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Sample records for respiratory allergies vers

  1. [Respiratory allergies].

    PubMed

    Chiriac, Anca Mirela; Demoly, Pascal

    2013-04-01

    Respiratory allergies represent a global and public health problem, due to their prevalence (still increasing), morbidity, impact on the quality of life and costs for the society. They mainly concern rhinitis (or rhinoconjunctivitis) and asthma. The diagnosis of allergy is dependent on a history of symptoms on exposure to an allergen together with the detection of allergen-specific IgE. Accurate diagnosis of allergies opens up therapeutic options that are otherwise not appropriate, such as allergen immunotherapy and allergen avoidance, that are prescribed following a stepwise approach. It has been a century since the first trial in specific immunotherapy was performed and this still remains the only disease modifying treatment for allergic individuals. In terms of route of administration, sublingual immunotherapy represents a good alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy, considering its proven efficacy and better safety profile.

  2. Infant feeding and respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Murray, A B

    1971-03-06

    In addition to the potential dangers of feeding cow's milk to the newborn which you list in your editorial on infant feeding (January 2, p.30), other hazards have been proposed. 1 apparent consequence, reported by Johnston and Dutton, is an increased prevalence of allergy later in childhood. We examined this thesis in the course of a study on hearing loss in Vancouver primary school children. A trained interviewer put precoded questions to the children's mothers, 1 of which was whether the child had received any food other than breastmilk in the 1st month of the child's life. Another was whether she or the father or any of the child's siblings had ever had asthma, eczema, or hay fever, i.e., whether there was an immediate family history of allergy. A smear of the child's nasal secretions was made and was subsequently examined for eosinophils by a technician. If there were 10 eosinophils/highpower field in any 2 highpower fields, the child was said to have a nasal secretion eosinophilia. This appears to be a useful sign of allergic rhinitis. In the group with an immediate family history of allergy, the association between early introduction of foreign food and the presence of nasal secretion eosinophilia was significantly positive at the 5% level by the chi square test of association. For those children who received supplemental foods in the 1st month, 22 (32%) showed evidence of nasal secretion eosinophilia; 46 (68%) did not. Only 2 (11%) of those on breastmilk alone displayed this sign and 16 (89%) did not. In the remaining 233 children who did not have an immediate family history of allergy the association was not significantly positive. The sequence of events leading to respiratory allergy may be as follows: a neonate not only drinks his weight in cow's milk in a week, but also absorbs a disproportionately large amount of immunologically intact protein. Thus it would not be surprising to find a relatively high incidence of cow's milk allergy in genetically

  3. Treatment of respiratory allergy with allergy immunotherapy tablets.

    PubMed

    Bachert, C

    2011-07-01

    Allergy immunotherapy tablets (AIT) have expanded the treatment options for patients suffering from respiratory allergies. Efficacy is established in adults and children for two different commercially available grass AITs. The ALK grass AIT has an efficacy comparable to subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT), with a proven disease-modifying effect after treatment completion. Safety profiles favour AIT over SCIT. Studies suggest that tablets in all aspects are superior to sublingual drops. AITs for other allergies including house dust mite and birch and ragweed pollen are in development. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Respiratory allergy: what are the uncertainties?

    PubMed

    Karol, Meryl H

    2002-12-27

    The prevalence of asthma is increasing worldwide. The increase has been found for both sexes, for all races and age groups. The factors responsible are unclear. The short period of increase makes it unlikely that a genetic change is responsible but rather suggests that either air pollutants or a behavioral change may be involved. Behavioral changes may include decreased exercise and outdoor activity due to, for example increased usage of television and computers. What is the role of allergy in the development of asthma? In allergic sensitization, allergens initiate the inflammation and IgE antibodies are typically present. Once asthma has developed, factors such as irritants, infections and exercise may result in acute symptomatology. Infancy is a high risk period for allergic sensitization since natural defense mechanisms are not fully developed. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that microbial stimuli during early childhood can influence induction of atopic diseases. In animal studies, pre-infection with respiratory virus has resulted in enhanced response to allergens. Another factor implicated in the surge of allergic disease is airborne particulates. Evidence has been obtained for an association of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) with development of allergic sensitization. ETS enhances IgE production as does diesel and aluminum silicate, the latter a component of fly ash. What are the mechanisms responsible for the environmental influences on development of allergy? Th2 cytokine responses, with suppression of Th1 cytokines, are prominent in children. Th1 maturation appears to be promoted by microbial exposure. Increased understanding of the complex interactions of environmental factors with the developing immune system is essential to reverse the current upward trend in allergic respiratory disease.

  5. Mold Allergens in Respiratory Allergy: From Structure to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Twaroch, Teresa E; Curin, Mirela; Swoboda, Ines

    2015-01-01

    Allergic reactions to fungi were described 300 years ago, but the importance of allergy to fungi has been underestimated for a long time. Allergens from fungi mainly cause respiratory and skin symptoms in sensitized patients. In this review, we will focus on fungi and fungal allergens involved in respiratory forms of allergy, such as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Fungi can act as indoor and outdoor respiratory allergen sources, and depending on climate conditions, the rates of sensitization in individuals attending allergy clinics range from 5% to 20%. Due to the poor quality of natural fungal allergen extracts, diagnosis of fungal allergy is hampered, and allergen-specific immunotherapy is rarely given. Several factors are responsible for the poor quality of natural fungal extracts, among which the influence of culture conditions on allergen contents. However, molecular cloning techniques have allowed us to isolate DNAs coding for fungal allergens and to produce a continuously growing panel of recombinant allergens for the diagnosis of fungal allergy. Moreover, technologies are now available for the preparation of recombinant and synthetic fungal allergen derivatives which can be used to develop safe vaccines for the treatment of fungal allergy. PMID:25840710

  6. [Importance of air purifiers in the prevention of respiratory allergy].

    PubMed

    Sabbah, A

    2000-06-01

    Prevention of respiratory allergy and thus diminution of its prevalence consists of the application not only of preventative measures on the allergens themselves, but also on atmospheric pollutants such as NO, CO and diesel particles. These modify the allergens and increase synthesis of allergen-specific IgE. Use of air purifiers, on condition that they have HEPA or ULPA filters may contribute to reduction of allergenicity linked to pollutants and are one of the not-negligible means of protection from respiratory allergy and asthma in particular.

  7. [Prevalence of sensitization to fungi in patients with respiratory allergy].

    PubMed

    González-Díaz, Sandra Nora; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Ibarra-Chávez, Jesús Arturo; Elizondo-Villarreal, Bárbara; Rivero-Arias, Dulce María; Salinas-Díaz, María Rocío

    2016-01-01

    As part of the etiology of respiratory allergy we have genetics, prenatal factors and sensitivity to various airborne allergens, between these fungi are found. Relationship has been found between sensitization to fungal in skin tests and allergy pathogenesis and aggravation. There is a few literature in Mexico and in the north of the country it is lacking regarding this problem. Assess the prevalence of sensitization to fungi in patients with respiratory allergy in skin tests to airborne allergens; determine the most prevalent fungus and prevalence of sensitization to each species of fungus per year, to assess the prevalence of sensitization to fungi by years. Cross-sectional, observational and descriptive study conducted from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014 in patients treated at the Regional Center of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Monterrey, Mexico) where we reviewed a database with patients whom performed skin tests, sensitization to 6 species of fungi were evaluated. We performed tables of data capture and statistical analysis. 4880 patients had respiratory allergy, a 17.1% prevalence of sensitization to fungal skin tests was determined. The fungus specie most prevalent was Alternaria alternata with 5.5%. The year range with the highest prevalence of sensitization was 0-10 years with a 6.7. The prevalence of fungi sensitization was higher than the global prevalence found, but lower than the prevalence found in other researches in Mexico.

  8. Cockroach allergy in a group of Turkish children with respiratory allergies.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Aygen; Tuncer, Ayfer; Sekerel, Bülent E; Adalioğlu, Gönül; Saraçlar, Yildiz

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to cockroach may lead to exacerbations of bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhinitis in sensitized patients. Although there is a widespread belief that cockroach allergy is a common problem in patients with respiratory allergies, little is known in Turkish children. In order to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of cockroach allergy in respiratory allergic children, we performed a study in newly referred children with respiratory allergies. All patients underwent questionnaire-interview and skin prick tested with common inhalant allergens in addition to two cockroach allergens: Blatella germanica (Bg) and Periplaneta americana (Pa). A subgroup of patients was also serologically investigated for specific IgE against Bg and house dust mite. Three hundred- and thirty-seven children aged 2-16 years were recruited for the study and 77.7% of these were atopic, with the most common indoor and outdoor allergens of house dust mite (47.5%) and grass pollens (45.1%), respectively. According to the prick test results, allergies to Bg and Pa were 11.9% and 7.4%, respectively, and there was a weak correlation between size of the prick test and specific IgE levels for Bg allergen. Almost 30% of the cockroach-sensitive patients were allergic to both cockroach antigens. Seventy percent of cockroach-sensitive patients were also sensitive to house dust mite, and only 1% were monosensitive. Dwellings in the Middle Anatolia and Black Sea regions were less commonly infested by cockroach compared to the dwellings in other regions. In conclusion, our preliminary study showed that cockroach sensitization is common among children with respiratory allergies irrespective of infestation history, suggesting that addition of cockroach allergen to the routine allergy screening panel is critical.

  9. Respiratory sensitization and allergy: Current research approaches and needs

    SciTech Connect

    Boverhof, Darrell R. Billington, Richard; Gollapudi, B. Bhaskar; Hotchkiss, John A.; Krieger, Shannon M.; Poole, Alan; Wiescinski, Connie M.; Woolhiser, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    There are currently no accepted regulatory models for assessing the potential of a substance to cause respiratory sensitization and allergy. In contrast, a number of models exist for the assessment of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Research indicates that respiratory sensitizers may be identified through contact sensitization assays such as the local lymph node assay, although only a small subset of the compounds that yield positive results in these assays are actually respiratory sensitizers. Due to the increasing health concerns associated with occupational asthma and the impending directives on the regulation of respiratory sensitizers and allergens, an approach which can identify these compounds and distinguish them from contact sensitizers is required. This report discusses some of the important contrasts between respiratory allergy and ACD, and highlights several prominent in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches that are being applied or could be further developed to identify compounds capable of causing respiratory allergy. Although a number of animal models have been used for researching respiratory sensitization and allergy, protocols and endpoints for these approaches are often inconsistent, costly and difficult to reproduce, thereby limiting meaningful comparisons of data between laboratories and development of a consensus approach. A number of emerging in vitro and in silico models show promise for use in the characterization of contact sensitization potential and should be further explored for their ability to identify and differentiate contact and respiratory sensitizers. Ultimately, the development of a consistent, accurate and cost-effective model will likely incorporate a number of these approaches and will require effective communication, collaboration and consensus among all stakeholders.

  10. Contact allergy and respiratory/mucosal complaints from heroin (diacetylmorphine).

    PubMed

    Hogen Esch, A J; van der Heide, S; van den Brink, W; van Ree, J M; Bruynzeel, D P; Coenraads, P J

    2006-01-01

    After the start of heroin (diacetylmorphine)-assisted treatment to a selected group of chronic treatment-resistant heroin-dependent patients in the Netherlands, we reported about work-related eczema and positive patch tests to heroin in some nurses and nasal and respiratory complaints. To investigate the prevalence of heroin contact allergy, we started a questionnaire-based study with follow-up by allergological examinations. Of 120 questionnaires sent, 101 (84%) was returned: 67 from nurses and 34 from other employees. Of 101 workers, 38 (38%) had reported work-related complaints: 33 of 67 (49%) nurses and 5 of 34 (15%) other employees. Patch tests to heroin were performed in 24 nurses and were positive in 8 (33%). All the 8 had eyelid or facial eczema and, in 6, accompanied by mucosal or respiratory complaints. The prevalence of heroin contact allergy in this study was 8% (8/101) among all employees and 12% (8/67) among nurses. Respiratory and mucosal complaints could not be ascribed to a contact allergy, and in these cases, serum was analysed for specific immunoglobulin E to heroin. A type 1 allergy to heroin could not be shown. These complaints are possibly due to the histamine-liberating effect of heroin, to atopic constitution, to a combination of these factors or - less likely - to other non-allergic factors.

  11. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Effects on Respiratory Allergy.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Pawankar, Ruby; Vitale, Carolina; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; Stanziola, Anna; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Vatrella, Alessandro; D'Amato, Maria

    2016-09-01

    A body of evidence suggests that major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by anthropogenic factors, have impact on the biosphere and human environment. Studies on the effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases, asthma and environmental factors, such as meteorological variables, airborne allergens, and air pollution. Urbanization with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases and bronchial asthma observed over recent decades in most industrialized countries. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate changes and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in the general population and on the timing of asthma exacerbations, although the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity could also be an effect of air pollution and climate change. Since airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously in the atmosphere, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma in atopic subjects in the last 5 decades. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the relationship between air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases, such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions, and westernized lifestyle are correlated with an increased frequency of respiratory allergy prevalently in people who live in urban areas in comparison with people living in rural areas. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc.) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction.

  12. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Effects on Respiratory Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Pawankar, Ruby; Vitale, Carolina; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; Stanziola, Anna; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Vatrella, Alessandro; D'Amato, Maria

    2016-01-01

    A body of evidence suggests that major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by anthropogenic factors, have impact on the biosphere and human environment. Studies on the effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases, asthma and environmental factors, such as meteorological variables, airborne allergens, and air pollution. Urbanization with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases and bronchial asthma observed over recent decades in most industrialized countries. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate changes and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in the general population and on the timing of asthma exacerbations, although the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity could also be an effect of air pollution and climate change. Since airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously in the atmosphere, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma in atopic subjects in the last 5 decades. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the relationship between air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases, such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions, and westernized lifestyle are correlated with an increased frequency of respiratory allergy prevalently in people who live in urban areas in comparison with people living in rural areas. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc.) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. PMID:27334776

  13. Respiratory allergies in Venezuela: are fungi responsible?

    PubMed

    Galante, David; Hartung de Capriles, Claudia; Mata-Essayag, Sofía; Conesa, Angela; Córdova, Yuraima; Trejo, Ernesto; Tassinari, Paolo

    2006-11-01

    Exposure to fungi in the indoor environment may trigger hypersensitivity to a variety of fungi and is known to be an influencing factor in allergic rhinitis and asthma. A wide list of airborne fungal spores and dust containing fungi have been described for different environments; however, their clinical relevance is seldom clear. In this survey we measure levels of fungi indoor and outdoor of domestic dwellings of 10 patients with known chronic allergic respiratory disease to fungi. To measure hypersensitivity to fungi, Prick (sensitivity to fungi), RAST (specific serum IgE levels) and PAR (persistent allergic rhinitis) severity are assessed in relation to fungal load in the environment. Only association of PAR and indoor fungal load were found to be significant (P = 0.1648). No direct causality with sensitivity to the amount of exposure, or a hypersensitivity to a specific fungal genus could be established. There is still no consensus on the most relevant methods for measuring personal exposure and 'no safe levels' have been established yet.

  14. Prevalence of sensitization to aeroallergens in California patients with respiratory allergy. Allergy Skin Test Project Team.

    PubMed

    Galant, S; Berger, W; Gillman, S; Goldsobel, A; Incaudo, G; Kanter, L; Machtinger, S; McLean, A; Prenner, B; Sokol, W; Spector, S; Welch, M; Ziering, W

    1998-09-01

    The number of allergy skin tests required to evaluate patients with respiratory allergy has recently been challenged by the managed care community. The purpose of this study was to determine which aeroallergens are prevalent in patients with respiratory allergy (allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma) in California. Utilizing aeroallergens thought to be relevant from recent aerobiologic and botanic data, 141 allergic and 17 asymptomatic control subjects were tested for the prevalence of 103 allergens. A standardized prick puncture technique and standardized interpretation of wheal/flare responses were utilized using the same lot of allergen for 13 allergy practices distributed throughout California. Frequency curves based on prevalence were established to determine the number of tests required to give up to 90% of positive responses for tree, weed and grass pollen, mold spores, and miscellaneous allergens which included house dust mite, cat, dog, and cockroach allergens. Positive responses in allergic subjects for grasses ranged from 46% to 54%, for weeds 19% to 37%, and for trees 10% to 42%. For molds the range was from 11% to 22%. The response rate for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was 53%, for Dermatophagoides farinae 42%, for cat pelt 39% and cat hair 37%, for cockroach 23% and dog dander 19%. Asymptomatic control subjects responded to only 4% of all allergens tested. Ninety percent of all positive tests required three miscellaneous allergens (house dust mite, cat, and cockroach), 9 molds, 2 grasses, 16 weeds, and 27 trees for a total of 57 allergens (56% of total tested). There was no clear relationship between locale and specific allergen response, probably related to the limited number of subjects tested and variability within the same geographic region. Several seldom tested tree and weed allergens showed a higher prevalence rate than several commonly tested for allergens. This preliminary study suggests that approximately 57 aeroalleroens might be

  15. Thaumatin-like protein and baker's respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Maili; Airaksinen, Liisa; Puustinen, Anne; Tillander, Sari; Hannula, Sari; Nyman, Tuula; Toskala, Elina; Alenius, Harri; Lauerma, Antti

    2010-02-01

    Baker's asthma and rhinitis are among the most common occupational diseases. Inhaled cereal flours, such as wheat, especially cause this disease. To identify and test in vivo clinically important wheat allergens in baker's respiratory allergy in a Finnish population. Potential wheat allergens were purified using chromatographic methods from salt-soluble protein extracts of wheat flour and were used in skin prick tests with serial 10-fold dilutions (0.5-0.005 mg/mL). Twenty patients with baker's rhinitis, asthma, or both participated in this study. All the patients had positive skin prick test reactions and specific IgE antibodies to wheat flour. The control group consisted of 10 healthy individuals. Molecular identities of purified wheat allergens were characterized using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry. Allergen concentrations of 0.3-0.5 mg/mL revealed that 12 patients reacted to a-amylase inhibitor (alpha-AI), 9 to peroxidase I (PI), 9 to thaumatin-like protein (TLP), and 6 to lipid transfer protein 2G (LTP2G). Conversely, with allergen concentrations of 0.05 mg/mL, 5 patients responded to alpha-AI, 3 to PI, 4 to LTP2G, and 6 to TLP. Of these, TLP and LTP2G are now observed to be new allergens associated with baker's asthma. In addition to the earlier-described alpha-AI and PI, TLP and LTP2G are important in vivo wheat allergens in baker's allergies in Finland. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of these novel wheat allergens in respiratory disorders.

  16. Respiratory allergy to the indoor ant (Monomorium pharaonis) not related to sting allergy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheol-Woo; Choi, Soo-Young; Park, Jung-Won; Hong, Chein-Soo

    2005-02-01

    Many studies are available on systemic reactions to ant sting, but few have described the direct role of ants in respiratory allergy. The nonstinging house ant, Monomorium pharaonis (pharaoh ant), is a highly infesting species in indoor environments. To determine whether the pharaoh ant is an indoor source of aeroallergens. Two patients with asthma who lived in homes with ant infestation were enrolled. Pharaoh ants were collected at the patients' homes, and crude extracts were prepared. Skin prick tests with ant extracts were performed. Specific IgE to pharaoh ant was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the allergenic components were determined by using immunoblot analysis. Cross-reactivity among pharaoh ant, imported fire ant, Pachycondyla chinensis ant, and other indoor allergens was evaluated by ELISA inhibition tests. Specific bronchial challenge testing was performed using pharaoh ant extracts. Both patients had positive skin test reactions to pharaoh ant extract and high levels of specific IgE antibodies to pharaoh ant. The ELISA inhibition test results demonstrated significant inhibition by pharaoh ant; however, P. chinensis, cockroach, and house dust mite showed no inhibition of the IgE binding to pharaoh ant. Two important IgE-binding components, 9.4 and 34 kDa, were identified by using immunoblot analysis. Pharaoh ant bronchial challenge test results showed typical early asthmatic reactions in 1 patient and dual asthmatic reactions in the other patient. Ants can induce IgE-mediated bronchoconstriction regardless of sting in sensitized patients. Ants should be taken into consideration as a cause of respiratory allergy in patients living in homes with visual evidence of infestation.

  17. State of World Allergy Report 2008: Allergy and Chronic Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the incidence of allergies and allergic diseases is on the rise globally. As an international umbrella organization for regional and national allergy and clinical immunology societies, the World Allergy Organization is at the forefront of a combined united effort across nations and organizations to address this global concern by promoting the science of allergy and clinical immunology, and advancing exchange of information. The World Allergy Organization's State of World Allergy Reports will provide a biennial review of allergic diseases worldwide, consider their medical and socioeconomic contexts, and propose effective approaches to addressing these problems. In this first State of World Allergy Report 2008, experts from different regions of the world have attempted to define the extent of the global allergy problem, examine recent trends, and provide a framework for the collaboration among world medicine, science, and government agencies that is needed to address the rapidly developing issues associated with allergy and allergic diseases. PMID:23282447

  18. Relationship between respiratory and food allergy and evaluation of preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Vega, F; Panizo, C; Dordal, M T; González, M L; Velázquez, E; Valero, A; Sánchez, M C; Rondón, C; Montoro, J; Matheu, V; Lluch-Bernal, M; González, R; Fernández-Parra, B; Del Cuvillo, A; Dávila, I; Colás, C; Campo, P; Antón, E; Navarro, A M

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy and respiratory allergy are two frequently associated diseases and with an increasing prevalence. Several reports show the presence of respiratory symptoms in patients with food allergy, while certain foods may be related to the development or exacerbation of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The present update focuses on this relationship, revealing a pathogenic and clinical association between food and respiratory allergy. This association is even more intense when the food hypersensitivity is persistent or starts in the early years of life. Food allergy usually precedes respiratory allergy and may be a risk factor for allergic rhinitis and asthma, becoming a relevant clinical marker for severe atopic asthma. Furthermore, the presence of co-existing asthma may enhance life-threatening symptoms occurring during a food allergic reaction. Recommendations for dietary restrictions during pregnancy and breastfeeding to prevent the development of respiratory allergy are controversial and not supported by consistent scientific data. Current recommendations from medical societies propose exclusive breastfeeding during the first four months of life, with the introduction of solid food in the fourth to the seventh month period of life. A delayed introduction of solid food after this period may increase the risk of developing subsequent allergic conditions. Further studies are encouraged to avoid unjustified recommendations involving useless dietary restrictions.

  19. Segregation analyses of asthma and respiratory allergy: the Humboldt family study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Schnell, A H; Rennie, D C; Elston, R C; Lockinger, L A; Dosman, J A

    2001-11-15

    We performed segregation analyses of asthma and respiratory allergy based on data from 309 nuclear families comprising 1,053 individuals living in the town of Humboldt, Saskatchewan, in 1993, using the REGD program of the S.A.G.E. program package. For adults, information on asthma and history of respiratory allergy was provided by the subjects themselves, and for children by their parents. When asthma was considered as the trait in segregation analysis, models of no major effect, with or without familial effects, were rejected, but they were not rejected after adjusting for history of respiratory allergy. The major gene hypothesis was not rejected before adjusting for history of respiratory allergy. When respiratory allergy was analyzed as the trait, both major gene and multifactorial models fitted the data well, regardless of whether there was adjustment for asthma or not. Other covariates adjusted for in the segregation analyses were age, sex, number of household smokers, current smoking, number of household members, generation, and house type. The data suggest that a major gene related to respiratory allergy may explain the familial aggregation of asthma. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. [Latex proteins as the trigger of respiratory and systemic allergies].

    PubMed

    Baur, X; Jäger, D; Engelke, T; Rennert, S; Czuppon, A B

    1992-08-21

    56 patients (52 members of the hospital's staff, four with other employment) who had hypersensitivity reactions to latex articles and developed an immediate-type response to latex extract with the skin-prick test were studied. Specific IgE antibodies were present in the enzyme-allergo-sorbent test of 50 of the subjects. Latex-containing surgical and household gloves were the main cause of allergies. Patients with isolated contact urticaria (n = 8) had a tendency towards lower antibody concentrations than those with additional respiratory and/or systemic symptoms (n = 48). Occupation-related provocation tests triggered rhinitis in 19, conjunctivitis in ten, and bronchial obstruction in six. The main allergen was found to be a protein with a relative molecular mass of 58,000, originating from the latex milk and passing from the latex glove into the glove powder. In the course of usual activities considerable allergen inhalation can occur. Even small amounts (e.g. 400 ng/ml) can precipitate significant allergic reactions. The results show that the main latex allergen, a glycine-rich protein molecule, can cause cutaneous, inhalant and systemic hypersensitivity reactions.

  1. Effect of socio-economic status on quality of life in people affected with respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Pawlinska-Chmara, Romana; Wronka, Iwona; Marchewka, Justyna

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the impact of respiratory allergy on quality of life in young people, and examined whether socio-economic status modifies the above dependence. The study was conducted in 458 female and 363 male university students, aged 18-25. Information on socio-economic status (SES) was collected using a questionnaire. The occurrence of allergy was determined on the basis of answers to the questions whether the allergy and specific allergens were medically diagnosed. Quality of life (QoL) was based on the Polish version of the SF-36 test. Respiratory allergy or respiratory and food allergy were declared by 19.2 % of women and 19.0 % of men. The prevalence of allergy was higher in students with high SES. The students suffering from allergy obtained lower scores in all domains of QoL, but the differences were statistically insignificant. However, the overall test result in allergic students was significantly lower than that in non-allergic students. Differences QoL were significantly associated with socio-economic variables. In persons with low SES, the differences in QoL between those suffering from allergy and those who did not have allergy were larger than in persons with high SES. The results indicate that the course of allergic diseases is highly dependent on socio-economic status. The prevalence of allergy among students of low status is lower than among those of high status. However, allergy to a greater extent impairs the quality of life of students with low than high SES.

  2. Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in respiratory allergy are different depending on the profile of aeroallergen sensitisation.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Ortega, J; Quirce, S; Delgado, J; Dávila, I; Martí-Guadaño, E; Valero, A

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies which analyse the characteristics of allergic respiratory disease according to profiles of sensitisation to different allergens. This study describes the clinical features and therapeutic approaches, according to the sensitisation profile to relevant aeroallergens, in a sample of adult patients with a first-time diagnosis of respiratory allergy (rhinitis and/or asthma). 1287 patients, enrolled consecutively in the spring of 2010 by 200 allergy specialists, were classified into four groups according to sensitisation to significant allergens in each geographical area (grass pollen, olive pollen, grass and olive pollen, house dust mites). Information was obtained on demographics, diagnostic procedures used, treatments prescribed, clinical characteristics of the rhinitis, and severity and control of asthma. Of the patients, 58.6% had rhinitis only and 38.7% had both rhinitis and asthma. Patients with more severe rhinitis had more severe and poorer controlled asthma. Sensitisation to different allergens was not associated with significant differences in severity and control of asthma, but patients with house dust mite allergy presented persistent rhinitis more frequently. Allergy to grass pollen was significantly associated with food allergies. Differences were observed in the frequency of prescription of immunotherapy and antileukotrienes in patients allergic to house dust mites and of topical corticosteroids in patients with pollen allergy. It was observed in this study that in respiratory allergy disease, there are clinical differences as well as differences in diagnostic procedure and therapeutic attitudes, depending on the clinically relevant allergen. Copyright © 2012 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. The contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and respiratory allergy in the Th2-prone Brown Norway rat.

    PubMed

    Kuper, C Frieke; Stierum, Rob H; Boorsma, Andre; Schijf, Marcel A; Prinsen, Menk; Bruijntjes, Joost P; Bloksma, Nanne; Arts, Josje H E

    2008-04-18

    All LMW respiratory allergens known to date can also induce skin allergy in test animals. The question here was if in turn skin allergens can induce allergy in the respiratory tract. Respiratory allergy was tested in Th2-prone Brown Norway (BN) rats by dermal sensitization with the contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB; 1%, day 0; 0.5%, day 7) and a head/nose-only inhalation challenge of 27mg/m3 of DNCB (15 min, day 21), using a protocol that successfully identified chemical respiratory allergens. Skin allergy to DNCB was examined in BN rats and Th1-prone Wistar rats in a local lymph node assay followed by a topical patch challenge of 0.1% DNCB. Sensitization of BN rats via the skin induced DNCB-specific IgG in serum, but not in all animals, and an increased number of CD4+ cells in the lung parenchyma. Subsequent inhalation challenge with DNCB did not provoke apneas or allergic inflammation (signs of respiratory allergy) in the BN rats. However, microarray analysis of mRNA isolated from the lung revealed upregulation of the genes for Ccl2 (MCP-1), Ccl4 (MIP-1beta), Ccl7 and Ccl17. Skin challenge induced considerably less skin irritation and allergic dermatitis in the BN rat than in the Wistar rat. In conclusion, the Th2-prone BN rat appeared less sensitive to DNCB than the Wistar rat; nevertheless, DNCB induced allergic inflammation in the skin of BN rats but even a relatively high challenge concentration did not induce allergy in the respiratory tract, although genes associated with allergy were upregulated in lung tissue.

  4. Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Allergies Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... clear up within a week. Learn More about Allergies Food Allergies: What You Need to Know Environmental ...

  5. Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat some allergies using medicines and allergy shots. Avoidance In some cases, as with food allergies, avoiding ... that might contain even tiny traces of them. Avoidance can help protect people against non-food or ...

  6. Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... use skin and blood tests to diagnose allergies. Treatments include medicines, allergy shots, and avoiding the substances that cause the reactions. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  7. Chemical pollution, respiratory allergy and asthma: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gareth S; Cadogan, David; Flueckiger, Andreas; Hennes, Christa; Kimber, Ian

    2008-01-01

    The European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) convened a workshop in June 2005 to address the speculation that exposure to specific chemicals, and/or chemical pollutants in general, may play an important role in the increased prevalence of allergy and asthma in 'westernized' societies. This paper summarises one perspective arrived at during this workshop. It was acknowledged that certain chemicals and certain types of pollution might trigger or exacerbate asthmatic reactions in sensitised subjects. However, overall levels of pollution appear not to have had a major impact upon the prevalence of atopic allergy. Epidemiological studies suggest that pollution may in some circumstances protect from acquisition of sensitisation. Increasing exposure to household chemicals may enhance pre-existing allergies, but evidence for their causation of allergy is lacking. Other risk factors considered included societal dietary changes and exposure to endotoxins. Future research needs were identified which included epidemiological studies employing exposure and biomonitoring data, studies on domestic exposure to chemicals and their association with the incidence of allergy and asthma, and prospective birth cohort studies employing well-defined aspects of lifestyle, diet, chemical and endotoxin exposure as factors that may drive susceptibility to allergy and asthma.

  8. Chemical respiratory allergy and occupational asthma: what are the key areas of uncertainty?

    PubMed

    Isola, Daniel; Kimber, Ian; Sarlo, Katherine; Lalko, Jon; Sipes, I Glenn

    2008-04-01

    There is increasing concern about the association of respiratory disease with indoor air quality and environmental atmospheric pollution. Associated with this is the fact that in many countries there has been a significant increase in the prevalence of asthma. Against this background there is a need to address the toxicological, occupational and public health problems associated with the ability of some chemicals to cause allergic sensitization of the respiratory tract and occupational asthma. By definition allergic sensitization of the respiratory tract to chemicals is dependent upon the stimulation of an adaptive immune response that leads to development of respiratory allergy and/or asthma. Although IgE antibody is associated typically with respiratory sensitization to protein allergens, there is less certainty about the role played by antibodies of this type in chemical respiratory allergy and occupational asthma. There are currently no validated or widely accepted methods/models for the identification and characterization of chemicals that have the potential to induce allergic sensitization of the respiratory tract. These and other areas of uncertainty were debated during the course of and following a two day Workshop. The primary purpose of the Workshop was to consider the important clinical and toxicological issues associated with chemical respiratory allergy, and to identify key questions that need to be answered if real progress is to be made.

  9. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy: An Overview of Current Therapeutic Strategies.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan; De Blay, Frédéric; Hernandez Fernandez de Rojas, Dolores; Virchow, Johann Christian; Demoly, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the efficacy of pharmacotherapy treatment for known HDM-allergic patients is weaker. The standard diagnostic techniques--skin prick test and specific IgE testing--can be confounded by cross-reactivity. However, component-resolved diagnosis using purified and recombinant allergens can improve the accuracy of specific IgE testing, but availability is limited. Treatment options for HDM allergy are limited and include HDM avoidance, which is widely recommended as a strategy, although evidence for its efficacy is variable. Clinical efficacy of pharmacotherapy is well documented; however, symptom relief does not extend beyond the end of treatment. Finally, allergen immunotherapy has a poor but improving evidence base (notably on sublingual tablets) and its benefits last after treatment ends. This review identifies needs for deeper physician knowledge on the extent and impact of HDM allergy in respiratory disease, as well as further development and improved access to molecular allergy diagnosis. Furthermore, there is a need for the development of better-designed clinical trials to explore the utility of allergen-specific approaches, and uptake of data into guidance for physicians on more effective diagnosis and therapy of HDM respiratory allergy in practice.

  10. Consecutive Food and Respiratory Allergies Amplify Systemic and Gut but Not Lung Outcomes in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bouchaud, Gregory; Gourbeyre, Paxcal; Bihouée, Tiphaine; Aubert, Phillippe; Lair, David; Cheminant, Marie-Aude; Denery-Papini, Sandra; Neunlist, Michel; Magnan, Antoine; Bodinier, Marie

    2015-07-22

    Epidemiological data suggest a link between food allergies and the subsequent development of asthma. Although this progression may result from the additional effects of exposure to multiple allergens, whether both allergies amplify each other's effects remains unknown. This study investigated whether oral exposure to food allergens influences the outcomes of subsequent respiratory exposure to an asthma-inducing allergen. Mice were sensitized and orally challenged with wheat (FA) and then exposed to house dust mite (HDM) extract (RA). Immunoglobulin (Ig), histamine, and cytokine levels were assayed by ELISA. Intestinal and lung physiology was assessed. Ig levels, histamine release, and cytokine secretion were higher after exposure to both allergens than after separate exposure to each. Intestinal permeability was higher, although airway hyper-responsiveness and lung inflammation remained unchanged. Exposure to food and respiratory allergens amplifies systemic and gut allergy-related immune responses without any additional effect on lung function and inflammation.

  11. Think twice: misleading food-induced respiratory symptoms in children with food allergy.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, B; Mehl, A; Lau, S; Kroh, L; Magdorf, K; Wahn, U; Beyer, K; Niggemann, B

    2014-03-01

    Reported food-related symptoms of patients may sometimes be misleading. A correct delineation of food-induced symptoms is often difficult and various differential diagnoses have to be considered. We report on two cases of food-induced, predominantly respiratory symptoms (in one case life-threatening) in children with food allergy. First, a two-year-old boy with no history of allergies and suspected foreign body aspiration which was finally diagnosed as an anaphylactic reaction to fish, and secondly a six-year-old girl with multiple food allergies and allergic asthma who during an electively performed oral food challenge developed severe respiratory distress, drop in blood pressure, and asphyxia not due to an anaphylactic reaction but due to choking on an unnoticed sweet. These two cases represent challenging, life-threatening symptom constellations involving food-induced reactions in food allergic children, reminding us to question first impressions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. CURRENT STATE OF PREDICTING THE RESPIRATORY ALLERGY POTENTIAL OF CHEMICALS: WHAT ARE THE ISSUES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current State of Predicting the Respiratory Allergy Potential of Chemicals: What Are the Issues? M I. Gilmour1 and S. E. Loveless2, 1USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC and 2DuPont Haskell Laboratory, Newark, DE.

    Many chemicals are clearly capable of eliciting immune respon...

  13. CURRENT STATE OF PREDICTING THE RESPIRATORY ALLERGY POTENTIAL OF CHEMICALS: WHAT ARE THE ISSUES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current State of Predicting the Respiratory Allergy Potential of Chemicals: What Are the Issues? M I. Gilmour1 and S. E. Loveless2, 1USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC and 2DuPont Haskell Laboratory, Newark, DE.

    Many chemicals are clearly capable of eliciting immune respon...

  14. Effects on asthma and respiratory allergy of Climate change and air pollution.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Vitale, Carolina; De Martino, Annamaria; Viegi, Giovanni; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Vatrella, Alessandro; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; D'Amato, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The major changes to our world are those involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by anthropogenic factors, with impact on the biosphere and human environment. Studies on the effects of climate changes on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases, asthma and environmental factors, like meteorological variables, airborne allergens and air pollution. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions and westernized lifestyle are correlated with an increased frequency of respiratory allergy, mainly in people who live in urban areas in comparison with people living in rural areas. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate changes and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in general and on the timing of asthma exacerbations, although the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity could be also considered an effect of air pollution and climate changes. Since airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously in the atmosphere, enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma in atopic subjects in the last five decades. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. Scientific societies should be involved in advocacy activities, such as those realized by the Global Alliance against chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD).

  15. Food allergy is associated with recurrent respiratory tract infections during childhood

    PubMed Central

    Woicka-Kolejwa, Katarzyna; Zaczeniuk, Magdalena; Majak, Paweł; Pawłowska-Iwanicka, Kamila; Kopka, Monika; Stelmach, Wlodzimierz; Jerzyńska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To find out whether children with food allergy have an increased risk of recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections and of asthma. Aim To describe the clinical profile of children diagnosed with food allergy referred to the Allergy Clinic. Material and methods We conducted a retrospective study to assess the patients’ demographic, anthropometric and clinical data. The analysis included data of all children by the age of 10 years (registered with the Allergy Clinic between 2012 and 2013) in whom IgE mediated food allergy had been diagnosed during 18 months of observation. Results We included 280 children into the analysis. Recurrent respiratory tract infections (rRTI), asthma and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms were observed in 153 (54.6%), 96 (34.3%), 39 (13.9%), respectively, with a significant increasing trend across age-subgroups. In children from 1 to 2 years old, sensitization to β-lactoglobulin increased the risk of rRTI (OR = 3.91; 95% CI: 1.03–14.87). In older children sensitization to allergens other than milk or egg decreases the risk of rRTI (OR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.10–0.62); sensitization to egg decreased the risk of asthma diagnosis (OR = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.01–0.75). We did not identify food allergens which change the risk of GI symptoms in children. This finding was consistent throughout all age-subgroups. Conclusions Sensitization to β-lactoglobulin increased the risk of rRTI in children under 2 years of age nearly four times. The presence of sensitization to food allergens above 3 years of age did not increase the risk of developing clinical presentation of food allergy other than atopic dermatitis. PMID:27279819

  16. Evidence in immunotherapy for paediatric respiratory allergy: Advances and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Tortajada-Girbés, M; Mesa Del Castillo, M; Larramona, H; Lucas, J M; Álvaro, M; Tabar, A I; Jerez, M J; Martínez-Cañavate, A

    2016-11-01

    Allergic respiratory diseases are major health problems in paediatric population due their high level of prevalence and chronicity, and to their relevance in the costs and quality of life. One of the most important risk factors for the development of airway diseases in children and adolescents is atopy. The mainstays for the treatment of these diseases are avoiding allergens, controlling symptoms, and preventing them through sustained desensitization by allergen immunotherapy (AIT). AIT is a treatment option that consists in the administration of increasing amounts of allergens to modify the biological response to them, inducing long-term tolerance even after treatment has ended. This treatment approach has shown to decrease symptoms and improve quality of life, becoming cost effective for a large number of patients. In addition, it is considered the only treatment that can influence the natural course of the disease by targeting the cause of the allergic inflammatory response. The aim of this publication is to reflect the advances of AIT in the diagnosis and treatment of allergic respiratory diseases in children and adolescents reviewing articles published since 2000, establishing evidence categories to support the strength of the recommendations based on evidence. The first part of the article covers the prerequisite issues to understand how AIT is effective, such as the correct etiologic and clinical diagnosis of allergic respiratory diseases. Following this, the article outlines the advancements in understanding the mechanisms by which AIT achieve immune tolerance to allergens. Administration routes, treatment regimens, dose and duration, efficacy, safety, and factors associated with adherence are also reviewed. Finally, the article reviews future advances in the research of AIT.

  17. Allergies

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... respond by producing antibodies. These antibodies attach to mast cells, which are white blood cells containing the chemical ... As more antibodies are produced, they cause the mast cells to release histamine. Histamine then produces allergy symptoms. ...

  18. [Respiratory allergies in children and adolescents: the role of component-resolved diagnosis and specific immunotherapy].

    PubMed

    Horak, Fritz

    2015-09-01

    Respiratory allergies of children and adolescents are an important issue in allergology. In parallel to increasing prevalence rates also research has rapidly been developing for the last 10 years. Today we can better understand complex systems to improve our diagnostic and therapeutic accuracy. In addition to medical history, skin-prick-testing and analysis of specific IgE to allergen extracts, component resolved diagnosis has gained importance in the last years. While being increasingly helpful in the diagnosis of insect-venom and food-allergies, component-based diagnosis can also improve the management of patients with respiratory allergies. Concerning different therapeutic approaches like allergen-avoidance or symptomatic therapy, specific immunotherapy (SIT) is one of the most interesting therapy-options, as it is still the only causal therapy available. After reasonable patient-selection and the selection of the right allergen and product, SIT has a very good risk/benefit-ration and can induce long-term immuno-tolerance to specific allergens.

  19. Impact of domestic air pollution from cooking fuel on respiratory allergies in children in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Nagar, Jitendra K; Raj, Neelima; Kumar, Pawan; Kushwah, Alka S; Meena, Mahesh; Gaur, S N

    2008-12-01

    This study undertaken in India was aimed at identifying the effects of the indoor air pollutants SO2, NO2 and total suspended particulate mater (SPM) generated from fuel used for cooking on respiratory allergy in children in Delhi. A total of 3,456 children were examined (59.2% male and 40.8% female). Among these, 31.2% of the children's families were using biomass fuels for cooking and 68.8% were using liquefied petroleum gas. Levels of indoor SO2, NO2 and SPM, measured using a Handy Air Sampler (Low Volume Sampler), were 4.60 +/- 5.66 microg/m3, 30.70 +/- 23.95 microg/m3 and 705 +/- 441.6 microg/m3, respectively. The mean level of indoor SO2 was significantly higher (p = 0.016) for families using biomass fuels (coal, wood, cow dung cakes and kerosene) for cooking as compared to families using LP gas. The mean level of indoor NO2 for families using biomass fuels for cooking was significantly higher in I.T.O. (p = 0.003) and Janakpuri (p = 0.007), while indoor SPM was significantly higher in Ashok Vihar (p = 0.039) and I.T.O. (p = 0.001), when compared to families using LP gas. Diagnoses of asthma, rhinitis and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) were made in 7.7%, 26.1% and 22.1% of children, respectively. Respiratory allergies in children, which included asthma, rhinitis and URTI, could be associated with both types of fuels (liquefied petroleum gas [LPG] and biomass) used for cooking in the different study areas. This study suggests that biomass fuels increased the concentrations of indoor air pollutants that cause asthma, rhinitis and URTI in children. LP gas smoke was also associated with respiratory allergy.

  20. Respiratory syncytial virus in early life and risk of wheeze and allergy by age 13 years.

    PubMed

    Stein, R T; Sherrill, D; Morgan, W J; Holberg, C J; Halonen, M; Taussig, L M; Wright, A L; Martinez, F D

    1999-08-14

    The relation between lower respiratory tract illnesses in early life caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and the subsequent development of wheezing and atopy in childhood is not well understood. We studied this relation in children who had lower respiratory tract illnesses that occurred before 3 years of age. Children were enrolled at birth and cases of lower respiratory tract illness were ascertained by a physician. Viral tests were done for specimens collected at the time of the illness. Children were classified into five groups according to type and cause of lower respiratory tract illness. Children were then followed prospectively up to age 13, and we measured frequency of wheezing, pulmonary function, and atopic status (allergy skin-prick tests, serum IgE concentrations). RSV lower respiratory tract illnesses were associated with an increased risk of infrequent wheeze (odds ratio 3.2 [95% CI 2.0-5.0], p < 0.001), and an increased risk of frequent wheeze (4.3 [2.2-8.7], p < or = 0.001) by age 6. Risk decreased markedly with age and was not significant by age 13. There was no association between RSV lower respiratory tract illnesses and subsequent atopic status. RSV lower respiratory tract illnesses were associated with significantly lower measurements of forced expiratory volume (2.11 [2.05-2.15], p < or = 0.001) when compared with those of children with no lower respiratory tract illnesses, but there was no difference in forced expiratory volume after inhalation of salbutamol. RSV lower respiratory tract illnesses in early childhood are an independent risk factor for the subsequent development of wheezing up to age 11 years but not at age 13. This association is not caused by an increased risk of allergic sensitisation.

  1. Respiratory Allergies: A General Overview of Remedies, Delivery Systems, and the Need to Progress

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Giselda; Celenza, Cinzia

    2014-01-01

    The spread of respiratory allergies is increasing in parallel with the alarm of the scientific community. Evidently, our knowledge of the onset mechanisms of these diseases and, as a consequence, of the available remedies is inadequate. This review provides a brief, general description of current therapeutic resources and the state of research with regard to both drugs and medical devices in order to highlight their limits and the urgent need for progress. Increasing the amount of basic biochemical research will improve our knowledge of such onset mechanisms and the potential efficacy of therapeutic preparations. PMID:25006500

  2. Inhalant allergens: as a cause of respiratory allergy in east Mediterranean area, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Güneser, S; Atici, A; Cengizler, I; Alparslan, N

    1996-01-01

    Inhalant allergens were identified by analyzing the positive skin tests of 614 respiratory allergic patients. The important indoor allergens causing skin test positivity were house dust, Dermatophogoides pteronyssinus, cockroach, mosquito and Dermatophogoides farinea. Johnson grass, cultivated wheat, rye, orchard, and cultivated corn were among important grass pollens. Animal allergens like cow hair, cat and dog dander, bird and chicken feathers and horse hair caused skin test positivity in our allergic patients. Weeds and garden plants were also among important inhalant allergens in this region. Common cocklebur, narcissus, rose, mugworth, and daisy caused skin test positivity in decreasing frequencies. Carob, willow, poplar, olive and cypress pollens were among important inhalant allergens causing skin test positivity that may be important cause of respiratory allergy in this region.

  3. Alternaria alternata allergens: Markers of exposure, phylogeny and risk of fungi-induced respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Marta F; Postigo, Idoia; Tomaz, Cândida T; Martínez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria alternata spores are considered a well-known biological contaminant and a very common potent aeroallergen source that is found in environmental samples. The most intense exposure to A. alternata allergens is likely to occur outdoors; however, Alternaria and other allergenic fungi can colonize in indoor environments and thereby increase the fungal aeroallergen exposure levels. A consequence of human exposure to fungal aeroallergens, sensitization to A. alternata, has been unequivocally associated with increased asthma severity. Among allergenic proteins described in this fungal specie, the major allergen, Alt a 1, has been reported as the main elicitor of airborne allergies in patients affected by a mold allergy and considered a marker of primary sensitization to A. alternata. Moreover, A. alternata sensitization seems to be a triggering factor in the development of poly-sensitization, most likely because of the capability of A. alternata to produce, in addition to Alt a 1, a broad and complex array of cross-reactive allergens that present homologs in several other allergenic sources. The study and understanding of A. alternata allergen information may be the key to explaining why sensitization to A. alternata is a risk factor for asthma and also why the severity of asthma is associated to this mold. Compared to other common environmental allergenic sources, such as pollens and dust mites, fungi are reported to be neglected and underestimated. The rise of the A. alternata allergy has enabled more research into the role of this fungal specie and its allergenic components in the induction of IgE-mediated respiratory diseases. Indeed, recent research on the identification and characterization of A. alternata allergens has allowed for the consideration of new perspectives in the categorization of allergenic molds, assessment of exposure and diagnosis of fungi-induced allergies.

  4. Interactions of GST Polymorphisms in Air Pollution Exposure and Respiratory Diseases and Allergies.

    PubMed

    Bowatte, Gayan; Lodge, Caroline J; Perret, Jennifer L; Matheson, Melanie C; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence from recently published original studies investigating how glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene polymorphisms modify the impact of air pollution on asthma, allergic diseases, and lung function. Current studies in epidemiological and controlled human experiments found evidence to suggest that GSTs modify the impact of air pollution exposure on respiratory diseases and allergies. Of the nine articles included in this review, all except one identified at least one significant interaction with at least one of glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1), or glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) genes and air pollution exposure. The findings of these studies, however, are markedly different. This difference can be partially explained by regional variation in the exposure levels and oxidative potential of different pollutants and by other interactions involving a number of unaccounted environment exposures and multiple genes. Although there is evidence of an interaction between GST genes and air pollution exposure for the risk of respiratory disease and allergies, results are not concordant. Further investigations are needed to explore the reasons behind the discordancy.

  5. The type of sensitizing allergen can affect the evolution of respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Marogna, M; Massolo, A; Berra, D; Zanon, P; Chiodini, E; Canonica, G W; Passalacqua, G

    2006-10-01

    Numerous factors affect the evolution of respiratory allergy, in children, but little is known in adults. We assessed in a prospective study the influence of the type of allergen on the progression of disease. Outpatients, with respiratory allergy underwent skin tests and pulmonary function/methacholine challenge at baseline and after 3 years. Patients were subdivided in pure rhinitis or rhinitis + bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR). In polysensitized subjects a single relevant allergen (mites, grasses, birch, Parietaria) was identified based on symptom distribution and when needed on nasal challenge. 6750 patients (age range 12-46) were studied. Of them, 17.8% were monosensitized but this percentage decreased to 10.4% after 3 years (P < 0.05). Subjects with pure rhinitis were 81% at the beginning and 48% at the end. After 3 years, the patients with bronchial responsiveness increased from 18% to 58% for mites, 22% to 49% for birch, 18% to 44% for grasses, 17% to 32% for Parietaria, with a significant difference among allergens (P < 0.05). Almost the same was seen in monosensitized subjects, being mites most likely to cause a worsening. All patients with BHR at baseline received immunotherapy. In these patients the onset of new sensitizations was significantly lower than in the group (pure rhinitis) receiving drugs only and lower airways symptoms disappeared more frequently. The different type of allergen influences the course of the disease, as well as the use of immunotherapy.

  6. Respiratory diseases and allergies in two polluted areas in East Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, J; Hoelscher, B; Wjst, M; Ritz, B; Cyrys, J; Wichmann, H

    1999-01-01

    This cross-sectional epidemiological study collected health data for 2,470 school children between 5 and 14 years of age (89% of eligible children) who had lived most of their lives in either one of two counties strongly impacted by industrial pollution (Bitterfeld and Hettstedt) or in a neighboring county without any sources of industrial pollution (Zerbst). The objective of the study was to examine whether regional differences--with respect to the occurrence of childhood respiratory diseases and symptoms or allergies--exist and, if such differences are found, whether they persist when we adjust for the effects of known risk factors such as medical and sociodemographic factors or factors related to the indoor environment. Controlling for medical, sociodemographic, and indoor factors, according to parental reports, children residing in Hettstedt have about a 50% increased lifetime prevalence for physician-diagnosed allergies, eczema, and bronchitis compared to children from Zerbst and about twice the number of respiratory symptoms such as wheeze, shortness of breath, and cough without cold. Sensitization to common aeroallergens according to skin prick tests [odds ratio (OR) = 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.86] and specific IgE levels (OR = 1.75; CI, 1.31-2.33) was more common for children from Hettstedt than children from the nonpolluted county. Bitterfeld children, on the other hand, more often received a diagnosis of asthma and eczema than children residing in Zerbst and also showed slightly increased sensitization rates. In conclusion, industrial pollution related to mining and smelting operations in the county of Hettstedt were associated with a higher lifetime prevalence of respiratory disorders and an increased rate of allergic sensitization in children between the ages of 5 and 14 years. Further studies are needed to determine what role the high dust content of heavy metals plays in Hettstedt. PMID:9872717

  7. [Frequency of sensitization to mites, cockroach and shrimp in adults with respiratory allergy].

    PubMed

    López-Rocha, Eunice; Rodríguez-Mireles, Karen; Gaspar-López, Arturo; Del Rivero-Hernández, Leonel; Segura-Méndez, Nora

    2014-01-01

    Sensitization to mites and cockroach are a common cause of respiratory allergy, especially in children. There is little information about its cross-reactivity with shrimp, which is common in adult patients. To determine the frequency of sensitization to house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae) and cockroach species Periplaneta americana, in adult patients attending to a third level hospital and to determine the frequency of sensitization to shrimp in patients with positive skin test to house dust mite and/or cockroach, in patients with clinical manifestations suggestive of allergy to shrimp. A retrospective study was done in which results were reviewed of 672 patients clinical records, attending to the Allergy and Clinical Immunology department in a third level hospital, those patients with positive skin test results to Dermatophagoides and/or Periplaneta americana were investigated for sensitization to shrimp through Prick-to-Prick test. Data from 672 patients were obtained, 69.8% (469) males, with a mean age of 33.5 years. Dermatophagoides positivity was 72.2% (486/672), and its relationship with other invertebrates that also have tropomyosin was 5.6% (4.9% with cockroach and 0.74% with shrimp). In our population, house dust mite sensitization was similar to that reported in the international literature. There was low positivity to cockroach, probably due to geographical conditions. There is very little information about shrimp's cross-reactivity with Dermatophagoides, despite its clinical significance, which requires more specific studies such as measurement of specific IgE to tropomyosin.

  8. Respiratory allergy caused by house dust mites: What do we really know?

    PubMed

    Calderón, Moisés A; Linneberg, Allan; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; De Blay, Frédéric; Hernandez Fernandez de Rojas, Dolores; Virchow, Johann Christian; Demoly, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The house dust mite (HDM) is a major perennial allergen source and a significant cause of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. However, awareness of the condition remains generally low. This review assesses the links between exposure to HDM, development of the allergic response, and pathologic consequences in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We investigate the epidemiology of HDM allergy to explore the interaction between mites and human subjects at the population, individual, and molecular levels. Core and recent publications were identified by using "house dust mite" as a key search term to evaluate the current knowledge of HDM epidemiology and pathophysiology. Prevalence data for HDM allergen sensitization vary from 65 to 130 million persons in the general population worldwide to as many as 50% among asthmatic patients. Heterogeneity of populations, terminology, and end points in the literature confound estimates, indicating the need for greater standardization in epidemiologic research. Exposure to allergens depends on multiple ecological strata, including climate and mite microhabitats within the domestic environment, with the latter providing opportunity for intervention measures to reduce allergen load. Inhaled mite aeroallergens are unusually virulent: they are able to activate both the adaptive and innate immune responses, potentially offering new avenues for intervention. The role of HDM allergens is crucial in the development of allergic rhinitis and asthma, but the translation of silent sensitization into symptomatic disease is still incompletely understood. Improved understanding of HDMs, their allergens, and their microhabitats will enable development of more effective outcomes for patients with HDM allergy.

