around the mouth or face. Gastrointestinal system. Symptoms can take the form of belly cramps, ... or more of the body systems above (skin, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems), such as hives combined with abdominal pain, or ...

  4. Allergies to fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Benito, Cristina; González-Mancebo, Eloína; de Durana, Dolores Alonso Díaz

    2008-12-01

    Allergic reactions to fruits and vegetables are frequently observed in older children and adolescents. They can result from a primary sensitization to food allergens or from a primary sensitization to inhalant allergens such as pollens or latex. In the case of fruit allergies, the stability of the allergens involved is crucial to the sensitization pathway and in the clinical presentation of the food allergy. Two patients allergic to fruits are presented and discussed in the light of the allergens involved. Patient 1 was a 14 yr-old girl with a grass and olive pollen allergy who developed oropharyngeal symptoms typical of the oral allergy syndrome (OAS) with multiple fruits from taxonomically unrelated families, and who was sensitized to profilin. Patient 2 was an 8 yr-old girl, with no pollen allergies, who developed systemic reactions to peach and apple, and who was sensitized to non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTP). Profilins are labile allergens present in pollens and foods, and sensitization occurs through the respiratory route to pollen profilin. The cross-reactive IgE antibodies generated can elicit local reactions in the oropharyngeal mucosa (OAS) when exposed to fruit profilins. In contrast, LTPs are a family of stable allergens that resist thermal treatment and enzymatic digestion, and can thus behave as true food allergens inducing primary (non-pollen related) sensitizations and triggering systemic reactions. These two cases represent two distinct patterns of sensitization and clinical expression of fruit allergies that are determined by the panallergens involved (LTPs and profilins) and their intrinsic physicochemical properties. Additionally, these two cases also show the improved diagnostic value of Component Resolved Diagnosis, and strengthen its utility in the routine diagnosis and management of patients.

  5. [Allergy to asparagus].

    PubMed

    Tabar, A I; Alvarez, M J; Celay, E; López, R; de Esteban, B; Gómez, B

    2003-01-01

    Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a widely grown vegetable; together with garlic, the onion and the leek, it belongs to the Liliaceae family. Both delayed cell-mediated reactions and IgE-mediated reactions secondary to asparagus have been described. While the former (allergic contact dermatitis) are a fairly common cause of occupational disease, only a few case-reports of IgE-mediated reactions have been published. IgE-mediated reactions can be further grouped into food allergy and reactions due to cutaneous or respiratory exposure, which is often occupational. Anaphylaxis is the most common clinical picture of food allergy, while contact urticaria, rhinitis and asthma, appearing either isolated or associated, are clinical pictures of the latter. Sensitization to different allergens is the likely cause of the different clinical pictures due to asparagus. Their detection and early diagnosis is of prime importance due to the different prognosis and treatment. In the present article we resume our experience over the last 5 years.

  6. Cockroach allergy.

    PubMed

    Katial, Rohit K

    2003-08-01

    The ubiquitous existence of cockroaches and the large-scale domestic infestation seen in inner cities make cockroach proteins a significant indoor allergen and a risk factor for asthma among inner-city residents. Studies have shown that early exposure to high levels of allergen may lead to the development of asthma in individuals with a genetic predisposition to asthma. Although field trials at cockroach abatement do not yield promising results, integrated pest management still remains the best control strategy. In highly susceptible or symptomatic patients, allergen-specific immunotherapy may be beneficial, although data are limited. As molecular techniques improve and recombinant allergens are developed, a more novel form of T-cell-specific immunotherapy may prove to be efficacious without the anaphylactic side effects seen with traditional allergy vaccines.

  7. Allergy prevention.

    PubMed

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  8. Overweight/Obesity and Respiratory and Allergic Disease in Children: International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Two

    PubMed Central

    Weinmayr, Gudrun; Forastiere, Francesco; Büchele, Gisela; Jaensch, Andrea; Strachan, David P.; Nagel, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity and asthma are increasing worldwide. A possible link between the two conditions has been postulated. Methods Cross-sectional studies of stratified random samples of 8–12-year-old children (n = 10 652) (16 centres in affluent and 8 centres in non-affluent countries) used the standardized methodology of ISAAC Phase Two. Respiratory and allergic symptoms were ascertained by parental questionnaires. Tests for allergic disease were performed. Height and weight were measured, and overweight and obesity were defined according to international definitions. Prevalence rates and prevalence odds ratios were calculated. Results Overweight (odds ratio = 1.14, 95%-confidence interval: 0.98; 1.33) and obesity (odds ratio = 1.67, 95%-confidence interval: 1.25; 2.21) were related to wheeze. The relationship was stronger in affluent than in non-affluent centres. Similar results were found for cough and phlegm, rhinitis and eczema but the associations were mostly driven by children with wheeze. There was a clear association of overweight and obesity with airways obstruction (change in FEV1/FVC, −0.90, 95%-confidence interval: −1.33%; −0.47%, for overweight and −2.46%, 95%-confidence interval: −3.84%; −1.07%, for obesity) whereas the results for the other objective markers, including atopy, were null. Conclusions Our data from a large international child population confirm that there is a strong relation of body mass index with wheeze especially in affluent countries. Moreover, body mass index is associated with an objective marker of airways obstruction (FEV1/FVC) but no other objective markers of respiratory and allergic disorders. PMID:25474308

  9. Occupational allergy to animals.

    PubMed

    Seward, J P

    1999-01-01

    This chapter reviews the epidemiology, manifestations, etiologic agents, and exposure controls related to occupational allergies from animals and insects, including both respiratory and dermatologic responses. The overall prevalence of allergic respiratory symptoms in exposed workers is about 23% 4-9% of exposed individuals develop asthma. Symptom development is related to duration and intensity of exposure. The most prevalent dermatologic findings are contact urticaria and eczematous dermatitis. While a history of atopy is associated with the risk of symptom development, this factor has poor predictive value for any given individual. Similarly, skin testing and RAST testing are not sufficiently predictive to be recommended as screening tools, although they may identify individuals at some increased risk. The specific tissue sources of the major allergens are reviewed; for laboratory rats and mice, a urinary protein complex has been implicated. Environmental control of antigens is key in the prevention of allergic disease. Task-specific engineering controls, general environmental hygiene, training, and medical surveillance of workers are important elements of the prevention program.

  10. Mold Allergy: Proper Humidifier Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Training Home Conditions Allergy Allergy: Overview Allergy: Allergens Mold Allergy Proper Humidifier Care Proper Humidifier Care Make ... neglected humidifier can be a major source of mold and mold spores. Learn how to keep a ...

  11. Fire Ant Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Fire ants are a stinging insect typically found in the South/Southeast areas of ... specialized training and skills to test for stinging insect allergy and develop a plan to manage allergies. ...

  12. Antihistamines for allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000549.htm Antihistamines for allergies To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antihistamines are drugs that treat allergy symptoms . When taken by mouth, they come as ...

  13. Learning about Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Well, you and your dad might have allergies. Chain Reaction An allergy (say: AL-ur-jee) is your immune system's reaction to certain plants, animals, foods, insect bites , or other things. Your immune system ...

  14. Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Close ‹ Back to Healthy Living Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the ... Georgeson. How do I know if I have seasonal allergies? According to Dr. Georgeson, the best way to ...

  15. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy-Triggered Asthma Asthma Center Learning About Allergies Ozone, Air Quality, and ... purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All ...

  16. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... triggered by an allergy to something (called an allergen ). In these people, the symptoms of asthma like ... breathing are often brought on by being around allergens. Allergies have a lot to do with your ...

  17. Traveling with Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Act Cleaning Methods Handwashing Camps Schools CDC Guidelines Classroom Cafeteria Colleges & Universities College Food Allergy Program Participating ... Act Cleaning Methods Handwashing Camps Schools CDC Guidelines Classroom Cafeteria Colleges & Universities College Food Allergy Program Participating ...

  18. Milk Allergy in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... though, they can have symptoms if mom has dairy products in her diet . A milk allergy is not ... milk allergy, it's important for you to avoid dairy products because the milk protein that causes allergic reactions ...

  19. Skin Allergy Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... time. Some common medications that can cause skin allergy include penicillin, sulfa drugs, barbiturates and anticonvulsants just to mention a few. Some of the symptoms from drug allergies might be hives, skin rash, itchy skin or ...

  20. Vaccines for allergy

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic. PMID:22521141

  1. [The diagnosis of food allergies].

    PubMed

    Michel, O; Doyen, V

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of food allergies is more than 5 %, rising currently. The clinical presentations are polymorphic and involve the skin, respiratory, vascular and gut systems. The diagnosis is based on the consistancy between the allergic history and the results of the specific IgE investigations. When the relationship between the history and the IgE sensitization is not significant, an oral challenge test with food is indicated under supervision of a reference center. New approach, based on dosage of specific IgE to different constituent (recombinant protein) of each allergen, can predict the severity of the reaction and the cross reactivity between allergens, in some patients.

  2. Occupational allergies in seafood-processing workers.

    PubMed

    Jeebhay, Mohamed F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2012-01-01

    Global increased demand for seafood and its products has been associated with a concomitant rise in fishing, aquaculture, and processing activities. This increased harvesting of seafood is associated with more frequent reporting of allergic health problems among seafood processors. This review outlines the high-risk working populations, work processes, as well as host and environmental exposure risk factors for occupational respiratory and skin allergies. It also provides insights into the major and minor allergens as well as the pathophysiological mechanisms implicated. Diagnostic and preventive approaches are outlined in managing work-related allergy associated with seafood processing.

  3. Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) KidsHealth > For Parents > Seasonal Allergies (Hay ... en español Alergia estacional (fiebre del heno) About Seasonal Allergies "Achoo!" It's your son's third sneezing fit of ...

  4. Diversity of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is defined as an immune system-mediated adverse reaction to food components. Food allergic reactions are mostly IgE mediated and also known as immediate type hypersensitivity (type I reaction). There are several characteristic clinical types of food allergy, such as Anaphylaxis, Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA), and Oral allergy syndrome (OAS). In addition, food allergy is also classified into two types (class 1 and class 2) based on the pathophysiological mechanism. In the class 2 food allergy, pollen allergy causes plant food allergy; therefore this type of allergy is sometimes called Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS). The risk of food allergy (allergenicity) may vary with the treatment of the food allergens. The formation or status of the causative food affects its allergenicity. Class 1 food allergens are generally heat-, enzyme-, and low pH-resistant glycoproteins ranging in size from 10 to 70 kD. Class 1 food allergens induce allergic sensitization via the gastrointestinal tract and are responsible for systemic reactions. Class 2 food allergens are generally heat-labile, susceptible to digestion, and highly homologous with pollen allergens. Taken together, it may be important to consider the diversity of food allergy in order to fight against food allergy.

  5. Allergies: The Hidden Hazard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Doris J.

    1990-01-01

    Children can suffer from allergies that can markedly affect their behavior and school performance. Once an allergy is suspected, teachers and principals can consider allergens inside the school, outside the school, and related to problem foods or chemicals. A sidebar lists some allergy clues to watch for. Includes nine references. (MLH)

  6. Addressing Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…

  7. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Teens > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? A A A en español ¿Las alergias provocan asma? Do allergies cause asthma? The answer to that question is: ...

  8. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Teens > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A en español ¿Las alergias provocan asma? Do allergies cause asthma? The answer to that question is: yes and ...

  9. ICON: food allergy.

    PubMed

    Burks, A Wesley; Tang, Mimi; Sicherer, Scott; Muraro, Antonella; Eigenmann, Philippe A; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Chiang, Wen; Beyer, Kirsten; Wood, Robert; Hourihane, Jonathan; Jones, Stacie M; Lack, Gideon; Sampson, Hugh A

    2012-04-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. In the last several decades, the prevalence of food allergies has increased in several regions throughout the world. Although more than 170 foods have been identified as being potentially allergenic, a minority of these foods cause the majority of reactions, and common food allergens vary between geographic regions. Treatment of food allergy involves strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. In light of the increasing burden of allergic diseases, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; World Allergy Organization; and American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology have come together to increase the communication of information about allergies and asthma at a global level. Within the framework of this collaboration, termed the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, a series of consensus documents called International Consensus ON (ICON) are being developed to serve as an important resource and support physicians in managing different allergic diseases. An author group was formed to describe the natural history, prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of food allergies in the context of the global community.

  10. VERS: Improving Local Programs across the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feichtner, Sheila; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The Vocational Education Resource System (VERS) helps career/vocational educators, counselors, and administrators improve and expand programs for special populations. It offers technical assistance in program administration, instructional strategies, finances, accountability, and grant writing. VERS maintains a regional database of educators,…

  11. [Respiratory complications after transfusion].

    PubMed

    Bernasinski, M; Mertes, P-M; Carlier, M; Dupont, H; Girard, M; Gette, S; Just, B; Malinovsky, J-M

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory complications of blood transfusion have several possible causes. Transfusion-Associated Circulatory Overload (TACO) is often the first mentioned. Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI), better defined since the consensus conference of Toronto in 2004, is rarely mentioned. French incidence is low. Non-hemolytic febrile reactions, allergies, infections and pulmonary embolism are also reported. The objective of this work was to determine the statistical importance of the different respiratory complications of blood transfusion. This work was conducted retrospectively on transfusion accidents in six health centers in Champagne-Ardenne, reported to Hemovigilance between 2000 and 2009 and having respiratory symptoms. The analysis of data was conducted by an expert committee. Eighty-three cases of respiratory complications are found (316,864 blood products). We have counted 26 TACO, 12 TRALI (only 6 cases were identified in the original investigation of Hemovigilance), 18 non-hemolytic febrile reactions, 16 cases of allergies, 5 transfusions transmitted bacterial infections and 2 pulmonary embolisms. Six new TRALI were diagnosed previously labeled TACO for 2 of them, allergy and infection in 2 other cases and diagnosis considered unknown for the last 2. Our study found an incidence of TRALI 2 times higher than that reported previously. Interpretation of the data by a multidisciplinary committee amended 20% of diagnoses. This study shows the imperfections of our system for reporting accidents of blood transfusion when a single observer analyses the medical records.

  12. Food allergy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Rhoda Sheryl

    2003-02-01

    Food allergy affects between 5% and 7.5% of children and between 1% and 2% of adults. The greater prevalence of food allergy in children reflects both the increased predisposition of children to develop food allergies and the development of immunologic tolerance to certain foods over time. Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated food allergies can be classified as those that persist indefinitely and those that are predominantly transient. Although there is overlap between the two groups, certain foods are more likely than others to be tolerated in late childhood and adulthood. The diagnosis of food allergy rests with the detection of food-specific IgE in the context of a convincing history of type I hypersensitivity-mediated symptoms after ingestion of the suspected food or by eliciting IgE-mediated symptoms after controlled administration of the suspected food. Presently, the only available treatment of food allergies is dietary vigilance and administration of self-injectable epinephrine.

  13. [SEAFOOD ALLERGY IN ISRAEL].

    PubMed

    Rottem, Menachem

    2015-10-01

    Allergy to seafood such as shrimps, crab, lobster and fish eggs is relatively infrequent in Israel compared to fish allergies and allergies to other foods. This is mainly due to the fact that most of the population and restaurants preserve and maintain Kosher food. Changes in the population eating habits, partly due to immigration, were followed by increased frequency of such sensitivities in recent years. We describe three typical cases that illustrate the characteristics of allergy to sea foods. Allergy to seafood can present as a single sensitivity or be part of an allergic tendency, atopy, with other allergic manifestations. Diagnosis by allergy skin test or laboratory evaluation by specific IgE is available for most sea foods but not for fish eggs. The current therapeutic approach is strict avoidance and all patients should be provided with and carry with them an epinephrine auto-injector.

  14. [Allergens causing respiratory allergy: the aeroallergens].

    PubMed

    Deschildre, A

    1999-01-01

    Aeroallergens play a major role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, particularly asthma and rhinitis. Indoor allergens, including house dust mites, domestic pets, cockroaches, and molds are of particular importance. Pollens are also recognized as a major source of allergens. The role of these different allergens varies with environment conditions, such as climatic factors, and degree of exposure. Knowledge about allergens has progressed, especially with recent molecular biology studies. Structure and function have been identified. These studies have provided explanations about the relationship between allergic sensitization, allergen exposure, and disease activity, about clinical observations such as allergic cross reactions, and improvement in the production of allergenic extracts (necessary to diagnosis and immunotherapy). Environmental control measures are of particular importance in the prevention and management of allergic diseases.

  15. Natural rubber latex allergy.

    PubMed

    Deval, Ravi; Ramesh, V; Prasad, G B K S; Jain, Arun Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL) is a ubiquitous allergen as it is a component of > 40,000 products in everyday life. Latex allergy might be attributed to skin contact or inhalation of latex particles. Latex allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to NRL, presenting a wide range of clinical symptoms such as angioedema, swelling, cough, asthma, and anaphylactic reactions. Until 1979, latex allergy appeared only as type IV delayed hypersensitivity; subsequently, the proportion of different allergy types drifted towards type IV contact allergy reactions. Several risk factors for sensitization to NRL are already known and well documented. Some authors have established a positive correlation between a history of multiple surgical interventions, atopy, spina bifida malformation, and latex allergy incidence. We suspect an increase in latex allergy incidence in association with increased atopy and sensitivity to environmental allergens in the industrial population. It is often postulated in literature that the groups of workers at risk for this allergy are essentially workers in the latex industry and healthcare professionals. In this population, direct internal and mucosal contact with NRL medical devices may be the route of sensitization as factors such as the number of procedures and use of NRL materials (catheters and tubes) were associated with increased risk of latex sensitization and allergy.

  16. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Upper Respiratory Infections: Assessment of Upper Respiratory Illness during Basic Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-23

    practice of ruling out allergy as a source of URI symptoms before diagnosing an illness as a cold (Lowenstein & Parrino , 1987). The musculoskeletal item...of illness when making a diagnosis of upper respiratory infection (Lowenstein & Parrino , 1987). These gains from incorporating adjustments for allergy...Viruses Causing Common Respiratory Infections in Man. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lowenstein, S.R. & Parrino , T.A. (1987). Management of the

  17. Early life exposure to bisphenol A investigated in mouse models of airway allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Vinje, Nina Eriksen; Samuelsen, Mari; Andreassen, Monica; Groeng, Else-Carin; Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Becher, Rune; Lovik, Martinus; Bodin, Johanna

    2015-09-01

    The impact of early life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) through drinking water was investigated in mouse models of respiratory allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance. Balb/c mice were exposed to BPA (0, 10 or 100 μg/ml), and the offspring were intranasally exposed to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). C3H/HeJ offspring were sensitized with the food allergen lupin by intragastric gavage, after exposure to BPA (0, 1, 10 or 100 μg/ml). In separate offspring, oral tolerance was induced by gavage of 5 mg lupin one week before entering the protocol for the food allergy induction. In the airway allergy model, BPA (100 μg/ml) caused increased eosinophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and a trend of increased OVA-specific IgE levels. In the food allergy and tolerance models, BPA did not alter the clinical anaphylaxis or antibody responses, but induced alterations in splenocyte cytokines and decreased mouse mast cell protease (MMCP)-1 serum levels. In conclusion, early life exposure to BPA through drinking water modestly augmented allergic responses in a mouse model of airway allergy only at high doses, and not in mouse models for food allergy and tolerance. Thus, our data do not support that BPA promotes allergy development at exposure levels relevant for humans.

  18. Fighting Allergies at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, the number of children diagnosed with food allergies has increased significantly--to an estimated 3 million affected in the United States alone (Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network, n.d.). As that number increases, so do the articles, legislation, and policies that are designed to address how to best deal with peanut allergies…

  19. Pet Allergy Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... term treatment for pet allergies. True False False: Allergy shots therapy (immunotherapy) has a proven track record as an effective form of long term treatment. Talk to your allergist / immunologist about whether this treatment approach is right for you. ... Utility navigation Donate ...

  20. Medication/Drug Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... every time after the offending medication is taken. Penicillin and other antibiotics are the medication that most commonly cause allergic reactions. Women appear to have an increased risk for adverse reactions to medications. Facts about Allergies The tendency to develop allergies may be inherited. ...

  1. Hymenoptera venom allergy in humans.

    PubMed

    Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Reactions to Hymenoptera stings may appear as local or systemic responses. According to European data, the incidence of systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings in the general population is 0.3-7.5%, with the value being 0.3-0.8% in children and 14-43% in beekeepers. The most common systemic allergic (anaphylactic) reactions are caused by honeybees (Apis mellifera), and certain species of wasps in the family Vespidae. Severe generalized immediate-type allergic (anaphylactic) reactions to insect stings are of the highest clinical importance. They affect skin, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory and cardiovascular system. The classification of severity of anaphylactic reaction following insect stings is based on the 4-grade Mueller scale. Crucial in patomechanism of anaphylaxis are specific IgE antibodies directed against the components of the venom, which mediate the activation of mast cells, the main effector cells of anaphylaxis. Therapeutic management in insect venom allergy should be considered in the context of prophylaxis, intervention in case symptoms develop, prevention in the form of venom specific immunotherapy (VIT). There are two steps of VIT 1. Initial dose venom immunotherapy (given according to four protocols which differ the time to reach the maintenance dose) 2. Maintenance dose VIT, usually equal 100 µg. Standard treatment time should span 3-5 years. The main mechanisms of immune tolerance that are initiated by VIT are associated with: 1. a decreased reactivity of effector cells, 2. expansion of T regulatory lymphocytes with IL-10 expression. Therapeutic effectiveness amounts to 90-100% in wasp venom allergy and approximately 80% in bee venom allergy.

  2. [Allergy in cosmetology].

    PubMed

    Blondeel, A

    1983-01-01

    The computer analysis of a sample collecting 2,028 patients suffering from an eczematous dermatitis and subordinated to epicutaneous tests allowed us to analyze the rather difficult question of cosmetic allergy. This allergy is observed only in 2 p. 100 of the cases, if one considers the cosmetic allergy isolated; it reaches 5 p. 100 if it is associated with allergens coming from other origins (drugs of professional). However, in a more selected population of 91 patients suffering from a face dermatitis, these levels reach respectively 25 and 43 p. 100. The respective role of topic drugs and cosmetics is studied as well as main allergens associated with cosmetic allergy. The good tolerance of cosmetics encountered in patients allergic to one of their presumed components seems paradoxical. A prevention model of cosmetic allergy is presented, with an hypoallergenic variety of lanolin.

  3. Shellfish allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Kandyil, Roshni M; Davis, Carla M

    2009-08-01

    Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the world's population and can range from a mere inconvenience to a life-threatening condition. Over 90% of food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Shellfish allergy is known to be common and persistent in adults, and is an important cause of food induced anaphylaxis around the world for both children and adults. Most shellfish-allergic children have sensitivity to dust mite and cockroach allergens. Diagnostic cut-off levels for skin prick testing in children with shrimp allergy exist but there are no diagnostic serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) values. All patients with symptoms of IgE-mediated reactions to shellfish should receive epinephrine autoinjectors, even if the initial symptoms are mild. In this study, we review three cases of clinical presentations of shellfish allergy in children.

  4. Diagnosing and managing food allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Edward; Fox, Adam; Fitzsimons, Roisin

    2011-06-01

    The prevalence of food allergy in children in the UK is now around 5%. The number of children put on restricted diets by their parents because of presumed allergy is likely to be much higher. Accurate diagnosis of food allergy is essential in order to ensure that the correct foods are carefully avoided while safe foods are not excluded unnecessarily. IgE-mediated (immediate type) reactions are the result of mast cell degranulation leading to histamine release. The typical signs of lip swelling, urticaria and possible progression to respiratory compromise (anaphylaxis) are usually clearly described, occurring within minutes of exposure to the food. Non IgE-mediated (delayed type) responses tend to start 2-6 hours, occasionally longer, after exposure and cause less specific signs/symptoms, less obviously allergic in origin. Where an immediate type allergic reaction is suspected on clinical history, allergy testing should be performed to confirm the diagnosis. This could involve either skin prick testing or specific IgE blood tests. Results must be interpreted in the context of the clinical history. The mainstay of management is allergen avoidance. The child and carers also need to know how to recognise and treat any future allergic reactions. There should be a written emergency plan in place. The plan should include advice to take a fast-acting antihistamine if any accidental exposure and reactions occur. Where there is a history of anaphylactic reaction or ongoing asthma, adrenaline auto-injectors should be prescribed as these are the major risk factors for future severe reactions. Non IgE-mediated food allergy is most common in early infancy. The diagnosis of non IgE-mediated food allergy relies on a two-stage process: strict exclusion of suspected allergen(s), only one at a time; re-challenge with suspected allergen(s), one at a time, to see if symptoms recur.

  5. [Food allergy in childhood].

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11  months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence.

  6. [Food allergy in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Werfel, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life.

  7. [Travel and patients with allergies].

    PubMed

    Miltgen, J; N'Guyen, G; Cuguilliere, A; Marotel, C; Bonnet, D

    1997-01-01

    By changing their surroundings and lifestyle, travelers with allergic conditions exposed themselves to new risks. The main perennial allergens are house dust mites which thrive in tropical areas and can be especially sensitizing. The risk of seasonal reactions to grass-pollens varies from region to region. Reactions to some highly sensitizing respiratory allergens can occur in travelers who return to regions where they were previously exposed. Subjects with food allergies should beware of possible reactions to ingredients in exotic dishes. The bites of several insects can cause anaphylactic reactions. Some medications required for tropical travel (e.g. antimalarial drugs) can trigger severe hypersensitivity reactions. Avoidance of allergens is more difficult during travel. Travelers with allergic conditions should carry alert identification cards and medications for routine as well as emergency treatment including self-injectable adrenaline.

  8. Metal allergy in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Goon, Anthony T J; Goh, C L

    2005-03-01

    This is a clinical epidemiologic study to determine the frequency of metal allergy among patch-tested patients in the years 2001-2003. The results are compared with those of previous studies. All patients diagnosed as having allergic contact dermatitis in the National Skin Centre, Singapore, from January 2001 to December 2003 were studied retrospectively. The frequency of positive patch tests to the following metals were nickel 19.9%, chromate 5.6%, cobalt 8.2% and gold 8.3%. The frequency of nickel allergy has been steadily rising over the last 20 years. The most common sources of nickel allergy are costume jewelry, belt buckles, wrist watches and spectacle frames. After declining from 1984 to 1990, chromate and cobalt allergies have also been steadily increasing subsequently. The most common sources of chromate allergy were cement, leather and metal objects. Most positive patch tests to cobalt are regarded as co-sensitization due to primary nickel or chromate allergies. There has been a steep increase in positive patch tests to gold from 2001 to 2003, which is difficult to explain because the relevance and sources of such positive patch tests can rarely be determined with certainty. There has been an overall rise in the frequency of metal allergy in the last 20 years.

  9. Porcine allergy and IgE.

    PubMed

    Rupa, Prithy; Schmied, Julie; Wilkie, Bruce N

    2009-11-15

    Anaphylaxis was reported in 1963 in pigs experimentally sensitized with ovalbumin and was subsequently associated indirectly with IgE-related antibodies by functional assays to confirm heat-labile passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), reverse passive anaphylaxis (RPA) and Prausnitz-Küstner (PK) reactions to this and other allergens. The immunoglobulin mediating immediate hypersensitivity could be cross-adsorbed with anti-human IgE. Porcine IgE epsilon chain has been cloned and sequenced. Rabbit anti-pig IgE has been described by two groups, as has cross reactivity with pig IgE of various heterologous polyclonal and monoclonal anti-IgEs. Pigs develop transient post-weaning food allergy to soy allergens which can be prevented by pre-weaning feeding of soy proteins in sufficient quantity. Natural hypersensitivity also occurs to nematodes. Recently, experimental allergy has been induced in outbred pigs to peanut and to egg allergens which manifest as respiratory, cutaneous and enteric signs similar to those of human food allergy. These models are platforms for comparative allergy research as realistic alternatives to use of inbred mice or humans for investigation of pathogenesis, prophylaxis and therapy.

  10. Drug and vaccine allergy.

    PubMed

    Kelso, John M

    2015-02-01

    Most children with a history of penicillin allergy are labeled allergic and denied treatment with penicillin and sometimes other beta-lactam antibiotics. Most of these children never were or are no longer allergic to penicillin. Penicillin skin testing and oral challenge can identify patients who are not currently allergic, allowing them to be treated with penicillin. Children with egg allergy are often denied influenza vaccination, because the vaccine contains a small amount of egg protein. However, recent studies have demonstrated that children with even severe egg allergy can safely receive the vaccine, reducing their risk of the morbidity and mortality associated with influenza.

  11. Allergy to olive pollen: a study of four family members.

    PubMed

    Kalogeromitros, D; Armenaka, M; Toumbis-Ioannou, E; Koumandaki, E; Papasteriades, C; Lombardero, M; Katsarou, A

    2001-01-01

    We describe four family members with respiratory and dermatological manifestations of olive pollen allergy. The purpose of this study was 1) to investigate whether these patients' sera react to the same or different olive allergens, and 2) to identify common HLA class II antigens.

  12. Itching for Allergy Relief?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Archived Content The content on ... National Allergy Bureau More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical ...

  13. Ready for Spring Allergies?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to manage symptoms that come with a high pollen count, allergists say To use the sharing features ... seasonal allergies how they prepared for the high pollen counts that come with warmer weather. The survey ...

  14. Kids with Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosed Real Families Faces of Food Allergies Rising Stars Gracie's Silver Linings Daniel's Confidence Ciara Builds a ... all recall alerts See all recent news Rising Stars Thriving After Anaphylaxis MEET ALANNA Personal Support Find ...

  15. Food allergies (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... upon subsequent exposure to the substance. An actual food allergy, as opposed to simple intolerance due to the lack of digesting enzymes, is indicated by the production of antibodies to the food allergen, and by the release of histamines and ...

  16. Allergy Shots (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shots Help Allergy shots help the body build immunity to specific allergens, thus eventually preventing or lessening ... the immune system to safely adjust and build immunity to the allergens. This is called the buildup ...

  17. NICKEL ALLERGY: Surgeons Beware.

    PubMed

    Axe, Jeremie M; Sinz, Nathan J; Axe, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    When performing an orthopaedic device implantation, it should be routine practice for the surgeon to ask the patient if he or she has a metal allergy, and more specifically a nickel allergy. Ask the patient about costume jewelry or button reactions. If it is an elective surgery, obtain a confirmatory test with the aid of a dermatologist or allergist. It is recommended to use a non-nickel implant if the surgery is urgent, the patient has a confirmed allergy, or the patient does not want to undergo testing, as these implants are readily available in 2015. Finally, if the patient has a painful joint arthroplasty and all other causes have been ruled out, order a metal allergy test to aid in diagnosis.

  18. History of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, Brunello

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we will first consider whether there is real evidence on the basis of literature for early descriptions in antiquity of pathogenic reactions after food intake that could be comparable to allergy, for instance in the scriptures of Hippocrates or Lucretius. On this topic we are skeptical, which is in agreement with the medical historian Hans Schadewaldt. We also assert that it is unlikely that King Richard III was the first food-allergic individual in medical literature. Most probably it was not a well-planned poisoning ('allergy') with strawberries, but rather a birth defect ('… his harm was ever such since his birth') that allowed the Lord Protector to bring Mylord of Ely to the scaffold in the Tower, as we can read in The History of King Richard III by Thomas More (1478-1535; published by his son-in-law, Rastell, in 1557). In 1912, the American pediatrician Oscar Menderson Schloss (1882-1952) was probably the first to describe scratch tests in the diagnosis of food allergy. Milestones in the practical diagnosis of food allergy are further discussed, including scratch tests, intradermal tests, modified prick tests and prick-to-prick tests. False-negative results can be attributed to the phenomenon of a 'catamnestic reaction' according to Max Werner (1911-1987), or to the fermentative degradation of food products. Prior to the discovery of immunoglobulin E, which marked a turning point in allergy diagnosis, and the introduction of the radioallergosorbent test in 1967, several more or less reliable techniques were used in the diagnosis of food allergy, such as pulse rate increase after food intake according to Coca, the leukopenic index, drop in basophils or drastic platelet decrease. The 'leukocytotoxic test' (Bryan's test), today called the 'ALCAT' test, shows no scientific evidence. The double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of food allergy. For the future, component-resolved diagnostics

  19. Food Allergy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Shenassa, M. Medhi

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to establish a rational approach to the assessment of children with food allergy related to an immunologic state in which alteration of response to antigenic material has developed after repeated exposure. The author offers a practical approach to the problem of food allergy in children, dispels some of the myths surrounding the disorder, and discusses some of the popular but unproven and controversial practices relating to its management. PMID:21253178

  20. Adipokines and their role in allergies.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, G; Caimmi, D; Raschetti, R; Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Salpietro, C; Caimmi, S; Castellazzi, A M

    2011-10-01

    Both allergic disorders and obesity keep increasing in industrialized countries. Even though a strong association between obesity and allergy- related diseases has been reported in several studies, no published data show a scientific and firm link in-between the two conditions. In general, obesity and weight gain have been associated with an increased risk of asthma and allergic rhinitis. Asthma, allergic rhinitis and obesity have a common inflammatory pattern that could therefore justify their association. In fact, the chronic inflammation that characterizes the increase in white adipose tissue typically pushes the immune system toward a Th2 pattern. Such a polarization might, consequentially, worsen a pre-existing allergic disease or even stimulate the evolution from a sensitization to a respiratory form of allergy. Several studies have been published on the role of different adipokines on allergic diseases. We focus our review on the role of adipokines on asthma and allergic rhinitis.

  1. Hygiene factors associated with childhood food allergy and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anne Marie; Walkner, Madeline; Caruso, Deanna; Bryce, Paul J.; Wang, Xiaobin; Pongracic, Jacqueline A.; Smith, Bridget M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood food allergy and asthma rates are increasing. The hygiene hypothesis has been proposed as an explanation for the increased incidence of allergic disease. Objective: To describe the association of childhood food allergy and asthma with hygiene factors, such as the number of siblings, antibiotic use, infection history, pet exposure, child care exposure, and maternal–child factors. Methods: Children ages 0–21 years old (N = 1359) were recruited for a cross-sectional family-based study, including children with food allergy and children without food allergy, and their siblings. We assessed the associations between childhood food allergy and asthma with hygiene factors. Results: Of the 1359 children, 832 (61.2%) had food allergy, and 406 (30%) had asthma. In the adjusted analysis, the prevalence of food allergy was increased if there was a history of skin infection (prevalence ratio [RRR] 1.12 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.01–1.24]) or eczema (RRR 1.89 [95% CI, 1.70–2.10]). The prevalence of asthma was increased with a history of respiratory syncytial virus infection (RRR 1.60 [95% CI, 1.34–1.90]) or eczema (RRR 1.54 [95% CI, 1.27–1.86]). A greater number of siblings were associated with a decreased prevalence of food allergy (RRR 0.79 [95% CI, 0.75–0.84]) and asthma (RRR 0.82 [95% CI, 0.74–0.91]). Conclusion: Our findings supported the accumulating evidence of an association between skin infections and eczema with food allergy. Because these results could be subject to recall bias, additional prospective studies are needed to substantiate these findings.

