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Sample records for responders study p04823am3terminated

  1. Communication Among Incident Responders-A Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Determine If More Teams Prefer Water or Coca - Cola 5 2.3.1 Description 5 2.3.2 Results 6 2.3.3 Analysis 7 2.4 Task #4: Complete Email Message...participating in this study: <REDACTED> Please determine whether more of these teams prefer Coca - Cola or Water to drink with dinner. Please...needs to express a preference for either water or Coca - Cola . We also did not describe how teams should communicate and tally votes in order to answer our

  2. ASA24® Instructions for Study Staff & Respondents

    Cancer.gov

    The following documents have been created by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) as resources for study staff and Respondents. Each resource is available as a ready-to-use PDF to allow users to adapt the content as desired.

  3. NIH exceptional responders to cancer therapy study launched

    Cancer.gov

    The Exceptional Responders Initiative, a study to investigate the molecular factors of tumors associated with exceptional treatment responses of cancer patients to drug therapies, was launched today by NCI. Scientists will attempt to identify the molecula

  4. How the Brain Responds to "Any": An MEG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesan, Graciela; Johnson, Blake W.; Crain, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The word "any" may appear in some sentences, but not in others. For example, "any" is permitted in sentences that contain the word "nobody", as in "Nobody ate any fruit". However, in a minimally different context "any" seems strikingly anomalous: *"Everybody ate any fruit". The aim of the present study was to investigate how the brain responds to…

  5. Potential Selective Responding in a Parent Questionnaire Study of Post-Institutionalized Children

    PubMed Central

    Hawk, Brandi N.; Wright, Amanda; Julian, Megan M.; Rosas, Johana M.; Merz, Emily C.; McCall, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Selective responding bias, though under-researched, is of particular concern in the study of post-institutionalized children because many studies rely on mailed questionnaires and response rates are often low. The current study addresses the impact of selective responding in a single wave of data collection and in a multi-wave study. Participants were 121 parents from a larger four-wave study of post-institutionalized children, identified as Never Responders, Previous Responders (but not to the current wave), or Wave 4 Responders. Parents were telephoned and asked about their adopted child's family, school, peer, and behavioral adjustment. The children (47% male) ranged in age from 2 to 20 years (M = 10.79, SD = 4.59) and had been adopted between 5 and 54 months of age (M = 15.49, SD = 9.94). There were no differences in parent ratings of adjustment for a single wave of data collection; however, participants who never responded reported poorer family and peer adjustment than those who had responded to at least one wave of data collection. Within a single wave of data collection, there was no evidence that selective responding contributes much bias. Over a multi-wave study, however, results may under-represent adjustment difficulties, especially with family and friends. PMID:23710124

  6. On responder analyses in the framework of within subject comparisons - considerations and two case studies.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Michael

    2014-07-30

    A responder analysis is a common tool when clinical data are reported. In this paper, we extend the definition of responders to within subject comparisons and present a rigorous definition of the corresponding statistical functional. Via simulation studies, we get further insights under which conditions these analyses can even result in a higher power compared with an analysis based on the arithmetic mean. We report two case studies where these analyses contributed to a better understanding of the clinical data especially as some large observations were present that had a notable impact on the observed standard deviation.

  7. Responding to Racism and Racial Trauma in Doctoral Study: An Inventory for Coping and Mediating Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truong, Kimberly A.; Museus, Samuel D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Kimberly A. Truong and Samuel D. Museus focus on understanding strategies doctoral students of color use to respond to racism. The authors conducted semi-structured individual interviews with twenty-six participants who self-reported experiencing racism and racial trauma during doctoral studies. Analysis of the data resulted in…

  8. Social skills group training in high-functioning autism: A qualitative responder study.

    PubMed

    Choque Olsson, Nora; Rautio, Daniel; Asztalos, Jenny; Stoetzer, Ulrich; Bölte, Sven