  9. Skin prick test response to enzyme enolase of the baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in diagnosis of respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Nittner-Marszalska, M; Wójcicka-Kustrzeba, I; Bogacka, E; Patkowski, J; Dobek, R

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study is to prove that Saccharomyces cerevisiae enolase, the major allergen of the baker's yeast, induces allergic immediate response in patients with inhalant allergy sensitized to Candida albicans extract. The study was performed in three groups of patients: I. 20 atopic patients with respiratory allergy sensitized to Candida albicans and inhalant allergens (mite, feather, pollens) II. 30 patients with respiratory allergy, positive skin tests to inhalant allergens but negative skin tests to Candida albicans and other fungi; III. 20 nonatopic, healthy individuals. Skin prick test of purified enolase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (bakers yeast) at concentration 1 and 10 mg/ml was performed in all groups. The results were documented planimetrically. 95% of patients sensitized to Candida albicans extract showed positive skin reactions to Saccharomyces cerevisiae enolase, 10% of patients of group II and none of the patients of the control group had positive skin responses to enolase. The mean wheal size (mm2) in skin prick test to Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae enolase at concentration 10 mg/ml was x = 15.17 +/- 11.08, 15.76 +/- 19.67 and at concentration 1 mg/ml 10.02 +/- 10.49, respectively. 1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae enolase induces an immediate allergic reaction in skin in subjects with respiratory allergy and positive skin prick test results to Candida albicans and other fungi. 2. Enolase can be an important allergenic component of the Candida albicans extract.

  10. Role of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant allergies and respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Shek, Lynette P; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Lim, Jia Yi; Soh, Shu-E; Chong, Yap-Seng

    2012-01-01

    Maternal nutrition has critical effects on the developing structures and functions of the fetus. Malnutrition during pregnancy can result in low birth weight and small for gestational age babies, increase risk for infection, and impact the immune system. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been reported to have immunomodulatory effects. Decreased consumption of omega-6 PUFAs, in favor of more anti-inflammatory omega-3 PUFAs in modern diets, has demonstrated the potential protective role of omega-3 PUFAs in allergic and respiratory diseases. In this paper, we examine the role of PUFAs consumption during pregnancy and early childhood and its influence on allergy and respiratory diseases. PUFAs act via several mechanisms to modulate immune function. Omega-3 PUFAs may alter the T helper (Th) cell balance by inhibiting cytokine production which in turn inhibits immunoglobulin E synthesis and Th type 2 cell differentiation. PUFAs may further modify cellular membrane, induce eicosanoid metabolism, and alter gene expression. These studies indicate the benefits of omega-3 PUFAs supplementation. Nevertheless, further investigations are warranted to assess the long-term effects of omega-3 PUFAs in preventing other immune-mediated diseases, as well as its effects on the later immunodefense and health status during early growth and development.

  11. Effects of climatic changes and urban air pollution on the rising trends of respiratory allergy and asthma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades there has been increasing interest in studies regarding effects on human health of climate changes and urban air pollution. Climate change induced by anthropogenic warming of the earth's atmosphere is a daunting problem and there are several observations about the role of urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions and other pollutants, and westernized lifestyle with respect to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries. There is also evidence that asthmatic subjects are at increased risk of developing exacerbations of bronchial obstruction with exposure to gaseous (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide) and particulate inhalable components of air pollution. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increasing frequency in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, environmental factors such as climate change and indoor and outdoor air pollution may contribute to explain the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma. Since concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory diseases and bronchial asthma. Scientific societies such as the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, European Respiratory Society and the World Allergy Organization have set up committees and task forces to produce documents to focalize attention on this topic, calling for prevention measures. PMID:22958620

  12. Pneumococcal pneumonia suppresses allergy development but preserves respiratory tolerance in mice.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Carolin; Behrendt, Ann-Kathrin; Henken, Stefanie; Wölbeling, Florian; Maus, Ulrich A; Hansen, Gesine

    2015-03-01

    Colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is associated with an increased risk for recurrent wheeze and asthma. Killed S. pneumoniae showed some potential as an effective immunomodulatory therapy in a murine model of asthma. Murine studies demonstrated protection against allergic asthma by symbiotic bacteria via triggering regulatory T cell response: treatment with killed S. pneumoniae resulted in suppressed levels of allergen-specific Th2 cytokines, while early immunization generated a protective Th1 response. We investigated the impact of lung infection with live S. pneumoniae on both the development and maintenance of allergic airway inflammation and respiratory tolerance in mice. BALB/c mice were infected intratracheally with S. pneumoniae either prior to or after tolerance or allergy were induced, using ovalbumin (OVA) as model allergen. Infection of mice with S. pneumoniae prior to sensitization or after manifestation of allergic airway inflammation suppressed the development of an allergic phenotype as judged by reduced eosinophil counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, decreased IgE serum levels and Th2 cytokines, relative to non-infected allergic control mice. In contrast, infection of mice with S. pneumoniae after manifestation of allergic airway inflammation combined with late mucosal re-challenge did not affect the allergic response. Moreover, induction and maintenance of respiratory tolerance to OVA challenge were not altered in S. pneumoniae-infected mice, demonstrating that mice remained tolerant to the model allergen and were protected from the development of allergic airway inflammation regardless of the time point of infection. Our results suggest that a bacterial infection may decrease the manifestation of an allergic phenotype not only prior to sensitization but also after manifestation of allergic airway inflammation in mice, whereas both, induction and maintenance of respiratory tolerance are not affected by pneumococcal

  13. The peculiarities of food allergies in accordance with the level of injury of respiratory tract in children of Eastern Siberia.

    PubMed

    Borisova, Irina V; Smirnova, Svetlana V

    2013-01-01

    To determine the course of food allergy in accordance with the level of respiratory tract injury in children of Eastern Siberia. We have examined 70 children aged 2-16 , who have food sensibilization. We divided them into 2 groups: group I (n = 32) with diseases of the upper and middle respiratory tract; and group II (n = 38) with diseases of the lower respiratory tract. Allergological medical history, clinical laboratory examination and immunological examination, including the determination of IgA, IgM, IgG and IgE in blood serum. In cases where causal allergens were found, elimination diets were recommended. Onset of upper respiratory tract injury in group I was more often registered in children aged 0-1; in group II, it was in the 3-7 age group. Isolated food sensibilization was more often marked in group I as compared to group II. Atopic mechanisms of respiratory tract injuries were more often registered in group II children. In the course of the elimination diet, we marked positive dynamics in 100% of group I and in 75% of group II. The most frequent allergens that cause respiratory forms of food allergy are hen eggs, cow milk, nutritive cereals, vegetables and fruit. Indices of a humoral link of immunity in the examined patients were more often registered as normal or their level is increased. Timely etiotropic therapy in the majority of cases allows for a stabilization of allergic inflammation.

  14. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates and childhood respiratory tract infections and allergy.

    PubMed

    Gascon, Mireia; Casas, Maribel; Morales, Eva; Valvi, Damaskini; Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana; Luque, Noelia; Rubio, Soledad; Monfort, Núria; Ventura, Rosa; Martínez, David; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2015-02-01

    There is growing concern that prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, which are widely used in consumer products, might affect susceptibility to infections and the development of allergy and asthma in children, but there are currently very few prospective studies. We sought to evaluate whether prenatal exposure to BPA and phthalates increases the risk of respiratory and allergic outcomes in children at various ages from birth to 7 years. We measured BPA and metabolites of high-molecular-weight phthalates, 4 di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites (Σ4DEHP) and mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and 3 low-molecular-weight phthalate (LMWP) metabolites (Σ3LMWP) in urine samples collected during the first and third trimesters in pregnant women participating in the Infancia y Medio Ambiente-Sabadell birth cohort study. The occurrence of chest infections, bronchitis, wheeze, and eczema in children was assessed at ages 6 and 14 months and 4 and 7 years through questionnaires given to the mothers. Atopy (specific IgE measurement) and asthma (questionnaire) were assessed at ages 4 and 7 years, respectively. The relative risks (RRs) of wheeze (RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.03-1.40; P = .02), chest infections (RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.00-1.32; P = .05), and bronchitis (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.37; P = .04) at any age increased for each doubling in concentration of maternal urinary BPA. Σ4DEHP metabolites were associated with the same outcomes (wheeze: RR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.04-1.50, P = .02; chest infections: RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.97-1.35; P = .11; bronchitis: RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.43; P = .04). MBzP was associated with higher risk of wheeze (RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.00-1.33; P = .05). The risk of asthma at age 7 years was also increased with increasing prenatal BPA, Σ4DEHP, and MBzP exposure. There were no other exposure-outcome associations. Prenatal exposure to BPA and high-molecular-weight phthalates might increase the risk of asthma symptoms and respiratory tract

  15. Whole-Genome Saliva and Blood DNA Methylation Profiling in Individuals with a Respiratory Allergy.

    PubMed

    Langie, Sabine A S; Szarc Vel Szic, Katarzyna; Declerck, Ken; Traen, Sophie; Koppen, Gudrun; Van Camp, Guy; Schoeters, Greet; Vanden Berghe, Wim; De Boever, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of respiratory allergies (RA) can be partly explained by DNA methylation changes caused by adverse environmental and lifestyle factors experienced early in life. Longitudinal, prospective studies can aid in the unravelment of the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the disease development. High compliance rates can be expected in these studies when data is collected using non-invasive and convenient procedures. Saliva is an attractive biofluid to analyze changes in DNA methylation patterns. We investigated in a pilot study the differential methylation in saliva of RA (n = 5) compared to healthy controls (n = 5) using the Illumina Methylation 450K BeadChip platform. We evaluated the results against the results obtained in mononuclear blood cells from the same individuals. Differences in methylation patterns from saliva and mononuclear blood cells were clearly distinguishable (PAdj<0.001 and |Δβ|>0.2), though the methylation status of about 96% of the cg-sites was comparable between peripheral blood mononuclear cells and saliva. When comparing RA cases with healthy controls, the number of differentially methylated sites (DMS) in saliva and blood were 485 and 437 (P<0.05 and |Δβ|>0.1), respectively, of which 216 were in common. The methylation levels of these sites were significantly correlated between blood and saliva. The absolute levels of methylation in blood and saliva were confirmed for 3 selected DMS in the PM20D1, STK32C, and FGFR2 genes using pyrosequencing analysis. The differential methylation could only be confirmed for DMS in PM20D1 and STK32C genes in saliva. We show that saliva can be used for genome-wide methylation analysis and that it is possible to identify DMS when comparing RA cases and healthy controls. The results were replicated in blood cells of the same individuals and confirmed by pyrosequencing analysis. This study provides proof-of-concept for the applicability of saliva-based whole-genome methylation analysis in the field

  16. Whole-Genome Saliva and Blood DNA Methylation Profiling in Individuals with a Respiratory Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Declerck, Ken; Traen, Sophie; Koppen, Gudrun; Van Camp, Guy; Schoeters, Greet; Vanden Berghe, Wim; De Boever, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of respiratory allergies (RA) can be partly explained by DNA methylation changes caused by adverse environmental and lifestyle factors experienced early in life. Longitudinal, prospective studies can aid in the unravelment of the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the disease development. High compliance rates can be expected in these studies when data is collected using non-invasive and convenient procedures. Saliva is an attractive biofluid to analyze changes in DNA methylation patterns. We investigated in a pilot study the differential methylation in saliva of RA (n = 5) compared to healthy controls (n = 5) using the Illumina Methylation 450K BeadChip platform. We evaluated the results against the results obtained in mononuclear blood cells from the same individuals. Differences in methylation patterns from saliva and mononuclear blood cells were clearly distinguishable (PAdj<0.001 and |Δβ|>0.2), though the methylation status of about 96% of the cg-sites was comparable between peripheral blood mononuclear cells and saliva. When comparing RA cases with healthy controls, the number of differentially methylated sites (DMS) in saliva and blood were 485 and 437 (P<0.05 and |Δβ|>0.1), respectively, of which 216 were in common. The methylation levels of these sites were significantly correlated between blood and saliva. The absolute levels of methylation in blood and saliva were confirmed for 3 selected DMS in the PM20D1, STK32C, and FGFR2 genes using pyrosequencing analysis. The differential methylation could only be confirmed for DMS in PM20D1 and STK32C genes in saliva. We show that saliva can be used for genome-wide methylation analysis and that it is possible to identify DMS when comparing RA cases and healthy controls. The results were replicated in blood cells of the same individuals and confirmed by pyrosequencing analysis. This study provides proof-of-concept for the applicability of saliva-based whole-genome methylation analysis in the field

  17. Climate change and air pollution: Effects on pollen allergy and other allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Bergmann, Karl Christian; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Liccardi, Gennaro; Vitale, Carolina; Stanziola, Anna; D'Amato, Maria

    and air pollution - Effects on pollen allergy and other allergic respiratory diseases. Allergo J Int 2014; 23: 17-23 DOI 10.1007/s40629-014-0003-7 A factor clouding the problem is that laboratory evaluations do not reflect what happens during natural exposition. Considering these aspects, governments worldwide, international organizations, and cooperations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the European Health Policy of the European Union (EU) are facing a growing problem of the respiratory effects induced by gaseous and particulate pollutants arising from motor vehicle emissions.

  18. High-dose docosahexaenoic acid supplementation of preterm infants: respiratory and allergy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Manley, Brett J; Makrides, Maria; Collins, Carmel T; McPhee, Andrew J; Gibson, Robert A; Ryan, Philip; Sullivan, Thomas R; Davis, Peter G

    2011-07-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been associated with downregulation of inflammatory responses. To report the effect of DHA supplementation on long-term atopic and respiratory outcomes in preterm infants. This study is a multicenter, randomized controlled trial comparing the outcomes for preterm infants <33 weeks' gestation who consumed expressed breast milk from mothers taking either tuna oil (high-DHA diet) or soy oil (standard-DHA) capsules. Data collected included incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and parental reporting of atopic conditions over the first 18 months of life. Six hundred fifty-seven infants were enrolled (322 to high-DHA diet, 335 to standard), and 93.5% completed the 18-month follow-up. There was a reduction in BPD in boys (relative risk [RR]: 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47-0.96]; P=.03) and in all infants with a birth weight of <1250 g (RR: 0.75 [95% CI: 0.57-0.98]; P=.04). There was no effect on duration of respiratory support, admission length, or home oxygen requirement. There was a reduction in reported hay fever in all infants in the high-DHA group at either 12 or 18 months (RR: 0.41 [95% CI: 0.18-0.91]; P=.03) and at either 12 or 18 months in boys (RR: 0.15 [0.03-0.64]; P=.01). There was no effect on asthma, eczema, or food allergy. DHA supplementation for infants of <33 weeks' gestation reduced the incidence of BPD in boys and in all infants with a birth weight of <1250 g and reduced the incidence of reported hay fever in boys at either 12 or 18 months. Copyright © 2011 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Enumerating outdoor aeromycota in suburban West Bengal, India, with reference to respiratory allergy and meteorological factors.

    PubMed

    Das, Shaonli; Gupta-Bhattacharya, Swati

    2008-01-01

    Aeromycota may act as a reservoir of aeroallergens and upon inhalation may induce IgE-mediated Type I hypersensitivity reaction in pre-sensitized individuals. The total aerospora of an outdoor occupational setting (agricultural farm) in suburban West Bengal was sampled for two years (2002-2004) by a Burkard sampler. Concurrently, the cultivable aeromycota were trapped by an Andersen 2-stage sampler, cultured and tested for allergenic potential by skin prick test. The relationships between various climatic factors (temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and wind speed) and the distribution of aerospora were explored by Spearman correlation test. The antigenic extracts of 15 fungal species belonging to Alternaria, Aspergilli/Penicilli, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Drechslera, and Nigrospora evoked 10.8-54.8% skin reactivity in subjects with clinical history of respiratory allergy. The aerospora with skin sensitizing potential collectively represented a considerable fraction (52.3-58.4%) of the total aeromycota. The airborne concentration of Alternaria spores was higher than its borderline value of 100 spores m(-3) in May and June, whereas Cladosporium spore count exceeded its threshold limit value (3,000 spores m(-3)) in December, suggesting that this particular time of the year poses allergenic risk for individuals sensitive to these aerospora. Daily minimum temperature and rainfall appeared to be the most important meteorological factors to affect the concentration of aerospora in the study area.

  20. Small nonspecialized farming as a protective factor against immediate-type occupational respiratory allergy?

    PubMed

    Walusiak, J; Krawczyk-Adamus, P; Hanke, W; Wittczak, T; Pałczyński, C

    2004-12-01

    In Poland small, nonspecialized farms, growing different crops and raising usually a few animals of various species constitute the majority. The aim of the case-control study was to evaluate the risk factors of work-related respiratory symptoms and occupational asthma and/or rhinitis in Polish farmers and investigate whether the farming characteristics may have influence on the prevalence of atopy and allergic diseases. The study groups comprised 100 cases who were farmers reporting work-related asthmatic and/or rhinitis symptoms from randomly selected family doctors practices (80 of 353) and 102 healthy controls. All subjects were examined by means of a questionnaire, skin prick tests (SPT) to common and occupational allergens, total serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E level and the presence of specific IgE and allergen-specific inhalation challenge tests were performed. The provocation tests were monitored with the spirometry, histamine challenge test and evaluation of nasal symptoms score and nasal washings. Respiratory allergic disease was recognized in 68 symptomatic patients, including 41 cases because of occupational allergens (asthma n=38, rhinitis n=41). Step-wise logistic regression analysis confirmed the protective role of small farms against the development of work-related symptoms (OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.11, 0.47) as well as the significance of positive SPT to cereals (OR 5.55; 95% CI 1.6, 19.21) and storage mites (OR 3.73; 95% CI 1.27, 10.96) as a risk factor of these symptoms. Cereal farming (OR 13.75; 95% CI 2.39, 78.83) and positive SPT to cereals (OR 26.92; 95% CI 5.33, 135.9) and storage mites (OR 44.07; 95% CI 8.40, 231.1) were found to be significant risk factors of occupational asthma and/or rhinitis. Cereal farming and hypersensitivity to cereals plays the significant role in the development of occupational asthma among Polish farmers. It also seems that working on small farms may protect farmers against work-related respiratory symptoms that are mostly

  1. Respiratory allergy in immigrants to a highly industrialised area in Italy according to area of origin and time period.

    PubMed

    Minetti, S; Raffetti, E; Lodi-Rizzini, F; Facchetti, S; Schlanser, E; Colombo, E; Cinquini, M; Donato, F; Tosoni, C

    2015-01-01

    Migrants from developing to Western countries tend to become more sensitised to host than to origin country allergens, although substantial changes in migration patterns have occurred in recent decades. We investigated adult immigrants with respiratory allergy, first tested for allergic sensitisation between 1985 and 2012 in a highly industrialised area in Italy. A comparison was made of the sensitisation pattern between immigrants and a random sample of native-born subjects affected by a respiratory allergy, and among immigrants according to macro-region of origin and time period. Between 1985 and 2012, 480 immigrants with respiratory allergy had a first positive allergy test. Immigrants were sensitised mainly to grass (67.1%), house dust mites (HDM) (38.5%) and birch (27.5%), with a pattern of sensitisation very similar to that observed in Italians (native-born). An increase in the proportion of subjects with asthma and of subjects with polysensitisation was observed from the first (1985-2002) to the middle (2003-2007) and the most recent period (2008-2012). In recent years, the proportion of subjects with polysensitisation in immigrants is higher than in Italians (native-born) (53.3% vs. 40.1%). Among immigrants, the risk of sensitisation to grass was higher in those from Sub-Saharan Africa (odds ratio, OR=2.76) and Latin America (OR=2.49), whereas risk of sensitisation to HDM was higher among immigrants from South Asia (OR=2.71), compared to immigrants from Eastern Europe. Immigrants develop multiple sensitisations more frequently than native-born people, and are especially sensitised to local allergens; the country of origin seems to play a role. Copyright © 2014 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Different phenotypes of intermittent and persistent respiratory allergy in Zagreb, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Popovic-Grle, Sanja; Vrbica, Zarko; Jankovic, Mateja; Klaric, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a major chronic respiratory disease because of its prevalence, its impacts on the quality of life, economic burden and links with asthma. A significant relationship between the severity of rhinitis and prevalence of asthma in allergic patients was found both in patients suffering from seasonal rhinitis and in those suffering from perennial-allergic rhinitis (PAR) and asthma. The aim of the study was to investigate allergy phenotypes in patients with intermittent allergic rhinitis (IAR) and persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) in residents of Zagreb, and to determine if there were any other differences in the clinical (in vivo) and diagnostic (in vitro) presentations of the phenotype of subjects suffering from different types of rhinitis. 205 subjects were divided into 2 groups, 102 with IAR sensitized to ragweed pollen (Ambrosia elatior) and 103 with PAR sensitized to house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae). The diagnosis was based on a detailed medical history, examination and diagnostic tests (spirometry, reversibility after appliance of salbutamol, skin prick test, and total IgE). Rhinitis symptoms in subjects with IAR were significantly different than in those with PAR. Sneezing and a runny, itchy nose were frequently present in the IAR group, but not in the PAR group. Prevalence of the coexistence of asthma was higher in the PAR group (35:57%), as well as more severe clinical phenotype of asthma. The covariation of sensitization was similar (70:74%). The most frequent sensitization in the IAR group was found to house dust mite (38%), and in the PAR group to animal dander (40%). The clinical presentation of the IAR was different from that of the PAR. The prevalence of coexisting asthma was significantly higher in the PAR group. The covariation of sensitization was similar.

  3. Popliteal lymph node (PLN) assay to study adjuvant effects on respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Løvik, Martinus; Alberg, Torunn; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Samuelsen, Mari; Groeng, Else-Carin; Gaarder, Per Ivar

    2007-01-01

    Different variants of the popliteal lymph node (PLN) assay have been published. Here we describe the adjuvant popliteal lymph node assay, an immune response assay to study the adjuvant activity of soluble substances as well as particulate matter. The substance to be studied for adjuvant activity is injected into the hind footpad of mice or rats together with an antigen. Adjuvant activity is determined as the increase in PLN weight and cell numbers in animals receiving antigen together with the substance under study, compared with PLN weight and cell numbers in animals given the antigen without the substance in question, and animals given the putative adjuvant alone. Because lymph node weight and cell numbers are immunologically non-specific parameters, specific immune response assays like serum antibody responses or antibody-forming cell numbers should additionally be performed. Different antigens and immune response assays may be used, depending on the research question asked. In relation to respiratory (or food) allergy, the assays should as a minimum include determination of specific IgE in serum, and preferably also IgG1 (mouse). Serum specific IgG2a antibody determination may be added to get an indication of the Th1-Th2-balance of the response. The adjuvant PLN assay, with cellular response assays performed in the draining popliteal lymph node and antibody determinations in serum, requires small amounts of test material. The assay offers a practical, sensitive and reproducible method to determine the adjuvant activity of soluble substances as well as particulate material, with the possibility to also perform mechanistic studies.

  4. Respiratory allergy induced by exclusive polysensitization to serum albumins of furry animals.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, G; Dente, B; Restani, P; Senna, G; Falagiani, P; Ballabio, C; D'Amato, G

    2010-06-01

    In this report we describe un unusual case of exclusive allergic sensitization to furry animals, as a possible study model to speculate about different modalities ofsensitization to allergens of common and less common mammalian species. A 27-year-old woman referred in our Allergological Centre for the occurrence of conjunctival and severe respiratory symptoms after contact with several animals such as cats, dogs, rabbits, horses, cows etc. Patient underwent clinical and anamnestic evaluation including a detailed information on the modality of exposure to different furry animals. Skin-prick-test (SPT) was performed with our routine panel of commercial standardized extracts (Lofarma Laboratories, Milan, Italy). Some animal allergenic extracts (rabbit, horse, rat, mouse, cavia, cow and hamster) have been tested by SPT one week after the routine SPT A blood sample was taken for measurement of total IgE and specific IgE (CAP System, Phadia, Uppsala, Sweden) as well as Immunoblotting procedures. The results of in vivo and in vitro procedures revealed allergic sensitization only to animal-derived allergens. Total IgE were 59.3 kU/L. Immunoblotting showed a specific IgE-mediated sensitization of the patient to cow's, rabbit's and horse's serum albumins (SA). In conclusion, our case report confirms the role of SA as cross-reacting agent in allergic sensitization to furry animals. This finding suggests to perform SPTs to several furry animal allergens in all individuals with high level of allergic sensitization to common pets (cats and/or dogs) in order to identify allergy to other animals and consequently to avoid future exposures at risk.

  5. Respiratory Illness and Allergy Related to Work and Home Environment among Commercial Pilots.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xi; Lindgren, Torsten; Wieslander, Gunilla; Janson, Christer; Norbäck, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to study associations between work and home environment and prevalence and incidence of respiratory health and a history of atopy in a 3-y cohort of commercial pilots. A questionnaire was mailed in 1997 to all pilots in a Scandinavian airline company (N = 622); 577 (93%) participated. The same questionnaire was sent to the participants 3 years later, 436 participated (76%). There were questions on asthma, respiratory symptoms and infections, allergies, the cabin environment, psychosocial environment and the home environment. Associations were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, calculating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). The incidence of doctors' diagnosed asthma and atopy were 2.4 and 16.6 per 1000 person years, respectively. Pilots changing type of flight during follow-up got more airway infections (OR = 11.27; 95% CI 2.39-53.14). Those reporting decreased work control (OR = 1.85; 95% CI 1.03-3.31 for 1 unit change) and those with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home (OR = 3.73; 95% CI 1.09-12.83) had a higher incidence of atopy during follow up. Dampness or mould at home was associated with a higher prevalence of asthma symptoms (OR = 3.55; 95% CI 1.43-8.82) and airway infections (OR = 3.12 95% CI 1.27-7.68). Window pane condensation in winter at home, reported at baseline, was associated with increased incidence of asthma symptoms (OR = 4.14; 95% CI 1.32-12.97) and pilots living in newer buildings at baseline had a higher incidence of airway infections (OR = 5.23; 95% CI 1.43-19.10). In conclusion, lack of work control and ETS at home can be a risk factors for development of allergic symptoms in pilots. Window pane condensation at home can be a risk factor for incidence of asthma symptoms. Dampness and mould at home can be a risk factor for prevalence of asthma symptoms and airway infections and living in newer buildings can be a risk factor for incidence of airway infections.

  6. Respiratory Illness and Allergy Related to Work and Home Environment among Commercial Pilots

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xi; Lindgren, Torsten; Wieslander, Gunilla; Janson, Christer; Norbäck, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to study associations between work and home environment and prevalence and incidence of respiratory health and a history of atopy in a 3-y cohort of commercial pilots. A questionnaire was mailed in 1997 to all pilots in a Scandinavian airline company (N = 622); 577 (93%) participated. The same questionnaire was sent to the participants 3 years later, 436 participated (76%). There were questions on asthma, respiratory symptoms and infections, allergies, the cabin environment, psychosocial environment and the home environment. Associations were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, calculating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). The incidence of doctors’ diagnosed asthma and atopy were 2.4 and 16.6 per 1000 person years, respectively. Pilots changing type of flight during follow-up got more airway infections (OR = 11.27; 95% CI 2.39–53.14). Those reporting decreased work control (OR = 1.85; 95% CI 1.03–3.31 for 1 unit change) and those with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home (OR = 3.73; 95% CI 1.09–12.83) had a higher incidence of atopy during follow up. Dampness or mould at home was associated with a higher prevalence of asthma symptoms (OR = 3.55; 95% CI 1.43–8.82) and airway infections (OR = 3.12 95% CI 1.27–7.68). Window pane condensation in winter at home, reported at baseline, was associated with increased incidence of asthma symptoms (OR = 4.14; 95% CI 1.32–12.97) and pilots living in newer buildings at baseline had a higher incidence of airway infections (OR = 5.23; 95% CI 1.43–19.10). In conclusion, lack of work control and ETS at home can be a risk factors for development of allergic symptoms in pilots. Window pane condensation at home can be a risk factor for incidence of asthma symptoms. Dampness and mould at home can be a risk factor for prevalence of asthma symptoms and airway infections and living in newer buildings can be a risk factor for incidence of airway infections. PMID:27741314

  7. Allergy to house dust mites in primary health care subjects with chronic or recurrent inflammatory states of respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Paszkowski, Jacek; Łopatyński, Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    Chronic and recurrent respiratory tract disorders are a frequent problem in general practice. The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of hypersensitivity to house dust mites in respiratory tract diseases in general practice patients. We tried to assess the influence of determined risk factors exposure on development of respiratory tract allergy. Patients from family practitioners surgeries with chronic or recurrent respiratory tract symptoms who had no diagnosis of allergy were recruited to the study (n = 89). All patients responded to a questionnaire focused on history of symptoms, atopic conditions in family and exposure to determined environmental factors like dwelling conditions, obstetrician history, diet in the first year of life. All patients underwent skin prick test with common inhalant allergens. Families of the patients were asked to participate in the study. Families who agreed to take part also responded to the questionnaire and underwent skin tests. In patients and their families blood samples were taken to determine total IgE and specific IgE antibodies to mites allergens. Dust samples were collected by vacuuming of patients' bedroom carpets and mattresses to determine house dust mites allergens concentration. Data on 30 complete patients family sets of their brotherhood, mother and father were collected. Total and specific serum IgE antibodies were determined by disc enzyme-immunoassay (Analco). Mites allergens concentration in dust was measured by simple Acarex strip test (Nexter). The results of the assays (positive skin tests and/or elevated levels of specific IgE) showed allergy to house dust mites in 24 of 89 study patients from general practitioners surgeries (27%). The prevalence of chronic rhinitis, recurrent bronchitis, chronic or recurrent cough, wheezing, dyspnoea was higher in allergic than in nonallergic subjects. Patients with the diagnosis of allergy to house dust mites had usually worse dwelling conditions. Especially

  8. Pets and cockroaches: two increasing causes of respiratory allergy in indoor environments. Characteristics of airways sensitization and prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, G; Cazzola, M; D'Amato, M; D'Amato, G

    2000-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of allergic sensitization to indoor allergens such as dust mites, pets and cockroaches is the result of the changes in indoor environments induced by human activities. The Westernized lifestyle and the increasing time spent indoors determine a reduction in natural air ventilation and, consequently, higher levels of allergen concentrations and longer exposure to allergens. The major cat allergen Fel d 1 is carried by small-dimension particles (< 5 microm diameter) that readily become airborne and persist immodified for a long time. Fel d 1 must be considered a ubiquitous allergen because it has been found in indoor environments and even in public places where a cat has never been kept. Recent research has demonstrated that clothing of cat owners may contribute to the dispersal of Fel d 1 in cat-free environments. Therefore, washing Fel d 1-contaminated clothes should be considered a simple and effective method for removing this allergen from clothing and, consequently, reducing the risk of Fel d 1 dispersion. Cockroach allergens constitute another important cause of environment-related respiratory allergy and may trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. In the prevention of cockroach allergy, the use of chemical agents associated with an intensive vacuum cleaning of indoor environments is an important tool in removing cockroach material containing allergenic proteins. Early recognition of allergy-predisposed babies, monitoring indoor allergens and adequate strategies of allergen avoidance are likely to be important means for reducing the prevalence of bronchial asthma.

  9. Inhaled multiwalled carbon nanotubes modulate the immune response of trimellitic anhydride-induced chemical respiratory allergy in brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Staal, Yvonne C M; van Triel, Jos J; Maarschalkerweerd, Thérèse V P; Arts, Josje H E; Duistermaat, Evert; Muijser, Hans; van de Sandt, Johannes J M; Kuper, C Frieke

    2014-10-01

    The interaction between exposure to nanomaterials and existing inflammatory conditions has not been fully established. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT; Nanocyl NC 7000 CAS no. 7782-42-5; count median diameter in atmosphere 61 ± 5 nm) were tested by inhalation in high Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-responding Brown Norway (BN) rats with trimellitic anhydride (TMA)-induced respiratory allergy. The rats were exposed 2 days/week over a 3.5-week period to a low (11 mg/m(3)) or a high (22 mg/m(3)) concentration of MWCNT. Nonallergic animals exposed to MWCNT and unexposed allergic and nonallergic rats served as controls. At the end of the exposure period, the allergic animals were rechallenged with TMA. Histopathological examination of the respiratory tract showed agglomerated/aggregated MWCNT in the lungs and in the lung-draining lymph nodes. Frustrated phagocytosis was observed as incomplete uptake of MWCNT by the alveolar macrophages and clustering of cells around MWCNT. Large MWCNT agglomerates/aggregates were found in granulomas in the allergic rats, suggesting decreased macrophage clearance in allergic rats. In allergic rats, MWCNT exposure decreased serum IgE levels and the number of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage. In conclusion, MWCNT did not aggravate the acute allergic reaction but modulated the allergy-associated immune response.

  10. Significant upregulation of cytokine secretion from T helper type 9 and 17 cells in a NC/Nga mouse model of ambient chemical exposure-induced respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Risako; Fukuyama, Tomoki; Watanabe, Yuko; Kurosawa, Yoshimi; Kosaka, Tadashi; Harada, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that ambient chemical exposure is closely associated with respiratory allergies. We attempted to develop an original protocol for detecting ambient chemical exposure-induced respiratory allergy in different strains of mice. In the process of comparing allergic potency of these mice, we observed that NC/Nga mice showed significant upregulation of respiratory allergic symptoms as well as specific type of cytokine secretions. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying these phenomena in NC/Nga mice in comparison with BALB/c mice. For the model of respiratory allergy, female BALB/c and NC/Nga mice were sensitized and challenged with trimellitic anhydride. Clinical observation, IgE and immunocyte counts, and cytokine profile in the serum, lymph nodes, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were recorded. We also monitored the expression of genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung. We found that worsening of respiratory status was noted only in NC/Nga mice, whereas Th2 reactions were significantly increased in BALB/c mice compared with NC/Nga mice. In contrast, the levels of Th9 and Th17-derived cytokines in NC/Nga mice were significantly higher than those in BALB/c mice. Thus, Th9 and Th17 may be involved in the aggravation of respiratory allergic symptoms induced by ambient chemicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sensitization to Alternaria and Cladosporium in patients with respiratory allergy and outdoor counts of mold spores in Ankara atmosphere, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bavbek, Sevim; Erkekol, Ferda Oner; Ceter, Talip; Mungan, Dilşad; Ozer, Faruk; Pinar, Münevver; Misirligil, Zeynep

    2006-08-01

    Sensitization to Alternaria and Cladosporium has been reported to be 3% to 30% in European countries. However, in Turkey, there is limited data about the prevalence of sensitization to these molds and the intensity of the two mold spores in Ankara atmosphere. This study was designed to evaluate the sensitization to Alternaria and Cladosporium in patients with respiratory allergy in Ankara and also the concentration of the two molds in Ankara atmosphere. Allergic rhinitis and asthma patients living in Ankara were included in the study. Demographic and diagnostic data of the patients were recorded. A skin prick test with extracts supplied by three different laboratories was used to evaluate the sensitization to Alternaria and Cladosporium. Mold spores were measured using a Burkard 7-day recording volumetric spore trap in Ankara atmosphere during a year. Overall sensitization to the two molds was found to be 14.8%, and isolated Alternaria or Cladosporiumsensitization was 3%. Considering the positive reaction to at least one of the three suppliers, the sensitization rate was 11.9% and 8.1% for Alternaria and Cladosporium, respectively. Cochran's Q homogenization test demonstrated that the positive and negative reaction were not homogeneous among three laboratories. The total number of mold spores in Ankara atmosphere was 429,264 spores/m3 of which 75.5% and 6% were constituted by Cladosporium and Alternaria, respectively. The prevalence of Cladosporium and Alternaria sensitization in respiratory allergy patients is quite similar to European countries; however, our data indicate that commercial mold extracts should be standardized to establish the real sensitization rates. Additionally, considering the great numbers of these mold spores in Ankara atmosphere, long-term follow-up studies are needed to evaluate the relationship between the mold load and sensitization patterns.

  12. Evaluation of a sublingual immunotherapy solution in olive-induced respiratory allergy in Jordan: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asad, Khaled; Al-Nazer, Sayed; Al-Faqih, Anan; Hashem, Mohammad Jamil

    2017-01-01

    Background Olive pollen is an important cause of respiratory allergy in the Middle East. In this study, the clinical characteristics of adults and children with confirmed allergic rhinitis (AR; with or without asthma) in Jordan were described, and the use of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in a real-life clinical setting was assessed. Methods This retrospective observational study evaluated the clinical features of olive-induced allergy and the use of an SLIT solution of standardized extracts toward Ole e 1 given in a pre- and coseasonal scheme with a daily dose of 300 index of reactivity for two consecutive seasons. Inclusion criteria were as follows: ≥5 years of age, AR, proven olive sensitization, and at least 2 years follow-up after SLIT initiation. The following data were recorded at SLIT initiation: clinical characteristics, rhinitis and asthma symptom scores, and concomitant symptomatic medications. During follow-up and at the end of each season, the following data were recorded: symptom progression/scores, any changes to symptomatic medications, and treatment compliance. The secondary objective was to determine any effect on quality of life, use of concomitant AR medications, and treatment compliance. Results Eighty-six patients with seasonal AR were included in this analysis (52.3% with coexisting asthma). Between the initiation of treatment and the end of second pollen season, symptoms of AR and asthma were decreased by 79.5% and 41.7%, respectively, with an improvement in quality of life score in 71.5% of the patients (P<0.0001 for all). Physicians reported that after 2 years of SLIT, there was an improvement in the symptoms of both AR (95.2%) and asthma (93.3%), with 98.8% of the patients showing good treatment compliance. A reduction in symptomatic medications was also found. SLIT was well tolerated with no systemic reactions being reported. Conclusion In children and adults with olive-associated respiratory allergy in Jordan, the use of a pre- and

  13. Inhalant allergies in children.

    PubMed

    Mims, James W; Veling, Maria C

    2011-06-01

    Children with chronic or recurrent upper respiratory inflammatory disease (rhinitis) should be considered for inhalant allergies. Risk factors for inhalant allergies in children include a first-degree relative with allergies, food allergy in infancy, and atopic dermatitis. Although inhalant allergies are rare in infancy, inhalant allergies are common in older children and impair quality of life and productivity. Differentiating between viral and allergic rhinitis can be challenging in children, but the child's age, history, and risk factors can provide helpful information. Allergic rhinitis is a risk factor for asthma, and if one is present, medical consideration of the other is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Respiratory allergies in childhood: Recent advances and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Caminati, Marco; Durić-Filipović, Ivana; Arasi, Stefania; Peroni, Diego G; Živković, Zorica; Senna, Gianenrico

    2015-12-01

    The burden of allergic airway diseases still represents a major health problem in childhood. Despite many different options are currently available for the diagnostic work-up and management, the overall disease control in terms of impact on quality of life, morbidity and mortality, is not yet satisfactory. The extreme variability of individual risk factors and severity determinants may account for it. On the other side, the knowledge of the multifaceted allergy background could pave the way to primary prevention, early intervention and disease course modification. In fact, most of current research is focusing on the identification of biological and clinical predictive markers of allergy and asthma onset. This review aims at summarizing the latest achievements concerning the complex inter-relation between genetic predisposition and environmental factors, and their impact on prevention strategies and early identification of at risk subjects. An update on the diagnostic and monitoring tools as well as an insight into the newest treatments options is also provided. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Correlation between the magnitude of skin prick test reactivity and pollen-specific serum IgE levels in patients with respiratory allergy].

    PubMed

    Tlachi-Corona, Laura; Caballero-López, Chrystopherson Gengyny; López-García, Aída Inés; Papaqui-Tapia, Sergio; Arana-Muñoz, Oswaldo; Carcaño-Pérez, María Socorro Yolanda; Marín-Marín, Araceli; Garrido-Priego, Fabiola

    2014-01-01

    For the etiological diagnosis of allergic respiratory diseases skin tests or specific serum IgE determination are used. To determine the correlation between the extent of reactivity to cutaneous prick tests and the levels of pollen specific serum IgE in patients with respiratory allergy. A prolective, descriptive and transversal study was done with patients of both genders, aged 2 to 60 years, who attended for the first time at the service of Allergy and Clinical Immunology of University Hospital of Puebla, Mexico, with presumptive diagnosis of respiratory allergy. All patients underwent clinical history, skin prick tests with standardized allergenic extracts and quantification of pollen specific serum IgE by chemiluminescence method. We estimated the correlation index r using the statistical method Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient; a value r equal to or higher than 0.70 was considered a significant relationship or a high correlation. Nine-one patients were included, of whom 58.2% were female. The diagnoses were: allergic rhinitis (79.1%), asthma and allergic rhinitis (16.5%) and only asthma (4.4%). Only significant correlation was found in patients with allergic rhinitis for Rumex crispus (r = 0.702) and in patients with asthma and rhinitis for Ambrosia trifida (r = 1). Only for Rumex crispus and Ambrosia trifida, the skin prick tests or the determination of specific serum IgE levels are comparable diagnostic methods of allergic respiratory diseases.

  16. Effects of Cissampelos sympodialis Eichl. and its alkaloid, warifteine, in an experimental model of respiratory allergy to Blomia tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira-Lima, Ana Tereza; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza Maria; de Carvalho, Lain Carlos Pontes; Costa, Ryan Santos; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Piuvezam, Márcia; Momtchilo, Russo; Barboza, Renato; de Jesus Oliveira, Eduardo; Marinho, Alexsandro; Figueiredo, Camila Alexandrina

    2010-11-01

    Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases worldwide. Medicinal plants are historically used in its treatment. The plant Cissampelos sympodialis, known in Northeastern Brazil as "Jarrinha" or "Milona", is used to treat some inflammatory conditions, including asthma. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Cissampelos sympodialis EICHL. extract (CsE) and its isolated alkaloids, especially warifteine (Wa) on a Blomia tropicalis extract (BtE)-induced experimental model of allergy. The respiratory allergy was induced in AJ mice by the administration of BtE. Mice were orally treated with the 400 mg/kg of CsE or 8 mg/kg of total alkaloids fraction (TAF) or 4 mg/kg of Wa and the following parameters were analyzed: (a) total cell numbers in bronchoalveolar fluid (BAF); (b) differential cell numbers in BAF; (c) eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) activity in BAF; (d) IgE serum levels by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis; (e) IL-5, IL-13, IL-10, and IFN-γ levels in BAF; (f) histopathological alterations in the lung. The treatment of the animals with CsE, Wa or TAF led to a reduction in the numbers of total cells and eosinophils in BAF. The same reduction was observed in EPO levels in the BAF. The levels of IL-5 and IL-13 were also reduced in animals treated with Cissampelos sympodialis, while IL-10 levels were significantly increased in the BAF of CsE-treated animals. The treatment also decreased the density of inflammatory cells in the lung by histopathological examination demonstrating the potential of this medicinal plant as new agent for asthma treatment.

  17. Search for Allergens from the Pollen Proteome of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): A Major Sensitizer for Respiratory Allergy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Bodhisattwa; Pandey, Naren; Gupta Bhattacharya, Swati

    2015-01-01

    Background Respiratory allergy triggered by pollen allergens is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Sunflower pollen is thought to be an important source of inhalant allergens. Present study aims to identify the prevalence of sunflower pollinosis among the Indian allergic population and characterizes the pollen allergens using immuno-proteomic tools. Methodology Clinico-immunological tests were performed to understand the prevalence of sensitivity towards sunflower pollen among the atopic population. Sera from selected sunflower positive patients were used as probe to detect the IgE-reactive proteins from the one and two dimensional electrophoretic separated proteome of sunflower pollen. The antigenic nature of the sugar moiety of the glycoallergens was studied by meta-periodate modification of IgE-immunoblot. Finally, these allergens were identified by mass-spectrometry. Results Prevalence of sunflower pollen sensitization was observed among 21% of the pollen allergic population and associated with elevated level of specific IgE and histamine in the sera of these patients. Immunoscreening of sunflower pollen proteome with patient sera detected seven IgE-reactive proteins with varying molecular weight and pI. Hierarchical clustering of 2D-immunoblot data highlighted three allergens characterized by a more frequent immuno-reactivity and increased levels of IgE antibodies in the sera of susceptible patients. These allergens were considered as the major allergens of sunflower pollen and were found to have their glycan moiety critical for inducing IgE response. Homology driven search of MS/MS data of these IgE-reactive proteins identified seven previously unreported allergens from sunflower pollen. Three major allergenic proteins were identified as two pectate lyases and a cysteine protease. Conclusion Novelty of the present report is the identification of a panel of seven sunflower pollen allergens for the first time at immuno-biochemical and proteomic level

  18. Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Of Age Older Adults Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine Women Infant, Children and Teenagers Living With Lung ... written by Respiratory Experts Like no other health magazine, Allergy & Asthma Health Magazine is published by people ...

  19. Early-life residential exposure to soil components in rural areas and childhood respiratory health and allergy.

    PubMed

    Devereux, Graham; Tagiyeva, Nara; Turner, Stephen W; Ayres, Jon G; Seaton, Anthony; Hudson, Gordon; Hough, Rupert L; Campbell, Colin D; Shand, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    The increase in asthma and allergies has been attributed to declining exposure to environmental microorganisms. The main source of these is soil, the composition of which varies geographically and which is a major component (40-45%) of household dust. Our hypothesis-generating study aimed to investigate associations between soil components, respiratory health and allergy in a Scottish birth cohort. The cohort was recruited in utero in 1997/8, and followed up at one, two and five years for the development of wheezing, asthma and eczema. Lung function, exhaled nitric oxide and allergic sensitization were measured at age five in a subset. The Scottish Soils Database held at The James Hutton Institute was linked to the birth cohort data by the residential postcode at birth and five years. The soil database contained information on size separates, organic matter concentration, pH and a range of inorganic elements. Soil and clinical outcome data were available for 869, 790 and 727 children at one, two and five years. Three hundred and fifty nine (35%) of children had the same address at birth and five years. No associations were found between childhood outcomes and soil content in the residential area at age five. The soil silt content (2-20 μm particle size) of the residential area at birth was associated with childhood wheeze (adjusted OR 1.20, 95% CI [1.05; 1.37]), wheeze without a cold (1.41 [1.18; 1.69]), doctor-diagnosed asthma (1.54 [1.04; 2.28]), lung function (FEV1: beta -0.025 [-0.047;-0.001]) and airway inflammation (FENO: beta 0.15 [0.03; 0.27]) at age five, but not with allergic status or eczema. Whilst residual confounding is the most likely explanation for the associations reported, the results of this study lead us to hypothesise that early life exposure to residential soil silt may adversely influence childhood respiratory health, possibly because of the organic components of silt. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Peanut allergy].

    PubMed

    Turcanu, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Peanut allergy currently affects around 1% of the UK and US paediatric population and represents a major healthcare concern because it is outgrown in less than 20% of cases and is a major cause of anaphylaxis. Its main symptoms, triggered by peanut ingestion, are cutaneous (urticaria, erythema, angioedema), gastrointestinal (abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhoea), respiratory (wheezing, dyspnoea) and cardiovascular (hypotension, arrhythmia, shock). The usual onset of symptoms occurs soon after peanut ingestion (minutes to hours); however some patients have biphasic reactions, with exacerbations occurring up to 8 hours later. Peanut allergy diagnostic is based mainly upon the medical history (preferably including a diet diary and elimination diets), skin testing, peanut-specific IgE measurement and ideally a peanut oral challenge. Peanut allergy management includes monitorisation and education for avoiding peanut-containing foods and for recognising and treating anaphylactic episodes (self-injectable adrenalin and rapid-acting antihistamines). In the past, anti-IgE antibodies were shown to decrease the risk of anaphylaxis by reducing the allergic patients' reactivity to peanuts. Recent investigations, driven by the need to develop efficient treatment and prevention strategies for peanut allergy, suggest that oral immunotherapy with peanuts, although exposing the patients to significant risk, may represent a promising therapeutic approach. Furthermore, contrary to the general view that peanut avoidance in infants could prevent peanut allergy, a recent study shows that the opposite may be true as early consumption of peanuts in infancy is associated with a low prevalence of peanut allergy.

  1. Urban air pollution and climate change as environmental risk factors of respiratory allergy: an update.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Cecchi, L; D'Amato, M; Liccardi, G

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of allergic respiratory diseases and bronchial asthma appears to be increasing worldwide, and people living in urban areas more frequently experience these conditions than those living in rural areas. One of the several causes of the rise in morbidity associated with allergic respiratory diseases is the increased presence of outdoor air pollutants resulting from more intense energy consumption and exhaust emissions from cars and other vehicles. Urban air pollution is now a serious public health hazard. Laboratory studies confirm epidemiologic evidence that air pollution adversely affects lung function in asthmatics. Damage to airway mucous membranes and impaired mucociliary clearance caused by air pollution may facilitate access of inhaled allergens to the cells of the immune system, thus promoting sensitization of the airway. Consequently, a more severe immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated response to aeroallergens and airway inflammation could account for increasing prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases in polluted urban areas. The most abundant components of urban air pollution in urban areas with high levels of vehicle traffic are airborne particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone. In addition, the earth's temperature is increasing, mainly as a result of anthropogenic factors (e.g., fossil fuel combustion and greenhouse gas emissions from energy supply, transport, industry, and agriculture), and climate change alters the concentration and distribution of air pollutants and interferes with the seasonal presence of allergenic pollens in the atmosphere by prolonging these periods.

  2. [Prevalence of positive skin tests to indoor allergens in preschooler children with respiratory allergy in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Baeza Bacab, Manuel Antonio; Dávila Velázquez, Jorge Rubén; Loeza Medina, Sergio Ramón

    2005-01-01

    Infantile asthma and rhinitis are commonly thought to be caused by indoor allergens but preschooler children are not commonly skin tested. To know the frequency of skin test reactivity to indoor allergens in allergic preschooler children. We evaluated 176 children (103 females/73 males) between 2 and 5 years old with respiratory allergy. All of the children tested had at least one positive skin test (house dust mite, cockroach, dog, feathers, and cat). Seventy seven children had allergic rhinitis (44%), 68 had asthma and rhinitis (39%), and 31 had only asthma (18%). One hundred thirty two (75%) of the children were skin test positive to house dust mite, 91 (52%) to cockroach, 31 (18%) to dog, 25 (14%) to feathers, and 24 (14%) to cat. Furthermore, the frequency of sensitization to house dust mite has an increase associated with the age of the patients with a significant difference at 5 years old (odds ratio=11.63, I.C. 95%=3.83-37.10; p <0.001). The most frequent indoor allergen was house dust mite, with a trend directly proportional to age of the patients.

  3. Swimming pool attendance and respiratory symptoms and allergies among Dutch children.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, José H; Fuertes, Elaine; Krop, Esmeralda J M; Spithoven, Jack; Tromp, Peter; Heederik, Dick J J

    2012-11-01

    To describe associations among swimming, respiratory health, allergen sensitisation and Clara cell protein 16 (CC16) levels in Dutch schoolchildren. Trichloramine levels in swimming pool air were determined to assess potential exposure levels. Respiratory health and pool attendance information was collected from 2359 children, aged 6-13 years. Serum from 419 children was tested for allergen sensitisation and CC16 levels. Trichloramine levels were assessed in nine swimming facilities. Trichloramine levels ranged from 0.03 to 0.78 mg/m3 (average 0.21 mg/m3). Reported swimming pool attendance and trichloramine exposure were both not associated with asthma, wheezing, rhinitis or CC16 levels. Birch and house dust mite sensitisation were associated with recent indoor swimming (OR>1.86), but not after considering recent swimming frequency multiplied by trichloramine levels. Sensitisation to house dust mites was associated with frequent baby swimming (ORs=1.75; 95% CI 1.09 to 2.79). Furthermore, sensitisation was associated with lower serum CC16 levels. CC16 levels were associated with average trichloramine concentrations in pools; however, not after considering swimming frequency multiplied by trichloramine levels. Measured trichloramine levels were comparable with other studies but lower than in an earlier Dutch study. Swimming pool attendance was not associated with respiratory symptoms. The association between sensitisation and swimming during the first 2 years of life suggests that early-life exposures might be important, although this needs further study. The interpretation of transient and chronic changes of CC16 and other inflammatory markers in relation to the pool environment and health impacts warrants further investigation. Detailed comparisons with other studies are limited as few studies have measured trichloramine levels.

  4. TDI can induce respiratory allergy with Th2-dominated response in mice.

    PubMed

    Ban, Masarin; Morel, Georges; Langonné, Isabelle; Huguet, Nelly; Pépin, Elsa; Binet, Stéphane

    2006-01-20

    administered by topical application plus tracheal instillation for sensitisation and by intra-tracheal instillation for challenge (model number 4). This mouse Th2 model of TDI-induced airway allergy can, in several aspects, mimic occupational TDI asthma in humans and may prove to be useful in determining the mechanistic basis behind this disease.

  5. Exposure to maternal smoking in the first year of life interferes in breast-feeding protective effect against the onset of respiratory allergy from birth to 5 yr.

    PubMed

    Guedes, H T V; Souza, L S F

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction between the exclusive breast-feeding protective effect and the exposure to tobacco smoke at domicile in the first year of life, on the onset of respiratory allergy (asthma and rhinitis) in children until 5 yr of age. This is prospective cohort study, observational, institutional based. Three hundred children born in a public hospital of Salvador-Bahia (Brazil) were followed from birth to 5 yr of age. Data from 268 children at 60 months of life were analyzed. Occurrence of allergic symptoms were studied and correlated with gender, allergic relatives in first degree, exclusive breast-feeding duration, smoking mother, and presence of other smoker at home, considering the first year of life. Exclusive breast-feeding for at least 6 months showed a protection effect against the onset of respiratory allergy in children from birth to 5 yr (p < 0.05); odds ratio (OR): 0.33 (95% CI: 0.18-0.59). Breast-fed children for less then 6 months compared with those breast-fed for 6 months or more, presented a higher risk (OR: 2.34-95% CI: 1.4-3.74) for developing allergic respiratory symptoms just to 5 yr. The protective effect of exclusive prolonged breast-feeding on the onset of respiratory allergy in children from birth until 5 yr was lost when their mothers were smokers (OR: 2.50-95% CI 1.19-5.19). Therefore, the protective effect of breast-feeding in the first year of life on the onset of allergic symptoms until the age of 5 yr was confirmed. This study proposes a confounding effect of maternal smoking on this protection, exposed by a higher risk for present allergic symptoms until the age of 5 yr, in children exclusively breast-fed for 6 months or more, when their mothers smoked.