  2. Papain Induced Occupational Asthma with Kiwi and Fig Allergy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Wen, Liping

    2016-03-01

    Papain is a proteolytic enzyme which is widely used in food industry, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Occupational and non-occupational papain allergies have previously been documented; however, there are limited publications about papain allergy with its relative fruit allergy. Here, we present a case of occupational, IgE-mediated papain allergy with kiwi fruit and fig fruit allergy. A 53-year-old man suffered from rhinitis for several years, with the onset of his symptoms coinciding with the time he started to work at a sausage processing plant where papain is often used as a meat tenderizer. He began to experience symptoms of chest tightness, shortness of breath and wheezing shortly after starting work 5 years ago. Furthermore, he experienced several episodes of oral itching, and tongue and oropharyngeal angioedema after injestion of kiwi fruit and fig fruit. The patient had a lifelong history of allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, and childhood asthma. Specific IgE was positive to kiwi fruit, papain and chymopapain (2.95 kUA/L, >100 kUA/L, and 95.0 kUA/L, respectively). Similar bands at 10-15 kDa in blotting with papain and kiwi fruit extracts were found. This patient showed a potential association between papain allergy and sensitization to kiwi fruit. We also reviewed 13 patients with papain allergy published in the literature, with 85% (11/13) of the patients sensitized through the respiratory tract, and 40% (4/11) having atopy. Further studies should focus on the determination of cross-reactive allergens between papain and its fruit relatives, and the prevalence of food allergy in patients with papain allergy should be investigated in a relatively large cohort.

  3. Treating Allergies, Hay Fever, and Hives

    MedlinePlus

    ... other allergies. Newer drugs include Allegra, Claritin, Clarinex, Zyrtec, and Xyzal. They are available as generics and ... drugs (Benadryl Allergy, Chlor-Trimeton Allergy, Dimetapp Allergy). Cetirizine tablets Loratadine tablets, dissolving tablets, and liquid • The ...

  4. [Animals and fungi as allergy inducers].

    PubMed

    Helbling, A

    2001-05-01

    Pets particularly dog and cat are the men's best friend. In the daily practice respiratory allergy to animal proteins are not uncommon and in some areas the frequency is even higher than allergy to house dust mites. In Switzerland nearly half of the households keeps some kind of a domestic animal with cats followed by dogs as the principal pets. Because the exposure to domestic animals is perennial, allergic symptoms such as rhinoconjunctivitis or asthma usually are less acute than due to pollen or an occupational allergen. The best and most effective management of a domestic animal allergy is to avoid having contact with the relevant pet. Because of personal and emotional conflicts other strategies are employed to reduce allergen levels of the pet such as by washing or by restriction of the territory. For many years, fungal spores have been recognized as potential causes of respiratory allergies. Besides the more community recognized microfungi or molds such as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus or Cladosporium herbarum the class of basidiomycetes--physically the largest and morphologically the most complex fungi--are known to produce allergic symptoms. This class consists of about 14,000 species, including mushrooms, bracket fungi, puffballs, toad stools and jelly fungi, as well as the plant-pathogenic rusts and smuts. Clinically, symptoms due to fungal allergens are not distinguishable from those due to pollen, however, in recent years asthma attacks particularly in young people have been associated with high spore counts in the air. Upon contact fungal components may cause eczema or trigger inflammatory skin eruptions in a subgroup of patients with atopic eczema. Though food allergies to mushrooms are largely anecdotal, a few well documented cases mainly due to Boletus edulis (king bolete or cepe) have been published recently. Since fungal spores are ubiquitous atmospheric components avoidance measures are often not achievable. Nevertheless, some

  5. All about Allergies (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... eyes are called allergic "shiners.") Food, Medicines, or Insect Allergy Symptoms wheezing trouble breathing coughing hoarseness throat ... allergens such as dust, mold, pollens, animals, and insect stings. They're not used for food allergies. ...

  6. Seasonal Allergies: Diagnosis, Treatment & Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Seasonal Allergies Diagnosis, Treatment & Research Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... ear infection Asthma exacerbation Sinus infection Asthma exacerbation Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Asthma and Allergic Diseases Cooperative ...

  7. Occupational allergy to squid (Loligo vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Wiszniewska, M; Tymoszuk, D; Pas-Wyroślak, A; Nowakowska-Świrta, E; Chomiczewska-Skóra, D; Pałczyński, C; Walusiak-Skorupa, J

    2013-06-01

    Occupational allergy from exposure to squid has been rarely described, mainly as contact dermatitis or urticaria. Our report presents the first case of occupational asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis and contact urticaria to squid in a 33-year-old seafood production worker, with documented increased eosinophilia in the nasal and tear fluids after specific inhalation challenge test (SICT) with squid. IgE-mediated sensitization to squid was confirmed by positive skin prick test and opened skin test with squid extract. SICT demonstrated a direct and significant link between the exposure to squid and the allergic response from the respiratory system and conjunctiva.

  8. Lettuce contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy.

  9. Fish allergy: in review.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  10. Parametric Model Checking with VerICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapik, Michał; Niewiadomski, Artur; Penczek, Wojciech; Półrola, Agata; Szreter, Maciej; Zbrzezny, Andrzej

    The paper presents the verification system verICS, extended with the three new modules aimed at parametric verification of Elementary Net Systems, Distributed Time Petri Nets, and a subset of UML. All the modules exploit Bounded Model Checking for verifying parametric reachability and the properties specified in the logic PRTECTL - the parametric extension of the existential fragment of CTL.

  11. Food allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Baral, V R; Hourihane, J O'B

    2005-11-01

    Food allergy is being increasingly recognised with the highest prevalence being in preschool children. Pathogenesis varies so diagnosis rests on careful history and clinical examination, appropriate use of skin prick and serum-specific IgE testing, food challenge, and supervised elimination diets. A double blind placebo controlled food challenge is the gold standard diagnostic test. Avoidance of the allergenic food is the key towards successful management. IgE mediated food allergy may present as a potentially fatal anaphylactic reaction, and management consists of the appropriate use of adrenaline (epinephrine) and supportive measures. Sensitisation remains a key target for intervention. Disease modifying agents are currently under trial for managing difficult allergies. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach and follow up.

  12. Indoor and Outdoor Allergies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhavi; Hays, Amy

    2016-09-01

    In last 30 to 40 years there has been a significant increase in the incidence of allergy. This increase cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Increasing air pollution and its interaction with biological allergens along with changing lifestyles are contributing factors. Dust mites, molds, and animal allergens contribute to most of the sensitization in the indoor setting. Tree and grass pollens are the leading allergens in the outdoor setting. Worsening air pollution and increasing particulate matter worsen allergy symptoms and associated morbidity. Cross-sensitization of allergens is common. Treatment involves avoidance of allergens, modifying lifestyle, medical treatment, and immunotherapy.

  13. Cocamidopropyl betaine allergy.

    PubMed

    Mowad, C M

    2001-12-01

    Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) is a surfactant, and reports of allergic contact dermatitis to this chemical have been reported in the literature. Although most commonly found in rinse-off products, the chemical nonetheless has been shown to induce allergy. The actual component responsible for allergic reaction may be the final compound itself, CAPB, or one of the substances used in its synthesis that may be present as an impurity. Allergy to CAPB is most commonly seen in a head and neck distribution, although other patterns have been identified.

  14. Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. The Respiratory System The respiratory system is made up of organs ... vessels, and the muscles that enable breathing. The Respiratory System Figure A shows the location of the respiratory ...

  15. [Allergies in occupational health. Prevention aspects].

    PubMed

    Vicente-Herrero, M T; Iñiguez de la Torre, M V Ramírez; Capdevila García, L M; López-González, A A; Terradillos García, M J

    2012-04-01

    The concern in all countries of occupational health has led to the study of occupational risk factors and their impact on health. But maintaining the health of workers is increasingly complex, especially in occupational allergic diseases, which have increased in parallel with the increased use in industries of potentially irritating chemicals or allergens, leading to skin or respiratory sensitization. Diseases arising from these immunological substances are classified by Spanish Legislation as occupational diseases, as set out in Royal Decree 1299/2006, of November 10, 2006 (Group 1, Group 4 and Group 5). The most important ones in occupational medicine are allergic respiratory diseases and dermatological allergic diseases, although there are other allergies of interest, such as those involving mucous membranes (allergic eye diseases). A joint collaboration between the different medical disciplines involved to improve prevention at work is highly desirable.

  16. Molecular Mechanisms of Nickel Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masako; Arakaki, Rieko; Yamada, Akiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Kudo, Yasusei; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact hypersensitivity to metals is a delayed-type allergy. Although various metals are known to produce an allergic reaction, nickel is the most frequent cause of metal allergy. Researchers have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms of metal allergy using animal models and human patients. Here, the immunological and molecular mechanisms of metal allergy are described based on the findings of previous studies, including those that were recently published. In addition, the adsorption and excretion of various metals, in particular nickel, is discussed to further understand the pathogenesis of metal allergy. PMID:26848658

  17. Going Nuts over Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Some 600,000 children in the US are allergic to peanuts. Of 400 elementary school nurses, 44% cite increased food-allergic students in the past five years. Peanut allergy doubled in children from 1997 to 2002, and yet peanuts are only one of six foods most often causing allergic reactions in children, including milk, eggs, wheat, soy, and tree…

  18. [Immunology of contact allergy].

    PubMed

    Martin, S F

    2011-10-01

    Contact allergy is a skin disease that is caused by the reaction of the immune system to low molecular weight chemicals. A hallmark of contact allergens is their chemical reactivity, which is not exhibited by toxic irritants. Covalent binding of contact allergens to or complex formation with proteins is essential for the activation of the immune system. As a consequence antigenic epitopes are formed, which are recognized by contact allergen-specific T cells. The generation of effector and memory T cells causes the high antigen specificity and the repeated antigen-specific skin reaction of contact allergy. New findings reveal that the less specific reaction of the innate immune system to contact allergens closely resembles the reaction to an infection. Therefore, contact allergy can be viewed as an immunologic misunderstanding since the skin contact with chemical allergens is interpreted as an infection. The growing understanding of the molecular and cellular pathologic mechanisms of contact allergy can aid the development of specific therapies and of in vitro alternatives to animal testing for the identification of contact allergens.

  19. Christmas tree allergy: mould and pollen studies.

    PubMed

    Wyse, D M; Malloch, D

    1970-12-05

    A history of respiratory or other allergic symptoms during the Christmas season is occasionally obtained from allergic patients and can be related to exposure to conifers at home or in school. Incidence and mechanism of production of these symptoms were studied. Of 1657 allergic patients, respiratory and skin allergies to conifers occurred in 7%. This seasonal syndrome includes sneezing, wheezing and transitory skin rashes. The majority of patients develop their disease within 24 hours, but 15% experience symptoms after several days' delay. Mould and pollen studies were carried out in 10 test sites before, during and after tree placement in the home. Scrapings from pine and spruce bark yielded large numbers of Penicillium, Epicoccum and Alternaria, but these failed to become airborne. No significant alteration was discovered in the airborne fungi in houses when trees were present. Pollen studies showed release into air of weed, grass and tree pollens while Christmas trees were in the house. Oleoresins of the tree balsam are thought to be the most likely cause of the symptoms designated as Christmas tree allergy.

  20. [Cypress pollen allergy].

    PubMed

    Charpin, D; Calleja, M; Pichot, C; Penel, V; Hugues, B; Poncet, P

    2013-12-01

    Cypress belongs to the Cupressaceae family, which includes 140 species with non-deciduous foliage. The most important genera in allergic diseases are Cupressus sempervirens or Green cypress, Cupressus arizonica or Blue cypress, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus communis and Thuya. Because J. oxycedrus pollinates in October, C. sempervirens in January and February, C. arizonica in February and March, J. communis in April, the symptomatic period is long-lasting. Because of global warming, the pollination period is tending to last longer and Cupressaceae species are becoming established further the north. In Mediterranean countries, cypress is by far the most important pollinating species, accounting for half of the total pollination. The major allergens belong to group 1. The other allergens from cypress and Juniper share 75 to 97 % structural homology with group 1 major allergens. The prevalence of cypress allergy in the general population ranges from 5 % to 13 %, according to exposure to the pollen. Among outpatients consulting an allergist, between 9 and 35 %, according to different studies, are sensitized to cypress pollen. Repeated cross-sectional studies performed at different time intervals have demonstrated a threefold increase in the percentage of cypress allergy. Risk factors include a genetic predisposition and/or a strong exposure to pollen, but air pollutants could play a synergistic role. The study of the natural history of cypress allergy allows the identification of a subgroup of patients who have no personal or family history of atopy, whose disease began later in life, with low total IgE and often monosensitization to cypress pollen. In these patients, the disease is allergic than rather atopic. In the clinical picture, rhinitis is the most prevalent symptom but conjunctivitis the most disabling. A cross-reactivity between cypress and peach allergy has been demonstrated. The pharmacological treatment of cypress allergy is not different from

  1. Cow's milk protein allergy in children: a practical guide.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Baldi, Francesco; Bendandi, Barbara; Calzone, Luigi; Marani, Miris; Pasquinelli, Pamela

    2010-01-15

    A joint study group on cow's milk allergy was convened by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Allergy and by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Gastroenterology to focus best practice for diagnosis, management and follow-up of cow's milk allergy in children and to offer a common approach for allergologists, gastroenterologists, general paediatricians and primary care physicians.The report prepared by the study group was discussed by members of Working Groups who met three times in Italy. This guide is the result of a consensus reached in the following areas. Cow's milk allergy should be suspected in children who have immediate symptoms such as acute urticaria/angioedema, wheezing, rhinitis, dry cough, vomiting, laryngeal edema, acute asthma with severe respiratory distress, anaphylaxis. Late reactions due to cow's milk allergy are atopic dermatitis, chronic diarrhoea, blood in the stools, iron deficiency anaemia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, constipation, chronic vomiting, colic, poor growth (food refusal), enterocolitis syndrome, protein-losing enteropathy with hypoalbuminemia, eosinophilic oesophagogastroenteropathy. An overview of acceptable means for diagnosis is included. According to symptoms and infant diet, three different algorithms for diagnosis and follow-up have been suggested.

  2. [Birch pollen allergy].

    PubMed

    Lavaud, F; Fore, M; Fontaine, J-F; Pérotin, J M; de Blay, F

    2014-02-01

    In the North-East of France, birch is the main tree responsible of spring pollen allergy. However, the epidemiology of sensitization to birch pollen remains unclear. Monosensitization to birch pollen seems rare because of the frequency of cross-reactions with other pollens of the same botanical family via the major allergen Bet v 1. Around one third of patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis due to birch pollen are also asthmatics and a half suffer from a food allergy, essentially an oral syndrome due to rosaceae fruits eaten raw. The molecular allergens of birch pollen are well-known and have been cloned. They are available for use in in vitro diagnostic tests and also in clinical trials of specific immunotherapy.

  3. Immunotherapy in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Toral; Bryce, Paul J

    2010-05-01

    Food allergies are caused by immune responses to food proteins and represent a breakdown of oral tolerance. They can range from mild pruritus to life-threatening anaphylaxis. The only current consensus for treatment is food avoidance, which is fraught with compliance issues. For this reason, there has been recent interest in immunotherapy, which may induce desensitization and possibly even tolerance. Through these effects, immunotherapy may decrease the potential for adverse serious reactions with accidental ingestions while potentially leading to an overall health benefit. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of food allergy and give an overview of the various immunotherapeutic options and current supporting evidence, as well as look towards the future of potential novel therapeutic modalities.

  4. Immunotherapy in food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Kamdar, Toral; Bryce, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Food allergies are caused by immune responses to food proteins and represent a breakdown of oral tolerance. They can range from mild pruritis to life-threatening anaphylaxis. The only current consensus for treatment is food avoidance, which is fraught with compliance issues. For this reason, there has been recent interest in immunotherapy, which may induce desensitization and possibly even tolerance. Through these effects, immunotherapy may decrease the potential for adverse serious reactions with accidental ingestions while potentially leading to an overall health benefit. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of food allergy and give an overview of the various immunotherapeutic options and current supporting evidence, as well as look towards the future of potential novel therapeutic modalities. PMID:20543886

  5. Aspirin Allergy: What Are the Symptoms?

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergy I think I may have an aspirin allergy. What are the symptoms and what can I do? Answers from James ... aspirin are common. If you have an aspirin allergy or sensitivity, you may also have a reaction ...

  6. How to Control Your Seasonal Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Managing Allergies How to Control Your Seasonal Allergies Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents Fast ... elder, cottonwood, maple, palm, poplar, or willow trees. Seasonal Allergies: Nuisance or Real Health Threat? For most people, ...

  7. Food Allergy Research and Education (FARE)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to cookbooks and food allergy awareness materials, FARE's online store has a variety of resources to help you live well with food allergies. Start Shopping True Stories Beth F. Food Allergy Mom Christina ...

  8. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development.

  9. Mechanisms of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Helm, R M; Burks, A W

    2000-12-01

    The prevalence of food allergy continues to rise, particularly in 'westernized' societies; it has been linked to the 'hygiene hypothesis' and the increased diversity of food consumption worldwide. The pathogenic mechanisms and Th1/Th2 paradigm are being closely examined with respect to the occurrence of inflammatory and injury/repair responses at different mucosal sites. Genetically modified plants as potential food sources and allergenicity are current topics of controversy.

  10. [Stress and allergy].

    PubMed

    Radosević-Vidacek, Biserka; Macan, Jelena; Kosćec, Adrijana

    2004-06-01

    Stress is one of the components in the complex interaction of environmental, genetic, physiological, psychological, behavioural and social factors that can influence the body's ability to remain healthy or become healthy, to resist or overcome a disease. Stress can alter neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms of health and disease through various psychosocial processes. In addition, it can affect health through the impact on health-impairing behaviours and on compliance with medical regimens. At the same time, the relationship between stress and health is not unidirectional but bi-directional. Current views on the relation between stress and allergy vary from the denial of any relationship that could fundamentally help in allergy treatment to the widespread opinion that psychological stress can exacerbate some skin symptoms and precipitate asthma. The role of stress in the genesis, incidence and symptomatology of allergy still remains a controversial issue since the mechanisms of that relationship are not well understood. Starting from the biopsychosocial model of disease, we introduced the Social Readjustment Rating Scale which measures stressful life events, and the WHOQOL-BREF which measures subjective quality of life, into an extensive multidisciplinary study of immunotoxic effects of indoor bioaerosols and lifestyle. This paper describes the characteristics of those two questionnaires and discusses the relationship between stress and various domains of the quality of life. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale proved to be a reliable predictor for quality of life in the domains of physical health and environment. Future analyses will examine the role of stress and subjective quality of life in allergy.

  11. Probiotics and food allergy.

    PubMed

    Castellazzi, Anna Maria; Valsecchi, Chiara; Caimmi, Silvia; Licari, Amelia; Marseglia, Alessia; Leoni, Maria Chiara; Caimmi, Davide; Miraglia del Giudice, Michele; Leonardi, Salvatore; La Rosa, Mario; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2013-07-29

    The exact prevalence of food allergy in the general population is unknown, but almost 12% of pediatric population refers a suspicion of food allergy. IgE mediated reactions to food are actually the best-characterized types of allergy, and they might be particularly harmful especially in children. According to the "hygiene hypothesis" low or no exposure to exogenous antigens in early life may increase the risk of allergic diseases by both delaying the development of the immune tolerance and limiting the Th2/Th1 switch. The critical role of intestinal microbiota in the development of immune tolerance improved recently the interest on probiotics, prebiotics, antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acid, folate and vitamins, which seem to have positive effects on the immune functions.Probiotics consist in bacteria or yeast, able to re-colonize and restore microflora symbiosis in intestinal tract. One of the most important characteristics of probiotics is their safety for human health. Thanks to their ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and to modulate and stabilize the composition of gut microflora, probiotics bacteria may play an important role in the regulation of intestinal and systemic immunity. They actually seem capable of restoring the intestinal microbic equilibrium and modulating the activation of immune cells.Several studies have been recently conducted on the role of probiotics in preventing and/or treating allergic disorders, but the results are often quite contradictory, probably because of the heterogeneity of strains, the duration of therapy and the doses administered to patients. Therefore, new studies are needed in order to clarify the functions and the utility of probiotics in food allergies and ion other types of allergic disorders.

  12. Immunotherapy for mold allergy.

    PubMed

    Coop, Christopher A

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this article is to review the available studies regarding mold immunotherapy. A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE to identify peer-reviewed articles related to mold immunotherapy using the following keywords: mold, allergy, asthma, and immunotherapy. In addition, references cited within these articles were also reviewed. Articles were selected based on their relevance to the topic. Allergic responses to inhaled mold antigens are a recognized factor in allergic rhinitis and asthma. There are significant problems with respect to the production of relevant allergen material for the diagnosis and treatment of mold allergy with immunotherapy. Mold allergens contain proteases and should not be mixed with other allergens for immunotherapy. Most of the immunotherapy studies focus on two molds, Alternaria and Cladosporium. There is a lack of randomized placebo-controlled trials when evaluating the efficacy of mold immunotherapy with trials only focusing on immunotherapy to Alternaria and Cladosporium. Additional studies are needed regarding mold allergy and immunotherapy focusing on which molds are important for causing allergic disease.

  13. Latex allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Niggemann, B; Breiteneder, H

    2000-02-01

    Natural rubber is a component of the latex of the tropical Hevea brasiliensis tree which is widely used in the manufacturing of medical devices and a large variety of articles for everyday use. Over a dozen allergens have been identified in the latex of H. brasiliensis. The allergens Hev b 1, Hev b 3, Hev b 6, and Hev b 7 are proteins that are involved in the biosynthesis of rubber or the coagulation of latex. Allergens that are part of the plant's defense system are represented by Hev b 2 and class I endochitinases. The allergens Hev b 4, Hev b 5, and Hev b 8-10 were classified as either structural or housekeeping proteins. Immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions to proteins present in Hevea latex were first described in 1927. Since then, natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy has become an important medical problem for an increasing number of individuals. Sensitization mainly occurs by wound or mucosal contact with NRL devices during surgery or by inhalation of airborne allergens released from powdered latex gloves. The number of surgical interventions and an atopic disposition are the most important risk factors for developing latex allergy, especially in children with spina bifida. Exposure to NRL products should be carefully avoided for individuals who belong to high-risk groups. Initial studies on establishing a latex-free environment for surgery in all spina bifida patients have reported on a decrease in sensitization and allergy to NRL.

  14. [Allergy to macadamia nut].

    PubMed

    Inaba, Yasuko; Yagami, Akiko; Suzuki, Kayoko; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2007-07-01

    The patient was a 23-year-old female with a history of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and allergic conjunctivitis. In her fourth year of primary school, she ate macadamia nuts and developed oral discomfort and generalized uticaria. In her second year of junior high school, she ate macadamia nuts and developed oral and pharyngeal discomfort, followed by generalized uticaria and dyspnea. At the age of 20 years, she also developed oral discomfort after eating vegetables in a Chinese dish containing macadamia nuts and visited our department for close examination. A scratch test of extract oil (concentration, as is) was positive, and a diagnosis of immediate allergy due to macadamia nuts was made. Thereafter, she avoided macadamia nuts completely and had no further recurrence. This patient developed oral allergy syndrome (OAS) after eating macadamia nuts. However, she was negative for Bet v1 and Bet v2 as allergens in white birch pollinosis, in which OAS has been most frequently reported. She had Japanese cedar pollinosis, but its onset was when she was in her second year of high school. Therefore, it is unlikely that Japanese cedar pollen is a sensitization antigen for macadamia nut allergy.

  15. Overview of penicillin allergy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Christopher; Mahmood, Mubashar M; Teuber, Suzanne S; Gershwin, M Eric

    2012-08-01

    Allergy to penicillin is the most commonly reported antibiotic allergy. However, most patients who report a positive history of a prior reaction to penicillin are not found to be allergic to penicillin upon skin testing. Often, this history is vague or based on a parent's recollection of an event that occurred in the distant past. Avoidance of penicillin based on self-reported allergic history alone often leads to the use of an alternate antibiotic with greater cost or side effect profile. Patients with a negative skin test to both major and minor determinants may generally be given penicillin, with a statistical risk of developing an allergic reaction similar to that observed in the general population. A more cautious approach in these cases where the degree of suspicion is low, an allergic etiology is unproven, or there is a negative skin test, is to do a graded challenge. If the skin test is positive, an alternate antibiotic should be used. If, however, an alternate antibiotic is not available, then desensitization may be performed, but there are limitations to desensitization as well, and tolerance is not permanent. Avoidance of cephalosporins may be recommended in cases of penicillin allergy, but newer generation cephalosporins have demonstrate less cross-reactivity to penicillin than earlier generation ones. Desensitization protocols for cephalosporins are available but not standardized. The mechanisms of antibiotic sensitization are not clearly understood.

  16. Globalisation and allergy.

    PubMed

    Castelain, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation brings patients more and more into contact with products or food from other cultures or countries. Europeans may be confronted with allergens not yet known in Europe - such as dimethylfumarate - responsible for contact allergy epidemics. Moreover, "low cost" goods, not always legally imported into Europe, sometimes may lead to European legislation being circumvented and thus bring our patients into contact with components that have been banned from manufacturing processes or strongly regulated, such as nickel in jewelry or telephones, some colouring agents in clothes or preservatives in cosmetics. Disinfection measures for freight containers arriving from other continents into our harbours lead to fumigants and other toxic products contaminating the air and the transported products or goods. Globalisation can not only elicit contact allergy but also airborne contact dermatitis or food allergy. The aim of this paper is not to make an exhaustive review of cutaneous allergic problems elicited by globalisation, but to illustrate this new worldwide problem with a few meaningful examples.

  17. Assessment of Cardiac Functions in Infants with Cow’s Milk Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Ece, İbrahim; Demirören, Kaan; Demir, Nihat; Uner, Abdurrahman; Balli, Sevket

    2014-01-01

    Background Cow’s milk allergy is the most common food allergy in children, with rates estimated at 1.9% to 4.9%. Clinical phenotypes of cow’s milk allergy are varied and involve 1 or more target organs, with the main targets being the skin, respiratory system, and gastrointestinal tract. To date, no studies have investigated detailed cardiac function in children with cow’s milk allergy. The current study aimed to investigate cardiac function in infants with cow’s milk allergy. Material/Methods We studied 42 infants with cow’s milk allergy and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Cardiac functions were evaluated by M-mode, pulsed-wave, and tissue Doppler echocardiography. Results There were no significant differences in ejection fraction or mitral and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion between the 2 groups. Pulsed-wave Doppler-derived E/A ratios in mitral and tricuspid valves were similar in both groups. Ea/Aa ratios in the left ventricle posterior wall and right ventricle free wall were lower in patients with cow’s milk allergy than in the control group. The E/Ea ratio in the left ventricle, isovolumic relaxation time, deceleration time, and right and left ventricular myocardial performance indices were higher in patients in the study group. Conclusions Our study identified reduced early diastolic tissue Doppler velocities in infants with cow’s milk allergy. PMID:25098395

  18. Nursing students with latex allergy.

    PubMed

    Katrancha, Elizabeth D; Harshberger, Lorri A

    2012-11-01

    Latex allergy affects millions of people in the general population and a higher percentage of health care workers. Nursing students with a latex sensitivity pose a unique challenge for the nurse educator. Students may enter the program with pre-existing latex allergy or develop the allergy during the educational process. This manuscript explores the implications of latex allergies exhibited by the nursing student. It addresses the responsibilities of the educator in the skills or simulation laboratory and during clinical learning experiences. It also offers suggestions for ensuring the safety of the student while reducing the legal liabilities of the educational program. The article addresses possible policy ramifications for nursing schools.

  19. Latex allergy: past and present.

    PubMed

    Meade, B Jean; Weissman, David N; Beezhold, Donald H

    2002-02-01

    Although latex products have been in use for over a century, allergic responses to latex proteins have only been recognized as a serious health problem for the past 15 years. Latex allergy particularly affects two groups, health care workers (HCW) and children with spina bifida (SB). This manuscript provides a brief history of latex allergy, and a review of the following: the manufacturing process for dipped latex products, the 11 latex allergens that have been characterized and received allergen designations by the International Union of Immunological Societies, the methods used in exposure assessment, the epidemiology and clinical management of latex allergy, and the use of animal models in investigating mechanisms underlying latex allergy.

  20. Epidemiology of childhood food allergy.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Ashley A; Gupta, Ruchi

    2013-06-01

    Food allergy is a public health problem that affects nearly 6 million children in the United States. The extent to which children, families, and communities live with food allergies varies as much as the range of clinical symptoms associated with the disease itself. Food allergy is defined as the reproducible adverse event that elicits a pathologic immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated or non-IgE-mediated reaction. Once an allergic child ingests a specific food allergen, the reaction can result in clinical symptoms ranging from mild hives to life-threatening anaphylaxis.Not surprisingly, food allergies have been shown to limit social interactions and impair children's quality of life due to the ubiquity of food where children live, learn, and play. To ensure the safety of our children, the development of sound policy, clinical practice, and health programs must be informed by current research characterizing childhood food allergy at the population level. To set the stage for understanding the current evidence base, this article reviews: 1) epidemiology of childhood food allergy; 2) severity of symptoms; 3) geographic distribution of childhood food allergy; 4) tolerance; 5) economic impact of childhood food allergy; and 6) future directions in childhood food allergy epidemiological research.

  1. European Symposium on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases: Report of the European Union Parliament Symposium (October 14, 2015).

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Fokkens, W J; Pietikainen, S; Borrelli, D; Agache, I; Bousquet, J; Costigliola, V; Joos, G; Lund, V J; Poulsen, L K; Price, D; Rolland, C; Zuberbier, T; Hellings, P W

    2016-05-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the European Rhinologic Society (ERS), and the European Medical Association (EMA) organized, on October 14, 2015, a symposium in the European Parliament in Brussels on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases, hosted by MEP David Borrelli, and with active participation of the EU Commissioner for Health and Food Safety Vytenis Andriukaitis, MEP Sirpa Pietikainen, Chair of the European Parliament Interest Group on Allergy and Asthma, the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the European Federations of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients Associations (EFA), the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (Ga2len), Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA), and the Respiratory Effectiveness Group (REG). The socioeconomic impact of allergies and chronic airways diseases cannot be underestimated, as they represent the most frequently diagnosed chronic noncommunicable diseases in the EU; 30% of the total European population is suffering from allergies and asthma, and more than half are deprived from adequate diagnosis and treatment. Precision medicine represents a novel approach, embracing four key features: personalized care based on molecular, immunologic, and functional endotyping of the disease, with participation of the patient in the decision-making process of therapeutic actions, and considering predictive and preventive aspects of the treatment. Implementation of precision medicine into clinical practice may help to achieve the arrest of the epidemic of allergies and chronic airways diseases. Participants underscored the need for optimal patient care in Europe, supporting joint action plans for disease prevention, patient empowerment, and cost-effective treatment strategies.

  2. Clinical Management of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Benjamin L.; Walkner, Madeline; Vickery, Brian P.; Gupta, Ruchi S.

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis Food allergies have become a growing public health concern. Currently the standard of care focuses on avoidance of trigger foods, education, and treatment of symptoms following accidental ingestions. Here we provide a framework for primary care physicians and allergists for the diagnosis, management, and treatment of pediatric food allergy. PMID:26456440

  3. Alleged allergy to local anaesthetics.

    PubMed

    Fisher, M M; Bowey, C J

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of true local anaesthetic allergy in patients with an alleged history of local anaesthetic allergy and whether subsequent exposure to local anaesthetics is safe. Two hundred and eight patients with a history of allergy to local anaesthesia were referred over a twenty-year period to our Anaesthetic Allergy Clinic. In this open study, intradermal testing was performed in three patients and progressive challenge in 202 patients. Four patients had immediate allergy and four patients delayed allergic reactions. One hundred and ninety-seven patients were not allergic to local anaesthetics. In 39 patients an adverse response to additives in local anaesthetic solutions could not be excluded. In all but one patient local anaesthesia has been given uneventfully subsequently. A history of allergy to local anaesthesia is unlikely to be genuine and local anaesthetic allergy is rare. In most instances LA allergy can be excluded from the history and the safety of LA verified by progressive challenge.

  4. Allergy to tartrazine in alprazolam.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, M S

    1996-08-01

    Allergy to tartrazine-containing psychotropic medication (especially antidepressants) had been reported. 20 patients of apparent allergy to tartrazine-containing alprazolam brands in 480 patients exposed to the dye are described. Rechallenge with non tartrazine-containing alprazolam brands did not produce the similar allergic reactions.

  5. Food allergy: is prevalence increasing?

    PubMed

    Tang, Mimi L K; Mullins, Raymond J

    2017-03-01

    It is generally accepted that the prevalence of food allergy has been increasing in recent decades, particularly in westernised countries, yet high-quality evidence that is based on challenge confirmed diagnosis of food allergy to support this assumption is lacking because of the high cost and potential risks associated with conducting food challenges in large populations. Accepting this caveat, the use of surrogate markers for diagnosis of food allergy (such as nationwide data on hospital admissions for food anaphylaxis or clinical history in combination with allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) measurement in population-based cohorts) has provided consistent evidence for increasing prevalence of food allergy at least in western countries, such as the UK, United States and Australia. Recent reports that children of East Asian or African ethnicity who are raised in a western environment (Australia and United States respectively) have an increased risk of developing food allergy compared with resident Caucasian children suggest that food allergy might also increase across Asian and African countries as their economies grow and populations adopt a more westernised lifestyle. Given that many cases of food allergy persist, mathematical principles would predict a continued increase in food allergy prevalence in the short to medium term until such time as an effective treatment is identified to allow the rate of disease resolution to be equal to or greater than the rate of new cases.

  6. Managing Food Allergies in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    1997-01-01

    The number of students with food allergies is increasing, with peanuts the leading culprit. Peer pressure and allergens hidden in baked goods can pose problems for school staff. Children with documented life-threatening allergies are covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act. Principals should reassure parents and use Section 504 guidelines…

  7. Probiotics for allergy prevention.

    PubMed

    West, C E

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics, given either as a supplement or in infant foods, have been evaluated in randomised controlled trials for allergy prevention. Here, the aim is to give an overview of the results from these primary prevention studies and to discuss current strategies. In most studies, single strains or a mixture of strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria have been used--prenatally, postnatally or perinatally. Several meta-analyses have reported a moderate benefit of probiotics for eczema prevention, and the most consistent effect has been observed with a combined perinatal intervention in infants at high risk of allergic disease due to familial predisposition. In a recent meta-analysis, the use of multi-strain probiotics appeared to be most effective for eczema prevention. No preventive effect has been shown for other allergic manifestations. As long-term follow-up data on later onset allergic conditions (asthma and allergic rhinitis) are available only from a few of the initiated studies, reports from ongoing follow-up studies that are adequately powered to examine long-term outcomes are anticipated to provide more insight. Arguably, the differences in many aspects of study design and the use of different probiotic strains and combinations have made direct comparison difficult. To date, expert bodies do not generally recommend probiotics for allergy prevention, although the World Allergy Organization (WAO) in their recently developed guidelines suggests considering using probiotics in pregnant women, during breastfeeding and/or to the infant if at high risk of developing allergic disease (based on heredity). However, in concordance with other expert bodies, the WAO guideline panel stressed the low level of evidence and the need for adequately powered randomised controlled trials and a more standardised approach before clinical recommendations on specific strains, dosages and timing can be given.