    2016-11-01

    Systematic reviews show some evidence for the efficacy of group-based social skills group training in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, but more rigorous research is needed to endorse generalizability. In addition, little is known about the perspectives of autistic individuals participating in social skills group training. Using a qualitative approach, the objective of this study was to examine experiences and opinions about social skills group training of children and adolescents with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder and their parents following participation in a manualized social skills group training ("KONTAKT"). Within an ongoing randomized controlled clinical trial (NCT01854346) and based on outcome data from the Social Responsiveness Scale, six high responders and five low-to-non-responders to social skills group training and one parent of each child (N = 22) were deep interviewed. Interestingly, both high responders and low-to-non-responders (and their parents) reported improvements in social communication and related skills (e.g. awareness of own difficulties, self-confidence, independence in everyday life) and overall treatment satisfaction, although more positive intervention experiences were expressed by responders. These findings highlight the added value of collecting verbal data in addition to quantitative data in a comprehensive evaluation of social skills group training.

  9. Evaluation of study design variables and their impact on food-maintained operant responding in mice

    PubMed Central

    Haluk, Desirae M.; Wickman, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Operant conditioning paradigms are useful for studying factors involved in reward, particularly when combined with the tools of genetic manipulation in mice. Published operant studies involving mice vary widely with respect to design, and insight into the consequences of design choices on performance in mice is limited. Here, we evaluated the impact of five design variables on the performance of inbred male mice in operant tasks involving solid food pellets as reinforcing agents. We found that the use of lever-press or nose-poke during FR1 sessions did not impact the performance of C57BL/6 mice, but that the lever-press approach correlated with enhanced performance during PR testing. While FR1 session duration had a notable impact on the rate of acquisition of food-maintained responding, performance during FR1 and PR sessions was largely unaffected. Higher order schedules of reinforcement (FR3 and FR5) led to elevated responding during both FR and PR sessions, and improved the correspondence between rewards earned and consumed. Single and group-housed mice performed indistinguishably during FR1 and PR sessions, while environmental enrichment combined with group housing accelerated the rate of acquisition of food-maintained responding while decreasing responding during PR testing. Finally, while C57BL/6 and 129/Sv mice exhibited comparable behavior during FR1 sessions, C57BL/6 mice tended to acquire food-maintained responding faster than 129/Sv counterparts, and exhibited elevated responding during PR testing. Altogether, our findings indicate that while operant performance for food in mice is relatively insensitive to many study parameters, experimental outcomes can be shaped predictably with proper design decisions. PMID:19879302

  10. Understanding and Responding to Diversity in the Primary Classroom: An International Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Neil; Bartolo, Paul; Ale, Peter; Calleja, Colin; Hofsaess, Thomas; Janikova, Vera; Lous, Annemieke Mol Lous; Vilkiene, Vida; Wetso, Gun-Marie

    2006-01-01

    The increased diversification of classrooms in recent years has placed additional demands upon teachers who strive to facilitate the learning and participation of all pupils. The aim of the current study was to explore how primary teachers across Europe understand and respond to diversity in their classrooms. A total of 35 teachers from 7…

  11. Recommendations for the definition of clinical responder in insulin preservation studies.

    PubMed

    Beam, Craig A; Gitelman, Stephen E; Palmer, Jerry P

    2014-09-01

    Clinical responder studies should contribute to the translation of effective treatments and interventions to the clinic. Since ultimately this translation will involve regulatory approval, we recommend that clinical trials prespecify a responder definition that can be assessed against the requirements and suggestions of regulatory agencies. In this article, we propose a clinical responder definition to specifically assist researchers and regulatory agencies in interpreting the clinical importance of statistically significant findings for studies of interventions intended to preserve β-cell function in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. We focus on studies of 6-month β-cell preservation in type 1 diabetes as measured by 2-h-stimulated C-peptide. We introduce criteria (bias, reliability, and external validity) for the assessment of responder definitions to ensure they meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency guidelines. Using data from several published TrialNet studies, we evaluate our definition (no decrease in C-peptide) against published alternatives and determine that our definition has minimum bias with external validity. We observe that reliability could be improved by using changes in C-peptide later than 6 months beyond baseline. In sum, to support efficacy claims of β-cell preservation therapies in type 1 diabetes submitted to U.S. and European regulatory agencies, we recommend use of our definition.