  6. Detection of respiratory allergies caused by environmental chemical allergen via measures of hyper-activation and degranulation of mast cells in lungs of NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Risako; Fukuyama, Tomoki; Watanabe, Yuko; Kurosawa, Yoshimi; Koasaka, Tadashi; Harada, Takanori

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory allergy triggered by exposure to environmental chemical allergen is a serious problem in many Asian countries and has the potential to cause severe health problems. Here, we aimed to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of this disease and develop an in vivo detection method for respiratory allergy induced by environmental chemical allergen. Both BALB/c and NC/Nga mice were sensitized topically for 3 weeks and were then subjected to inhalation challenge with pulverized trimellitic anhydride into particles measuring 2-μm in diameter. On the day after the final challenge, all mice were sacrificed, and IgE levels, immunocyte counts, and cytokine levels in the serum, hilar lymph nodes, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were measured. We also monitored the expression of genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung. We found that all endpoints were significantly increased in mice of both strains subjected to trimellitic anhydride inhalation as compared with the respective control groups. However, worsening of respiratory status was noted only in NC/Nga mice. Interestingly, type 2 helper T-cell reactions were significantly increased in BALB/c mice compared with that in NC/Nga mice. In contrast, the number of mast cells, levels of mast cell-related cytokine/chemokines, and production of histamine in NC/Nga mice were significantly higher than those in BALB/c mice. Thus, environmental chemical allergen induced respiratory allergy in NC/Nga mice in terms of functional and inflammatory symptoms. Furthermore, mast cells may be involved in the aggravation of airway allergic symptoms induced by environmental chemical allergens.

  7. [Respiratory allergies among symptomatic bakers and pastry cooks: initial results of a prevalence study].

    PubMed

    Bataille, A; Anton, M; Mollat, F; Bobe, M; Bonneau, C; Caramaniam, M N; Géraut, C; Dupas, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey was carried out on respiratory symptoms and skin prick response to common allergens, storage mite and occupational allergens. Among 178 symptomatics bakers and pastry workers from small businesses in western France, only 65 people underwent skin prick and specific-IgE. 12 (18%) workers were skin positive to at least one common or occupational allergens. The more often skin positive were D. Ptero. mite 36 (57%); Alpha amylase 23 (35%); wheat flour 17 (26%); saccharomyces cerevisiae 16 (25%); Ephestia 15 (24%). The sensitivity of skin test was better than specific IgE for D. Ptero. Mite 36 (57%); and Alpha amylase 23 (35%). The sensitivity of specific IgE was better than skin test for wheat flour 26 (45%) and rye flour 23 (40%). Occurrence of skin positive to occupational allergen among symptomatics with rhinitis and asthma is much more frequent in workers with skin positive to common allergens (40/36) than in workers with skin negative (8/20). Atopy must be regarded as an important predisposing factor for skin sensitisation to occupational allergens. We conclude in the necessity of a standardised allergologic exploration to be done in symptomatics bakers.

  8. Components of Diesel Exhaust Particles Diversely Enhance a Variety of Respiratory Diseases Related to Infection or Allergy: Extracted Organic Chemicals and the Residual Particles after Extraction Differently Affect Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Hirohisa; Yanagisawa, Rie; Inoue, Ken-ichiro

    2007-01-01

    Experimental and epidemiological studies have reported that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) can aggravate a variety of respiratory diseases including infection or allergy. However, the responsible components in DEP for the enhancement have not been identified. The present review demonstrates the different effects of the components of DEP on the respiratory diseases related to infection or allergy. We exposed mice to the organic chemicals (DEP-OC) and the residual carbonaceous nuclei (washed DEP) derived from DEP in the presence or absence of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide: LPS) or allergen. In our first series of experiments, washed DEP combined with LPS synergistically exacerbated lung injury, which was concomitant with the enhanced lung expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, whereas DEP-OC combined with LPS did not. In contrast, our second series of experiments showed that DEP-OC, rather than washed DEP, enhanced allergen-related eosinophilic inflammation and proliferation of goblet cells in the airway epithelium, which was paralleled by the enhanced lung expression of eotaxin and interleukin-5. However, washed DEP with ovalbmin showed less change and increased the lung expression of interferon-γ. It is suggested that DEP components diversely affect various types of respiratory diseases, while the combination of organic chemicals and carbonaceous nuclei (whole DEP) mostly aggravate respiratory diseases. PMID:18188411

  9. [Respiratory allergies among bakers and pastry cooks: epidemiologic survey done in 1991 by the occupational physicians of the Loire-Atlantique].

    PubMed

    Anton, M; Bataille, A; Mollat, F; Bobe, M; Bonneau, C; Caramaniam, M N; Géraut, C; Dupas, D

    1995-01-01

    The aim was to study the prevalence of respiratory allergy (rhinitis and asthma) in a population of bakers and pastrycooks. In 1991, 485 bakers and pastry cooks were examined by 27 work-physicians of Loire-Atlantic. The investigation was composed of a standardised questionnaire (signs of respiratory function, atopic history, smoking of tobacco ...), a clinical examination, and tests of respiratory function. An allergy assessment was made of all subjects with symptoms. 14.4% of subjects had rhinitis and 6.4% asthma. Development of these pathologies was clearly job-related for 2/3 of those with rhinitis and more than half of the asthmatics (55%). Occupational rhinitis and asthma were significantly more frequent in bakers than in pastrycooks and were linked to atopic history. Occupational asthma was associated with length of exposure to flour and with occupational rhinitis. In conclusion, these findings are comparable with or a little less than those that have been reported in occupational literature. They under-estimate the importance of the problem because of the occupational selection effect that is associated with these pathologies. Rhinitis and asthma are 1.5 to 3 time more common in bakers than in pastrycooks.

  10. Progress in Pediatrics in 2012: choices in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hematology, infectious diseases, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Vottero, Alessandra; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2013-05-08

    In this review, we summarize the progresses in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hematology, infectious diseases, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses that have been published in The Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2012. The induction of Treg activity by probiotics might be effective for promoting tolerance towards food allergens. Nasal cytology is useful in patients with rhinitis for diagnosing chronic non-allergic non-infectious diseases. Atopic eczema is associated both with an aberrant skin matrix and impaired systemic immune response. Therefore, isolated topical treatment may have suboptimal effect. Diagnostic work-up of exercise-induced anaphylaxis, including exercise challenge test, is necessary to reach a diagnosis. Studies may support a role for nutrition on prevention of asthma and cardiovascular diseases. Clinicians need to early identify adolescent menstrual abnormalities to minimize sequelae, and to promote health information. In Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2B investigations include acetylcholinesterase study of rectal mucosa followed by the molecular analysis of RET mutation. Low adherence to gluten-free diet and osteopenia are common problems in children with diabetes mellitus type 1 and celiac disease. In infantile colic, laboratory tests are usually unnecessary and the treatment is based on reassurance. Prevalence of obesity and stunting is elucidated by several studies. Evidences are growing that dietetic measures are needed to prevent obesity in children with acute leukemia. Treatment studies for infectious diseases show promise for probiotics along with standard triple therapy in children with Helicobacter pilori infection, while zinc has no effect on pneumonia. Educational programs about the proper management of the febrile child are warranted. A new hour-specific total serum bilirubin nomogram has been shown to be able to predict newborns without hyperbilirubinemia after 48 to 72 hours of life. Newborns with

  11. A two-centre study for the evaluation and validation of an animal model for the assessment of the potential of small molecular weight chemicals to cause respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Blaikie, L; Morrow, T; Wilson, A P; Hext, P; Hartop, P J; Rattray, N J; Woodcock, D; Botham, P A

    1995-01-19

    This study evaluated a single intradermal injection model in the guinea pig with subsequent inhalation challenge and serological analysis as a method to predict the potential of chemicals to induce respiratory allergy. Four known respiratory allergens (trimellitic anhydride, diphenyl methane diisocyanate, phthalic anhydride and toluene diisocyanate (TDI)) were screened by two industrial research laboratories using this protocol. Dinitrochlorobenzene, a potent contact allergen, was included as a negative control material. In both laboratories, the respiratory allergens, but not the contact allergen, induced high titre antigen-specific antibodies in treated animals. The inhalation challenge results were similar in both laboratories but were less conclusive in that exposure to free TDI failed to induce pulmonary responses, probably because it fails to penetrate to the deep lung in sufficient concentration. Although the assay shows promise as a means of identifying chemical respiratory sensitisers, its use as a routine screen for the prediction of the ability of materials to induce respiratory allergy in man is probably questionable.

  12. Monthly variation of Dermatophagoides allergens and its influence on respiratory allergy in a high altitude environment (Quito, 2800 m a.s.l. in Andean Ecuador).

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, R; Iraloa, V

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal variation of Dermatophagoides allergens and its influence in allergic respiratory airway diseases has not been investigated in Andean cities. The objective of this study was to evaluate those parameters in a city located in the Andean mountains. Der p1 and Der f1 were measured in dust samples from mattresses in 13 houses in Quito (2800 m above sea level). Samples were collected monthly from August 2004 to July 2005. Patients presenting to a local outpatient allergy clinic with asthma and rhinitis and isolated allergy to Dermatophagoides were analysed to determine if a correlation existed between seasonal Der allergen levels and the number of patients presenting with allergies. High levels of dust mites and humidity were observed throughout the year. The highest geometrical mean values of allergens were detected in April (Der p1, 10.15 μg/g) and May (Der f1, 13.03 μg/g), whilst the lowest levels were detected in August (Der p1, 4.26 μg/g), and September (Der f1, 1.4 μg/g). Of the 361 patients examined, 182 were allergic to Dermatophagoides, (45.6% asthmatics, 97.8% rhinitics, and 43.4% with both diseases). Patient presentation spiked in August, and from February to May. However, there was not a significant correlation between mite allergen concentrations and humidity or the number of patients presenting with allergies. Dust samples from mattresses in Quito revealed high concentrations of Der p1 and Der f1. We observed a trend towards increased presentation of asthmatic and rhinitic patients in the months with highest levels of allergens. Copyright © 2009 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Advances in pediatrics in 2014: current practices and challenges in allergy, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nutrition, oncology and respiratory tract illnesses.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Cesari, Silvia; Sciorio, Elisa; Povesi-Dascola, Carlotta; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2015-10-31

    Major advances in the conduct of pediatric practice have been reported in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2014. This review highlights developments in allergy, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nutrition, oncology and respiratory tract illnesses. Investigations endorse a need to better educate guardians and improve nutritional management in food allergy. Management of hyperbilirubinemia in neonates and of bronchiolitis have been improved by position statements of scientific societies. Novel treatments for infant colic and inflammatory bowel diseases have emerged. Studies suggest the diagnostic utility of ultrasonography in diagnosing community-acquired pneumonia. Progress in infectious diseases should include the universal varicella vaccination of children. Recommendations on asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome have been highlighted in neonatology. Studies have evidenced that malnutrition remains a common underestimated problem in developing countries, while exposure to cancer risk factors in children is not negligible in Western countries. Advances in our understanding of less common diseases such as cystic fibrosis, plastic bronchitis, idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis facilitate diagnosis and management. Researches have led to new therapeutic approaches in patent ductus arteriosus and pediatric malignancies.

  14. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... food allergy reactions: milk eggs peanuts soy wheat tree nuts (such as walnuts and cashews) fish shellfish ( ... peanut allergy and about 10% of kids with tree nut allergy outgrow their allergy. Fish and shellfish ...

  15. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  16. Sensitization to secretoglobin and lipocalins in a group of young children with risk of developing respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Mizuho; Borres, Magnus P; Sugimoto, Mayumi; Petersson, Carl Johan; Nakayama, Satoshi; Kuwabara, Yu; Masuda, Sawako; Dykiel, Patrik; Fujisawa, Takao

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sensitizations in early age have been reported to be a risk for development of asthma. This study evaluates the emergence and evolution of IgE to aeroallergens among a cohort of children with physician-diagnosed atopic dermatitis and/or showing food allergy symptoms and to examine the relation to asthma development. Three-hundred and four children (median age 13.4 months at entry) with food allergy symptoms and/or atopic dermatitis without asthma at inclusion were analysed for IgE antibodies against food-, indoor- and outdoor-allergens and pet allergen components and correlated to the individuals' outcome on asthma inception. At 2 years of follow-up, physician-diagnosed asthma was 19.7% (n = 49) and asthma diagnosed any time was 24% (n = 67). History of persistent cough and asthma of father, combination of milk- and wheat-allergy symptoms and dual sensitization to house dust mite and Japanese cedar were independent risk factors for asthma. Sensitization to dog was the most prevalent inhalant allergen at entry. Asthma children had a higher proportion of sensitization to dog, cat and horse allergens at entry compared with non-asthma children. Being sensitized to both food, house dust mite and pet allergens was strongly associated with asthma (p = 0.0006). Component resolved diagnosis for dog and cat allergens showed that IgE antibodies to Can f 1 and Fel d 1 was common even at very young age. Early sensitization to inhalant allergens increases the risk of developing asthma as well as having milk and wheat allergy symptoms. Sensitization to dog, was common at an early age despite dog ownership. Sensitization to secretoglobin and lipocalins and less to serum albumins explained the pet sensitization.

  17. Latex Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergic contact dermatitis. This reaction to the chemical additives used during manufacturing produces signs and symptoms — usually ... they're common in your family. Connection between food allergy and latex allergy Latex allergy also is ...

  18. Drug Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seizure Loss of consciousness Other conditions resulting from drug allergy Less common drug allergy reactions occur days ... occur the first time you take the drug. Drugs commonly linked to allergies Although any drug can ...

  19. Soy Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinic Staff Allergy to soy, a product of soybeans, is a common food allergy. Often, soy allergy ... broth and vegetable starch Besides "soy," "soya" and "soybeans," other words on food labels may indicate that ...

  20. Work-related psychosocial stress as a risk factor for asthma, allergy, and respiratory infections in the Swedish workforce.

    PubMed

    Runeson-Broberg, Roma; Norbäck, Dan

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the association between work-related psychosocial stress and asthma, atopy, and respiratory infections. 532 randomly selected occupationally active people (272 men, 260 women; M age = 41 yr., SD = 13) in Sweden participated. Information on history of asthma, atopy, and respiratory infections was collected by a postal self-report questionnaire. Work stress was assessed based on the demands-control-support model. Current asthma and respiratory infections were associated with work-related psychosocial stress. When stratified for sex, these associations were only found in men. Associations between low control, low support, and current asthma were found among young participants (< 40 years), whereas among older participants (> 40 years) low supervisor support was associated with frequent respiratory infections.

  1. Early Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Respiratory Symptoms at 4 Years of Age, and Potential Effect Modification by Parental Allergy, Stressful Family Events, and Sex: A Prospective Follow-up Study of the PARIS Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Rancière, Fanny; Bougas, Nicolas; Viola, Malika; Momas, Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    The relation between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure and the incidence of asthma/allergy in preschool children has been widely studied, but results remain heterogeneous, possibly due to differences in methodology and susceptibility to TRAP. We aimed to study the relation of early TRAP exposure with the development of respiratory/allergic symptoms and asthma during preschool years, and to investigate parental allergy, "stressful" family events, and sex as possible effect modifiers. We examined data of 2,015 children from the PARIS birth cohort followed up with repeated questionnaires completed by parents until age 4 years. TRAP exposure in each child's first year of life was estimated by nitrogen oxides (NOx) air dispersion modeling, taking into account both home and day care locations. Association between TRAP exposure and patterns of wheezing, dry night cough, and rhinitis symptoms was studied using multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Effect modification by parental history of allergy, stressful family events, and sex was investigated. An interquartile range (26 μg/m(3)) increase in NOx levels was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) of persistent wheezing at 4 years (adjusted OR = 1.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.47). TRAP exposure was positively associated with persistent wheeze, dry cough, and rhinitis symptoms among children with a parental allergy, those experiencing stressful family events, and boys, but not in children whose parents did not have allergies or experience stressful events, or in girls (all interaction p-values < 0.2). This study supports the hypothesis that not all preschool children are equal regarding TRAP health effects. Parental history of allergy, stressful family events, and male sex may increase their susceptibility to adverse respiratory effects of early TRAP exposure.

  2. Allergy immunotherapy: the future of allergy treatment.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jørgen Nedergaard; Broge, Louise; Jacobi, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Allergic respiratory disease represents a significant and expanding health problem worldwide. Allergic symptoms, such as asthma and hay fever, cause sleep impairment and reduce school and work performance. The cost to society is substantial. Allergen avoidance and pharmacotherapy cannot control the disease. Only allergy immunotherapy has disease-modifying potential and should be included in optimal treatment strategies. Allergy immunotherapy was first administered as subcutaneous injections and has been practiced for the past 100 years or so. Recently, tablet-based sublingual allergy immunotherapy (SLIT) was introduced with comprehensive clinical documentation. SLIT tablets represent a more patient-friendly concept because they can be used for self-treatment at home. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Viral infections and allergies.

    PubMed

    Xepapadaki, Paraskevi; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory viral infections have been implicated in the origin of, protection from and exacerbation of allergy-related symptoms in a variety of ways. Viral infections are closely linked to infantile wheezing. Severe bronchiolitis in early infancy may predispose to chronic childhood asthma as well as allergic sensitization; alternatively it could represent a marker of susceptible individuals. In contrast, repeated mild infections in early life may have a protective role in the development of asthma or atopy by driving the immune system towards Th1 responses. However, evidence on this hypothesis is not consistent as far as respiratory viruses are concerned. Several factors, including the presence of an atopic environment, timing of exposure and severity of the infection, interactively contribute to the allergy-infection relationship. In the present report, recent data on the role of viral infections in the development and progression of allergy and asthma are reviewed.

  4. Respiratory hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs in Europe: the global allergy and asthma network (GA(2) LEN) survey.

    PubMed

    Makowska, J S; Burney, P; Jarvis, D; Keil, T; Tomassen, P; Bislimovska, J; Brozek, G; Bachert, C; Baelum, J; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bousquet, J; Bousquet, P J; Kai-Håkon, C; Dahlen, S E; Dahlen, B; Fokkens, W J; Forsberg, B; Gjomarkaj, M; Howarth, P; Salagean, E; Janson, C; Kasper, L; Kraemer, U; Louiro, C; Lundback, B; Minov, J; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, E; Papadopoulos, N; Sakellariou, A G; Todo-Bom, A; Toskala, E; Zejda, J E; Zuberbier, T; Kowalski, M L

    2016-11-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most prevalent drugs inducing hypersensitivity reactions. The aim of this analysis was to estimate the prevalence of NSAID-induced respiratory symptoms in population across Europe and to assess its association with upper and lower respiratory tract disorders. The GA(2) LEN survey was conducted in 22 centers in 15 European countries. Each of 19 centers selected random samples of 5000 adults aged 15-74 from their general population, and in three centers (Athens, Munich, Oslo), a younger population was sampled. Questionnaires including questions about age, gender, presence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, smoking status, and history of NSAID-induced hypersensitivity reactions were sent to participants by mail. Totally, 62 737 participants completed the questionnaires. The mean prevalence of NSAID-induced dyspnea was 1.9% and was highest in the three Polish centers [Katowice (4.9%), Krakow (4.8%), and Lodz (4.4%)] and lowest in Skopje, (0.9%), Amsterdam (1.1%), and Umea (1.2%). In multivariate analysis, the prevalence of respiratory reactions to NSAIDs was higher in participants with chronic rhinosinusitis symptoms (Odds Ratio 2.12; 95%CI 1.78-2.74), asthma symptoms in last 12 months (2.7; 2.18-3.35), hospitalization due to asthma (1.53; 1.22-1.99), and adults vs children (1.53; 1.24-1.89), but was not associated with allergic rhinitis. Our study documented significant variation between European countries in the prevalence of NSAID-induced respiratory hypersensitivity reactions, and association with chronic airway diseases, but also with environmental factors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Early Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Respiratory Symptoms at 4 Years of Age, and Potential Effect Modification by Parental Allergy, Stressful Family Events, and Sex: A Prospective Follow-up Study of the PARIS Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Rancière, Fanny; Bougas, Nicolas; Viola, Malika; Momas, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background: The relation between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure and the incidence of asthma/allergy in preschool children has been widely studied, but results remain heterogeneous, possibly due to differences in methodology and susceptibility to TRAP. Objectives: We aimed to study the relation of early TRAP exposure with the development of respiratory/allergic symptoms and asthma during preschool years, and to investigate parental allergy, “stressful” family events, and sex as possible effect modifiers. Methods: We examined data of 2,015 children from the PARIS birth cohort followed up with repeated questionnaires completed by parents until age 4 years. TRAP exposure in each child’s first year of life was estimated by nitrogen oxides (NOx) air dispersion modeling, taking into account both home and day care locations. Association between TRAP exposure and patterns of wheezing, dry night cough, and rhinitis symptoms was studied using multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Effect modification by parental history of allergy, stressful family events, and sex was investigated. Results: An interquartile range (26 μg/m3) increase in NOx levels was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) of persistent wheezing at 4 years (adjusted OR = 1.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.47). TRAP exposure was positively associated with persistent wheeze, dry cough, and rhinitis symptoms among children with a parental allergy, those experiencing stressful family events, and boys, but not in children whose parents did not have allergies or experience stressful events, or in girls (all interaction p-values < 0.2). Conclusions: This study supports the hypothesis that not all preschool children are equal regarding TRAP health effects. Parental history of allergy, stressful family events, and male sex may increase their susceptibility to adverse respiratory effects of early TRAP exposure. Citation: Rancière F, Bougas N, Viola M

  6. Optimization of route of administration for coexposure to ovalbumin and particle matter to induce adjuvant activity in respiratory allergy in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Steerenberg, P A; van Dalen, W J; Withagen, C E T; Dormans, J A M A; van Loveren, H

    2003-11-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have not only shown that air pollution induces increased pulmonary morbidity, and mortality, but also that air pollution components may potentiate allergic responses. The respiratory allergy model to ovalbumin in the mouse has been shown a useful tool to characterize the adjuvant potency of air pollution components. However, the choice for the most effective route of administration for testing small amounts of air pollution component is hampered by the diversity of routes of administration used. To test the adjuvant activity of airborne particles (Ottawa dust EHC-93), we studied the optimal route of respiratory administration: intranasally (in) and aerosol (aero) in comparison with responses observed by intraperitoneal (ip) with diesel exhaust particles (DEP) as a positive control. Our results show that the combination of in/aero with ovalbumin caused almost similar immunoglobulin (Ig)E and inflammatory responses compared to the ip/aero. In/in application induced less responses for IgE, less inflammation in the lung, and less increased numbers of eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). This response increased dramatically when ovalbumin was coadministered with DEP. Subsequently, EHC-93, which is made up of airborne particles, was tested via the in/in route of administration. EHC-93 induced similar IgE responses, inflammation, and eosinophilic response in BAL compared to DEP. In addition, EHC-93 increased the airway responsiveness of the ovalbumin-sensitized mice measured in unrestrained condition and not in nonsensitized control mice. It is concluded that intranasal sensitization with intranasal challenge with airborne particles (EHC-93) is an effective route of administration to show potency of adjuvant activity of airborne particles.

  7. 567 Prevalence of Skin Reactivity to Blomia Tropicalis Antigen in Patients with Respiratory Allergy at Hospital Universitario De Puebla

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Villegas, Erica Marisol

    2012-01-01

    Background Published studies shows that the sensitization to Blomia tropicalis mite plays an important roll on the development of allergic diseases. The aim of our study is to determinate the prevalence to skin reactivity to Blomia tropicalis' antigen in patients with respiratory allergy. Methods We conducted a descriptive, observational, prospective and transversal study being the criteria for inclusion: male and female patients aged 2 to 58 who came for first time at our service with diagnosis of asthma, rhinitis or asthma more rhinitis. We evaluated the skin reactivity by skin prick test to Blomia tropicalis' antigen. Descriptive statistics was implemented by estimating summary measures and dispersion. Results From a total of 110 patients, their mean age was 16.25 (2–58), 50% were males, 92% were from urban areas and 7.3% from rural areas. Of the patients studied 2.7% had asthma, 73.6% had rhinitis and 23.6% both diagnoses. The prevalence of positive skin reactivity to Blomia tropicalis was 24.5%. The prevalence of positive skin reactivity for the rhinitis subgroup was 59.3% and for the asthma/rhinitis subgroup was 40.7%, while in the asthma subgroup the prevalence was 0%. Conclusions The high prevalence of skin reactivity to Blomia tropicalis indicated the importance of including Blomia tropicalis in routine diagnostic testing and immunotherapy treatment.

  8. Pla a 2 and Pla a 3 reactivities identify plane tree-allergic patients with respiratory symptoms or food allergy.

    PubMed

    Scala, E; Cecchi, L; Abeni, D; Guerra, E C; Pirrotta, L; Locanto, M; Giani, M; Asero, R

    2017-04-01

    Nine hundred and thirty-nine rPla a 1, nPla a 2, and rPla a 3 ImmunoCAP ISAC reactors were studied. nPla a 2(pos) MUXF3(pos) but Pla a 1/2(neg) subjects were excluded from the study because they were cross-reactive carbohydrate determinant reactors. Among the 764 remaining participants, 71.9% were Pla a 3(pos) , 54.1% Pla a 2(pos) , and 10.9% Pla a 1(pos) . Among Pla a 3 reactors, 89.6% were Pru p 3(pos) and 86.8% Jug 3(pos) , but the strongest IgE recognition relationship was observed between Pla a 3 and Jug r 3. Distinctive clinical subsets could be documented among plane tree-allergic patients. Pla a 3 reactors had both local and systemic food-induced reactions, but lower past respiratory symptoms occurrence. Pla a 2 reactivity was associated with respiratory symptoms but inversely related to systemic reactions to food. Cosensitization to Pla a 2 and Pla a 3 was associated with a lower past incidence of severe food-induced reactions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... of food, most food allergies are caused by tree nuts, peanuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat, fish and ... all do. People rarely outgrow allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish QuestionsQuestions to Ask Your ...

  10. Mold Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Albuterol in Schools Access to Medications Clean Air Climate and Health Epinephrine in Schools Healthy Settings Food ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food ...

  11. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... can cause anaphylaxis — a severe, life-threatening reaction. Avoidance is the primary treatment for milk allergy. Fortunately, ... the symptoms, such as allergy medication or milk avoidance? What, if anything, appears to worsen the symptoms? ...

  12. Allergies - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... that are caused by allergies (such as asthma, hay fever, and eczema) may need other treatments. Medicines that ... shots are most effective when used to treat hay fever and insect sting allergies. They are not used ...

  13. Eye Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sep. 01, 2016 Eye allergies, also called allergic conjunctivitis, are quite common. They occur when the eyes ... can tear and burn. Unlike other kinds of conjunctivitis, eye allergies are not spread from person to ...

  14. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in allergy and immunology to epidemiological and observational studies to identify risk factors and to clinical trials that are testing new strategies to prevent and treat food allergy. Read on ...

  15. Kids with Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Living With Food Allergies Allergens Peanut Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Milk Allergy Egg Allergy Soy Allergy ... Gluten Substitutions for Soy Substitutions for Peanuts and Tree Nuts Substitutions for Corn Menu Planning for the ...

  16. Allergy in severe asthma.

    PubMed

    Del Giacco, S R; Bakirtas, A; Bel, E; Custovic, A; Diamant, Z; Hamelmann, E; Heffler, E; Kalayci, Ö; Saglani, S; Sergejeva, S; Seys, S; Simpson, A; Bjermer, L

    2017-02-01

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps 4-5 of GINA guidelines to prevent their asthma from becoming 'uncontrolled', or whose disease remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy. Epidemiological studies on emergency room visits and hospital admissions for asthma suggest the important role of allergy in asthma exacerbations. In addition, allergic asthma in childhood is often associated with severe asthma in adulthood. A strong association exists between asthma exacerbations and respiratory viral infections, and interaction between viruses and allergy further increases the risk of asthma exacerbations. Furthermore, fungal allergy has been shown to play an important role in severe asthma. Other contributing factors include smoking, pollution and work-related exposures. The 'Allergy and Asthma Severity' EAACI Task Force examined the current evidence and produced this position document on the role of allergy in severe asthma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Library View All » Allergy-Free Recipes » Allergy-Free Play Dough Recipes » Anaphylaxis Action Plan » Anaphylaxis Wallet Card » ... D and Food Allergy » When Should Children and Adolescents Assume Responsibility for Self-Treatment of ... Free Zone » Peanut Free Zone » Information ...

  18. Introduction to the Canadian Scientific Advisory Committee on Respiratory and Allergy Therapies: in vivo evaluation for clinical testing in COPD and asthma therapy using generics.

    PubMed

    Mayers, Irvin

    2012-08-01

    Health Canada posted a guidance for in vivo testing of subsequent market entry (SME) inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) for treatment of asthma and published proceedings regarding SME products for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This manuscript reviews these recommendations and outlines their rationale. The Scientific Advisory Committee on Respiratory and Allergy Therapies (SAC-RAT) met between 2007 and 2009. The committee reviewed approval processes for SME ICS for asthma treatment and a draft guidance was posted by Health Canada. SAC-RAT also reviewed SME long-acting beta agonists (LABA) and fixed drug dose combinations (FDDC) for COPD treatment. SAC-RAT concluded that measuring airway eosinophils in mild, stable, steroid-naive, subjects was reproducible and measurable. Study duration could be reduced to only 3 weeks using this inflammatory outcome to establish therapeutic equivalence between SME ICS and Canadian reference product. A placebo limb of the trial was added to establish biological activity of the products. The committee recommended that LABA SME products be tested in a clinically stable, representative population with GOLD stage 2 and/or 3 COPD. There was not agreement regarding the extent of allowed FEV(1) reversibility in this population. The FEV(1) area under the curve (AUC) was recommended as a primary endpoint. For equivalence, both AUC and the shape of the curve (assessed by the peak and trough) over a 12-h period should be different from placebo but similar for the SME and reference products. Secondary endpoints were not recommended. Clinical presentations of asthma and COPD may overlap but prespecified disease phenotypes can separate the populations. ICS therapeutic equivalence can be assessed by reduction in eosinophil counts tested in steroid naive subjects. Increases in FEV(1) define LABA effects in moderate to severe COPD. When designing trials to assess therapeutic equivalence, the anticipated mechanism of action of the drug

  19. Allergy to Uncommon Pets: New Allergies but the Same Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Perales, Araceli; González-de-Olano, David; Pérez-Gordo, Marina; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of exotic pet allergies has been increasing over the last decade. Years ago, the main allergy-causing domestic animals were dogs and cats, although nowadays there is an increasing number of allergic diseases related to insects, rodents, amphibians, fish, and birds, among others. The current socio-economic situation, in which more and more people have to live in small apartments, might be related to this tendency. The main allergic symptoms related to exotic pets are the same as those described for dog and cat allergy: respiratory symptoms. Animal allergens are therefore, important sensitizing agents and an important risk factor for asthma. There are three main protein families implicated in these allergies, which are the lipocalin superfamily, serum albumin family, and secretoglobin superfamily. Detailed knowledge of the characteristics of allergens is crucial to improvement treatment of uncommon-pet allergies. PMID:24416032

  20. [Atopic dermatitis and allergy].

    PubMed

    Karila, C

    2013-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a very common chronic inflammatory skin disease in childhood, often the first step in the atopic march. It seems justified to look for a food or a respiratory allergy, being worsening or responsible for the AD. At infant age, some clinical features are consistent with a food allergy: a severe AD, with an early onset, uncontrolled by topical corticosteroids, and a history of immediate-type reactions. As sensitization to food allergens is very common (positive skin prick-test, atopy patch-test or specific IgE), the role of food allergens in worsening AD is difficult to affirm. So, it could be necessary to ask the advice of an allergist, to avoid unnecessary elimination diets. At older age, exposure to aeroallergens cans worsen AD. Looking for an aeroallergen allergy can help to choose the specific immunotherapy, which clinical efficacy on AD seems interesting.

  1. Food Allergies.

    PubMed

    Grief, Samuel N

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are common and seem to be increasing in prevalence. Preventive measures have become far more evident in the public arena (schools, camps, sports venues, and so forth). Evaluation and management of food allergies has evolved such that primary care practitioners may choose to provide initial diagnostic and treatment care or refer to allergists for similar care. Food allergies, once considered incurable, are now being diminished in intensity by new strategies.

  2. Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Liu, Changqi; Zaffran, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is receiving increased attention in recent years. Because there is currently no known cure for food allergy, avoiding the offending food is the best defense for sensitive individuals. Type I food allergy is mediated by food proteins, and thus, theoretically, any food protein is a potential allergen. Variability of an individual's immune system further complicates attempts to understand allergen-antibody interaction. In this article, we briefly review food allergy occurrence, prevalence, mechanisms, and detection. Efforts aimed at reducing/eliminating allergens through food processing are discussed. Future research needs are addressed.

  3. Drug allergies

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The ...

  4. Allergy Skin Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic rhinitis) Allergic asthma Dermatitis (eczema) Food allergies Penicillin allergy Bee venom allergy Latex allergy Skin tests are ... may recommend this test to check for an allergy to insect venom or penicillin. Patch test Patch testing is generally done to ...

  5. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Do Allergies Cause Asthma? ... Allergies Cause Asthma? Allergies don't cause asthma. But kids who have allergies , or a family history of allergies, are more likely to get asthma ...

  6. Food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Watson, J. B. G.; Timmins, J.

    1979-01-01

    Two children with food allergy could not be successfully managed on dietary restriction alone. There was a good response to treatment with oral sodium cromoglycate but none to placebo treatment. The use of sodium cromoglycate in the management of food allergy should be studied further. PMID:105671

  7. Allergy shots

    MedlinePlus

    ... sensitivity Eczema , a skin condition that a dust mite allergy can make worse Allergy shots are effective for common allergens such as: Weed and tree pollen Grass Mold or fungus Animal dander Dust mites Insect stings Adults (including the older people) as ...

  8. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Featured Diseases & Conditions Food Allergy HIV/AIDS Influenza Malaria Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Tuberculosis Zika Virus Find ... Schistosomiasis Resource Center Filariasis Research Reagent Resource Center Malaria Research and Reference Reagent Resource Center Network on ...

  9. Food allergies in rural areas

    PubMed Central

    Stoma, Monika; Ślaska-Grzywna, Beata; Kostecka, Małgorzata; Bojanowska, Monika; Dudziak, Agnieszka; Kuna-Broniowska, Agnieszka; Adamczuk, Piotr; Sobczak, Paweł; Andrejko, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A food allergy is a group of symptoms occurring in the organism and resulting from consuming some food, where the problems are conditioned by immunological mechanisms. The symptoms may become apparent first in adulthood and they may be an initial manifestation of a latent allergy. Typical symptoms of a food allergy occur in different organs, thus not only in the digestive system, but also in the skin, respiratory system and circulatory system. Aim To assess the frequency of food allergy onset in rural areas of the Lublin region as well as to determine which factors induce such allergies. Material and methods A survey was conducted, involving the participation of 340 inhabitants of rural areas. The study monitored the knowledge and situation of the disease, concerning allergens, allergy symptoms, methods of treatment and opinions regarding such treatment. Results The analysis focused on 124 people with diagnosed allergies. Conclusions Introducing a diet did not result in a statistically significant difference regarding elimination of the symptoms, as compared to the patients who did not follow any diet. On the other hand, pharmacological treatment causes statistically worse results than using other methods or not being treated at all. The patients in whom allergy symptoms disappeared were more convinced about the positive character of their diet than those in whom the symptoms were not eliminated. The age when the allergy becomes evident does not affect its duration, yet it matters as to the time of its later elimination. The more symptoms were experienced by a patient, the longer the duration of the allergy was. PMID:27605899

  10. American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Why Anaphylaxis Types of Allergies: Ragweed Allergy Pine Tree Allergy Hives (Urticaria) Food Allergy Types of Food ... Fish Allergy Eosinophilic Esophagitis Egg Allergy Corn Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Food Allergy Diagnosis Food Allergy Avoidance ...

  11. Allergic rhinitis caused by food allergies.

    PubMed

    Cingi, Cemal; Demirbas, Duygu; Songu, Murat

    2010-09-01

    Food allergies occur in 1-2% of adults and in 8% of children under 6 years of age. Food-induced allergies are immunological reactions that cause a variety of symptoms affecting the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract. The reactions are mediated by both IgE- and non-IgE-dependent (cellular) mechanisms. Isolated food-induced allergic rhinitis is not common as it frequently occurs together with other food allergy symptoms such as asthma, eczema, oral allergic manifestations, urticaria, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The present paper provides an overview of food allergies and food-induced allergic rhinitis.

  12. Food allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... people of all ages) Soy (mostly in children) Tree nuts (people of all ages) Wheat (people of ... Allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, and shellfish tend to last a lifetime. Avoiding the problem foods may be easy if the food is ...

  13. Latex Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... gloves are coated with cornstarch powder, latex protein particles can stick to the cornstarch and fly into ... removed frequently, the air may contain many latex particles. SymptomsWhat are the symptoms of latex allergy?Latex ...

  14. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... can react to touching fish or breathing in vapors from cooking fish. A fish allergy can cause ... hives red spots swelling a drop in blood pressure , causing lightheadedness or loss of consciousness Your child ...

  15. Shellfish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... can react to touching shellfish or breathing in vapors from cooking shellfish. Shellfish allergy can develop at ... hives red spots swelling a drop in blood pressure causing lightheadedness or loss of consciousness Your child ...

  16. Allergy Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All Rights Reserved. Legal Notices | Site Map | Contact Us Social navigation Facebook Twitter Mobile navigation Home Conditions & Treatments Education & Training Practice Resources About AAAAI Search navigation Find ...

  17. Sun Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurs on skin that has been exposed to sunlight. The most common form of sun allergy is ... have unusual, bothersome skin reactions after exposure to sunlight. For severe or persistent symptoms, you may need ...

  18. Shellfish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... been diagnosed with a shellfish allergy, keep injectable epinephrine on hand in case of a severe reaction. ... mouth or throat or difficulty breathing, give the epinephrine auto-injector right away. Every second counts in ...

  19. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... been diagnosed with a fish allergy, keep injectable epinephrine on hand in case of a severe reaction. ... mouth or throat or difficulty breathing, give the epinephrine auto-injector right away. Every second counts in ...

  20. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... some people are allergic to certain foods, like peanuts or shrimp. When a person has a food ... are meat, poultry, fish, and legumes (beans and peanuts). If you have more than one food allergy, ...

  1. [Ocular allergies].

    PubMed

    Messmer, E M

    2005-05-01

    Recent developments indicate that ocular allergy is more than an IgE-mediated allergic conjunctivitis. Ocular allergy is a disease affecting the entire ocular surface including conjunctiva, lids, cornea, lacrimal gland and tear film. Besides an IgE-mediated reaction, a complex chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of many ocular allergies. According to their pathogenesis and clinical picture, ocular allergies are classified into mild forms, such as seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis as well as giant papillary conjunctivitis, and chronic, potentially blinding forms such as atopic keratoconjunctivitis and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. New therapeutics act on the entire inflammatory process or try to modulate the allergic reaction early and specifically. The association with non-ocular allergic symptoms requires an interdisciplinary approach.

  2. Penicillin Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... reactions cannot be detected by skin tests. Graded challenge If the diagnosis of a penicillin allergy is ... he or she may recommend a graded drug challenge. With this procedure, you receive four to five ...

  3. Kiwifruit allergies.

    PubMed

    Bublin, Merima

    2013-01-01

    While kiwifruit has a high nutritive and health value, a small proportion of the world's population appears to be allergic to the fruit. IgE-mediated kiwifruit allergy is often associated with birch and grass pollinosis as well as with latex allergy. Isolated allergy to kiwifruit is also relatively common and often severe. Eleven green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) allergens recognized to date are termed as Act d 1 through Act d 11. Bet v 1 homologue (Act d 8) and profilin (Act d 9) are important allergens in polysensitized subjects, whereas actinidin (Act d 1) is important in kiwifruit monosensitized subjects. Differences in allergenicity have been found among kiwifruit cultivars. Allergy sufferers might benefit from the selection and breeding of low-allergenic kiwifruit cultivars.

  4. Medication/Drug Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Medication/Drug Allergy Medication/Drug Allergy Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... immediate or delayed. What Is an Allergy to Medication/Drugs? Allergies to drugs/medications are complicated, because ...

  5. Asthma and allergy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - asthma and allergy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on asthma and allergies : Allergy and Asthma Network -- www.allergyasthmanetwork.org American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology -- www. ...

  6. Latex allergy.

    PubMed

    Gawchik, Sandra M

    2011-01-01

    Allergy to natural rubber latex is an important clinical condition that occurred after the institution of universal precautions to protect healthcare workers. A rapid increase and production of both examination and surgical gloves resulted in an epidemic of allergy to latex protein. Healthcare workers in both the medical and dental environments, as well as specific groups of individuals including those with spina bifida, myelodysplasia, and food allergies (banana, kiwi, avocado, and others), were at increased risk of sensitization. Clinical symptoms in the latex allergic individual ranged from type I hypersensitivity reaction including rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, and systemic reaction to type IV hypersensitivity reaction, which occur from the chemicals added during the manufacturing process. Diagnosis of latex allergy is based on a clinical history that correlates the development of symptoms in relationship to exposure. In the United States there are no skin tests approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Therefore a combination of clinical judgment and serologic testing such as ImmunoCAP and Immulite is helpful. The primary treatment of latex allergy is avoidance of exposure to the latex protein.

  7. Janus-faced Acrolein prevents allergy but accelerates tumor growth by promoting immunoregulatory Foxp3+ cells: Mouse model for passive respiratory exposure

    PubMed Central

    Roth-Walter, Franziska; Bergmayr, Cornelia; Meitz, Sarah; Buchleitner, Stefan; Stremnitzer, Caroline; Fazekas, Judit; Moskovskich, Anna; Müller, Mario A.; Roth, Georg A.; Manzano-Szalai, Krisztina; Dvorak, Zdenek; Neunkirchner, Alina; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2017-01-01

    Acrolein, a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde, is generated in large amounts during smoking and is best known for its genotoxic capacity. Here, we aimed to assess whether acrolein at concentrations relevant for smokers may also exert immunomodulatory effects that could be relevant in allergy or cancer. In a BALB/c allergy model repeated nasal exposure to acrolein abrogated allergen-specific antibody and cytokine formation, and led to a relative accumulation of regulatory T cells in the lungs. Only the acrolein-treated mice were protected from bronchial hyperreactivity as well as from anaphylactic reactions upon challenge with the specific allergen. Moreover, grafted D2F2 tumor cells grew faster and intratumoral Foxp3+ cell accumulation was observed in these mice compared to sham-treated controls. Results from reporter cell lines suggested that acrolein acts via the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor which could be inhibited by resveratrol and 3′-methoxy-4′-nitroflavone Acrolein- stimulation of human PBMCs increased Foxp3+ expression by T cells which could be antagonized by resveratrol. Our mouse and human data thus revealed that acrolein exerts systemic immunosuppression by promoting Foxp3+ regulatory cells. This provides a novel explanation why smokers have a lower allergy, but higher cancer risk. PMID:28332605

  8. [Allergy-related emergencies].

    PubMed

    Kaufman, E; Garfunkel, A; Galili, D; Zusman, S P; Malamed, S F; Findler, M; Elad, S

    2002-01-01

    Allergic reactions can develop to any of the drugs or materials commonly used in dentistry. They exhibit a broad range of clinical signs and symptoms ranging from mild, delayed reactions to immediate and life-threatening reactions developing within seconds. Allergies usually manifest themselves in reactions that are related to histamine release in one of three ways: skin reactions, respiratory problems and anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is the most critical allergic reaction in the dental environment. Measures such as airway management, oxygen supplementation, antihistamine, adrenaline and corticosteroid medication, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and evacuation to the emergency room, may be necessary.

  9. Update on equine allergies.

    PubMed

    Fadok, Valerie A

    2013-12-01

    Horses develop many skin and respiratory disorders that have been attributed to allergy. These disorders include pruritic skin diseases, recurrent urticaria, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and reactive airway disease. Allergen-specific IgE has been detected in these horses, and allergen-specific immunotherapy is used to ameliorate clinical signs. The best understood atopic disease in horses is insect hypersensitivity, but the goal of effective treatment with allergen-specific immunotherapy remains elusive. In this review, updates in pathogenesis of allergic states and a brief mention of the new data on what is known in humans and dogs and how that relates to equine allergic disorders are discussed.

  10. Macrolides allergy.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Luis; Demoly, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    Macrolides are characterised by their basic structure which is made up of a lactonic cycle with 2 osidic chains. They are classified according to the number of carbon atoms in the cycle : 14 membered macrolides (erythromicin, roxithromycin, dirithromycin, clarithromycin), 15 membered (azithromycin) and 16 membered (spiramycin, josamycin, midecamycin) macrolides. Epidemiological studies show that macrolides are amongst the safest antibiotics, but in these series, no drug allergy work up was performed. An immediate IgE dependent hypersensitivity has been shown with erythromycin in some cases. The mechanism is unknown and the skin tests are negative in most other cases. It would appear that the macrolide allergies are unlikely to be class allergies. Eviction is the treatment of choice. Desensitization has been successful in a few cases.

  11. [Drug allergy].

    PubMed

    Pichler, W J

    1994-01-01

    Drug allergies can cause a great variety of symptoms and can thus imitate various diseases, like in previous times the lues. Drug allergies can be classified into three subgroups, which differ in their pathophysiology and require different diagnostic steps: firstly, classical drug allergies which are directed to the drug itself, a reactive compound of it or some contamination of the drug; secondly, pseudoallergic reactions which are caused by nonimmune mediated degranulation of mast cells and basophils; and thirdly, autoimmune reactions in which the drug elicits an immune reaction to autologous structures. A very detailed (criminalistic) history has the highest priority for the clarification of a suspected drug-allergic reaction; in addition, skin tests, serological tests and the lymphocyte transformation test might be useful. One should differentiate between tests which imitate the drug-elicited allergic reaction (i.e. Coombs test in drug induced hemolytic anemia) and tests which solely indicate a sensitization, these tests should be interpreted accordingly.

  12. Shellfish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the Food Allergy Research and Education website. Reading Food Labels Makers of foods sold in the ... outside of KidsHealth's control. About TeensHealth Nemours.org Reading BrightStart! Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Privacy Policy & ...

  13. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... delicious dessert, but then you see the crushed peanuts on top. Darn! You're allergic to peanuts. Maybe just one little bite? Nope. If you ... alone. These foods cause the most food allergies: peanuts and other nuts seafood, such as shrimp milk, ...

  14. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... The release of these chemicals can affect the respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract, skin, and the cardiovascular system — causing ... a day and may affect these three body systems: the skin: in the form of ... vomiting the respiratory tract: symptoms can range from a runny nose, ...

  15. Allergy and pulmonary impairment in Iowa veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Will, L A; Nassif, E G; Engen, R L; Patterson, R A; Zimmerman, D

    1987-01-01

    If small animal practice exposure, including the laboratory animal situations encountered in academic and other research pursuits, is more detrimental to veterinarians than large animal practice exposure for induction of allergic respiratory disease, then preventive measures such as increased ventilation, use of high efficiency particulate filters, and wearing of masks should be encouraged to reduce allergen exposures. Migration from large animal practice, likewise, should be discouraged. Failure to migrate to low occupational allergy risk situations early enough in a veterinary career can have severe and even fatal results. If the observed respiratory disease in veterinarians is in fact due to exposure, then unfortunately, it may in some cases be progressive and not just chronic. Data which could provide criteria for predicting occupational allergy and possible related respiratory disease outcome is scant at this time and career counselling is difficult. If the veterinary occupational animal allergy data should be proven correct such results can be used to help others.

  16. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video: Getting an X-ray Nut and Peanut Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Nut and Peanut Allergy Print ... previous continue How Is a Nut or Peanut Allergy Diagnosed? If your doctor thinks you might have ...

  17. Allergy Shots (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 years old. Allergy shots, which are given year-round, work better against some substances than others. Generally, ... peak allergy season. But many kids battle allergies year-round, and some can't control their symptoms with ...

  18. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Too Short All About Puberty Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Kids > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? ... a tight feeling in the chest. Do Allergies Cause YOUR Asthma? If you have asthma, it's a ...

  19. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Nut and Peanut Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Nut and Peanut Allergy ... worse. previous continue How Is a Nut or Peanut Allergy Diagnosed? If your doctor thinks you might ...

  20. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... may order allergy skin tests if you have: Hay fever ( allergic rhinitis ) and asthma symptoms that are not ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Allergy Food Allergy Hay Fever Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  1. Food allergy in Africa: myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Kung, Shiang-Ju; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Gray, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Food allergy has been traditionally perceived as being rare in Africa. However, the prevalence of other allergic manifestations such as asthma and atopic dermatitis continue to rise in the higher-income African countries. Since the food allergy epidemic in westernized countries has lagged behind that of allergic respiratory conditions, we hypothesize that food allergy is increasing in Africa. This article systematically reviews the evidence for food allergy in Africa, obtained through searching databases including PubMed, Medline, MD Consult, and scholarly Google. Articles are divided into categories based on strength of methodological diagnosis of food allergy. Information was found for 11 African countries: Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. Most studies reflect sensitization to food or self-reported symptoms. However, a few studies had more stringent diagnostic testing that is convincing for food allergy, mostly conducted in South Africa. Apart from the foods that commonly cause allergy in westernized countries, other regionally significant or novel food allergens may include pineapple (Ghana), okra (Nigeria), and mopane worm (Botswana). Food allergy is definitely an emerging disease in Africa and resources need to be diverted to study, diagnose, treat, and prevent this important disease.

  2. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... redness and swelling around the mouth or face. Gastrointestinal system. Symptoms can take the form of belly cramps, ... or more of the body systems above (skin, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems), such as hives combined with abdominal pain, or ...

  3. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker’s asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  4. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker's asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  5. [Allergy to asparagus].

    PubMed

    Tabar, A I; Alvarez, M J; Celay, E; López, R; de Esteban, B; Gómez, B

    2003-01-01

    Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a widely grown vegetable; together with garlic, the onion and the leek, it belongs to the Liliaceae family. Both delayed cell-mediated reactions and IgE-mediated reactions secondary to asparagus have been described. While the former (allergic contact dermatitis) are a fairly common cause of occupational disease, only a few case-reports of IgE-mediated reactions have been published. IgE-mediated reactions can be further grouped into food allergy and reactions due to cutaneous or respiratory exposure, which is often occupational. Anaphylaxis is the most common clinical picture of food allergy, while contact urticaria, rhinitis and asthma, appearing either isolated or associated, are clinical pictures of the latter. Sensitization to different allergens is the likely cause of the different clinical pictures due to asparagus. Their detection and early diagnosis is of prime importance due to the different prognosis and treatment. In the present article we resume our experience over the last 5 years.

  6. Allergies to fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Benito, Cristina; González-Mancebo, Eloína; de Durana, Dolores Alonso Díaz

    2008-12-01

    Allergic reactions to fruits and vegetables are frequently observed in older children and adolescents. They can result from a primary sensitization to food allergens or from a primary sensitization to inhalant allergens such as pollens or latex. In the case of fruit allergies, the stability of the allergens involved is crucial to the sensitization pathway and in the clinical presentation of the food allergy. Two patients allergic to fruits are presented and discussed in the light of the allergens involved. Patient 1 was a 14 yr-old girl with a grass and olive pollen allergy who developed oropharyngeal symptoms typical of the oral allergy syndrome (OAS) with multiple fruits from taxonomically unrelated families, and who was sensitized to profilin. Patient 2 was an 8 yr-old girl, with no pollen allergies, who developed systemic reactions to peach and apple, and who was sensitized to non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTP). Profilins are labile allergens present in pollens and foods, and sensitization occurs through the respiratory route to pollen profilin. The cross-reactive IgE antibodies generated can elicit local reactions in the oropharyngeal mucosa (OAS) when exposed to fruit profilins. In contrast, LTPs are a family of stable allergens that resist thermal treatment and enzymatic digestion, and can thus behave as true food allergens inducing primary (non-pollen related) sensitizations and triggering systemic reactions. These two cases represent two distinct patterns of sensitization and clinical expression of fruit allergies that are determined by the panallergens involved (LTPs and profilins) and their intrinsic physicochemical properties. Additionally, these two cases also show the improved diagnostic value of Component Resolved Diagnosis, and strengthen its utility in the routine diagnosis and management of patients.

  7. Food allergy in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Elizabeth J; Veling, Maria C; Mims, James W

    2011-06-01

    Food allergy is defined as an adverse health effect arising from a specific immune response that occurs reproducibly on exposure to a given food and is distinct from food intolerance. Clinical manifestations of food allergy are varied and involve many systems including respiratory, cutaneous, and gastrointestinal. The double-blinded placebo-controlled oral food challenge remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of IgE-mediated food allergy. Areas of ongoing research include improved understanding of determinants for the development of tolerance versus sensitization for foods, the role of diagnostic testing for specific epitopes for food allergens, and the use of oral immunotherapy for IgE-mediated food allergy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cockroach allergy.

    PubMed

    Katial, Rohit K

    2003-08-01

    The ubiquitous existence of cockroaches and the large-scale domestic infestation seen in inner cities make cockroach proteins a significant indoor allergen and a risk factor for asthma among inner-city residents. Studies have shown that early exposure to high levels of allergen may lead to the development of asthma in individuals with a genetic predisposition to asthma. Although field trials at cockroach abatement do not yield promising results, integrated pest management still remains the best control strategy. In highly susceptible or symptomatic patients, allergen-specific immunotherapy may be beneficial, although data are limited. As molecular techniques improve and recombinant allergens are developed, a more novel form of T-cell-specific immunotherapy may prove to be efficacious without the anaphylactic side effects seen with traditional allergy vaccines.