  8. Adult-onset food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kivity, Shmuel

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is increasing in both the pediatric and adult populations. While symptom onset occurs mostly during childhood, there are a considerable number of patients whose symptoms first begin to appear after the age of 18 years. The majority of patients with adult-onset food allergy suffer from the pollen-plant allergy syndromes. Many of them manifest their allergy after exercise and consuming food to which they are allergic. Eosinophilic esophagitis, an eosinophilic inflammation of the esophagus affecting individuals of all ages, recently emerged as another allergic manifestation, with both immediate and late response to the ingested food. This review provides a condensed update of the current data in the literature on adult-onset allergy.

  9. Food Allergies and Eczema.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Sabrina

    2015-07-01

    Eczema is one of the most common skin conditions of childhood. Patients with eczema suffer in a chronic cycle of itch, scratch, and inflammation. For children with severe eczema, constant itching and scratching can have many consequences including skin infections, behavioral issues, and sleep problems. Parents often find themselves searching for a trigger for their child's eczema flare, and after they have switched detergents, applied a thick moisturizer and topical steroids, and removed all wool clothing from their child's wardrobe, they wonder, "Could food allergies be playing a role?"

  10. Formula allergy and intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kerner, J A

    1995-03-01

    There are two major types of adverse reactions in infant formulas: (1) formula allergy/hypersensitivity, which is an immunologic response, and (2) formula intolerance, which is a nonimmunologic response. Formula intolerance can occur in infants with an underlying congenital or acquired enzyme deficiency (disaccharidase deficiency, galactosemia, hereditary fructose intolerance). The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of both reactions are reviewed in this article. The appropriateness of the use of a variety of infant formulas is discussed. Guidelines for the prevention of allergic disease are described as well.

  11. Immunology of Allergy.

    PubMed

    Richerson, H B

    1976-03-01

    Immune reactions, presumably developed to rid organisms of troublesome invaders, are rather frequently associated with responses that result in injury to host tissue. Such responses are manifestations of allergy or hypersensitivity, and involve antibodies of certain immunoglobulin classes, complement components, mast cells and basophils, lymphocytes, macrophages, and various pharmacologic mediators and other soluble substances in an exuberant array of possible combinations. An understanding of clinical hypersensitivity diseases is aided by classifying basic allergic mechanisms into four main types: anaphylactic (Type I), cytotoxic (Type II), complex-mediated (Type III), and cell-mediated (Type IV), which may participate in various combinations in disease states.

  12. Respiratory acidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory Images Respiratory system References Effros RM, Swenson ER. Acid-base balance. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  13. [Food allergies in paediatrics: Current concepts].

    PubMed

    Plaza-Martin, Ana María

    2016-07-01

    The concept of allergic reaction currently includes all those where an immunological reaction depends on a reaction mediated by IgE, as well as those that involve other immune mechanisms, such as T-cell regulators. There are many different clinical situations, like the classic immediate reactions (IgE mediated) such as urticaria, angioedema, immediate vomiting, abdominal pain, both upper respiratory (aphonia or rhinitis) and lower (wheezing or dyspnoea) symptom, and cardiovascular symptoms. The reactions that involve more than one organ, such as anaphylaxis, which could be an anaphylactic shock if there is cardiovascular involvement. The clinical signs and symptoms produced by non-IgE mediated reactions are usually more insidious in how they start, such as vomiting hours after the ingestion of food in enterocolitis, diarrhoea after days or weeks from starting food, dermatitis sometime after starting food. In these cases it is more difficult to associate these clinical symptoms directly with food. In this article, we attempt to clarify some concepts such as sensitisation/allergy, allergen/allergenic source, or the relationship of different clinical situations with food allergy, in order to help the paediatrician on the one hand, to prescribe strict diets in case of a suspicion based on the cause/effect relationship with the food, and on the other hand not to introduce unnecessary diets that very often have to last an excessively long time, and could lead to nutritional deficiencies in the children.

  14. Comparison of School Food Allergy Emergency Plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's Standard Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Jill; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Finnegan, Lorna

    2007-01-01

    Eighty-four percent of children with food allergies have a reaction in school, and 25% of first food reactions occur in schools. An evaluation was conducted comparing food allergy emergency plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's (FAAN) Food Allergy Action Plan. Of the 94 respondents, 60 provided food allergy emergency plans for…

  15. Thresholds in chemical respiratory sensitisation.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Stella A; Arts, Josje H E; Ehnes, Colin; Hindle, Stuart; Hollnagel, Heli M; Poole, Alan; Suto, Hidenori; Kimber, Ian

    2015-07-03

    There is a continuing interest in determining whether it is possible to identify thresholds for chemical allergy. Here allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract by chemicals is considered in this context. This is an important occupational health problem, being associated with rhinitis and asthma, and in addition provides toxicologists and risk assessors with a number of challenges. In common with all forms of allergic disease chemical respiratory allergy develops in two phases. In the first (induction) phase exposure to a chemical allergen (by an appropriate route of exposure) causes immunological priming and sensitisation of the respiratory tract. The second (elicitation) phase is triggered if a sensitised subject is exposed subsequently to the same chemical allergen via inhalation. A secondary immune response will be provoked in the respiratory tract resulting in inflammation and the signs and symptoms of a respiratory hypersensitivity reaction. In this article attention has focused on the identification of threshold values during the acquisition of sensitisation. Current mechanistic understanding of allergy is such that it can be assumed that the development of sensitisation (and also the elicitation of an allergic reaction) is a threshold phenomenon; there will be levels of exposure below which sensitisation will not be acquired. That is, all immune responses, including allergic sensitisation, have threshold requirement for the availability of antigen/allergen, below which a response will fail to develop. The issue addressed here is whether there are methods available or clinical/epidemiological data that permit the identification of such thresholds. This document reviews briefly relevant human studies of occupational asthma, and experimental models that have been developed (or are being developed) for the identification and characterisation of chemical respiratory allergens. The main conclusion drawn is that although there is evidence that the

  16. Allergies and Learning/Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, James A.; Nall, Michael

    1994-01-01

    This article describes various types of allergies, how they are diagnosed medically, and the different forms of medical treatment. It also considers how allergies may affect school learning and behavior, the connection between allergies and learning and behavioral disorders, the impact of allergy medications upon classroom performance, and various…

  17. Food allergy: epidemiology and natural history.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jessica; Johns, Christina B

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is rising for unclear reasons, with prevalence estimates in the developed world approaching 10%. Knowledge regarding the natural course of food allergies is important because it can aid the clinician in diagnosing food allergies and in determining when to consider evaluation for food allergy resolution. Many food allergies with onset in early childhood are outgrown later in childhood, although a minority of food allergy persists into adolescence and even adulthood. More research is needed to improve food allergy diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

  18. Atopic eczema and food allergy.

    PubMed

    Wassmann, Anja; Werfel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Approximately one-third of children with severe atopic eczema suffer from a food allergy, whereas in adult patients, food allergies are rare. In child patients, three different clinical reaction patterns can be differentiated as follows: (1) immediate-type reactions, (2) isolated late eczematous reactions, and (3) combined immediate-type and late eczematous reactions. In childhood food allergies, food allergens, such as cow's milk or hen's egg, are primarily responsible for allergic reactions, while in adolescents and adults, food allergies often develop consecutively after primary sensitization to pollen allergens. Dysfunctions in the epidermal barrier seem to be vitally important in the development of food allergies in patients with atopic eczema by facilitating sensitization after epicutaneous allergen exposure. Further investigation is required to determine the role of intestinal epithelial barrier defects in the pathogenesis of these allergies as well as the genetic characteristics associated with an increased risk of food allergy. The diagnosis of eczematous reactions to food requires a careful diagnostic procedure, taking into account a patient's history and sensitization patterns. The clinical relevance of sensitization often has to be proven by an oral food challenge, with the rating of the skin condition by validated scores after 24 h and the later evaluation of the eczematous reaction.

  19. International consensus on allergy immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jutel, Marek; Agache, Ioana; Bonini, Sergio; Burks, A Wesley; Calderon, Moises; Canonica, Walter; Cox, Linda; Demoly, Pascal; Frew, Antony J; O'Hehir, Robin; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Muraro, Antonella; Lack, Gideon; Larenas, Désirée; Levin, Michael; Nelson, Harald; Pawankar, Ruby; Pfaar, Oliver; van Ree, Ronald; Sampson, Hugh; Santos, Alexandra F; Du Toit, George; Werfel, Thomas; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Zhang, Luo; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2015-09-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been used to treat allergic disease since the early 1900s. Despite numerous clinical trials and meta-analyses proving AIT efficacious, it remains underused and is estimated to be used in less than 10% of patients with allergic rhinitis or asthma worldwide. In addition, there are large differences between regions, which are not only due to socioeconomic status. There is practically no controversy about the use of AIT in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma, but for atopic dermatitis or food allergy, the indications for AIT are not well defined. The elaboration of a wider consensus is of utmost importance because AIT is the only treatment that can change the course of allergic disease by preventing the development of asthma and new allergen sensitizations and by inducing allergen-specific immune tolerance. Safer and more effective AIT strategies are being continuously developed both through elaboration of new allergen preparations and adjuvants and alternate routes of administration. A number of guidelines, consensus documents, or both are available on both the international and national levels. The international community of allergy specialists recognizes the need to develop a comprehensive consensus report to harmonize, disseminate, and implement the best AIT practice. Consequently, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, formed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; and the World Allergy Organization, has decided to issue an international consensus on AIT.

  20. International Consensus on drug allergy.

    PubMed

    Demoly, P; Adkinson, N F; Brockow, K; Castells, M; Chiriac, A M; Greenberger, P A; Khan, D A; Lang, D M; Park, H-S; Pichler, W; Sanchez-Borges, M; Shiohara, T; Thong, B Y- H

    2014-04-01

    When drug reactions resembling allergy occur, they are called drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) before showing the evidence of either drug-specific antibodies or T cells. DHRs may be allergic or nonallergic in nature, with drug allergies being immunologically mediated DHRs. These reactions are typically unpredictable. They can be life-threatening, may require or prolong hospitalization, and may necessitate changes in subsequent therapy. Both underdiagnosis (due to under-reporting) and overdiagnosis (due to an overuse of the term ‘allergy’) are common. A definitive diagnosis of such reactions is required in order to institute adequate treatment options and proper preventive measures. Misclassification based solely on the DHR history without further testing may affect treatment options, result in adverse consequences, and lead to the use of more-expensive or less-effective drugs, in contrast to patients who had undergone a complete drug allergy workup. Several guidelines and/or consensus documents on general or specific drug class-induced DHRs are available to support the medical decision process. The use of standardized systematic approaches for the diagnosis and management of DHRs carries the potential to improve outcomes and should thus be disseminated and implemented. Consequently, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (iCAALL), formed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI), and the World Allergy Organization (WAO), has decided to issue an International CONsensus (ICON) on drug allergy. The purpose of this document is to highlight the key messages that are common to many of the existing guidelines, while critically reviewing and commenting on any differences and deficiencies of evidence, thus providing a comprehensive reference document for the diagnosis and management of

  1. A twin study of perfume-related respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Elberling, J; Lerbaek, A; Kyvik, K O; Hjelmborg, J

    2009-11-01

    Respiratory symptoms from environmental perfume exposure are main complaints in patients with multiple chemical sensitivities and often coincide with asthma and or eczema. In this population-based twin study we estimate the heritability of respiratory symptoms related to perfume and if co-occurrences of the symptoms in asthma, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema or contact allergy are influenced by environmental or genetic factors common with these diseases. In total 4,128 twin individuals (82%) responded to a questionnaire. The heritability of respiratory symptoms related to perfume is 0.35, 95%CI 0.14-0.54. Significant associations (p<0.05) between perfume-related respiratory symptoms and asthma, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema or contact allergy are not attributable to shared genetic or shared environmental/familial factors, except possibly for atopic dermatitis where genetic pleiotropy with respiratory symptoms to perfume is suggested by an estimated genetic correlation of 0.39, 95%CI 0.09-0.72.

  2. Respiratory papillomas

    PubMed Central

    Alagusundaramoorthy, Sayee Sundar; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Papillomas are known to occur in the lower respiratory tract. They are however, rare compared to their occurrence in the upper respiratory tract. These are generally exophytic tumors in the more proximal upper airways however cases with more distal location with an inverted growth pattern have also been described in the literature. These can be solitary or multiple and multifocality associated with multiple papillomas in the upper respiratory/aerodigestive tract. The four major types of respiratory papillomas are (1) Recurrent respiratory papillomas, (2) solitary squamous papillomas, (3) solitary glandular papillomas, (4) mixed papillomas. We review the incidence, etiopathology, diagnosis, and possible treatment modalities and algorithms for these respiratory papillomas. PMID:27625447

  3. Allergy and Occupation

    PubMed Central

    Lees, R. E. M.

    1982-01-01

    The skin and the respiratory tract are susceptible to sensitization by a wide range of substances encountered in the occupational environment. The responses of these two anatomical sites are discussed with particular attention to late and dual asthmatic reactions, which may cause diagnostic problems for the unwary. There are few data on the incidence and prevalence of occupational allergic reactions, but some estimated frequencies are given. Tables list the major industrial skin and respiratory sensitizing agents. The importance of a detailed history is stressed, as is the role of the family physician in identifying and documenting agents capable of sensitizing exposed workers. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:21286199

  4. [Insect venom allergies].

    PubMed

    Przybilla, Bernhard; Ruëff, Franziska

    2003-10-01

    Systemic IgE-mediated immediate type reactions (anaphylaxis) due to honeybee or vespid stings are potentially life-threatening; they are reported in up to 5% of the general population. Insect venom allergy is diagnosed by history, skin testing and measurement of insect venom-specific serum IgE; sometimes additional tests are needed. The diagnosis is based on the history of a systemic allergic immediate type sting reaction, without such a medical history any other "positive" test results are irrelevant. Nearly always, patients with systemic allergic sting reactions can be protected from further episodes of anaphylaxis by a carefully performed hyposensitization (specific immunotherapy). If therapeutic efficacy has been proven by tolerance of a re-sting, hyposensitization can be frequently stopped after 3 to 5 years. Patients with a particular risk of frequent re-stings or of very severe sting reactions may have to be treated for a longer time, some of them even life-long.

  5. Contact allergy to dimethacrylate.

    PubMed

    Vaswani, Ravi; Kim, Soon Ja; Sanchez, Adrian; Vaswani, Surender

    2012-01-01

    Contact allergy to methacrylates is uncommon. We present a 55-year-old woman with a 10-year history of persistent pruritus and burning sensation of the gums every time she wore her dentures. Initially she developed swelling and erythema of the face soon after the dentures were placed on the gums. These symptoms abated after a barrier liner was applied between her gums and the dentures. However, the burning sensation and pruritus of the gums progressively worsened and she started to develop blisters on the gums. The skin allergen patch test was 3+ positive with erythema, edema, papules, ulceration, and pruritus for the denture component dimethacrylate. The diagnosis was supported by the patient's medical history, notably positive patch test, and complete amelioration of the symptoms upon cessation of dimethacrylate denture usage.

  6. Allergies in children

    PubMed Central

    Chad, Zave

    2001-01-01

    Allergic diseases in children have increased significantly in recent years and now affect up to 35% of children. They are a major cause of morbidity in children. Although there is a genetic predisposition, it is the exposure to environmental allergens, irritants and infections that will determine the sensitization to different dietary and inhalant allergens. As the genetic and environmental factors that act on an immature cellular immune system are better elucidated and their roles established, the implementation of more enduring preventive efforts will be developed. However, at present, the best approach to the child at high risk for the development of allergies is to institute dietary and environmental control measures early to decrease sensitization, and to recognize and appropriately treat the evolving signs and symptoms of allergic disease. PMID:20084126

  7. European symposium on precision medicine in allergy and airways diseases: report of the European Union parliament symposium (October 14, 2015).

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Fokkens, W J; Pietikainen, S; Borrelli, D; Agache, I; Bousquet, J; Costigliola, V; Joos, G; Lund, V J; Poulsen, L K; Price, D; Rolland, C; Zuberbier, T; Hellings, P W

    2015-12-01

    On 14 October 2015, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the European Rhinologic Society (ERS) and the European Medical Association (EMA) organized a symposium in the European Parliament in Brussels on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases, hosted by MEP David Borrelli and with active participation of the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the European Federations of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients Associations (EFA), the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (Ga2len), Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) and the Respiratory Effectiveness Group (REG). MEP Sirpa Pietikainen, Chair of the European Parliament Interest Group on Allergy and Asthma, underlined the importance of the need for a better diagnostic and therapeutic approach for patients with Allergies and Chronic Airways Diseases, and encouraged a joint initiative to control the epidemic of Allergy and Asthma in Europe. The socio-economic impact of allergies and chronic airways diseases cannot be underestimated, as they represent the most frequently diagnosed chronic non-communicable diseases in the EU. Despite the fact that 30% of the total European population is nowadays suffering from allergies and asthma, more than half of these patients are deprived from adequate diagnosis and treatment. Precision Medicine represents a novel approach in medicine, embracing 4 key features: personalized care based on molecular, immunologic and functional endotyping of the disease, with participation of the patient in the decision making process of therapeutic actions, and taking into account predictive and preventive aspects of the treatment. Implementation of Precision Medicine into clinical practice may help to achieve the arrest of the Epidemic of Allergies and Chronic Airways Diseases. This report summarizes the key messages delivered during the symposium by the speakers, including the EU Commissioner for Health and Food Safety Vitenys Andriukaitis. The

  8. Respiratory Failure

    MedlinePlus

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can' ...

  9. Respiratory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  10. Food Allergy: Tips to Remember

    MedlinePlus

    ... LAK-sis). Without immediate treatment—an injection of epinephrine and expert care in a hospital—anaphylaxis can ... with food allergy should always carry auto-injectable epinephrine to be used in the event of an ...

  11. Introduction to allergy treatment (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... first course of action is to avoid the allergen if possible. Medications such as antihistamines are then ... or "allergy shots", is occasionally recommended if the allergen cannot be avoided. It includes regular injections of ...

  12. Latex Allergy: A Prevention Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... chemicals added to latex during harvesting, processing, or manufacturing. These chemicals can cause a skin rash similar ... allergy. However, they may reduce reactions to chemical additives in the latex (allergic contact dermatitis). Use appropriate ...

  13. Food Allergy Treatment for Hyperkinesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Doris J.

    1979-01-01

    Eleven hyperactive children (6 to 15 years old) were treated with a food extract after titration food allergy testing. They remained improved for 1 to 3 months while ingesting the foods to which they were sensitive. (Author)

  14. Managing Food Allergies at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Valentine’s Day Kids Teens Teen Advisory Group College Students Adults Talking to Your Children About Your Allergies ... the Program College Survey Committees Summits Lesley University Student Groups Food Manufacturers Restaurants Emergency and Disaster Preparedness ...

  15. All about Allergies (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pollen allergy as hay fever or rose fever). Trees, weeds, and grasses release these tiny particles into ... happen. For example, in the mid-Atlantic states, tree pollination begins in February and lasts through May, ...

  16. Allergies and Hyperactivity (and sugar)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Allergies and Hyperactivity Page Content Article Body Parents often blame candies ... children get unruly. Some insist that sugar triggers hyperactivity . However, when put to the test, the sugar- ...

  17. Latex allergy: a nursing update.

    PubMed

    Kramper, M A

    2000-01-01

    Latex allergy emerged in the 1990's as a significant and challenging public health concern for patients as well as healthcare workers. This article provides a review of this complex health care challenge. Understanding latex allergy production and sources of exposure will provide a background to explore the immunological implications of this exposure risk. Diagnostic and treatment measures are reviewed. The focus of this article is to increase awareness and encourage prevention of this growing health concern.

  18. Contact allergy to cocamidopropyl betaine.

    PubMed

    de Groot, A C; van der Walle, H B; Weyland, J W

    1995-12-01

    Cocamidopropyl betaine is an amphoteric surfactant used increasingly in cosmetic products. We describe 20 cases of cosmetic allergy to cocamidopropyl betaine; all were caused by shampoo or shower gel. 8 patients were hairdressers, who had occupational allergic contact dermatitis from shampoos. We recommend patch testing cocamidopropyl betaine 1% aq. routinely in hairdressers with dermatitis of the hands, and in all patients suspected of suffering from cosmetic allergy.

  19. Respiratory alkalosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... shortness of breath. Alternative Names Alkalosis - respiratory Images Respiratory system References Effros RM, Swenson ER. Acid-base balance. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  20. Impact of Food Allergy on Asthma in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergy was common, with 24% of the asthmatic students having food allergy, and 12% having multiple food allergies. The ... burden in these inner-city school children. Specifically, students with food allergies and asthma reported more asthma symptoms, were ...

  1. Coping with Food Allergies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Food Allergies Coping with Food Allergies Past Issues / Spring 2011 Table of Contents Allergic ... timing and location of the reaction. How Food Allergies Develop Food allergies are more common in children ...

  2. Woodstoves, formaldehyde, and respiratory disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tuthill, R.W.

    1984-12-01

    Telephone interviews were completed in Western Massachusetts in April 1983 for 399 households (91.5 percent) in a random sample of households with elementary school children. Woodstoves were used in 64.7 percent of the homes, but such use was not associated with acute respiratory illness. However, formaldehyde exposure was significantly related, with a risk ratio of 2.4 (95 percent confidence interval 1.7-3.4). New construction/remodeling and new upholstered furniture had additive effects. Neither woodstove use nor formaldehyde exposure were significantly associated with asthma, chronic bronchitis, or allergies.

  3. Guideline on allergen-specific immunotherapy in IgE-mediated allergic diseases: S2k Guideline of the German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI), the Society for Pediatric Allergy and Environmental Medicine (GPA), the Medical Association of German Allergologists (AeDA), the Austrian Society for Allergy and Immunology (ÖGAI), the Swiss Society for Allergy and Immunology (SGAI), the German Society of Dermatology (DDG), the German Society of Oto- Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (DGHNO-KHC), the German Society of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine (DGKJ), the Society for Pediatric Pneumology (GPP), the German Respiratory Society (DGP), the German Association of ENT Surgeons (BV-HNO), the Professional Federation of Paediatricians and Youth Doctors (BVKJ), the Federal Association of Pulmonologists (BDP) and the German Dermatologists Association (BVDD).

    PubMed

    Pfaar, Oliver; Bachert, Claus; Bufe, Albrecht; Buhl, Roland; Ebner, Christof; Eng, Peter; Friedrichs, Frank; Fuchs, Thomas; Hamelmann, Eckard; Hartwig-Bade, Doris; Hering, Thomas; Huttegger, Isidor; Jung, Kirsten; Klimek, Ludger; Kopp, Matthias Volkmar; Merk, Hans; Rabe, Uta; Saloga, Joachim; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Schuster, Antje; Schwerk, Nicolaus; Sitter, Helmut; Umpfenbach, Ulrich; Wedi, Bettina; Wöhrl, Stefan; Worm, Margitta; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Kaul, Susanne; Schwalfenberg, Anja

    und klinische Immunologie) provides tables with specific information on available products for AIT in Germany, Switzerland and Austria. The tables contain the number of clinical studies per product in adults and children, the year of market authorization, underlying scoring systems, number of randomized and analyzed subjects and the method of evaluation (ITT, FAS, PP), separately given for grass pollen, birch pollen and house dust mite allergens, and the status of approval for the conduct of clinical studies with these products. Strong evidence of the efficacy of SCIT in pollen allergy-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in adulthood is well-documented in numerous trials and, in childhood and adolescence, in a few trials. Efficacy in house dust mite allergy is documented by a number of controlled trials in adults and few controlled trials in children. Only a few controlled trials, independent of age, are available for mold allergy (in particular Alternaria). With regard to animal dander allergies (primarily to cat allergens), only small studies, some with methodological deficiencies are available. Only a moderate and inconsistent therapeutic effect in atopic dermatitis has been observed in the quite heterogeneous studies conducted to date. SCIT has been well investigated for individual preparations in controlled bronchial asthma as defined by the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) 2007 and intermittent and mild persistent asthma (GINA 2005) and it is recommended as a treatment option, in addition to allergen avoidance and pharmacotherapy, provided there is a clear causal link between respiratory symptoms and the relevant allergen. The efficacy of SLIT in grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is extensively documented in adults and children, whilst its efficacy in tree pollen allergy has only been shown in adults. New controlled trials (some with high patient numbers) on house dust mite allergy provide evidence of efficacy of SLIT in adults. Compared with

  4. Klüver Bucy syndrome following hypoglycaemic coma in a patient with glycogen storage disease type Ib.

    PubMed

    Boudjemline, Alix Mollet; Isapof, Arnaud; Witas, Jean-Bernard; Petit, François M; Gajdos, Vincent; Labrune, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    Patients with type I glycogen storage disease (GSD) have poor tolerance to fasting, sometimes less than 3 hours during infancy. Even though most patients are able, as they get older, to tolerate a longer fasting period, they are at permanent risk for fast-induced hypoglycaemia, even in adulthood. Klüver Bucy syndrome, is characterized by psychic blindness (inability to recognize familiar objects), hypermetamorphosis (strong tendency to react to visual stimulus), increased oral exploration, placidity, indiscriminate hyper-sexuality and change in dietary habits. In this case report, we describe the development of Klüver Bucy syndrome in a 28-year-old man with type Ib GSD, following prolonged and severe hypoglycaemia triggered by a common respiratory infection.

  5. The impact of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on respiratory illness in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Hageman, Jeske H J; Hooyenga, Pieter; Diersen-Schade, Deborah A; Scalabrin, Deolinda M Felin; Wichers, Harry J; Birch, Eileen E

    2012-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially omega-3 LCPUFA, improves respiratory health early in life. This review summarizes publications from 2009 through July 2012 that evaluated effects of fish, fish oil or LCPUFA intake during pregnancy, lactation, and early postnatal years on allergic and infectious respiratory illnesses. Studies during pregnancy found inconsistent effects in offspring: two showed no effects and three showed protective effects of omega-3 LCPUFA on respiratory illnesses or atopic dermatitis. Two studies found that infants fed breast milk with higher omega-3 LCPUFA had reduced allergic manifestations. Earlier introduction of fish improved respiratory health or reduced allergy in four studies. Three randomized controlled trials showed that providing LCPUFA during infancy or childhood reduced allergy and/or respiratory illness while one found no effect. Potential explanations for the variability among studies and possible mechanisms of action for LCPUFA in allergy and respiratory disease are discussed.

  6. Heinrich Klüver and the temporal lobe syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nahm, F K

    1997-08-01

    Heinrich Klüver and Paul Bucy described a constellation of symptoms in monkeys following large resections of the temporal lobe that they termed the "temporal lobe syndrome"; now commonly referred to as the Klüver-Bucy syndrome. The aim of this paper is threefold: (1) to review Heinrich Kluver's behavioral studies on monkeys that led up to his temporal lobe experiments with Paul Bucy; (2) to understand why Brown and Schäfer dismissed the behavioral changes in temporal lobe monkeys they had observed fifty years prior to the studies of Klüver and Bucy; and (3) to show that Klüver's phenomenologically motivated conceptual paradigm helped to unify both neuropsychological and neuroanatomical theories regarding the visual and emotive functions of the non-human primate temporal lobe.

  7. Food Allergies: The Basics

    PubMed Central

    Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients—manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell– and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic allergic inflammation, resulting from T-cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation. Researchers have begun to characterize the molecular features of food allergens and have developed chip-based assays for multiple allergens. These have provided information about cross-reactivity among different sources of food allergens, identified disease-causing food allergens, and helped us to estimate the severity and types of allergic reactions in patients. Importantly, learning about the structure of disease-causing food allergens has allowed researchers to engineer synthetic and recombinant vaccines. PMID:25680669

  8. [Latex: a complex allergy].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M B; Carlos, A G

    1999-01-01

    The authors review several of the most important aspects of latex allergy, an increasing problem in Public Health, which should be understood by all health professionals. After briefly presenting the history of the origin latex, from Hevea brasiliensis the authors describe the antigens of latex: Hev b1 to Hev b8, major allergens. They also note the crossed reactivity not only with foods, exotic fruits, but also with pneumoallergens and in particular the pollens. The groups at risk are essentially workers in the latex industry, health professionals and finally infants with spina bifida or other severe urological anomaly. The clinical signs are reactions of type 1 hypersensitivity, to urticaria and/or angio-oedema and anaphylactic shock. Diagnosis is based on a search for specific serum IgE, skin tests and provocation tests. Prophylaxis depends on removal of all substances that are based on latex, especially replacement of gloves with vinyl, but also on a food diet that excludes all foods that have a cross-reactivity with latex.

  9. Food allergies: the basics.

    PubMed

    Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra

    2015-05-01

    IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients-manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell- and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic allergic inflammation, resulting from T-cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation. Researchers have begun to characterize the molecular features of food allergens and have developed chip-based assays for multiple allergens. These have provided information about cross-reactivity among different sources of food allergens, identified disease-causing food allergens, and helped us to estimate the severity and types of allergic reactions in patients. Importantly, learning about the structure of disease-causing food allergens has allowed researchers to engineer synthetic and recombinant vaccines.

  10. Allergy and Dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Woodfolk, Judith A.

    2005-01-01

    Tinea pedis (athlete's foot) and onychomycosis (infection of the toenails) caused by the dermatophyte fungus Trichophyton are highly prevalent in adults. Several Trichophyton allergens have been identified based on elicitation of immunoglobulin E antibody-mediated immediate-hypersensitivity (IH) responses. Evidence of an etiologic role for Trichophyton in asthma in some subjects with IH and chronic dermatophytosis is provided by bronchial reactivity to Trichophyton. Improvement of asthma after systemic antifungal treatment corroborates this link. A unique feature of Trichophyton allergens is the ability of the same antigen to elicit delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) in individuals who lack IH reactivity. Delayed responses appear to confer protection, while IH responses do not, based on the association with acute versus chronic skin infection. The amino acid sequence identity of Trichophyton allergens with diverse enzyme families supports a dual role for these proteins in fungal pathogenesis and allergic disease. Characterizing the immunologic properties of Trichophyton allergens and defining immune mechanisms which drive dichotomous responses are pivotal to understanding the dermatophyte-allergy relationship. Recent studies have identified DTH-associated major T-cell epitopes which could facilitate the development of peptide vaccines. Characterization of additional molecular targets by using new techniques may aid not only in the eradication of infection but also in the resolution of allergic symptoms. PMID:15653817

  11. Welcome Spring and Still Survive Your Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... March 19, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- If you have seasonal allergies, the arrival of spring on Monday is probably ... passages stay clear. Consider asthma. Many people with seasonal allergies also have asthma, making springtime doubly difficult. If ...

  12. Facts and Statistics about Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Act Cleaning Methods Handwashing Camps Schools CDC Guidelines Classroom Cafeteria Colleges & Universities College Food Allergy Program Participating ... Act Cleaning Methods Handwashing Camps Schools CDC Guidelines Classroom Cafeteria Colleges & Universities College Food Allergy Program Participating ...

  13. Food Allergy Research and Education (FARE)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergies Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources ... Emergency Care Plan Emotional & Social Issues Facts & Statistics Food Labels Laws & Regulations Research Support Groups Treatment & Managing Reactions ...

  14. Diagnosis of inhalant allergies: patient history and testing.

    PubMed

    Franzese, Christine

    2011-06-01

    In the United States, roughly 20% to 25% of the general adult population is afflicted by some form of chronic allergic respiratory disease, making allergy one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders. Among children, allergic disease is more common, with some sources estimating that it affects up to 40% of children. The focus of this article involves making the diagnosis of the most familiar and best understood of the hypersensitivity reactions, type 1 hypersensitivity, also termed immediate hypersensitivity. Although type 1 hypersensitivity can be caused by ingestion of food antigens or pharmaceuticals, this article focuses on IgE-mediated allergic disease caused primarily by inhalant allergens.

  15. Managing food allergies in schools.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, Jay M; Shroba, Jodi

    2014-10-01

    Food allergies are estimated to affect as many as 8 % of children with 2.5 % being allergic to peanut products. Based on the results of recent surveys, this prevalence has been increasing over the last few decades for unknown reasons. As children with food allergies reach school age, the issue is becoming more common in schools. For that reason, schools are now required to be prepared to take responsibility for the safety of food-allergic students. This review discusses the common problems surrounding management of food allergies in the school setting along with reasonable recommendations for addressing those problems. The most important component of food allergy management is for the student to get an accurate diagnosis and to then discuss development of an anaphylaxis action plan with their health-care provider. Each school should insist that a copy of such a plan be provided for each student with food allergy and that epinephrine is readily available should a student have an anaphylactic reaction. In addition to epinephrine, it is essential that school personnel be properly trained to recognize and treat allergic reactions should they occur. Known deficiencies in school preparedness have been documented in previous literature, and consequently, both state and the federal government have begun to implement policies to help with school preparedness.

  16. Mucosal immunology of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Berin, M Cecilia; Sampson, Hugh A

    2013-05-06

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence at a higher rate than can be explained by genetic factors, suggesting a role for as yet unidentified environmental factors. In this review, we summarize the state of knowledge about the healthy immune response to antigens in the diet and the basis of immune deviation that results in immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization and allergic reactivity to foods. The intestinal epithelium forms the interface between the external environment and the mucosal immune system, and emerging data suggest that the interaction between intestinal epithelial cells and mucosal dendritic cells is of particular importance in determining the outcome of immune responses to dietary antigens. Exposure to food allergens through non-oral routes, in particular through the skin, is increasingly recognized as a potentially important factor in the increasing rate of food allergy. There are many open questions on the role of environmental factors, such as dietary factors and microbiota, in the development of food allergy, but data suggest that both have an important modulatory effect on the mucosal immune system. Finally, we discuss recent developments in our understanding of immune mechanisms of clinical manifestations of food allergy. New experimental tools, particularly in the field of genomics and the microbiome, are likely to shed light on factors responsible for the growing clinical problem of food allergy.

  17. Beer, Cider, and Wine Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Tadros, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Background. Allergy to beer is often due to specific proteins in barley and sometimes to lipid transfer protein. Allergy to wine is frequently due to a sensitivity to grape proteins. We present a rare case of allergy to beer, wine, and cider resulting from IgE reactivity to yeasts and moulds which also explained the patient's additional sensitivity to yeast extracts and blue cheese. Case Presentation. The patient's symptoms included throat and facial itching accompanied by mild wheeze and severe urticaria. Diagnosis of allergy to yeast was confirmed by specific IgE testing as well as that to relevant foods and beverages. The patient's ongoing management included advice to avoid beer, wine, and other food groups containing specific yeasts, in addition to carrying a short acting nonsedating antihistamine as well as an adrenaline autoinjector. Conclusions. Cases of yeast allergy are extremely rare in medical literature but may be underrecognised and should be considered in patients presenting with reactions to alcoholic beverages and other yeast-containing products.