  9. VERS: Improving Local Programs across the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feichtner, Sheila; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The Vocational Education Resource System (VERS) helps career/vocational educators, counselors, and administrators improve and expand programs for special populations. It offers technical assistance in program administration, instructional strategies, finances, accountability, and grant writing. VERS maintains a regional database of educators,…

  10. Allergy prevention.

    PubMed

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  11. Overweight/Obesity and Respiratory and Allergic Disease in Children: International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Two

    PubMed Central

    Weinmayr, Gudrun; Forastiere, Francesco; Büchele, Gisela; Jaensch, Andrea; Strachan, David P.; Nagel, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity and asthma are increasing worldwide. A possible link between the two conditions has been postulated. Methods Cross-sectional studies of stratified random samples of 8–12-year-old children (n = 10 652) (16 centres in affluent and 8 centres in non-affluent countries) used the standardized methodology of ISAAC Phase Two. Respiratory and allergic symptoms were ascertained by parental questionnaires. Tests for allergic disease were performed. Height and weight were measured, and overweight and obesity were defined according to international definitions. Prevalence rates and prevalence odds ratios were calculated. Results Overweight (odds ratio = 1.14, 95%-confidence interval: 0.98; 1.33) and obesity (odds ratio = 1.67, 95%-confidence interval: 1.25; 2.21) were related to wheeze. The relationship was stronger in affluent than in non-affluent centres. Similar results were found for cough and phlegm, rhinitis and eczema but the associations were mostly driven by children with wheeze. There was a clear association of overweight and obesity with airways obstruction (change in FEV1/FVC, −0.90, 95%-confidence interval: −1.33%; −0.47%, for overweight and −2.46%, 95%-confidence interval: −3.84%; −1.07%, for obesity) whereas the results for the other objective markers, including atopy, were null. Conclusions Our data from a large international child population confirm that there is a strong relation of body mass index with wheeze especially in affluent countries. Moreover, body mass index is associated with an objective marker of airways obstruction (FEV1/FVC) but no other objective markers of respiratory and allergic disorders. PMID:25474308

  12. Occupational allergy to animals.

    PubMed

    Seward, J P

    1999-01-01

    This chapter reviews the epidemiology, manifestations, etiologic agents, and exposure controls related to occupational allergies from animals and insects, including both respiratory and dermatologic responses. The overall prevalence of allergic respiratory symptoms in exposed workers is about 23% 4-9% of exposed individuals develop asthma. Symptom development is related to duration and intensity of exposure. The most prevalent dermatologic findings are contact urticaria and eczematous dermatitis. While a history of atopy is associated with the risk of symptom development, this factor has poor predictive value for any given individual. Similarly, skin testing and RAST testing are not sufficiently predictive to be recommended as screening tools, although they may identify individuals at some increased risk. The specific tissue sources of the major allergens are reviewed; for laboratory rats and mice, a urinary protein complex has been implicated. Environmental control of antigens is key in the prevention of allergic disease. Task-specific engineering controls, general environmental hygiene, training, and medical surveillance of workers are important elements of the prevention program.

  13. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents To Find Out More MedlinePlus: Allergy medlineplus.gov/allergy.html MedlinePlus: Hay Fever medlineplus. ...

  14. Latex allergies - for hospital patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Association; American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Guidelines for the Management of Latex Allergies. Updated 2016. latexallergyresources.org/articles/guidelines-management-latex-allergies . Accessed April 7, 2016.

  15. Trends in allergy prevalence among children aged 0-17 years by asthma status, United States, 2001-2013.

    PubMed

    Akinbami, Lara J; Simon, Alan E; Schoendorf, Kenneth C

    2016-01-01

    Children with asthma and allergies--particularly food and/or multiple allergies-are at risk for adverse asthma outcomes. This analysis describes allergy prevalence trends among US children by asthma status. We analyzed 2001-2013 National Health Interview Survey data for children aged 0-17 years. We estimated trends for reported respiratory, food, and skin allergy and the percentage of children with one, two, or all three allergy types by asthma status. We estimated unadjusted trends, and among children with asthma, adjusted associations between demographic characteristics and allergy. Prevalence of any allergy increased by 0.3 percentage points annually among children without asthma but not among children with asthma. However, underlying patterns changed among children with asthma: food and skin allergy prevalence increased as did the percentage with all three allergy types. Among children with asthma, risk was higher among younger and non-Hispanic black children for reported skin allergy, among non-Hispanic white children for reported respiratory allergy, and among non-poor children for food and respiratory allergies. Prevalence of having one allergy type decreased by 0.50 percentage points annually, while the percent with all three types increased 0.2 percentage points annually. Non-poor and non-Hispanic white children with asthma were more likely to have multiple allergy types. While overall allergy prevalence among children with asthma remained stable, patterns in reported allergy type and number suggested a greater proportion may be at risk of adverse asthma outcomes associated with allergy: food allergy increased as did the percentage with all three allergy types.

  16. Skin Allergy Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... time. Some common medications that can cause skin allergy include penicillin, sulfa drugs, barbiturates and anticonvulsants just to mention a few. Some of the symptoms from drug allergies might be hives, skin rash, itchy skin or ...

  17. Tree Nut Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Luncheon Registration Create Your Own Events Educational Events Tree Nut Allergies Tree nut allergy is one of ... with tree nuts during manufacturing and processing. Avoiding Tree Nuts The federal Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer ...

  18. Vaccines for allergy

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic. PMID:22521141

  19. Dust Mite Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in dust mite allergy. What causes the allergic reaction Allergies occur when your immune system reacts to ... nurse observes your skin for signs of allergic reactions after 15 minutes. If you're allergic to ...

  20. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... triggered by an allergy to something (called an allergen ). In these people, the symptoms of asthma like ... breathing are often brought on by being around allergens. Allergies have a lot to do with your ...

  1. Learning about Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Well, you and your dad might have allergies. Chain Reaction An allergy (say: AL-ur-jee) is your immune system's reaction to certain plants, animals, foods, insect bites , or other things. Your immune system ...

  2. Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Close ‹ Back to Healthy Living Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the ... How do I know if I have seasonal allergies? According to Dr. Georgeson, the best way to ...

  3. Allergy - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Allergy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/allergy.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  4. [The diagnosis of food allergies].

    PubMed

    Michel, O; Doyen, V

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of food allergies is more than 5 %, rising currently. The clinical presentations are polymorphic and involve the skin, respiratory, vascular and gut systems. The diagnosis is based on the consistancy between the allergic history and the results of the specific IgE investigations. When the relationship between the history and the IgE sensitization is not significant, an oral challenge test with food is indicated under supervision of a reference center. New approach, based on dosage of specific IgE to different constituent (recombinant protein) of each allergen, can predict the severity of the reaction and the cross reactivity between allergens, in some patients.

  5. Allergies: The Hidden Hazard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Doris J.

    1990-01-01

    Children can suffer from allergies that can markedly affect their behavior and school performance. Once an allergy is suspected, teachers and principals can consider allergens inside the school, outside the school, and related to problem foods or chemicals. A sidebar lists some allergy clues to watch for. Includes nine references. (MLH)

  6. Addressing Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…

  7. Coconut Allergy Revisited.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Katherine

    2017-09-29

    Despite concerns voiced often by food-allergic patients, allergy to coconut is rare, not directly associated with nut allergy and few cases are reported so far in the literature. We present an interesting case of coconut allergy in a child that was previously tolerant to coconut and regularly exposed via both the skin and gastrointestinal route.

  8. Antihistamines for allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergy symptoms, such as a pet or certain plants For many people with allergies, symptoms are the worst around 4 a.m. to 6 a.m. Taking an antihistamine at bedtime may help you or your child feel better in the morning during allergy season.

  9. Milk Allergy in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy People of any age can have a ...

  10. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Teens > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A en español ¿Las alergias provocan asma? Do allergies cause asthma? The answer to that question is: yes and ...

  11. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Teens > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? A A A en español ¿Las alergias provocan asma? Do allergies cause asthma? The answer to that question is: ...

  12. Diversity of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is defined as an immune system-mediated adverse reaction to food components. Food allergic reactions are mostly IgE mediated and also known as immediate type hypersensitivity (type I reaction). There are several characteristic clinical types of food allergy, such as Anaphylaxis, Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA), and Oral allergy syndrome (OAS). In addition, food allergy is also classified into two types (class 1 and class 2) based on the pathophysiological mechanism. In the class 2 food allergy, pollen allergy causes plant food allergy; therefore this type of allergy is sometimes called Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS). The risk of food allergy (allergenicity) may vary with the treatment of the food allergens. The formation or status of the causative food affects its allergenicity. Class 1 food allergens are generally heat-, enzyme-, and low pH-resistant glycoproteins ranging in size from 10 to 70 kD. Class 1 food allergens induce allergic sensitization via the gastrointestinal tract and are responsible for systemic reactions. Class 2 food allergens are generally heat-labile, susceptible to digestion, and highly homologous with pollen allergens. Taken together, it may be important to consider the diversity of food allergy in order to fight against food allergy.

  13. [Latex allergy in children].

    PubMed

    Mavale-Manuel, S; Paty, E; Scheinmann, P; de Blic, J

    2003-08-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of latex allergy and the clinical features of children with latex allergy. We prospectively investigated 243 children consulting in our allergy out-patients unit during 1 year. Parents answered a questionnaire, and children underwent skin prick tests with common allergens and latex. Latex-specific serum immunoglobulin E was determined by CAP test in children with latex sensitization. The results were compared in children with and without latex allergy. The prevalence of latex allergy was 1.3%. A family history of atopy (75%) and a personal history of previous surgery was associated with latex allergy (P < 0.0001). In children with latex allergy, the frequency of sensitization to inhaled and food allergens, atopic dermatitis, rhinitis and conjunctivitis was higher than in children without latex allergy (P < 0.05). Avocado allergy was the food allergy most commonly associated with clinical symptoms. Balloon was the most common latex product causing symptoms (60%). Due to its potential severe consequences, latex allergy should be investigated in children who had undergone multiple surgical procedures and in the children with pollen-food allergy syndrome. Avoidance of latex is an important preventive measure.

  14. Addressing Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…

  15. Allergies: The Hidden Hazard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Doris J.

    1990-01-01

    Children can suffer from allergies that can markedly affect their behavior and school performance. Once an allergy is suspected, teachers and principals can consider allergens inside the school, outside the school, and related to problem foods or chemicals. A sidebar lists some allergy clues to watch for. Includes nine references. (MLH)

  16. [Mites allergy in children from Tula region].

    PubMed

    Zlobina, Zh M; Pron'kina, O V; Khlgatian, S V; Berzhets, A I; Berzhets, V M

    2006-01-01

    Characteristics of allergy to mites in children living in Tula region have been revealed. It was shown that mites from Pyroglyphidae (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae), Cheyletidae and Glycyphagidae (G. destructor, G. domesticus) families play important role in development of atopic allergy in children from this region. Efficacy of plant-origin acaricide "Milbiol" as part of prophylactic measures was evaluated. Its use in children with mild and intermediate asthma led to decrease of number of wheezing episodes, improvement of respiratory function, lessening of clinical signs of allergic rhinitis, decrease or discontinuation of usage of vasoconstrictive preparations.

  17. Occupational allergies in seafood-processing workers.

    PubMed

    Jeebhay, Mohamed F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2012-01-01

    Global increased demand for seafood and its products has been associated with a concomitant rise in fishing, aquaculture, and processing activities. This increased harvesting of seafood is associated with more frequent reporting of allergic health problems among seafood processors. This review outlines the high-risk working populations, work processes, as well as host and environmental exposure risk factors for occupational respiratory and skin allergies. It also provides insights into the major and minor allergens as well as the pathophysiological mechanisms implicated. Diagnostic and preventive approaches are outlined in managing work-related allergy associated with seafood processing.

  18. Ocular allergy in the Asia Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Katelaris, Constance H

    2011-10-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) represents a spectrum of disorders, comprising seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC), atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and giant papillary conjunctivitis. Of these ocular allergy types, SAC and PAC are the most common.The most striking difference within this group of ocular diseases is that SAC and PAC remain self-limited without ocular surface damage, while AKC and VKC can compromise the cornea, causing ulcers and scarring and can ultimately lead to vision loss. Data on AC in the Asia Pacific is scarce however some understanding of prevalence of the condition has been obtained from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) studies and more recently from the Allergies in Asia Pacific study as well as some information from individual country surveys. Unfortunately none of this data has been collected using validated survey instruments specifically designed for AC. Surveys such as ISAAC have been predominantly concerned with respiratory allergic symptoms with questions added that incorporate some ocular symptoms. These questionnaires do not detect individuals who may have AC in the absence of allergic rhinitis. Using hospital ophthalmology outpatient populations for prevalence studies of ocular allergy immediately introduces a bias towards the more severe, complex forms of the condition as patients with the milder forms of SAR and PAR will rarely present to a hospital outpatient clinic. There is a real need for the development of validated questionnaires specifically addressing ocular allergy. There are no widely accessible studies examining prevalence of the complex forms of ocular allergy (AKC, VKC) in Asia Pacific region. This review will provide an overview of ocular allergy, its classification, clinical presentation and differential diagnosis, and will also discuss what is known about the epidemiology of ocular allergy in the

  19. ICON: food allergy.

    PubMed

    Burks, A Wesley; Tang, Mimi; Sicherer, Scott; Muraro, Antonella; Eigenmann, Philippe A; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Chiang, Wen; Beyer, Kirsten; Wood, Robert; Hourihane, Jonathan; Jones, Stacie M; Lack, Gideon; Sampson, Hugh A

    2012-04-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. In the last several decades, the prevalence of food allergies has increased in several regions throughout the world. Although more than 170 foods have been identified as being potentially allergenic, a minority of these foods cause the majority of reactions, and common food allergens vary between geographic regions. Treatment of food allergy involves strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. In light of the increasing burden of allergic diseases, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; World Allergy Organization; and American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology have come together to increase the communication of information about allergies and asthma at a global level. Within the framework of this collaboration, termed the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, a series of consensus documents called International Consensus ON (ICON) are being developed to serve as an important resource and support physicians in managing different allergic diseases. An author group was formed to describe the natural history, prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of food allergies in the context of the global community.

  20. Fragrance sensitisers: Is inhalation an allergy risk?

    PubMed

    Basketter, David; Kimber, Ian

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that some fragrance substances have the potential to cause skin sensitisation associated with the development of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Fragrances are invariably relatively volatile leading to the consideration that inhalation of fragrances might be a relevant route for either the induction of allergic sensitisation or the elicitation of allergic reactions. Moreover, there has been increasing recognition that allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract can be induced by topical exposure to certain chemical allergens. Here the central question addressed is whether inhalation exposure to fragrance allergens has the potential to cause skin and/or respiratory sensitisation via the respiratory tract, or elicit allergic symptoms in those already sensitised. In addressing those questions, the underlying immunobiology of skin and respiratory sensitisation to chemicals has been reviewed briefly, and the relevant experimental and clinical evidence considered. The essential mechanistic differences between skin and respiratory allergy appear consistent with other sources of information, including the phenomenon of ACD that can arise from topical exposure to airborne allergens, but in the absence of accompanying respiratory effects. The conclusion is that, in contrast to topical exposure (including topical exposure to airborne material), inhalation of fragrance sensitisers does not represent a health risk with respect to allergy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Allergens causing respiratory allergy: the aeroallergens].

    PubMed

    Deschildre, A

    1999-01-01

    Aeroallergens play a major role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, particularly asthma and rhinitis. Indoor allergens, including house dust mites, domestic pets, cockroaches, and molds are of particular importance. Pollens are also recognized as a major source of allergens. The role of these different allergens varies with environment conditions, such as climatic factors, and degree of exposure. Knowledge about allergens has progressed, especially with recent molecular biology studies. Structure and function have been identified. These studies have provided explanations about the relationship between allergic sensitization, allergen exposure, and disease activity, about clinical observations such as allergic cross reactions, and improvement in the production of allergenic extracts (necessary to diagnosis and immunotherapy). Environmental control measures are of particular importance in the prevention and management of allergic diseases.

  2. [SEAFOOD ALLERGY IN ISRAEL].

    PubMed

    Rottem, Menachem

    2015-10-01

    Allergy to seafood such as shrimps, crab, lobster and fish eggs is relatively infrequent in Israel compared to fish allergies and allergies to other foods. This is mainly due to the fact that most of the population and restaurants preserve and maintain Kosher food. Changes in the population eating habits, partly due to immigration, were followed by increased frequency of such sensitivities in recent years. We describe three typical cases that illustrate the characteristics of allergy to sea foods. Allergy to seafood can present as a single sensitivity or be part of an allergic tendency, atopy, with other allergic manifestations. Diagnosis by allergy skin test or laboratory evaluation by specific IgE is available for most sea foods but not for fish eggs. The current therapeutic approach is strict avoidance and all patients should be provided with and carry with them an epinephrine auto-injector.

  3. Food allergy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Rhoda Sheryl

    2003-02-01

    Food allergy affects between 5% and 7.5% of children and between 1% and 2% of adults. The greater prevalence of food allergy in children reflects both the increased predisposition of children to develop food allergies and the development of immunologic tolerance to certain foods over time. Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated food allergies can be classified as those that persist indefinitely and those that are predominantly transient. Although there is overlap between the two groups, certain foods are more likely than others to be tolerated in late childhood and adulthood. The diagnosis of food allergy rests with the detection of food-specific IgE in the context of a convincing history of type I hypersensitivity-mediated symptoms after ingestion of the suspected food or by eliciting IgE-mediated symptoms after controlled administration of the suspected food. Presently, the only available treatment of food allergies is dietary vigilance and administration of self-injectable epinephrine.

  4. [Respiratory complications after transfusion].

    PubMed

    Bernasinski, M; Mertes, P-M; Carlier, M; Dupont, H; Girard, M; Gette, S; Just, B; Malinovsky, J-M

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory complications of blood transfusion have several possible causes. Transfusion-Associated Circulatory Overload (TACO) is often the first mentioned. Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI), better defined since the consensus conference of Toronto in 2004, is rarely mentioned. French incidence is low. Non-hemolytic febrile reactions, allergies, infections and pulmonary embolism are also reported. The objective of this work was to determine the statistical importance of the different respiratory complications of blood transfusion. This work was conducted retrospectively on transfusion accidents in six health centers in Champagne-Ardenne, reported to Hemovigilance between 2000 and 2009 and having respiratory symptoms. The analysis of data was conducted by an expert committee. Eighty-three cases of respiratory complications are found (316,864 blood products). We have counted 26 TACO, 12 TRALI (only 6 cases were identified in the original investigation of Hemovigilance), 18 non-hemolytic febrile reactions, 16 cases of allergies, 5 transfusions transmitted bacterial infections and 2 pulmonary embolisms. Six new TRALI were diagnosed previously labeled TACO for 2 of them, allergy and infection in 2 other cases and diagnosis considered unknown for the last 2. Our study found an incidence of TRALI 2 times higher than that reported previously. Interpretation of the data by a multidisciplinary committee amended 20% of diagnoses. This study shows the imperfections of our system for reporting accidents of blood transfusion when a single observer analyses the medical records.

  5. Natural rubber latex allergy.

    PubMed

    Deval, Ravi; Ramesh, V; Prasad, G B K S; Jain, Arun Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL) is a ubiquitous allergen as it is a component of > 40,000 products in everyday life. Latex allergy might be attributed to skin contact or inhalation of latex particles. Latex allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to NRL, presenting a wide range of clinical symptoms such as angioedema, swelling, cough, asthma, and anaphylactic reactions. Until 1979, latex allergy appeared only as type IV delayed hypersensitivity; subsequently, the proportion of different allergy types drifted towards type IV contact allergy reactions. Several risk factors for sensitization to NRL are already known and well documented. Some authors have established a positive correlation between a history of multiple surgical interventions, atopy, spina bifida malformation, and latex allergy incidence. We suspect an increase in latex allergy incidence in association with increased atopy and sensitivity to environmental allergens in the industrial population. It is often postulated in literature that the groups of workers at risk for this allergy are essentially workers in the latex industry and healthcare professionals. In this population, direct internal and mucosal contact with NRL medical devices may be the route of sensitization as factors such as the number of procedures and use of NRL materials (catheters and tubes) were associated with increased risk of latex sensitization and allergy.

  6. VerSeDa: vertebrate secretome database

    PubMed Central

    Cortazar, Ana R.; Oguiza, José A.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the current tools, de novo secretome (full set of proteins secreted by an organism) prediction is a time consuming bioinformatic task that requires a multifactorial analysis in order to obtain reliable in silico predictions. Hence, to accelerate this process and offer researchers a reliable repository where secretome information can be obtained for vertebrates and model organisms, we have developed VerSeDa (Vertebrate Secretome Database). This freely available database stores information about proteins that are predicted to be secreted through the classical and non-classical mechanisms, for the wide range of vertebrate species deposited at the NCBI, UCSC and ENSEMBL sites. To our knowledge, VerSeDa is the only state-of-the-art database designed to store secretome data from multiple vertebrate genomes, thus, saving an important amount of time spent in the prediction of protein features that can be retrieved from this repository directly. Database URL: VerSeDa is freely available at http://genomics.cicbiogune.es/VerSeDa/index.php PMID:28365718

  7. VerSeDa: vertebrate secretome database.

    PubMed

    Cortazar, Ana R; Oguiza, José A; Aransay, Ana M; Lavín, José L

    2017-01-01

    Based on the current tools, de novo secretome (full set of proteins secreted by an organism) prediction is a time consuming bioinformatic task that requires a multifactorial analysis in order to obtain reliable in silico predictions. Hence, to accelerate this process and offer researchers a reliable repository where secretome information can be obtained for vertebrates and model organisms, we have developed VerSeDa (Vertebrate Secretome Database). This freely available database stores information about proteins that are predicted to be secreted through the classical and non-classical mechanisms, for the wide range of vertebrate species deposited at the NCBI, UCSC and ENSEMBL sites. To our knowledge, VerSeDa is the only state-of-the-art database designed to store secretome data from multiple vertebrate genomes, thus, saving an important amount of time spent in the prediction of protein features that can be retrieved from this repository directly. VerSeDa is freely available at http://genomics.cicbiogune.es/VerSeDa/index.php.

  8. Parametric Model Checking with VerICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapik, Michał; Niewiadomski, Artur; Penczek, Wojciech; Półrola, Agata; Szreter, Maciej; Zbrzezny, Andrzej

    The paper presents the verification system verICS, extended with the three new modules aimed at parametric verification of Elementary Net Systems, Distributed Time Petri Nets, and a subset of UML. All the modules exploit Bounded Model Checking for verifying parametric reachability and the properties specified in the logic PRTECTL - the parametric extension of the existential fragment of CTL.

  9. Early life exposure to bisphenol A investigated in mouse models of airway allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Vinje, Nina Eriksen; Samuelsen, Mari; Andreassen, Monica; Groeng, Else-Carin; Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Becher, Rune; Lovik, Martinus; Bodin, Johanna

    2015-09-01

    The impact of early life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) through drinking water was investigated in mouse models of respiratory allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance. Balb/c mice were exposed to BPA (0, 10 or 100 μg/ml), and the offspring were intranasally exposed to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). C3H/HeJ offspring were sensitized with the food allergen lupin by intragastric gavage, after exposure to BPA (0, 1, 10 or 100 μg/ml). In separate offspring, oral tolerance was induced by gavage of 5 mg lupin one week before entering the protocol for the food allergy induction. In the airway allergy model, BPA (100 μg/ml) caused increased eosinophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and a trend of increased OVA-specific IgE levels. In the food allergy and tolerance models, BPA did not alter the clinical anaphylaxis or antibody responses, but induced alterations in splenocyte cytokines and decreased mouse mast cell protease (MMCP)-1 serum levels. In conclusion, early life exposure to BPA through drinking water modestly augmented allergic responses in a mouse model of airway allergy only at high doses, and not in mouse models for food allergy and tolerance. Thus, our data do not support that BPA promotes allergy development at exposure levels relevant for humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fighting Allergies at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, the number of children diagnosed with food allergies has increased significantly--to an estimated 3 million affected in the United States alone (Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network, n.d.). As that number increases, so do the articles, legislation, and policies that are designed to address how to best deal with peanut allergies…

  11. Medication/Drug Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... every time after the offending medication is taken. Penicillin and other antibiotics are the medication that most commonly cause allergic reactions. Women appear to have an increased risk for adverse reactions to medications. Facts about Allergies The tendency to develop allergies may be inherited. ...

  12. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... like a restaurant or bar) where lots of peanuts are being cracked from their shells. The person inhales and then swallows the protein, and this can lead to a reaction when the protein gets digested. Although ... and wheat allergies), peanut and tree nut allergies are lifelong in many ...

  13. Food allergy: current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, J.H.

    1981-05-01

    This commentary focuses on the author's concerns with various aspects of food allergy. Strict criteria should be applied to the definition of food allergy and its diagnostic techniques. Industrial inhalational exposures, food contaminations and cross-sensitization all are important influences which demand studious attention.

  14. Fighting Allergies at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, the number of children diagnosed with food allergies has increased significantly--to an estimated 3 million affected in the United States alone (Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network, n.d.). As that number increases, so do the articles, legislation, and policies that are designed to address how to best deal with peanut allergies…

  15. Environmental and occupational allergies.

    PubMed

    Peden, David; Reed, Charles E

    2010-02-01

    Airborne allergens are the major cause of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Daily exposure comes from indoor sources, chiefly at home but occasionally at schools or offices. Seasonal exposure to outdoor allergens, pollens, and molds is another important source. Exposure to unusual substances at work causes occupational asthma, accounting for about 5% of asthma in adults. Indoor and outdoor air pollutants trigger airway inflammation and increase the severity of asthma. Diesel exhaust particles increase the production of IgE antibodies. Identification and reduction of exposure to allergens is a very important part of the management of respiratory allergic diseases. The first section of this chapter discusses domestic allergens, arthropods (mites and cockroaches), molds, and mammals (pets and mice). Indoor humidity and water damage are important factors in the production of mite and mold allergens, and discarded human food items are important sources of proliferation of cockroaches and mice. Means of identifying and reducing exposure are presented. The second section discusses outdoor allergens: pollens and molds. The particular plants or molds and the amount of exposure to these allergens is determined by the local climate, and local pollen and mold counts are available to determine the time and amount of exposure. Climate change is already having an important effect on the distribution and amount of outdoor allergens. The third section discusses indoor and outdoor air pollution and methods that individuals can take to reduce indoor pollution in addition to eliminating cigarette smoking. The fourth section discusses the diagnosis and management of occupational asthma. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Allergy in cosmetology].

    PubMed

    Blondeel, A

    1983-01-01

    The computer analysis of a sample collecting 2,028 patients suffering from an eczematous dermatitis and subordinated to epicutaneous tests allowed us to analyze the rather difficult question of cosmetic allergy. This allergy is observed only in 2 p. 100 of the cases, if one considers the cosmetic allergy isolated; it reaches 5 p. 100 if it is associated with allergens coming from other origins (drugs of professional). However, in a more selected population of 91 patients suffering from a face dermatitis, these levels reach respectively 25 and 43 p. 100. The respective role of topic drugs and cosmetics is studied as well as main allergens associated with cosmetic allergy. The good tolerance of cosmetics encountered in patients allergic to one of their presumed components seems paradoxical. A prevention model of cosmetic allergy is presented, with an hypoallergenic variety of lanolin.

  17. Shellfish allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Kandyil, Roshni M; Davis, Carla M

    2009-08-01

    Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the world's population and can range from a mere inconvenience to a life-threatening condition. Over 90% of food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Shellfish allergy is known to be common and persistent in adults, and is an important cause of food induced anaphylaxis around the world for both children and adults. Most shellfish-allergic children have sensitivity to dust mite and cockroach allergens. Diagnostic cut-off levels for skin prick testing in children with shrimp allergy exist but there are no diagnostic serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) values. All patients with symptoms of IgE-mediated reactions to shellfish should receive epinephrine autoinjectors, even if the initial symptoms are mild. In this study, we review three cases of clinical presentations of shellfish allergy in children.

  18. Hymenoptera venom allergy in humans.

    PubMed

    Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Reactions to Hymenoptera stings may appear as local or systemic responses. According to European data, the incidence of systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings in the general population is 0.3-7.5%, with the value being 0.3-0.8% in children and 14-43% in beekeepers. The most common systemic allergic (anaphylactic) reactions are caused by honeybees (Apis mellifera), and certain species of wasps in the family Vespidae. Severe generalized immediate-type allergic (anaphylactic) reactions to insect stings are of the highest clinical importance. They affect skin, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory and cardiovascular system. The classification of severity of anaphylactic reaction following insect stings is based on the 4-grade Mueller scale. Crucial in patomechanism of anaphylaxis are specific IgE antibodies directed against the components of the venom, which mediate the activation of mast cells, the main effector cells of anaphylaxis. Therapeutic management in insect venom allergy should be considered in the context of prophylaxis, intervention in case symptoms develop, prevention in the form of venom specific immunotherapy (VIT). There are two steps of VIT 1. Initial dose venom immunotherapy (given according to four protocols which differ the time to reach the maintenance dose) 2. Maintenance dose VIT, usually equal 100 µg. Standard treatment time should span 3-5 years. The main mechanisms of immune tolerance that are initiated by VIT are associated with: 1. a decreased reactivity of effector cells, 2. expansion of T regulatory lymphocytes with IL-10 expression. Therapeutic effectiveness amounts to 90-100% in wasp venom allergy and approximately 80% in bee venom allergy.

  19. [Food allergy in childhood].

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11  months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence.

  20. [Food allergy in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Werfel, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life.

  1. Diagnosing and managing food allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Edward; Fox, Adam; Fitzsimons, Roisin

    2011-06-01

    The prevalence of food allergy in children in the UK is now around 5%. The number of children put on restricted diets by their parents because of presumed allergy is likely to be much higher. Accurate diagnosis of food allergy is essential in order to ensure that the correct foods are carefully avoided while safe foods are not excluded unnecessarily. IgE-mediated (immediate type) reactions are the result of mast cell degranulation leading to histamine release. The typical signs of lip swelling, urticaria and possible progression to respiratory compromise (anaphylaxis) are usually clearly described, occurring within minutes of exposure to the food. Non IgE-mediated (delayed type) responses tend to start 2-6 hours, occasionally longer, after exposure and cause less specific signs/symptoms, less obviously allergic in origin. Where an immediate type allergic reaction is suspected on clinical history, allergy testing should be performed to confirm the diagnosis. This could involve either skin prick testing or specific IgE blood tests. Results must be interpreted in the context of the clinical history. The mainstay of management is allergen avoidance. The child and carers also need to know how to recognise and treat any future allergic reactions. There should be a written emergency plan in place. The plan should include advice to take a fast-acting antihistamine if any accidental exposure and reactions occur. Where there is a history of anaphylactic reaction or ongoing asthma, adrenaline auto-injectors should be prescribed as these are the major risk factors for future severe reactions. Non IgE-mediated food allergy is most common in early infancy. The diagnosis of non IgE-mediated food allergy relies on a two-stage process: strict exclusion of suspected allergen(s), only one at a time; re-challenge with suspected allergen(s), one at a time, to see if symptoms recur.

  2. [Travel and patients with allergies].

    PubMed

    Miltgen, J; N'Guyen, G; Cuguilliere, A; Marotel, C; Bonnet, D

    1997-01-01

    By changing their surroundings and lifestyle, travelers with allergic conditions exposed themselves to new risks. The main perennial allergens are house dust mites which thrive in tropical areas and can be especially sensitizing. The risk of seasonal reactions to grass-pollens varies from region to region. Reactions to some highly sensitizing respiratory allergens can occur in travelers who return to regions where they were previously exposed. Subjects with food allergies should beware of possible reactions to ingredients in exotic dishes. The bites of several insects can cause anaphylactic reactions. Some medications required for tropical travel (e.g. antimalarial drugs) can trigger severe hypersensitivity reactions. Avoidance of allergens is more difficult during travel. Travelers with allergic conditions should carry alert identification cards and medications for routine as well as emergency treatment including self-injectable adrenaline.

  3. Metal allergy in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Goon, Anthony T J; Goh, C L

    2005-03-01

    This is a clinical epidemiologic study to determine the frequency of metal allergy among patch-tested patients in the years 2001-2003. The results are compared with those of previous studies. All patients diagnosed as having allergic contact dermatitis in the National Skin Centre, Singapore, from January 2001 to December 2003 were studied retrospectively. The frequency of positive patch tests to the following metals were nickel 19.9%, chromate 5.6%, cobalt 8.2% and gold 8.3%. The frequency of nickel allergy has been steadily rising over the last 20 years. The most common sources of nickel allergy are costume jewelry, belt buckles, wrist watches and spectacle frames. After declining from 1984 to 1990, chromate and cobalt allergies have also been steadily increasing subsequently. The most common sources of chromate allergy were cement, leather and metal objects. Most positive patch tests to cobalt are regarded as co-sensitization due to primary nickel or chromate allergies. There has been a steep increase in positive patch tests to gold from 2001 to 2003, which is difficult to explain because the relevance and sources of such positive patch tests can rarely be determined with certainty. There has been an overall rise in the frequency of metal allergy in the last 20 years.

  4. Drug and vaccine allergy.

    PubMed

    Kelso, John M

    2015-02-01

    Most children with a history of penicillin allergy are labeled allergic and denied treatment with penicillin and sometimes other beta-lactam antibiotics. Most of these children never were or are no longer allergic to penicillin. Penicillin skin testing and oral challenge can identify patients who are not currently allergic, allowing them to be treated with penicillin. Children with egg allergy are often denied influenza vaccination, because the vaccine contains a small amount of egg protein. However, recent studies have demonstrated that children with even severe egg allergy can safely receive the vaccine, reducing their risk of the morbidity and mortality associated with influenza.

  5. Porcine allergy and IgE.

    PubMed

    Rupa, Prithy; Schmied, Julie; Wilkie, Bruce N

    2009-11-15

    Anaphylaxis was reported in 1963 in pigs experimentally sensitized with ovalbumin and was subsequently associated indirectly with IgE-related antibodies by functional assays to confirm heat-labile passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), reverse passive anaphylaxis (RPA) and Prausnitz-Küstner (PK) reactions to this and other allergens. The immunoglobulin mediating immediate hypersensitivity could be cross-adsorbed with anti-human IgE. Porcine IgE epsilon chain has been cloned and sequenced. Rabbit anti-pig IgE has been described by two groups, as has cross reactivity with pig IgE of various heterologous polyclonal and monoclonal anti-IgEs. Pigs develop transient post-weaning food allergy to soy allergens which can be prevented by pre-weaning feeding of soy proteins in sufficient quantity. Natural hypersensitivity also occurs to nematodes. Recently, experimental allergy has been induced in outbred pigs to peanut and to egg allergens which manifest as respiratory, cutaneous and enteric signs similar to those of human food allergy. These models are platforms for comparative allergy research as realistic alternatives to use of inbred mice or humans for investigation of pathogenesis, prophylaxis and therapy.

  6. Itching for Allergy Relief?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Archived Content The content on ... National Allergy Bureau More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical ...

  7. Dust Mite Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... mite allergy symptoms caused by inflammation of nasal passages include: Sneezing Runny nose Itchy, red or watery ... system produces an inflammatory response in your nasal passages or lungs. Prolonged or regular exposure to the ...

  8. Food allergies (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... upon subsequent exposure to the substance. An actual food allergy, as opposed to simple intolerance due to the lack of digesting enzymes, is indicated by the production of antibodies to the food allergen, and by the release of histamines and ...

  9. Allergies and Hay Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flowering plants rarely cause allergy symptoms. Often fragrant flowers are blamed for the uncomfortable symptoms, yet they ... you should talk to your ENT doctor to make sure they are safe. Some patients do better ...

  10. Ready for Spring Allergies?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to manage symptoms that come with a high pollen count, allergists say To use the sharing features ... seasonal allergies how they prepared for the high pollen counts that come with warmer weather. The survey ...

  11. Fire Ant Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Serious Reaction For people with fire ant allergy, stings may cause a life-threatening reaction called anaphylaxis ( ... Fire ants bite with their jaws while they sting. This allows them to pull the stinger out, ...

  12. NICKEL ALLERGY: Surgeons Beware.

    PubMed

    Axe, Jeremie M; Sinz, Nathan J; Axe, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    When performing an orthopaedic device implantation, it should be routine practice for the surgeon to ask the patient if he or she has a metal allergy, and more specifically a nickel allergy. Ask the patient about costume jewelry or button reactions. If it is an elective surgery, obtain a confirmatory test with the aid of a dermatologist or allergist. It is recommended to use a non-nickel implant if the surgery is urgent, the patient has a confirmed allergy, or the patient does not want to undergo testing, as these implants are readily available in 2015. Finally, if the patient has a painful joint arthroplasty and all other causes have been ruled out, order a metal allergy test to aid in diagnosis.

  13. Allergy to olive pollen: a study of four family members.

    PubMed

    Kalogeromitros, D; Armenaka, M; Toumbis-Ioannou, E; Koumandaki, E; Papasteriades, C; Lombardero, M; Katsarou, A

    2001-01-01

    We describe four family members with respiratory and dermatological manifestations of olive pollen allergy. The purpose of this study was 1) to investigate whether these patients' sera react to the same or different olive allergens, and 2) to identify common HLA class II antigens.

  14. Food Allergy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Shenassa, M. Medhi

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to establish a rational approach to the assessment of children with food allergy related to an immunologic state in which alteration of response to antigenic material has developed after repeated exposure. The author offers a practical approach to the problem of food allergy in children, dispels some of the myths surrounding the disorder, and discusses some of the popular but unproven and controversial practices relating to its management. PMID:21253178

  15. Adipokines and their role in allergies.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, G; Caimmi, D; Raschetti, R; Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Salpietro, C; Caimmi, S; Castellazzi, A M

    2011-10-01

    Both allergic disorders and obesity keep increasing in industrialized countries. Even though a strong association between obesity and allergy- related diseases has been reported in several studies, no published data show a scientific and firm link in-between the two conditions. In general, obesity and weight gain have been associated with an increased risk of asthma and allergic rhinitis. Asthma, allergic rhinitis and obesity have a common inflammatory pattern that could therefore justify their association. In fact, the chronic inflammation that characterizes the increase in white adipose tissue typically pushes the immune system toward a Th2 pattern. Such a polarization might, consequentially, worsen a pre-existing allergic disease or even stimulate the evolution from a sensitization to a respiratory form of allergy. Several studies have been published on the role of different adipokines on allergic diseases. We focus our review on the role of adipokines on asthma and allergic rhinitis.

  16. Platanus acerifolia pollinosis and food allergy.

    PubMed

    Enrique, E; Cisteró-Bahíma, A; Bartolomé, B; Alonso, R; San Miguel-Moncín, M M; Bartra, J; Martínez, A

    2002-04-01

    In Mediterranean areas, oral allergy syndrome (OAS) occurs independently of an associated birch pollinosis; moreover, on occasions it presents with no other associated pollinosis. The aim of this study was to assess the possible association of OAS with Platanus acerifolia pollinosis. We evaluated consecutive patients seen for pollinosis in an allergy department. Seven hundred and twenty patients were selected on the basis of seasonal or perennial rhinitis, or asthma, or both. Respiratory and food allergies were studied in all patients. Clinical history was recorded and examinations and skin prick tests were performed with a battery of available common inhalant allergens and plant-derived food allergens. Specific IgE levels to P. acerifolia pollen extract and food allergens tested were measured. Molecular masses of the IgE-binding proteins and cross-reactivity among the P. acerifolia pollen and different food extracts were also determined. Of the 720 patients evaluated, 61 (8.48%) were sensitized to P. acerifolia pollen. Food allergy was observed in 32 (52.45%) of the 61 patients sensitized to P. acerifolia pollen. Food allergens most frequently implicated were hazelnuts, peach, apple, peanuts, maize, chickpea and lettuce. Enzyme allergosorbent (EAST)-inhibition showed high inhibition values when P. acerifolia pollen extract was used as free phase. On the contrary low inhibition was observed when plant-derived food allergens were used as free phase and P. acerifolia pollen extract as solid phase. Cross-reactivity was observed among P. acerifolia pollen and plant-derived foods. OAS in these patients may have been caused by primary respiratory sensitization.

  17. Hygiene factors associated with childhood food allergy and asthma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Singh, Anne Marie; Walkner, Madeline; Caruso, Deanna; Bryce, Paul J; Wang, Xiaobin; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Smith, Bridget M

    2016-11-01

    Childhood food allergy and asthma rates are increasing. The hygiene hypothesis has been proposed as an explanation for the increased incidence of allergic disease. To describe the association of childhood food allergy and asthma with hygiene factors, such as the number of siblings, antibiotic use, infection history, pet exposure, child care exposure, and maternalchild factors. Children ages 021 years old (N = 1359) were recruited for a cross-sectional family-based study, including children with food allergy and children without food allergy, and their siblings. We assessed the associations between childhood food allergy and asthma with hygiene factors. Of the 1359 children, 832 (61.2%) had food allergy, and 406 (30%) had asthma. In the adjusted analysis, the prevalence of food allergy was increased if there was a history of skin infection (prevalence ratio [RRR] 1.12 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.011.24]) or eczema (RRR 1.89 [95% CI, 1.702.10]). The prevalence of asthma was increased with a history of respiratory syncytial virus infection (RRR 1.60 [95% CI, 1.341.90]) or eczema (RRR 1.54 [95% CI, 1.271.86]). A greater number of siblings were associated with a decreased prevalence of food allergy (RRR 0.79 [95% CI, 0.750.84]) and asthma (RRR 0.82 [95% CI, 0.740.91]). Our findings supported the accumulating evidence of an association between skin infections and eczema with food allergy. Because these results could be subject to recall bias, additional prospective studies are needed to substantiate these findings.

  18. Papain Induced Occupational Asthma with Kiwi and Fig Allergy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Wen, Liping

    2016-03-01

    Papain is a proteolytic enzyme which is widely used in food industry, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Occupational and non-occupational papain allergies have previously been documented; however, there are limited publications about papain allergy with its relative fruit allergy. Here, we present a case of occupational, IgE-mediated papain allergy with kiwi fruit and fig fruit allergy. A 53-year-old man suffered from rhinitis for several years, with the onset of his symptoms coinciding with the time he started to work at a sausage processing plant where papain is often used as a meat tenderizer. He began to experience symptoms of chest tightness, shortness of breath and wheezing shortly after starting work 5 years ago. Furthermore, he experienced several episodes of oral itching, and tongue and oropharyngeal angioedema after injestion of kiwi fruit and fig fruit. The patient had a lifelong history of allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, and childhood asthma. Specific IgE was positive to kiwi fruit, papain and chymopapain (2.95 kUA/L, >100 kUA/L, and 95.0 kUA/L, respectively). Similar bands at 10-15 kDa in blotting with papain and kiwi fruit extracts were found. This patient showed a potential association between papain allergy and sensitization to kiwi fruit. We also reviewed 13 patients with papain allergy published in the literature, with 85% (11/13) of the patients sensitized through the respiratory tract, and 40% (4/11) having atopy. Further studies should focus on the determination of cross-reactive allergens between papain and its fruit relatives, and the prevalence of food allergy in patients with papain allergy should be investigated in a relatively large cohort.

  19. Hygiene factors associated with childhood food allergy and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anne Marie; Walkner, Madeline; Caruso, Deanna; Bryce, Paul J.; Wang, Xiaobin; Pongracic, Jacqueline A.; Smith, Bridget M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood food allergy and asthma rates are increasing. The hygiene hypothesis has been proposed as an explanation for the increased incidence of allergic disease. Objective: To describe the association of childhood food allergy and asthma with hygiene factors, such as the number of siblings, antibiotic use, infection history, pet exposure, child care exposure, and maternal–child factors. Methods: Children ages 0–21 years old (N = 1359) were recruited for a cross-sectional family-based study, including children with food allergy and children without food allergy, and their siblings. We assessed the associations between childhood food allergy and asthma with hygiene factors. Results: Of the 1359 children, 832 (61.2%) had food allergy, and 406 (30%) had asthma. In the adjusted analysis, the prevalence of food allergy was increased if there was a history of skin infection (prevalence ratio [RRR] 1.12 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.01–1.24]) or eczema (RRR 1.89 [95% CI, 1.70–2.10]). The prevalence of asthma was increased with a history of respiratory syncytial virus infection (RRR 1.60 [95% CI, 1.34–1.90]) or eczema (RRR 1.54 [95% CI, 1.27–1.86]). A greater number of siblings were associated with a decreased prevalence of food allergy (RRR 0.79 [95% CI, 0.75–0.84]) and asthma (RRR 0.82 [95% CI, 0.74–0.91]). Conclusion: Our findings supported the accumulating evidence of an association between skin infections and eczema with food allergy. Because these results could be subject to recall bias, additional prospective studies are needed to substantiate these findings.

  20. Treating Allergies, Hay Fever, and Hives

    MedlinePlus

    ... other allergies. Newer drugs include Allegra, Claritin, Clarinex, Zyrtec, and Xyzal. They are available as generics and ... drugs (Benadryl Allergy, Chlor-Trimeton Allergy, Dimetapp Allergy). Cetirizine tablets Loratadine tablets, dissolving tablets, and liquid • The ...

  1. Not all shellfish "allergy" is allergy!

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The popularity of shellfish has been increasing worldwide, with a consequent increase in adverse reactions that can be allergic or toxic. The approximate prevalence of shellfish allergy is estimated at 0.5-2.5% of the general population, depending on degree of consumption by age and geographic regions. The manifestations of shellfish allergy vary widely, but it tends to be more severe than most other food allergens. Tropomyosin is the major allergen and is responsible for cross-reactivity between members of the shellfish family, particularly among the crustacea. Newly described allergens and subtle differences in the structures of tropomyosin between different species of shellfish could account for the discrepancy between in vitro cross-antigenicity and clinical cross-allergenicity. The diagnosis requires a thorough medical history supported by skin testing or measurement of specific IgE level, and confirmed by appropriate oral challenge testing unless the reaction was life-threatening. Management of shellfish allergy is basically strict elimination, which in highly allergic subjects may include avoidance of touching or smelling and the availability of self-administered epinephrine. Specific immunotherapy is not currently available and requires the development of safe and effective protocols. PMID:22410209

  2. Kiwi fruit allergy: a review.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Jane S A; Lewis, Stella A; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B

    2003-12-01

    Allergy to kiwi fruit was first described in 1981, and there have since been reports of the allergy presenting with a wide range of symptoms from localized oral allergy syndrome (OAS) to life-threatening anaphylaxis. The article reviews the available information concerning the clinical features of kiwi fruit allergy and the role of clinical investigations for diagnosis. Work identifying the major allergens in kiwi fruit has resulted in conflicting results, the possible reasons for which are discussed. The clinical associations of kiwi fruit allergy with allergies to pollens or latex are reviewed.

  3. [Animals and fungi as allergy inducers].

    PubMed

    Helbling, A

    2001-05-01

    Pets particularly dog and cat are the men's best friend. In the daily practice respiratory allergy to animal proteins are not uncommon and in some areas the frequency is even higher than allergy to house dust mites. In Switzerland nearly half of the households keeps some kind of a domestic animal with cats followed by dogs as the principal pets. Because the exposure to domestic animals is perennial, allergic symptoms such as rhinoconjunctivitis or asthma usually are less acute than due to pollen or an occupational allergen. The best and most effective management of a domestic animal allergy is to avoid having contact with the relevant pet. Because of personal and emotional conflicts other strategies are employed to reduce allergen levels of the pet such as by washing or by restriction of the territory. For many years, fungal spores have been recognized as potential causes of respiratory allergies. Besides the more community recognized microfungi or molds such as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus or Cladosporium herbarum the class of basidiomycetes--physically the largest and morphologically the most complex fungi--are known to produce allergic symptoms. This class consists of about 14,000 species, including mushrooms, bracket fungi, puffballs, toad stools and jelly fungi, as well as the plant-pathogenic rusts and smuts. Clinically, symptoms due to fungal allergens are not distinguishable from those due to pollen, however, in recent years asthma attacks particularly in young people have been associated with high spore counts in the air. Upon contact fungal components may cause eczema or trigger inflammatory skin eruptions in a subgroup of patients with atopic eczema. Though food allergies to mushrooms are largely anecdotal, a few well documented cases mainly due to Boletus edulis (king bolete or cepe) have been published recently. Since fungal spores are ubiquitous atmospheric components avoidance measures are often not achievable. Nevertheless, some

  4. Allergy and orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, Sunitha; Padmanabhan, Sridevi; Chitharanjan, Arun B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on allergy in orthodontics and to identify the predisposing factors and the implications of the allergic reaction in the management of patients during orthodontic treatment. A computerized literature search was conducted in PubMed for articles published on allergy in relation to orthodontics. The MeSH term used was allergy and orthodontics. Allergic response to alloys in orthodontics, particularly nickel, has been extensively studied and several case reports of nickel-induced contact dermatitis have been documented. Current evidence suggests that the most common allergic reaction reported in orthodontics is related to nickel in orthodontic appliances and allergic response is more common in women due to a previous sensitizing exposure from nickel in jewellery. Studies have implicated allergy in the etiology of hypo-dontia. It has also been considered as a high-risk factor for development of extensive root resorption during the course of orthodontic treatment. This review discusses the relationship and implications of allergy in orthodontics. PMID:24987632

  5. Milk and Soy Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Kattan, Jacob D.; Cocco, Renata R.; Järvinen, Kirsi M.

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) affects 2% to 3% of young children and presents with a wide range of immunoglobulin E (IgE-) and non-IgE-mediated clinical syndromes, which have a significant economic and lifestyle impact. Definitive diagnosis is based on a supervised oral food challenge (OFC), but convincing clinical history, skin prick testing, and measurement of cow’s milk (CM)-specific IgE can aid in the diagnosis of IgE-mediated CMA and occasionally eliminate the need for OFCs. It is logical that a review of CMA would be linked to a review of soy allergy, as soy formula is often an alternative source of nutrition for infants who do not tolerate cow’s milk. The close resemblance between the proteins from soy and other related plants like peanut, and the resulting cross-reactivity and lack of predictive values for clinical reactivity, often make the diagnosis of soy allergy far more challenging. This review examines the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, natural history and diagnosis of cow’s milk and soy allergy. Cross-reactivity and management of milk allergy are also discussed. PMID:21453810

  6. Lettuce contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Fish allergy: in review.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  8. Allergies and Hyperactivity (and sugar)

    MedlinePlus

    ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions ... Vaccine Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > ADHD > Allergies and Hyperactivity Health Issues Listen Español Text ...

  9. Seasonal Allergies: Diagnosis, Treatment & Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Seasonal Allergies Diagnosis, Treatment & Research Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of Contents Diagnosis ... Asthma exacerbation Sinus infection Asthma exacerbation Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Asthma and Allergic Diseases Cooperative Research ...

  10. Occupational allergy to squid (Loligo vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Wiszniewska, M; Tymoszuk, D; Pas-Wyroślak, A; Nowakowska-Świrta, E; Chomiczewska-Skóra, D; Pałczyński, C; Walusiak-Skorupa, J

    2013-06-01

    Occupational allergy from exposure to squid has been rarely described, mainly as contact dermatitis or urticaria. Our report presents the first case of occupational asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis and contact urticaria to squid in a 33-year-old seafood production worker, with documented increased eosinophilia in the nasal and tear fluids after specific inhalation challenge test (SICT) with squid. IgE-mediated sensitization to squid was confirmed by positive skin prick test and opened skin test with squid extract. SICT demonstrated a direct and significant link between the exposure to squid and the allergic response from the respiratory system and conjunctiva.

  11. Peanut allergy and anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Finkelman, Fred D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Peanuts are a frequent cause of food allergy and the most common cause of fatal food-induced anaphylaxis in the U.S. Advances during the past two years have promoted our understanding of peanut allergens and peanut allergy prevalence, etiology, diagnosis and therapy. The advances highlighted in this review include evidence that the peanut allergens most important in disease differ in different parts of the world, that early oral exposure to peanuts may decrease the frequency of peanut allergy, while early non-oral exposure may have the opposite effect, that complement activation by peanut constituents appears to promote peanut-induced anaphylaxis and that oral immunotherapy, anti-IgE antibody and an herbal formulation are promising approaches for treatment of this disorder. PMID:21051210

  12. Determinants of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Masilamani, Madhan; Commins, Scott; Shreffler, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Much has been learned by identifying the molecules that can be recognized by IgE from patients with allergies. Increasingly, by correlating patterns of sensitization with clinical features, it has become possible to distinguish molecules responsible for primary sensitization (complete allergens) from those that are more likely cross-reactive targets. In the case of animal allergens, evolutionary distance seems to be an important factor in determining allergenicity. However, until more is understood regarding the mechanistic details of primary sensitization, including the participation of molecules that stimulate innate immune responses and the repertoire of T-cell antigens, molecules that may or may not themselves be important B-cell antigens, we will not be able to explain fundamental questions, such as why peanut allergy is more severe than soy allergy or why tick exposure is associated with clinically relevant sensitization to a carbohydrate epitope. PMID:22244230

  13. Food allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Baral, V R; Hourihane, J O'B

    2005-11-01

    Food allergy is being increasingly recognised with the highest prevalence being in preschool children. Pathogenesis varies so diagnosis rests on careful history and clinical examination, appropriate use of skin prick and serum-specific IgE testing, food challenge, and supervised elimination diets. A double blind placebo controlled food challenge is the gold standard diagnostic test. Avoidance of the allergenic food is the key towards successful management. IgE mediated food allergy may present as a potentially fatal anaphylactic reaction, and management consists of the appropriate use of adrenaline (epinephrine) and supportive measures. Sensitisation remains a key target for intervention. Disease modifying agents are currently under trial for managing difficult allergies. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach and follow up.

  14. All about Allergies (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old All About Allergies KidsHealth > For Parents > All About Allergies A A A What's in this ... children might have allergies doesn't mean that all of your kids will definitely get them, too. ...

  15. Physician Requirements-1990. For Allergy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorner, Robert N.; Rudzinski, Karen

    Professional requirements for physicians specializing in allergy were estimated to assist policymakers in developing guidelines for graduate medical education. In estimating service requirements for allergy, an allergy Delphi panel reviewed reference and incidence-prevalence and utilization data for 21 conditions that affect the ambulatory care…

  16. Indoor and Outdoor Allergies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhavi; Hays, Amy

    2016-09-01

    In last 30 to 40 years there has been a significant increase in the incidence of allergy. This increase cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Increasing air pollution and its interaction with biological allergens along with changing lifestyles are contributing factors. Dust mites, molds, and animal allergens contribute to most of the sensitization in the indoor setting. Tree and grass pollens are the leading allergens in the outdoor setting. Worsening air pollution and increasing particulate matter worsen allergy symptoms and associated morbidity. Cross-sensitization of allergens is common. Treatment involves avoidance of allergens, modifying lifestyle, medical treatment, and immunotherapy.

  17. [About animal allergy].

    PubMed

    Haahtela, Tari

    2016-01-01

    Although the opinions about animals and animal allergies may be extreme, animals can even be indispensable for the well-being of humans. The immune tolerance of many modern city dwellers is insufficiently developed, predisposing the skin and mucous membranes to allergic inflammation. There is no need in infancy to avoid animals, and animal contacts in early childhood rather protect from the development of allergies. Pet allergens are present in small amounts everywhere, not only in places where they live. General instructions on avoidance do not exist. New forms of desensitization therapy may in the future bring relief for those having strong symptoms.