  18. Respiratory alkalosis.

    PubMed

    Foster, G T; Vaziri, N D; Sassoon, C S

    2001-04-01

    Respiratory alkalosis is an extremely common and complicated problem affecting virtually every organ system in the body. This article reviews the various facets of this interesting problem. Respiratory alkalosis produces multiple metabolic abnormalities, from changes in potassium, phosphate, and calcium, to the development of a mild lactic acidosis. Renal handling of the above ions is also affected. The etiologies may be related to pulmonary or extrapulmonary disorders. Hyperventilation syndrome is a common etiology of respiratory alkalosis in the emergency department setting and is a diagnosis by exclusion. There are many cardiac effects of respiratory alkalosis, such as tachycardia, ventricular and atrial arrhythmias, and ischemic and nonischemic chest pain. In the lungs, vasodilation occurs, and in the gastrointestinal system there are changes in perfusion, motility, and electrolyte handling. Therapeutically, respiratory alkalosis is used for treatment of elevated intracranial pressure. Correction of a respiratory alkalosis is best performed by correcting the underlying etiology.

  19. Personalized Medicine in Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Matteo; Bagnasco, Diego; Varricchi, Gilda; Bernardi, Stefano; Bragantini, Alice; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Allergic disease is among the most common pathologies worldwide and its prevalence has constantly increased up to the present days, even if according to the most recent data it seems to be slightly slowing down. Allergic disease has not only a high rate of misdiagnosis and therapeutic inefficacy, but represents an enormous, resource-absorbing black hole in respiratory and general medicine. The aim of this paper is to summarize principal therapeutic innovations in atopic disease management befallen in the recent years in terms of personalized/precision medicine. PMID:27826958

  20. Communicating with Parents about Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Belinda

    2008-01-01

    About 3 million children in the United States have food allergies. Each year violent reactions to food kill almost 150 people. For teachers dealing with the food allergies of young children these can be frightening statistics. To keep students safe, they must familiarize themselves with food allergy facts so they can communicate openly and often…

  1. Getting the Facts on Food Allergy Testing

    MedlinePlus

    Getting the Facts on Food Allergy Testing This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI If you have ever experienced red, itchy skin, swell- ... food, you may wonder if you have a food allergy. While diagnosing food allergies can be tricky, an ...

  2. A Principal's Guide to Children's Allergies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    1999-01-01

    Discusses several common children's allergies, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and anaphylactic shock. Principals should become familiar with various medications and should work with children's parents and physicians to determine how to manage their allergies at school. Allergen avoidance is the best…

  3. Managing the Student with Severe Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Joanne M.; Ficca, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    School nurses play a key role in managing students with food allergies. It is becoming more common to encounter students with severe allergies to multiple foods, putting them at risk for anaphylaxis. It is essential that the school nurse have a clear understanding of food allergies and how to effectively manage students in the school setting.…

  4. Approaching a Scientific Consensus on the Association between Allergies and Glioma Risk: A Report from the Glioma International Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Amirian, E. Susan; Zhou, Renke; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Olson, Sara H.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Il’yasova, Dora; Lachance, Daniel; Armstrong, Georgina N.; McCoy, Lucie S.; Lau, Ching C.; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Schildkraut, Joellen; Ali-Osman, Francis; Sadetzki, Siegal; Johansen, Christoffer; Houlston, Richard S.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Merrell, Ryan T.; Davis, Faith G.; Lai, Rose; Shete, Sanjay; Amos, Christopher I.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Bondy, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several previous studies have found inverse associations between glioma susceptibility and a history of allergies or other atopic conditions. Some evidence indicates that respiratory allergies are likely to be particularly relevant with regard to glioma risk. Using data from the Glioma International Case-Control Study (GICC), we examined the effects of respiratory allergies and other atopic conditions on glioma risk. Methods The GICC contains detailed information on history of atopic conditions for 4533 cases and 4171 controls, recruited from 14 study sites across five countries. Using two-stage random-effects restricted maximum likelihood modeling to calculate meta-analysis odds ratios, we examined the associations between glioma and allergy status, respiratory allergy status, asthma, and eczema. Results Having a history of respiratory allergies was associated with an approximately 30% lower glioma risk, compared to not having respiratory allergies (mOR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.58–0.90). This association was similar when restricting to high-grade glioma cases. Asthma and eczema were also significantly protective against glioma. Conclusions A substantial amount of data on the inverse association between atopic conditions and glioma has accumulated, and findings from the GICC study further strengthen the existing evidence that the relationship between atopy and glioma is unlikely to be coincidental. Impact As the literature approaches a consensus on the impact of allergies in glioma risk, future research can begin to shift focus to what the underlying biological mechanism behind this association may be, which could, in turn, yield new opportunities for immunotherapy or cancer prevention. PMID:26908595

  5. Food Allergy in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Sandipan; Srinivas, Sahana M

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy in atopic dermatitis (AD) is debatable from decades. Role of diet in the cause and treatment of AD is controversial and is not well-defined. Allergists and pediatricians are convinced about the food allergy in AD whereas many dermatologists are contrary for this. However, there are studies in the Indian and western literature supporting the evidence that elimination diet may improve the severe type of AD. There is increasing awareness and lot of misconception among caregivers about food allergy and hence careful understanding about this concept is necessary to counsel parents. Recent evidence-based literature suggests avoidance of proven food allergens in AD could be beneficial in moderate to severe type of AD. PMID:27904183

  6. Active treatment for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kobernick, Aaron K; Burks, A Wesley

    2016-10-01

    Food allergy has grown in rapidly in prevalence, currently affecting 5% of adults and 8% of children. Management strategy is currently limited to 1) food avoidance and 2) carrying and using rescue intramuscular epinephrine/adrenaline and oral antihistamines in the case of accidental ingestion; there is no FDA approved treatment. Recently, oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy have been developed as active treatment of food allergy, though none have completed phase 3 study. Efficacy and safety studies of immunotherapy have been variable, though there is clearly signal that immunotherapy will be a viable option to desensitize patients. The use of bacterial adjuvants, anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies, and Chinese herbal formulations either alone or in addition to immunotherapy may hold promise as future options for active treatment. Active prevention of food allergy through early introduction of potentially offending foods in high-risk infants will be an important means to slow the rising incidence of sensitization.

  7. Latex Allergies: A Review of Recognition, Evaluation, Management, Prevention, Education, and Alternative Product Use

    PubMed Central

    Schroyer, Traci; Catalfano, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To provide information about latex allergies; to determine how to recognize, evaluate, and manage emergencies related to latex allergies; and how to identify those at risk for latex allergies. Additionally, ways to prevent latex exposure, to educate health care workers and athletes about latex allergy, and to provide safe alternatives to latex are investigated. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE and SPORT Discus for the years 1998–2002 using the key words latex, allergies, rubber, anaphylaxis, gloves, cross-reaction, IgE (immunoglobulin G) proteins, and radioallergosorbent test (RAST). Background: Latex, a sap from the rubber tree, is found in many products used in everyday life. Latex is composed of compounds that may cause an allergic reaction, whose severity can range from irritant dermatitis to type IV dermatitis to type I systemic reaction. Recognition of the signs and symptoms associated with these reactions by the health care professional may help to prevent a more severe reaction from occurring. Reactions can be complicated by contact with other substances, thus causing a cross-reaction. Some individuals are more at risk of latex allergies due to repetitive exposure to latex through their career paths, multiple surgeries, other allergies, or respiratory conditions. Management of an acute reaction involves removal of the irritant, cleansing of the affected area, monitoring vital signs for changes, and seeking additional medical assistance as warranted. Recommendations: Those at risk may be identified through a thorough medical history and allergy testing. Prevention techniques and guidelines are examined, with an emphasis on education at multiple levels. Product information for nonlatex equipment and supplies for the athletic training room is offered, with additional resource information provided. PMID:16558678

  8. Epidemiological survey of pediatric food allergy in Mashhad in Northeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ahanchian, Hamid; Jafari, Seyedali; Behmanesh, Fatemeh; Haghi, Nasrinsadat Motevalli; Nakhaei, Alireza Ataei; Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Radbin, Mohammad Hossein; Kianifar, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Food allergy is an increasing problem worldwide, but the foods responsible for food allergy are not the same in different countries, probably because of the role of genetic, cultural, and nutritional factors. The aim of this study was to determine the common food allergens in pediatric patients with different presentation of food allergy. Methods In this cross-sectional study, all of the patients were referred to pediatric allergy clinics affiliated with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences from September 2012 to August 2014. For patients with IgE-mediated food allergy that was diagnosed with clinical manifestations, the skin prick test was done. The results were analyzed by SPSS version 17 and statistical analysis was done with the chi-squared test and the t-test. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Three hundred seventy-one patients (53.9% male, 46.1% female) with ages in the range of three months to 18 years were studied. The most frequent food allergen in all patients with decreasing prevalence were egg white (17.8%), pepper (15.8%), curry (14.3%), egg yolk (14%), cow’s milk (10%), and tomato (7.8%). The most common presenting symptoms were respiratory (allergic rhinitis 45%, asthma 32%), dermatologic (atopic dermatitis 30%, urticaria 8.3%), colitis (17.5%), and gasteroesophagial reflux disease (GERD) (2%). According to the prevalence of food allergens in different age groups, we realized that, after the age of three years, the frequency of sensitization to egg white, egg yolk, cow’s milk, wheat and cereals was decreased and allergy to pepper and curry was increased. Conclusion The prevalence of culprit foods that produce food allergies depends on several factors, including age, presenting manifestation, and where the patient lives. As many food allergies are outgrown, patients should be reevaluated regularly to determine whether they have lost their reactivity or not. PMID:26955442

  9. Methylisothiazolinone contact allergy: a review.

    PubMed

    Lundov, M D; Krongaard, T; Menné, T L; Johansen, J D

    2011-12-01

    In the early 2000s the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) was released as an individual preservative for industrial products and, in 2005, it was permitted for use in cosmetic products. Up until then MI had been used only in combination with methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI). MCI/MI is one of the most frequent causes of preservative contact allergy and early studies showed that both MI and MCI are sensitizers. The prevalence of MI contact allergy is already around 1·5% and sources of exposure are associated with occupation, cosmetic products or household products. Use of MI in industrial products is not restricted and cases of occupational contact allergy to MI, e.g. in painters, are reported. The frequency of use of MI in cosmetics is low, around 1%, while up to 16·5% of household products were preserved with MI. We found 19 (1·5%) out of 1272 cosmetic products labelled with MI, primarily rinse-off products, and analysed the concentration of MI by high-performance-liquid-chromatography the ultraviolet and mass spectrometry detection. The use concentration ranged between 2 and 100 ppm. Repeated exposure to MI showed that many patients allergic to MI reacted to 50 ppm which is half the maximum permitted concentration of MI in cosmetics. The recent cases and prevalence studies on MI contact allergy could be the first sign of an epidemic of MI contact allergy. The development in prevalence of MI contact allergy should be closely monitored by including MI in the European Baseline Series at 2000 ppm.

  10. Overview of ocular allergy treatment.

    PubMed

    Friedlaender, M

    2001-07-01

    A plethora of drugs is available for the treatment of ocular allergy. Traditional treatment includes antihistamine and antihistamine/vasoconstrictor combination eyedrops. These drugs are useful, safe, and readily available. Mast cell stabilizers are safe, effective, and an important component of antiallergic therapy. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs also have antiallergic effects. In recent years, drugs with multiple mechanisms of action have proven to be effective antiallergics. These drugs often have mast cell stabilizing, antihistaminic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Corticosteroids are considered to be more potent than other antiallergic drugs, and modifications in their molecular structures have made certain corticosteroids suitable for the treatment of ocular allergy.

  11. Future therapies for food allergy

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Laurie M.; Mousallem, Talal; Burks, A. Wesley

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy affects 3.9% of US children and is increasing in prevalence. The current standard of care involves avoidance of the triggering food and treatment for accidental ingestions. While there is no current curative treatment, there are a number of therapeutic strategies under investigation. Allergen specific therapies include oral and sublingual immunotherapy with native food protein as well as recombinant food proteins. Allergen non-specific therapies include a Chinese herbal formula (FAHF-2) and the use of anti-IgE monoclonal antibody therapy. Although none of these treatments are ready for clinical use, these therapeutic strategies present promising options for the future of food allergy. PMID:22894951

  12. [Prevalence of sensitization to fungi in patients with respiratory allergy].

    PubMed

    González-Díaz, Sandra Nora; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Ibarra-Chávez, Jesús Arturo; Elizondo-Villarreal, Bárbara; Rivero-Arias, Dulce María; Salinas-Díaz, María Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Antecedentes: la prevalencia de rinosinusitis crónica en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable (IDCV) es de 52%. Los pacientes con esta enfermedad tienen mayor frecuencia de rinosinusitis crónica, enfermedad inflamatoria que afecta a la mucosa de uno o más senos paranasales y la cavidad nasal. Objetivo: identificar los microorganismos de secreción del meato medio obtenida por endoscopia asociados con rinosinusitis crónica en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable (IDCV). Material y método: estudio descriptivo, transversal, que incluyó a pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable, de quienes se obtuvo una muestra vía endoscópica de secreción del meato medio de ambas fosas nasales, que se envió a cultivo para bacterias aerobias, anaerobias y hongos. Se obtuvo consentimiento informado de todos los pacientes. Resultados: se estudiaron 29 pacientes: 18 mujeres y 11 hombres, con edad promedio de 40±13 años. Los resultados obtenidos fueron: 2 muestras de pacientes no tuvieron desarrollo microbiano, 24 tuvieron desarrollo de bacterias aerobias, en 3 casos hubo crecimiento fúngico sin desarrollo de bacterias anaerobias. Conclusiones: nuestros resultados muestran que los microorganismos asociados con rinosinusitis crónica en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable más comunes son: Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus, Sphingomonas paucimobilis y Citrobacter koseri; los agentes micóticos asociados fueron: Candida albicans y Aspergillus fumigatus.

  13. Caution: Reptile pets shuttle grasshopper allergy and asthma into homes.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Jensen, Sebastian A F; Robibaro, Bruno; Kinaciyan, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    The numbers of reptiles in homes has at least doubled in the last decade in Europe and the USA. Reptile purchases are increasingly triggered by the attempt to avoid potentially allergenic fur pets like dogs and cats. Consequently, reptiles are today regarded as surrogate pets initiating a closer relationship with the owner than ever previously observed. Reptile pets are mostly fed with insects, especially grasshoppers and/or locusts, which are sources for aggressive airborne allergens, best known from occupational insect breeder allergies. Exposure in homes thus introduces a new form of domestic allergy to grasshoppers and related insects. Accordingly, an 8-year old boy developed severe bronchial hypersensitivity and asthma within 4 months after purchase of a bearded dragon. The reptile was held in the living room and regularly fed with living grasshoppers. In the absence of a serological allergy diagnosis test, an IgE immunoblot on grasshopper extract and prick-to-prick test confirmed specific sensitization to grasshoppers. After 4 years of allergen avoidance, a single respiratory exposure was sufficient to trigger a severe asthma attack again in the patient. Based on literature review and the clinical example we conclude that reptile keeping is associated with introducing potent insect allergens into home environments. Patient interviews during diagnostic procedure should therefore by default include the question about reptile pets in homes.

  14. [Current features of food allergies: the need of allergy surveillance].

    PubMed

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy in European populations has been evaluated at between 1.8 and 4.4%. In the French population it is 3.24%. This frequency, as well as the gravity of some manifestations, has already led to preventive and curative measures being taken in school settings. This increase is related to multiple environmental factors: changes in intestinal microflora, early diversification of foods in children, interference of drugs favoring clinical severity in adults. Allergenicity can be modified by food industry techniques. The appearance of novel foods (exotic proteins or those derived from animal feed, and soon GMOs), the growing use of food proteins as ingredients, constitute new risks. The absence of validated experimental methods for evaluating the allergic risk of food proteins makes it necessary to implement a policy of allergy vigilance for novel foods. Studies concerning the allergic risk for lupin flour, a new ingredient used in baked goods, are given as an example. They indicate the frequency of sensitization and cross peanut-lupin flour allergy, the low reactive threshold, indicating the risk of the level of incorporation presently allowed. They make possible current screening for this allergy in the population. Allergy vigilance is a recent concept that aims to set up surveillance of food allergy risks in a manner analogous to that of pharmacovigilance for drugs. A project for creating such a structure is being discussed. Although the central structure remains at the initiative of the Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire de l'Alimentation (French Agency for Food Safety) and the Institut de Veille Sanitaire (Institute of Health) the authors specify what a peripheral network of allergists should be, analyze the desired content of the bi-directional flow of information, and propose envisaging an intermediate regulatory organization, specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of food allergies. The ongoing idea is that environmental

  15. Managing the student with severe food allergies.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Joanne M; Ficca, Michelle

    2012-06-01

    School nurses play a key role in managing students with food allergies. It is becoming more common to encounter students with severe allergies to multiple foods, putting them at risk for anaphylaxis. It is essential that the school nurse have a clear understanding of food allergies and how to effectively manage students in the school setting. Effective communication between families, health care providers, faculty, staff, and students, is of utmost importance when developing a plan of care to ensure the safety of the student with food allergies. Using an interdisciplinary approach to case management, the school nurse can develop comprehensive individualized health care plans for all students with food allergies.

  16. Gastrointestinal food allergy and intolerance.

    PubMed

    Assa'ad, Amal H

    2006-10-01

    GI symptoms are a common manifestation of food allergy and intolerance. The primary physician is the first to evaluate these symptoms. A systematic evaluation using an accurate and detailed history, tests to identify the offending food(s), and procedures that may identify underlying pathologic disorders of the GI tract would lead to an accurate diagnosis and better targeted therapeutic interventions.

  17. ANIMAL MODELS OF MOLD ALLERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concept of molds as causative agents for allergy/asthma is not new. In fact many fungal genera have been associated with allergic lung disease, but only a few fungi are well studied and even fewer fungal allergens well characterized. The complexity and variety of fungal pro...

  18. Japanese guidelines for food allergy 2017.

    PubMed

    Ebisawa, Motohiro; Ito, Komei; Fujisawa, Takao

    2017-04-01

    Five years have passed since the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for Food Allergy (JPGFA) was first revised in 2011 from its original version. As many scientific papers related to food allergy have been published during the last 5 years, the second major revision of the JPGFA was carried out in 2016. In this guideline, food allergies are generally classified into four clinical types: (1) neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy, (2) infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy, (3) immediate-type of food allergy (urticaria, anaphylaxis, etc.), and (4) special forms of immediate-type of food allergy such as food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis and oral allergy syndrome (OAS). Much of this guideline covers the immediate-type of food allergy that is seen during childhood to adolescence. Infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy type is especially important as the onset of most food allergies occurs during infancy. We have discussed the neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy and special forms of immediate type food allergy types separately. Diagnostic procedures are highlighted, such as probability curves and component-resolved diagnosis, including the recent advancement utilizing antigen-specific IgE. The oral food challenge using a stepwise approach is recommended to avoid complete elimination of causative foods. Although oral immunotherapy (OIT) has not been approved as a routine treatment by nationwide insurance, we included a chapter for OIT, focusing on efficacy and problems. Prevention of food allergy is currently the focus of interest, and many changes were made based on recent evidence. Finally, the contraindication between adrenaline and antipsychotic drugs in Japan was discussed among related medical societies, and we reached an agreement that the use of adrenaline can be allowed based on the physician's discretion. In conclusion, this guideline encourages physicians to follow the principle to let patients

  19. Development of the clinic of pulmonology and allergy.

    PubMed

    Dokic, D

    2013-01-01

    University Pulmology and Allergy Clinic was founded in 1975 when the Depertment of Internal Medicine, directed by Prof. Dr. Dimitar Arsov, later member of the Macedonian Academy of Sciencies and Arts, was divided into eight separate and independent clinics. The first head of the Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic was Prof. Dr. Ljubomir Kotevski. He had a very difficult goal: to establish and further develop the newly formed clinic. The Clinic flourished and became one of the leading Clinics in the Clinical Centre during the directorship of Prof. dr. Dejan Dokic.. He completely rebuilt and refurbished the Clinic, which became a modern Clinic providing excellent working conditions for the employees and, most importantly, provided a first class service to the patients. During his mandate he obtained a grant from the Japanese Government worth $1,000,000 which was used to obtain a new, modern and sophisticated medical equipment. Since the establishment of the clinic, many national and international scientific projects were carried out and many scientific papers were published as well as many monographs, and chapters in scientific books. As a result of continuous education, of the total number of 24 doctors there are 16 subspecialists in respiratory medicine and 4 specialists in internal medicine. There are 9 professors in internal medicine at the University of Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic lecturing at the Medical Faculty in Skopje. The University Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic has an international reputation due to many contacts with famous European Institutions. All these international interrelations have resulted in honouring 3 professors: Prof. Dr. Gert Kunkel from Berlin, Germany, Prof. Dr. Robert Loddenkemper from Berlin, Germany and Prof. Dr. Peter Howard from Southampton, UK.

  20. Respiratory effects of mesquite broiling

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, R.E. Jr.; Lee, J.S.; Agahian, B.; Gibbons, H.L.; Reading, J.C.

    1986-11-01

    Mesquite wood charcoal has been widely promoted for the unique taste it imparts to broiled food. We recently examined a 21-year-old mesquite broiler cook with evidence suggestive of respiratory allergy or irritation following exposure to mesquite broiler smoke in a Salt Lake City restaurant. We subsequently surveyed 13 mesquite and 17 gas-flame (charcoal) broiler cooks to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among workers exposed to broiler smoke. The survey demonstrated statistically significant (P less than or equal to .05) respiratory irritation in the mesquite broiler group compared with the gas-flame broiler group in one of four symptom categories. Two other symptom categories strongly suggested the presence of (P less than .10) respiratory irritation in the mesquite broiler group. Personal air sampling was conducted or two mesquite broiler cooks and two gas-flame broiler cooks and compared. Unidentified saturated and unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons (C8 through C12) with high molecular weights from 108 to 182 were present in air samples from the mesquite broiler cooks and not in the air samples from the gas-flame broiler cooks.

  1. Occupational allergy in medical doctors.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Kusaka, Yukinori; Suganuma, Narufumi; Nagasawa, Sumio; Deguchi, Yoji

    2004-03-01

    Allergic diseases have increased in many developed countries including Japan. Doctors are also at risk for allergic diseases from exposure to allergens in working conditions and hospital environments. We investigated the factors relating to occupational allergy in doctors. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to all doctors (n=895) who had previously graduated from School of Medicine, Fukui Medical University. Data from 307 responders (response rate: 34.3%, male 241, female 66, mean age +/- S.D., 30.8 +/- 4.2) were analyzed. Eighty-nine doctors stated that they had occupational allergy including contact dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. Fifty-four had contact dermatitis caused by surgical gloves; 77 had contact dermatitis from disinfectants, e.g. 23 from chlorhexidine gluconate; 21 from povidone iodine; and 15 from ethanol. Fifteen doctors experienced allergic rhinitis and/or asthma caused by handling laboratory animals. Univariate analysis showed that profession (surgical doctors) and past histories of allergic diseases (rhinitis, sinusitis, or atopic dermatitis) were significantly related to occupational allergy in doctors, but that gender, smoking or physical exercise were not significantly related to it. A logistic regression analysis showed that past histories of allergic diseases and the profession of surgical doctors were significantly related to occupational allergy, but that gender, age or smoking were not significantly related to it. The results of the present study suggest that past history of allergic diseases is a factor predisposing to occupational allergy in doctors. It is necessary and possible to extend more prophylactic measures for doctors, especially for surgeons, because exposure to responsible agents and materials for them can be more frequent.

  2. Global warming and allergy in Asia Minor.

    PubMed

    Bajin, Munir Demir; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Gurbuz, Melek Kezban

    2013-01-01

    The earth is warming, and it is warming quickly. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that global warming is correlated with the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy and allergic diseases. There is a body of evidence suggesting that the prevalence of allergic diseases induced by pollens is increasing in developed countries, a trend that is also evident in the Mediterranean area. Because of its mild winters and sunny days with dry summers, the Mediterranean area is different from the areas of central and northern Europe. Classical examples of allergenic pollen-producing plants of the Mediterranean climate include Parietaria, Olea and Cupressaceae. Asia Minor is a Mediterranean region that connects Asia and Europe, and it includes considerable coastal areas. Gramineae pollens are the major cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis in Asia Minor, affecting 1.3-6.4 % of the population, in accordance with other European regions. This article emphasizes the importance of global climate change and anticipated increases in the prevalence and severity of allergic disease in Asia Minor, mediated through worsening air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production, from an otolaryngologic perspective.

  3. Asthma and allergy in Finnish conscripts.

    PubMed

    Haahtela, T; Jokela, H

    1979-12-01

    We studied the occurrence of asthma, bronchial wheezing, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis in 295 young men aged 18-19 years. The relationship of these symptoms to the immediate skin test reactivity was also determined. Symptoms indicating past or current allergy and bronchial wheezing were observed in 36%. The cumulative prevalence of asthma was 2.7%, bronchial wheezing 9% in addition, allergic rhinitis (including allergic conjunctivitis) 20%, and atopic dermatitis (including allergic urticaria) 20%. Positive immediate skin prick test reactions were observed in 50% of the population. Allergic rhinitis was most clearly connected with a positive skin test. This study shows that the respiratory disorders, generally considered to be allergic in origin, and atopic dermatitis are more common in Finland than has been assumed. The results are, however, in accordance with the observations made in other industrialized countries. Susceptibility to asthmatic reactions and allergic symptoms should be taken into account, more so than at present, when mudging the capability of a young man to manage compulsory military service.

  4. Environmental and occupational allergies.

    PubMed

    Peden, David; Reed, Charles E

    2010-02-01

    Airborne allergens are the major cause of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Daily exposure comes from indoor sources, chiefly at home but occasionally at schools or offices. Seasonal exposure to outdoor allergens, pollens, and molds is another important source. Exposure to unusual substances at work causes occupational asthma, accounting for about 5% of asthma in adults. Indoor and outdoor air pollutants trigger airway inflammation and increase the severity of asthma. Diesel exhaust particles increase the production of IgE antibodies. Identification and reduction of exposure to allergens is a very important part of the management of respiratory allergic diseases. The first section of this chapter discusses domestic allergens, arthropods (mites and cockroaches), molds, and mammals (pets and mice). Indoor humidity and water damage are important factors in the production of mite and mold allergens, and discarded human food items are important sources of proliferation of cockroaches and mice. Means of identifying and reducing exposure are presented. The second section discusses outdoor allergens: pollens and molds. The particular plants or molds and the amount of exposure to these allergens is determined by the local climate, and local pollen and mold counts are available to determine the time and amount of exposure. Climate change is already having an important effect on the distribution and amount of outdoor allergens. The third section discusses indoor and outdoor air pollution and methods that individuals can take to reduce indoor pollution in addition to eliminating cigarette smoking. The fourth section discusses the diagnosis and management of occupational asthma.

  5. Mites and allergy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Puerta, Leonardo; Caraballo, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Allergic diseases triggered by mite allergens include allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis and other skin diseases. Since the early discovery of the allergenic role of mites of the genus Dermatophagoides in the mid 1960s, numerous species have been described as the source of allergens capable of sensitizing and inducing allergic symptoms in sensitized and genetically predisposed individuals. The main sources of allergens in house dust worldwide are the fecal pellets of the mite species D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Euroglyphus maynei and the storage mites Blomia tropicalis, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyropahgus putrescentiae. Group 1 and 2 allergens are major house dust mite allergens. The main allergens in storage mites include fatty acid-binding proteins, tropomyosin and paramyosin homologues, apolipophorin-like proteins, α-tubulins and others, such as group 2, 5 and 7 allergens. Cross-reactivity is an important and common immunological feature among mites. Currently, purified native or recombinant allergens, epitope mapping, proteomic approaches and T cell proliferation techniques are being used to assess cross-reactivity. Mites contain potent enzymes capable of degrading a wide range of substrates. Most mite allergens are enzymes. Advances in genomics and molecular biology will improve our ability to understand the genetics of specific IgE responses to mites. Mite allergen avoidance and immunotherapy are the only two allergen-specific ways to treat mite-induced respiratory and cutaneous diseases.

  6. Respiratory Therapists

    MedlinePlus

    ... programs typically include courses in human anatomy and physiology, chemistry, physics, microbiology, pharmacology, and math. Other courses ... and math skills. Respiratory therapists must understand anatomy, physiology, and other sciences and be able to calculate ...

  7. The Natural History of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jessica; Sicherer, Scott; Wood, Robert

    2016-01-01

    On a population level, it is well recognized that some IgE-mediated childhood food allergies, such as milk and egg allergies, are more likely to resolve than others, such as peanut and tree nuts allergies. Unfortunately, some studies suggest that resolution rates may have slowed compared with impressions from past decades. The clinician can apply the knowledge of the epidemiology of these allergies to describe likely patient outcomes, and direct management in a general manner. However, the ability to evaluate and predict the natural course of specific food allergies for individual patients is essential to inform personalized patient care. Data are accumulating to assist in identifying whether a child's allergy has likely resolved, informing the timing of oral food challenges or subsequent testing. Exciting recent studies are increasingly identifying early prognostic markers as well. Emerging food allergy therapies carry risks and costs. Identifying which egg-allergic patient has likely persistent allergy, and which patient with peanut allergy may experience natural resolution, is becoming an important goal to identify the best candidates for these therapies. Although more work needs to be done to identify reliable predictive markers and validate them, there is already much known about the natural course of food allergies that can be applied by the clinician to improve patient care.

  8. Virus-provoked rhinitis in patients who have allergies.

    PubMed

    Fireman, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The most common illnesses in humans are the respiratory tract infections caused by viruses. When limited to the upper respiratory region, these infections often are designated as "a common cold." Viruses commonly associated with these upper respiratory infections (URI) include rhinoviruses (RVs), respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, corona virus, and adenoviruses. Clinical observations have suggested that patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma experience more pronounced symptoms during a viral URI than patients who do not have allergies and who are infected with the same virus under similar circumstances. Using an experimental virus infection model in human volunteers with and without allergic rhinitis, several groups of clinical investigators have studied the effects of experimental RV infections. These observations indicate that the experimental virus infection may induce host responses that provoke enhanced immunoglobulin E (IgE) synthesis. Whether this translates into enhanced symptoms has been suggested in one study but not in another. This article will review these studies, which suggest that it is the host response to the virus and not the virus itself that plays the major role in symptom pathogenesis.

  9. [Respiratory distress].

    PubMed

    Galili, D; Garfunkel, A; Elad, S; Zusman, S P; Malamed, S F; Findler, M; Kaufman, E

    2002-01-01

    Dental treatment is usually conducted in the oral cavity and in very close proximity to the upper respiratory airway. The possibility of unintentionally compromising this airway is high in the dental environment. The accumulation of fluid (water or blood) near to the upper respiratory airway or the loosening of teeth fragmentations and fallen dental instruments can occur. Also, some of the drugs prescribed in the dental practice are central nervous system depressants and some are direct respiratory drive depressors. For this reason, awareness of the respiratory status of the dental patient is of paramount importance. This article focuses on several of the more common causes of respiratory distress, including airway obstruction, hyperventilation, asthma, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism and cardiac insufficiency. The common denominator to all these conditions described here is that in most instances the patient is conscious. Therefore, on the one hand, valuable information can be retrieved from the patient making diagnosis easier than when the patient is unconscious. On the other hand, the conscious patient is under extreme apprehension and stress under such situations. Respiratory depression which occurs during conscious sedation or following narcotic analgesic medication will not be dealt with in this article. Advanced pain and anxiety control techniques such as conscious sedation and general anesthesia should be confined only to operators who undergo special extended training.

  10. Feature: Controlling Seasonal Allergies | NIH Medlineplus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Seasonal Allergies Controlling Seasonal Allergies Past Issues / Spring 2012 Table of Contents In ... response to allergens, helping to prevent allergic reactions. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Allergen and T-Cell Reagent ...

  11. 76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel,...

  12. Exploration into the Genetics of Food Allergy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Eosinophilic Esophagitis, a non-IgE mediated disease . This work has examined the genetics of food allergy looking at both IgE and non-IgE mediated...atopic dermatitis to another. The understanding that genetics play a role in allergic disease and asthma has been recognized for more than 100... disease as compared with controls4, 5. Follow-up studies have shown that if one parent has allergies, a child has a 33% chance of developing allergies

  13. Allergies Galore! Managing Allergies Is More Than a Call to 911.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Cassandra; Rebull, Helen

    2002-01-01

    Food allergies can kill a child, and camp offers many opportunities for things to go wrong. One camp with many allergic campers gathered information from parents on the extent of allergies and medications needed; educated staff about the seriousness of allergies, food preparation procedures, and snacks; and prepared an emergency plan. Family,…

  14. Microbiome/microbiota and allergies.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuzaburo; Shimojo, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Allergies are characterized by a hypersensitive immune reaction to originally harmless antigens. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic diseases has markedly increased, especially in developed countries. The increase in the frequency of allergic diseases is thought to be primarily due to environmental changes related to a westernized lifestyle, which affects the commensal microbes in the human body. The human gut is the largest organ colonized by bacteria and contains more than 1000 bacterial species, called the "gut microbiota." The recent development of sequencing technology has enabled researchers to genetically investigate and clarify the diversity of all species of commensal microbes. The collective genomes of commensal microbes are together called the "microbiome." Although the detailed mechanisms remain unclear, it has been proposed that the microbiota/microbiome, especially that in the gut, impacts the systemic immunity and metabolism, thus affecting the development of various immunological diseases, including allergies. In this review, we summarize the recent findings regarding the importance of the microbiome/microbiota in the development of allergic diseases and also the results of interventional studies using probiotics or prebiotics to prevent allergies.

  15. Occupational allergy caused by flowers.

    PubMed

    de Jong, N W; Vermeulen, A M; Gerth van Wijk, R; de Groot, H

    1998-02-01

    We describe 14 consecutive patients with complaints due to the handling of flowers. The symptoms varied from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma to urticaria. Most patients had professions in the flower industry. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with home-made pollen extracts from 17 different flowers known to be the most commonly grown and sold in The Netherlands RAST against mugwort, chrysanthemum, and solidago was performed. The diagnosis of atopy against flowers was based on work-related symptoms due to the handling of flowers, positive SPT with flower extracts, and positive RAST. The concordance between SPT and case history was 74%, and that between SPT and RAST was 77% Extensive cross-sensitization was seen to pollen of several members of the Compositae family (e.g., Matricaria, chrysanthemum, solidago) and to pollen of the Amaryllidaceae family (Alstroemeria and Narcissus). Homemade flower extracts can be used to confirm IgE-mediated flower allergy. Mugwort can be used as a screening test for possible flower allergy. For most patients, the allergy led to a change of profession.