  18. Position document: IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Martorell-Aragonés, A; Echeverría-Zudaire, L; Alonso-Lebrero, E; Boné-Calvo, J; Martín-Muñoz, M F; Nevot-Falcó, S; Piquer-Gibert, M; Valdesoiro-Navarrete, L

    2015-01-01

    The present document offers an update on the recommendations for managing patients with cow's milk allergy - a disorder that manifests in the first year of life, with an estimated prevalence of 1.6-3% in this paediatric age group. The main causal allergens are the caseins and proteins in lactoserum (beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactoalbumin), and the clinical manifestations are highly variable in terms of their presentation and severity. Most allergic reactions affect the skin, followed by the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems, and severe anaphylaxis may occur. The diagnosis of cow's milk allergy is based on the existence of a suggestive clinical history, a positive allergy study and the subsequent application of controlled exposure testing, which constitutes the gold standard for confirming the diagnosis. The most efficient treatment for cow's milk allergy is an elimination diet and the use of adequate substitution formulas. The elimination diet must include milk from other mammals (e.g., sheep, goat, etc.) due to the risk of cross-reactivity with the proteins of cow's milk. Most infants with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy become tolerant in the first few years of life. In those cases where cow's milk allergy persists, novel treatment options may include oral immunotherapy, although most authors do not currently recommend this technique in routine clinical practice. Enough evidence is not there to confirm the efficacy of elimination diets in the mother and infant for preventing the appearance of cow's milk allergy. Likewise, no benefits have been observed with prebiotic and probiotic dietetic supplements in infants for preventing food allergy. Copyright © 2015 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular Mechanisms of Nickel Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masako; Arakaki, Rieko; Yamada, Akiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Kudo, Yasusei; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact hypersensitivity to metals is a delayed-type allergy. Although various metals are known to produce an allergic reaction, nickel is the most frequent cause of metal allergy. Researchers have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms of metal allergy using animal models and human patients. Here, the immunological and molecular mechanisms of metal allergy are described based on the findings of previous studies, including those that were recently published. In addition, the adsorption and excretion of various metals, in particular nickel, is discussed to further understand the pathogenesis of metal allergy. PMID:26848658

  20. [Allergies in occupational health. Prevention aspects].

    PubMed

    Vicente-Herrero, M T; Iñiguez de la Torre, M V Ramírez; Capdevila García, L M; López-González, A A; Terradillos García, M J

    2012-04-01

    The concern in all countries of occupational health has led to the study of occupational risk factors and their impact on health. But maintaining the health of workers is increasingly complex, especially in occupational allergic diseases, which have increased in parallel with the increased use in industries of potentially irritating chemicals or allergens, leading to skin or respiratory sensitization. Diseases arising from these immunological substances are classified by Spanish Legislation as occupational diseases, as set out in Royal Decree 1299/2006, of November 10, 2006 (Group 1, Group 4 and Group 5). The most important ones in occupational medicine are allergic respiratory diseases and dermatological allergic diseases, although there are other allergies of interest, such as those involving mucous membranes (allergic eye diseases). A joint collaboration between the different medical disciplines involved to improve prevention at work is highly desirable.

  1. Allergy-Friendly Gardening

    MedlinePlus

    ... gardening may also help reduce symptoms. Certain flowers, trees and grasses are better suited for the gardens ... people with outdoor allergies. These include: • Cactus • Cherry tree • Dahlia • Daisy • Geranium • Hibiscus • Iris • Magnolia • Roses • Snapdragon • ...

  2. [Immunology of contact allergy].

    PubMed

    Martin, S F

    2011-10-01

    Contact allergy is a skin disease that is caused by the reaction of the immune system to low molecular weight chemicals. A hallmark of contact allergens is their chemical reactivity, which is not exhibited by toxic irritants. Covalent binding of contact allergens to or complex formation with proteins is essential for the activation of the immune system. As a consequence antigenic epitopes are formed, which are recognized by contact allergen-specific T cells. The generation of effector and memory T cells causes the high antigen specificity and the repeated antigen-specific skin reaction of contact allergy. New findings reveal that the less specific reaction of the innate immune system to contact allergens closely resembles the reaction to an infection. Therefore, contact allergy can be viewed as an immunologic misunderstanding since the skin contact with chemical allergens is interpreted as an infection. The growing understanding of the molecular and cellular pathologic mechanisms of contact allergy can aid the development of specific therapies and of in vitro alternatives to animal testing for the identification of contact allergens.

  3. Going Nuts over Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Some 600,000 children in the US are allergic to peanuts. Of 400 elementary school nurses, 44% cite increased food-allergic students in the past five years. Peanut allergy doubled in children from 1997 to 2002, and yet peanuts are only one of six foods most often causing allergic reactions in children, including milk, eggs, wheat, soy, and tree…

  4. Going Nuts over Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Some 600,000 children in the US are allergic to peanuts. Of 400 elementary school nurses, 44% cite increased food-allergic students in the past five years. Peanut allergy doubled in children from 1997 to 2002, and yet peanuts are only one of six foods most often causing allergic reactions in children, including milk, eggs, wheat, soy, and tree…

  5. Probiotics and allergy.

    PubMed

    Furrie, Elizabeth

    2005-11-01

    Allergy is caused by an immune reaction that is out of all proportion to the antigenic stimuli. Classical allergy is a type I hypersensitivity reaction mediated by the interaction of mast cells (and eosinophils) coated with allergen-specific IgE and a cross-linking allergen. The physiological outcome is inflammation commonly displayed by urticaria, rhinitis, vomiting and diarrhoea, depending on the route of allergen entry. In extreme reactions anaphylactic shock can result that may lead to death. Chronic allergic responses most commonly present themselves as asthma and eczema. All these symptoms are the consequence of an imbalanced immune system making an unsuitable response to an environmental or food antigen. On bacterial colonisation of the colon after birth the appropriate microbiological stimuli is essential to redress the balance of the skewed T-helper 2 immune response present in the newborn. This normal interaction between baby and microbes is thought to be compromised in the Western world, with a reduction in bifidobacteria and an increase in clostridial species, particularly in bottle-fed infants. The use of probiotic therapy to prevent allergic disease has been demonstrated in two studies using a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in neonates. A long-term reduction in allergy has been shown in the test group, with lactobacillus reducing the incidence of atopic eczema. Management of allergy through probiotics has also been demonstrated in infants, using lactobacilli to control atopic eczema and cow's milk allergy. Unfortunately, these positive results have not been repeated in studies with older children and young adults.

  6. Christmas tree allergy: mould and pollen studies.

    PubMed

    Wyse, D M; Malloch, D

    1970-12-05

    A history of respiratory or other allergic symptoms during the Christmas season is occasionally obtained from allergic patients and can be related to exposure to conifers at home or in school. Incidence and mechanism of production of these symptoms were studied. Of 1657 allergic patients, respiratory and skin allergies to conifers occurred in 7%. This seasonal syndrome includes sneezing, wheezing and transitory skin rashes. The majority of patients develop their disease within 24 hours, but 15% experience symptoms after several days' delay. Mould and pollen studies were carried out in 10 test sites before, during and after tree placement in the home. Scrapings from pine and spruce bark yielded large numbers of Penicillium, Epicoccum and Alternaria, but these failed to become airborne. No significant alteration was discovered in the airborne fungi in houses when trees were present. Pollen studies showed release into air of weed, grass and tree pollens while Christmas trees were in the house. Oleoresins of the tree balsam are thought to be the most likely cause of the symptoms designated as Christmas tree allergy.

  7. Update on the bird-egg syndrome and genuine poultry meat allergy.

    PubMed

    Hemmer, Wolfgang; Klug, Christoph; Swoboda, Ines

    Allergy to poultry meat is rare and affects both children and adults. The prevalence of poultry meat allergy is unknown, but presumably is similar to that of red meat allergy. There is no close relationship between allergy to poultry meat and allergy to red meat. Poultry meat allergy may present as primary (genuine) food allergy or as secondary food allergy resulting from cross-reactivity. Secondary poultry meat allergy may arise in the context of bird-egg-syndrome, which is due to sensitization to serum albumins present in many tissues including muscle tissue and egg yolk (Gal d 5). Primary sensitization to serum albumin may happen via the respiratory tract through exposure to pet birds (mainly in adults) or within the context of egg allergy in early childhood. Due to the heat lability of serum albumins, reactions are often limited to the skin upon contact with raw meat. Symptoms from meat ingestion are rare and mostly mild, whereas systemic reactions are common after ingestion of raw or soft-boiled egg yolk. Primary poultry meat allergy is mainly seen in adolescents and young adults, though hypersensitivity may have started already at (pre)school age. Egg allergy is usually absent. Typical symptoms of primary poultry meat allergy include OAS (±dyspnea), gastrointestinal complaints, urticaria and angioedema. Severe anaphylaxis with cardiovascular symptoms is rare. Chicken and turkey meat are highly cross-reactive and responsible for most reactions, while duck and goose meat causes milder or no symptoms. Soups, sausages, and ham represent relevant allergen sources, too. Patients with poultry meat allergy unexpectedly often suffer from concomitant allergy to fish and possibly shrimp. Serum specific IgE against fish and shrimp is found in respectively 60 and 40 % of sera, suggestive of cross-reactive allergens in these foods. The allergens thus far recognized in genuine poultry meat are LMW proteins of 5-25 kDa. One of them has been identified as

  8. [Cypress pollen allergy].

    PubMed

    Charpin, D; Calleja, M; Pichot, C; Penel, V; Hugues, B; Poncet, P

    2013-12-01

    Cypress belongs to the Cupressaceae family, which includes 140 species with non-deciduous foliage. The most important genera in allergic diseases are Cupressus sempervirens or Green cypress, Cupressus arizonica or Blue cypress, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus communis and Thuya. Because J. oxycedrus pollinates in October, C. sempervirens in January and February, C. arizonica in February and March, J. communis in April, the symptomatic period is long-lasting. Because of global warming, the pollination period is tending to last longer and Cupressaceae species are becoming established further the north. In Mediterranean countries, cypress is by far the most important pollinating species, accounting for half of the total pollination. The major allergens belong to group 1. The other allergens from cypress and Juniper share 75 to 97 % structural homology with group 1 major allergens. The prevalence of cypress allergy in the general population ranges from 5 % to 13 %, according to exposure to the pollen. Among outpatients consulting an allergist, between 9 and 35 %, according to different studies, are sensitized to cypress pollen. Repeated cross-sectional studies performed at different time intervals have demonstrated a threefold increase in the percentage of cypress allergy. Risk factors include a genetic predisposition and/or a strong exposure to pollen, but air pollutants could play a synergistic role. The study of the natural history of cypress allergy allows the identification of a subgroup of patients who have no personal or family history of atopy, whose disease began later in life, with low total IgE and often monosensitization to cypress pollen. In these patients, the disease is allergic than rather atopic. In the clinical picture, rhinitis is the most prevalent symptom but conjunctivitis the most disabling. A cross-reactivity between cypress and peach allergy has been demonstrated. The pharmacological treatment of cypress allergy is not different from

  9. Veränderungsmanagement: Utility 4.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstetter, Norbert

    Finden Sie das rechte Maß für Ihre energiewirtschaftlichen Veränderungsvorhaben in "Utility 4.0". Mal was Gutes für Ältere: "Alter Dachs schlägt jungen Hasen". Beim Veränderungsmanagement ist Erfahrung gefragt. Die Bausteine der Veränderung reichen von wie sie mit ihrer Veränderungsgeschichte überzeugen bis wie sie die emotionale Achterbahn der Gefühle auf der individuellen Veränderungskurve bewältigen und wie Veränderungsprojekte auf Gesamtunternehmensebene ablaufen bis zur Frage, wie sie Ihre Macht-/Fachpromotoren und Multiplikatoren in Stellung bringen. Möglicherweise haben Sie die Veränderung in Form eines Start-up-ähnlichen Organisational Slack schon in Ihrem Haus. Nur wissen Sie es noch nicht. Und last but not least: Beschäftigen sie sich mit dem Thema Komplexitätshandhabung. Seien Sie es sich selbst Wert. Seien sie aufmerksam zu sich und ihrer Gesundheit!

  10. [Birch pollen allergy].

    PubMed

    Lavaud, F; Fore, M; Fontaine, J-F; Pérotin, J M; de Blay, F

    2014-02-01

    In the North-East of France, birch is the main tree responsible of spring pollen allergy. However, the epidemiology of sensitization to birch pollen remains unclear. Monosensitization to birch pollen seems rare because of the frequency of cross-reactions with other pollens of the same botanical family via the major allergen Bet v 1. Around one third of patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis due to birch pollen are also asthmatics and a half suffer from a food allergy, essentially an oral syndrome due to rosaceae fruits eaten raw. The molecular allergens of birch pollen are well-known and have been cloned. They are available for use in in vitro diagnostic tests and also in clinical trials of specific immunotherapy.

  11. Immunotherapy in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Toral; Bryce, Paul J

    2010-05-01

    Food allergies are caused by immune responses to food proteins and represent a breakdown of oral tolerance. They can range from mild pruritus to life-threatening anaphylaxis. The only current consensus for treatment is food avoidance, which is fraught with compliance issues. For this reason, there has been recent interest in immunotherapy, which may induce desensitization and possibly even tolerance. Through these effects, immunotherapy may decrease the potential for adverse serious reactions with accidental ingestions while potentially leading to an overall health benefit. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of food allergy and give an overview of the various immunotherapeutic options and current supporting evidence, as well as look towards the future of potential novel therapeutic modalities.

  12. Immunotherapy in food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Kamdar, Toral; Bryce, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Food allergies are caused by immune responses to food proteins and represent a breakdown of oral tolerance. They can range from mild pruritis to life-threatening anaphylaxis. The only current consensus for treatment is food avoidance, which is fraught with compliance issues. For this reason, there has been recent interest in immunotherapy, which may induce desensitization and possibly even tolerance. Through these effects, immunotherapy may decrease the potential for adverse serious reactions with accidental ingestions while potentially leading to an overall health benefit. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of food allergy and give an overview of the various immunotherapeutic options and current supporting evidence, as well as look towards the future of potential novel therapeutic modalities. PMID:20543886

  13. Cow's milk protein allergy in children: a practical guide

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A joint study group on cow's milk allergy was convened by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Allergy and by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Gastroenterology to focus best practice for diagnosis, management and follow-up of cow's milk allergy in children and to offer a common approach for allergologists, gastroenterologists, general paediatricians and primary care physicians. The report prepared by the study group was discussed by members of Working Groups who met three times in Italy. This guide is the result of a consensus reached in the following areas. Cow's milk allergy should be suspected in children who have immediate symptoms such as acute urticaria/angioedema, wheezing, rhinitis, dry cough, vomiting, laryngeal edema, acute asthma with severe respiratory distress, anaphylaxis. Late reactions due to cow's milk allergy are atopic dermatitis, chronic diarrhoea, blood in the stools, iron deficiency anaemia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, constipation, chronic vomiting, colic, poor growth (food refusal), enterocolitis syndrome, protein-losing enteropathy with hypoalbuminemia, eosinophilic oesophagogastroenteropathy. An overview of acceptable means for diagnosis is included. According to symptoms and infant diet, three different algorithms for diagnosis and follow-up have been suggested. PMID:20205781

  14. Cow's milk protein allergy in children: a practical guide.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Baldi, Francesco; Bendandi, Barbara; Calzone, Luigi; Marani, Miris; Pasquinelli, Pamela

    2010-01-15

    A joint study group on cow's milk allergy was convened by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Allergy and by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Gastroenterology to focus best practice for diagnosis, management and follow-up of cow's milk allergy in children and to offer a common approach for allergologists, gastroenterologists, general paediatricians and primary care physicians.The report prepared by the study group was discussed by members of Working Groups who met three times in Italy. This guide is the result of a consensus reached in the following areas. Cow's milk allergy should be suspected in children who have immediate symptoms such as acute urticaria/angioedema, wheezing, rhinitis, dry cough, vomiting, laryngeal edema, acute asthma with severe respiratory distress, anaphylaxis. Late reactions due to cow's milk allergy are atopic dermatitis, chronic diarrhoea, blood in the stools, iron deficiency anaemia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, constipation, chronic vomiting, colic, poor growth (food refusal), enterocolitis syndrome, protein-losing enteropathy with hypoalbuminemia, eosinophilic oesophagogastroenteropathy. An overview of acceptable means for diagnosis is included. According to symptoms and infant diet, three different algorithms for diagnosis and follow-up have been suggested.

  15. Allergy to laboratory animals in laboratory technicians and animal keepers.

    PubMed Central

    Agrup, G; Belin, L; Sjöstedt, L; Skerfving, S

    1986-01-01

    The prevalence of allergy to laboratory animals (LAA) was investigated in laboratory technicians and animal keepers. In a questionnaire 41 of 101 technicians reported symptoms provoked by work with laboratory animals. On clinical investigation 30 were found to have symptoms and signs related to contact with animals, and allergy was confirmed by radioallergosorbent tests (RAST) and skin tests in 19. All had rhinitis and 10 also had bronchial asthma. Forty seven other technicians who had stopped working with laboratory animals showed the same relative numbers of respiratory tract symptoms and of confirmed allergy to laboratory animals as did those currently handling animals. Seven of 23 animal keepers had work related symptoms. LAA symptoms were found in four and confirmed animal allergy in two. All four animal keepers with animal related symptoms had rhinitis, none had bronchial asthma. Positive animal RAST and skin tests were found only among people with animal related symptoms. A history of atopic disease was commoner among those with positive animal test results than among those with negative test results. No relation between smoking and the development of allergy to laboratory animals emerged. Simple prophylactic measures often sufficed to help technicians with animal related symptoms to remain at work. PMID:3947583

  16. Mechanisms of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Helm, R M; Burks, A W

    2000-12-01

    The prevalence of food allergy continues to rise, particularly in 'westernized' societies; it has been linked to the 'hygiene hypothesis' and the increased diversity of food consumption worldwide. The pathogenic mechanisms and Th1/Th2 paradigm are being closely examined with respect to the occurrence of inflammatory and injury/repair responses at different mucosal sites. Genetically modified plants as potential food sources and allergenicity are current topics of controversy.

  17. Probiotics and food allergy.

    PubMed

    Castellazzi, Anna Maria; Valsecchi, Chiara; Caimmi, Silvia; Licari, Amelia; Marseglia, Alessia; Leoni, Maria Chiara; Caimmi, Davide; Miraglia del Giudice, Michele; Leonardi, Salvatore; La Rosa, Mario; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2013-07-29

    The exact prevalence of food allergy in the general population is unknown, but almost 12% of pediatric population refers a suspicion of food allergy. IgE mediated reactions to food are actually the best-characterized types of allergy, and they might be particularly harmful especially in children. According to the "hygiene hypothesis" low or no exposure to exogenous antigens in early life may increase the risk of allergic diseases by both delaying the development of the immune tolerance and limiting the Th2/Th1 switch. The critical role of intestinal microbiota in the development of immune tolerance improved recently the interest on probiotics, prebiotics, antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acid, folate and vitamins, which seem to have positive effects on the immune functions.Probiotics consist in bacteria or yeast, able to re-colonize and restore microflora symbiosis in intestinal tract. One of the most important characteristics of probiotics is their safety for human health. Thanks to their ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and to modulate and stabilize the composition of gut microflora, probiotics bacteria may play an important role in the regulation of intestinal and systemic immunity. They actually seem capable of restoring the intestinal microbic equilibrium and modulating the activation of immune cells.Several studies have been recently conducted on the role of probiotics in preventing and/or treating allergic disorders, but the results are often quite contradictory, probably because of the heterogeneity of strains, the duration of therapy and the doses administered to patients. Therefore, new studies are needed in order to clarify the functions and the utility of probiotics in food allergies and ion other types of allergic disorders.

  18. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development.

  19. [Stress and allergy].

    PubMed

    Radosević-Vidacek, Biserka; Macan, Jelena; Kosćec, Adrijana

    2004-06-01

    Stress is one of the components in the complex interaction of environmental, genetic, physiological, psychological, behavioural and social factors that can influence the body's ability to remain healthy or become healthy, to resist or overcome a disease. Stress can alter neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms of health and disease through various psychosocial processes. In addition, it can affect health through the impact on health-impairing behaviours and on compliance with medical regimens. At the same time, the relationship between stress and health is not unidirectional but bi-directional. Current views on the relation between stress and allergy vary from the denial of any relationship that could fundamentally help in allergy treatment to the widespread opinion that psychological stress can exacerbate some skin symptoms and precipitate asthma. The role of stress in the genesis, incidence and symptomatology of allergy still remains a controversial issue since the mechanisms of that relationship are not well understood. Starting from the biopsychosocial model of disease, we introduced the Social Readjustment Rating Scale which measures stressful life events, and the WHOQOL-BREF which measures subjective quality of life, into an extensive multidisciplinary study of immunotoxic effects of indoor bioaerosols and lifestyle. This paper describes the characteristics of those two questionnaires and discusses the relationship between stress and various domains of the quality of life. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale proved to be a reliable predictor for quality of life in the domains of physical health and environment. Future analyses will examine the role of stress and subjective quality of life in allergy.

  20. Overview of penicillin allergy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Christopher; Mahmood, Mubashar M; Teuber, Suzanne S; Gershwin, M Eric

    2012-08-01

    Allergy to penicillin is the most commonly reported antibiotic allergy. However, most patients who report a positive history of a prior reaction to penicillin are not found to be allergic to penicillin upon skin testing. Often, this history is vague or based on a parent's recollection of an event that occurred in the distant past. Avoidance of penicillin based on self-reported allergic history alone often leads to the use of an alternate antibiotic with greater cost or side effect profile. Patients with a negative skin test to both major and minor determinants may generally be given penicillin, with a statistical risk of developing an allergic reaction similar to that observed in the general population. A more cautious approach in these cases where the degree of suspicion is low, an allergic etiology is unproven, or there is a negative skin test, is to do a graded challenge. If the skin test is positive, an alternate antibiotic should be used. If, however, an alternate antibiotic is not available, then desensitization may be performed, but there are limitations to desensitization as well, and tolerance is not permanent. Avoidance of cephalosporins may be recommended in cases of penicillin allergy, but newer generation cephalosporins have demonstrate less cross-reactivity to penicillin than earlier generation ones. Desensitization protocols for cephalosporins are available but not standardized. The mechanisms of antibiotic sensitization are not clearly understood.

  1. Occupational allergies and asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Tarlo, S. M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review aspects of occupational allergies and asthma for primary care physicians recognizing, diagnosing, and managing patients with these conditions. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Studies in the medical literature mainly provide level 2 evidence, that is, from at least one well-designed clinical trial without randomization, from cohort or case-control analytical studies, from multiple time series, or from dramatic results in uncontrolled experiments. MAIN MESSAGE: Occupational allergies and asthma have the best prognosis with an early, accurate diagnosis and subsequent avoidance of exposure to the relevant sensitizer. These diagnoses can normally be suspected from the clinical history. Primary care physicians can also initiate investigations to make an objective diagnosis, can assess workplace exposure agents from the history, and can review appropriate data sheets on material safety. Specialist evaluation is likely to be needed for skin tests, however, and for other specialized tests (such as pulmonary function assessments at work and off work or specific challenges with the suspected workplace agent). Patients with a confirmed diagnosis need appropriate medical management of their allergic manifestations or asthma, but also often require psychosocial support during the period of investigation and management, especially in relation to required changes in their work and to compensation or insurance claims. CONCLUSIONS: Consider workplace exposure as a source of patients' allergies or asthma and aim to make an early, accurate diagnosis. PMID:10386216

  2. Allergy and cancer.

    PubMed

    Lindelöf, B; Granath, F; Tengvall-Linder, M; Ekbom, A

    2005-09-01

    Conflicting results have provided support for two distinct and contradictory hypotheses: (i) allergy has a protective effect against cancer by enhanced immune surveillance, and (ii) allergy is associated with an increased risk of cancer by chronic immune stimulation. We therefore aimed us to perform a large epidemiological study with a defined allergic disease cohort. During the years 1988-2000, 70 136 patients tested for total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and 57 815 tested with Phadiatop for diagnosing allergic disease at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, were linked with the Swedish Cancer Registry for a virtually complete follow up with regard to cancer. The total number of observed cancers was normal in the total serum IgE-cohort; standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.92-1.04) and in the Phadiatop-cohort: SIR = 0.99 (0.92-1.06) independent of the level of IgE and positive or negative Phadiatop. Specific analysis was done for cancer of the lung, cervix, pancreas, lymphoma, and nonmelanoma skin cancer. None of these forms of cancer had increased risks. The study does not support the hypothesis that allergy has a protective effect against cancer, nor does it support an increased risk.

  3. Latex allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Niggemann, B; Breiteneder, H

    2000-02-01

    Natural rubber is a component of the latex of the tropical Hevea brasiliensis tree which is widely used in the manufacturing of medical devices and a large variety of articles for everyday use. Over a dozen allergens have been identified in the latex of H. brasiliensis. The allergens Hev b 1, Hev b 3, Hev b 6, and Hev b 7 are proteins that are involved in the biosynthesis of rubber or the coagulation of latex. Allergens that are part of the plant's defense system are represented by Hev b 2 and class I endochitinases. The allergens Hev b 4, Hev b 5, and Hev b 8-10 were classified as either structural or housekeeping proteins. Immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions to proteins present in Hevea latex were first described in 1927. Since then, natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy has become an important medical problem for an increasing number of individuals. Sensitization mainly occurs by wound or mucosal contact with NRL devices during surgery or by inhalation of airborne allergens released from powdered latex gloves. The number of surgical interventions and an atopic disposition are the most important risk factors for developing latex allergy, especially in children with spina bifida. Exposure to NRL products should be carefully avoided for individuals who belong to high-risk groups. Initial studies on establishing a latex-free environment for surgery in all spina bifida patients have reported on a decrease in sensitization and allergy to NRL.

  4. Immunotherapy for mold allergy.

    PubMed

    Coop, Christopher A

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this article is to review the available studies regarding mold immunotherapy. A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE to identify peer-reviewed articles related to mold immunotherapy using the following keywords: mold, allergy, asthma, and immunotherapy. In addition, references cited within these articles were also reviewed. Articles were selected based on their relevance to the topic. Allergic responses to inhaled mold antigens are a recognized factor in allergic rhinitis and asthma. There are significant problems with respect to the production of relevant allergen material for the diagnosis and treatment of mold allergy with immunotherapy. Mold allergens contain proteases and should not be mixed with other allergens for immunotherapy. Most of the immunotherapy studies focus on two molds, Alternaria and Cladosporium. There is a lack of randomized placebo-controlled trials when evaluating the efficacy of mold immunotherapy with trials only focusing on immunotherapy to Alternaria and Cladosporium. Additional studies are needed regarding mold allergy and immunotherapy focusing on which molds are important for causing allergic disease.

  5. Globalisation and allergy.

    PubMed

    Castelain, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation brings patients more and more into contact with products or food from other cultures or countries. Europeans may be confronted with allergens not yet known in Europe - such as dimethylfumarate - responsible for contact allergy epidemics. Moreover, "low cost" goods, not always legally imported into Europe, sometimes may lead to European legislation being circumvented and thus bring our patients into contact with components that have been banned from manufacturing processes or strongly regulated, such as nickel in jewelry or telephones, some colouring agents in clothes or preservatives in cosmetics. Disinfection measures for freight containers arriving from other continents into our harbours lead to fumigants and other toxic products contaminating the air and the transported products or goods. Globalisation can not only elicit contact allergy but also airborne contact dermatitis or food allergy. The aim of this paper is not to make an exhaustive review of cutaneous allergic problems elicited by globalisation, but to illustrate this new worldwide problem with a few meaningful examples.

  6. [Allergy to macadamia nut].

    PubMed

    Inaba, Yasuko; Yagami, Akiko; Suzuki, Kayoko; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2007-07-01

    The patient was a 23-year-old female with a history of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and allergic conjunctivitis. In her fourth year of primary school, she ate macadamia nuts and developed oral discomfort and generalized uticaria. In her second year of junior high school, she ate macadamia nuts and developed oral and pharyngeal discomfort, followed by generalized uticaria and dyspnea. At the age of 20 years, she also developed oral discomfort after eating vegetables in a Chinese dish containing macadamia nuts and visited our department for close examination. A scratch test of extract oil (concentration, as is) was positive, and a diagnosis of immediate allergy due to macadamia nuts was made. Thereafter, she avoided macadamia nuts completely and had no further recurrence. This patient developed oral allergy syndrome (OAS) after eating macadamia nuts. However, she was negative for Bet v1 and Bet v2 as allergens in white birch pollinosis, in which OAS has been most frequently reported. She had Japanese cedar pollinosis, but its onset was when she was in her second year of high school. Therefore, it is unlikely that Japanese cedar pollen is a sensitization antigen for macadamia nut allergy.

  7. Food Allergy Research and Education (FARE)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ... Stories Beth F. Food Allergy Mom Christina P. Tree Nut Allergy Mary A. Food Allergy Mom Danielle ...

  8. Nursing students with latex allergy.

    PubMed

    Katrancha, Elizabeth D; Harshberger, Lorri A

    2012-11-01

    Latex allergy affects millions of people in the general population and a higher percentage of health care workers. Nursing students with a latex sensitivity pose a unique challenge for the nurse educator. Students may enter the program with pre-existing latex allergy or develop the allergy during the educational process. This manuscript explores the implications of latex allergies exhibited by the nursing student. It addresses the responsibilities of the educator in the skills or simulation laboratory and during clinical learning experiences. It also offers suggestions for ensuring the safety of the student while reducing the legal liabilities of the educational program. The article addresses possible policy ramifications for nursing schools.

  9. Latex allergy: past and present.

    PubMed

    Meade, B Jean; Weissman, David N; Beezhold, Donald H

    2002-02-01

    Although latex products have been in use for over a century, allergic responses to latex proteins have only been recognized as a serious health problem for the past 15 years. Latex allergy particularly affects two groups, health care workers (HCW) and children with spina bifida (SB). This manuscript provides a brief history of latex allergy, and a review of the following: the manufacturing process for dipped latex products, the 11 latex allergens that have been characterized and received allergen designations by the International Union of Immunological Societies, the methods used in exposure assessment, the epidemiology and clinical management of latex allergy, and the use of animal models in investigating mechanisms underlying latex allergy.

  10. Epidemiology of childhood food allergy.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Ashley A; Gupta, Ruchi

    2013-06-01

    Food allergy is a public health problem that affects nearly 6 million children in the United States. The extent to which children, families, and communities live with food allergies varies as much as the range of clinical symptoms associated with the disease itself. Food allergy is defined as the reproducible adverse event that elicits a pathologic immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated or non-IgE-mediated reaction. Once an allergic child ingests a specific food allergen, the reaction can result in clinical symptoms ranging from mild hives to life-threatening anaphylaxis.Not surprisingly, food allergies have been shown to limit social interactions and impair children's quality of life due to the ubiquity of food where children live, learn, and play. To ensure the safety of our children, the development of sound policy, clinical practice, and health programs must be informed by current research characterizing childhood food allergy at the population level. To set the stage for understanding the current evidence base, this article reviews: 1) epidemiology of childhood food allergy; 2) severity of symptoms; 3) geographic distribution of childhood food allergy; 4) tolerance; 5) economic impact of childhood food allergy; and 6) future directions in childhood food allergy epidemiological research.

  11. Phenotypes of IgE-mediated food allergy in Turkish children.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, S Tolga; Sahiner, Umit M; Buyuktiryaki, Betul; Soyer, Ozge U; Tuncer, Ayfer; Sekerel, Bulent E; Kalayci, Omer; Sackesen, Cansin

    2011-01-01

    Data on food allergy-related comorbid diseases and the knowledge on factors associating specific food types with specific allergic outcomes are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical spectrum of IgE-dependent food allergy and the specific food-related phenotypes in a group of children with IgE-mediated food allergy. Children diagnosed with IgE-mediated food allergy were included in a cross-sectional study. IgE-mediated food allergy was diagnosed in the presence of specific IgE or skin-prick test and a consistent and clear-cut history of food-related symptoms or positive open provocation test. Egg (57.8%), cow's milk (55.9%), hazelnut (21.9%), peanut (11.7%), walnut (7.6%), lentil (7.0%), wheat (5.7%), and beef (5.7%) were the most common food allergies in children with food allergy. The respiratory symptoms and pollen sensitization were more frequent in children with isolated tree nuts-peanut allergy compared with those with egg or milk allergy (p < 0.001); whereas atopic dermatitis was more frequent in children with isolated egg allergy compared with those with isolated cow's milk and tree nuts-peanut allergy (p < 0.001). Children with food allergy were 3.1 (p = 0.003) and 2.3 (p = 0.003) times more likely to have asthma in the presence of allergic rhinitis and tree nuts-peanut allergy, respectively. Interestingly, children with atopic dermatitis were 0.5 (p = 0.005) times less likely to have asthma. Asthma (odds ratio [OR], 2.3; p = 0.002) and having multiple food allergies (OR, 5.4; p < 0.001) were significant risk factors for anaphylaxis. The phenotypes of IgE-mediated food allergy are highly heterogeneous and some clinical phenotypes may be associated with the specific type of food and the number of food allergies.

  12. The management of food allergy in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Muktiarti, Dina

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing worldwide, including food allergy. It is different between countries because food allergy can vary by culture and population. Prevalence of food allergy in Indonesia is unknown; therefore it is not known yet the burden and impact of food allergy in our population. However, we already start to formulate guidelines for diagnosis and management of food allergy, especially cow's milk allergy. PMID:23403763

  13. Heinrich Klüver and the temporal lobe syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nahm, F K

    1997-08-01

    Heinrich Klüver and Paul Bucy described a constellation of symptoms in monkeys following large resections of the temporal lobe that they termed the "temporal lobe syndrome"; now commonly referred to as the Klüver-Bucy syndrome. The aim of this paper is threefold: (1) to review Heinrich Kluver's behavioral studies on monkeys that led up to his temporal lobe experiments with Paul Bucy; (2) to understand why Brown and Schäfer dismissed the behavioral changes in temporal lobe monkeys they had observed fifty years prior to the studies of Klüver and Bucy; and (3) to show that Klüver's phenomenologically motivated conceptual paradigm helped to unify both neuropsychological and neuroanatomical theories regarding the visual and emotive functions of the non-human primate temporal lobe.

  14. Assessment of Cardiac Functions in Infants with Cow’s Milk Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Ece, İbrahim; Demirören, Kaan; Demir, Nihat; Uner, Abdurrahman; Balli, Sevket

    2014-01-01

    Background Cow’s milk allergy is the most common food allergy in children, with rates estimated at 1.9% to 4.9%. Clinical phenotypes of cow’s milk allergy are varied and involve 1 or more target organs, with the main targets being the skin, respiratory system, and gastrointestinal tract. To date, no studies have investigated detailed cardiac function in children with cow’s milk allergy. The current study aimed to investigate cardiac function in infants with cow’s milk allergy. Material/Methods We studied 42 infants with cow’s milk allergy and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Cardiac functions were evaluated by M-mode, pulsed-wave, and tissue Doppler echocardiography. Results There were no significant differences in ejection fraction or mitral and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion between the 2 groups. Pulsed-wave Doppler-derived E/A ratios in mitral and tricuspid valves were similar in both groups. Ea/Aa ratios in the left ventricle posterior wall and right ventricle free wall were lower in patients with cow’s milk allergy than in the control group. The E/Ea ratio in the left ventricle, isovolumic relaxation time, deceleration time, and right and left ventricular myocardial performance indices were higher in patients in the study group. Conclusions Our study identified reduced early diastolic tissue Doppler velocities in infants with cow’s milk allergy. PMID:25098395

  15. Klüver Bucy syndrome following hypoglycaemic coma in a patient with glycogen storage disease type Ib.

    PubMed

    Boudjemline, Alix Mollet; Isapof, Arnaud; Witas, Jean-Bernard; Petit, François M; Gajdos, Vincent; Labrune, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    Patients with type I glycogen storage disease (GSD) have poor tolerance to fasting, sometimes less than 3 hours during infancy. Even though most patients are able, as they get older, to tolerate a longer fasting period, they are at permanent risk for fast-induced hypoglycaemia, even in adulthood. Klüver Bucy syndrome, is characterized by psychic blindness (inability to recognize familiar objects), hypermetamorphosis (strong tendency to react to visual stimulus), increased oral exploration, placidity, indiscriminate hyper-sexuality and change in dietary habits. In this case report, we describe the development of Klüver Bucy syndrome in a 28-year-old man with type Ib GSD, following prolonged and severe hypoglycaemia triggered by a common respiratory infection.

  16. Food Allergy: Tips to Remember

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk, eggs, peanuts, wheat, soy, fish, shellfish and tree nuts. In some food groups, especially tree nuts and seafood, an allergy to one member ... a history of a severe reaction. However,peanut, tree nut fish and shellfish allergy tends to persist ...

  17. Managing Food Allergies in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    1997-01-01

    The number of students with food allergies is increasing, with peanuts the leading culprit. Peer pressure and allergens hidden in baked goods can pose problems for school staff. Children with documented life-threatening allergies are covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act. Principals should reassure parents and use Section 504 guidelines…

  18. Food allergy: is prevalence increasing?

    PubMed

    Tang, Mimi L K; Mullins, Raymond J

    2017-03-01

    It is generally accepted that the prevalence of food allergy has been increasing in recent decades, particularly in westernised countries, yet high-quality evidence that is based on challenge confirmed diagnosis of food allergy to support this assumption is lacking because of the high cost and potential risks associated with conducting food challenges in large populations. Accepting this caveat, the use of surrogate markers for diagnosis of food allergy (such as nationwide data on hospital admissions for food anaphylaxis or clinical history in combination with allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) measurement in population-based cohorts) has provided consistent evidence for increasing prevalence of food allergy at least in western countries, such as the UK, United States and Australia. Recent reports that children of East Asian or African ethnicity who are raised in a western environment (Australia and United States respectively) have an increased risk of developing food allergy compared with resident Caucasian children suggest that food allergy might also increase across Asian and African countries as their economies grow and populations adopt a more westernised lifestyle. Given that many cases of food allergy persist, mathematical principles would predict a continued increase in food allergy prevalence in the short to medium term until such time as an effective treatment is identified to allow the rate of disease resolution to be equal to or greater than the rate of new cases.

  19. Alleged allergy to local anaesthetics.

    PubMed

    Fisher, M M; Bowey, C J

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of true local anaesthetic allergy in patients with an alleged history of local anaesthetic allergy and whether subsequent exposure to local anaesthetics is safe. Two hundred and eight patients with a history of allergy to local anaesthesia were referred over a twenty-year period to our Anaesthetic Allergy Clinic. In this open study, intradermal testing was performed in three patients and progressive challenge in 202 patients. Four patients had immediate allergy and four patients delayed allergic reactions. One hundred and ninety-seven patients were not allergic to local anaesthetics. In 39 patients an adverse response to additives in local anaesthetic solutions could not be excluded. In all but one patient local anaesthesia has been given uneventfully subsequently. A history of allergy to local anaesthesia is unlikely to be genuine and local anaesthetic allergy is rare. In most instances LA allergy can be excluded from the history and the safety of LA verified by progressive challenge.

  20. Allergy to tartrazine in alprazolam.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, M S

    1996-08-01

    Allergy to tartrazine-containing psychotropic medication (especially antidepressants) had been reported. 20 patients of apparent allergy to tartrazine-containing alprazolam brands in 480 patients exposed to the dye are described. Rechallenge with non tartrazine-containing alprazolam brands did not produce the similar allergic reactions.

  1. Clinical Management of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Benjamin L.; Walkner, Madeline; Vickery, Brian P.; Gupta, Ruchi S.

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis Food allergies have become a growing public health concern. Currently the standard of care focuses on avoidance of trigger foods, education, and treatment of symptoms following accidental ingestions. Here we provide a framework for primary care physicians and allergists for the diagnosis, management, and treatment of pediatric food allergy. PMID:26456440

  2. Managing Food Allergies in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    1997-01-01

    The number of students with food allergies is increasing, with peanuts the leading culprit. Peer pressure and allergens hidden in baked goods can pose problems for school staff. Children with documented life-threatening allergies are covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act. Principals should reassure parents and use Section 504 guidelines…

  3. Latex Allergy: Tips to Remember

    MedlinePlus

    ... itself. If you have an allergy, your immune system identifies something that is typically harmless as an invader or allergen. With latex allergy, it overreacts by producing antibodies called Immunoglobulin E (IgE) that can react with contaminating proteins found in the natural rubber latex. These ...

  4. Probiotics for allergy prevention.

    PubMed

    West, C E

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics, given either as a supplement or in infant foods, have been evaluated in randomised controlled trials for allergy prevention. Here, the aim is to give an overview of the results from these primary prevention studies and to discuss current strategies. In most studies, single strains or a mixture of strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria have been used--prenatally, postnatally or perinatally. Several meta-analyses have reported a moderate benefit of probiotics for eczema prevention, and the most consistent effect has been observed with a combined perinatal intervention in infants at high risk of allergic disease due to familial predisposition. In a recent meta-analysis, the use of multi-strain probiotics appeared to be most effective for eczema prevention. No preventive effect has been shown for other allergic manifestations. As long-term follow-up data on later onset allergic conditions (asthma and allergic rhinitis) are available only from a few of the initiated studies, reports from ongoing follow-up studies that are adequately powered to examine long-term outcomes are anticipated to provide more insight. Arguably, the differences in many aspects of study design and the use of different probiotic strains and combinations have made direct comparison difficult. To date, expert bodies do not generally recommend probiotics for allergy prevention, although the World Allergy Organization (WAO) in their recently developed guidelines suggests considering using probiotics in pregnant women, during breastfeeding and/or to the infant if at high risk of developing allergic disease (based on heredity). However, in concordance with other expert bodies, the WAO guideline panel stressed the low level of evidence and the need for adequately powered randomised controlled trials and a more standardised approach before clinical recommendations on specific strains, dosages and timing can be given.

  5. Food Allergies and Eczema.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Sabrina

    2015-07-01

    Eczema is one of the most common skin conditions of childhood. Patients with eczema suffer in a chronic cycle of itch, scratch, and inflammation. For children with severe eczema, constant itching and scratching can have many consequences including skin infections, behavioral issues, and sleep problems. Parents often find themselves searching for a trigger for their child's eczema flare, and after they have switched detergents, applied a thick moisturizer and topical steroids, and removed all wool clothing from their child's wardrobe, they wonder, "Could food allergies be playing a role?"

  6. Formula allergy and intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kerner, J A

    1995-03-01

    There are two major types of adverse reactions in infant formulas: (1) formula allergy/hypersensitivity, which is an immunologic response, and (2) formula intolerance, which is a nonimmunologic response. Formula intolerance can occur in infants with an underlying congenital or acquired enzyme deficiency (disaccharidase deficiency, galactosemia, hereditary fructose intolerance). The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of both reactions are reviewed in this article. The appropriateness of the use of a variety of infant formulas is discussed. Guidelines for the prevention of allergic disease are described as well.

  7. Immunology of Allergy.

    PubMed

    Richerson, H B

    1976-03-01

    Immune reactions, presumably developed to rid organisms of troublesome invaders, are rather frequently associated with responses that result in injury to host tissue. Such responses are manifestations of allergy or hypersensitivity, and involve antibodies of certain immunoglobulin classes, complement components, mast cells and basophils, lymphocytes, macrophages, and various pharmacologic mediators and other soluble substances in an exuberant array of possible combinations. An understanding of clinical hypersensitivity diseases is aided by classifying basic allergic mechanisms into four main types: anaphylactic (Type I), cytotoxic (Type II), complex-mediated (Type III), and cell-mediated (Type IV), which may participate in various combinations in disease states.

  8. [Occupational allergies to bromelain].

    PubMed

    van Kampen, V; Merget, R; Brüning, T

    2007-03-01

    The protease bromelain originating from the pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus) finds frequent use in industry. Exposure to enzyme dusts has long been known to cause occupational allergies. The present paper reviews the results of the evaluation of literature data concerning occupational airway sensitization due to bromelain. Cases of specific airway sensitization caused by bromelain could be shown clearly by the presented studies. Since the symptoms, results of skin prick tests, detection of specific IgE antibodies and results of specific bronchoprovocation tests are consistent, an immunological mechanism can be assumed.

  9. Adult-onset food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kivity, Shmuel

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is increasing in both the pediatric and adult populations. While symptom onset occurs mostly during childhood, there are a considerable number of patients whose symptoms first begin to appear after the age of 18 years. The majority of patients with adult-onset food allergy suffer from the pollen-plant allergy syndromes. Many of them manifest their allergy after exercise and consuming food to which they are allergic. Eosinophilic esophagitis, an eosinophilic inflammation of the esophagus affecting individuals of all ages, recently emerged as another allergic manifestation, with both immediate and late response to the ingested food. This review provides a condensed update of the current data in the literature on adult-onset allergy.

  10. European Symposium on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases: Report of the European Union Parliament Symposium (October 14, 2015).

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Fokkens, W J; Pietikainen, S; Borrelli, D; Agache, I; Bousquet, J; Costigliola, V; Joos, G; Lund, V J; Poulsen, L K; Price, D; Rolland, C; Zuberbier, T; Hellings, P W

    2016-05-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the European Rhinologic Society (ERS), and the European Medical Association (EMA) organized, on October 14, 2015, a symposium in the European Parliament in Brussels on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases, hosted by MEP David Borrelli, and with active participation of the EU Commissioner for Health and Food Safety Vytenis Andriukaitis, MEP Sirpa Pietikainen, Chair of the European Parliament Interest Group on Allergy and Asthma, the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the European Federations of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients Associations (EFA), the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (Ga2len), Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA), and the Respiratory Effectiveness Group (REG). The socioeconomic impact of allergies and chronic airways diseases cannot be underestimated, as they represent the most frequently diagnosed chronic noncommunicable diseases in the EU; 30% of the total European population is suffering from allergies and asthma, and more than half are deprived from adequate diagnosis and treatment. Precision medicine represents a novel approach, embracing four key features: personalized care based on molecular, immunologic, and functional endotyping of the disease, with participation of the patient in the decision-making process of therapeutic actions, and considering predictive and preventive aspects of the treatment. Implementation of precision medicine into clinical practice may help to achieve the arrest of the epidemic of allergies and chronic airways diseases. Participants underscored the need for optimal patient care in Europe, supporting joint action plans for disease prevention, patient empowerment, and cost-effective treatment strategies.

  11. Anidulafungin: ECB, LY 303366, V-echinocandin, VEC, VER 002, VER-02.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    Vicuron Pharmaceuticals (formerly Versicor Inc.) is developing anidulafungin [LY 303366, ECB, V-echinocandin, VEC, VER-02, VER 002], a lipopeptide echinocandin B derivative, for IV treatment of mycoses. Anidulafungin acts against fungal infection by inhibiting beta-1,3-glucan synthase, an enzyme essential for cell wall formation. Anidulafungin was originally developed for oral use by Eli Lilly and was undergoing phase II clinical trials in the UK and the US for the treatment of Candida, Aspergillus and Pneumocystis carinii infections. However, Eli Lilly discontinued development of the oral formulation due to poor oral bioavailability. In May 1999, Versicor obtained exclusive worldwide commercialisation rights to anidulafungin with responsibility for its development and clinical registration. Under the terms of the agreement, Eli Lilly received a signing fee, and will receive milestone payments upon future development of anidulafungin and royalties on future sales. Eli Lilly also retains an option for the development of an oral formulation of the compound. On 3 March 2003, Versicor Inc. of Fremont (California, USA) and Biosearch Italia SpA of Milan (Italy) announced the completion of a merger agreement, whereby Biosearch was merged with and into Versicor in a stock-for-stock exchange valued at US dollars 260.7 million. The combined company temporarily kept the name Versicor until the new name, Vicuron Pharmaceuticals, was announced on 26 March 2003. In January 2003, Versicor announced that positive results from a phase II trial for anidulafungin IV treatment involving 120 patients in the US with invasive candidiasis/candidaemia, have led to another double-blind, randomised phase III trial being conducted in the US, Canada and Europe for this indication. This additional phase III trial will enrol approximately 300 patients to investigate the efficacy of IV anidulafungin (200 mg loading dose followed by 100 mg maintenance dose) versus IV fluconazole for 10 to 42 days

  12. Comparison of School Food Allergy Emergency Plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's Standard Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Jill; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Finnegan, Lorna

    2007-01-01

    Eighty-four percent of children with food allergies have a reaction in school, and 25% of first food reactions occur in schools. An evaluation was conducted comparing food allergy emergency plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's (FAAN) Food Allergy Action Plan. Of the 94 respondents, 60 provided food allergy emergency plans for…

  13. Comparison of School Food Allergy Emergency Plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's Standard Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Jill; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Finnegan, Lorna

    2007-01-01

    Eighty-four percent of children with food allergies have a reaction in school, and 25% of first food reactions occur in schools. An evaluation was conducted comparing food allergy emergency plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's (FAAN) Food Allergy Action Plan. Of the 94 respondents, 60 provided food allergy emergency plans for…

  14. Allergies and Learning/Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, James A.; Nall, Michael

    1994-01-01

    This article describes various types of allergies, how they are diagnosed medically, and the different forms of medical treatment. It also considers how allergies may affect school learning and behavior, the connection between allergies and learning and behavioral disorders, the impact of allergy medications upon classroom performance, and various…

  15. Allergies and Learning/Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, James A.; Nall, Michael

    1994-01-01

    This article describes various types of allergies, how they are diagnosed medically, and the different forms of medical treatment. It also considers how allergies may affect school learning and behavior, the connection between allergies and learning and behavioral disorders, the impact of allergy medications upon classroom performance, and various…

  16. Thresholds in chemical respiratory sensitisation.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Stella A; Arts, Josje H E; Ehnes, Colin; Hindle, Stuart; Hollnagel, Heli M; Poole, Alan; Suto, Hidenori; Kimber, Ian

    2015-07-03

    There is a continuing interest in determining whether it is possible to identify thresholds for chemical allergy. Here allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract by chemicals is considered in this context. This is an important occupational health problem, being associated with rhinitis and asthma, and in addition provides toxicologists and risk assessors with a number of challenges. In common with all forms of allergic disease chemical respiratory allergy develops in two phases. In the first (induction) phase exposure to a chemical allergen (by an appropriate route of exposure) causes immunological priming and sensitisation of the respiratory tract. The second (elicitation) phase is triggered if a sensitised subject is exposed subsequently to the same chemical allergen via inhalation. A secondary immune response will be provoked in the respiratory tract resulting in inflammation and the signs and symptoms of a respiratory hypersensitivity reaction. In this article attention has focused on the identification of threshold values during the acquisition of sensitisation. Current mechanistic understanding of allergy is such that it can be assumed that the development of sensitisation (and also the elicitation of an allergic reaction) is a threshold phenomenon; there will be levels of exposure below which sensitisation will not be acquired. That is, all immune responses, including allergic sensitisation, have threshold requirement for the availability of antigen/allergen, below which a response will fail to develop. The issue addressed here is whether there are methods available or clinical/epidemiological data that permit the identification of such thresholds. This document reviews briefly relevant human studies of occupational asthma, and experimental models that have been developed (or are being developed) for the identification and characterisation of chemical respiratory allergens. The main conclusion drawn is that although there is evidence that the

  17. Food allergy: epidemiology and natural history.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jessica; Johns, Christina B

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is rising for unclear reasons, with prevalence estimates in the developed world approaching 10%. Knowledge regarding the natural course of food allergies is important because it can aid the clinician in diagnosing food allergies and in determining when to consider evaluation for food allergy resolution. Many food allergies with onset in early childhood are outgrown later in childhood, although a minority of food allergy persists into adolescence and even adulthood. More research is needed to improve food allergy diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

  18. Novel approaches to food allergy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2014-06-01

    Food allergies have increased in recent decades. However, they cannot be effectively treated by the current management, which is limited to the identification and avoidance of foods that induce allergies and to the use of medicines for symptoms relief. To meet the medical need of prevention and cure of food allergies, several therapeutic strategies are under investigation. Some newly developed biologics such as anti-IgE antibody and anti-interleukin (IL)-5 antibody directed against significant molecules in the allergic process have shown their potential for the treatment of food allergies. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the therapy that induces immune tolerance and may reduce the need for conventional medication, severity of allergic symptoms and eliminate hypersensitivity. In this article, clinical studies of immunotherapy via subcutaneous, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous routes are extensively reviewed for their safety and effectiveness on various food allergies. In addition, to reduce the risk of anaphylaxis and increase toleragenic immunity, many studies are focusing on the modification of traditional allergens used for immunotherapy. Moreover, a Chinese herbal formulation with potential anti-allergic effects is being evaluated for its efficacy in patients with peanut allergy. Although more studies are needed, accumulated data of current studies represent compelling evidence of curative effects of some strategies and give a hope that food allergies are likely to be successfully treated in the future.

  19. Atopic eczema and food allergy.

    PubMed

    Wassmann, Anja; Werfel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Approximately one-third of children with severe atopic eczema suffer from a food allergy, whereas in adult patients, food allergies are rare. In child patients, three different clinical reaction patterns can be differentiated as follows: (1) immediate-type reactions, (2) isolated late eczematous reactions, and (3) combined immediate-type and late eczematous reactions. In childhood food allergies, food allergens, such as cow's milk or hen's egg, are primarily responsible for allergic reactions, while in adolescents and adults, food allergies often develop consecutively after primary sensitization to pollen allergens. Dysfunctions in the epidermal barrier seem to be vitally important in the development of food allergies in patients with atopic eczema by facilitating sensitization after epicutaneous allergen exposure. Further investigation is required to determine the role of intestinal epithelial barrier defects in the pathogenesis of these allergies as well as the genetic characteristics associated with an increased risk of food allergy. The diagnosis of eczematous reactions to food requires a careful diagnostic procedure, taking into account a patient's history and sensitization patterns. The clinical relevance of sensitization often has to be proven by an oral food challenge, with the rating of the skin condition by validated scores after 24 h and the later evaluation of the eczematous reaction.