  16. Future Therapies for Food Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2011-01-01

    Food allergy is an increasingly prevalent problem in westernized countries and there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy . A number of therapeutic strategies are under investigation targeting foods that most frequently provoke severe IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions (peanut, tree nuts, shellfish) or are most common in children, such as cow’s milk and hen’s egg. Approaches being pursued are both food allergen-specific and non-specific. Allergen-specific approaches include oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy (desensitization) with native food allergens, and mutated recombinant proteins, which have decreased IgE-binding activity, co-administered within heat-killed E.coli to generate maximum immune response. Diets containing extensively heated (baked) milk and egg represent an alternative approach to food oral immunotherapy and are already changing the paradigm of strict dietary avoidance for food-allergic patients. Non-specific approaches include monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies, which may increase the threshold dose for food allergen in food-allergic patients, and a Chinese herbal formulation, which prevented peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a mouse model, and is currently being investigated in clinical trials. The variety of strategies for treating food allergy increases the likelihood of success and gives hope that accomplishing an effective therapy for food allergy is within reach. PMID:21277625

  17. Oral allergy syndrome in children.

    PubMed

    Ivković-Jureković, Irena

    2015-06-01

    Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is an allergic reaction that occurs after consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables in patients with allergy to pollen. It is mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and symptoms arise as a result of cross-reactivity between pollen and plant-derived food. OAS is rarely seen in young children, but the prevalence increases with age. The objectives of the study were to identify the prevalence of OAS and probable risk factors in children and adolescents with seasonal allergic rhinitis (AR). One-hundred and twenty patients with seasonal AR were included. Patients were diagnosed based on their clinical history, skin prick test outcome and specific IgE. In patients describing OAS, prick-by-prick tests with fresh fruit or vegetables were carried out. Thirty-two patients had OAS and it was more frequent in female patients than in male patients. OAS was more frequent in adolescents than in small children and in patients with higher total IgE. OAS was significantly more prevalent in patients with AR and asthma (P=0.0016), as was the case in patients with AR and atopic dermatitis (P=0.0004). OAS is rarely diagnosed in small children, partly because of an inadequate clinical history. Patients with OAS may have some risk factors in addition to pollen allergy, and those with more severe atopy are more likely to develop OAS.

  18. Update on food allergy in adults.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Rabia Quddus; Oppenheimer, John J

    2012-08-01

    Though much has been studied and written about food allergy, the majority of the available literature focuses on food allergies in the pediatric population. Unfortunately, it is likely that in regard to food allergies, adults are not just big children, and extrapolating findings from pediatric to adult patient populations might lead to erroneous assumptions. Thus, it is important to validate the correlation between pediatric and adult data, gather data regarding adult food allergy and understand the specific nuances of subsets of adults to better treat their food allergy. This review was conducted by identifying potentially relevant studies regarding food allergies in adults through electronic databases, including PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar. The search terms included "allergy", "food" and "adults". Parameters of 19+ years of age were added to search terms and all journals were written in or translated to English. From these search results, focus was placed on studies from 2010 to 2012. This systematic update on food allergy in adults found that the evidence regarding prevalence, diagnosis and management of food allergies is very limited, with the majority of data derived from children and young adults.

  19. Japanese Guideline for Food Allergy 2014.

    PubMed

    Urisu, Atsuo; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Ito, Komei; Aihara, Yukoh; Ito, Setsuko; Mayumi, Mitsufumi; Kohno, Yoichi; Kondo, Naomi

    2014-09-01

    A food allergy is defined as "a phenomenon in which adverse reactions are caused through antigen-specific immunological mechanisms after exposure to given food." Various symptoms of food allergy occur in many organs. Food allergies are classified roughly into 4 clinical types: (1) neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy, (2) infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy, (3) immediate-type food allergy (urticaria, anaphylaxis, etc.), and (4) food dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis and oral allergy syndrome (i.e., specific forms of immediate food allergy). The therapy for food allergies includes treatment of and prophylactic measures against hypersensitivity such as anaphylaxis. A fundamental prophylactic measure is the elimination diet. However, elimination diets should be used only if necessary because of the patient-related burden. For this purpose, it is very important that causative foods be accurately identified. There are a number of means available to identify causative foods, including the history taking, a skin prick test, detection of antigen-specific IgE antibodies in the blood, the basophil histamine release test, the elimination diet test, and the oral challenge test, etc. Of these, the oral challenge test is the most reliable. However, it should be conducted under the supervision of experienced physicians because it may cause adverse reactions, such as anaphylaxis.

  20. Food Allergy: Present and Future Management

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Food allergy poses a significant burden on patients, families, health care providers, and the medical system. The increased prevalence of food allergy has brought about investigation as to its cause and new treatments. Currently, the only treatment available is to avoid the food and symptomatically treat any reactions. There are multiple clinical and murine models of food allergy treatment that use allergen specific and nonspecific pathways. Allergen specific treatments use mucosal antigen exposure as a method of inducing desensitization and tolerance. Allergen nonspecific methods act via a more global TH2 suppressive mechanism and may be useful for those patients with multiple food allergies. PMID:23282314

  1. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy.

    PubMed

    van der Valk, J P M; Dubois, A E J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Wichers, H J; de Jong, N W

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognition and to promote awareness of this emerging food allergy amongst clinicians. The goal of this study is to present a systematic review focused on the clinical aspects of allergy to cashew nut including the characteristics of cashew nut, the prevalence, allergenic components, cross-reactivity, diagnosis and management of cashew nut allergy. The literature search yielded 255 articles of which 40 met our selection criteria and were considered to be relevant for this review. The 40 articles included one prospective study, six retrospective studies and seven case reports. The remaining 26 papers were not directly related to cashew nut allergy. The literature suggests that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing, although the level of evidence for this is low. A minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause a severe allergic reaction, suggesting high potency comparable with other tree nuts and peanuts. Cashew allergy is clearly an underestimated important healthcare problem, especially in children.

  2. The changing geoepidemiology of food allergies.

    PubMed

    Leung, Patrick S C; Shu, Shang-An; Chang, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    The science of food allergy has been rapidly evolving before our eyes in the past half century. Like other allergic disorders, the prevalence of food allergies has dramatically increased, and coupled with the increased public awareness of anaphylaxis due to food allergy, this has driven an explosion in basic and clinical research in this extremely broad subject. Treatment of food allergies has evolved and practices such as food challenges have become an integral part of an allergy practice. The impact of the increase of food allergy has driven package labeling laws, legislation on emergency treatment availability in schools and other public places, and school policy. But to this day, our knowledge of the pathogenesis of food allergy is still incomplete. There are the most obvious IgE-mediated immediate hypersensitivity reactions, but then multiple previously unidentified conditions such as eosinophilic esophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, milk protein allergy, food-induced atopic dermatitis, oral allergy syndrome, and others have complicated the diagnosis and management of many of our patients who are unable to tolerate certain foods. Many of these conditions are not IgE-mediated, but may be T cell-driven diseases. The role of T regulatory cells and immune tolerance and the newly discovered immunological role of vitamin D have shed light on the variable clinical presentation of food allergy and the development of new methods of immunotherapy in an example of bench-to-bedside research. Component-resolved diagnostic techniques have already begun to allow us to more precisely define the epitopes that are targeted in food allergic patients. The development of biological modulators, research on genomics and proteomics, and epigenetic techniques all offer promising avenues for new modes of therapy of food allergy in the twenty-first century.

  3. History of the World Allergy Organization: The World Allergy Organization Congress - XVIII ICACI, Vancouver 2003

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    History of the World Allergy Organization: In 1951, the leaders in allergy from all over the world came together to form the International Association of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (IAACI). For the next 60 years, the allergy world converged at the IAACI triennial meetings, which became biennial in 2003. The international meetings, originally named the International Congress of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (ICACI), are now the World Allergy Congress (WAC) hosted by the World Allergy Organization (WAO). Everyone who has aspired to have worldwide recognition has played a part in IAACI-WAO. The History of the World Allergy Organization traces the global arc of the allergy field over the past 60 years. The current officers of WAO elected to focus on this rich history, inviting prominent leaders who are interested in being part of this history project to write about their time with IAACI-WAO. This series will be presented in Cancún, México as part of the XXII World Allergy Congress (December 4-8, 2011). Leading up to the Congress in Cancún, the World Allergy Organization Journal is presenting segments of the History as part of the "Notes of Allergy Watchers Series." Please enjoy. --Michael A. Kaliner, MD Historian, and Past-President (2006-2007) World Allergy Organization PMID:23282543

  4. Report from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases workshop on drug allergy.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Lisa M; Plaut, Marshall; Schwaninger, Julie M; Banerji, Aleena; Castells, Mariana; Finkelman, Fred D; Gleich, Gerald J; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Mallal, Simon A K; Naisbitt, Dean J; Ostrov, David A; Phillips, Elizabeth J; Pichler, Werner J; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Schwartz, Lawrence B; Trepanier, Lauren A

    2015-08-01

    Allergic reactions to drugs are a serious public health concern. In 2013, the Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases sponsored a workshop on drug allergy. International experts in the field of drug allergy with backgrounds in allergy, immunology, infectious diseases, dermatology, clinical pharmacology, and pharmacogenomics discussed the current state of drug allergy research. These experts were joined by representatives from several National Institutes of Health institutes and the US Food and Drug Administration. The participants identified important advances that make new research directions feasible and made suggestions for research priorities and for development of infrastructure to advance our knowledge of the mechanisms, diagnosis, management, and prevention of drug allergy. The workshop summary and recommendations are presented herein.

  5. Report from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease Workshop on Drug Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Lisa M; Plaut, Marshall; Schwaninger, Julie M; Banerji, Aleena; Castells, Mariana; Finkelman, Fred D.; Gleich, Gerald J.; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Mallal, Simon A.K.; Naisbitt, Dean J.; Ostrov, David A.; Phillips, Elizabeth J.; Pichler, Werner J.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.; Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Schwartz, Lawrence B.; Trepanier, Lauren A.

    2015-01-01

    Allergic reactions to drugs are a serious public health concern. In 2013, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation, sponsored a workshop on drug allergy. International experts in the field of drug allergy with backgrounds in allergy, immunology, infectious diseases, dermatology, clinical pharmacology and pharmacogenomics discussed the current state of drug allergy research. These experts were joined by representatives from several NIH Institutes and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The participants identified important advances that make new research directions feasible and made suggestions for research priorities and for development of infrastructure to advance our knowledge of the mechanisms, diagnosis, management, and prevention of drug allergy. The workshop summary and recommendations are presented herein. PMID:26254053

  6. Allergies and Learning Disabilities: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Sharon E.; Safran, Stephen P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes and evaluates the research on the relationship between allergies and learning disabilities. The paper considers definitional and conceptual issues, anecdotal reports, experimental studies, and the Feingold hypothesis. It concludes that the role that allergies play in learning disability is complex and interrelated with other…

  7. Food allergies--leads from Ayurveda.

    PubMed

    Arora, Deepa; Kumar, M

    2003-02-01

    Food allergy being a common health problem needs attention. The experience of Ayurveda can be utilized to accelerate our understanding and management of food allergies and related phenomenon like allergic tension fatigue syndrome, intolerance and indigestion associated with certain foods. Prevention of food allergies by carefully selecting the foods in accordance with the individual's body constitution and seasonal alterations, is considered as the best strategy in Ayurveda. If possible, the concept of prakriti and properties of food as described in Ayurveda, should be interpreted in modern terminology. Moreover, to scientifically validate them, an appropriate correlation with modern concepts is required along with scientific studies on modern parameters. Rasayanas may also prove helpful in the management of food allergies. It is obvious that there, is an urgent need for multidimensional and planned investigations of these Ayurvedic rasayanas in management of food allergies. The clinical acceptability of rasayanas for the treatment of food allergies entirely rests on such studies. Food intolerance and allergies are common health problems which are difficult to diagnose and still more difficult to treat. This problem is well addressed in Ayurveda and guidelines are available for their management. This paper aims to present the Ayurvedic concepts in the management of food intolerance/ allergies and its correlation with the evidences available from modem scientific laboratories. The understanding of this ancient wisdom may prove to be of immense importance in patient care.

  8. Fighting Allergies with Research and Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... children who do not have asthma, but have seasonal allergies and receive subcutaneous immunotherapy, are far less likely to develop asthma over ... the duration of treatment compared to standard allergen immunotherapy. The ... seasonal allergies is still uncertain. Have there been changes in ...

  9. Food Allergy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Food Allergy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Spanish (español) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Common Allergies ...

  10. [Contact allergy for Alstrumeria (inca lily)].

    PubMed

    de Groot, A C; Meijer, P; van Joost, T; Hausen, B M

    1990-06-30

    We report 6 patients with occupational contact allergy to Alstroemeria cultivars. Four of them presented with the clinical picture of 'tulip fingers'. They all reacted to parts of fresh plants and to tuliposide A. The literature on Alstroemeria allergy is reviewed.

  11. Food allergy: temporal trends and determinants.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shoshan, Moshe; Turnbull, Elizabeth; Clarke, Ann

    2012-08-01

    This review summarizes studies discussing temporal trends in the prevalence of food allergy as well as potential factors associated with the development of food allergy. In addition, we will address the potential hypotheses accounting for the apparent increase in food allergy prevalence. Studies suggest increased prevalence of food allergy. However, relatively little is known about its pathogenesis. This review aims to assess temporal trends in the prevalence of food allergy and discuss potential genetic, environmental, and demographic determinants. The search strategy examined the medical literature database MEDLINE (using PubMed) for the time period of January 1, 2002 to January 31, 2012. In recent decades, the prevalence of food allergy in general has increased by 0.60 % [95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.59 %-0.61 %] and the prevalence of peanut allergy by 0.027 % (95 % CI, 0.026 %-0.028 %), but it has now likely stabilized in developed countries. Genes, the environment, and demographic characteristics play a role in the pathogenesis of food allergy. Numerous environmental and demographic factors as well as gene-environment interactions may account for this increase in prevalence, but further studies are required to tease out their relative contribution.

  12. Respiratory Home Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Living > Living With Lung Disease > Respiratory Home Health Care Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition ... Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Respiratory Home Health Care Respiratory care at home can contribute to improved ...

  13. Food allergy: recent advances in pathophysiology and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 5% of young children and 3-4% of adults exhibit adverse immune responses to foods in westernized countries, with a tendency to increase. The pathophysiology of food allergy (FA) relies on immune reactions triggered by epitopes, i.e. small amino-acid sequences able to bind to antibodies or cells. Some food allergens share specific physicochemical characteristics that allow them to resist digestion, thus enhancing allergenicity. These allergens encounter specialized dendritic cell populations in the gut, which leads to T-cell priming. In case of IgE-mediated allergy, this process triggers the production of allergen-specific IgE by B cells. Tissue-resident reactive cells, including mast cells, then bind IgE, and allergic reactions are elicited when these cells, with adjacent IgE molecules bound to their surface, are re-exposed to allergen. Allergic reactions occurring in the absence of detectable IgE are labeled non-IgE mediated. The abrogation of oral tolerance which leads to FA is likely favored by genetic disposition and environmental factors (e.g. increased hygiene or enhanced allergenicity of some foods). For an accurate diagnosis, complete medical history, laboratory tests and, in most cases, an oral food challenge are needed. Noticeably, the detection of food-specific IgE (sensitization) does not necessarily indicate clinical allergy. Novel diagnostic methods currently under study focus on the immune responses to specific food proteins or epitopes of specific proteins. Food-induced allergic reactions represent a large array of symptoms involving the skin and gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. They can be attributed to IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated (cellular) mechanisms and thus differ in their nature, severity and outcome. Outcome also differs according to allergens.

  14. [Interest of allergy tests in urticaria].

    PubMed

    Mathelier-Fusade, P

    2014-11-01

    Urticaria is a common skin disease that may affect 20 % of the general population. Most of the time, urticaria is an acute disorder that rarely can be chronic. The difficulty in urticaria is not the clinical diagnosis because the rash is characteristic, but the underlying causes and treatment that result. Urticaria is a benign disease when chronic and potentially dangerous when acute and associated with allergy. This allergy risk, needs an allergy exploration, based on skin tests and / or specific IgE assays. Because allergy is unusual in chronic urticaria, no allergy tests should be performed. By contrast, these tests must be undertaken in case of acute urticaria with a strong suspicion of IgE-mediated reaction because of the risk of severe anaphylaxis in case of allergenic re-exposure.

  15. Food allergies developing after solid organ transplant.

    PubMed

    Needham, J M; Nicholas, S K; Davis, C M

    2015-12-01

    The development of food allergy is an increasingly recognized form of morbidity after solid organ transplant. It occurs more commonly in liver transplant recipients, although it has also been reported in heart, lung, kidney, and intestinal transplants. Pediatric transplant recipients are more likely to develop symptoms compared to adults, and reports of frequency vary widely from 5% to 38% in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed in the literature, although no single mechanism can yet account for all reported observations. As food allergy can have at worst potentially fatal consequences, and at best require lifestyle adjustment through food avoidance, it is important for recipients to be aware of the donor's food allergies and particularly in pediatrics, the possibility of completely de novo allergies. This review explores the recent reports surrounding food allergy after solid organ transplant, including epidemiology, proposed mechanisms, and implications for practice.

  16. [Food allergy or food intolerance?].

    PubMed

    Maître, S; Maniu, C-M; Buss, G; Maillard, M H; Spertini, F; Ribi, C

    2014-04-16

    Adverse food reactions can be classified into two main categories depending on wether an immune mechanism is involved or not. The first category includes immune mediated reactions like IgE mediated food allergy, eosinophilic oesophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and celiac disease. The second category implies non-immune mediated adverse food reactions, also called food intolerances. Intoxications, pharmacologic reactions, metabolic reactions, physiologic, psychologic or reactions with an unknown mechanism belong to this category. We present a classification of adverse food reactions based on the pathophysiologic mechanism that can be useful for both diagnostic approach and management.

  17. Occupational seafood allergy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Jeebhay, M; Robins, T; Lehrer, S; Lopata, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Recent years have seen increased levels of production and consumption of seafood, leading to more frequent reporting of allergic reactions in occupational and domestic settings. This review focuses on occupational allergy in the fishing and seafood processing industry.
REVIEW—Workers involved in either manual or automated processing of crabs, prawns, mussels, fish, and fishmeal production are commonly exposed to various constituents of seafood. Aerosolisation of seafood and cooking fluid during processing are potential occupational situations that could result in sensitisation through inhalation. There is great variability of aerosol exposure within and among various jobs with reported allergen concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 5.061(µg/m3). Occupational dermal exposure occurs as a result of unprotected handling of seafood and its byproducts. Occupational allergies have been reported in workers exposed to arthropods (crustaceans), molluscs, pisces (bony fish) and other agents derived from seafood. The prevalence of occupational asthma ranges from 7% to 36%, and for occupational protein contact dermatitis, from 3% to 11%. These health outcomes are mainly due to high molecular weight proteins in seafood causing an IgE mediated response. Cross reactivity between various species within a major seafood grouping also occurs. Limited evidence from dose-response relations indicate that development of symptoms is related to duration or intensity of exposure. The evidence for atopy as a risk factor for occupational sensitisation and asthma is supportive, whereas evidence for cigarette smoking is limited. Disruption of the intact skin barrier seems to be an important added risk factor for occupational protein contact dermatitis.
CONCLUSION—The range of allergic disease associated with occupational exposure to crab is well characterised, whereas for other seafood agents the evidence is somewhat limited. There is a need for further epidemiological

  18. Delayed and immediate allergy caused by methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, L; Hyry, H; Jolanki, R; Hytönen, M; Estlander, T

    1997-01-01

    Epoxy resin compounds (ERC) include a large number of chemicals, such as epoxy resins (ER), reactive diluents and hardeners. Many hardeners, e.g., aliphatic polyamines, are well-known sensitizers. Another type of ER hardeners are the phthalic anhydrides, such as methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA) and methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MTHPA), which have been reported as causing immunologically-mediated respiratory diseases and contact urticaria, but not allergic contact dermatitis. Here, we present a horizontal boring-machine worker who developed allergic contact dermatitis, as well as allergic rhinitis and an immediate contact skin reaction from MHHPA. Patch testing with a dilution series of MHHPA in pet. elicited the following results: 2%, 1% and 0.5%, +2; 0.25% and 0.125%, + (3- to 6-day readings). An immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study also indicated that the patch test reactions were conventional-delayed allergic reactions. Interleukin 8 was observed in the epidermal cells, whereas interleukin 4 immunoreactivity was detected in the dermal cells. Immunoreactivity to-interleukin 5, granulocyte/macrophage-colophony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or eosinophil cationic protein was not seen. In conclusion, the patient developed both Type I and Type IV allergy to MHHPA. The clinical data, patch test results, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic observations indicated that the MHHPA allergy detected by the patch test reaction was a conventional delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. The patient also had an allergic patch test reaction to para-phenylenediamine and diaminodiphenylmethane, possibly representing occupational sensitization.

  19. [The return of the prodigal child or allergy to ficus].

    PubMed

    Pradalier, A; Leriche, E; Trinh, Ch; Molitor, J L

    2004-11-01

    Ficus benjamina (FB), the weeping fig, belonging to the Moracea family, is now widely used as an indoor ornamental plant in houses and offices. Its latex can be responsible of IgE allergies : rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, angiooedema, pruritus, anaphylactic shock. In some occupations such as gardeners, caretakers of plants, it can induce a contact urticaria. Most of these patients are atopics. We describe a case of non-occupational, indoor related rhinoconjunctivitis in a non-atopic patient. Prick-test and RAST to FB latex were positive and removal of the ficus plant resolved their symptoms confirming the etiologic role of the plant. The patient did not demonstrate sensitization to other common allergens (except weeds) involved in respiratory (latex of Hevea brasiliensis, mites...) and food allergies (negativity of the prick-tests for fig, avocado, banana, kiwi). Now, FB is a new hidden allergen in the house. Questionning for its presence and testing it should be considered; as it should be introduced in the standard prick-test panel.

  20. Management of Rodent Exposure and Allergy in the Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Elizabeth C.

    2013-01-01

    Although rodent allergy has long been recognized as an occupational disease, it has only been in the past decade that it has been recognized as a community-based disease that affects children. Most homes in the US have detectable mouse allergen, but the concentrations in inner-city homes are orders of magnitude higher than those found in suburban homes. Home mouse allergen exposure has been linked to sensitization to mouse, and children with asthma who are both sensitized and exposed to high mouse allergen concentrations at home are at greater risk for symptoms, exacerbations and reduced lung function. Rat allergen is found primarily in inner-city homes and has also been linked to asthma morbidity among sensitized children. The objective of this review is to summarize the scientific literature on rodents and their allergens, the effects of exposure to these allergens on allergic respiratory disease, and to make recommendations, based on this evidence base, for the evaluation and management of mouse allergy in the pediatric population. PMID:23912589

  1. Respiratory Distress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The University of Miami School of Medicine asked the Research Triangle Institute for assistance in improvising the negative pressure technique to relieve respiratory distress in infants. Marshall Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center engineers adapted this idea to the lower-body negative-pressure system seals used during the Skylab missions. Some 20,000 babies succumb to respiratory distress in the U.S. each year, a condition in which lungs progressively lose their ability to oxygenate blood. Both positive and negative pressure techniques have been used - the first to force air into lungs, the second to keep infant's lungs expanded. Negative pressure around chest helps the baby expand his lungs and maintain proper volume of air. If doctors can keep the infant alive for four days, the missing substance in the lungs will usually form in sufficient quantity to permit normal breathing. The Skylab chamber and its leakproof seals were adapted for medical use.

  2. Allergies: their role in cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Paul W; Holland, Erica; Sherman, Janet Shellman

    2008-12-01

    The nature of the biological relationships between cancers and allergies has intrigued researchers and health care providers for five decades. Three hypotheses have been proposed: antigenic stimulation predicts positive associations between cancers and allergies (i.e., allergy sufferers are more likely to get cancer), whereas immunosurveillance and prophylaxis predict inverse associations (i.e., allergy sufferers are less likely to get cancer). Immunosurveillance predicts inverse associations for cancers of all tissues and organ systems, and prophylaxis predicts inverse associations specifically for cancers of tissues and organ systems that interface with the external environment. To comparatively evaluate these hypotheses, we comprehensively reviewed the literature on cancer and allergies. We located 148 papers published from 1955 through 2006 that reported results of 463 studies of relationships between patients' histories of 11 specific allergies and cancers of 19 tissues and organ systems, and 183 studies of patients' histories of multiple allergies in relation to various types/sites of cancers. Analyses of these studies revealed that (1) frequencies of positive, inverse, and null allergy-cancer associations differed considerably among cancers of different tissues and organ systems; (2) more than twice as many studies reported inverse allergy-cancer associations as reported positive associations; (3) inverse associations were particularly common for cancers of the mouth and throat, brain glia, colon and rectum, pancreas, skin, and cervix but (4) particularly rare for cancers of the breast, prostate, and brain meninges, and for myeloma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and myelocytic leukemia; (5) lung cancer was positively associated with asthma but inversely associated with other allergies; (6) inverse associations with allergies were more than twice as common for cancers of nine tissues and organ systems that interface with the external environment compared to cancers

  3. Climate change, environment and allergy.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Climate change with global warming is a physicometeorological fact that, among other aspects, will also affect human health. Apart from cardiovascular and infectious diseases, allergies seem to be at the forefront of the sequelae of climate change. By increasing temperature and concomitant increased CO(2) concentration, plant growth is affected in various ways leading to prolonged pollination periods in the northern hemisphere, as well as to the appearance of neophytes with allergenic properties, e.g. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed), in Central Europe. Because of the effects of environmental pollutants, which do not only act as irritants to skin and mucous membranes, allergen carriers such as pollen can be altered in the atmosphere and release allergens leading to allergen-containing aerosols in the ambient air. Pollen has been shown not only to be an allergen carrier, but also to release highly active lipid mediators (pollen-associated lipid mediators), which have proinflammatory and immunomodulating effects enhancing the initiation of allergy. Through the effects of climate change in the future, plant growth may be influenced in a way that more, new and altered pollens are produced, which may affect humans.

  4. [Latex allergy--Part I].

    PubMed

    Chełmińska, Marta

    2004-01-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL), is a resin sap produced in the cells of caoutchouc plants. It is a water dispersion of cis-1,4-polisopren (caoutchouc)--35%, stabilized with little amounts of proteins, sugar, alcohol, fatty acids and salts. The concentration of all solid substances is about 40%, the rest is water. Immunogenicity of latex depends on the proteins it contains. For many years we read in medical papers about the cases of contact urticaria, asthma, rhinitis, and anaphylaxis after contacting with latex products. It turns out that medical staff is the group of high occupational risk, because of exposure to gloves and other latex products. It is connected with the fact of high gloves usage caused by the danger of virus infections: HIV, HBV, HCV. Latex allergy is one of the reasons of dramatic complications after surgical operations. People who are allergic to latex may have cross reactions to allergens not connected with occupational environment. These are: food and houseplants (Ficus benjamina). The frequency of latex allergy is about 0.1% of the population. In the groups of high risk the frequency rises sharply. It is 17% among medical staff and it reaches 60% among children with spina bifida.

  5. Food allergy and infantile autism.

    PubMed

    Lucarelli, S; Frediani, T; Zingoni, A M; Ferruzzi, F; Giardini, O; Quintieri, F; Barbato, M; D'Eufemia, P; Cardi, E

    1995-09-01

    The etiopathogenesis of infantile autism is still unknown. Recently some authors have suggested that food peptides might be able to determine toxic effects at the level of the central nervous system by interacting with neurotransmitters. In fact a worsening of neurological symptoms has been reported in autistic patients after the consumption of milk and wheat. The aim of the present study has been to verify the efficacy of a cow's milk free diet (or other foods which gave a positive result after a skin test) in 36 autistic patients. We also looked for immunological signs of food allergy in autistic patients on a free choice diet. We noticed a marked improvement in the behavioural symptoms of patients after a period of 8 weeks on an elimination diet and we found high levels of IgA antigen specific antibodies for casein, lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin and IgG and IgM for casein. The levels of these antibodies were significantly higher than those of a control group which consisted of 20 healthy children. Our results lead us to hypothesise a relationship between food allergy and infantile autism as has already been suggested for other disturbances of the central nervous system.

  6. Shellfish Allergy: a Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, María; Boyano-Martínez, Teresa; García-Ara, Carmen; Quirce, Santiago

    2015-10-01

    Shellfish allergy is of increasing concern, as its prevalence has risen in recent years. Many advances have been made in allergen characterization. B cell epitopes in the major allergen tropomyosin have been characterized. In addition to tropomyosin, arginine kinase, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein, and myosin light chain have recently been reported in shellfish. All are proteins that play a role in muscular contraction. Additional allergens such as hemocyanin have also been described. The effect of processing methods on these allergens has been studied, revealing thermal stability and resistance to peptic digestion in some cases. Modifications after Maillard reactions have also been addressed, although in some cases with conflicting results. In recent years, new hypoallergenic molecules have been developed, which constitute a new therapeutic approach to allergic disorders. A recombinant hypoallergenic tropomyosin has been developed, which opens a new avenue in the treatment of shellfish allergy. Cross-reactivity with species that are not closely related is common in shellfish-allergic patients, as many of shellfish allergens are widely distributed panallergens in invertebrates. Cross-reactivity with house dust mites is well known, but other species can also be involved in this phenomenon.

  7. Harmonia axyridis ladybug invasion and allergy.

    PubMed

    Goetz, David W

    2008-01-01

    Beginning in 1916 Harmonia axyridis, an orange/red lady beetle with variable black spotting, was imported into the United States from Asia. This agricultural pest-control predator established independent feral populations in North America by 1988. Subsequently, Harmonia axyridis has become a pest to homeowners and various horticultural enterprises. Seeking winter hibernation sites, ladybug swarms invade human homes/habitats primarily in the fall. With increased Harmonia axyridis exposures, human ladybug allergy was first reported in 1998. Ladybug-specific IgE hypersensitivity has been reported in all ages (1-78 years old) and both sexes. Clinical ladybug allergy manifests variously as rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, and angioedema. A majority, but not all, allergic individuals are primarily exposed at home. Large fall swarms and smaller spring dispersions produce corresponding peaks in ladybug allergy. Ladybug hemolymph is a primary source of allergen. Har a 1 and Har a 2 major ladybug allergens have been characterized. Ladybug allergy prevalence in one endemic area was reported as 10%. Self-report of ladybug pests at home did not predict ladybug allergy, suggesting other exposures are important also. Some individuals have no history of atopy before manifestation of ladybug allergy. Ladybug, cat, cockroach, and house-dust mites are the most likely allergens to present as isolated single positive skin tests in an allergist's office. Ladybug should be a standard skin test allergen for all allergy patients tested in endemic areas. Avoidance of ladybug exposure is paramount to treatment.

  8. Food allergy: opportunities and challenges in the clinical practice of allergy and immunology.

    PubMed

    James, John M

    2004-10-01

    Food allergy offers numerous opportunities and challenges for the allergy and clinical immunology specialist. Physicians with board certification in allergy and clinical immunology should be the main source of reliable clinical information to educate patients with food-related disorders. There has been a wealth of reliable information published related to food allergy that can be utilized by health care providers in clinical practice. This includes information about the cross-reactivity of food allergens, the evaluation of potential new therapies, and the practical application of new diagnostic methods and management strategies. This article addresses some of the new developments in food allergy, with an emphasis on cross-reactvity of food allergens, recombinant food allergens, and potential future therapies for food allergy.

  9. Food Allergy: State of the Science--Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Committee.

    PubMed

    Reisacher, William; Damask, Cecelia; Calhoun, Karen; Veling, Maria

    2011-11-01

    In the past several years, food allergies have taken center stage in the media and have become a topic of great concern for our patients and their families. Whether or not this is due to a rise in the prevalence of food allergies or just a heightened awareness, it is our responsibility as clinicians and scientists to critically analyze the current evidence available concerning the epidemiology, manifestations, diagnosis, and management of this disease. In 2010, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) published guidelines concerning the diagnosis and management of food allergies. Since 2009, the Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Committee of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery has sponsored a miniseminar titled, "Food Allergy: State of the Science." This commentary focuses on the highlights from the 2010 meeting and provides some thoughts on what this latest publication means to otolaryngologists.

  10. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines. Food allergy health-related quality of life measures.

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Dubois, A E J; DunnGalvin, A; Hourihane, J O'B; de Jong, N W; Meyer, R; Panesar, S S; Roberts, G; Salvilla, S; Sheikh, A; Worth, A; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J

    2014-07-01

    Instruments have been developed and validated for the measurement of health-related quality of life in patients with food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group. It draws on a systematic review of the literature on quality of life instruments for food allergy and the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE II) guideline development process. Guidance is provided on the use of such instruments in research, and the current limitations of their use in clinical practice are described. Gaps in current knowledge as well as areas of future interest are also discussed. This document is relevant to healthcare workers dealing with food-allergic patients, scientists engaging in food allergy research and policy makers involved in regulatory aspects concerning food allergy and safety.

  11. Allergy and asthma: Effects of the exposure to particulate matter and biological allergens.

    PubMed

    Baldacci, S; Maio, S; Cerrai, S; Sarno, G; Baïz, N; Simoni, M; Annesi-Maesano, I; Viegi, G

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergies including atopy has increased during the past decades, particularly in westernized countries. The rapid rise in the prevalence of such diseases cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Rapid urbanization and industrialization throughout the world have increased air pollution and population exposures, so that most epidemiologic studies are focusing on possible links between air pollution and respiratory diseases. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence shows that chemical air pollution may interact with airborne allergens enhancing the risk of atopic sensitization and exacerbation of symptoms in sensitized subjects. These phenomena are supported by current in vitro and animal studies showing that the combined exposure to air pollutants and allergens may have a synergistic or additive effect on asthma and allergies, although there is an insufficient evidence about this link at the population level. Further research is needed in order to elucidate the mechanisms by which pollutants and biological allergens induce damage in exposed subjects. The abatement of the main risk factors for asthma and allergic diseases may achieve huge health benefits. Thus, it is important to raise awareness of respiratory allergies as serious chronic diseases which place a heavy burden on patients and on society as a whole.

  12. [Allergy diagnosis by primary care physicians].

    PubMed

    Eigenmann, Philippe A

    2010-04-21

    Primary care physicians will conduct allergy diagnosis based on the history provided by the patient. In case of a possible IgE type allergy, investigations will be made by skin tests or measurement of specific IgE antibodies in the serum. Interpretation of positive tests will have to consider possible sensitizations in absence of allergic symptoms that should not lead to inadequate therapeutic measures or diet. This review will provide to primary care physicians guidance to choose the best method in the appropriate situations for allergy diagnosis.

  13. Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause allergic reactions. Chemicals. Some cosmetics or laundry detergents can make people break out in hives. Usually, ... high. Switching to perfume-free and dye-free detergents, cosmetics, and beauty products (you may see non- ...

  14. Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause allergic reactions — such as certain foods, dust, plant pollen, or medicines — are known as allergens .) In an attempt to protect the body, the immune system produces IgE antibodies to that allergen. Those antibodies then cause certain cells in the body to release chemicals into the ...

  15. Artemisia allergy research in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rui; Sun, Jin-Lu; Yin, Jia; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia is the most important outdoor allergen throughout China. It can cause allergic rhinitis, asthma, or both of them. Since it was verified as an allergenic pollen in 1960, it was identified two times in the Chinese National Pollen Survey (1984, 2009). The first oral immunotherapy double-blinded trial for Artemisia pollen asthma research was conducted in China in 1989 and published in 1990. 40 years since that study, there have been many published research reports on Chinese Artemisia allergy. This review summarizes the information regarding the discovery of Artemisia as an allergenic pollen, pollen account, epidemiology, allergen components, immunological changes in hay fever patients, natural course from rhinitis to asthma, diagnosis, and immunotherapies in China.