  20. Food allergy overview in children.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Sujatha

    2008-04-01

    Food allergies have increased significantly in the past decade. An accurate history is crucial in approaching the management. At the outset, food intolerance must be distinguished from food allergies and, furthermore, these allergies should be classified into either an IgE, Non-IgE, or a mixed response. The clinical features vary from life-threatening anaphylaxis to milder IgE-mediated responses, atopic dermatitis, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The severity of the reaction and the potential risk for anaphylaxis on reexposure should be assessed. Milk, soy, egg, wheat, and peanut allergies are common in children, whereas peanut, tree nut, fish, shell fish allergies, and allergies to fruits and vegetables are common in adults. Structural proteins are important determinants of the severity of the reactions and may often predict the natural history and cross reactivity. Diagnostic work up must be guided by the clinical history. Skin testing and food-specific IgE done by standard methods are very useful, whereas oral challenges may be indicated in some situations. Majority of the patients outgrow their allergies to milk, soy, egg, and wheat, and some to peanut also, therefore, patients should be periodically reassessed. Novel diagnostic techniques which detect specific allergenic epitopes have been developed. Several newer therapies are promising.

  1. Severe forms of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Sarinho, Emanuel; Lins, Maria das Graças Moura

    2017-09-21

    To guide the diagnostic and therapeutic management of severe forms of food allergy. Search in the Medline database using the terms "severe food allergy," "anaphylaxis and food allergy," "generalized urticaria and food allergy," and "food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome" in the last ten years, searching in the title, abstract, or keyword fields. Food allergy can be serious and life-threatening. Milk, eggs, peanuts, nuts, walnuts, wheat, sesame seeds, shrimp, fish, and fruit can precipitate allergic emergencies. The severity of reactions will depend on associated cofactors such as age, drug use at the onset of the reaction, history and persistence of asthma and/or severe allergic rhinitis, history of previous anaphylaxis, exercise, and associated diseases. For generalized urticaria and anaphylaxis, intramuscular epinephrine is the first and fundamental treatment line. For the treatment in acute phase of food-induced enterocolitis syndrome in the emergency setting, prompt hydroelectrolytic replacement, administration of methylprednisolone and ondansetron IV are necessary. It is important to recommend to the patient with food allergy to maintain the exclusion diet, seek specialized follow-up and, in those who have anaphylaxis, to emphasize the need to carry epinephrine. Severe food allergy may occur in the form of anaphylaxis and food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, which are increasingly observed in the pediatric emergency room; hence, pediatricians must be alert so they can provide the immediate diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Primary Prevention of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Greenhawt, Matthew J; Fleischer, David M

    2017-04-01

    Food allergy is estimated to affect approximately 8% of children in the USA. This is a disease without any known treatment or cure and, for some, a disease that can be quite severe, even life-threatening. While recent advances in potential treatment have made remarkable strides, with two food-targeted immunotherapy products now in phase III trials, perhaps the biggest gains in the field have come in the advent of potential preventative strategies to avoid the development of food allergy in high-risk individuals. There have been multiple, randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) performed in the past 5 years that have demonstrated significant risk reduction from early allergen introduction. These include two trials for early peanut introduction and five trials for early egg introduction in the first year of life. The results indicate that primary prevention of food allergy through early allergen introduction may represent a strategy that could potentially avert tens of thousands of children from becoming food allergic. In support of the data for peanut, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently sponsored an addendum to the 2010 food allergy guidelines, specifically recommending peanut be introduced in both high- and standard-risk infants to reduce the risk of developing peanut allergy. To date, no formal recommendations have been made for egg, however. This review will focus on the latest evidence supporting early introduction as a strategy to prevent food allergy, as well as on practical aspects for its successful implementation.

  3. [Asthma and food allergy: report of 163 pediatric cases].

    PubMed

    Rancé, F; Dutau, G

    2002-08-01

    The prevalence of food as a cause for asthma is not well known. The aim of this study was to define with standardized tests the incidence of food-induced asthma, the distribution of foods allergens in asthmatic children with food allergy. The study was carried on 163 asthmatic children with food allergy followed during average of 5.5 years. Asthma has been identified with pulmonary function tests (reversibility of FEV1 to bronchodilators) and food allergy has been documented by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). Familial atopic disease was found in 148 children (90.7%). Inhalant sensitization was documented in 132 children (81%). Positive DBPCFC were observed in 250 of 385 challenges (65%) carried on these 163 children. The most frequent offending foods were, sometimes in association, peanut (30.6%), egg (23.1%), cow's milk (9.3%), mustard (6.9%), codfish (6%), shrimp (4.5%), kiwi fruit (3.6%), hazelnut (2.7%), cashew nut (2.1%), almond (1.5%), garlic (1.2%). Symptoms occurring during DBPCFC were cutaneous (143 cases, 59%), respiratory symptoms (58 cases, 23.9%), gastrointestinal symptoms (28 cases, 11.5%) and 15 anaphylactic shock (6.1%). Respiratory symptoms were oral allergy syndrome in 13 cases (5.3%), rhinoconjunctivitis in 15 cases (6.1%), asthma in 23 cases (9.5%). Only seven of these children had asthma only (2.8% of cases). The prevalence of asthma induced by food allergy is low. In our study, asthma induced by food allergy concerned 9.5% of cases and asthma alone was identified in only 2.8% of cases. We observed new food allergens associated with respiratory symptoms such as kiwi fruit, tree-nuts (hazelnut, cashew) and spices. Diagnosis relied upon data obtained from history, skin prick-tests and specific IgE. Oral food challenge is the corner stone of the diagnosis. Asthma induced by food allergens is potentially severe leading to prescribe to these patients a first aid kit with bronchodilators and epinephrine auto-injectors.

  4. International Consensus on drug allergy.

    PubMed

    Demoly, P; Adkinson, N F; Brockow, K; Castells, M; Chiriac, A M; Greenberger, P A; Khan, D A; Lang, D M; Park, H-S; Pichler, W; Sanchez-Borges, M; Shiohara, T; Thong, B Y- H

    2014-04-01

    When drug reactions resembling allergy occur, they are called drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) before showing the evidence of either drug-specific antibodies or T cells. DHRs may be allergic or nonallergic in nature, with drug allergies being immunologically mediated DHRs. These reactions are typically unpredictable. They can be life-threatening, may require or prolong hospitalization, and may necessitate changes in subsequent therapy. Both underdiagnosis (due to under-reporting) and overdiagnosis (due to an overuse of the term ‘allergy’) are common. A definitive diagnosis of such reactions is required in order to institute adequate treatment options and proper preventive measures. Misclassification based solely on the DHR history without further testing may affect treatment options, result in adverse consequences, and lead to the use of more-expensive or less-effective drugs, in contrast to patients who had undergone a complete drug allergy workup. Several guidelines and/or consensus documents on general or specific drug class-induced DHRs are available to support the medical decision process. The use of standardized systematic approaches for the diagnosis and management of DHRs carries the potential to improve outcomes and should thus be disseminated and implemented. Consequently, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (iCAALL), formed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI), and the World Allergy Organization (WAO), has decided to issue an International CONsensus (ICON) on drug allergy. The purpose of this document is to highlight the key messages that are common to many of the existing guidelines, while critically reviewing and commenting on any differences and deficiencies of evidence, thus providing a comprehensive reference document for the diagnosis and management of

  5. Allergy and Occupation

    PubMed Central

    Lees, R. E. M.

    1982-01-01

    The skin and the respiratory tract are susceptible to sensitization by a wide range of substances encountered in the occupational environment. The responses of these two anatomical sites are discussed with particular attention to late and dual asthmatic reactions, which may cause diagnostic problems for the unwary. There are few data on the incidence and prevalence of occupational allergic reactions, but some estimated frequencies are given. Tables list the major industrial skin and respiratory sensitizing agents. The importance of a detailed history is stressed, as is the role of the family physician in identifying and documenting agents capable of sensitizing exposed workers. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:21286199

  6. The natural history of persistent peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Neuman-Sunshine, Dara L; Eckman, John A; Keet, Corinne A; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Peng, Roger D; Lenehan, Patrick J; Wood, Robert A

    2012-05-01

    Peanut allergy affects 1% of children, and for those with persistent disease, few data have been published on trends in peanut-specific immunoglobulin E (P-IgE) levels or the value of P-IgE in predicting reaction severity. The primary outcome was the frequency of inadvertent peanut exposure. Secondary outcomes included clinical characteristics, trends in P-IgE, characteristics of accidental exposures, and predictors of reaction severity in patients with persistent peanut allergy. Records of patients with persistent peanut allergy were reviewed. Other allergic conditions, P-IgE levels, and peanut exposures were documented. Seven hundred eighty-two patients were studied, 524 of them male. The median age at initial observation was 1.4 years; the median duration of follow-up was 5.3 years. Of the 782 patients, 93.1% were avoiding other foods, 70.8% had atopic dermatitis, 57.3% allergic rhinitis, and 55.8% asthma. The median initial P-IgE was 28.0 kU/L, and the median peak P-IgE was 68.1. Six hundred eighty-five exposures were seen among 455 patients: 75.9% ingestion, 13.6% contact, 4.5% airborne. 73.7% resulted in urticaria/angioedema, 22.2% lower respiratory symptoms, 21.2% gastrointestinal symptoms, and 7.7% oral erythema/pruritus. Treatment included antihistamines (33.4%), emergency department visits (16.5%), epinephrine (13.1%), corticosteroids (7.7%), albuterol (3.2%), no treatment (26.3%), and not recorded (29.6%). The rate of postdiagnosis ingestion was 4.7%/year; exposures with severe reactions, 1.6%/year; reactions treated with epinephrine, 1.1%/year. Reaction severity did not change with repeated exposure. Severe reactions were associated with higher P-IgE, but not with age, sex, or asthma. In this referral population, the rates of accidental peanut exposures and severe reactions were low. There was a strong association between higher P-IgE levels and reaction severity. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier

  7. Current understanding of egg allergy

    PubMed Central

    Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Wang, Julie

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Egg is one of the most important allergens in childhood feeding, and egg allergy can pose quality of life concerns. A clear clinical history and the detection of egg white specific IgE will confirm the diagnosis of IgE-mediated reactions. Non-IgE-mediated symptoms such as in eosinophilic diseases of the gut might also be observed. Egg avoidance and education regarding the treatment of allergic reactions are the cornerstones of management of egg allergy. In this review, we discuss epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment and natural history of egg allergy. PMID:21453811

  8. Probiotics and prebiotics in preventing food allergy and eczema.

    PubMed

    Kuitunen, Mikael

    2013-06-01

    To describe the current literature on clinical trials of probiotics for eczema and food allergy prevention in view of recent new approaches and long-term follow-ups. Attempting allergy prevention by probiotic administration has been most successful when assessing atopic eczema, the most prevalent allergic disease at an early age. More than half of the published studies demonstrate a decrease in eczema prevalence until 2 years, whereas the remaining studies fail to show an effect. Effects have been most consistent with combined prenatal and direct postnatal supplementation of the infant and appear strain-specific, with Lactobacillus rhamnosus most often showing an effect. Prenatal-only and postnatal-only studies often fail to show effects. Recent long-time follow-ups have shown promising but not consistent results. A very recent follow-up of a large well conducted cohort shows that long-term effects of eczema prevention persists until age 4 and prevention of respiratory allergies might also be possible. Prevention of eczema with probiotics seem to work until age 2 years and extended effects until 4 years have been shown in high-risk for allergy cohorts. Effects are strain-specific, with L. rhamnosus showing the most consistent effects especially when combining pre and postnatal administration.

  9. Respiratory papillomas

    PubMed Central

    Alagusundaramoorthy, Sayee Sundar; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Papillomas are known to occur in the lower respiratory tract. They are however, rare compared to their occurrence in the upper respiratory tract. These are generally exophytic tumors in the more proximal upper airways however cases with more distal location with an inverted growth pattern have also been described in the literature. These can be solitary or multiple and multifocality associated with multiple papillomas in the upper respiratory/aerodigestive tract. The four major types of respiratory papillomas are (1) Recurrent respiratory papillomas, (2) solitary squamous papillomas, (3) solitary glandular papillomas, (4) mixed papillomas. We review the incidence, etiopathology, diagnosis, and possible treatment modalities and algorithms for these respiratory papillomas. PMID:27625447

  10. Allergies and Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction in a Youth Academy and Reserve Professional Soccer Team.

    PubMed

    Bougault, Valérie; Drouard, François; Legall, Franck; Dupont, Grégory; Wallaert, Benoit

    2017-09-01

    A high prevalence of respiratory allergies and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) has been reported among endurance athletes. This study was designed to analyze the frequency of sensitization to respiratory allergens and EIB in young soccer players. Prospective cohort design. Youth academy and reserve professional soccer team during the seasons 2012 to 2013 and 2013 to 2014. Eighty-five soccer players (mean age: 20 ± 4 years) participated. Players underwent skin prick tests (SPTs) during the seasons 2012 to 2013 and 2013 to 2014. Spirometry and a eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea test were performed on soccer players during the first season 2012 to 2013 (n = 51) to detect EIB. Two self-administered questionnaires on respiratory history and allergic symptoms (European Community Respiratory Health Survey and Allergy Questionnaire for Athletes) were also distributed during both seasons (n = 59). The number of positive SPTs, exercise-induced respiratory symptoms, presence of asthma, airway obstruction, and EIB. Forty-nine percent of players were sensitized to at least one respiratory allergen, 33% reported an allergic disease, 1 player presented airway obstruction at rest, and 16% presented EIB. Factors predictive of EIB were self-reported exercise-induced symptoms and sensitization to at least 5 allergens. Questioning players about exercise-induced respiratory symptoms and allergies as well as spirometry at the time of the inclusion medical checkup would improve management of respiratory health of soccer players and would constitute inexpensive preliminary screening to select players requiring indirect bronchial provocation test or SPTs. This study showed that despite low frequencies, EIB and allergies are underdiagnosed and undertreated in young soccer players.

  11. Allergies in children

    PubMed Central

    Chad, Zave

    2001-01-01

    Allergic diseases in children have increased significantly in recent years and now affect up to 35% of children. They are a major cause of morbidity in children. Although there is a genetic predisposition, it is the exposure to environmental allergens, irritants and infections that will determine the sensitization to different dietary and inhalant allergens. As the genetic and environmental factors that act on an immature cellular immune system are better elucidated and their roles established, the implementation of more enduring preventive efforts will be developed. However, at present, the best approach to the child at high risk for the development of allergies is to institute dietary and environmental control measures early to decrease sensitization, and to recognize and appropriately treat the evolving signs and symptoms of allergic disease. PMID:20084126

  12. Contact allergy to dimethacrylate.

    PubMed

    Vaswani, Ravi; Kim, Soon Ja; Sanchez, Adrian; Vaswani, Surender

    2012-01-01

    Contact allergy to methacrylates is uncommon. We present a 55-year-old woman with a 10-year history of persistent pruritus and burning sensation of the gums every time she wore her dentures. Initially she developed swelling and erythema of the face soon after the dentures were placed on the gums. These symptoms abated after a barrier liner was applied between her gums and the dentures. However, the burning sensation and pruritus of the gums progressively worsened and she started to develop blisters on the gums. The skin allergen patch test was 3+ positive with erythema, edema, papules, ulceration, and pruritus for the denture component dimethacrylate. The diagnosis was supported by the patient's medical history, notably positive patch test, and complete amelioration of the symptoms upon cessation of dimethacrylate denture usage.

  13. [Insect venom allergies].

    PubMed

    Przybilla, Bernhard; Ruëff, Franziska

    2003-10-01

    Systemic IgE-mediated immediate type reactions (anaphylaxis) due to honeybee or vespid stings are potentially life-threatening; they are reported in up to 5% of the general population. Insect venom allergy is diagnosed by history, skin testing and measurement of insect venom-specific serum IgE; sometimes additional tests are needed. The diagnosis is based on the history of a systemic allergic immediate type sting reaction, without such a medical history any other "positive" test results are irrelevant. Nearly always, patients with systemic allergic sting reactions can be protected from further episodes of anaphylaxis by a carefully performed hyposensitization (specific immunotherapy). If therapeutic efficacy has been proven by tolerance of a re-sting, hyposensitization can be frequently stopped after 3 to 5 years. Patients with a particular risk of frequent re-stings or of very severe sting reactions may have to be treated for a longer time, some of them even life-long.

  14. Immunotherapy for peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Lee, T H; Chan, June; Lau, Vivian W Y; Lee, W L; Lau, P C; Lo, M H

    2014-08-01

    Peanut allergy is one of the commonest food hypersensitivities causing fatal or near-fatal reactions. There is, currently, no preventive treatment and the incidence of severe allergic reactions during peanut desensitisation has limited its clinical use. Anti-immunoglobulin E therapy has been shown to be effective in preventing peanut-induced reactions but it does not result in long-term tolerance. Two important advances have recently been reported. One involves gradual oral introduction of peanut protein to desensitise, whereas the other approach uses a combination of anti-immunoglobulin E and oral peanut immunotherapy. Both approaches could offer a way to desensitise with a far greater margin of safety than has, hitherto, been reported. This article provides an overview of the literature on peanut immunotherapy and describes the experience in a small group of children in Hong Kong who were treated successfully using anti-immunoglobulin E combined with oral peanut desensitisation.

  15. Ragweed allergy: Pollen count and sensitization and allergy prevalence in two Italian allergy centers

    PubMed Central

    Ariano, Renato; Berra, Daniele; Chiodini, Elena; Ortolani, Valeria; Cremonte, Luigi Giovanni; Mazzarello, Maria Gabriella; Galdi, Eugenia; Calosso, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ragweed allergy represents a challenge for allergists due to its increase in some geographic areas, mainly northern Italy. Objectives: To compare two allergy centers in northern Italy by analyzing both the pollen count and the patient characteristics (sensitization and allergy prevalence) over a 10-year period. Methods: Pollen counts for 10 years (2004–2013) were evaluated and compared in the two centers. Characteristics of patients who were sensitized and allergic to ragweed were analyzed. Results: There was a significantly higher pollen count in Busto Arsizio than in Novi Ligure (p < 0.001). The patients who were seen in the Busto Arsizio center showed more frequent sensitization (p < 0.01) and allergy (p < 0.05) to ragweed than patients who were seen in the Novi Ligure center. The pollen count was significantly (p < 0.01) associated with sensitization and allergy difference. Allergic asthma was more frequent (p < 0.05) in Busto Arsizio. Conclusions: The pattern of sensitization and allergy prevalence seemed to be associated with ragweed pollen pressure, such as quantity. The knowledge of the pollen count is relevant in clinical practice, mainly for the management of patients with allergy. PMID:26686209

  16. A twin study of perfume-related respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Elberling, J; Lerbaek, A; Kyvik, K O; Hjelmborg, J

    2009-11-01

    Respiratory symptoms from environmental perfume exposure are main complaints in patients with multiple chemical sensitivities and often coincide with asthma and or eczema. In this population-based twin study we estimate the heritability of respiratory symptoms related to perfume and if co-occurrences of the symptoms in asthma, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema or contact allergy are influenced by environmental or genetic factors common with these diseases. In total 4,128 twin individuals (82%) responded to a questionnaire. The heritability of respiratory symptoms related to perfume is 0.35, 95%CI 0.14-0.54. Significant associations (p<0.05) between perfume-related respiratory symptoms and asthma, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema or contact allergy are not attributable to shared genetic or shared environmental/familial factors, except possibly for atopic dermatitis where genetic pleiotropy with respiratory symptoms to perfume is suggested by an estimated genetic correlation of 0.39, 95%CI 0.09-0.72.

  17. Respiratory Failure

    MedlinePlus

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can' ...

  18. Respiratory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  19. All about Allergies (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pollen allergy as hay fever or rose fever). Trees, weeds, and grasses release these tiny particles into ... happen. For example, in the mid-Atlantic states, tree pollination begins in February and lasts through May, ...

  20. Finding Relief from Allergy's Grip

    MedlinePlus

    ... not cause drowsiness and have very few side effects. However, antihistamines do not effectively treat severe allergy symptoms or nasal swelling (congestion). Topical nasal steroids. These anti-inflammatory nasal sprays help by decreasing the number of ...

  1. Food Allergy Treatment for Hyperkinesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Doris J.

    1979-01-01

    Eleven hyperactive children (6 to 15 years old) were treated with a food extract after titration food allergy testing. They remained improved for 1 to 3 months while ingesting the foods to which they were sensitive. (Author)

  2. Introduction to allergy treatment (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... first course of action is to avoid the allergen if possible. Medications such as antihistamines are then ... or "allergy shots", is occasionally recommended if the allergen cannot be avoided. It includes regular injections of ...

  3. Latex Allergy: A Prevention Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... chemicals added to latex during harvesting, processing, or manufacturing. These chemicals can cause a skin rash similar ... allergy. However, they may reduce reactions to chemical additives in the latex (allergic contact dermatitis). Use appropriate ...

  4. Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities Page Content Article Body Human breast milk ... tell your pediatrician about your family’s medical history. Food Sensitivities A few mothers notice minor reactions to ...

  5. Food Allergy Treatment for Hyperkinesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Doris J.

    1979-01-01

    Eleven hyperactive children (6 to 15 years old) were treated with a food extract after titration food allergy testing. They remained improved for 1 to 3 months while ingesting the foods to which they were sensitive. (Author)

  6. Molecular diagnosis of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Susan M H; Dumitru, Catalina; Turcanu, Victor

    2012-11-01

    Peanut allergy prevalence has increased in developed countries over the last few decades in the frame of the allergy epidemics, currently affecting 1-2% of children. While less frequent in developing countries, its prevalence is rising as these countries adopt a more westernized lifestyle. There is no curative treatment for peanut allergy at present so patient management relies on peanut avoidance, which requires an accurate diagnosis. Recent progress in peanut allergy diagnosis was made with the introduction of component resolved diagnosis that allows the assessment of IgE specific to individual peanut allergens. Component-resolved diagnosis needs to be interpreted in the context of clinical data but overall increases the diagnostic accuracy, as described in the typical cases that we present. Novel diagnostic tools have been proposed recently, such as the basophil activation test, mRNA expression and resonance magnetic evaluation of biomarkers.

  7. Allergy Relief for Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... giving these products to children. back to top Immune System Reaction An allergy is the body’s reaction to a specific substance, or allergen. Our immune system responds to the invading allergen by releasing histamine ...

  8. Latex allergy: a nursing update.

    PubMed

    Kramper, M A

    2000-01-01

    Latex allergy emerged in the 1990's as a significant and challenging public health concern for patients as well as healthcare workers. This article provides a review of this complex health care challenge. Understanding latex allergy production and sources of exposure will provide a background to explore the immunological implications of this exposure risk. Diagnostic and treatment measures are reviewed. The focus of this article is to increase awareness and encourage prevention of this growing health concern.

  9. Liver damage and isoniazid allergy

    PubMed Central

    Assem, E. S. K.; Ndoping, N.; Nicholson, H.; Wade, J. R.

    1969-01-01

    A patient with pulmonary tuberculosis developed jaundice and manifestations of generalized allergic reaction while receiving combined treatment with streptomycin, p-aminosalicylate and isonicotinic acid hydrazide. Amongst various tests for allergy, the lymphocyte transformation test provided evidence of allergy to isonicotinic acid hydrazide. Follow-up suggested successful `desensitization', and plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase showed only a temporary tendency to rise whilst desensitization was being carried out. PMID:5359962

  10. Future therapies for food allergies.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Sampson, Hugh A

    2011-03-01

    Food allergy is an increasingly prevalent problem in westernized countries, and there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy. A number of therapeutic strategies are under investigation targeting foods that most frequently provoke severe IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions (peanut, tree nuts, and shellfish) or are most common in children, such as cow's milk and hen's egg. Approaches being pursued are both food allergen specific and nonspecific. Allergen-specific approaches include oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapy (desensitization) with native food allergens and mutated recombinant proteins, which have decreased IgE-binding activity, coadministered within heat-killed Escherichia coli to generate maximum immune response. Diets containing extensively heated (baked) milk and egg represent an alternative approach to food oral immunotherapy and are already changing the paradigm of strict dietary avoidance for patients with food allergy. Nonspecific approaches include monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies, which might increase the threshold dose for food allergen in patients with food allergy, and a Chinese herbal formulation, which prevented peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a murine model and is currently being investigated in clinical trials. The variety of strategies for treating food allergy increases the likelihood of success and gives hope that accomplishing an effective therapy for food allergy is within reach. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Geographical differences in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Bartra, Joan; García-Moral, Alba; Enrique, Ernesto

    2016-06-01

    Food allergy represents a health problem worldwide and leads to life-threatening reactions and even impairs quality of life. Epidemiological data during the past decades is very heterogeneous because of the use of different diagnostic procedures, and most studies have only been performed in specific geographical areas. The aim of this article is to review the available data on the geographical distribution of food allergies at the food source and molecular level and to link food allergy patterns to the aeroallergen influence in each area. Systematic reviews, meta-analysis, studies performed within the EuroPrevall Project and EAACI position papers regarding food allergy were analysed. The prevalence of food allergy sensitization differs between geographical areas, probably as a consequence of differences among populations, their habits and the influence of the cross-reactivity of aeroallergens and other sources of allergens. Geographical differences in food allergy are clearly evident at the allergenic molecular level, which seems to be directly influenced by the aeroallergens of each region and associated with specific clinical patterns.

  12. Occupational allergy to pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Occupational allergy in healthcare workers is common and can lead to significant costs from both loss of productivity within the workforce as well as those associated with diagnosis and treatment. This review aims to provide an update on drugs implicated in causing occupational allergy. Drugs traditionally reported as causing occupational allergy, such as penicillin, remain problematic. However, as their use reduces and newer drugs, such as cephalosporins, are used more frequently there is a changing pattern to occupational sensitization. In some studies up to 17% of healthcare workers now appear sensitized to cephalosporins. Other drug classes also reported include proton pump inhibitors and benzodiazepines. Interestingly, drugs such as omeprazole and tetrazepam rarely cause allergy in patients but can be very sensitizing if applied topically or inhaled. Recent studies involving pharmaceutical company employees show that this problem can no longer be considered primarily related to healthcare workers. The diagnosis of occupational allergy to drugs can be complicated and has been shown to take up to 5 years from the onset of symptoms. Ultimately, workplace avoidance remains key; however, an up to date awareness of culprit drugs and the patterns of allergy seen are key to a prompt resolution of symptoms.

  13. European symposium on precision medicine in allergy and airways diseases: report of the European Union parliament symposium (October 14, 2015).

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Fokkens, W J; Pietikainen, S; Borrelli, D; Agache, I; Bousquet, J; Costigliola, V; Joos, G; Lund, V J; Poulsen, L K; Price, D; Rolland, C; Zuberbier, T; Hellings, P W

    2015-12-01

    On 14 October 2015, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the European Rhinologic Society (ERS) and the European Medical Association (EMA) organized a symposium in the European Parliament in Brussels on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases, hosted by MEP David Borrelli and with active participation of the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the European Federations of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients Associations (EFA), the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (Ga2len), Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) and the Respiratory Effectiveness Group (REG). MEP Sirpa Pietikainen, Chair of the European Parliament Interest Group on Allergy and Asthma, underlined the importance of the need for a better diagnostic and therapeutic approach for patients with Allergies and Chronic Airways Diseases, and encouraged a joint initiative to control the epidemic of Allergy and Asthma in Europe. The socio-economic impact of allergies and chronic airways diseases cannot be underestimated, as they represent the most frequently diagnosed chronic non-communicable diseases in the EU. Despite the fact that 30% of the total European population is nowadays suffering from allergies and asthma, more than half of these patients are deprived from adequate diagnosis and treatment. Precision Medicine represents a novel approach in medicine, embracing 4 key features: personalized care based on molecular, immunologic and functional endotyping of the disease, with participation of the patient in the decision making process of therapeutic actions, and taking into account predictive and preventive aspects of the treatment. Implementation of Precision Medicine into clinical practice may help to achieve the arrest of the Epidemic of Allergies and Chronic Airways Diseases. This report summarizes the key messages delivered during the symposium by the speakers, including the EU Commissioner for Health and Food Safety Vitenys Andriukaitis. The

  14. Impact of Food Allergy on Asthma in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergy was common, with 24% of the asthmatic students having food allergy, and 12% having multiple food allergies. The ... burden in these inner-city school children. Specifically, students with food allergies and asthma reported more asthma symptoms, were ...

  15. Complementary and alternative interventions in asthma, allergy, and immunology.

    PubMed

    Bielory, Leonard

    2004-08-01

    To review which herbs are most commonly used as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of asthma, allergy, and immunologic conditions. A review of the literature was performed using the PubMed and OVID databases searching the keywords asthma, allergy, and CAM to identify studies published between 1980 and 2003 that focused on Echinacea (Echinacea augustifolia, Echinacea pallida, and Echinacea purpurea); garlic (Allium); angelica; chamomile; ephedra; gingko; grape seed extract; licorice root (Glycyrrhiza); St. John's wort (Hypericum); kava kava (Piper); peppermint oil and leaf (Mentha); stinging nettle (Urtica); and ginseng (Panax) published in the English and German literature. Studies included in vitro and in vivo clinical trials and case reports selected according to the expert opinion of the author. Echinacea is one of the most common herbs used to treat symptoms of the "common cold" or upper respiratory tract allergies. Although no common drug interactions have been reported, there is a risk of hepatotoxicity, exacerbation of allergies and asthma, and anaphylactic reactions. Garlic is primarily used for cardiovascular health and relief of cough, colds, and rhinitis. Adverse effects commonly include gastrointestinal disturbances, change in body odor through the sweat and breath, and rarely allergic reactions or hypoglycemia. Other CAM agents, including angelica, German chamomile flower, ephedra, gingko, grape seed extract, licorice root, St. John's wort, kava kava rhizome, peppermint, stinging nettle, and ginseng, are also associated with significant adverse effects. The specialty of allergy and immunology has seen the second largest increase in the popularity of CAM (second only to practitioners who treat lower back pain). Almost all of the CAM interventions have displayed adverse effects, usually in the form of a hypersensitivity reaction. Allergists and clinical immunologists need to become more knowledgeable about CAM so that they can

  16. Guideline on allergen-specific immunotherapy in IgE-mediated allergic diseases: S2k Guideline of the German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI), the Society for Pediatric Allergy and Environmental Medicine (GPA), the Medical Association of German Allergologists (AeDA), the Austrian Society for Allergy and Immunology (ÖGAI), the Swiss Society for Allergy and Immunology (SGAI), the German Society of Dermatology (DDG), the German Society of Oto- Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (DGHNO-KHC), the German Society of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine (DGKJ), the Society for Pediatric Pneumology (GPP), the German Respiratory Society (DGP), the German Association of ENT Surgeons (BV-HNO), the Professional Federation of Paediatricians and Youth Doctors (BVKJ), the Federal Association of Pulmonologists (BDP) and the German Dermatologists Association (BVDD).

    PubMed

    Pfaar, Oliver; Bachert, Claus; Bufe, Albrecht; Buhl, Roland; Ebner, Christof; Eng, Peter; Friedrichs, Frank; Fuchs, Thomas; Hamelmann, Eckard; Hartwig-Bade, Doris; Hering, Thomas; Huttegger, Isidor; Jung, Kirsten; Klimek, Ludger; Kopp, Matthias Volkmar; Merk, Hans; Rabe, Uta; Saloga, Joachim; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Schuster, Antje; Schwerk, Nicolaus; Sitter, Helmut; Umpfenbach, Ulrich; Wedi, Bettina; Wöhrl, Stefan; Worm, Margitta; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Kaul, Susanne; Schwalfenberg, Anja

    und klinische Immunologie) provides tables with specific information on available products for AIT in Germany, Switzerland and Austria. The tables contain the number of clinical studies per product in adults and children, the year of market authorization, underlying scoring systems, number of randomized and analyzed subjects and the method of evaluation (ITT, FAS, PP), separately given for grass pollen, birch pollen and house dust mite allergens, and the status of approval for the conduct of clinical studies with these products. Strong evidence of the efficacy of SCIT in pollen allergy-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in adulthood is well-documented in numerous trials and, in childhood and adolescence, in a few trials. Efficacy in house dust mite allergy is documented by a number of controlled trials in adults and few controlled trials in children. Only a few controlled trials, independent of age, are available for mold allergy (in particular Alternaria). With regard to animal dander allergies (primarily to cat allergens), only small studies, some with methodological deficiencies are available. Only a moderate and inconsistent therapeutic effect in atopic dermatitis has been observed in the quite heterogeneous studies conducted to date. SCIT has been well investigated for individual preparations in controlled bronchial asthma as defined by the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) 2007 and intermittent and mild persistent asthma (GINA 2005) and it is recommended as a treatment option, in addition to allergen avoidance and pharmacotherapy, provided there is a clear causal link between respiratory symptoms and the relevant allergen. The efficacy of SLIT in grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is extensively documented in adults and children, whilst its efficacy in tree pollen allergy has only been shown in adults. New controlled trials (some with high patient numbers) on house dust mite allergy provide evidence of efficacy of SLIT in adults. Compared with

  17. [Allergy to house dust mites: allergy independent symptoms dominate].

    PubMed

    Herwig, L M; Helbling, A; Pichler, W J; Pichler, C E

    2004-02-18

    A sensitisation to allergens has not always a clinical relevance. Therefore, the history has an uppermost importance for defining the relevance of a sensitisation. In contrast to the history in seasonal rhino-conjunctivitis, which causes typical complains in a restricted time period patients with house dust mite allergy seem to have less defined complaints. To define the most relevant symptoms of this frequent allergy, we evaluated 35 patients with clearly defined house dust mite allergy by a questionnaire and evaluated the same questionnaire also in a control group of 18 patients without sensitisation or asthma. The symptoms described in the patient group confirm that symptoms of house dust mite allergy are frequently not related to a direct allergen exposure. Some patients complained about itchy red eyes in the morning, but the majority of symptoms occurred independent from allergen exposure. These are blocked nose as well as exercise induced asthma. These symptoms are present all year around and are not only restricted to mite exposed areas. They are probably related to the underling eosinophilic inflammation. Thus exercise induced asthma and blocked nose are symptoms, which may indicate a mite allergy, particular in younger patients.

  18. International consensus on allergy immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jutel, Marek; Agache, Ioana; Bonini, Sergio; Burks, A Wesley; Calderon, Moises; Canonica, Walter; Cox, Linda; Demoly, Pascal; Frew, Antony J; O'Hehir, Robin; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Muraro, Antonella; Lack, Gideon; Larenas, Désirée; Levin, Michael; Nelson, Harald; Pawankar, Ruby; Pfaar, Oliver; van Ree, Ronald; Sampson, Hugh; Santos, Alexandra F; Du Toit, George; Werfel, Thomas; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Zhang, Luo; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2015-09-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been used to treat allergic disease since the early 1900s. Despite numerous clinical trials and meta-analyses proving AIT efficacious, it remains underused and is estimated to be used in less than 10% of patients with allergic rhinitis or asthma worldwide. In addition, there are large differences between regions, which are not only due to socioeconomic status. There is practically no controversy about the use of AIT in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma, but for atopic dermatitis or food allergy, the indications for AIT are not well defined. The elaboration of a wider consensus is of utmost importance because AIT is the only treatment that can change the course of allergic disease by preventing the development of asthma and new allergen sensitizations and by inducing allergen-specific immune tolerance. Safer and more effective AIT strategies are being continuously developed both through elaboration of new allergen preparations and adjuvants and alternate routes of administration. A number of guidelines, consensus documents, or both are available on both the international and national levels. The international community of allergy specialists recognizes the need to develop a comprehensive consensus report to harmonize, disseminate, and implement the best AIT practice. Consequently, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, formed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; and the World Allergy Organization, has decided to issue an international consensus on AIT. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Woodstoves, formaldehyde, and respiratory disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tuthill, R.W.

    1984-12-01

    Telephone interviews were completed in Western Massachusetts in April 1983 for 399 households (91.5 percent) in a random sample of households with elementary school children. Woodstoves were used in 64.7 percent of the homes, but such use was not associated with acute respiratory illness. However, formaldehyde exposure was significantly related, with a risk ratio of 2.4 (95 percent confidence interval 1.7-3.4). New construction/remodeling and new upholstered furniture had additive effects. Neither woodstove use nor formaldehyde exposure were significantly associated with asthma, chronic bronchitis, or allergies.

  20. [Contact allergies in musicians].

    PubMed

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2012-12-01

    During the last years, the problem of allergic diseases has increased. Allergies are errant immune responses to a normally harmless substance. In musicians the allergic contact dermatitis to exotic woods is a special problem. Exotic rosewood contains new flavonoids, which trigger an allergic reaction after permanent contact with the instrument. High quality woodwind instruments such as baroque flute or clarinets are made in ebony or palisander because of its great sound. Today instruments for non-professional players are also made in these exotic materials and non-professionals may have the risk to develop contact dermatitis, too. Brass-player has the risk of an allergic reaction to the different metals contained in the metal sheets of modern flutes and brass instruments. Specially nickel and brass alloys are used to product flute tubes or brass instruments. Special problem arises in children: patients who are allergic to plants or foods have a high risk to develop contact dermatitis. Parents don't know the materials of low-priced instruments for beginners. Often unknown cheap woods from exotic areas are used. Low-priced brass instruments contain high amount of brass and other cheap metals. Physicians should advice musician-patients or parents about the risks of the different materials and look for the reason of eczema on mouth, face, or hands. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Food Allergies: The Basics

    PubMed Central

    Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients—manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell– and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic allergic inflammation, resulting from T-cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation. Researchers have begun to characterize the molecular features of food allergens and have developed chip-based assays for multiple allergens. These have provided information about cross-reactivity among different sources of food allergens, identified disease-causing food allergens, and helped us to estimate the severity and types of allergic reactions in patients. Importantly, learning about the structure of disease-causing food allergens has allowed researchers to engineer synthetic and recombinant vaccines. PMID:25680669

  2. [Latex: a complex allergy].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M B; Carlos, A G

    1999-01-01

    The authors review several of the most important aspects of latex allergy, an increasing problem in Public Health, which should be understood by all health professionals. After briefly presenting the history of the origin latex, from Hevea brasiliensis the authors describe the antigens of latex: Hev b1 to Hev b8, major allergens. They also note the crossed reactivity not only with foods, exotic fruits, but also with pneumoallergens and in particular the pollens. The groups at risk are essentially workers in the latex industry, health professionals and finally infants with spina bifida or other severe urological anomaly. The clinical signs are reactions of type 1 hypersensitivity, to urticaria and/or angio-oedema and anaphylactic shock. Diagnosis is based on a search for specific serum IgE, skin tests and provocation tests. Prophylaxis depends on removal of all substances that are based on latex, especially replacement of gloves with vinyl, but also on a food diet that excludes all foods that have a cross-reactivity with latex.

  3. Food allergies: the basics.

    PubMed

    Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra

    2015-05-01

    IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients-manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell- and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic allergic inflammation, resulting from T-cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation. Researchers have begun to characterize the molecular features of food allergens and have developed chip-based assays for multiple allergens. These have provided information about cross-reactivity among different sources of food allergens, identified disease-causing food allergens, and helped us to estimate the severity and types of allergic reactions in patients. Importantly, learning about the structure of disease-causing food allergens has allowed researchers to engineer synthetic and recombinant vaccines.

  4. Allergy and Dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Woodfolk, Judith A.

    2005-01-01

    Tinea pedis (athlete's foot) and onychomycosis (infection of the toenails) caused by the dermatophyte fungus Trichophyton are highly prevalent in adults. Several Trichophyton allergens have been identified based on elicitation of immunoglobulin E antibody-mediated immediate-hypersensitivity (IH) responses. Evidence of an etiologic role for Trichophyton in asthma in some subjects with IH and chronic dermatophytosis is provided by bronchial reactivity to Trichophyton. Improvement of asthma after systemic antifungal treatment corroborates this link. A unique feature of Trichophyton allergens is the ability of the same antigen to elicit delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) in individuals who lack IH reactivity. Delayed responses appear to confer protection, while IH responses do not, based on the association with acute versus chronic skin infection. The amino acid sequence identity of Trichophyton allergens with diverse enzyme families supports a dual role for these proteins in fungal pathogenesis and allergic disease. Characterizing the immunologic properties of Trichophyton allergens and defining immune mechanisms which drive dichotomous responses are pivotal to understanding the dermatophyte-allergy relationship. Recent studies have identified DTH-associated major T-cell epitopes which could facilitate the development of peptide vaccines. Characterization of additional molecular targets by using new techniques may aid not only in the eradication of infection but also in the resolution of allergic symptoms. PMID:15653817

  5. Anaphylaxis and insect allergy.

    PubMed

    Demain, Jeffrey G; Minaei, Ashley A; Tracy, James M

    2010-08-01

    Anaphylaxis is an acute-onset and potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that can be caused by numerous allergic triggers including stinging insects. This review focuses on recent advances, natural history, risk factors and therapeutic considerations. Recent work suggests that concerns over insect allergy diagnosis continue to exist. This is especially true with individuals who have a convincing history of a serious life-threatening anaphylactic event, but lack the necessary diagnostic criteria of venom-specific IgE by skin test or in-vitro diagnostic methods to confirm the diagnosis. The role of occult mastocytosis or increased basophile reactivity may play a role in this subset population. Additionally, epinephrine continues to be underutilized as the primary acute intervention for an anaphylactic reaction in the emergent setting. The incidence of anaphylaxis continues to rise across all demographic groups, especially those less than 20 years of age. Fortunately, the fatalities related to anaphylaxis appear to have decreased over the past decades. Our understanding of various triggers, associated risk factors, as well as an improved understanding and utilization of biological markers such as serum tryptase have improved. Our ability to treat insect anaphylaxis by venom immunotherapy is highly effective. Unfortunately, anaphylaxis continues to be underappreciated and undertreated especially in regard to insect sting anaphylaxis. This includes the appropriate use of injectable epinephrine as the primary acute management tool. These findings suggest that continued education of the general population, primary care healthcare providers and emergency departments is required.

  6. Allergy to ophthalmic preservatives.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jison; Bielory, Leonard

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the present review is to examine the hypersensitivity reactions to preservatives in topical ophthalmic therapies. Ocular hypersensitivity reactions to different types of preservatives in different chemical classes of topical ophthalmic treatments reviewed in the literature include IgE-mast cell mediated, cell mediated and toxic. Quaternary ammoniums (benzalkonium chloride) are most commonly (8% reported cases in OVID and PubMED based searches) associated with irritant toxic reactions whereas the organomercurials (thimerosal) and the alcohols (chlorobutanol) have the highest association (19% of OVID and 14% of PubMED based searches and 20% of OVID and 11% of PubMED searches), respectively, with allergic responses although the term allergy for the 'alcohols' appears to be actually an irritant effect whereas the organomercurials appear to truly interact with the immune system as neoantigens. A large number of clinical and experimental studies reveal that preservatives in topical ophthalmic medications have been demonstrated to produce effects from inflammation/ hypersensitivity to permanent cytotoxic effects involving all structures of the eye.

  7. Prevalence of food allergies in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Arakali, Schweta R; Green, Todd D; Dinakar, Chitra

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the published medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergies in South Asia. A PubMed search was performed using the keywords India and food allergy, Asia and food allergy, and South Asia and food allergy for any period. Articles cited in selected studies were reviewed for their appropriateness of inclusion into this review. Publications were included that were original research and fit the topic of food allergy and South Asia. South Asia is defined as region inclusive of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. A total of 169 articles were initially identified, and 47 were reviewed in detail for inclusion in this review. The primary focus was placed on 10 studies that consisted of case reports of newly reported or documented food allergy, survey studies that investigated food allergy prevalence in specific demographics, and prospective and cross-sectional studies with case controls, all of which investigated food allergy prevalence by allergy testing in a selected population. The medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergy in South Asia indicates that there is a variety of unusual and unique allergens and an overall low incidence of food allergy. There is also an association of increased food allergy prevalence in individuals who live in metropolitan regions or who migrate to communities that have adopted westernization. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Beer, Cider, and Wine Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Tadros, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Background. Allergy to beer is often due to specific proteins in barley and sometimes to lipid transfer protein. Allergy to wine is frequently due to a sensitivity to grape proteins. We present a rare case of allergy to beer, wine, and cider resulting from IgE reactivity to yeasts and moulds which also explained the patient's additional sensitivity to yeast extracts and blue cheese. Case Presentation. The patient's symptoms included throat and facial itching accompanied by mild wheeze and severe urticaria. Diagnosis of allergy to yeast was confirmed by specific IgE testing as well as that to relevant foods and beverages. The patient's ongoing management included advice to avoid beer, wine, and other food groups containing specific yeasts, in addition to carrying a short acting nonsedating antihistamine as well as an adrenaline autoinjector. Conclusions. Cases of yeast allergy are extremely rare in medical literature but may be underrecognised and should be considered in patients presenting with reactions to alcoholic beverages and other yeast-containing products. PMID:28396809

  9. Beer, Cider, and Wine Allergy.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Rhea A; Tadros, Susan; Bansal, Amolak S

    2017-01-01

    Background. Allergy to beer is often due to specific proteins in barley and sometimes to lipid transfer protein. Allergy to wine is frequently due to a sensitivity to grape proteins. We present a rare case of allergy to beer, wine, and cider resulting from IgE reactivity to yeasts and moulds which also explained the patient's additional sensitivity to yeast extracts and blue cheese. Case Presentation. The patient's symptoms included throat and facial itching accompanied by mild wheeze and severe urticaria. Diagnosis of allergy to yeast was confirmed by specific IgE testing as well as that to relevant foods and beverages. The patient's ongoing management included advice to avoid beer, wine, and other food groups containing specific yeasts, in addition to carrying a short acting nonsedating antihistamine as well as an adrenaline autoinjector. Conclusions. Cases of yeast allergy are extremely rare in medical literature but may be underrecognised and should be considered in patients presenting with reactions to alcoholic beverages and other yeast-containing products.

  10. Mucosal immunology of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Berin, M Cecilia; Sampson, Hugh A

    2013-05-06

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence at a higher rate than can be explained by genetic factors, suggesting a role for as yet unidentified environmental factors. In this review, we summarize the state of knowledge about the healthy immune response to antigens in the diet and the basis of immune deviation that results in immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization and allergic reactivity to foods. The intestinal epithelium forms the interface between the external environment and the mucosal immune system, and emerging data suggest that the interaction between intestinal epithelial cells and mucosal dendritic cells is of particular importance in determining the outcome of immune responses to dietary antigens. Exposure to food allergens through non-oral routes, in particular through the skin, is increasingly recognized as a potentially important factor in the increasing rate of food allergy. There are many open questions on the role of environmental factors, such as dietary factors and microbiota, in the development of food allergy, but data suggest that both have an important modulatory effect on the mucosal immune system. Finally, we discuss recent developments in our understanding of immune mechanisms of clinical manifestations of food allergy. New experimental tools, particularly in the field of genomics and the microbiome, are likely to shed light on factors responsible for the growing clinical problem of food allergy.

  11. Managing food allergies in schools.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, Jay M; Shroba, Jodi

    2014-10-01

    Food allergies are estimated to affect as many as 8 % of children with 2.5 % being allergic to peanut products. Based on the results of recent surveys, this prevalence has been increasing over the last few decades for unknown reasons. As children with food allergies reach school age, the issue is becoming more common in schools. For that reason, schools are now required to be prepared to take responsibility for the safety of food-allergic students. This review discusses the common problems surrounding management of food allergies in the school setting along with reasonable recommendations for addressing those problems. The most important component of food allergy management is for the student to get an accurate diagnosis and to then discuss development of an anaphylaxis action plan with their health-care provider. Each school should insist that a copy of such a plan be provided for each student with food allergy and that epinephrine is readily available should a student have an anaphylactic reaction. In addition to epinephrine, it is essential that school personnel be properly trained to recognize and treat allergic reactions should they occur. Known deficiencies in school preparedness have been documented in previous literature, and consequently, both state and the federal government have begun to implement policies to help with school preparedness.

  12. Mucosal Immunology of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Berin, M. Cecilia; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2013-01-01

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence at a higher rate than can be explained by genetic factors, suggesting a role for as yet unidentified environmental factors. In this review, we summarize the state of knowledge about the healthy immune response to antigens in the diet and the basis of immune deviation that results in IgE sensitization and allergic reactivity to foods. The intestinal epithelium forms the interface between the external environment and the mucosal immune system, and emerging data suggest that the interaction between intestinal epithelial cells and mucosal dendritic cells is of particular importance in determining the outcome of immune responses to dietary antigens. Exposure to food allergens through non-oral routes, in particular through the skin, is increasingly recognized as a potentially important factor in the increasing rate of food allergy. There are many open questions on the role of environmental factors such as dietary factors and microbiota in the development of food allergy, but data suggest that both have an important modulatory effect on the mucosal immune system. Finally, we discuss recent developments in our understanding of immune mechanisms of clinical manifestations of food allergy. New experimental tools, particularly in the field of genomics and microbiome, are likely to shed light on factors responsible for the growing clinical problem of food allergy. PMID:23660362

  13. [Food allergies in paediatrics: Current concepts].

    PubMed

    Plaza-Martin, Ana María

    2016-07-01

    The concept of allergic reaction currently includes all those where an immunological reaction depends on a reaction mediated by IgE, as well as those that involve other immune mechanisms, such as T-cell regulators. There are many different clinical situations, like the classic immediate reactions (IgE mediated) such as urticaria, angioedema, immediate vomiting, abdominal pain, both upper respiratory (aphonia or rhinitis) and lower (wheezing or dyspnoea) symptom, and cardiovascular symptoms. The reactions that involve more than one organ, such as anaphylaxis, which could be an anaphylactic shock if there is cardiovascular involvement. The clinical signs and symptoms produced by non-IgE mediated reactions are usually more insidious in how they start, such as vomiting hours after the ingestion of food in enterocolitis, diarrhoea after days or weeks from starting food, dermatitis sometime after starting food. In these cases it is more difficult to associate these clinical symptoms directly with food. In this article, we attempt to clarify some concepts such as sensitisation/allergy, allergen/allergenic source, or the relationship of different clinical situations with food allergy, in order to help the paediatrician on the one hand, to prescribe strict diets in case of a suspicion based on the cause/effect relationship with the food, and on the other hand not to introduce unnecessary diets that very often have to last an excessively long time, and could lead to nutritional deficiencies in the children. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Allergy to house dust mites and asthma.

    PubMed

    Milián, Evelyn; Díaz, Ana María

    2004-03-01

    House dust mites have been shown to be important sources of indoor allergens associated with asthma and other allergic conditions. Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that affects millions of people worldwide, and numerous scientific studies have shown that the prevalence of asthma is increasing. The most common dust mite species around the world include Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), Dermatophagoides farinae (Df), Euroglyphus maynei (Em) and Blomia tropicalis (Bt). Over the past three decades, many important allergens from these species have been identified and characterized at the molecular level. The biological function of several house dust mite allergens has been elucidated, with many of them showing enzymatic activity. However, Bt allergens remain the least studied, even though this mite is very common in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including Puerto Rico. Therefore, it is very important to include Bt in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for house dust mite induced allergy and asthma, particularly in areas where Bt exposure and sensitization is high. Recombinant DNA technology, as well as other molecular biology and immunological techniques, have played a fundamental role in advances towards a better understanding of the biology of house dust mites and their role in allergic diseases. This kind of study also contributes to the understanding of the complex immunologic mechanisms involved in allergic reactions. The development of effective diagnostic and therapeutic approaches depends on the continuity of research of house dust mite allergens. The objectives of this review are to describe the most important aspects of house dust mite allergy and to acquaint the scientific community with the latest findings pertaining to house dust mite allergens, particularly those derived from Bt.

  15. Personalized Medicine in Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Matteo; Bagnasco, Diego; Varricchi, Gilda; Bernardi, Stefano; Bragantini, Alice; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Allergic disease is among the most common pathologies worldwide and its prevalence has constantly increased up to the present days, even if according to the most recent data it seems to be slightly slowing down. Allergic disease has not only a high rate of misdiagnosis and therapeutic inefficacy, but represents an enormous, resource-absorbing black hole in respiratory and general medicine. The aim of this paper is to summarize principal therapeutic innovations in atopic disease management befallen in the recent years in terms of personalized/precision medicine. PMID:27826958

  16. Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Albuterol in Schools Access to Medications Clean Air Climate and Health Epinephrine in Schools Healthy Settings Food ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food ...

  17. Food Allergy Research and Education (FARE)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergies Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources ... Emergency Care Plan Emotional & Social Issues Facts & Statistics Food Labels Laws & Regulations Research Support Groups Treatment & Managing Reactions ...

  18. Welcome Spring and Still Survive Your Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... March 19, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- If you have seasonal allergies, the arrival of spring on Monday is probably ... passages stay clear. Consider asthma. Many people with seasonal allergies also have asthma, making springtime doubly difficult. If ...

  19. Intensive educational course in allergy and immunology.

    PubMed

    Elizalde, A; Perez, E E; Sriaroon, P; Nguyen, D; Lockey, R F; Dorsey, M J

    2012-09-01

    A one-day intensive educational course on allergy and immunology theory and diagnostic procedure significantly increased the competency of allergy and immunology fellows-in-training. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Respiratory alkalosis.

    PubMed

    Foster, G T; Vaziri, N D; Sassoon, C S

    2001-04-01

    Respiratory alkalosis is an extremely common and complicated problem affecting virtually every organ system in the body. This article reviews the various facets of this interesting problem. Respiratory alkalosis produces multiple metabolic abnormalities, from changes in potassium, phosphate, and calcium, to the development of a mild lactic acidosis. Renal handling of the above ions is also affected. The etiologies may be related to pulmonary or extrapulmonary disorders. Hyperventilation syndrome is a common etiology of respiratory alkalosis in the emergency department setting and is a diagnosis by exclusion. There are many cardiac effects of respiratory alkalosis, such as tachycardia, ventricular and atrial arrhythmias, and ischemic and nonischemic chest pain. In the lungs, vasodilation occurs, and in the gastrointestinal system there are changes in perfusion, motility, and electrolyte handling. Therapeutically, respiratory alkalosis is used for treatment of elevated intracranial pressure. Correction of a respiratory alkalosis is best performed by correcting the underlying etiology.

  1. The impact of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on respiratory illness in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Hageman, Jeske H J; Hooyenga, Pieter; Diersen-Schade, Deborah A; Scalabrin, Deolinda M Felin; Wichers, Harry J; Birch, Eileen E

    2012-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially omega-3 LCPUFA, improves respiratory health early in life. This review summarizes publications from 2009 through July 2012 that evaluated effects of fish, fish oil or LCPUFA intake during pregnancy, lactation, and early postnatal years on allergic and infectious respiratory illnesses. Studies during pregnancy found inconsistent effects in offspring: two showed no effects and three showed protective effects of omega-3 LCPUFA on respiratory illnesses or atopic dermatitis. Two studies found that infants fed breast milk with higher omega-3 LCPUFA had reduced allergic manifestations. Earlier introduction of fish improved respiratory health or reduced allergy in four studies. Three randomized controlled trials showed that providing LCPUFA during infancy or childhood reduced allergy and/or respiratory illness while one found no effect. Potential explanations for the variability among studies and possible mechanisms of action for LCPUFA in allergy and respiratory disease are discussed.

  2. Diagnosis of inhalant allergies: patient history and testing.

    PubMed

    Franzese, Christine

    2011-06-01

    In the United States, roughly 20% to 25% of the general adult population is afflicted by some form of chronic allergic respiratory disease, making allergy one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders. Among children, allergic disease is more common, with some sources estimating that it affects up to 40% of children. The focus of this article involves making the diagnosis of the most familiar and best understood of the hypersensitivity reactions, type 1 hypersensitivity, also termed immediate hypersensitivity. Although type 1 hypersensitivity can be caused by ingestion of food antigens or pharmaceuticals, this article focuses on IgE-mediated allergic disease caused primarily by inhalant allergens.

  3. Peanut allergy: an evolving clinical challenge.

    PubMed

    Otsu, Kanao; Dreskin, Stephen C

    2011-10-01

    Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated food allergy responsible for causing severe and occasionally fatal reactions in those sensitized to peanuts. The prevalence of peanut allergy appears to be on the rise worldwide, yet there are no therapeutics currently available that can alter the course of this condition. This article will review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical features of peanut allergy and discuss future possibilities in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities.

  4. Food Allergy: An Enigmatic Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Berin, M. Cecilia; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is a common disease that is rapidly increasing in prevalence for reasons that remain unknown. Current research efforts are focused on understanding the immune basis of food allergy, identifying environmental factors that may contribute to its rising prevalence, and developing immunotherapeutic approaches to re-establish immune tolerance to foods. Technological advances such as peptide microarray and MHC class II tetramers have begun to provide a comprehensive profile of the immune response to foods. The burgeoning field of mucosal immunology has provided intriguing clues to the role of the diet and the microbiota as risk factors in the development of food allergy. The purpose of this review is to highlight significant gaps in our knowledge that need answers in order to stem the progression of this disorder that is reaching epidemic proportions. PMID:23648309

  5. Food Allergy in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Sandipan; Srinivas, Sahana M

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy in atopic dermatitis (AD) is debatable from decades. Role of diet in the cause and treatment of AD is controversial and is not well-defined. Allergists and pediatricians are convinced about the food allergy in AD whereas many dermatologists are contrary for this. However, there are studies in the Indian and western literature supporting the evidence that elimination diet may improve the severe type of AD. There is increasing awareness and lot of misconception among caregivers about food allergy and hence careful understanding about this concept is necessary to counsel parents. Recent evidence-based literature suggests avoidance of proven food allergens in AD could be beneficial in moderate to severe type of AD. PMID:27904183

  6. A Principal's Guide to Children's Allergies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    1999-01-01

    Discusses several common children's allergies, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and anaphylactic shock. Principals should become familiar with various medications and should work with children's parents and physicians to determine how to manage their allergies at school. Allergen avoidance is the best…

  7. Managing the Student with Severe Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Joanne M.; Ficca, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    School nurses play a key role in managing students with food allergies. It is becoming more common to encounter students with severe allergies to multiple foods, putting them at risk for anaphylaxis. It is essential that the school nurse have a clear understanding of food allergies and how to effectively manage students in the school setting.…

  8. Getting the Facts on Food Allergy Testing

    MedlinePlus

    Getting the Facts on Food Allergy Testing This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI If you have ever experienced red, itchy skin, swell- ... food, you may wonder if you have a food allergy. While diagnosing food allergies can be tricky, an ...

  9. Communicating with Parents about Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Belinda

    2008-01-01

    About 3 million children in the United States have food allergies. Each year violent reactions to food kill almost 150 people. For teachers dealing with the food allergies of young children these can be frightening statistics. To keep students safe, they must familiarize themselves with food allergy facts so they can communicate openly and often…

  10. A Principal's Guide to Children's Allergies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    1999-01-01

    Discusses several common children's allergies, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and anaphylactic shock. Principals should become familiar with various medications and should work with children's parents and physicians to determine how to manage their allergies at school. Allergen avoidance is the best…

  11. Communicating with Parents about Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Belinda

    2008-01-01

    About 3 million children in the United States have food allergies. Each year violent reactions to food kill almost 150 people. For teachers dealing with the food allergies of young children these can be frightening statistics. To keep students safe, they must familiarize themselves with food allergy facts so they can communicate openly and often…

  12. Managing the Student with Severe Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Joanne M.; Ficca, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    School nurses play a key role in managing students with food allergies. It is becoming more common to encounter students with severe allergies to multiple foods, putting them at risk for anaphylaxis. It is essential that the school nurse have a clear understanding of food allergies and how to effectively manage students in the school setting.…

  13. [Physical activity and respiratory tract diseases asthma and allergy].

    PubMed

    Carlsen, K H

    2000-11-10

    This article presents a review of the relationship between physical training and airways diseases: the relationship between physical activity and the development of airways diseases, and the effect of physical training in rehabilitation after airways diseases. The article is a systematic review of exercise-induced asthma (EIA), the effect of physical training upon bronchial hyperresponsiveness and the development of asthma; how chronic lung diseases affect the ability to participate in physical activity; and the use of physical training in rehabilitation after airways diseases. Physical training may provoke EIA in asthmatic patients. Furthermore, heavy regular training over long periods of time may contribute to the development of asthma. Mastering EIA is an important goal in the management of asthma, especially in children and adolescents, in order to foster normal physical and mental development. Physical training improves fitness and the mastering of asthma, but not of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma activity. In other airways disorders like cystic fibrosis or chronic obstructive lung disease, a reduced lung function may limit the ability to participate in physical activity. Training is an important tool in the rehabilitation of patients with pulmonary disorders as it improves physical fitness and quality of life.

  14. Future therapies for food allergy

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Laurie M.; Mousallem, Talal; Burks, A. Wesley

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy affects 3.9% of US children and is increasing in prevalence. The current standard of care involves avoidance of the triggering food and treatment for accidental ingestions. While there is no current curative treatment, there are a number of therapeutic strategies under investigation. Allergen specific therapies include oral and sublingual immunotherapy with native food protein as well as recombinant food proteins. Allergen non-specific therapies include a Chinese herbal formula (FAHF-2) and the use of anti-IgE monoclonal antibody therapy. Although none of these treatments are ready for clinical use, these therapeutic strategies present promising options for the future of food allergy. PMID:22894951

  15. Overview of ocular allergy treatment.

    PubMed

    Friedlaender, M

    2001-07-01

    A plethora of drugs is available for the treatment of ocular allergy. Traditional treatment includes antihistamine and antihistamine/vasoconstrictor combination eyedrops. These drugs are useful, safe, and readily available. Mast cell stabilizers are safe, effective, and an important component of antiallergic therapy. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs also have antiallergic effects. In recent years, drugs with multiple mechanisms of action have proven to be effective antiallergics. These drugs often have mast cell stabilizing, antihistaminic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Corticosteroids are considered to be more potent than other antiallergic drugs, and modifications in their molecular structures have made certain corticosteroids suitable for the treatment of ocular allergy.

  16. Nutrition basics in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Christie, L

    2001-01-01

    Strict elimination of foods because of food allergies can interfere with good nutrition. It is essential that the diagnosis of a food allergy be proven thoroughly to avoid unnecessary food restrictions. Comprehensive education should show where allergenic foods are found, how to find appropriate substitutes for the eliminated foods and corresponding nutrients, and how to avoid accidental ingestion of allergenic foods. A nutrition assessment is an essential part of the clinical follow-up. Identifying nutrition-related problems early can correct difficult situations and prevent long-term health consequences.

  17. Approaching a Scientific Consensus on the Association between Allergies and Glioma Risk: A Report from the Glioma International Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Amirian, E. Susan; Zhou, Renke; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Olson, Sara H.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Il’yasova, Dora; Lachance, Daniel; Armstrong, Georgina N.; McCoy, Lucie S.; Lau, Ching C.; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Schildkraut, Joellen; Ali-Osman, Francis; Sadetzki, Siegal; Johansen, Christoffer; Houlston, Richard S.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Merrell, Ryan T.; Davis, Faith G.; Lai, Rose; Shete, Sanjay; Amos, Christopher I.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Bondy, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several previous studies have found inverse associations between glioma susceptibility and a history of allergies or other atopic conditions. Some evidence indicates that respiratory allergies are likely to be particularly relevant with regard to glioma risk. Using data from the Glioma International Case-Control Study (GICC), we examined the effects of respiratory allergies and other atopic conditions on glioma risk. Methods The GICC contains detailed information on history of atopic conditions for 4533 cases and 4171 controls, recruited from 14 study sites across five countries. Using two-stage random-effects restricted maximum likelihood modeling to calculate meta-analysis odds ratios, we examined the associations between glioma and allergy status, respiratory allergy status, asthma, and eczema. Results Having a history of respiratory allergies was associated with an approximately 30% lower glioma risk, compared to not having respiratory allergies (mOR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.58–0.90). This association was similar when restricting to high-grade glioma cases. Asthma and eczema were also significantly protective against glioma. Conclusions A substantial amount of data on the inverse association between atopic conditions and glioma has accumulated, and findings from the GICC study further strengthen the existing evidence that the relationship between atopy and glioma is unlikely to be coincidental. Impact As the literature approaches a consensus on the impact of allergies in glioma risk, future research can begin to shift focus to what the underlying biological mechanism behind this association may be, which could, in turn, yield new opportunities for immunotherapy or cancer prevention. PMID:26908595

  18. [Current features of food allergies: the need of allergy surveillance].

    PubMed

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy in European populations has been evaluated at between 1.8 and 4.4%. In the French population it is 3.24%. This frequency, as well as the gravity of some manifestations, has already led to preventive and curative measures being taken in school settings. This increase is related to multiple environmental factors: changes in intestinal microflora, early diversification of foods in children, interference of drugs favoring clinical severity in adults. Allergenicity can be modified by food industry techniques. The appearance of novel foods (exotic proteins or those derived from animal feed, and soon GMOs), the growing use of food proteins as ingredients, constitute new risks. The absence of validated experimental methods for evaluating the allergic risk of food proteins makes it necessary to implement a policy of allergy vigilance for novel foods. Studies concerning the allergic risk for lupin flour, a new ingredient used in baked goods, are given as an example. They indicate the frequency of sensitization and cross peanut-lupin flour allergy, the low reactive threshold, indicating the risk of the level of incorporation presently allowed. They make possible current screening for this allergy in the population. Allergy vigilance is a recent concept that aims to set up surveillance of food allergy risks in a manner analogous to that of pharmacovigilance for drugs. A project for creating such a structure is being discussed. Although the central structure remains at the initiative of the Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire de l'Alimentation (French Agency for Food Safety) and the Institut de Veille Sanitaire (Institute of Health) the authors specify what a peripheral network of allergists should be, analyze the desired content of the bi-directional flow of information, and propose envisaging an intermediate regulatory organization, specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of food allergies. The ongoing idea is that environmental

  19. Latex Allergies: A Review of Recognition, Evaluation, Management, Prevention, Education, and Alternative Product Use

    PubMed Central

    Schroyer, Traci; Catalfano, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To provide information about latex allergies; to determine how to recognize, evaluate, and manage emergencies related to latex allergies; and how to identify those at risk for latex allergies. Additionally, ways to prevent latex exposure, to educate health care workers and athletes about latex allergy, and to provide safe alternatives to latex are investigated. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE and SPORT Discus for the years 1998–2002 using the key words latex, allergies, rubber, anaphylaxis, gloves, cross-reaction, IgE (immunoglobulin G) proteins, and radioallergosorbent test (RAST). Background: Latex, a sap from the rubber tree, is found in many products used in everyday life. Latex is composed of compounds that may cause an allergic reaction, whose severity can range from irritant dermatitis to type IV dermatitis to type I systemic reaction. Recognition of the signs and symptoms associated with these reactions by the health care professional may help to prevent a more severe reaction from occurring. Reactions can be complicated by contact with other substances, thus causing a cross-reaction. Some individuals are more at risk of latex allergies due to repetitive exposure to latex through their career paths, multiple surgeries, other allergies, or respiratory conditions. Management of an acute reaction involves removal of the irritant, cleansing of the affected area, monitoring vital signs for changes, and seeking additional medical assistance as warranted. Recommendations: Those at risk may be identified through a thorough medical history and allergy testing. Prevention techniques and guidelines are examined, with an emphasis on education at multiple levels. Product information for nonlatex equipment and supplies for the athletic training room is offered, with additional resource information provided. PMID:16558678

  20. Epidemiological survey of pediatric food allergy in Mashhad in Northeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ahanchian, Hamid; Jafari, Seyedali; Behmanesh, Fatemeh; Haghi, Nasrinsadat Motevalli; Nakhaei, Alireza Ataei; Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Radbin, Mohammad Hossein; Kianifar, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Food allergy is an increasing problem worldwide, but the foods responsible for food allergy are not the same in different countries, probably because of the role of genetic, cultural, and nutritional factors. The aim of this study was to determine the common food allergens in pediatric patients with different presentation of food allergy. Methods In this cross-sectional study, all of the patients were referred to pediatric allergy clinics affiliated with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences from September 2012 to August 2014. For patients with IgE-mediated food allergy that was diagnosed with clinical manifestations, the skin prick test was done. The results were analyzed by SPSS version 17 and statistical analysis was done with the chi-squared test and the t-test. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Three hundred seventy-one patients (53.9% male, 46.1% female) with ages in the range of three months to 18 years were studied. The most frequent food allergen in all patients with decreasing prevalence were egg white (17.8%), pepper (15.8%), curry (14.3%), egg yolk (14%), cow’s milk (10%), and tomato (7.8%). The most common presenting symptoms were respiratory (allergic rhinitis 45%, asthma 32%), dermatologic (atopic dermatitis 30%, urticaria 8.3%), colitis (17.5%), and gasteroesophagial reflux disease (GERD) (2%). According to the prevalence of food allergens in different age groups, we realized that, after the age of three years, the frequency of sensitization to egg white, egg yolk, cow’s milk, wheat and cereals was decreased and allergy to pepper and curry was increased. Conclusion The prevalence of culprit foods that produce food allergies depends on several factors, including age, presenting manifestation, and where the patient lives. As many food allergies are outgrown, patients should be reevaluated regularly to determine whether they have lost their reactivity or not. PMID:26955442

  1. Caution: Reptile pets shuttle grasshopper allergy and asthma into homes.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Jensen, Sebastian A F; Robibaro, Bruno; Kinaciyan, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    The numbers of reptiles in homes has at least doubled in the last decade in Europe and the USA. Reptile purchases are increasingly triggered by the attempt to avoid potentially allergenic fur pets like dogs and cats. Consequently, reptiles are today regarded as surrogate pets initiating a closer relationship with the owner than ever previously observed. Reptile pets are mostly fed with insects, especially grasshoppers and/or locusts, which are sources for aggressive airborne allergens, best known from occupational insect breeder allergies. Exposure in homes thus introduces a new form of domestic allergy to grasshoppers and related insects. Accordingly, an 8-year old boy developed severe bronchial hypersensitivity and asthma within 4 months after purchase of a bearded dragon. The reptile was held in the living room and regularly fed with living grasshoppers. In the absence of a serological allergy diagnosis test, an IgE immunoblot on grasshopper extract and prick-to-prick test confirmed specific sensitization to grasshoppers. After 4 years of allergen avoidance, a single respiratory exposure was sufficient to trigger a severe asthma attack again in the patient. Based on literature review and the clinical example we conclude that reptile keeping is associated with introducing potent insect allergens into home environments. Patient interviews during diagnostic procedure should therefore by default include the question about reptile pets in homes.

  2. Managing the student with severe food allergies.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Joanne M; Ficca, Michelle

    2012-06-01

    School nurses play a key role in managing students with food allergies. It is becoming more common to encounter students with severe allergies to multiple foods, putting them at risk for anaphylaxis. It is essential that the school nurse have a clear understanding of food allergies and how to effectively manage students in the school setting. Effective communication between families, health care providers, faculty, staff, and students, is of utmost importance when developing a plan of care to ensure the safety of the student with food allergies. Using an interdisciplinary approach to case management, the school nurse can develop comprehensive individualized health care plans for all students with food allergies.

  3. Smog exposure and host resistance to respiratory pathogens

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA is evaluating the health effects of photochemical smog on respiratory, cardiovascular and metabolic health (https://www.epa.gov/air-research/secondary-organic-aerosol-soas-research). Smog exposure has been associated with an increased risk of allergy and decreased res...

  4. [Contact allergy to henna tattoos].

    PubMed

    Steinkjer, Bjarte; Stangeland, Katarina Zak; Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer

    2011-03-18

    Tattoos with henna colours have become very popular and the prevalence of contact allergy seems to increase. This is a short review article based on our own clinical experience and literature identified through a search in PubMed with the words "henna", "paraphenylendiamin" and "allergic contact dermatitis." A case report is included. It is well documented that many experience skin reactions after henna tattoos. The cause is almost always contact allergy to the azo compound paraphenylendiamin, which is added to speed up the process and make the colour darker. Most people, including children, get henna tattoos during vacations in Asia or the Mediterranean. Established contact allergy is permanent. Many hair-colour products contain paraphenylendiamin, and persons with contact allergy against the product may develop a very strong contact allergic eczema by use of such substances. Acute reactions are treated with local cortisone products, or with systemic steroids. Cross reaction to substances with a similar chemical structure may occur. Tattoos with paraphenylendiamin-containing henna colours should be avoided.

  5. Allergy to tartrazine in antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Pohl, R; Balon, R; Berchou, R; Yeragani, V K

    1987-02-01

    The authors describe five cases of apparent allergy to tartrazine (FD&C yellow dye number 5) in 170 patients exposed to the dye in antidepressants. The frequency of tartrazine sensitivity was much higher than the reported frequency of six in 1,000 persons.

  6. The management of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Katherine; Clark, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Peanut allergy is common and can be a cause of severe, life-threatening reactions. It is rarely outgrown like other food allergies such as egg and milk. Measures aiming to reduce its prevalence via maternal avoidance during pregnancy and lactation, or delayed introduction into the diet, have failed to show any benefit. Peanut allergy has a significant effect on the quality of life of sufferers and their families due to dietary and social restrictions, but mainly stemming from fear of accidental peanut ingestion. The current management consists of strict avoidance, education and provision of emergency medication. Families find avoidance challenging as peanut is hidden in various food products. Despite the fact that food labelling has improved, with a legal obligation to declare certain food allergens (including nuts) in prepacked products, it still causes confusion and does not extend to cross-contamination. In an effort to address issues of safety at school, a lot of work has been undertaken to better care for peanut-allergic children in that environment. This includes training of school staff on how to recognise and treat allergic reactions promptly. Recent developments in the management of peanut allergy, such as immunotherapy, have shown some promise as an active form of treatment, but larger studies are required to further investigate safety and efficacy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. The urban jungle and allergy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, James L; Thompson, Jonathan E

    2003-08-01

    The urban forest is the assemblage of trees, shrubs, and other plants that occupy the urban and suburban zone. In urban areas, the number of potentially allergenic plants has grown rapidly as the diversity of plants increases. The recommended street trees of many cities are allergenic species that are well known to allergy clinicians. Some of the most commonly planted trees in urban zones are known to be the greatest producers of pollen. These trees are situated in close proximity to humans, either at home, at work, or on their travel routes between locations. There are common misconceptions about the plants that do and do not cause allergy. It generally has been considered that insect-pollinated plants with showy flowers are allergy safe; however, when these species are planted in close proximity to people, as they are in urban landscaping, the pollen that leaks from the flowers is often enough to cause an allergic reaction. With increasing emphasis on green space in urban areas, it is advisable to evaluate what is being planted, how much is planted, and the plants' potential for triggering allergy.

  8. [Diagnostic possibilities in drug allergies].

    PubMed

    Pichler, W J

    1993-06-12

    Drug allergies can be subclassified into three subgroups, which differ in their pathophysiology and require different diagnostic steps: (1.) classical drug allergies, which are directed to the drug itself, a reactive compound of the drug, or some contamination of it; (2.) pseudo-allergic reactions, which are caused by non-immune mediated degranulation of mast cells and basophils, and (3.) autoimmune reactions, in which the drug elicits an immune reaction to autologous structures. A very detailed (criminalistic) history has the highest priority for clarification of a suspected drug allergy. In addition, skin tests, serological tests and the lymphocyte transformation test may be useful. It is necessary to differentiate between tests which imitate the drug elicited allergic reaction (i.e. Coombs test in drug induced hemolytic anemia) and tests which only indicate sensitization. The detection of IgG antibodies to drugs bound to various carriers (nitrocellulose, sepharose) is controversial and the meaning of a positive result is unclear. Therefore, this test cannot be recommended for the routine diagnosis of drug allergy. Special emphasis is placed on the value of the lymphocyte transformation test, which is more often positive than other test procedures and may sometimes strengthen the suspicion that a disease may be caused by a drug. Nevertheless, this test requires cautious interpretation as it may be falsely positive as well as falsely negative.

  9. Food allergy and atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Worth, Allison; Sheikh, Aziz

    2010-06-01

    To review recent developments on the inter-relationship between food allergy and atopic eczema, with a particular focus on understanding the role of filaggrin gene defects. Filaggrin gene defects have recently been identified as a major risk factor for the development of atopic eczema. These skin barrier defects increase the risk of early onset, severe and persistent forms of atopic eczema. They also increase the risk of allergic sensitization, and asthma and allergic rhinitis in those with co-existent eczema. These skin barrier defects are also likely to increase the risk of food allergy. Atopic dermatitis and food allergy are frequently herald conditions for other manifestations of 'the allergic march'. They commonly co-exist, particularly in those with early onset, severe and persistent atopic eczema. Filaggrin gene defects substantially increase the risk of atopic eczema. The increased skin permeability may increase the risk of sensitization to food and other allergens, this pointing to the possible role of cutaneous allergen avoidance in early life to prevent the onset of atopic eczema and food allergy. Emerging evidence also indicates that oral exposure to potentially allergenic foods may be important for inducing immunological tolerance.

  10. ANIMAL MODELS OF MOLD ALLERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concept of molds as causative agents for allergy/asthma is not new. In fact many fungal genera have been associated with allergic lung disease, but only a few fungi are well studied and even fewer fungal allergens well characterized. The complexity and variety of fungal pro...

  11. Gastrointestinal food allergy and intolerance.

    PubMed

    Assa'ad, Amal H

    2006-10-01

    GI symptoms are a common manifestation of food allergy and intolerance. The primary physician is the first to evaluate these symptoms. A systematic evaluation using an accurate and detailed history, tests to identify the offending food(s), and procedures that may identify underlying pathologic disorders of the GI tract would lead to an accurate diagnosis and better targeted therapeutic interventions.

  12. ANIMAL MODELS OF MOLD ALLERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concept of molds as causative agents for allergy/asthma is not new. In fact many fungal genera have been associated with allergic lung disease, but only a few fungi are well studied and even fewer fungal allergens well characterized. The complexity and variety of fungal pro...

  13. Japanese guidelines for food allergy 2017.

    PubMed

    Ebisawa, Motohiro; Ito, Komei; Fujisawa, Takao

    2017-04-01

    Five years have passed since the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for Food Allergy (JPGFA) was first revised in 2011 from its original version. As many scientific papers related to food allergy have been published during the last 5 years, the second major revision of the JPGFA was carried out in 2016. In this guideline, food allergies are generally classified into four clinical types: (1) neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy, (2) infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy, (3) immediate-type of food allergy (urticaria, anaphylaxis, etc.), and (4) special forms of immediate-type of food allergy such as food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis and oral allergy syndrome (OAS). Much of this guideline covers the immediate-type of food allergy that is seen during childhood to adolescence. Infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy type is especially important as the onset of most food allergies occurs during infancy. We have discussed the neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy and special forms of immediate type food allergy types separately. Diagnostic procedures are highlighted, such as probability curves and component-resolved diagnosis, including the recent advancement utilizing antigen-specific IgE. The oral food challenge using a stepwise approach is recommended to avoid complete elimination of causative foods. Although oral immunotherapy (OIT) has not been approved as a routine treatment by nationwide insurance, we included a chapter for OIT, focusing on efficacy and problems. Prevention of food allergy is currently the focus of interest, and many changes were made based on recent evidence. Finally, the contraindication between adrenaline and antipsychotic drugs in Japan was discussed among related medical societies, and we reached an agreement that the use of adrenaline can be allowed based on the physician's discretion. In conclusion, this guideline encourages physicians to follow the principle to let patients

  14. Occupational allergy in medical doctors.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Kusaka, Yukinori; Suganuma, Narufumi; Nagasawa, Sumio; Deguchi, Yoji

    2004-03-01

    Allergic diseases have increased in many developed countries including Japan. Doctors are also at risk for allergic diseases from exposure to allergens in working conditions and hospital environments. We investigated the factors relating to occupational allergy in doctors. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to all doctors (n=895) who had previously graduated from School of Medicine, Fukui Medical University. Data from 307 responders (response rate: 34.3%, male 241, female 66, mean age +/- S.D., 30.8 +/- 4.2) were analyzed. Eighty-nine doctors stated that they had occupational allergy including contact dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. Fifty-four had contact dermatitis caused by surgical gloves; 77 had contact dermatitis from disinfectants, e.g. 23 from chlorhexidine gluconate; 21 from povidone iodine; and 15 from ethanol. Fifteen doctors experienced allergic rhinitis and/or asthma caused by handling laboratory animals. Univariate analysis showed that profession (surgical doctors) and past histories of allergic diseases (rhinitis, sinusitis, or atopic dermatitis) were significantly related to occupational allergy in doctors, but that gender, smoking or physical exercise were not significantly related to it. A logistic regression analysis showed that past histories of allergic diseases and the profession of surgical doctors were significantly related to occupational allergy, but that gender, age or smoking were not significantly related to it. The results of the present study suggest that past history of allergic diseases is a factor predisposing to occupational allergy in doctors. It is necessary and possible to extend more prophylactic measures for doctors, especially for surgeons, because exposure to responsible agents and materials for them can be more frequent.

  15. Development of the clinic of pulmonology and allergy.

    PubMed

    Dokic, D

    2013-01-01

    University Pulmology and Allergy Clinic was founded in 1975 when the Depertment of Internal Medicine, directed by Prof. Dr. Dimitar Arsov, later member of the Macedonian Academy of Sciencies and Arts, was divided into eight separate and independent clinics. The first head of the Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic was Prof. Dr. Ljubomir Kotevski. He had a very difficult goal: to establish and further develop the newly formed clinic. The Clinic flourished and became one of the leading Clinics in the Clinical Centre during the directorship of Prof. dr. Dejan Dokic.. He completely rebuilt and refurbished the Clinic, which became a modern Clinic providing excellent working conditions for the employees and, most importantly, provided a first class service to the patients. During his mandate he obtained a grant from the Japanese Government worth $1,000,000 which was used to obtain a new, modern and sophisticated medical equipment. Since the establishment of the clinic, many national and international scientific projects were carried out and many scientific papers were published as well as many monographs, and chapters in scientific books. As a result of continuous education, of the total number of 24 doctors there are 16 subspecialists in respiratory medicine and 4 specialists in internal medicine. There are 9 professors in internal medicine at the University of Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic lecturing at the Medical Faculty in Skopje. The University Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic has an international reputation due to many contacts with famous European Institutions. All these international interrelations have resulted in honouring 3 professors: Prof. Dr. Gert Kunkel from Berlin, Germany, Prof. Dr. Robert Loddenkemper from Berlin, Germany and Prof. Dr. Peter Howard from Southampton, UK.

  16. Respiratory effects of mesquite broiling

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, R.E. Jr.; Lee, J.S.; Agahian, B.; Gibbons, H.L.; Reading, J.C.

    1986-11-01

    Mesquite wood charcoal has been widely promoted for the unique taste it imparts to broiled food. We recently examined a 21-year-old mesquite broiler cook with evidence suggestive of respiratory allergy or irritation following exposure to mesquite broiler smoke in a Salt Lake City restaurant. We subsequently surveyed 13 mesquite and 17 gas-flame (charcoal) broiler cooks to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among workers exposed to broiler smoke. The survey demonstrated statistically significant (P less than or equal to .05) respiratory irritation in the mesquite broiler group compared with the gas-flame broiler group in one of four symptom categories. Two other symptom categories strongly suggested the presence of (P less than .10) respiratory irritation in the mesquite broiler group. Personal air sampling was conducted or two mesquite broiler cooks and two gas-flame broiler cooks and compared. Unidentified saturated and unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons (C8 through C12) with high molecular weights from 108 to 182 were present in air samples from the mesquite broiler cooks and not in the air samples from the gas-flame broiler cooks.

  17. Mites and allergy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Puerta, Leonardo; Caraballo, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Allergic diseases triggered by mite allergens include allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis and other skin diseases. Since the early discovery of the allergenic role of mites of the genus Dermatophagoides in the mid 1960s, numerous species have been described as the source of allergens capable of sensitizing and inducing allergic symptoms in sensitized and genetically predisposed individuals. The main sources of allergens in house dust worldwide are the fecal pellets of the mite species D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Euroglyphus maynei and the storage mites Blomia tropicalis, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyropahgus putrescentiae. Group 1 and 2 allergens are major house dust mite allergens. The main allergens in storage mites include fatty acid-binding proteins, tropomyosin and paramyosin homologues, apolipophorin-like proteins, α-tubulins and others, such as group 2, 5 and 7 allergens. Cross-reactivity is an important and common immunological feature among mites. Currently, purified native or recombinant allergens, epitope mapping, proteomic approaches and T cell proliferation techniques are being used to assess cross-reactivity. Mites contain potent enzymes capable of degrading a wide range of substrates. Most mite allergens are enzymes. Advances in genomics and molecular biology will improve our ability to understand the genetics of specific IgE responses to mites. Mite allergen avoidance and immunotherapy are the only two allergen-specific ways to treat mite-induced respiratory and cutaneous diseases. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Exposure to indoor allergens and association with allergy symptoms of employees in a work environment.

    PubMed

    Brunetto, Barbara; Brescianini, Sonia; Barletta, Bianca; Butteroni, Cinzia; Rotondi, Daniela; Masciulli, Rosalba; Aliberti, Malaguti; Pini, Carlo; Di Felice, Gabriella; Iacovacci, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens is an important risk factor for sensitisation and respiratory allergy. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the levels of mite, cat and latex allergens in dust collected from an indoor workplace and to assess whether the exposure to these allergens was associated with the allergy symptoms reported by employees. Sixty dust samples were collected. Allergen concentrations were measured with antibody based ELISAs. All 144 participants compiled a questionnaire exploring possible symptoms of allergy. No association between latex allergen exposure and symptoms was found in spite of the high frequency of latex allergens. Mite allergens were detected in a minority of rooms. Cat allergen was the most important indoor allergen in the sampled workplace and exposure to this allergen could represent a risk for employees.

  19. Global warming and allergy in Asia Minor.

    PubMed

    Bajin, Munir Demir; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Gurbuz, Melek Kezban

    2013-01-01

    The earth is warming, and it is warming quickly. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that global warming is correlated with the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy and allergic diseases. There is a body of evidence suggesting that the prevalence of allergic diseases induced by pollens is increasing in developed countries, a trend that is also evident in the Mediterranean area. Because of its mild winters and sunny days with dry summers, the Mediterranean area is different from the areas of central and northern Europe. Classical examples of allergenic pollen-producing plants of the Mediterranean climate include Parietaria, Olea and Cupressaceae. Asia Minor is a Mediterranean region that connects Asia and Europe, and it includes considerable coastal areas. Gramineae pollens are the major cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis in Asia Minor, affecting 1.3-6.4 % of the population, in accordance with other European regions. This article emphasizes the importance of global climate change and anticipated increases in the prevalence and severity of allergic disease in Asia Minor, mediated through worsening air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production, from an otolaryngologic perspective.

  20. Asthma and allergy in Finnish conscripts.

    PubMed

    Haahtela, T; Jokela, H

    1979-12-01

    We studied the occurrence of asthma, bronchial wheezing, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis in 295 young men aged 18-19 years. The relationship of these symptoms to the immediate skin test reactivity was also determined. Symptoms indicating past or current allergy and bronchial wheezing were observed in 36%. The cumulative prevalence of asthma was 2.7%, bronchial wheezing 9% in addition, allergic rhinitis (including allergic conjunctivitis) 20%, and atopic dermatitis (including allergic urticaria) 20%. Positive immediate skin prick test reactions were observed in 50% of the population. Allergic rhinitis was most clearly connected with a positive skin test. This study shows that the respiratory disorders, generally considered to be allergic in origin, and atopic dermatitis are more common in Finland than has been assumed. The results are, however, in accordance with the observations made in other industrialized countries. Susceptibility to asthmatic reactions and allergic symptoms should be taken into account, more so than at present, when mudging the capability of a young man to manage compulsory military service.

  1. Exhaled nitric oxide and nasal tryptase are associated with wheeze, rhinitis and nasal allergy in primary school children.

    PubMed

    De Prins, Sofie; Marcucci, Francesco; Sensi, Laura; Van de Mieroop, Els; Nelen, Vera; Nawrot, Tim S; Schoeters, Greet; Koppen, Gudrun

    2014-09-01

    Rhinitis and asthma are the most common respiratory diseases in children. We assessed whether airway inflammation markers were associated with nasal allergies and self-reported symptoms of wheeze and rhinitis in 130 children 6-12 year old in an epidemiological context. Independent of sex and age, the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and nasal mast cell (MC) activation (tryptase ≥ 5 ng/mL) were positively associated with wheeze, rhinitis and with nasal allergy. Nasal eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) markers (pH, 8-isoprostane, interleukin-1β) were not associated with symptoms or with nasal allergy. In conclusion, FeNO and nasal tryptase reflect allergic inflammation in the respiratory system.

  2. Respiratory acidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... when the lungs cannot remove all of the carbon dioxide the body produces. This causes body fluids, especially ... Acute respiratory acidosis is a condition in which carbon dioxide builds up very quickly, before the kidneys can ...

  3. Respiratory Therapists

    MedlinePlus

    ... how to stop smoking. <- Summary Work Environment -> Work Environment About this section Respiratory therapists treat patients in ... also covers different types of occupational specialties. Work Environment The Work Environment tab includes the number of ...

  4. Development and validation of school-based asthma and allergy screening questionnaires in a 4-city study.

    PubMed

    Redline, Susan; Gruchalla, Rebecca S; Wolf, Raoul L; Yawn, Barbara P; Cartar, Lydia; Gan, Vanthaya; Nelson, Patricia; Wollan, Peter

    2004-07-01

    Asthma and allergies are commonly undiagnosed in children. Schools provide settings for potentially accessing almost all children for asthma and allergy screening. To evaluate the feasibility and validity of using a questionnaire-based screening tool to identify undiagnosed asthma and respiratory allergies in children in kindergarten to grade 6. A student questionnaire (SQ) and a parent questionnaire (PQ) were developed, administered in 4 diverse communities, and validated against standardized clinical assessments. Children without diagnosed asthma and representing a range of symptoms participated in a validation study that consisted of independent, standardized, clinical assessments. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for questionnaire items were evaluated against expert consensus designations. A total of 190 children (age range, 7-13 years) completed the validation study. Affirmative responses to individual questions from either the SQ or PQ regarding asthma and allergy were modestly to moderately predictive of the clinical assessments (odds ratios, generally 2.5-5.0). When considering a positive asthma screen as affirmative responses to 3 of the best 7 SQ asthma questions, the odds ratio for asthma was 9.3 (95% confidence interval, 4.1-21.1), with 80% sensitivity and 70% specificity. Considering the allergy screen as positive based on affirmative response to either of the 2 SQ allergy questions yielded 81% sensitivity and 42% specificity. Either a 9-item SQ or a 10-item PQ can be used in diverse settings to screen for asthma and respiratory allergies. The SQ, obtained by directly screening students, may provide a sensitive approach for detecting children with previously undiagnosed asthma and allergies.

  5. Respiratory distress.

    PubMed

    Fallot, André

    2005-11-01

    Preparation for pediatric pulmonary emergencies in the office setting includes adequate training for all medical staff, properly sized and working equipment, and medications to help alleviate respiratory distress when indicated. Status asthmaticus, viral bronchiolitis, and croup account for the vast majority of respiratory emergencies encountered in the pediatric office setting. Timely application of proven approaches to assessment and treatment of these illnesses can prevent hospitalization, decrease length of hospitalizations, and save lives.

  6. The Natural History of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jessica; Sicherer, Scott; Wood, Robert

    2016-01-01

    On a population level, it is well recognized that some IgE-mediated childhood food allergies, such as milk and egg allergies, are more likely to resolve than others, such as peanut and tree nuts allergies. Unfortunately, some studies suggest that resolution rates may have slowed compared with impressions from past decades. The clinician can apply the knowledge of the epidemiology of these allergies to describe likely patient outcomes, and direct management in a general manner. However, the ability to evaluate and predict the natural course of specific food allergies for individual patients is essential to inform personalized patient care. Data are accumulating to assist in identifying whether a child's allergy has likely resolved, informing the timing of oral food challenges or subsequent testing. Exciting recent studies are increasingly identifying early prognostic markers as well. Emerging food allergy therapies carry risks and costs. Identifying which egg-allergic patient has likely persistent allergy, and which patient with peanut allergy may experience natural resolution, is becoming an important goal to identify the best candidates for these therapies. Although more work needs to be done to identify reliable predictive markers and validate them, there is already much known about the natural course of food allergies that can be applied by the clinician to improve patient care.

  7. [Respiratory distress].

    PubMed

    Galili, D; Garfunkel, A; Elad, S; Zusman, S P; Malamed, S F; Findler, M; Kaufman, E

    2002-01-01

    Dental treatment is usually conducted in the oral cavity and in very close proximity to the upper respiratory airway. The possibility of unintentionally compromising this airway is high in the dental environment. The accumulation of fluid (water or blood) near to the upper respiratory airway or the loosening of teeth fragmentations and fallen dental instruments can occur. Also, some of the drugs prescribed in the dental practice are central nervous system depressants and some are direct respiratory drive depressors. For this reason, awareness of the respiratory status of the dental patient is of paramount importance. This article focuses on several of the more common causes of respiratory distress, including airway obstruction, hyperventilation, asthma, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism and cardiac insufficiency. The common denominator to all these conditions described here is that in most instances the patient is conscious. Therefore, on the one hand, valuable information can be retrieved from the patient making diagnosis easier than when the patient is unconscious. On the other hand, the conscious patient is under extreme apprehension and stress under such situations. Respiratory depression which occurs during conscious sedation or following narcotic analgesic medication will not be dealt with in this article. Advanced pain and anxiety control techniques such as conscious sedation and general anesthesia should be confined only to operators who undergo special extended training.

  8. [Klüver-Bucy syndrome in humans].

    PubMed

    Gaul, C; Jordan, B; Wustmann, T; Preuss, U W

    2007-07-01

    The Klüver-Bucy syndrome (KBS) was first described in 1937 as an experimental neurobehavorial syndrome in monkeys with bitemporal brain lesions. The syndrome in man was subsequently observed to be transient or permanent in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders and after traumatic, nontraumatic, and infectious brain injury. Its most common manifestations are hyperorality with changes in dietary habits, hypersexuality, and visual agnosia. Seizures are another frequent symptom. Here we describe KBS in a female inpatient aged 30 in whom KBS and psychotic symptoms occurred together.

  9. Virus-provoked rhinitis in patients who have allergies.

    PubMed

    Fireman, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The most common illnesses in humans are the respiratory tract infections caused by viruses. When limited to the upper respiratory region, these infections often are designated as "a common cold." Viruses commonly associated with these upper respiratory infections (URI) include rhinoviruses (RVs), respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, corona virus, and adenoviruses. Clinical observations have suggested that patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma experience more pronounced symptoms during a viral URI than patients who do not have allergies and who are infected with the same virus under similar circumstances. Using an experimental virus infection model in human volunteers with and without allergic rhinitis, several groups of clinical investigators have studied the effects of experimental RV infections. These observations indicate that the experimental virus infection may induce host responses that provoke enhanced immunoglobulin E (IgE) synthesis. Whether this translates into enhanced symptoms has been suggested in one study but not in another. This article will review these studies, which suggest that it is the host response to the virus and not the virus itself that plays the major role in symptom pathogenesis.

  10. Reported food allergy to peanut, tree nuts and fruit: comparison of clinical manifestations, prescription of medication and impact on daily life.

    PubMed

    Le, T M; Lindner, T M; Pasmans, S G; Guikers, C L H; van Hoffen, E; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M; Knulst, A C

    2008-07-01

    Peanut (PN), tree nuts (TN) and fruits are frequent causes of food allergy (FA). Peanut and TN are believed to cause more severe reactions than fruits. However, there are no studies comparing the severity of PN, TN and fruit allergy within one patient group. Four-hundred and eleven adult patients referred to our tertiary allergy center with suspicion of FA completed a standardized questionnaire. Patients with a typical history of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergy, e.g. oropharyngeal symptoms to PN, TN (hazelnut, walnut, cashew nut) or fruit (apple, kiwi, peach, pear and cherry) were recruited (218/411). The objective was to evaluate differences in clinical severity between PN, TN and fruit allergy and how this was reflected by prescription of emergency medication and impact on daily life. Eighty-two percent of the included 218 patients were sensitized to the respective foods. The percentages of severe symptoms (i.e. respiratory or cardiovascular symptoms) in PN, TN and fruit allergic patients were respectively 47%, 39% and 31% (respiratory) and 11%, 5.0% and 3.4% (cardiovascular). Prescription and use of emergency medication (epinephrine, antihistamines and steroids) did not differ among the three groups. The majority of patients with a PN or TN allergy (72%) and fruit allergy (62%) reported that FA influences their daily life considerably. Fruit allergy causes less severe symptoms than TN and especially PN allergy. However, this is not reflected in the prescription or use of emergency medication. This may indicate that physicians are not fully acquainted with the guidelines for prescription of emergency medication. A high impact on daily life was found both in PN, TN and in fruit allergy.

  11. Oral Immunotherapy for Food Allergies.

    PubMed

    Feuille, Elizabeth; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a promising investigational therapy for food allergy. Clinical trials in peanut, milk, egg, and wheat allergy provide evidence that OIT can effectively desensitize a majority of individuals to a food allergen. While a portion of subjects demonstrate sustained unresponsiveness, the majority regain sensitivity with allergen avoidance. The safety and tolerability of OIT continue to limit its use in some patients. Virtually all studies report adverse reactions that are more frequent during dose escalation but may also occur during maintenance therapy. Recent studies have identified adjunctive therapies (such as omalizumab) which may mitigate adverse effects. There is a paucity of data on the long-term safety and efficacy of OIT. Further study is required before OIT is ready for routine clinical practice. This review is intended to provide the reader with an up-to-date understanding of OIT, including its mechanisms, efficacy, safety profile, and potential utility in clinical practice. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Immunotherapy for cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Taniuchi, Shoichiro; Takahashi, Masaya; Soejima, Kazukiko; Hatano, Yasuko; Minami, Hirotaka

    2017-08-21

    Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is used regularly for young children with cow's milk (CM) allergy and has been shown to be effective in several studies. However, adverse events occur frequently during OIT. Furthermore, there are only five randomized controlled trial studies of CM-OIT and these are low-powered single center trials. Therefore, evidence levels are also low and sometimes frequent and severe allergic events occur during the OIT. Furthermore, there are no standardized protocols in pediatric allergy guidelines from several countries and studies with long-term follow-up observations and clinical tolerance defined as sustained unresponsiveness are rare. Additionally, clinical tolerance by OIT is generally not well defined and obscure. Thus, several problems remain to be resolved, however we hope OIT in combination with omalizumab and less allergenic heated CM products will resolve these problems in the future.

  13. [Diagnostic workup of fragrance allergy].

    PubMed

    Geier, J; Uter, W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup of contact allergy to fragrances must not be limited to patch testing with the two well-established fragrance mixes. False-positive reactions to these mixes occur in up to 50 % of the patch tested patients. For the diagnostic work-up of positive reactions, and in cases of suspected fragrance allergy, patch testing with the single mix components and additional fragrances is mandatory. Frequently sensitizing fragrance materials are the 14 components of the two fragrance mixes and tree moss (Evernia furfuracea), ylang ylang oil (I + II; Cananga odorata), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), sandalwood oil (Santalum album), jasmine absolute (Jasminum spp.), and, less frequently, clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus), cedarwood oil (Cedrus atlantica/deodara, Juniperus virginiana), Neroli oil (Citrus aurantium amara flower oil), salicylaldehyde, narcissus absolute (Narcissus spp.), and patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin).

  14. Allergy march of Chinese children with infantile allergic symptoms: a prospective multi-center study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qi; Ren, Yi-Xin; Liu, Yong-Ge; Ma, Lin; Gu, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Wei-Xi; Liu, Li; Zhai, Xiao-Jia; Xiang, Li; Shen, Kun-Ling

    2017-08-01

    Allergy march refers to progression of allergic diseases from infantile food allergy to the development of asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR). Evidence come mostly from studies in European countries. This study aimed to investigate allergy march in Chinese children with infantile food protein allergy (FPA) with a special focus on the effect of different formula interventions. From 2008 to 2010, 153 infants diagnosed with FPA were recruited in five tertiary hospitals across China. They were randomly treated with amino-acid-based formula or soy-protein-based formula for a period of 3 months. Long-term follow-up was performed when they reached early school age, using questionnaires, physical examinations, and serum-specific immunoglobulin E. The overall follow-up rate was 73.20%. In patients who reached their early school years, the prevalence of physician-diagnosed AR and asthma were 43.75% and 23.21%, respectively. Only 40% of the subjects remained positive for food sensitizations upon follow-up. Twenty-six subjects receiving aeroallergen screening tests in infancy all proved negative, but upon follow-up, 65.57% were sensitized to aeroallergens (P=0.005). No significant difference between the effects of amino-acid-based formula and soy-protein-based formula on children's allergy march was observed. A high proportion (47.32%) of Chinese infants with early allergic symptoms developed respiratory allergies by their early school years. Most food-sensitized infants outgrew their condition several years later, but then aeroallergen sensitization often occurred. Amino-acid-based formula showed no advantages over soy protein-based formula with respect to arresting the allergy march.

  15. Pre and probiotics in the prevention and treatment of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Savilahti, Erkki; Kuitunen, Mikael; Vaarala, Outi

    2008-06-01

    Recent studies on the pathogenesis of allergy in both man and experimental animals continue to show the importance of commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract in stimulating and directing the immune system. The interest in modulating commensal bacterial flora with prebiotics and probiotics to prevent and treat food allergy has multiplied in recent years. Studies on prevention suggest that probiotic supplementation reduces IgE-associated eczema. It seems that prenatal administration is of importance. Colonization seems to be readily achieved, so there is proof of concept. However, after cessation of the administration, a rapid decline in colonization is evident. IgE sensitization in atopic eczema is a risk factor for allergic airways disease, and the reduced IgE-associated atopic eczema demonstrated may be an indication of less respiratory allergic disease later. Administration of probiotics to children with allergy or at risk of allergy seems to stimulate a low-grade inflammation by activating the innate immune system and further production of IL-10. Modulation of commensal bacteria of the gut with probiotics has been shown to modulate the immune system and to have an effect on both the prevention and treatment of food allergy. The effects have been highly variable depending on the mode of treatment and the optimal treatment remains unsettled at present.

  16. Potential treatments for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Albin, Stephanie; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2015-02-01

    This article presents an overview of potential treatments of food allergy, with an emphasis on various forms of immunotherapy (including oral immunotherapy, sublingual immunotherapy, epicutaneous immunotherapy, immunotherapy with modified food antigens, and immunotherapy with a recombinant peanut vaccine). Allergen nonspecific treatments, such as Chinese herbal formulas, probiotics/prebiotics, helminths, monoclonal antibodies, and toll-like receptor agonists, are also summarized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Active treatment for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kobernick, Aaron K; Burks, A Wesley

    2016-10-01

    Food allergy has grown in rapidly in prevalence, currently affecting 5% of adults and 8% of children. Management strategy is currently limited to 1) food avoidance and 2) carrying and using rescue intramuscular epinephrine/adrenaline and oral antihistamines in the case of accidental ingestion; there is no FDA approved treatment. Recently, oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy have been developed as active treatment of food allergy, though none have completed phase 3 study. Efficacy and safety studies of immunotherapy have been variable, though there is clearly signal that immunotherapy will be a viable option to desensitize patients. The use of bacterial adjuvants, anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies, and Chinese herbal formulations either alone or in addition to immunotherapy may hold promise as future options for active treatment. Active prevention of food allergy through early introduction of potentially offending foods in high-risk infants will be an important means to slow the rising incidence of sensitization. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Oral allergy syndrome in children.

    PubMed

    Ivković-Jureković, Irena

    2015-06-01

    Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is an allergic reaction that occurs after consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables in patients with allergy to pollen. It is mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and symptoms arise as a result of cross-reactivity between pollen and plant-derived food. OAS is rarely seen in young children, but the prevalence increases with age. The objectives of the study were to identify the prevalence of OAS and probable risk factors in children and adolescents with seasonal allergic rhinitis (AR). One-hundred and twenty patients with seasonal AR were included. Patients were diagnosed based on their clinical history, skin prick test outcome and specific IgE. In patients describing OAS, prick-by-prick tests with fresh fruit or vegetables were carried out. Thirty-two patients had OAS and it was more frequent in female patients than in male patients. OAS was more frequent in adolescents than in small children and in patients with higher total IgE. OAS was significantly more prevalent in patients with AR and asthma (P=0.0016), as was the case in patients with AR and atopic dermatitis (P=0.0004). OAS is rarely diagnosed in small children, partly because of an inadequate clinical history. Patients with OAS may have some risk factors in addition to pollen allergy, and those with more severe atopy are more likely to develop OAS.

  19. Microbiome/microbiota and allergies.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuzaburo; Shimojo, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Allergies are characterized by a hypersensitive immune reaction to originally harmless antigens. In recent decades, the incidence of allergic diseases has markedly increased, especially in developed countries. The increase in the frequency of allergic diseases is thought to be primarily due to environmental changes related to a westernized lifestyle, which affects the commensal microbes in the human body. The human gut is the largest organ colonized by bacteria and contains more than 1000 bacterial species, called the "gut microbiota." The recent development of sequencing technology has enabled researchers to genetically investigate and clarify the diversity of all species of commensal microbes. The collective genomes of commensal microbes are together called the "microbiome." Although the detailed mechanisms remain unclear, it has been proposed that the microbiota/microbiome, especially that in the gut, impacts the systemic immunity and metabolism, thus affecting the development of various immunological diseases, including allergies. In this review, we summarize the recent findings regarding the importance of the microbiome/microbiota in the development of allergic diseases and also the results of interventional studies using probiotics or prebiotics to prevent allergies.

  20. Occupational allergy caused by flowers.

    PubMed

    de Jong, N W; Vermeulen, A M; Gerth van Wijk, R; de Groot, H

    1998-02-01

    We describe 14 consecutive patients with complaints due to the handling of flowers. The symptoms varied from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma to urticaria. Most patients had professions in the flower industry. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with home-made pollen extracts from 17 different flowers known to be the most commonly grown and sold in The Netherlands RAST against mugwort, chrysanthemum, and solidago was performed. The diagnosis of atopy against flowers was based on work-related symptoms due to the handling of flowers, positive SPT with flower extracts, and positive RAST. The concordance between SPT and case history was 74%, and that between SPT and RAST was 77% Extensive cross-sensitization was seen to pollen of several members of the Compositae family (e.g., Matricaria, chrysanthemum, solidago) and to pollen of the Amaryllidaceae family (Alstroemeria and Narcissus). Homemade flower extracts can be used to confirm IgE-mediated flower allergy. Mugwort can be used as a screening test for possible flower allergy. For most patients, the allergy led to a change of profession.

  1. Future Therapies for Food Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2011-01-01

    Food allergy is an increasingly prevalent problem in westernized countries and there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy . A number of therapeutic strategies are under investigation targeting foods that most frequently provoke severe IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions (peanut, tree nuts, shellfish) or are most common in children, such as cow’s milk and hen’s egg. Approaches being pursued are both food allergen-specific and non-specific. Allergen-specific approaches include oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy (desensitization) with native food allergens, and mutated recombinant proteins, which have decreased IgE-binding activity, co-administered within heat-killed E.coli to generate maximum immune response. Diets containing extensively heated (baked) milk and egg represent an alternative approach to food oral immunotherapy and are already changing the paradigm of strict dietary avoidance for food-allergic patients. Non-specific approaches include monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies, which may increase the threshold dose for food allergen in food-allergic patients, and a Chinese herbal formulation, which prevented peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a mouse model, and is currently being investigated in clinical trials. The variety of strategies for treating food allergy increases the likelihood of success and gives hope that accomplishing an effective therapy for food allergy is within reach. PMID:21277625

  2. [Amalgam allergy and amalgam controversy].

    PubMed

    Lübbe, J; Wüthrich, B

    1996-04-20

    Safety concerns regarding dental amalgam have been voiced ever since its introduction 150 years ago. As most people have amalgam fillings, the issue has received extensive coverage in the lay as well as the medical medical media. This has led to confusion about the terms amalgam allergy, mercury burden and intoxication, and amalgam disease, an understanding of which is crucial in consideration of this controversy. Allergy to amalgam is rare and should be investigated by a specialist, as diagnosis may result in a decision to remove dental amalgam. Dental amalgam is the most important source of mercury burden in the general population. Occupational exposure to mercury within established exposure limits reaches levels much higher without evidence of intoxication. However, mercury released from dental amalgam induces measurable organ effects. Amalgam disease has been introduced as a term to identify patients who typically ascribe a variety of symptoms to their amalgam fillings. Current literature lacks sound evidence of a role for amalgam in human disease other than allergy.