  16. Global airway disease beyond allergy.

    PubMed

    Hellings, Peter W; Prokopakis, Emmanuel P

    2010-03-01

    Besides the anatomic continuity of the upper and lower airways, inflammation in one part of the airway influences the homeostasis of the other. The mechanisms underlying this interaction have been studied primarily in allergic disease, showing systemic immune activation, induction of inflammation at a distance, and a negative impact of nasal inflammation on bronchial homeostasis. In addition to allergy, other inflammatory conditions of the upper airways are associated with lower airway disease. Rhinosinusitis is frequently associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The impairment of purification, humidification, and warming up of the inspired air by the nose in rhinosinusitis may be responsible in part for bronchial pathology. The resolution of sinonasal inflammation via medical and/or surgical treatment is responsible for the beneficial effect of the treatment on bronchial disease. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of upper and lower airway communication beyond allergic disease.

  17. [Klüver-Bucy syndrome in humans].

    PubMed

    Gaul, C; Jordan, B; Wustmann, T; Preuss, U W

    2007-07-01

    The Klüver-Bucy syndrome (KBS) was first described in 1937 as an experimental neurobehavorial syndrome in monkeys with bitemporal brain lesions. The syndrome in man was subsequently observed to be transient or permanent in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders and after traumatic, nontraumatic, and infectious brain injury. Its most common manifestations are hyperorality with changes in dietary habits, hypersexuality, and visual agnosia. Seizures are another frequent symptom. Here we describe KBS in a female inpatient aged 30 in whom KBS and psychotic symptoms occurred together.

  18. Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fight the Cause of Allergies CIU & You Get Smart About Asthma Know Your Count Tackle Asthma Tackle ... 8201 Corporate Drive Suite 1000 Landover, MD 20785 Phone: 1-800-7-ASTHMA (1.800.727.8462) ...

  19. Allergies and Asthma: They Often Occur Together

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur together. The same substances that trigger your hay fever symptoms, such as pollen, dust mites and pet ... a major risk factor for allergic asthma. Having hay fever or other allergies yourself also increases your risk ...

  20. FastStats: Allergies/Hay Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Allergies and Hay Fever Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... aged 18 years and over) Number with diagnosed hay fever in the past 12 months: 20.0 million ...

  1. Allergy Meds Could Affect Your Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... dust mites, for example—it produces chemicals called histamines. Histamines cause the tissue in your nose to swell ( ... containing antihistamines, drugs which counteract the effect of histamines, can help relieve many different types of allergies, ...

  2. Going to School with Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... name and type of allergies, consider including that epinephrine should be given in case of a severe ... is a severe allergic reaction, they should give epinephrine immediately, then call 911. Make plans for different ...

  3. [Study on casein allergy in children].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, D; Kawashima, H; Oana, S; Motobe, M; Iiyama, M; Kashiwagi, Y; Numabe, H; Takekuma, K; Hoshika, A

    2000-11-01

    Casein a component of milk is used for food additives, industrial materials and drugs. However casein is known to be a main allergen in milk allergy. Recently several cases of anaphylaxis to antibiotics including casein have been reported. In this study we investigated casein allergy in milk allergy. 6 out of 8 patients who were positive for milk RAST were also positive for casein RAST. In these positive cases only 3 out of 6 patients had some allergic symptoms after taking antibiotics. In 3 patients DLST was also positive to casein. There was one patient who was positive in DLST without any symptoms after taking the same antibiotics. It is needed to pay attention to casein allergy when giving the medication which includes casein.

  4. Prevention of food allergy - Early dietary interventions.

    PubMed

    Du Toit, George; Foong, Ru-Xin M; Lack, Gideon

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence of food allergy has increased over the last 30 years and remains a disease, which significantly impacts on the quality of life of children and their families. Several hypotheses have been formulated to explain the increasing prevalence; this review will focus on the hypothesis that dietary factors may influence the development of food allergy. Historically, the prevention of food allergy has focused on allergen avoidance. However, recent findings from interventional studies have prompted a shift in the mind set from avoidance to early introduction of potentially allergenic foods. This review aims to facilitate a better understanding of contemporary research studies that make use of early introduction of common allergenic foods into infant diets as a preventative strategy against the development of food allergy.

  5. Sulfa Allergy: Which Medications Should I Avoid?

    MedlinePlus

    ... sulfa allergy. Do I need to avoid certain medications? Answers from James T C Li, M.D., ... drugs: Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (Septra, Bactrim) Erythromycin-sulfisoxazole Other medications that may cause a reaction Other types of ...

  6. National Allergy Bureau Pollen and Mold Report

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search AAAAI National Allergy Bureau Pollen and Mold Report Date: April 12, 2017 Location: San Antonio ( ... Service can automatically email you daily pollen and mold reports. Click here sign up! Return to Map ...

  7. Early Allergies -- Payback for a Mild Winter?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Early Allergies -- Payback for a Mild Winter? Early blooms may start you sneezing and sniffling ahead of ... dormant, Caudle said. Also, trees are starting to bloom in many parts of the United States, in ...

  8. [Immunological background and pathomechanisms of food allergies].

    PubMed

    Schülke, Stefan; Scheurer, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in immunology have greatly improved our understanding of the pathomechanisms of food allergies. Food allergies are caused and maintained by complex interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system involving antigen-presenting cells (APC), T cells, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), epithelial cells (EC) and effectors cells. Additionally, epigenetic factors, the intestinal microbiome and nutritional factors modulating the gastrointestinal lymphatic tissue probably have a significant impact on allergy development. However, why certain individuals develop tolerance while others mount allergic responses, the factors defining the allergenicity of food proteins, as well as the immunological mechanisms triggering allergy development have yet to be analyzed in detail.

  9. Scratching the Surface on Skin Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin layers that sometimes occurs with hives. Angioedema ap- pears on the eyelids, lips, tongue, hands and ... common in infants and those who have a history of allergies or asthma. Older children and adults ...

  10. Latex allergy in women's health care.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Latex allergy in midwifery and women's health care is not a new concept, with numerous case reports documenting adverse reactions in pregnant women to natural rubber latex in the birthing room. The practising midwife, nurse and sonographer need to be aware of the signs and symptoms of latex allergy and the implications of a severe reaction to latex not only to the woman but also the unborn child.

  11. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Spain.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2011-11-01

    The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and

  12. Evaluating standard terminologies for encoding allergy information

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Foster R; Zhou, Li; Plasek, Joseph M; Broverman, Carol; Robinson, George; Middleton, Blackford; Rocha, Roberto A

    2013-01-01

    Objective Allergy documentation and exchange are vital to ensuring patient safety. This study aims to analyze and compare various existing standard terminologies for representing allergy information. Methods Five terminologies were identified, including the Systemized Nomenclature of Medical Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), National Drug File–Reference Terminology (NDF-RT), Medication Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA), Unique Ingredient Identifier (UNII), and RxNorm. A qualitative analysis was conducted to compare desirable characteristics of each terminology, including content coverage, concept orientation, formal definitions, multiple granularities, vocabulary structure, subset capability, and maintainability. A quantitative analysis was also performed to compare the content coverage of each terminology for (1) common food, drug, and environmental allergens and (2) descriptive concepts for common drug allergies, adverse reactions (AR), and no known allergies. Results Our qualitative results show that SNOMED CT fulfilled the greatest number of desirable characteristics, followed by NDF-RT, RxNorm, UNII, and MedDRA. Our quantitative results demonstrate that RxNorm had the highest concept coverage for representing drug allergens, followed by UNII, SNOMED CT, NDF-RT, and MedDRA. For food and environmental allergens, UNII demonstrated the highest concept coverage, followed by SNOMED CT. For representing descriptive allergy concepts and adverse reactions, SNOMED CT and NDF-RT showed the highest coverage. Only SNOMED CT was capable of representing unique concepts for encoding no known allergies. Conclusions The proper terminology for encoding a patient's allergy is complex, as multiple elements need to be captured to form a fully structured clinical finding. Our results suggest that while gaps still exist, a combination of SNOMED CT and RxNorm can satisfy most criteria for encoding common allergies and provide sufficient content coverage. PMID:23396542

  13. Prevalence of celiac disease in patients with severe food allergy.

    PubMed

    Pillon, R; Ziberna, F; Badina, L; Ventura, A; Longo, G; Quaglia, S; De Leo, L; Vatta, S; Martelossi, S; Patano, G; Not, T; Berti, I

    2015-10-01

    The association between food allergy and celiac disease (CD) is still to be clarified. We screened for CD 319 patients with severe food allergy (IgE > 85 kU/l against food proteins and a history of severe allergic reactions) who underwent specific food oral immunotherapy (OIT), together with 128 children with mild allergy who recovered without OIT, and compared the prevalence data with our historical data regarding healthy schoolchildren. Sixteen patients (5%) with severe allergy and one (0.8%) with mild allergy tested positive for both genetic and serological CD markers, while the prevalence among the schoolchildren was 1%. Intestinal biopsies were obtained in 13/16 patients with severe allergy and in the one with mild allergy, confirming the diagnosis of CD. Sufferers from severe food allergy seem to be at a fivefold increased risk of CD. Our findings suggest that routine screening for CD should be recommended in patients with severe food allergy.

  14. Stress and food allergy: mechanistic considerations

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Hannah M.C.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen a marked increase in food allergy prevalence among children, particularly in Western countries, that cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. This has resulted in an increased effort to identify environmental risk factors underlying food allergies and to understand how these factors may be modified through interventions. Food allergy is an immune-mediated adverse reaction to food. Consequently, considerations of candidate risk factors have begun to focus on environmental influences that perturb the healthy development of the emerging immune system during critical periods of development (eg, prenatally and during early childhood), particularly in the gut. Given that psychosocial stress is known to play an important role in other allergic and inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, its potential role in food allergy is a growing area of research. However, research to date has largely focused on animal studies. This review synthesizes relevant animal research and epidemiological data, providing proof of concept for moderating influences of psychological stress on food allergy outcomes in humans. Pathways that may underlie associations between psychosocial stress and the expression of food allergy are discussed. PMID:24428964

  15. Oral tolerance induction for human food allergy.

    PubMed

    Noh, Geunwoong; Lee, Jae Ho

    2012-04-01

    Food allergies are classified as IgE-mediated and non-IgE mediated type. The number of successful reports of immunotherapy, namely tolerance induction for food allergy (TIFA) are increasing, bringing hope for meaningful positive and radical treatment of food allergy. Therapeutic characteristics of the clinical course in TIFA for NFA are different from TIFA for IFA. Cytokines including IL-10, TGF-β and IFN-γ and regulatory cells such as Treg and Breg, are involved in immune tolerance. IFN-γ has been used for tolerance induction of food allergy as an immunomodulatory biologics. A definitive distinction between IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated food allergies is absolutely essential for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Original SOTI using IFN-γ is more effective then conventional SOTI without IFN-γ. Especially, IFN-γ is absolutely necessary for the tolerance induction of NFA. This review highlights and updates the advances in the conceptual immunological background and the clinical characteristics of oral tolerance induction for food allergy.

  16. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel.

    PubMed

    Geller-Bernstein, Carmi; Etzioni, Amos

    2013-03-01

    After the geographic and sociodemographic settings as well as the health care in Israel are briefly described, the scope of pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel is presented. This includes specific disorders commonly encountered, the environment that induces symptoms, the specialists who treat them, and the common challenges of patients, parents, doctors, and allied health personnel who collaborate to manage the maladies and patient care. Allergies usually affect some overall 15-20% of the pediatric population. The main allergens are inhaled, ingested, or injected (insects stings). Generally, the incidence of the various allergens affecting children in Israel, is similar to other parts of the Western world. Owing to the high consanguinity rate in the Israeli population, the prevalence of the various immunodeficiency conditions (in the adaptive as well as the innate system) is higher than that reported worldwide. Pediatric allergists/immunologists also treat autoimmune disorders affecting the pediatric group. Pediatric allergy and clinical immunology are not separate specialties. The 25 specialists who treat children with allergic/immunologic diseases have undergone a basic training in Pediatrics. They also received an additional 2-yr training in allergy and clinical immunology and then have to pass the board examinations. They work mainly in pediatric allergy units, in several hospitals that are affiliated to the five medical schools in the country. Aside from clinical work, most of the centers are also heavily involved in clinical and basic research in allergy and immunology.

  17. Allergy Tests: When You Need Them and When You Don't

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Videos Lists Search Patient Resources Allergy Tests Allergy Tests When you need them and when you ... ADVICE FROM CONSUMER REPORTS How should you manage allergies and hives? Food allergies. The only treatment for ...

  18. 76 FR 6626 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation...

  19. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Parents > Lungs and Respiratory System Print ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't happen ...

  20. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Parents > Lungs and Respiratory System A ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't happen ...

  1. Formula with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces incidence of allergy in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Foiles, Amanda M.; Kerling, Elizabeth H.; Wick, Jo A.; Scalabrin, Deolinda M.F.; Colombo, John; Carlson, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Allergy has sharply increased in affluent Western countries in the last 30 years. N-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) may protect the immune system against development of allergy. Methods We prospectively categorized illnesses by body system in a subset of 91 children from the Kansas City cohort of the DIAMOND (DHA Intake and Measurement of Neural Development) study who had yearly medical records through 4 years of age. As infants, they were fed either a control formula without LCPUFA (n=19) or one of three formulas with LCPUFA from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) (n=72). Results Allergic illnesses in the first year were lower in the combined LCPUFA group compared to the control. LCPUFAs significantly delayed time to first allergic illness (p=0.04) and skin allergic illness (p=0.03); and resulted in a trend to reduced wheeze/asthma (p=0.1). If the mother had no allergies, LCPUFAs reduced the risk of any allergic diseases (HR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.1, 0.56, p=0.0.001) and skin allergic diseases (HR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.93, p=0.04). In contrast, if the mother had allergies, LCPUFAs reduced wheezing/asthma (HR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.07, 0.9, p = 0.02). Conclusions LCPUFA supplementation during infancy reduced the risk of skin and respiratory allergic diseases in childhood with effects influenced by maternal allergies. PMID:26613373

  2. Perinatal stress and food allergy: a preliminary study on maternal reports.

    PubMed

    Polloni, L; Ferruzza, E; Ronconi, L; Lazzarotto, F; Toniolo, A; Bonaguro, R; Muraro, A

    2015-01-01

    Maternal stress in fetal and early life has been associated with the development of respiratory allergies, but no studies exist about food allergy. Stressful events and the quality of caregiving provided, as they affect the emotional and physiologic regulation of the infant, could alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and immune system, facilitating an increased allergic response. This study aimed to investigate the influence of perinatal stress, as perceived by mothers, on developing food allergy in childhood. A survey on pregnancy and the first three months after giving birth was submitted to 59 Italian mothers of at least one child suffering from severe food allergy and one completely healthy child, for a total of 118 children examined. The presence of stressful events and the quality of perinatal period for each child were assessed retrospectively. The food allergic children's data were compared to siblings' data through inferential statistics. The results showed a significantly higher number of stressful events occurred during patients' perinatal period, compared to siblings, in particular bereavements in pregnancy and parenting difficulties in postpartum. Mothers reported harder pregnancies and more stressful, harder, and, in general, worse postpartum when referring to their food-allergic children, in comparison with their siblings (p < .05). Psychological aspects are demonstrated to be involved in the development of allergic diseases. This study constitutes the first step to examine the role of early stress and perinatal psychosocial factors in the pathogenesis of food allergy; further studies are necessary to understand individual psychological impact and its relations with genetic and biological factors.

  3. Development and characterization of a recombinant, hypoallergenic, peptide-based vaccine for grass pollen allergy

    PubMed Central

    Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Weber, Milena; Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Neubauer, Angela; Huber, Hans; Henning, Rainer; Stegfellner, Gottfried; Maderegger, Bernhard; Hauer, Martina; Stolz, Frank; Niederberger, Verena; Marth, Katharina; Eckl-Dorna, Julia; Weiss, Richard; Thalhamer, Josef; Blatt, Katharina; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Background Grass pollen is one of the most important sources of respiratory allergies worldwide. Objective This study describes the development of a grass pollen allergy vaccine based on recombinant hypoallergenic derivatives of the major timothy grass pollen allergens Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl p 6 by using a peptide-carrier approach. Methods Fusion proteins consisting of nonallergenic peptides from the 4 major timothy grass pollen allergens and the PreS protein from hepatitis B virus as a carrier were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by means of chromatography. Recombinant PreS fusion proteins were tested for allergenic activity and T-cell activation by means of IgE serology, basophil activation testing, T-cell proliferation assays, and xMAP Luminex technology in patients with grass pollen allergy. Rabbits were immunized with PreS fusion proteins to characterize their immunogenicity. Results Ten hypoallergenic PreS fusion proteins were constructed, expressed, and purified. According to immunogenicity and induction of allergen-specific blocking IgG antibodies, 4 hypoallergenic fusion proteins (BM321, BM322, BM325, and BM326) representing Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl p 6 were included as components in the vaccine termed BM32. BM321, BM322, BM325, and BM326 showed almost completely abolished allergenic activity and induced significantly reduced T-cell proliferation and release of proinflammatory cytokines in patients' PBMCs compared with grass pollen allergens. On immunization, they induced allergen-specific IgG antibodies, which inhibited patients' IgE binding to all 4 major allergens of grass pollen, as well as allergen-induced basophil activation. Conclusion A recombinant hypoallergenic grass pollen allergy vaccine (BM32) consisting of 4 recombinant PreS-fused grass pollen allergen peptides was developed for safe immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. PMID:25441634

  4. Respiratory syndrome very similar to extrinsic allergic alveolitis due to Penicillium verrucosum in workers in a cheese factory.

    PubMed

    Guglielminetti, M; Valoti, E; Cassini, P; Taino, G; Caretta, G

    2001-01-01

    A respiratory syndrome very similar to extrinsic allergic alveolitis due to Penicillium verrucosum was recognized in 4 workers employed in a Gorgonzola cheese factory. A mycogen allergy to P. verrucosum, used as starter in the production, was demonstrated by positive sputum culture and detection of specific antibodies in the blood. Intense and prolonged exposure to inhalation of fungal spores could have lead to the development of this allergic response. The fact that 2 of the subjects are siblings seems to indicate host susceptibility or immunological constitution in the pathogenesis of the respiratory allergy.

  5. Pet allergy: how important for Turkey where there is a low pet ownership rate.

    PubMed

    Mungan, Dilşad; Celik, Gülfem; Bavbek, Sevim; Misirligil, Zeynep

    2003-01-01

    Exposure and sensitization to allergens derived from cats/dogs have been shown to represent an important risk factor for allergic respiratory diseases. So far, there has not been any study exploring cat/dog sensitization and related factors in our geographic location. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitization to cats/dogs in a group of patients with rhinitis and/or asthma and to evaluate the relationship between current and childhood exposure and sensitivity to pets. Three hundred twelve consecutive subjects with asthma and/or rhinitis were included in the study and were asked to reply a questionnaire concerning past and current pet ownership and presence of pet-related respiratory symptoms. After performing skin-prick tests, subjects were allocated into three groups: group 1 (n = 103), subjects with nonatopic asthma; group 2 (n = 54), allergic rhinitis and/or asthma patients with pet allergy; group 3 (n = 155), allergic rhinitis and/or asthma patients without pet allergy. Pet hypersensitivity was detected in 54 of 209 atopic subjects (25.8%). There was no difference in the rates of past pet ownership among subjects with (29.6%) and without (23.8%) pet allergy. However, the ratio of current pet ownership was higher in atopic patients with pet allergy (16.6%) than in nonatopic subjects (2.9%; p = 0.02). The prevalence of sensitization to pets in current owners (42.8%) was higher than prevalence of sensitization in patients who never had a pet (22.6%; p = 0.002; odds ratio, 2.67) and who owned a pet at childhood (28.2%; p = 0.038; odds ratio, 1.9). Thirteen subjects (13/54; 24%) described respiratory symptoms when exposed to cats and/or dogs. Rate of past pet ownership was similar in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects with pet allergy (30.7% versus 29.2%; p > 0.05). Rate of current per ownership was higher in symptomatic subjects than in asymptomatic subjects with pet sensitivity (38.4% versus 9.5%; p < 0.0001). Our data indicate that pet allergens

  6. [Allergy, pollen and the environment].

    PubMed

    Terán, Luis Manuel; Haselbarth-López, Michelle Marie Margarete; Quiroz-García, David Leonor

    2009-01-01

    Allergic respiratory diseases such asthma and allergic rhinitis are a health problem throughout the world. In Mexico City, pollens are an important cause of allergic respiratory disease. Both, the geographic location- and the vegetation surrounding this City favor the distribution of pollens leading to respiratory disease in susceptible patients. Aerobiological studies have shown that during the mild dry winter there is a large amount of pollens in the environment with tree pollens being the most abundant of all. The most frequent tree pollens found in Mexico City include Fraxinus, Cupressaseae, Alnus, Liquidambar, Callistemon, Pinus, and Casuarina. In contrast, grass- and weed pollens predominate during the summer (rainy season) including Compositae, Cheno-Am, Ambrosia and Gramineae. An additional health problem in Mexico City is the air pollution that exerts a direct effect on individuals. This in turn increases pollen allergenicity by disrupting them leading to the release of their particles which then penetrate the human airways causing disease. Thus, the polluted environment along with global warming which is also known to increase pollen quantities by inducing longer pollen seasons may represent a health risk to Mexico City inhabitants.

  7. Tick-induced allergies: mammalian meat allergy, tick anaphylaxis and their significance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Serious tick-induced allergies comprise mammalian meat allergy following tick bites and tick anaphylaxis. Mammalian meat allergy is an emergent allergy, increasingly prevalent in tick-endemic areas of Australia and the United States, occurring worldwide where ticks are endemic. Sensitisation to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) has been shown to be the mechanism of allergic reaction in mammalian meat allergy following tick bite. Whilst other carbohydrate allergens have been identified, this allergen is unique amongst carbohydrate food allergens in provoking anaphylaxis. Treatment of mammalian meat anaphylaxis involves avoidance of mammalian meat and mammalian derived products in those who also react to gelatine and mammalian milks. Before initiating treatment with certain therapeutic agents (e.g., cetuximab, gelatine-containing substances), a careful assessment of the risk of anaphylaxis, including serological analysis for α-Gal specific-IgE, should be undertaken in any individual who works, lives, volunteers or recreates in a tick endemic area. Prevention of tick bites may ameliorate mammalian meat allergy. Tick anaphylaxis is rare in countries other than Australia. Tick anaphylaxis is secondarily preventable by prevention and appropriate management of tick bites. Analysis of tick removal techniques in tick anaphylaxis sufferers offers insights into primary prevention of both tick and mammalian meat anaphylaxis. Recognition of the association between mammalian meat allergy and tick bites has established a novel cause and effect relationship between an environmental exposure and subsequent development of a food allergy, directing us towards examining environmental exposures as provoking factors pivotal to the development of other food allergies and refocusing our attention upon causation of allergy in general. PMID:25653915

  8. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Celik, Gülfem; Bakirtas, Arzu; Sackesen, Cansin; Reisli, Ismail; Tuncer, Ayfer

    2011-06-01

    Allergic diseases constitute a significant health problem in Turkey. According to a recent multicenter study, which used the ISAAC questionnaire, the mean prevalence of wheezing, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in 10-yr-old school children during the past year was 15.8%, 23.5%, and 8.1%, respectively. A healthcare level system, regulated by Ministry of Health, is available in Turkey. Pediatric allergists and pediatric immunologists provide patient care at the tertiary level. Currently, 48 centers deliver care for allergic and immunologic diseases in children. There are 136 pediatric and 61 adult allergists/immunologists. Although the number of allergy/clinical immunology specialists is limited, these centers are capable of delivering many of the procedures required for the proper management and diagnosis of allergy/immunology. Pediatric allergy and/or immunology is a subspecialty lasting 3 yr and follows a 4-yr pediatric specialist training. Fellow training involves gaining knowledge in basic and clinical allergy and immunology as well as the performance and interpretation of laboratory procedures in the field of allergy and clinical immunology. The Turkish National Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (TNSACI) was officially established in 1989 and currently has 356 members. The society organizes a national congress annually and winter schools for fellowship training as well as training courses for patients and their relatives. TNSACI also has a strong representation in European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) and European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) through its participation in the executive committee, consensus reports, and initiatives in the diagnosis of allergic and immunologic diseases of children. The 30th Congress of the EAACI is also due to be held in Istanbul, Turkey, between June 11 and 15, 2011.

  9. The Triple T Allergy Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The early induction of allergy is a complex process involving protective and destructive gene variants, environmental and nutritional co-factors as well as allergen exposure. Although critical doses, interactions and susceptible time frames have not been identified so far, late gestation and early childhood seem to be important time periods for allergic sensitization. At least three risk factors can be distinguished based on altered early Th1 lymphocyte development. First, the number of children with an inborn maturation defect may have increased since the beginning of the last century, when this condition would otherwise have had a lethal outcome without antibiotics and other modern health care (survival hypothesis). Second, another group of children in industrialized countries may have a deficit of environmental Th1 triggers during early life (hygiene hypothesis). A third factor may also be found predominantly in western societies. The prophylaxis of rickets with vitamin D has the apparent side effect of suppressing Th1 development (vitamin hypothesis). Experimental as well as epidemiological studies now provide evidence for the vitamin hypothesis, which is examined in this paper by a time-course analysis of vitamin D application in Germany. Also paper studies in Swedish anthroposophic school children, the Tristan da Cunha islanders, and Swiss, Austrian and Bavarian farmers may be linked to either excessive or absent early vitamin D exposure. PMID:15330454

  10. Skin manifestations of drug allergy

    PubMed Central

    Ardern-Jones, Michael R; Friedmann, Peter S

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions range from mild to severe and from those localized only to skin to those associated with systemic disease. It is important to distinguish features of cutaneous drug reactions which help classify the underlying mechanism and likely prognosis as both of these influence management decisions, some of which necessarily have to be taken rapidly. Severe cutaneous reactions are generally T cell-mediated, yet this immunological process is frequently poorly understood and principles for identification of the culprit drug are different to those of IgE mediated allergic reactions. Furthermore, intervention in severe skin manifestations of drug allergy is frequently necessary. However, a substantial literature reports on success or otherwise of glucocorticoids, cyclophsphamide, ciclosporin, intravenous immunoglobulin and anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy for the treatment of toxic epidermal necrolysis without clear consensus. As well as reviewing the recommended supportive measures and evidence base for interventions, this review aims to provide a mechanistic overview relating to a proposed clinical classification to assist the assessment and management of these complex patients. PMID:21480947

  11. Severe tomato allergy (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Zacharisen, Michael C; Elms, Nancy P; Kurup, Viswanath P

    2002-01-01

    Although tomatoes are a commonly consumed food, severe allergic reactions to tomatoes are unusual or rarely reported. Previously reported allergic manifestations to tomato include urticaria/angioedema, dermatitis, oral allergy syndrome, rhinitis, and abdominal pain. The aim of this study was to report two patients with significant immediate hypersensitivity reactions to tomato and characterize the responsible allergen. We reviewed the history and documentation of tomato-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) of two patients with adverse symptoms after ingesting tomato. Fresh tomato extracts prepared from the skin, seeds, and flesh of red, ripe tomatoes were evaluated for total protein content and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to characterize the tomato protein. IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the patients' serum against the various tomato extracts was accomplished and IgE immunoblot was performed. Percutaneous skin tests or radioallergosorbent tests (RASTs) were positive to tomato in both patients. Both adults experienced laryngeal edema and one had anaphylaxis. Similar total protein contents were found in each of the tomato extracts and gel electrophoresis revealed similar protein profile for skin and seed extracts with protein bands discernible at molecular weights of 21, 33, and 43 kDa. One patient reacted specifically to a 43-kDa protein band on IgE immunoblot. The two cases show that severe allergic reactions to tomato occur in adults and one is associated with IgE binding to a 43-kDa protein.

  12. VERS: a virtual environment for reconstructive surgery planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Kevin N.

    1997-05-01

    The virtual environment for reconstructive surgery (VERS) project at the NASA Ames Biocomputation Center is applying virtual reality technology to aid surgeons in planning surgeries. We are working with a craniofacial surgeon at Stanford to assemble and visualize the bone structure of patients requiring reconstructive surgery either through developmental abnormalities or trauma. This project is an extension of our previous work in 3D reconstruction, mesh generation, and immersive visualization. The current VR system, consisting of an SGI Onyx RE2, FakeSpace BOOM and ImmersiveWorkbench, Virtual Technologies CyberGlove and Ascension Technologies tracker, is currently in development and has already been used to visualize defects preoperatively. In the near future it will be used to more fully plan the surgery and compute the projected result to soft tissue structure. This paper presents the work in progress and details the production of a high-performance, collaborative, and networked virtual environment.

  13. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ebisawa, Motohiro; Nishima, Sankei; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Kondo, Naomi

    2013-11-01

    The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JSPACI) was started in 1966 and currently has 3613 members as of August 1, 2012. The number of pediatricians specializing in allergies who have been certified by the Japanese Society of Allergology is 817. Among these, there are 125 training directors and training facilities for allergy and clinical immunology. The JSPACI first published an asthma guideline specific for children in 2000, and this has been revised every 3 yrs, contributing to better control of pediatric asthma. Food allergy management guidelines were first developed in 2005, which have helped to improve the care of food allergy patients. Among 514 pediatric training programs by the Japanese Society of Pediatrics, there are 312 facilities routinely performing oral food challenges. Among these, there were already 53 facilities performing oral immunotherapy at the end of 2011, treating 1400 cases of food allergy. The prevalence of pediatric allergic diseases has increased in Japan over the past 50 yrs. A number of International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood surveys have been conducted in the past at specific times. The prevalence of wheezing among children aged 13-14 yrs in 2002 was 13.0%. Multi-year surveys found a 1.5- to 2-fold increase every 10 yrs until 2002. However, according to the latest data in 2012, asthma prevalence seems to have slightly decreased in Japan. Food allergy mainly associated with infantile atopic eczema among infants younger than 1 yr of age is the most common form as with other developed countries. The estimated food allergy prevalence based on data from several surveys is 5-10% among infants (0-6 yrs) and 1-2% among schoolchildren (6-15 yrs). A variety of patients suffering from primary deficiency syndrome have been actively analyzed. Previously, antibody defects and well-defined syndromes with immunodeficiency were analyzed, but recent research is focusing on not only acquired immune

  14. Cold or Allergies: Which Is It? (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a lingering cold? – Michelle Seasonal allergies and the common cold can be so much alike that it's sometimes ... What Is Skin Testing for Allergies? First Aid: Common Cold Why Is Hand Washing So Important? Can Kids ...

  15. FDA Approves New Treatment for Dust Mite Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... 163882.html FDA Approves New Treatment for Dust Mite Allergies Odactra is a year-round treatment for ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A new treatment for dust mite allergies has won approval from the U.S. Food ...

  16. Allergies: The Key to Many Childhood Behavior Abnormalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vass, Molly; Rasmussen, Betty

    1984-01-01

    Describes the role of allergies in childhood behavior problems and discusses the role of school counselors in identifying allergic responses. Includes a list of references and resources on allergies, nutrition, support groups, and environmental care units. (JAC)

  17. Sublingual immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization position paper 2013 update

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We have prepared this document, “Sublingual Immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization Position Paper 2013 Update”, according to the evidence-based criteria, revising and updating chapters of the originally published paper, “Sublingual Immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization Position Paper 2009”, available at http://www.waojournal.org. Namely, these comprise: “Mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy;” “Clinical efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy” – reporting all the data of all controlled trials published after 2009; “Safety of sublingual immunotherapy” – with the recently published Grading System for adverse reactions; “Impact of sublingual immunotherapy on the natural history of respiratory allergy” – with the relevant evidences published since 2009; “Efficacy of SLIT in children” – with detailed analysis of all the studies; “Definition of SLIT patient selection” – reporting the criteria for eligibility to sublingual immunotherapy; “The future of immunotherapy in the community care setting”; “Methodology of clinical trials according to the current scientific and regulatory standards”; and “Guideline development: from evidence-based medicine to patients' views” – including the evolution of the methods to make clinical recommendations. Additionally, we have added new chapters to cover a few emerging crucial topics: “Practical aspects of schedules and dosages and counseling for adherence” – which is crucial in clinical practice for all treatments; “Perspectives and new approaches” – including recombinant allergens, adjuvants, modified allergens, and the concept of validity of the single products. Furthermore, “Raising public awareness about sublingual immunotherapy”, as a need for our patients, and strategies to increase awareness of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) among patients, the medical community, all healthcare stakeholders, and public opinion, are also reported in detail. PMID:24679069

  18. Contact allergy to topical corticosteroids and sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, Abir

    2012-01-01

    Topical corticosteroids and sunscreens are extensively used formulations, both as over-the-counter products and as prescription medicines. Topical corticosteroids are increasingly being recognized as causes of allergic contact dermatitis. Because of their anti-inflammatory property, contact allergy to these agents may be difficult to suspect and prove. With corticosteroid allergy, there are special issues in patch testing that need to be considered: Screening tests need to be done with budesonide and tixocortol pivalate, and delayed readings are essential to pick up all positive cases. Preventive advice needs to be tailored according to the structural and chemical peculiarities of a particular molecule. Sunscreen allergy is a significant part of cosmetic allergy; especially in cases of photoallergic reactions. Each passing decade is bringing forth new allergens in this class. In many countries, benzophenones have recently been replaced by octocrylene as the leading causes of contact dermatitis to sunscreens. This article provides a broad overview of corticosteroid and sunscreen allergy so that the readers are aware of these important emerging classes of allergens.

  19. Allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics.

    PubMed

    Swerts, S; Van Gasse, A; Leysen, J; Faber, M; Sabato, V; Bridts, C H; Jorens, P G; De Clerck, L S; Ebo, D G

    2014-03-01

    Despite their frequent use, allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics is rarely reported in literature. We present a review of the different classes of drugs of abuse that might be involved in allergies: central nervous system (CNS) depressants (such as cannabis, opioids and kava), CNS stimulants (cocaine, amphetamines, khat and ephedra) and hallucinogens such as ketamine and nutmeg. Diagnosis of drug and narcotic allergy generally relies upon careful history taking, complemented with skin testing eventually along with quantification of sIgE. However, for various reasons, correct diagnosis of most of these drug allergies is not straightforward. For example, the native plant material applied for skin testing and sIgE antibody tests might harbour irrelevant IgE-binding structures that hamper correct diagnosis. Diagnosis might also be hampered due to uncertainties associated with the non-specific histamine releasing characteristics of some compounds and absence of validated sIgE tests. Whether the introduction of standardized allergen components and more functional tests, that is, basophil activation and degranulation assays, might be helpful to an improved diagnosis needs to be established. It is anticipated that due to the rare character of these allergies further validation is although necessary.