  3. Patient adherence to allergy immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Reisacher, William R; Visaya, Jiovani M

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the literature on patient adherence to two different approaches to allergen-specific immunotherapy for allergic disease. Factors related to adherence in general, as well as the various methods used to measure adherence, will be discussed. Although a complex interaction of factors related to both the physician and the patient influence the adherence to a particular therapeutic regimen, effective communication between these two parties and the simplicity of the regimen are frequently noted to be of primary importance. Variability with respect to the definition of adherence, the method of measuring adherence, and the length of the measuring period has resulted in a wide range of adherence rates to allergy immunotherapy reported in the literature. Patients most often site inconvenience, side-effects, and poor efficacy as reasons for discontinuing allergy immunotherapy. Adherence to therapy not only improves individual patient outcomes, but also helps determine the best treatment modalities and reduces the burden of disease on society. As new methods of delivering immunotherapy are being developed, such as allergy immunotherapy tablets and oral mucosal immunotherapy, the factors associated with patient adherence should be carefully considered.

  4. Exploration into the Genetics of Food Allergy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Eosinophilic Esophagitis, a non-IgE mediated disease . This work has examined the genetics of food allergy looking at both IgE and non-IgE mediated...atopic dermatitis to another. The understanding that genetics play a role in allergic disease and asthma has been recognized for more than 100... disease as compared with controls4, 5. Follow-up studies have shown that if one parent has allergies, a child has a 33% chance of developing allergies

  5. Is allergy related to Meniere's disease?

    PubMed

    Banks, Catherine; McGinness, Samuel; Harvey, Richard; Sacks, Raymond

    2012-06-01

    Meniere's disease (MD) is characterized by episodic rotational vertigo, fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss, aural pressure, and tinnitus. The cause of MD is thought to be multifactorial, with anatomic and genetic contributions. Allergy is thought to be one of the possible extrinsic factors that, when combined with underlying intrinsic factors, may lead to MD. We review the epidemiologic associations of MD and allergy and review the recent literature on the association of allergy and MD.

  6. 76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel,...

  7. Coping with Food Allergies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... soy products, and wheat. Allergies to peanuts or tree nuts often are lifelong. An allergy that begins ... common food allergies are to eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, crustaceans (shellfish), fish, and soy products. ...

  8. Nearly 4 Percent of Americans Suffer from Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Nearly 4 Percent of Americans Suffer From Food Allergies Study finds most common allergy is to shellfish, ... shows. Approximately 4 percent of Americans have a food allergy, with women and Asians the most affected, the ...

  9. Allergies Galore! Managing Allergies Is More Than a Call to 911.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Cassandra; Rebull, Helen

    2002-01-01

    Food allergies can kill a child, and camp offers many opportunities for things to go wrong. One camp with many allergic campers gathered information from parents on the extent of allergies and medications needed; educated staff about the seriousness of allergies, food preparation procedures, and snacks; and prepared an emergency plan. Family,…

  10. Allergies Galore! Managing Allergies Is More Than a Call to 911.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Cassandra; Rebull, Helen

    2002-01-01

    Food allergies can kill a child, and camp offers many opportunities for things to go wrong. One camp with many allergic campers gathered information from parents on the extent of allergies and medications needed; educated staff about the seriousness of allergies, food preparation procedures, and snacks; and prepared an emergency plan. Family,…

  11. Japanese Guideline for Food Allergy 2014.

    PubMed

    Urisu, Atsuo; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Ito, Komei; Aihara, Yukoh; Ito, Setsuko; Mayumi, Mitsufumi; Kohno, Yoichi; Kondo, Naomi

    2014-09-01

    A food allergy is defined as "a phenomenon in which adverse reactions are caused through antigen-specific immunological mechanisms after exposure to given food." Various symptoms of food allergy occur in many organs. Food allergies are classified roughly into 4 clinical types: (1) neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy, (2) infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy, (3) immediate-type food allergy (urticaria, anaphylaxis, etc.), and (4) food dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis and oral allergy syndrome (i.e., specific forms of immediate food allergy). The therapy for food allergies includes treatment of and prophylactic measures against hypersensitivity such as anaphylaxis. A fundamental prophylactic measure is the elimination diet. However, elimination diets should be used only if necessary because of the patient-related burden. For this purpose, it is very important that causative foods be accurately identified. There are a number of means available to identify causative foods, including the history taking, a skin prick test, detection of antigen-specific IgE antibodies in the blood, the basophil histamine release test, the elimination diet test, and the oral challenge test, etc. Of these, the oral challenge test is the most reliable. However, it should be conducted under the supervision of experienced physicians because it may cause adverse reactions, such as anaphylaxis.

  12. Food Allergy: Present and Future Management

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Food allergy poses a significant burden on patients, families, health care providers, and the medical system. The increased prevalence of food allergy has brought about investigation as to its cause and new treatments. Currently, the only treatment available is to avoid the food and symptomatically treat any reactions. There are multiple clinical and murine models of food allergy treatment that use allergen specific and nonspecific pathways. Allergen specific treatments use mucosal antigen exposure as a method of inducing desensitization and tolerance. Allergen nonspecific methods act via a more global TH2 suppressive mechanism and may be useful for those patients with multiple food allergies. PMID:23282314

  13. [Characterisctics of ragweed allergy in Hungary].

    PubMed

    Márk, Zsuzsa; Bikov, András; Gálffy, Gabriella

    2016-12-01

    Although the prevalence of ragweed allergy in Europe is still low, it is increasing according to recent statistics. In contrast, in Hungary ragweed is the most common allergen with very high sensitisation in the general Hungarian population. We investigated the number and clinical characteristics of ragweed allergy in the Hungarian population, as the first comprehensive study to evaluate ragweed allergy in Hungary. One thousand Hungarian adult subjects were screened with a questionnaire for ragweed allergy. People with ragweed allergy answered further specific questions about their disease history, symptoms and medication use. 305 subjects reported allergy from which 218 patients had symptoms during ragweed pollination suggesting ragweed allergy. 40% of these had symptoms for more than 5 years. Asthma was reported in 18.3%. Around 24% of these patients were undiagnosed; they did not take any medications or visited professionals because of their symptoms. Compared to the non-ragweed allergic patients, subjects with ragweed allergy were older and better educated, but the dominance of female gender was less prominent than in the non-ragweed group (all p<0.05). Around 22% of the Hungarian population suffers from ragweed allergy. Studies should focus on eradication strategy and improvement of patient care. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(50), 1989-1993.

  14. Update on food allergy in adults.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Rabia Quddus; Oppenheimer, John J

    2012-08-01

    Though much has been studied and written about food allergy, the majority of the available literature focuses on food allergies in the pediatric population. Unfortunately, it is likely that in regard to food allergies, adults are not just big children, and extrapolating findings from pediatric to adult patient populations might lead to erroneous assumptions. Thus, it is important to validate the correlation between pediatric and adult data, gather data regarding adult food allergy and understand the specific nuances of subsets of adults to better treat their food allergy. This review was conducted by identifying potentially relevant studies regarding food allergies in adults through electronic databases, including PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar. The search terms included "allergy", "food" and "adults". Parameters of 19+ years of age were added to search terms and all journals were written in or translated to English. From these search results, focus was placed on studies from 2010 to 2012. This systematic update on food allergy in adults found that the evidence regarding prevalence, diagnosis and management of food allergies is very limited, with the majority of data derived from children and young adults.

  15. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy.

    PubMed

    van der Valk, J P M; Dubois, A E J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Wichers, H J; de Jong, N W

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognition and to promote awareness of this emerging food allergy amongst clinicians. The goal of this study is to present a systematic review focused on the clinical aspects of allergy to cashew nut including the characteristics of cashew nut, the prevalence, allergenic components, cross-reactivity, diagnosis and management of cashew nut allergy. The literature search yielded 255 articles of which 40 met our selection criteria and were considered to be relevant for this review. The 40 articles included one prospective study, six retrospective studies and seven case reports. The remaining 26 papers were not directly related to cashew nut allergy. The literature suggests that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing, although the level of evidence for this is low. A minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause a severe allergic reaction, suggesting high potency comparable with other tree nuts and peanuts. Cashew allergy is clearly an underestimated important healthcare problem, especially in children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Nasal lavage fluid examination in diagnostics of occupational allergy to chloramine.

    PubMed

    Pałczyński, Cezary; Walusiak, Jolanta; Krakowiak, Anna; Szymczak, Wiesław; Wittczak, Tomasz; Ruta, Urszula; Górski, Paweł; Szymczak, Wojciech

    2003-01-01

    Chloramine T is a known sensitising agent in the occupational environment of health care workers. In cases of occupational hazards induced by this agent, a clinical history may be far from conclusive, hence appropriate provocation tests are absolutely essential. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of the nasal challenge test in diagnostics of respiratory allergy to chloramine T. A single-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 6 subjects with chloramine T asthma and rhinitis. Two control groups comprised 7 atopic subjects with asthma and rhinitis and 6 healthy persons. All the controls had negative results of skin prick tests with chloramine T and none displayed any respiratory symptoms under exposure to the agent. A "nasal pool" technique was used to evaluate morphological and biochemical parameters (mast cell tryptase, eosinophil cationic protein, permeability index) in nasal washings before and 30 min, 4 h and 24 h after the provocation with chloramine T and placebo. A significant increase was found in the total count and percentage of eosinophils and basophils, albumin, tryptase and eosinophil cationic protein levels in the nasal lavage fluid from patients with chloramine T respiratory allergy when compared to both control groups. Also a dual asthmatic reaction in 4 patients and an isolated late reaction in 2 cases were observed in chloramine-sensitive subjects. The results indicate the applicability of the "nasal pool" technique as a diagnostic procedure in chloramine T-induced airway allergy.

  17. Pesticide poisoning and respiratory disorders in Colorado farm residents.

    PubMed

    Beseler, C L; Stallones, L

    2009-10-01

    Respiratory hazards significantly contribute to the burden of occupational disease among farmers. Pesticide exposure has been linked to an increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms in several farming populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between respiratory symptoms and pesticide poisoning in a cross-sectional survey of farm residents. A total of 761 farm operators and their spouses, representing 479 farms in northeastern Colorado, were recruited from 1993 to 1997. A personal interview asked whether the resident had experienced a pesticide poisoning and several respiratory conditions including cough, allergy, wheeze, and organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS). Spirometry testing was performed on 196 individuals. Logistic regression was used to model the association of pesticide poisoning with respiratory conditions, and linear regression was used to model the relationship of pesticide poisoning and forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume (FEV1). In unadjusted models, pesticide poisoning was associated with all four respiratory conditions, and stayed significant in adjusted models of allergies and cough in non-smokers. In age- and gender-adjusted models, pesticide poisoning was significantly associated with lower FVC and FEV1 in current smokers and in those who were not heavy drinkers. Although this study should be reproduced in a larger sample, it suggests that further evaluation of the respiratory effects of pesticide exposure is warranted.

  18. Allergy Testing in Children With Low-Risk Penicillin Allergy Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Vyles, David; Adams, Juan; Chiu, Asriani; Simpson, Pippa; Nimmer, Mark; Brousseau, David C

    2017-08-01

    Penicillin allergy is commonly reported in the pediatric emergency department (ED). True penicillin allergy is rare, yet the diagnosis results from the denial of first-line antibiotics. We hypothesize that all children presenting to the pediatric ED with symptoms deemed to be low-risk for immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity will return negative results for true penicillin allergy. Parents of children aged 4 to 18 years old presenting to the pediatric ED with a history of parent-reported penicillin allergy completed an allergy questionnaire. A prespecified 100 children categorized as low-risk on the basis of reported symptoms completed penicillin allergy testing by using a standard 3-tier testing process. The percent of children with negative allergy testing results was calculated with a 95% confidence interval. Five hundred ninety-seven parents completed the questionnaire describing their child's reported allergy symptoms. Three hundred two (51%) children had low-risk symptoms and were eligible for testing. Of those, 100 children were tested for penicillin allergy. The median (interquartile range) age at testing was 9 years (5-12). The median (interquartile range) age at allergy diagnosis was 1 year (9 months-3 years). Rash (97 [97%]) and itching (63 [63%]) were the most commonly reported allergy symptoms. Overall, 100 children (100%; 95% confidence interval 96.4%-100%) were found to have negative results for penicillin allergy and had their labeled penicillin allergy removed from their medical record. All children categorized as low-risk by our penicillin allergy questionnaire were found to have negative results for true penicillin allergy. The utilization of this questionnaire in the pediatric ED may facilitate increased use of first-line penicillin antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Allergy Risk Finder: Hypothesis Generation System for Allergy Risks via Web Service.

    PubMed

    Aramaki, Eiji; Shikata, Shuko; Watabe, Eriko; Miyabe, Mai; Usuda, Yasuyuki; Ayaya, Satsuki; Kumagaya, Shinichiro

    2015-01-01

    This study's aim was to build a web service that automatically collects and tests hypotheses for possible allergy risks. We crowdsourced for unknown allergy risks, and obtained odds ratios. By using the collected hypotheses, we built a web service that estimates allergy risks from a questionnaire (consisting of 10 questions that we gathered from the crowdsourcing task), and at the end, we asked the users their new hypotheses on possible allergy risks. The web service also asked the users to send their original hypotheses to contribute to find the cause of allergy. In the near future, clinical trials to validate the hypotheses found in this study are desired.

  20. The changing geoepidemiology of food allergies.

    PubMed

    Leung, Patrick S C; Shu, Shang-An; Chang, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    The science of food allergy has been rapidly evolving before our eyes in the past half century. Like other allergic disorders, the prevalence of food allergies has dramatically increased, and coupled with the increased public awareness of anaphylaxis due to food allergy, this has driven an explosion in basic and clinical research in this extremely broad subject. Treatment of food allergies has evolved and practices such as food challenges have become an integral part of an allergy practice. The impact of the increase of food allergy has driven package labeling laws, legislation on emergency treatment availability in schools and other public places, and school policy. But to this day, our knowledge of the pathogenesis of food allergy is still incomplete. There are the most obvious IgE-mediated immediate hypersensitivity reactions, but then multiple previously unidentified conditions such as eosinophilic esophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, milk protein allergy, food-induced atopic dermatitis, oral allergy syndrome, and others have complicated the diagnosis and management of many of our patients who are unable to tolerate certain foods. Many of these conditions are not IgE-mediated, but may be T cell-driven diseases. The role of T regulatory cells and immune tolerance and the newly discovered immunological role of vitamin D have shed light on the variable clinical presentation of food allergy and the development of new methods of immunotherapy in an example of bench-to-bedside research. Component-resolved diagnostic techniques have already begun to allow us to more precisely define the epitopes that are targeted in food allergic patients. The development of biological modulators, research on genomics and proteomics, and epigenetic techniques all offer promising avenues for new modes of therapy of food allergy in the twenty-first century.

  1. Respiratory Surgery.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Sylvain

    2016-11-01

    This article is a review of the most frequent disorders affecting the upper airway of cattle that are suitable for surgery. Information regarding the clinical signs, diagnostic methods, and the chemical restraint of cattle in respiratory distress are highlighted. Surgeries that can be performed in a field setting are thoroughly described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Allergy to jackfruit: a novel example of Bet v 1-related food allergy.

    PubMed

    Bolhaar, S T H P; Ree, R; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M; Knulst, A C; Zuidmeer, L

    2004-11-01

    Jackfruit allergy has been reported just once. It is unknown whether this food allergy is caused by direct sensitization or cross-sensitization to pollen allergens. Establish whether jackfruit allergy is linked to birchpollen allergy. Two jackfruit allergic patients and five patients with birchpollen-related apple allergy were recruited. Sensitization to pollen and plant foods was assessed by skin prick test (SPT), radio-allergosorbent test (RAST) and immunoblot. RAST analysis was performed for Bet v 1 and Mal d 1. Cross-reactivity was evaluated by RAST and immunoblot-inhibition. Biological activity of immunoglobulin E (IgE) was measured by basophil histamine release. Allergy to jackfruit was evaluated by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) or open challenge (OC). In both patients DBPCFC confirmed the reported jackfruit allergy. SPT was 41 and 27 mm2 and specific IgE to jackfruit was 5.9 and 0.8 IU/ml, respectively. Immunoblot analysis revealed IgE reactivity at Mr of approximately 17 kDa. The Bet v 1-related nature of this allergen in jackfruit was demonstrated by RAST and immunoblot inhibition. To assess whether jackfruit allergy might be common in patients with combined birchpollen-fruit allergy, five such patients underwent an OC with jackfruit. All five had OA-like symptoms. Jackfruit allergy can be added to the list of birchpollen-related food allergies. Increased consumption of this fruit will result in a rise in allergic reactions. Copyright 2004 Blackwell Munksgaard

  3. History of the World Allergy Organization: The World Allergy Organization Congress - XVIII ICACI, Vancouver 2003

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    History of the World Allergy Organization: In 1951, the leaders in allergy from all over the world came together to form the International Association of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (IAACI). For the next 60 years, the allergy world converged at the IAACI triennial meetings, which became biennial in 2003. The international meetings, originally named the International Congress of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (ICACI), are now the World Allergy Congress (WAC) hosted by the World Allergy Organization (WAO). Everyone who has aspired to have worldwide recognition has played a part in IAACI-WAO. The History of the World Allergy Organization traces the global arc of the allergy field over the past 60 years. The current officers of WAO elected to focus on this rich history, inviting prominent leaders who are interested in being part of this history project to write about their time with IAACI-WAO. This series will be presented in Cancún, México as part of the XXII World Allergy Congress (December 4-8, 2011). Leading up to the Congress in Cancún, the World Allergy Organization Journal is presenting segments of the History as part of the "Notes of Allergy Watchers Series." Please enjoy. --Michael A. Kaliner, MD Historian, and Past-President (2006-2007) World Allergy Organization PMID:23282543

  4. Report from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease Workshop on Drug Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Lisa M; Plaut, Marshall; Schwaninger, Julie M; Banerji, Aleena; Castells, Mariana; Finkelman, Fred D.; Gleich, Gerald J.; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Mallal, Simon A.K.; Naisbitt, Dean J.; Ostrov, David A.; Phillips, Elizabeth J.; Pichler, Werner J.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.; Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Schwartz, Lawrence B.; Trepanier, Lauren A.

    2015-01-01

    Allergic reactions to drugs are a serious public health concern. In 2013, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation, sponsored a workshop on drug allergy. International experts in the field of drug allergy with backgrounds in allergy, immunology, infectious diseases, dermatology, clinical pharmacology and pharmacogenomics discussed the current state of drug allergy research. These experts were joined by representatives from several NIH Institutes and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The participants identified important advances that make new research directions feasible and made suggestions for research priorities and for development of infrastructure to advance our knowledge of the mechanisms, diagnosis, management, and prevention of drug allergy. The workshop summary and recommendations are presented herein. PMID:26254053

  5. Report from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases workshop on drug allergy.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Lisa M; Plaut, Marshall; Schwaninger, Julie M; Banerji, Aleena; Castells, Mariana; Finkelman, Fred D; Gleich, Gerald J; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Mallal, Simon A K; Naisbitt, Dean J; Ostrov, David A; Phillips, Elizabeth J; Pichler, Werner J; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Schwartz, Lawrence B; Trepanier, Lauren A

    2015-08-01

    Allergic reactions to drugs are a serious public health concern. In 2013, the Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases sponsored a workshop on drug allergy. International experts in the field of drug allergy with backgrounds in allergy, immunology, infectious diseases, dermatology, clinical pharmacology, and pharmacogenomics discussed the current state of drug allergy research. These experts were joined by representatives from several National Institutes of Health institutes and the US Food and Drug Administration. The participants identified important advances that make new research directions feasible and made suggestions for research priorities and for development of infrastructure to advance our knowledge of the mechanisms, diagnosis, management, and prevention of drug allergy. The workshop summary and recommendations are presented herein. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. VERS: a virtual environment for reconstructive surgery planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Kevin N.

    1997-05-01

    The virtual environment for reconstructive surgery (VERS) project at the NASA Ames Biocomputation Center is applying virtual reality technology to aid surgeons in planning surgeries. We are working with a craniofacial surgeon at Stanford to assemble and visualize the bone structure of patients requiring reconstructive surgery either through developmental abnormalities or trauma. This project is an extension of our previous work in 3D reconstruction, mesh generation, and immersive visualization. The current VR system, consisting of an SGI Onyx RE2, FakeSpace BOOM and ImmersiveWorkbench, Virtual Technologies CyberGlove and Ascension Technologies tracker, is currently in development and has already been used to visualize defects preoperatively. In the near future it will be used to more fully plan the surgery and compute the projected result to soft tissue structure. This paper presents the work in progress and details the production of a high-performance, collaborative, and networked virtual environment.

  7. Food allergies--leads from Ayurveda.

    PubMed

    Arora, Deepa; Kumar, M

    2003-02-01

    Food allergy being a common health problem needs attention. The experience of Ayurveda can be utilized to accelerate our understanding and management of food allergies and related phenomenon like allergic tension fatigue syndrome, intolerance and indigestion associated with certain foods. Prevention of food allergies by carefully selecting the foods in accordance with the individual's body constitution and seasonal alterations, is considered as the best strategy in Ayurveda. If possible, the concept of prakriti and properties of food as described in Ayurveda, should be interpreted in modern terminology. Moreover, to scientifically validate them, an appropriate correlation with modern concepts is required along with scientific studies on modern parameters. Rasayanas may also prove helpful in the management of food allergies. It is obvious that there, is an urgent need for multidimensional and planned investigations of these Ayurvedic rasayanas in management of food allergies. The clinical acceptability of rasayanas for the treatment of food allergies entirely rests on such studies. Food intolerance and allergies are common health problems which are difficult to diagnose and still more difficult to treat. This problem is well addressed in Ayurveda and guidelines are available for their management. This paper aims to present the Ayurvedic concepts in the management of food intolerance/ allergies and its correlation with the evidences available from modem scientific laboratories. The understanding of this ancient wisdom may prove to be of immense importance in patient care.

  8. Food allergy: temporal trends and determinants.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shoshan, Moshe; Turnbull, Elizabeth; Clarke, Ann

    2012-08-01

    This review summarizes studies discussing temporal trends in the prevalence of food allergy as well as potential factors associated with the development of food allergy. In addition, we will address the potential hypotheses accounting for the apparent increase in food allergy prevalence. Studies suggest increased prevalence of food allergy. However, relatively little is known about its pathogenesis. This review aims to assess temporal trends in the prevalence of food allergy and discuss potential genetic, environmental, and demographic determinants. The search strategy examined the medical literature database MEDLINE (using PubMed) for the time period of January 1, 2002 to January 31, 2012. In recent decades, the prevalence of food allergy in general has increased by 0.60 % [95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.59 %-0.61 %] and the prevalence of peanut allergy by 0.027 % (95 % CI, 0.026 %-0.028 %), but it has now likely stabilized in developed countries. Genes, the environment, and demographic characteristics play a role in the pathogenesis of food allergy. Numerous environmental and demographic factors as well as gene-environment interactions may account for this increase in prevalence, but further studies are required to tease out their relative contribution.

  9. [Contact allergy for Alstrumeria (inca lily)].

    PubMed

    de Groot, A C; Meijer, P; van Joost, T; Hausen, B M

    1990-06-30

    We report 6 patients with occupational contact allergy to Alstroemeria cultivars. Four of them presented with the clinical picture of 'tulip fingers'. They all reacted to parts of fresh plants and to tuliposide A. The literature on Alstroemeria allergy is reviewed.

  10. Seafood Allergy, Toxicity, and Intolerance: A Review.

    PubMed

    Prester, Ljerka

    2016-01-01

    Seafood allergies have been increasing their presence in the last 2 decades. Allergic reactions to seafood can range from mild urticarial and oral allergy syndrome to life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Ingestion of seafood infested with Anisakis larvae can cause a disease known as anisakiasis with symptoms similar to true seafood allergy. Furthermore, some adverse reactions to seafood including histamine fish poisoning (HFP), and intolerance to histamine can trigger clinical symptoms, which, although nonallergic in origin, are similar to true immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic reactions. Because seafood allergy usually remains a lifelong food allergy, this review focuses on the current knowledge on fish and shellfish allergens and emphasizes the importance of differentiating seafood allergy from other allergy-like reactions (anisakiasis, HFP, and intolerance to histamine). Key teaching points: • Fish and shellfish are potent allergens that can provoke serious IgE antibody-mediated adverse reactions in sensitive individuals. • Sensitization to seafood allergens can be achieved by ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact. • Shellfish major allergen, tropomyosin, shares significant homology to arthropods (dust mites and cockroaches). • Accidental exposures to seafood products cross-contaminated with fish or shellfish allergens (hidden allergens) during processing may present a health risk for sensitive individuals. • Allergens of fish parasite A. simplex present common hidden allergens in seafood, particularly in raw and undercooked home-made fish dishes. • Symptoms caused by HFP, histamine intolerance, and anisakiasis are similar to true seafood allergy.

  11. Food Allergy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Food Allergy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Spanish (español) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Common Allergies ...

  12. Allergies and Learning Disabilities: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Sharon E.; Safran, Stephen P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes and evaluates the research on the relationship between allergies and learning disabilities. The paper considers definitional and conceptual issues, anecdotal reports, experimental studies, and the Feingold hypothesis. It concludes that the role that allergies play in learning disability is complex and interrelated with other…

  13. Laboratory animal allergy: an update.

    PubMed

    Bush, Robert K; Stave, Gregg M

    2003-01-01

    Allergic reactions are among the most common conditions affecting the health of workers involved in the care and use of research animals. Between 11 and 44% of the individuals working with laboratory animals report work-related allergic symptoms. Of those who become symptomatic, 4 to 22% may eventually develop occupational asthma that can persist even after exposure ceases. Allergic symptoms consist of rashes where animals are in contact with the skin, nasal congestion and sneezing, itchy eyes, and asthma (cough, wheezing, and chest tightness). The generation of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies is a prerequisite for the production of allergic symptoms. The mechanism by which IgE antibodies develop is becoming clearer. The propensity to produce IgE is genetically determined, and pre-existing allergy may be a risk factor for the development of laboratory animal allergy (LAA). However, exposure to animal allergens is the major risk factor for the development of LAA. Techniques to measure the airborne concentration of laboratory animal allergens have been developed. Research on animal allergens themselves indicates that many of the mouse and rat urinary proteins belong to a family of proteins called lipocalins, which share sequence homology with antigens of the parasitic agent that causes schistosomiasis. The fact that parasite infections also trigger IgE antibody responses may account for the development of LAA in persons who have never had any previous allergy. The prevention of LAA should be a major goal of an effective health and safety program in the animal research facility, and it can be accomplished by education and training of employees, reduction of exposure (including the use of personal protective gear), and changes in facility design. Medical surveillance programs can also play a role in improving health of individuals working with laboratory research animals. Early recognition of symptoms and evidence of sensitization can lead to interventions to reduce

  14. Sesame allergy threshold dose distribution.

    PubMed

    Dano, D; Remington, B C; Astier, C; Baumert, J L; Kruizinga, A G; Bihain, B E; Taylor, S L; Kanny, G

    2015-09-01

    Sesame is a relevant food allergen in France. Compared to other allergens there is a lack of food challenge data and more data could help sesame allergy risk management. The aim of this study is to collect more sesame challenge data and investigate the most efficient food challenge method for future studies. Records of patients at University Hospital in Nancy (France) with objective symptoms to sesame challenges were collected and combined with previously published data. An estimation of the sesame allergy population threshold was calculated based on individual NOAELs and LOAELs. Clinical dosing schemes at Nancy were investigated to see if the optimal protocol for sesame is currently used. Fourteen patients (10 M/4 F, 22 ± 14.85 years old) with objective symptoms were added to previously published data making a total of 35 sesame allergic patients. The most sensitive patient reacted to the first dose at challenge of 1.02 mg sesame protein. The ED05 ranges between 1.2 and 4.0 mg of sesame protein (Log-Normal, Log-Logistic, and Weibull models) and the ED10 between 4.2 and 6.2 mg. The optimal food challenge dosing scheme for sesame follows semi-log dose increases from 0.3 to 3000 mg protein. This article provides a valuable update to the existing clinical literature regarding sesame NOAELs and LOAELs. Establishment of a population threshold for sesame could help in increasing the credibility of precautionary labelling and decrease the costs associated with unexpected allergic reactions. Also, the use of an optimal dosing scheme would decrease time spent on diagnostic and thereafter on the economic burden of sesame allergy diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Contact allergy to beta blockaders in eye drops: cross allergy?].

    PubMed

    Giordano-Labadie, F; Lepoittevin, J P; Calix, I; Bazex, J

    1997-01-01

    Beta-blockers in eye-drops are widely used for the treatment of glaucoma. The potential allergic effect was only recently recognized. A 65-year-old man had been treated with eye-drops containing beta-blockers for bilateral chronic glaucoma for 14 years. During the last two years, he developed eczema localized on the upper and lower eyelids. Allergy screening confirmed the implication of timolol and befunolol which had been used successively. Later prescription of eye-drops containing carteolol led to recurrence of the eczema. This case of contact allergy with three different beta-blockers in the same patient is similar to others reported in the literature. All beta-blockers have a similar chemical structure, but it cannot act as a haptene. The proposed hypothesis is a cross-sensitivity which develops after primary metabolism to a common aldehyde. The risk of recurrence is high if another beta-blocker eye-drop compound is prescribed in a sensitized patient. The risk of side effects in such sensitized patients when taking oral beta-blockers is unknown.

  16. Occupational seafood allergy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Jeebhay, M; Robins, T; Lehrer, S; Lopata, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Recent years have seen increased levels of production and consumption of seafood, leading to more frequent reporting of allergic reactions in occupational and domestic settings. This review focuses on occupational allergy in the fishing and seafood processing industry.
REVIEW—Workers involved in either manual or automated processing of crabs, prawns, mussels, fish, and fishmeal production are commonly exposed to various constituents of seafood. Aerosolisation of seafood and cooking fluid during processing are potential occupational situations that could result in sensitisation through inhalation. There is great variability of aerosol exposure within and among various jobs with reported allergen concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 5.061(µg/m3). Occupational dermal exposure occurs as a result of unprotected handling of seafood and its byproducts. Occupational allergies have been reported in workers exposed to arthropods (crustaceans), molluscs, pisces (bony fish) and other agents derived from seafood. The prevalence of occupational asthma ranges from 7% to 36%, and for occupational protein contact dermatitis, from 3% to 11%. These health outcomes are mainly due to high molecular weight proteins in seafood causing an IgE mediated response. Cross reactivity between various species within a major seafood grouping also occurs. Limited evidence from dose-response relations indicate that development of symptoms is related to duration or intensity of exposure. The evidence for atopy as a risk factor for occupational sensitisation and asthma is supportive, whereas evidence for cigarette smoking is limited. Disruption of the intact skin barrier seems to be an important added risk factor for occupational protein contact dermatitis.
CONCLUSION—The range of allergic disease associated with occupational exposure to crab is well characterised, whereas for other seafood agents the evidence is somewhat limited. There is a need for further epidemiological

  17. [Food allergy or food intolerance?].

    PubMed

    Maître, S; Maniu, C-M; Buss, G; Maillard, M H; Spertini, F; Ribi, C

    2014-04-16

    Adverse food reactions can be classified into two main categories depending on wether an immune mechanism is involved or not. The first category includes immune mediated reactions like IgE mediated food allergy, eosinophilic oesophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and celiac disease. The second category implies non-immune mediated adverse food reactions, also called food intolerances. Intoxications, pharmacologic reactions, metabolic reactions, physiologic, psychologic or reactions with an unknown mechanism belong to this category. We present a classification of adverse food reactions based on the pathophysiologic mechanism that can be useful for both diagnostic approach and management.

  18. Promising treatments in development for food allergies.

    PubMed

    Rancé, Fabienne

    2004-11-01

    Up to 6% of young children and 2% of adults suffer from food allergy. Among them many have IgE-mediated food allergy, a condition with potentially fatal allergic reactions. The only proven treatment is avoidance of the offending food, which can be identified using standardised allergic tests. However, several studies have addressed possible definite treatment options for food allergy. Immunotherapy, administered orally or by systemic injections, shows promising preliminary results, but these therapeutics are based on studies with insufficient scientific support, or are associated with a high risk of severe side effects. At present, no studies can support pharmacotherapy. However, promising results were recently published with anti-IgE antibodies in a human trial, and various approaches in a mouse model of food allergy (chinese herbal medicine, specific modulation of the T-cell response). Rapidly evolving findings might provide hope for a cure for food allergy in the near future.

  19. Food allergy: immune mechanisms, diagnosis and immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wong; Freeland, Deborah M Hussey; Nadeau, Kari C

    2016-12-01

    Food allergy is a pathological, potentially deadly, immune reaction triggered by normally innocuous food protein antigens. The prevalence of food allergies is rising and the standard of care is not optimal, consisting of food-allergen avoidance and treatment of allergen-induced systemic reactions with adrenaline. Thus, accurate diagnosis, prevention and treatment are pressing needs, research into which has been catalysed by technological advances that are enabling a mechanistic understanding of food allergy at the cellular and molecular levels. We discuss the diagnosis and treatment of IgE-mediated food allergy in the context of the immune mechanisms associated with healthy tolerance to common foods, the inflammatory response underlying most food allergies, and immunotherapy-induced desensitization. We highlight promising research advances, therapeutic innovations and the challenges that remain.

  20. Food allergies developing after solid organ transplant.

    PubMed

    Needham, J M; Nicholas, S K; Davis, C M

    2015-12-01

    The development of food allergy is an increasingly recognized form of morbidity after solid organ transplant. It occurs more commonly in liver transplant recipients, although it has also been reported in heart, lung, kidney, and intestinal transplants. Pediatric transplant recipients are more likely to develop symptoms compared to adults, and reports of frequency vary widely from 5% to 38% in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed in the literature, although no single mechanism can yet account for all reported observations. As food allergy can have at worst potentially fatal consequences, and at best require lifestyle adjustment through food avoidance, it is important for recipients to be aware of the donor's food allergies and particularly in pediatrics, the possibility of completely de novo allergies. This review explores the recent reports surrounding food allergy after solid organ transplant, including epidemiology, proposed mechanisms, and implications for practice.

  1. [Interest of allergy tests in urticaria].

    PubMed

    Mathelier-Fusade, P

    2014-11-01

    Urticaria is a common skin disease that may affect 20 % of the general population. Most of the time, urticaria is an acute disorder that rarely can be chronic. The difficulty in urticaria is not the clinical diagnosis because the rash is characteristic, but the underlying causes and treatment that result. Urticaria is a benign disease when chronic and potentially dangerous when acute and associated with allergy. This allergy risk, needs an allergy exploration, based on skin tests and / or specific IgE assays. Because allergy is unusual in chronic urticaria, no allergy tests should be performed. By contrast, these tests must be undertaken in case of acute urticaria with a strong suspicion of IgE-mediated reaction because of the risk of severe anaphylaxis in case of allergenic re-exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Cow's milk allergy in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Fiocchi, Alessandro; Dahdah, Lamia; Albarini, Marco; Martelli, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Cow's milk allergy is among the more frequent food allergies in infants and children. Because its suspicion stems from a plethora of symptoms, it is frequently reported. However, the development of a rigorous diagnostic pathway will reduce the diagnosed children to less than 50% of those reported. Cow's milk allergy is the only specific food allergy for which an EBM guideline exists. According to the guidelines (Diagnosis and Rationale for Action against Cow's Milk Allergy), a diagnostic process based on the pre-test probability of this condition is available. Treatments include avoidance, the substitution of cow's milk with an appropriate formula, and in some cases, oral immunotherapy. Treatment choice is also guided by these guidelines. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Milk allergy in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Odedra, Katy Mara

    2015-07-01

    Cow's milk allergy is common in children and rare in adults. The clinical features of cow's milk allergy are varied and they include anaphylaxis, gastrointestinal symptoms and atopic dermatitis. The prevalence of cow's milk allergy is difficult to ascertain, based on self-reported symptoms that are not subsequently confirmed by diagnostic testing. The gold-standard diagnostic test is the double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. Avoidance of milk and milk products is the main therapy. Nutritional considerations are important in both children and adults, as is recognising the potential for resolution of cow's milk allergy. Providing evidence-based advice and support to individuals and their families and carers is central to managing cow's milk allergy.

  4. Nonallergen-specific treatments for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Jay A; Wang, Julie

    2012-06-01

    This review summarizes recent reports on nonallergen-specific therapies for food allergy. These therapies are especially appealing for food allergy because unlike allergen-specific immunotherapy, they would allow the treatment of multiple food allergies in a single patient with one therapy. Chinese herbal therapy, anti-IgE, probiotics, engineered lactic acid bacteria, and helminth therapy are all examples of allergen nonspecific therapies that have been investigated in recent years. Although some have only been studied in animal models of food allergy, some are undergoing rigorous, human clinical trials. Increasing amounts of research are examining the efficacy and safety of nonallergen-specific therapies for food allergy. There is hope that clinicians will have effective treatments either as an alternative or as an adjunct to immunotherapy.

  5. Food allergy: immune mechanisms, diagnosis and immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nadeau, Kari C.

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a pathological, potentially deadly, immune reaction triggered by normally innocuous food protein antigens. The prevalence of food allergies is rising and the standard of care is not optimal, consisting of food-allergen avoidance and treatment of allergen-induced systemic reactions with adrenaline. Thus, accurate diagnosis, prevention and treatment are pressing needs, research into which has been catalysed by technological advances that are enabling a mechanistic understanding of food allergy at the cellular and molecular levels. We discuss the diagnosis and treatment of IgE-mediated food allergy in the context of the immune mechanisms associated with healthy tolerance to common foods, the inflammatory response underlying most food allergies, and immunotherapy-induced desensitization. We highlight promising research advances, therapeutic innovations and the challenges that remain. PMID:27795547

  6. Peanut Allergy: New Developments and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Commins, Scott P; Kim, Edwin H; Orgel, Kelly; Kulis, Mike

    2016-05-01

    Food allergies have increased in prevalence over the past 20 years, now becoming an important public health concern. Although there are no therapies currently available for routine clinical care, recent reports have indicated that immunotherapies targeting the mucosal immune system may be effective. Oral immunotherapy is conducted by administering small, increasing amounts of food allergen; it has shown promise for desensitizing individuals with peanut, egg, or milk allergies. Sublingual immunotherapy also desensitizes allergic patients to foods-two major studies have examined the effects of sublingual immunotherapy in subjects with peanut allergies. We review the complex nature of IgE-mediated food allergies and the therapies being evaluated in clinical trials. We focus on the diagnosis and management of food allergies and investigational therapies.

  7. Respiratory Home Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Living > Living With Lung Disease > Respiratory Home Health Care Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition ... Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Respiratory Home Health Care Respiratory care at home can contribute to improved ...

  8. Evaluation of house dust mite allergy in real life: patients' characteristics and satisfaction with treatment.

    PubMed

    Frati, F; Scurati, S; Dell'Albani, I; Puccinelli, P; Incorvaia, C; Passalacqua, G

    2014-01-01

    HDMs are a ubiquitous allergen source, with a very well defined biology, but their role in clinical settings and in everyday clinical practice is not well characterized. Aim of this cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was to assess the clinical characteristics of HDM-related respiratory allergy in a large population of Italian patients. A structured questionnaire was sent to allergists randomly chosen among those of the Italian Federation of Immunology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology (IFIACI). They were asked to fill it with the clinical data of 10-12 consecutive patients referred for respiratory allergy, positive to HDM skin prick test. The questionnaire assessed type and severity of allergy, demographics, yearly distribution of symptoms, treatment, and satisfaction with the therapy. 45 allergists collected data from 499 patients. Within the evaluated population, 42% had rhinitis only, 45% asthma + rhinitis and 13% asthma alone. Rhinitis was moderate/severe in 51% of patients. Asthma was intermittent in 36% of patients, mild in 37% and moderate in 27%. Conjunctivitis was the most frequent comorbidity (36%), followed by rhinosinusitis (16%), adenoid hypertrophy (6%) and polyposis (5%). Out of the population, 56.2% of patients were not at all or partially not satisfied of their treatment for rhinitis, whereas the percentage of dissatisfied patients was about 53% for asthma therapy. 34% patients (n = 170) were monosensitized to HDM. It is confirmed that patients have more symptoms during the fall-winter periods. Patients with HDM allergy have frequently moderate-severe rhinitis, and about 50% of them are not satisfied with their treatment.

  9. Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 attenuates allergy development in a pig model.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Debra J; Husmann, Robert J; Villamar, Mauricio; Winship, Timothy R; Buck, Rachael H; Zuckermann, Federico A

    2011-02-28

    Probiotics have been studied as immunomodulatory agents of allergy. Several human probiotic trials tracking the development of eczema and other forms of allergy have yielded inconsistent results. A recent infant study demonstrated that pre and postnatal Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (HN001) supplementation decreased the prevalence of eczema and IgE associated eczema. However, the influence of HN001 on the incidence of wheeze, asthma, and/or other allergic manifestations has yet to be reported. This study was conducted to determine the effects of the probiotic HN001 on the development of allergic lung disease in a pig model. Allergy was induced by a series of subcutaneous and intratracheal sensitizations with Ascaris suum allergen (ASA) during a six week time frame in post-weanling pigs supplemented daily with HN001, or without supplementation. One week following final sensitization intradermal skin tests and respiratory challenges were conducted. In response to intradermal and respiratory challenges, ASA-sensitized pigs fed HN001 had less severe skin flare reactions, smaller increases in pleural pressure, and trends towards lower changes in arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressure levels compared to control pigs. The frequency of ASA-specific IFN-γ-secreting peripheral blood mononuclear cells, as well as the amount of IL-10 produced by ASA-specific cells, was of greater magnitude in probiotic-fed pigs compared to control animals. These observations suggest that differences in clinical responses to the allergen challenges may be related to probiotic-induced modulation of Th1 (IFN-γ) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokine expression. Probiotic supplementation decreased the severity of allergic skin and lung responses in allergen-sensitized pigs with a corresponding increase in IFN-γ expression. A similar correlation between certain allergic responses and increased IFN-γ expression has been reported in human clinical studies of allergy; this pig model of

  10. [Latex allergy in a paediatric hospital. Characteristics and risk factors].

    PubMed

    Bailey, Michael; Norambuena, Ximena; Roizen, Gigia; Rodríguez, Jorge; Quezada, Arnoldo

    The prevalence of latex sensitisation varies according to the population studied. There are various risk factors that increase latex sensitisation, such as genetic risk, atopy, and multiple surgeries. To characterise patients referred to an Immunology Unit with suspected latex allergy, and to analyse their clinical features and risk factors. A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted on children suspected of latex allergy. Their medical records were reviewed in order to assess symptoms with contact or exposure to latex materials. Known risk factors to latex sensitisation, such as pathologies requiring repeated surgery (spina bifida, myelomeningocele, scoliosis and nephro-urological alterations), atopy (rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis) were investigated. A prick test and/or specific IgE to latex were also performed. A multivariate logistic regression model was performed to find associations between symptoms triggered by exposure to latex with underlying diseases and other risk conditions. A total of 106 patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 50 were evaluable. At diagnosis 96% of patients were older than five years. Most of the risk factors described were observable in these patients, such as multiple surgeries, neurological and nephro-urological malformations, surgery before one year-old, and repeated bladder catheterisation. After latex exposure, mucous cutaneous manifestations were the most common (52%), followed by respiratory symptoms (36%). All patients were sensitised and allergic to latex. Latex allergy is a significant problem in children with risk factors. The results shown in this study raise important challenges for preventive measures and awareness. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Food allergy: recent advances in pathophysiology and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 5% of young children and 3-4% of adults exhibit adverse immune responses to foods in westernized countries, with a tendency to increase. The pathophysiology of food allergy (FA) relies on immune reactions triggered by epitopes, i.e. small amino-acid sequences able to bind to antibodies or cells. Some food allergens share specific physicochemical characteristics that allow them to resist digestion, thus enhancing allergenicity. These allergens encounter specialized dendritic cell populations in the gut, which leads to T-cell priming. In case of IgE-mediated allergy, this process triggers the production of allergen-specific IgE by B cells. Tissue-resident reactive cells, including mast cells, then bind IgE, and allergic reactions are elicited when these cells, with adjacent IgE molecules bound to their surface, are re-exposed to allergen. Allergic reactions occurring in the absence of detectable IgE are labeled non-IgE mediated. The abrogation of oral tolerance which leads to FA is likely favored by genetic disposition and environmental factors (e.g. increased hygiene or enhanced allergenicity of some foods). For an accurate diagnosis, complete medical history, laboratory tests and, in most cases, an oral food challenge are needed. Noticeably, the detection of food-specific IgE (sensitization) does not necessarily indicate clinical allergy. Novel diagnostic methods currently under study focus on the immune responses to specific food proteins or epitopes of specific proteins. Food-induced allergic reactions represent a large array of symptoms involving the skin and gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. They can be attributed to IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated (cellular) mechanisms and thus differ in their nature, severity and outcome. Outcome also differs according to allergens. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Respiratory Distress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The University of Miami School of Medicine asked the Research Triangle Institute for assistance in improvising the negative pressure technique to relieve respiratory distress in infants. Marshall Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center engineers adapted this idea to the lower-body negative-pressure system seals used during the Skylab missions. Some 20,000 babies succumb to respiratory distress in the U.S. each year, a condition in which lungs progressively lose their ability to oxygenate blood. Both positive and negative pressure techniques have been used - the first to force air into lungs, the second to keep infant's lungs expanded. Negative pressure around chest helps the baby expand his lungs and maintain proper volume of air. If doctors can keep the infant alive for four days, the missing substance in the lungs will usually form in sufficient quantity to permit normal breathing. The Skylab chamber and its leakproof seals were adapted for medical use.

  13. [The return of the prodigal child or allergy to ficus].

    PubMed

    Pradalier, A; Leriche, E; Trinh, Ch; Molitor, J L

    2004-11-01

    Ficus benjamina (FB), the weeping fig, belonging to the Moracea family, is now widely used as an indoor ornamental plant in houses and offices. Its latex can be responsible of IgE allergies : rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, angiooedema, pruritus, anaphylactic shock. In some occupations such as gardeners, caretakers of plants, it can induce a contact urticaria. Most of these patients are atopics. We describe a case of non-occupational, indoor related rhinoconjunctivitis in a non-atopic patient. Prick-test and RAST to FB latex were positive and removal of the ficus plant resolved their symptoms confirming the etiologic role of the plant. The patient did not demonstrate sensitization to other common allergens (except weeds) involved in respiratory (latex of Hevea brasiliensis, mites...) and food allergies (negativity of the prick-tests for fig, avocado, banana, kiwi). Now, FB is a new hidden allergen in the house. Questionning for its presence and testing it should be considered; as it should be introduced in the standard prick-test panel.

  14. Delayed and immediate allergy caused by methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, L; Hyry, H; Jolanki, R; Hytönen, M; Estlander, T

    1997-01-01

    Epoxy resin compounds (ERC) include a large number of chemicals, such as epoxy resins (ER), reactive diluents and hardeners. Many hardeners, e.g., aliphatic polyamines, are well-known sensitizers. Another type of ER hardeners are the phthalic anhydrides, such as methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA) and methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MTHPA), which have been reported as causing immunologically-mediated respiratory diseases and contact urticaria, but not allergic contact dermatitis. Here, we present a horizontal boring-machine worker who developed allergic contact dermatitis, as well as allergic rhinitis and an immediate contact skin reaction from MHHPA. Patch testing with a dilution series of MHHPA in pet. elicited the following results: 2%, 1% and 0.5%, +2; 0.25% and 0.125%, + (3- to 6-day readings). An immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study also indicated that the patch test reactions were conventional-delayed allergic reactions. Interleukin 8 was observed in the epidermal cells, whereas interleukin 4 immunoreactivity was detected in the dermal cells. Immunoreactivity to-interleukin 5, granulocyte/macrophage-colophony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or eosinophil cationic protein was not seen. In conclusion, the patient developed both Type I and Type IV allergy to MHHPA. The clinical data, patch test results, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic observations indicated that the MHHPA allergy detected by the patch test reaction was a conventional delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. The patient also had an allergic patch test reaction to para-phenylenediamine and diaminodiphenylmethane, possibly representing occupational sensitization.

  15. Management of Rodent Exposure and Allergy in the Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Elizabeth C.

    2013-01-01

    Although rodent allergy has long been recognized as an occupational disease, it has only been in the past decade that it has been recognized as a community-based disease that affects children. Most homes in the US have detectable mouse allergen, but the concentrations in inner-city homes are orders of magnitude higher than those found in suburban homes. Home mouse allergen exposure has been linked to sensitization to mouse, and children with asthma who are both sensitized and exposed to high mouse allergen concentrations at home are at greater risk for symptoms, exacerbations and reduced lung function. Rat allergen is found primarily in inner-city homes and has also been linked to asthma morbidity among sensitized children. The objective of this review is to summarize the scientific literature on rodents and their allergens, the effects of exposure to these allergens on allergic respiratory disease, and to make recommendations, based on this evidence base, for the evaluation and management of mouse allergy in the pediatric population. PMID:23912589

  16. Quality of life in health care workers with latex allergy.

    PubMed

    Power, Susan; Gallagher, John; Meaney, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to latex gloves and glove powder makes health care workers (HCWs) particularly susceptible to developing an allergy to latex. To assess the impact on the quality of life (QOL) of HCWs who are allergic to latex products before removal from latex exposure and after removal from exposure. We studied 39 latex allergic HCWs from the Health & Safety Executive south area. Twenty-nine attended for an assessment with the occupational physician and were asked to fill out a questionnaire. Spirometry, immunoglobulin E levels and latex radioallergosorbent test levels were measured. In total, 29/39 (74%) of patients responded. All of the participants had a type 1 allergy to latex. All individuals reported a significant improvement of symptoms once latex was removed from their working environment. Of those that reported skin complaints, 83% reported that their skin no longer had an impact on their QOL once latex was removed. Over 90% (n = 26) of all participants stated that their eye/nose symptoms had no longer an impact on their QOL and 86% (n = 25) of all participants stated that their respiratory symptoms had no impact on their QOL following the removal of latex from their working environment. Overall, 45% of the respondents had changed jobs: 61% of this group changed to a completely nonclinical post. On average, 86% of latex allergic HCWs reported that their QOL had improved significantly since their removal from latex. In employees who are latex allergic/sensitized, taking latex avoidance measures results in cessation or diminution of symptoms.

  17. Climate change, environment and allergy.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Climate change with global warming is a physicometeorological fact that, among other aspects, will also affect human health. Apart from cardiovascular and infectious diseases, allergies seem to be at the forefront of the sequelae of climate change. By increasing temperature and concomitant increased CO(2) concentration, plant growth is affected in various ways leading to prolonged pollination periods in the northern hemisphere, as well as to the appearance of neophytes with allergenic properties, e.g. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed), in Central Europe. Because of the effects of environmental pollutants, which do not only act as irritants to skin and mucous membranes, allergen carriers such as pollen can be altered in the atmosphere and release allergens leading to allergen-containing aerosols in the ambient air. Pollen has been shown not only to be an allergen carrier, but also to release highly active lipid mediators (pollen-associated lipid mediators), which have proinflammatory and immunomodulating effects enhancing the initiation of allergy. Through the effects of climate change in the future, plant growth may be influenced in a way that more, new and altered pollens are produced, which may affect humans.

  18. Allergy and asthma prevention 2014.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich; Bufe, Albrecht; Eigenmann, Philippe; Halken, Susanne; Hedlin, Gunilla; Høst, Arne; Hourihane, Jonathan; Just, Jocelyne; Lack, Gideon; Lau, Susanne; Matricardi, Paolo Maria; Muraro, Antonella; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Roberts, Graham; Simpson, Angela; Valovirta, Erkka; Weidinger, Stephan; Wickman, Magnus; Mazon, Angel

    2014-10-01

    Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy. This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma. Regarding nutrition, the use of hydrolyzed formulas in high-risk infants reduces the incidence of atopic dermatitis, while there is for now not enough evidence to recommend other dietary modifications, prebiotics, probiotics, or other microbial products. Pharmacologic agents used until now for prevention have not proved useful, while there is hope that antiviral vaccines could be useful in the future. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for the treatment of allergic patients with symptoms; the study of its value for primary and secondary prevention of asthma and allergy is in its very preliminary phases. The lack of success in the prevention of these disorders lies on their complexity, which involves many genetic, epigenetic, and environmental interactions. There is a need to identify target populations, involved mechanisms and interactions, and the best interventions. These must be effective, feasible, implementable, and affordable. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Latex allergy--Part I].

    PubMed

    Chełmińska, Marta

    2004-01-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL), is a resin sap produced in the cells of caoutchouc plants. It is a water dispersion of cis-1,4-polisopren (caoutchouc)--35%, stabilized with little amounts of proteins, sugar, alcohol, fatty acids and salts. The concentration of all solid substances is about 40%, the rest is water. Immunogenicity of latex depends on the proteins it contains. For many years we read in medical papers about the cases of contact urticaria, asthma, rhinitis, and anaphylaxis after contacting with latex products. It turns out that medical staff is the group of high occupational risk, because of exposure to gloves and other latex products. It is connected with the fact of high gloves usage caused by the danger of virus infections: HIV, HBV, HCV. Latex allergy is one of the reasons of dramatic complications after surgical operations. People who are allergic to latex may have cross reactions to allergens not connected with occupational environment. These are: food and houseplants (Ficus benjamina). The frequency of latex allergy is about 0.1% of the population. In the groups of high risk the frequency rises sharply. It is 17% among medical staff and it reaches 60% among children with spina bifida.

  20. Latitude, Birth Date, and Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Wjst, Matthias; Dharmage, Shyamali; André, Elisabeth; Norback, Dan; Raherison, Chantal; Villani, Simona; Manfreda, Jure; Sunyer, Jordi; Jarvis, Deborah; Burney, Peter; Svanes, Cecilie

    2005-01-01

    Background The space and time distribution of risk factors for allergic diseases may provide insights into disease mechanisms. Allergy is believed to vary by month of birth, but multinational studies taking into account latitude have not been conducted. Methods and Findings A questionnaire was distributed in 54 centres to a representative sample of 20- to 44-y-old men and women mainly in Europe but also including regions in North Africa, India, North America, Australia, and New Zealand. Data from 200,682 participants were analyzed. The median prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 22%, with a substantial variation across centres. Overall, allergic rhinitis decreased with geographical latitude, but there were many exceptions. No increase in prevalence during certain winters could be observed. Also, no altered risk by birth month was found, except borderline reduced risks in September and October. Effect estimates obtained by a multivariate analysis of total and specific IgE values in 18,085 individuals also excluded major birth month effects and confirmed the independent effect of language grouping. Conclusion Neither time point of first exposure to certain allergens nor early infections during winter months seems to be a major factor for adult allergy. Although there might be effects of climate or environmental UV exposure by latitude, influences within language groups seem to be more important, reflecting so far unknown genetic or cultural risk factors. PMID:16190778