  20. Prospects for Prevention of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Allen, Katrina J; Koplin, Jennifer J

    2016-01-01

    A rise in both prevalence and public awareness of food allergy in developed countries means that clinicians and researchers are frequently asked to explain reasons for the increase in food allergy, and families are eager to know whether they can take steps to prevent food allergy in their children. In this review, we outline leading theories on risk factors for early life food allergy. We summarize the leading hypotheses to explain the increase in food allergy as "the 5 Ds": dry skin, diet, dogs, dribble (shared microbial exposure), and vitamin D. We discuss currently available evidence for these theories and how these can be translated into clinical recommendations. With the exception of dietary intervention studies, evidence for each of these theories is observational, and we describe the implications of this for explaining risk to families. Current infant feeding recommendations are that infants should be introduced to solids around the age of 4 to 6 months irrespective of family history risk and that allergenic solids do not need to be avoided, either by infants at the time of solid food introduction or by mothers whilst pregnant or lactating. Additional potential strategies currently being explored include optimization of early life skin barrier function through a decrease in drying soaps and detergents and an increase in the use of nonallergenic moisturizers. The investigation of the role of microbiota and vitamin D is ongoing and cannot yet be translated into clinical recommendations.

  1. Nonmurine animal models of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Helm, Ricki M; Ermel, Richard W; Frick, Oscar L

    2003-02-01

    Food allergy can present as immediate hypersensitivity [manifestations mediated by immunoglobulin (Ig)E], delayed-type hypersensitivity (reactions associated with specific T lymphocytes), and inflammatory reactions caused by immune complexes. For reasons of ethics and efficacy, investigations in humans to determine sensitization and allergic responses of IgE production to innocuous food proteins are not feasible. Therefore, animal models are used a) to bypass the innate tendency to develop tolerance to food proteins and induce specific IgE antibody of sufficient avidity/affinity to cause sensitization and upon reexposure to induce an allergic response, b) to predict allergenicity of novel proteins using characteristics of known food allergens, and c) to treat food allergy by using immunotherapeutic strategies to alleviate life-threatening reactions. The predominant hypothesis for IgE-mediated food allergy is that there is an adverse reaction to exogenous food proteins or food protein fragments, which escape lumen hydrolysis, and in a polarized helper T cell subset 2 (Th2) environment, immunoglobulin class switching to allergen-specific IgE is generated in the immune system of the gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissues. Traditionally, the immunologic characterization and toxicologic studies of small laboratory animals have provided the basis for development of animal models of food allergy; however, the natural allergic response in large animals, which closely mimic allergic diseases in humans, can also be useful as models for investigations involving food allergy.

  2. Immunotherapy for food allergies in children.

    PubMed

    Martinolli, Francesco; Carraro, Silvia; Berardi, Mariangela; Ferraro, Valentina; Baraldi, Eugenio; Zanconato, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is an increasingly prevalent problem all over the world and especially in westernized countries, and there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy. During childhood natural tolerance development is frequent, but some children with cow's milk or hen's egg allergy and the majority of children with peanut allergy will remain allergic until adulthood, limiting not only the diet of patients but also their quality of life. Within the last several years, the usefulness of immunotherapy for food allergies has been investigated in food allergic patients. Several food immunotherapies are being developed; these involve oral, sublingual, epicutaneous, or subcutaneous administration of small amounts of native or modified allergens to induce immune tolerance. The approach generally follows the same principles as immunotherapy of other allergic disorders and involves administering small increasing doses of food during an induction phase followed by a maintenance phase with regular intake of a maximum tolerated amount of food. Oral immunotherapy seems to be a promising approach for food allergic patients based on results from small uncontrolled and controlled studies. Diet containing heated milk and egg may represent an alternative approach to oral immunomodulation for cow's milk and egg allergic subjects. However, oral food immunotherapy remains an investigational treatment to be further studied before advancing into clinical practice. Additional bigger, multicentric and hopefully randomized-controlled studies must answer multiple questions including optimal dose, ideal duration of immunotherapy, degree of protection, efficacy for different ages, severity and type of food allergy responsive to treatment.

  3. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosario-Filho, Nelson A; Jacob, Cristina M; Sole, Dirceu; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Arruda, Luisa K; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Cocco, Renata R; Camelo-Nunes, Inês; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Castro, Ana P M; Yang, Ariana C; Pastorino, Antonio C; Sarinho, Emanuel S

    2013-06-01

    The subspecialty of pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil is in its early years and progressing steadily. This review highlights the research developed in the past years aiming to show the characteristics of allergic and immunologic diseases in this vast country. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated the high prevalence of asthma in infants, children, and adolescents. Mortality rates and average annual variation of asthma hospitalization have reduced in all pediatric age groups. Indoor aeroallergen exposure is excessively high and contributes to the high rates of allergy sensitization. Prevalence of food allergy has increased to epidemic levels. Foods (35%), insect stings (30%), and drugs (23%) are the main etiological agents of anaphylaxis in children and adolescents. Molecular diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) showed a high incidence of fungal infections including paracoccidioidomycosis in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, and the occurrence of BCG adverse reactions or other mycobacterial infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Education in pediatric allergy and immunology is deficient for medical students, but residency programs are effective in training internists and pediatricians for the practice of allergy. The field of PID requires further training. Last, this review is a tribute to Prof. Dr. Charles Naspitz, one of the pioneers of our specialty in Brazil.

  4. Molecular Approach to Allergy Diagnosis and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Martin; Wallner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Presently, allergy diagnosis and therapy procedures are undergoing a transition phase in which allergen extracts are being step-by-step replaced by molecule-based products. The new developments will allow clinicians to obtain detailed information on sensitization patterns, more accurate interpretation of allergic symptoms, and thus improved patients' management. In this respect, recombinant technology has been applied to develop this new generation of molecule-based allergy products. The use of recombinant allergens allows full validation of identity, quantity, homogeneity, structure, aggregation, solubility, stability, IgE-binding and the biologic potency of the products. In contrast, such parameters are extremely difficult to assay and standardize for extract-based products. In addition to the possibility of bulk production of wild type molecules for diagnostic purposes, recombinant technology opened the possibility of developing safer and more efficacious products for allergy therapy. A number of molecule-based hypoallergenic preparations have already been successfully evaluated in clinical trials, bringing forward the next generation of allergy vaccines. In this contribution, we review the latest developments in allergen characterization, molecule-based allergy diagnosis, and the application of recombinant allergens in therapeutic setups. A comprehensive overview of clinical trials using recombinant allergens as well as synthetic peptides is presented. PMID:24954310

  5. Skin manifestations and immunological parameters in childhood food allergy.

    PubMed

    Oehling, A; Fernández, M; Córdoba, H; Sanz, M L

    1997-01-01

    According to Hansen's contact rule, the digestive system should be considered as the main shock organ, yet in food allergy, this is not the case. Very often specific food triggers clinical manifestations not involving the digestive system; that is, reactions are manifested either in the respiratory system, as asthma or rhinitis, or in the skin. In these cases the BALT (broncho-alveolar lymphoid tissue) and GALT (gastrointestinal lymphoid tissue) units play a basic role in the sensitizations. The purpose of this study was to determine the most frequent skin manifestations of food allergy among children, and the most frequently involved foods. We also thought it interesting to evaluate the diagnostic reliability of the different standard immunological parameters utilized by the study team in food allergy. All patients underwent intracutaneous tests with 12 groups of the most frequent food allergens, as well as serum IgE, antigen-specific IgE against foods, and antigen-specific histamine release tests. Antigen-specific IgG4 determination was performed in some cases. The results obtained confirmed previous studies, the most common manifestations being: angioedema (48%), followed by urticaria (31%) and atopic dermatitis (21%). Regarding the frequency of sensitization to different food allergens, in mono- or polisensitization, fish and egg stand out in our environment. Certain food allergens are more frequently responsible for specific skin manifestations. Thus, for fish sensitization, the most frequent skin manifestation is atopic dermatitis (50%); for egg sensitization, angioedema is the most frequent skin manifestation (50%); and for milk, urticaria (50%). Finally, and in agreement with previous works regarding the diagnostic reliability of in vitro techniques, we found that the histamine release test offered the highest percentage of diagnostic reliability. Only for sensitization to milk proteins did antigen-specific IgE demonstrate higher reliability. Once again, we

  6. Respiratory Problems Associated with Surfing in Coastal Waters.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Chris; Silver, Mary W; Lahiff, Maureen; Colford, John

    2016-11-08

    A pilot project was conducted to examine the health status and possible adverse health effects associated with seawater exposure (microbial water-quality indicators and phytoplankton abundance and their toxins) of surfers in Monterey Bay, Central California coastal waters. Forty-eight surfers enrolled in the study and completed an initial health background survey and weekly health surveys online using Survey Monkey. Descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equation, a regression technique, were used to identify longitudinal and correlated results. The surfers were predominately Caucasian, male, and physically active. They surfed approximately 4 h a week. Their average age was 34 years. The data indicated that the surfers were generally "healthy," with a low prevalence of diabetes, high cholesterol, and hypertension. Their most common health problems were allergies and asthma. During the study, 10% of the surfers reported gastrointestinal symptoms and 29% reported upper respiratory symptoms. This study suggests surfers were significantly more likely to report upper respiratory symptoms when they had a history of allergies, housemates with upper respiratory symptoms, and/or a history of previous adverse health symptoms while surfing during a "red tide" (an event often associated with the presence of phytoplankton toxins). Additionally, female surfers reported upper respiratory symptoms more than males.

  7. Food Allergies: Being Aware and Planning for Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graville, Iris

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, parents and early childhood educators have become increasingly aware of food allergies in childhood. And since food allergies account for about 150 deaths a year, there is good reason to be concerned. The early childhood program can provide valuable learning for those without food allergies through explanations about why certain…

  8. Microbiome diversity and asthma and allergy risk.

    PubMed

    Legatzki, Antje; Rösler, Barbara; von Mutius, Erika

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergy has been constantly increasing in Westernized countries in the last decades. Asthma and allergies are complex diseases with a local tissue inflammation that are determined by genetic and environmental factors. Because the commensal microflora is crucial to maintain inflammatory homeostasis and to induce immune regulation, the microbiome may play an important role for the development of allergic conditions. New techniques such as next-generation sequencing methods give the opportunity to explore the microbial community structure of the human body comprehensively. In this review, we will discuss the available literature concerning the human microbiota and asthma and allergy development and occurrence. The focus is on studies of the local microbiome of the place of inflammation, the gastrointestinal microbiome, and the influence of intrinsic factors relating to the host and extrinsic factors relating to the external environment on the microbiome.

  9. Latest discoveries in allergy and clinical immunology.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Elisa; Godoy, Laura

    2008-09-01

    Among all the international societies of allergy (AAAAI, EAACI, WAO, etc.), the Collegium Internationale Allergologicum (CIA) remains a selected and reduced group of about 200 of the most relevant investigators in the field of allergy and clinical immunology who come together to discuss current issues in allergy. The society holds a symposium every 2 years. This year, the 27th Symposium of the Collegium Internationale Allergologicum took place in Curaçao. This report contains a selection of some of the more currently relevant work presented, namely on basophils and mast cells, infection and asthma exacerbation, genes, pathophysiology and novel therapeutic approaches. Specific information about CIA can be found at http://www.ciaweb.org.

  10. [Regulation of allergy by innate immune system].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Yutaro; Akira, Shizuo

    2009-11-01

    Allergy is an immune disease including asthma. Activation of Th2 response, such as production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 from CD4+ T cells and IgG1 or IgE from B cells is responsible for allergy. Activation of acquired immune system requires preceding activation of innate immunity, therefore innate immunity may control Th2 response and allergy. Recent studies revealed that dendritic cells, epithelial cells, and basophils play central roles in the initiation of Th2 response. In this review, we will summarize the current understanding on the control of Th2 and allergic responses by innate immune system, and discuss recent findings on house dust mite-induced allergic response based on these understandings.

  11. Equine allergy therapy: update on the treatment of environmental, insect bite hypersensitivity, and food allergies.

    PubMed

    Marsella, Rosanna

    2013-12-01

    Allergies are common in horses. It is important to identify and correct as many factors as possible to control pruritus and make the patient comfortable. Culicoides hypersensitivity is a common component in allergic horses. The main treatment continues to be rigorous fly control and avoidance of insect bites. Environmental allergies are best addressed by early identification of the offending allergens and formulation of allergen-specific immunotherapy to decrease the need for rescue medications. Food allergy is best managed with food avoidance. Urticaria is one of the manifestations of allergic disease wherein detection of the triggering cause is essential for management.

  12. South African food allergy consensus document 2014.

    PubMed

    Levin, M E; Gray, C L; Goddard, E; Karabus, S; Kriel, M; Lang, A C; Manjra, A I; Risenga, S M; Terblanche, A J; van der Spuy, D A

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is increasing worldwide and is an important cause of anaphylaxis. There are no local South African food allergy guidelines. This document was devised by the Allergy Society of South Africa (ALLSA), the South African Gastroenterology Society (SAGES) and the Association for Dietetics in South Africa (ADSA). Subjects may have reactions to more than one food, and different types and severity of reactions to different foods may coexist in one individual. A detailed history directed at identifying the type and severity of possible reactions is essential for every food allergen under consideration. Skin-prick tests and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) (ImmunoCAP) tests prove IgE sensitisation rather than clinical reactivity. The magnitude of sensitisation combined with the history may be sufficient to ascribe causality, but where this is not possible an incremental oral food challenge may be required to assess tolerance or clinical allergy. For milder non-IgE-mediated conditions a diagnostic elimination diet may be followed with food re-introduction at home to assess causality. The primary therapy for food allergy is strict avoidance of the offending food/s, taking into account nutritional status and provision of alternative sources of nutrients. Acute management of severe reactions requires prompt intramuscular administration of adrenaline 0.01 mg/kg and basic resuscitation. Adjunctive therapy includes antihistamines, bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Subjects with food allergy require risk assessment and those at increased risk for future severe reactions require the implementation of risk-reduction strategies, including education of the patient, families and all caregivers (including teachers), the provision of a written emergency action plan, a MedicAlert necklace or bracelet and injectable adrenaline (preferably via auto-injector) where necessary.

  13. [Asthma caused by allergy to cat fur].

    PubMed

    May, K L; Hofman, T

    2000-01-01

    Sensitivity to cats fur alergen, Fel. d. 1 is presented as the second most important cause, after allergy to mites, of perennial atopic asthma. The authors collected the data from literature concerning the concentrations of Fel. d. 1 in homes and public places. Further the structure and production of Fel d. 1 also its cross reactivity and the methods of it's elimination from the environment are described and discussed. Authors own observations of 20 cases of cats fur asthma and atopic dermatitis support the opinion that only half of the patients suspect cats as the cause of their illness and cats fur sensitivity is always accompanied by inhalant or food allergy.

  14. Goldschlager allergy in a gold allergic patient.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, T; Stork, C M; Cantor, R M

    1999-08-01

    We describe the case of gold allergy after ingestion of GOLDSCHLAGER, a gold-containing liquor, in a patient with a previous allergy to gold jewelry. The patient was not aware that genuine gold particles were contained in the schnapps liquor and that ingestion could result in a reaction similar to that experienced by individuals sensitive to gold jewelry. Clinicians should be familiar with the presence of gold particles in GOLDSCHLAGER liquor and the potential for allergic reactions to occur in those so predisposed.

  15. Natural rubber latex allergy and dental practice.

    PubMed

    Desai, Shalin V

    2007-12-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy is a significant clinical problem with potentially life-threatening complications. Oral health care professionals must be able to screen for NRL allergy and refer patients or staff to a specialist for definitive diagnosis. Protocol for its management must be developed and incorporated into daily practice. Practitioners must be able to recognize and treat NRL exposure emergencies. Knowledge of the availability of substitute products and an adequate fresh stock of such products in dental practice can minimise the risk of adverse NRL sensitivity.

  16. Epidemiology of food allergy in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, J; Sánchez, A

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is growing worldwide at an alarming rate. A group of eight foods account for over 90% of the reactions in Europe and the United States. However, little is known about the frequency of sensitization to these foods in Latin American, and if other native foods from this region are an important source of sensitization. The objective of this review was to analyse the epidemiological studies in Latin America about food allergy and to compare them with the studies in the United States and Europe.

  17. Adjuvants and vector systems for allergy vaccines.

    PubMed

    Moingeon, Philippe; Lombardi, Vincent; Saint-Lu, Nathalie; Tourdot, Sophie; Bodo, Véronique; Mascarell, Laurent

    2011-05-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents a curative treatment of type I allergies. Subcutaneous immunotherapy is conducted with allergens adsorbed on aluminum hydroxide or calcium phosphate particles, whereas sublingual immunotherapy relies on high doses of soluble allergen without any immunopotentiator. There is a potential benefit of adjuvants enhancing regulatory and Th1 CD4+T cell responses during specific immunotherapy. Molecules affecting dendritic cells favor the induction of T regulatory cell and Th1 responses and represent valid candidate adjuvants for allergy vaccines. Furthermore, the interest in viruslike particles and mucoadhesive particulate vector systems, which may better address the allergen(s) to tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells, is documented.

  18. Relationship between allergy and cancer: an overview.

    PubMed

    Rittmeyer, Delia; Lorentz, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Allergic diseases and malignancies cause a lot of morbidity, mortality and high costs for healthcare systems. An inverse association between allergy and cancer has been suspected for a long time, but even despite extensive research no general relationship has been determined. This review comprises 32 epidemiological studies published between 1960 and 2011 and draws conclusions regarding relationships between specific types of cancer and allergic diseases. On the one hand, inflammatory reactions in the course of allergy can support carcinogenesis but are limited to specific areas, whereas on the other hand systemic effects in terms of enhanced immunosurveillance can prevent cancer.

  19. Penicillin allergy: A practical guide for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Estrada, Alexei; Radojicic, Cristine

    2015-05-01

    Penicillin allergy is the most commonly reported drug allergy in the United States. However, after undergoing a complete evaluation by a board-certified allergist, including skin testing, 90% of patients labeled as 'penicillin-allergic' are able to tolerate penicillin. Clinical presentation is key in classifying reactions as either mediated by or not mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE), and in determining which patients may benefit from penicillin skin testing, graded-dose challenge, or desensitization. Cross-reactivity between penicillin and other beta-lactams is less common than previously thought.

  20. Childhood asthma and allergies in urban, semiurban, and rural residential sectors in Chile.

    PubMed

    Kausel, Leonie; Boneberger, Anja; Calvo, Mario; Radon, Katja

    2013-01-01

    While rural living protects from asthma and allergies in many countries, results are conflicting in Latin America. We studied the prevalence of asthma and asthma symptoms in children from urban, semiurban, and rural sectors in south Chile. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in semiurban and rural sectors in the province of Valdivia (n = 559) using the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) questionnaire. Results were compared to prevalence in urban Valdivia (n = 3105) by using data from ISAAC III study. Odds ratios (+95% confidence intervals) were calculated. No statistical significant differences were found for asthma ever and eczema symptoms stratified by residential sector, but a gradient could be shown for current asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms with urban living having highest and rural living having lowest prevalence. Rural living was inversely associated in a statistical significant way with current asthma (OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2-0.9) and rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2-0.7) in logistic regression analyses. Rural living seems to protect from asthma and respiratory allergies also in Chile, a South American country facing epidemiological transition. These data would be improved by clinical studies of allergic symptoms observed in studied sectors.

  1. Early predictors of asthma and allergy in children: The role of epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    DeVries, Avery; Vercelli, Donata

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the review Asthma and allergic diseases are among the most prevalent chronic non-communicable diseases of childhood. While epidemiologic studies suggest that asthma begins in the pre-school years, the lack of firm diagnostic criteria to distinguish children who will wheeze only transiently during early life lower respiratory illnesses from children who will wheeze persistently and develop asthma prevents pinpointing the time at which disease truly begins. Epigenetic mechanisms link gene regulation to environmental cues and developmental trajectories. This article reviews the search for epigenetic predictors of asthma and/or allergy that can be identified already at birth and/or in early life. Recent findings DNA methylation signatures associated with asthma and/or allergy at birth, and time-dependent DNA methylation signatures associated with allergic disease phenotypes in early life have been identified. Summary The identification of early epigenetic predictors of allergic diseases points to a potential role of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating the inception of, and the susceptibility to these diseases. Predictive signatures to more accurately estimate a child’s risk for asthma and allergy may improve childhood asthma diagnosis. Moreover, understanding the biological implications of these signatures may help elucidate novel disease pathways and endotypes. PMID:26258923

  2. A review on emerging frontiers of house dust mite and cockroach allergy research.

    PubMed

    Patel, S; Meher, B R

    Currently, mankind is afflicted with diversified health issues, allergies being a common, yet little understood malady. Allergies, the outcome of a baffled immune system encompasses myriad allergens and causes an array of health consequences, ranging from transient to recurrent and mild to fatal. Indoor allergy is a serious hypersensitivity in genetically-predisposed people, triggered by ingestion, inhalation or mere contact of allergens, of which mite and cockroaches are one of the most-represented constituents. Arduous to eliminate, these aeroallergens pose constant health challenges, mostly manifested as respiratory and dermatological inflammations, leading to further aggravations if unrestrained. Recent times have seen an unprecedented endeavour to understand the conformation of these allergens, their immune manipulative ploys and other underlying causes of pathogenesis, most importantly therapies. Yet a large section of vulnerable people is ignorant of these innocuous-looking immune irritants, prevailing around them, and continues to suffer. This review aims to expedite this field by a concise, informative account of seminal findings in the past few years, with particular emphasis on leading frontiers like genome-wide association studies (GWAS), epitope mapping, metabolomics etc. Drawbacks linked to current approaches and solutions to overcome them have been proposed.

  3. [Outdoor and indoor allergens and the respiratory tract].

    PubMed

    Kanceljak-Macán, B; Macan, J; Plavec, D

    2000-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of common outdoor and indoor allergens which cause sensitisation of the respiratory tract and considers relevant biological and ecological hallmarks and symptoms of allergies. Grass, tree, and weed pollens as well as moulds (Cladosporium and Alternaria species) are a major source of allergens in the outdoor environment whereas mites (Pyroglyphidae, Acaridae, and Glycyphagidae), animals (pets, rodents, and insects), and moulds (Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Mucor species) are a major source in the indoor environment. The paper pays attention to the seasonal, geographical, and climatic influence on the concentration of allergen in the environment. The authors discuss differences between exposure to outdoor and indoor allergens, as well as the impact of pollutants on sensitisation of the respiratory tract. The paper proceeds with a short description of the primary prevention measures such as avoidance of the allergens and the secondary measures which are intended to prevent the occurrence or deterioration of respiratory symptoms in sensitised persons.

  4. Advances in environmental and occupational respiratory disease in 2010.

    PubMed

    Peden, David B; Bush, Robert K

    2011-03-01

    2010 Found a number of significant advances in environmental and occupational respiratory disease. The role of sensitization and the subsequent production of allergic disease have been explored. New allergens and their T- and B-cell epitopes have been characterized. Novel approaches to the diagnosis and evaluation of food allergy have been described. The role of pollutants as they affect respiratory disease and the effects of age extremes on sensitization and asthma have been addressed. Significant advances in the understanding of inflammatory changes in both the upper and lower respiratory systems occurred. Novel therapeutic approaches have been explored, including the development of hypoallergens from improved molecular biology techniques. New effective approaches to asthma therapy have been identified. Exposure reduction through air filtration and novel immunotherapy approaches, such as sublingual therapy, have made significant advances.

  5. Allergies associated with body piercing and tattoos: a report of the Allergy Vigilance Network.

    PubMed

    Dron, P; Lafourcade, M P; Leprince, F; Nonotte-Varly, C; Van Der Brempt, X; Banoun, L; Sullerot, I; This-Vaissette, C; Parisot, L; Moneret-Vautrin, D A

    2007-06-01

    Body piercing and tattooing are increasingly common. As well as the risk of infection and scarring, allergic reactions are also reported. This is the first multi-centre study to assess the frequency of consultations for allergy. Of the 138 allergologists who answered our two questionnaires, 7.9% reported allergic reactions associated with body piercing and 18.9% identified allergies associated with temporary henna-based tattoos. Contact eczema, rhinitis and urticaria were related to nickel allergy. Contact eczema, generalized eczema, pruritus and edema were caused by tattoos. In 20 out of 28 cases, sensitization to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) was observed. The authors review the literature, underscoring the risk of serious allergy to PPD, the need for long-term monitoring of the risk of skin lymphocytoma, the difficulties met during treatment and the necessity of regulating tattooing and body piercing practices.

  6. Epidemiology of allergies in Austria. Results of the first Austrian allergy report.

    PubMed

    Dorner, Thomas; Lawrence, Kitty; Rieder, Anita; Kunze, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The first Austrian Allergy Report is a compilation of all available epidemiological data relating to allergies in Austria. According to this report the cumulative prevalence of allergies in the Viennese population is 27.6% for men and 32.2% for women and the period prevalence in the year before questioning 19.6% and 22.4% respectively. 20.8% of men and 23.1% of women reported about allergies at health examinations. However, an allergy sensitivity to at least one inhalation allergen, verifiable by means of a prick test, is detectable in 50.8% of the general population and in 39.3% of those free from ailments. Analysis of the hospital discharge statistics of all Austrian hospitals shows that around 12,000 people per year were admitted on grounds of an allergy. In accordance with international studies some population sub groups are more often affected than others. Women suffer from allergies somewhat more frequently than men, although the sex difference is reversed among children. Allergies occur in all age groups, with most studies showing that people in their twenties are most frequently affected. People with higher levels of education, in more highly qualified jobs and living in urban areas are more commonly affected by allergies than people from lower socio-economic levels and rural communities. The internationally identified increase in trend can also be identified in Austria with a 2fold, 3.6fold, and 4.6fold increase in the prevalence of hay fever, asthma and atopic eczema respectively, determined from the military health examinations of all recruits for national service between 1986 and 2003/04, although a clear decline in allergy prevalence was registered between 2003/04 and 2005. Health reports like the first Austrian Allergy Report provide the basis for international comparison of basic data. These data also enable the evaluation of the impact of different diseases on the health system as well as the development of public health strategies.

  7. Attitudes and preferences of consumers toward food allergy labeling practices by diagnosis of food allergies

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Se-young; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Kyu-earn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to investigate food allergens and prevalence rates of food allergies, followed by comparison of consumer attitudes and preferences regarding food allergy labeling by diagnosis of food allergies. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 543 individuals living in Seoul and Gyeonggi area participated in the survey from October 15 to 22 in 2013. RESULTS The results show that the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed food allergies was 17.5%, whereas 6.4% of respondents self-reported food allergies. The most common allergens of doctor-diagnosed and self-reported food allergy respondents were peaches (30.3%) and eggs (33.3%), respectively, followed by peanuts, cow's milk, and crab. Regarding consumer attitudes toward food labeling, checking food allergens as an item was only significantly different between allergic and non-allergic respondents among all five items (P < 0.001). All respondents reported that all six items (bold font, font color, box frame, warning statement, front label, and addition of potential allergens) were necessary for an improved food allergen labeling system. PLSR analysis determined that the doctor-diagnosed group and checking of food allergens were positively correlated, whereas the non-allergy group was more concerned with checking product brands. CONCLUSIONS An effective food labeling system is very important for health protection of allergic consumers. Additionally, government agencies must develop policies regarding prevalence of food allergies in Korea. Based on this information, the food industry and government agencies should provide clear and accurate food labeling practices for consumers. PMID:26425282

  8. The Prevalence and Natural History of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Kattan, Jacob

    2016-07-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the prevalence of food allergy is increasing. Not only are more children being diagnosed with food allergies, but studies suggest that when people outgrow their food allergies, it is taking longer than was previously thought. Studies in recent years have noted factors that may lead to a lower likelihood of developing a food allergy, including the early introduction of common food allergens, having a sufficient vitamin D level, or having a higher maternal intake of peanut early in pregnancy. Given a recent report that sensitization to common food allergens did not increase from the late 1980s/early 1990s to the mid-2000s, further studies will need to examine if the rise in food allergy prevalence is due to a change in the relationship between sensitization and clinical allergy or changes in the recognition and diagnosis of food allergy.

  9. Precision medicine in allergic disease-food allergy, drug allergy, and anaphylaxis-PRACTALL document of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Lemanske, R F; Castells, M; Torres, M J; Khan, D; Simon, H-U; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Burks, W; Poulsen, L K; Sampson, H A; Worm, M; Nadeau, K C

    2017-01-25

    This consensus document summarizes the current knowledge on the potential for precision medicine in food allergy, drug allergy, and anaphylaxis under the auspices of the PRACTALL collaboration platform. PRACTALL is a joint effort of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, which aims to synchronize the European and American approaches to allergy care. Precision medicine is an emerging approach for disease treatment based on disease endotypes, which are phenotypic subclasses associated with specific mechanisms underlying the disease. Although significant progress has been made in defining endotypes for asthma, definitions of endotypes for food and drug allergy or for anaphylaxis lag behind. Progress has been made in discovery of biomarkers to guide a precision medicine approach to treatment of food and drug allergy, but further validation and quantification of these biomarkers are needed to allow their translation into practice in the clinical management of allergic disease.

  10. Probiotics in childhood: allergic illness and respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Leonardi, Salvatore; Ciprandi, Giorgio; Galdo, Francesca; Gubitosi, Adelmo; La Rosa, Mario; Salpietro, Carmelo; Marseglia, Gianluigi; Perrone, Laura

    2012-10-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in the use of probiotics for allergic diseases. In the last years, some studies showed a significant improvement for atopic eczema by the administration of probiotics during pregnancy and postnatally. About food allergy, probiotics administration seems to be effective in the management of food allergy symptoms but has no effect on the prevention of sensitization. In the international literature, there are few studies that evaluated the probiotic effect on allergic rhinitis, and authors reported that probiotics might have a beneficial effect in AR by reducing symptom severity and medication use. Another major potential benefit of probiotics has been suggested in patients with asthma. On this topic, several studies have been carried out using different probiotics and the results have not been univocal. Indeed, probiotics seems to be able to offer protection about common cold and respiratory infections in healthy and hospitalized children.

  11. Preventing Food Allergies by Tricking Dendritic Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food allergies are adverse responses to components (usually proteins) within the foods we eat, which result in a self-damaging response from our immune system. A myriad of cellular and molecular components are involved in the decision to tolerate or respond to foreign molecules that pass through the...

  12. Allergy and Asthma. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezkovich, Jan, Comp.

    This guide is intended for those who wish to review the literature in the related fields of allergy and asthma. Included is material appropriate for both the lay reader and the professional interested in recent research into causes and treatments. Not intended as a comprehensive bibliography, the guide is designed to specifically target resource…

  13. [Occupational allergy caused by ornamental plants].

    PubMed

    Swierczyńiska-Machura, Dominika; Krakowiak, Anna; Pałczyński, Cezary

    2006-01-01

    The problem of allergy to decorative plants is still poorly known. Reports on occupational allergy to flowers are scarce and usually concern gardeners, greenhouse workers and florists. The handling, smelling and caring of flowers may cause rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria and also contact dermatitis. Plants of the Compositae family that includes many different species have been frequently described. Chrysanthemum flowers, the strongest sensitizer among ornamental Compositae plants, especially contribute to the development of contact dermatitis. Allergy to Liliaceae, mostly to tulips, hyacinths, lilies and crocuses has quite often been reported as well as sensitization to rose pollen in rose planters. Occupational sensitization to flowers of other families, among which spathe flowers, primulas, weeping fig or Stephanotis floribunda should be mentioned, is less frequent. Exposure to ornamental flowers is common in the general population. Persons occupationally involved in cultivation of flowers and who demonstrate allergic symptoms are often forced to change their jobs. Candidates to these occupations with diagnosed atopy should be informed about the risk of developing allergy to flowers, which could make them unable to perform the job.

  14. Allergy to local anesthetics: Reality or myth?

    PubMed

    Malinovsky, Jean-Marc; Chiriac, Anca M; Tacquard, Charles; Mertes, Paul Michel; Demoly, Pascal

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of allergic reactions to local anesthetics is low. Most cases involve a psychogenic reaction rather than an allergic reaction. Additives and preservatives added to local anesthetics may cause allergic reactions. Vascular resorption of epinephrine-containing local anesthetics may produce cardiovascular signs similar to an allergic reaction. Diagnosis of allergy to local anesthetics must be established by skin testing and provocative challenge.

  15. Food allergy: a practice parameter update-2014.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Hugh A; Aceves, Seema; Bock, S Allan; James, John; Jones, Stacie; Lang, David; Nadeau, Kari; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna; Oppenheimer, John; Perry, Tamara T; Randolph, Christopher; Sicherer, Scott H; Simon, Ronald A; Vickery, Brian P; Wood, Robert; Bernstein, David; Blessing-Moore, Joann; Khan, David; Lang, David; Nicklas, Richard; Oppenheimer, John; Portnoy, Jay; Randolph, Christopher; Schuller, Diane; Spector, Sheldon; Tilles, Stephen A; Wallace, Dana; Sampson, Hugh A; Aceves, Seema; Bock, S Allan; James, John; Jones, Stacie; Lang, David; Nadeau, Kari; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna; Oppenheimer, John; Perry, Tamara T; Randolph, Christopher; Sicherer, Scott H; Simon, Ronald A; Vickery, Brian P; Wood, Robert

    2014-11-01

    This parameter was developed by the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, representing the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI); the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI); and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (JCAAI). The AAAAI and the ACAAI have jointly accepted responsibility for establishing "Food Allergy: A practice parameter update-2014." This is a complete and comprehensive document at the current time. The medical environment is a changing one, and not all recommendations will be appropriate for all patients. Because this document incorporated the efforts of many participants, no single individual, including those who served on the Joint Task Force, is authorized to provide an official AAAAI or ACAAI interpretation of these practice parameters. Any request for information about or an interpretation of these practice parameters by the AAAAI or ACAAI should be directed to the Executive Offices of the AAAAI, ACAAI, and JCAAI. These parameters are not designed for use by pharmaceutical companies in drug promotion.

  16. Differentiating food allergies from food intolerances.

    PubMed

    Guandalini, Stefano; Newland, Catherine

    2011-10-01

    Adverse reactions to foods are extremely common, and generally they are attributed to allergy. However, clinical manifestations of various degrees of severity related to ingestion of foods can arise as a result of a number of disorders, only some of which can be defined as allergic, implying an immune mechanism. Recent epidemiological data in North America showed that the prevalence of food allergy in children has increased. The most common food allergens in the United States include egg, milk, peanut, tree nuts, wheat, crustacean shellfish, and soy. This review examines the various forms of food intolerances (immunoglobulin E [IgE] and non-IgE mediated), including celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. Immune mediated reactions can be either IgE mediated or non-IgE mediated. Among the first group, Immediate GI hypersensitivity and oral allergy syndrome are the best described. Often, but not always, IgE-mediated food allergies are entities such as eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophilic gastroenteropathy. Non IgE-mediated immune mediated food reactions include celiac disease and gluten sensitivity, two increasingly recognized disorders. Finally, non-immune mediated reactions encompass different categories such as disorders of digestion and absorption, inborn errors of metabolism, as well as pharmacological and toxic reactions.

  17. Food allergy and probiotics in childhood.

    PubMed

    del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Leonardi, Salvatore; Maiello, Nunzia; Brunese, Francesco Paolo

    2010-09-01

    Food allergy is a frequent problem in childhood and its prevalence is increasing. In most cases food allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity response that cause skin reactions as urticaria. Subacute or chronic disorders have generally a not IgE mediated mechanism. Milk is the most common food allergen in USA and UK followed by egg, peanut and walnuts. Sensitization to milk or egg in infancy is associated with an increased risk to develop house dust mite sensitization and asthma later in childhood. Commensal gut flora play a role in induction of oral tolerance and the importance of the intestinal microbiota in the development of food allergy is essential in early ages, when the mucosal barrier and immune system are still immature. Probiotics interact with the mucosal immune system by the same pathways as commensal bacteria. Recent study show that probiotic bacteria induced in vivo increased plasma levels IL-10 and total IgA in children with allergic predisposition. Many clinical studies reporting significant benefits by probiotics supplementation in food allergy prevention and management but not everyone agree on their effectiveness. These differences are probably related to differences in selected populations and in probiotic strains used.

  18. An update on immunotherapy for food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Scurlock, Amy M.; Jones, Stacie M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the review Recent investigation has resulted in significant advances toward definitive therapeutic options for food allergy. In this review, we will explore novel immunotherapeutic interventions for the active treatment of food allergy. Recent findings Because the injection route for allergen immunotherapy to foods has been associated with an unacceptable risk of severe anaphylactic reactions, use of mucosally targeted therapeutic strategies is of significant interest for food allergy. Allergen-specific immunotherapeutic approaches such as oral, sublingual, epicutaneous, and peptide immunotherapy have demonstrated efficacy in increasing threshold dose and inducing immunologic changes associated with both desensitization and oral tolerance in animal and human trials. More global immunomodulatory strategies, such as Traditional Chinese Medicine and anti-IgE therapy have been shown to effectively target the allergic response, and clinical trials are ongoing to determine the efficacy and safety in human food allergy. Summary The advent of therapies that target the mucosal immune response to promote oral tolerance have shown great promise in the treatment of food hypersensitivity. However, there is still significant risk of adverse reactions associated with these therapeutic strategies and further study is needed to carefully advance these therapeutic modalities toward general clinical implementation. PMID:20856110

  19. What Principals Should Know About Food Allergies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Describes what principals should know about recent research findings on food allergies (peanuts, tree nuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat) that can produce severe or life-threatening reactions in children. Asserts that every school should have trained staff and written procedures for reacting quickly to allergic reactions. (PKP)

  20. Allergy Medications and Pregnancy: What's Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 850. Sinus rinsing and neti pots. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/naegleria/sinus-rinsing.html. Accessed Nov. 26, 2014. Jan. 14, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-answers/allergy-medications/ ...

  1. Clinical spectrum of food allergies: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Ho, Marco H-K; Wong, Wilfred H-S; Chang, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Food allergy is defined as an adverse immune response towards food proteins or as a form of a food intolerance associated with a hypersensitive immune response. It should also be reproducible by a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. Many reported that food reactions are not allergic but are intolerances. Food allergy often presents to clinicians as a symptom complex. This review focuses on the clinical spectrum and manifestations of various forms of food allergies. According to clinical presentations and allergy testing, there are three types of food allergy: IgE mediated, mixed (IgE/Non-IgE), and non-IgE mediated (cellular, delayed type hypersensitivity). Recent advances in food allergy in early childhood have highlighted increasing recognition of a spectrum of delayed-onset non-IgE-mediated manifestation of food allergy. Common presentations of food allergy in infancy including atopic eczema, infantile colic, and gastroesophageal reflux. These clinical observations are frequently associated with food hypersensitivity and respond to dietary elimination. Non-IgE-mediated food allergy includes a wide range of diseases, from atopic dermatitis to food protein-induced enterocolitis and from eosinophilic esophagitis to celiac disease. The most common food allergies in children include milk, egg, soy, wheat, peanut, treenut, fish, and shellfish. Milk and egg allergies are usually outgrown, but peanut and treenut allergy tends to persist. The prevalence of food allergy in infancy is increasing and may affect up to 15-20 % of infants. The alarming rate of increase calls for a public health approach in the prevention and treatment of food allergy in children.

  2. Association of urban particle numbers and sources with lung function among children with asthma or allergies.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Ru; Feng, Li-Ting; Chen, Bing-Yu; Kim, Ho; Yi, Seung-Muk; Guo, Yue Leon; Wu, Chang-Fu

    2016-01-15

    Previous studies have reported sources of particle number pollution in urban air, but have not evaluated relationships between respiratory health and these sources. We compared, among children with asthma or allergies, the associations of spirometric lung functions with increased exposure to source-specific versus size-segregated particle number concentrations (PNC). Hourly measurements of PNC were acquired from the aerosol Supersite in New Taipei, Taiwan. Spirometry (FVC, FEV1, and FEF) was recorded monthly for 59 children with asthma or allergies at five schools during 2007-2008. After co-pollutant adjustment for ozone, we found a 0.21 and 0.17 L decrease in FVC [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.35, -0.06 L] and FEV1 (95% CI: -0.32, -0.03 L), respectively, with an interquartile range increase (1879.7#/cm(3)) in secondary aerosol contribution observed on the previous day. In addition, we found no significant associations of FVC with accumulation mode (0.1 μmrespiratory effects among children living in urban Taipei. Studies that rely on exposure to size-segregated PNC may underestimate PM health impacts.

  3. FoxP3 Tregs Response to Sublingual Allergen Specific Immunotherapy in Children Depends on the Manifestation of Allergy.

    PubMed

    Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, Anna; Zawadzka-Krajewska, Anna; Głodkowska-Mrówka, Eliza; Demkow, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades allergic diseases has become a major health problem worldwide. The only specific treatment to date is allergen specific immunotherapy (ASIT). Although it was shown that ASIT generates allergen-tolerant T cells, detailed mechanism underlying its activity is still unclear and there is no reliable method to monitor its effectiveness. The aim of our study was to evaluate ASIT influence on the frequency of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) Tregs in allergic children with various clinical manifestations. The relative number of FoxP3 Tregs in 32 blood samples from allergic children at baseline and/or after 1 year of ASIT was assessed by flow cytometry. In the entire studied group, the percentage of FoxP3 Tregs did not increase 1 year after ASIT. Nevertheless, the percentage of FoxP3 Tregs after ASIT significantly increased in children with respiratory allergy (conjunctivitis, asthma, and rhinitis) coexisting with nonrespiratory manifestations (food allergy and/or atopic dermatitis), whereas, in patients with respiratory allergy only, the percentage of FoxP3 Tregs decreased. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing various differential FoxP3 Tregs response to ASIT in allergic children. FoxP3 Tregs number could be useful in treatment monitoring. Further studies are warranted to confirm these observations.

  4. Allergy immunotherapy across the life cycle to promote active and healthy ageing: from research to policies: An AIRWAYS Integrated Care Pathways (ICPs) programme item (Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on active and healthy ageing) and the Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD), a World Health Organization GARD research demonstration project.

    PubMed

    Calderon, M A; Demoly, P; Casale, T; Akdis, C A; Bachert, C; Bewick, M; Bilò, B M; Bohle, B; Bonini, S; Bush, A; Caimmi, D P; Canonica, G W; Cardona, V; Chiriac, A M; Cox, L; Custovic, A; De Blay, F; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Di Lorenzo, G; Du Toit, G; Durham, S R; Eng, P; Fiocchi, A; Fox, A T; van Wijk, R Gerth; Gomez, R M; Haathela, T; Halken, S; Hellings, P W; Jacobsen, L; Just, J; Tanno, L K; Kleine-Tebbe, J; Klimek, L; Knol, E F; Kuna, P; Larenas-Linnemann, D E; Linneberg, A; Matricardi, M; Malling, H J; Moesges, R; Mullol, J; Muraro, A; Papadopoulos, N; Passalacqua, G; Pastorello, E; Pfaar, O; Price, D; Del Rio, P Rodriguez; Ruëff, R; Samolinski, B; Scadding, G K; Senti, G; Shamji, M H; Sheikh, A; Sisul, J C; Sole, D; Sturm, G J; Tabar, A; Van Ree, R; Ventura, M T; Vidal, C; Varga, E M; Worm, M; Zuberbier, T; Bousquet, J

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases often occur early in life and persist throughout life. This life-course perspective should be considered in allergen immunotherapy. In particular it is essential to understand whether this al treatment may be used in old age adults. The current paper was developed by a working group of AIRWAYS integrated care pathways for airways diseases, the model of chronic respiratory diseases of the European Innovation Partnership on active and healthy ageing (DG CONNECT and DG Santé). It considered (1) the political background, (2) the rationale for allergen immunotherapy across the life cycle, (3) the unmet needs for the treatment, in particular in preschool children and old age adults, (4) the strategic framework and the practical approach to synergize current initiatives in allergen immunotherapy, its mechanisms and the concept of active and healthy ageing.

  5. Household chemicals, immune function, and allergy: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Ian; Pieters, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, in the US and in Western and Northern Europe, there has been a significant increase in the prevalence of atopic allergic disease. Although that increase may now be slowing, or have already reached a plateau, there remains considerable interest in the factor or factors that may have caused this increased susceptibility to allergy and asthma. Certainly, the changes recorded have been too rapid to implicate a change in the gene pool, and for that reason attention has focused on the possible impact of environmental, dietary, and lifestyle factors. Although the hygiene hypothesis proposes that increased susceptibility to allergic sensitization is associated with changes in childhood exposure pathogenic microorganisms, other factors have been considered also. Among these is exposure to chemicals and atmospheric pollutants. There is some evidence that exposure to certain chemicals may elicit or exacerbate respiratory reactions in those who are already sensitized, or who already have existing airway disease. However, a recent article has proposed that exposure to specific household cleaning products may be one factor that is able to affect susceptibility to allergic sensitization. In the light of that article it is timely now to consider again the ability of chemical exposure to influence sensitization to common antigens.

  6. Clinical relevance of molecular diagnosis in pet allergy.

    PubMed

    Uriarte, S A; Sastre, J

    2016-07-01

    We describe the pattern of sensitisation to pet IgE components and its association with clinical symptoms. Hundred and fifty nine consecutive patients with rhinitis/asthma sensitised to dog, cat, and horse were recruited. Specific IgE to whole extracts and to pet recombinant allergens were performed. Only 5% of patients were monosensitised to animal allergens. Specific IgE to Can f 1 was significantly associated with persistent rhinitis, Can f 2 with asthma diagnosis, Can f 3 with moderate/severe rhinitis (M/S-R) and asthma diagnosis (AD), and Can f 5 with persistent and M/S-R. Positive IgE to Fel d 2 was significantly associated with M/S-R and AD, Equ c 1 with M/S-R and Equ c 3 with persistent rhinitis, AD and severe asthma. Sensitisation to ≥2 molecules or to pet albumins was associated with more severe respiratory symptoms. Molecular diagnosis in patients with pet allergy may also help clinicians to predict clinical symptoms and their severity.

  7. Allergy-Related Disorders in the Construction Industry

    PubMed Central

    Carino, Mauro; Romita, Paolo; Foti, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    Working conditions in the construction industry have improved in many industrialized countries, but heavy physical work with recurrent exposure to chemical agents, dust, and climatic influences still represents considerable risk for construction workers and may affect their health. The aim of this review is to analyze available data of the literature on allergy-related respiratory and skin disorders with emphasis on a preventive appraisal in order to produce statements and recommendations based on research evidence. The most common agents involved in the construction industry as a cause of occupational asthma (OA) in industrialized countries are isocyanates, wood dust, resins, glues, cobalt, and chromium. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is an immunologic cell-mediated response to a sensitizing agent and the most common sensitizing agents associated with construction workers are epoxy resins, thiurams and thiazoles, and chromates. Medical surveillance must consider individual risk factors such as differences in individual susceptibility and sensitization to agents at workplace. Once work-related disorder is confirmed, adequate fitness for work should be assessed for the worker impaired by health condition. A reliable diagnosis of an index case is a sentinel event that may reveal risks for workers with similar exposure, leading to a revised risk assessment at the workplace that should reduce the risk and prevent further cases. PMID:24971193

  8. Allergy-related disorders in the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Carino, Mauro; Romita, Paolo; Foti, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    Working conditions in the construction industry have improved in many industrialized countries, but heavy physical work with recurrent exposure to chemical agents, dust, and climatic influences still represents considerable risk for construction workers and may affect their health. The aim of this review is to analyze available data of the literature on allergy-related respiratory and skin disorders with emphasis on a preventive appraisal in order to produce statements and recommendations based on research evidence. The most common agents involved in the construction industry as a cause of occupational asthma (OA) in industrialized countries are isocyanates, wood dust, resins, glues, cobalt, and chromium. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is an immunologic cell-mediated response to a sensitizing agent and the most common sensitizing agents associated with construction workers are epoxy resins, thiurams and thiazoles, and chromates. Medical surveillance must consider individual risk factors such as differences in individual susceptibility and sensitization to agents at workplace. Once work-related disorder is confirmed, adequate fitness for work should be assessed for the worker impaired by health condition. A reliable diagnosis of an index case is a sentinel event that may reveal risks for workers with similar exposure, leading to a revised risk assessment at the workplace that should reduce the risk and prevent further cases.

  9. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  10. Avian respiratory system disorders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  11. MSFC Respiratory Protection Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    CoVan, James P.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Marshall Space Flight Center Respiratory Protection program is provided in this poster display. Respiratory protection personnel, building, facilities, equipment, customers, maintenance and operational activities, and Dynatech fit testing details are described and illustrated.

  12. Respiratory inflammation and infections in high-performance athletes.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Maree; Pyne, David B

    2016-02-01

    Upper respiratory illness is the most common reason for non-injury-related presentation to a sports medicine clinic, accounting for 35-65% of illness presentations. Recurrent or persistent respiratory illness can have a negative impact on health and performance of athletes undertaking high levels of strenuous exercise. The cause of upper respiratory symptoms (URS) in athletes can be uncertain but the majority of cases are related to common respiratory viruses, viral reactivation, allergic responses to aeroallergens and exercise-related trauma to the integrity of respiratory epithelial membranes. Bacterial respiratory infections are uncommon in athletes. Undiagnosed or inappropriately treated asthma and/or allergy are common findings in clinical assessments of elite athletes experiencing recurrent URS. High-performance athletes with recurrent episodes of URS should undergo a thorough clinical assessment to exclude underlying treatable conditions of respiratory inflammation. Identifying athletes at risk of recurrent URS is important in order to prescribe preventative clinical, training and lifestyle strategies. Monitoring secretion rates and falling concentrations of salivary IgA can identify athletes at risk of URS. Therapeutic interventions are limited by the uncertainty of the underlying cause of inflammation. Topical anti-inflammatory sprays can be beneficial for some athletes. Dietary supplementation with bovine colostrum, probiotics and selected antioxidants can reduce the incidence or severity of URS in some athletes. Preliminary studies on athletes prone to URS indicate a genetic predisposition to a pro-inflammatory response and a dysregulated anti-inflammatory cytokine response to intense exercise as a possible mechanism of respiratory inflammation. This review focuses on respiratory infections and inflammation in elite/professional athletes.

  13. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Respiratory Syncytial Virus KidsHealth > For Parents > Respiratory Syncytial Virus A A A What's in this article? About ... RSV When to Call the Doctor en español Virus respiratorio sincitial About RSV Respiratory syncytial (sin-SISH- ...

  14. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Teens > Lungs and Respiratory System Print ... didn't breathe, you couldn't live. Lungs & Respiratory System Basics Each day we breathe about 20,000 ...

  15. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Teens > Lungs and Respiratory System A ... didn't breathe, you couldn't live. Lungs & Respiratory System Basics Each day we breathe about 20,000 ...

  16. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines. Primary prevention of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Halken, S; Arshad, S H; Beyer, K; Dubois, A E J; Du Toit, G; Eigenmann, P A; Grimshaw, K E C; Hoest, A; Lack, G; O'Mahony, L; Papadopoulos, N G; Panesar, S; Prescott, S; Roberts, G; de Silva, D; Venter, C; Verhasselt, V; Akdis, A C; Sheikh, A

    2014-05-01

    Food allergy can have significant effects on morbidity and quality of life and can be costly in terms of medical visits and treatments. There is therefore considerable interest in generating efficient approaches that may reduce the risk of developing food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Taskforce on Prevention and is part of the EAACI Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis. It aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for primary prevention of food allergy. A wide range of antenatal, perinatal, neonatal, and childhood strategies were identified and their effectiveness assessed and synthesized in a systematic review. Based on this evidence, families can be provided with evidence-based advice about preventing food allergy, particularly for infants at high risk for development of allergic disease. The advice for all mothers includes a normal diet without restrictions during pregnancy and lactation. For all infants, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for at least first 4-6 months of life. If breastfeeding is insufficient or not possible, infants at high-risk can be recommended a hypoallergenic formula with a documented preventive effect for the first 4 months. There is no need to avoid introducing complementary foods beyond 4 months, and currently, the evidence does not justify recommendations about either withholding or encouraging exposure to potentially allergenic foods after 4 months once weaning has commenced, irrespective of atopic heredity. There is no evidence to support the use of prebiotics or probiotics for food allergy prevention.

  17. The red meat allergy syndrome in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Apostolovic, Danijela; Tran, Thi Anh Thu; Starkhammar, Maria; Sánchez-Vidaurre, Sara; Hamsten, Carl; Van Hage, Marianne

    In the last decade, a novel type of food allergy presenting with severe allergic reactions several hours after consumption of red meat has been recognized. The allergic responses are due to IgE antibodies directed against the carbohydrate epitope galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) found in mammalian meat. This review presents the red meat allergy syndrome in Sweden, discusses the features of the immune response to carbohydrates, and highlights the presence of heat stable α-Gal-containing proteins in meat. The number of diagnosed red meat allergy cases in Sweden has increased significantly over the past few years. All patients have been tick bitten. Our recent work has shown that α-Gal is present in the European tick Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus), thus potentially explaining the strong association between anti-α-Gal IgE and tick bites, with development of red meat allergy as a secondary phenomenon. Further studies using immunoproteomics have identified novel α-Gal-containing meat proteins that bound IgE from red meat allergic patients. Four of these proteins were stable to thermal processing pointing to the fact that the allergenicity of red meat proteins is preserved in cooked meat. In keeping with the fact that the α-Gal epitope is structurally related to the blood group B antigen, a positive association with the B-negative blood groups among our red meat allergic patients was noted. A selective IgE reactivity to the pure carbohydrate moiety was observed when investigating the specificity of the α-Gal immune response. IgE from red meat allergic patients does not recognize the other major mammalian carbohydrate, N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), also present in high amounts in red meat. Furthermore, neither common cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) from plants nor venoms are targets of the IgE response in these patients. Taken together, the α-Gal carbohydrate has shown to be a potentially clinically relevant allergen that should be taken into

  18. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Alberto E; Armenio, Lucio; Bernardini, Roberto; Boner, Attilio; Calvani, Mauro; Cardinale, Fabio; Cavagni, Giovanni; Dondi, Arianna; Duse, Marzia; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Marseglia, Gian L; del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Muraro, Antonella; Pajno, Giovanni B; Paravati, Francesco; Peroni, Diego; Tripodi, Salvatore; Ugazio, Alberto G; Indinnimeo, Luciana

    2011-05-01

    In Italy, according to the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study, the prevalence of current asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema in 2006 was 7.9%, 6.5%, and 10.1% among children aged 6-7 and 8.4%, 15.5%, and 7.75% among children aged 13-14 yr. University education in this field is provided by the Postgraduate Schools of Pediatrics and those of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, as well as several annual Master courses. The Italian Society of Pediatric Allergology and Immunology (SIAIP) was founded in 1996 and counts about 1000 members. SIAIP promotes evidence-based management of allergic children and disseminates information to patients and their families through a quite innovative website and the National Journal 'Rivista Italiana di Allergologia Pediatrica'. In the last decade, four major regional, inter-regional, and national web-based networks have been created to link pediatric allergy centers and to share their clinical protocols and epidemiologic data. In addition, National Registers of Primary Immune-deficiencies and on Pediatric HIV link all clinical excellence centers. Research projects in the field of pediatric allergy and immunology are founded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by the National Research Council (CNR), but the overall investments in this research area are quite low. Only a handful Italian excellence centers participate in European Projects on Pediatric Allergy and Immunology within the 7th Framework Program. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology currently hosts two Italians in its Executive Committee (EC) and one in the EC of the Pediatric Section; moreover, major European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology meetings and courses in the area of pediatrics (e.g., PAAM, Venice, 2009) have been held in Italy in the last 3 yr. Italian hallmarks in the management of allergic diseases in childhood are a quite alive and spread interest in

  19. Aspergillus nidulans verA is required for production of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin.

    PubMed Central

    Keller, N P; Kantz, N J; Adams, T H

    1994-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans produces the carcinogenic mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (ST), the next-to-last precursor in the aflatoxin (AF) biosynthetic pathway found in the closely related fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. We identified and characterized an A. nidulans gene, verA, that is required for converting the AF precursor versicolorin A to ST. verA is closely related to several polyketide biosynthetic genes involved in polyketide production in Streptomyces spp. and exhibits extended sequence similarity to A. parasiticus ver-1, a gene proposed to encode an enzyme involved in converting versicolorin A to ST. By performing a sequence analysis of the region 3' to verA, we identified two additional open reading frames, designated ORF1 and ORF2. ORF2 is closely related to a number of cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases, while ORF1 shares identity with the gamma subunit of translation elongation factor 1. Given that several steps in the ST-AF pathway may require monooxygenase activity and that AF biosynthetic genes are clustered in A. flavus and A. parasiticus, we suggest that verA may be part of a cluster of genes required for ST biosynthesis. We disrupted the verA coding region by inserting the A. nidulans argB gene into the center of the coding region and transformed an A. nidulans argB2 mutant to arginine prototrophy. Seven transformants that produced DNA patterns indicative of a verA disruption event were grown under ST-inducing conditions, and all of the transformants produced versicolorin A but negligible amounts of ST (200-fold to almost 1,000-fold less than the wild type), confirming the hypothesis that verA encodes an enzyme necessary for converting versicolorin A to ST. Images PMID:8017929

  20. Variability in childhood allergy and asthma across ethnicity, language, and residency duration in El Paso, Texas: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background We evaluated the impact of migration to the USA-Mexico border city of El Paso, Texas (USA), parental language preference, and Hispanic ethnicity on childhood asthma to differentiate between its social and environmental determinants. Methods Allergy and asthma prevalence was surveyed among 9797 fourth and fifth grade children enrolled in the El Paso Independent School District. Parents completed a respiratory health questionnaire, in either English or Spanish, and a sub-sample of children received spirometry testing at their school. Here we report asthma and allergy outcomes across ethnicity and El Paso residency duration. Results Asthma and allergy prevalence increased with longer duration of El Paso residency independent of ethnicity and preferred language. Compared with immigrants who arrived in El Paso after entering first grade (18%), lifelong El Paso residents (68%) had more prevalent allergy (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.32 - 2.24), prevalent asthma (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.24 - 2.46), and current asthma (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.37 - 2.95). Spirometric measurements (FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75) also declined with increasing duration of El Paso residency (0.16% and 0.35% annual reduction, respectively). Conclusion These findings suggest that a community-wide environmental exposure in El Paso, delayed pulmonary development, or increased health of immigrants may be associated with allergy and asthma development in children raised there. PMID:19995440

  1. Clinical Use of Probiotics in Pediatric Allergy (cuppa): A World Allergy Organization Position Paper

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Probiotic administration has been proposed for the prevention and treatment of specific allergic manifestations such as eczema, rhinitis, gastrointestinal allergy, food allergy, and asthma. However, published statements and scientific opinions disagree about the clinical usefulness. Objective A World Allergy Organization Special Committee on Food Allergy and Nutrition review of the evidence regarding the use of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of allergy. Methods A qualitative and narrative review of the literature on probiotic treatment of allergic disease was carried out to address the diversity and variable quality of relevant studies. This variability precluded systematization, and an expert panel group discussion method was used to evaluate the literature. In the absence of systematic reviews of treatment, meta-analyses of prevention studies were used to provide data in support of probiotic applications. Results Despite the plethora of literature, probiotic research is still in its infancy. There is a need for basic microbiology research on the resident human microbiota. Mechanistic studies from biology, immunology, and genetics are needed before we can claim to harness the potential of immune modulatory effects of microbiota. Meanwhile, clinicians must take a step back and try to link disease state with alterations of the microbiota through well-controlled long-term studies to identify clinical indications. Conclusions Probiotics do not have an established role in the prevention or treatment of allergy. No single probiotic supplement or class of supplements has been demonstrated to efficiently influence the course of any allergic manifestation or long-term disease or to be sufficient to do so. Further epidemiologic, immunologic, microbiologic, genetic, and clinical studies are necessary to determine whether probiotic supplements will be useful in preventing allergy. Until then, supplementation with probiotics remains empirical in allergy

  2. [Music and respiratory pathology].

    PubMed

    Herer, B

    2001-04-01

    Musical performance, especially in singers and wind instrument players, depends on an effective pulmonary function. Performing artists may be seriously impaired by respiratory diseases that, comparatively, may produce only modest inconvenience for non-musicians. The report of two cases of respiratory diseases occurring in musicians herein provides an introduction to a review of the interactions between music and the human respiratory system. The following points are considered: epidemiological data; pulmonary function in musicians; favorable effects of music on the respiratory system; description of the main respiratory problems that may affect musicians.

  3. Evaluation of a novel automated allergy microarray platform compared with three other allergy test methods.

    PubMed

    Williams, P; Önell, A; Baldracchini, F; Hui, V; Jolles, S; El-Shanawany, T

    2016-04-01

    Microarray platforms, enabling simultaneous measurement of many allergens with a small serum sample, are potentially powerful tools in allergy diagnostics. We report here the first study comparing a fully automated microarray system, the Microtest allergy system, with a manual microarray platform, Immuno-Solid phase Allergen Chip (ISAC), and two well-established singleplex allergy tests, skin prick test (SPT) and ImmunoCAP, all tested on the same patients. One hundred and three adult allergic patients attending the allergy clinic were included into the study. All patients were tested with four allergy test methods (SPT, ImmunoCAP, Microtest and ISAC 112) and a total of 3485 pairwise test results were analysed and compared. The four methods showed comparable results with a positive/negative agreement of 81-88% for any pair of test methods compared, which is in line with data in the literature. The most prevalent allergens (cat, dog, mite, timothy, birch and peanut) and their individual allergen components revealed an agreement between methods with correlation coefficients between 0·73 and 0·95. All four methods revealed deviating individual patient results for a minority of patients. These results indicate that microarray platforms are efficient and useful tools to characterize the specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E profile of allergic patients using a small volume of serum sample. The results produced by the Microtest system were in agreement with diagnostic tests in current use. Further data collection and evaluation are needed for other populations, geographical regions and allergens.

  4. Common methodologies in the evaluation of food allergy: pitfalls and prospects of food allergy prevalence studies.

    PubMed

    Shu, Shang-an; Chang, Christopher; Leung, Patrick S C

    2014-06-01

    Global and regional studies on the prevalence of food allergies are plagued by inconsistent methodologies, variations in interpretation of results, and non-standardized study design. Hence, it becomes difficult to compare the prevalence of food allergies in different communities. This information would be useful in providing critical data that will enhance research to elucidate the nature of food allergies, and the role of gene-environment interactions in the sensitization of children and adults to foods. Testing methodologies range from questionnaires to objective in vitro and in vivo testing, to the gold standard, double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). Although considered the most accurate and reliable method in detecting the prevalence of food allergy, DBPCFC is not always practical in epidemiological studies of food allergy. On the other hand, multiple logistic regression studies have been done to determine predictability of the outcome of food challenges, and it appears that skin prick testing and in vitro-specific serum IgE are the best predictors. Future studies directed towards confirming the validity of these methods as well as developing algorithms to predict the food challenge outcomes are required, as they may someday become accessory tools to complement DBPCFC.

  5. Air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases in schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Nicolussi, Francine Heloisa; dos Santos, Ana Paula Milla; André, Sílvia Carla da Silva; Veiga, Tatiane Bonametti; Takayanagui, Angela Maria Magosso

    2014-01-01

    Study on the prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases in schoolchildren between six and seven years old, associated with indicators of air pollution. A questionnaire based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was administered to parents of students from public schools, located in urban areas with differing vehicle flows. There was a positive correlation between monthly frequency of rhinitis and concentration of pollutants, and negative with relative air humidity. Even with levels of air pollutants below that allowed by law, the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and associated symptoms tended to be higher in the central region school, where there is heavy vehicular traffic. PMID:24897055

  6. A practical view of immunotherapy for food allergy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is common and sometimes life threatening for Korean children. The current standard treatment of allergen avoidance and self-injectable epinephrine does not change the natural course of food allergy. Recently, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapies have been studied for their effectiveness against food allergy. While various rates of desensitization (36% to 100%) and tolerance (28% to 75%) have been induced by immunotherapies for food allergy, no single established protocol has been shown to be both effective and safe. In some studies, immunologic changes after immunotherapy for food allergy have been revealed. Adverse reactions to these immunotherapies have usually been localized, but severe systemic reactions have been observed in some cases. Although immunotherapy cannot be recommended for routine practice yet, results from recent studies demonstrate that immunotherapies are promising for the treatment of food allergy. PMID:26958062

  7. Food allergy and food intolerance: towards a sociological agenda.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Sarah; Woods, Brian; Burrows, Roger; Kerr, Anne

    2009-11-01

    This article asks what sociological insights an analysis of food allergy and food intolerance might afford. We outline the parameters of debates around food allergy and food intolerance in the immunological, clinical and epidemiological literatures in order to identify analytic strands which might illuminate our sociological understanding of the supposed increase in both. Food allergy and food intolerance are contested and contingent terms and it is salient that the term true food allergy is replete throughout medico-scientific, epidemiological and popular discourses in order to rebuff spurious or 'nonallergic' claims of food-related symptoms. Complexity theory is introduced as a means of gaining analytic purchase on the food allergy debate. The article concludes that the use of this perspective provides a contemporary example of the 'double hermeneutic', in that the meanings and interpretations of contemporary explanations of food allergy are both permeated by, and can be made sense of, through recourse to complexity thinking.

  8. Penicillin allergy: a practical approach to management.

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, G L; Davis, K; Kohler, P F

    1986-01-01

    Although penicillin is nontoxic, it is highly immunogenic and is the most common drug that causes allergic reactions. A previous reaction to penicillin has been shown to be unreliable in predicting sensitivity in 75% to 90% of patients. To more accurately test for penicillin allergy, diagnostic skin test reagents have been developed; these include the major determinant (benzylpenicilloyl-polylysine) and the minor determinant mixture (penicillin G potassium, benzylpenicilloate sodium and benzylpenicilloyl-N-propylamine). Penicillin skin testing has been shown to be safe and useful in predicting immediate IgE-mediated reactions (overall predictive value 99%). Reactions that occur when patients are challenged with penicillin are mild or accelerated urticarial reactions. We outline a practical and rational therapeutic approach based on the current understanding of penicillin allergy. PMID:3518897

  9. Promising Candidates for Prevention of Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Gern, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding environmental risk factors for allergic diseases in children has led to renewed efforts aimed at prevention. Factors that modify the probability of developing allergies include prenatal exposures, mode of delivery, diet, patterns of medication use, and exposure to pets and farm animals. Recent advances in microbial detection techniques demonstrate that exposure to diverse microbial communities in early life is associated with a reduction in allergic disease. In fact, microbes and their metabolic products may be essential for normal immune development. Identification of these risk factors has provided new targets for prevention of allergic diseases, and possibilities of altering microbial exposure and colonization to reduce the incidence of allergies is a promising approach. This review examines the rationale, feasibility and potential impact for the prevention of childhood allergic diseases, and explores possible strategies for enhancing exposure to beneficial microbes. PMID:26145984

  10. Flow cytometric allergy diagnosis: basophil activation techniques.

    PubMed

    Bridts, Chris H; Sabato, Vito; Mertens, Christel; Hagendorens, Margo M; De Clerck, Luc S; Ebo, Didier G

    2014-01-01

    The basis of flow cytometric allergy diagnosis is quantification of changes in expression of basophilic surface membrane markers (Ebo et al., Clin Exp Allergy 34: 332-339, 2004). Upon encountering specific allergens recognized by surface receptor FcεRI-bound IgE, basophils not only secrete and generate quantifiable bioactive mediators but also up-regulate the expression of different markers (e.g., CD63, CD203c) which can be detected by multicolor flow cytometry using specific monoclonal antibodies (Ebo et al., Cytometry B Clin Cytom 74: 201-210, 2008). Here, we describe two flow cytometry-based protocols which allow detection of surface marker activation (Method 1) and changes in intragranular histamine (Method 2), both reflecting different facets of basophil activation.

  11. Towards a Cure for Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Skripak, Justin M.; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary of recent advances Over the past two decades, food allergies have become both more prevalent and long-lasting. This burgeoning problem has not been met with any therapeutic options to date, and patients must attempt to avoid known allergenic foods and treat any allergic reactions with “as-needed” medications. There are a number of promising emerging therapeutic modalities for food allergy, including allergen-specific and allergen non-specific immunotherapeutic approaches. Although the allergen-specific approaches have some distinct differences, they all attempt to induce tolerance by exposing the patient to an allergen via the mucosal route (oral tolerance induction). Allergen non-specific approaches include biologics to suppress free total IgE levels (e.g. anti-IgE antibody) or to induce more general immune suppression (Chinese Herbal medication). PMID:18848884

  12. Fifty years of allergy: 1965-2015.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Dianne E; Mehr, Sam

    2015-01-01

    The last 50 years in allergy could almost be considered the first 50 years. Over this time period, we have witnessed the emergence of allergy as a subspecialty, have seen and continue to observe a tremendous change in prevalence of allergic disease and have gained insight into the mechanisms that underlie allergic predisposition and disease manifestation. We have improved the care of children with many forms of allergic disease and now sit poised to be able to alter the natural history of allergic disease with the use of specific immunotherapy. There is much left to do in the next 50 years including understanding what underlies both the predisposition to atopic disease and its natural resolution and identifying the environmental cofactors involved in the 'allergic epidemic' and therefore targets for effective primary prevention.

  13. Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy : What's in It for Patients?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy : What’s in It for Patients? Food Allergy Food Allergy Why Food ... allergic. Anaphylaxis and foods most likely to cause it Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is ...

  14. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Past Issues / Summer 2011 Table ... Study of Allergic Diseases: This National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) program is to identify ...

  15. Seasonal Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Seasonal Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2011 ... decongestant pills do not have this problem. Immunotherapy. Immunotherapy (allergy shots) might provide relief for patients who don’ ...

  16. 75 FR 71449 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  7. 78 FR 63996 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... review and funding cycle. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious...

  8. 75 FR 76475 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council....

  9. 78 FR 18996 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

  10. 78 FR 26644 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trials Units...

  11. 76 FR 5596 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  12. 78 FR 60294 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

  13. 76 FR 64358 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research;...

  14. 75 FR 7487 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Human Immune...

  15. 77 FR 20645 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel;...

  16. 76 FR 81954 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Therapeutics for Neurotropic Biodefense Toxins...

  17. 78 FR 76847 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Limited Competition--Multicenter AIDS Cohort...

  18. 78 FR 63997 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research;...

  19. 76 FR 35224 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Disease...

  20. 75 FR 65021 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...