  12. A Randomized Controlled Trial Study of a Queered Adaptation of the Marital First Responder Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zrenchik, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    This study offers an evaluation of a community-based educational intervention to enhance the quality of confiding relationships in the LGBT community. Building off the original Marital First Responder (MFR) curriculum and intervention, the MFR-Q targets these confidants and provides an LGBT culturally-specific intervention with the goal of helping…

  13. Allocation of Study Time in Chinese Junior School Students: Habitual Responding, Item Difficulty, and Time Constraints.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuyun; Qin, Qiwen; Jiang, Yanju

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated factors influencing Chinese junior school students' study time allocation and the age difference in the effect of habitual responding. Participants were 240 junior school students (120 girls, 120 boys; aged 13-15 years) with half taking part in Experiment 1 and half in Experiment 2, and 240 young adults aged 18-23 years, (120 women and 120 men,) involved in Experiments 3a and 3b, all native Chinese speakers. In Experiments 1 and 3a, Chinese word pairs (e.g., moon-star) were presented on the screen with three items in one array. In each trial, the items were arranged from left to right, either easy, moderate, then difficult, or the reverse. Participants had either 5 s or no time limits to study the word pairs. In Experiments 2 and 3b, word pairs were ordered in a column with the easiest items either at the top or bottom position. Results showed interactions among item difficulty, item order, and time limitation in terms of effects on study time allocation of junior school students. Participants tended to learn the items in order (from left to right and from top to bottom), but the effect of item difficulty was greater than that of item order on item selection. Results indicated that agenda and habitual responding have a combined effect on study time allocation and that the contribution of agenda is greater than that of habitual responding. The effect of habitual responding on the self-paced study and recall performance of junior school students is greater than its effect on young adults, and the study time allocation of junior school students is more likely to be affected by external conditions.

  14. Allocation of Study Time in Chinese Junior School Students: Habitual Responding, Item Difficulty, and Time Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fuyun; Qin, Qiwen; Jiang, Yanju

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated factors influencing Chinese junior school students’ study time allocation and the age difference in the effect of habitual responding. Participants were 240 junior school students (120 girls, 120 boys; aged 13–15 years) with half taking part in Experiment 1 and half in Experiment 2, and 240 young adults aged 18–23 years, (120 women and 120 men,) involved in Experiments 3a and 3b, all native Chinese speakers. In Experiments 1 and 3a, Chinese word pairs (e.g., moon–star) were presented on the screen with three items in one array. In each trial, the items were arranged from left to right, either easy, moderate, then difficult, or the reverse. Participants had either 5 s or no time limits to study the word pairs. In Experiments 2 and 3b, word pairs were ordered in a column with the easiest items either at the top or bottom position. Results showed interactions among item difficulty, item order, and time limitation in terms of effects on study time allocation of junior school students. Participants tended to learn the items in order (from left to right and from top to bottom), but the effect of item difficulty was greater than that of item order on item selection. Results indicated that agenda and habitual responding have a combined effect on study time allocation and that the contribution of agenda is greater than that of habitual responding. The effect of habitual responding on the self-paced study and recall performance of junior school students is greater than its effect on young adults, and the study time allocation of junior school students is more likely to be affected by external conditions. PMID:27199865

  15. [Bias due to non-responders in an epidemiological study (SAPALDIA)].

    PubMed

    Luthi, J C; Zellweger, J P; Grize, L; Leuenberger, P; Ackermann-Liebrich, U

    1997-01-01

    Within the Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) 16267 adults aged 18 to 60 years from 8 different locations in Switzerland were randomly selected for answering a questionnaire about respiratory health and have a lung function examination with allergy test. 9561 subjects agreed with the examination (59%) (= responders, R). In order to study the possible influence of the bias introduced by non-responders (NR), 221 subjects who refused to participate among the 966 first subjects selected in Payerne were contacted by phone. 142 accepted a home visit and answered a shortened questionnaire about the main respiratory symptoms and diseases and indicated furthermore the reasons for their refusal. Non-responders have a lower mean educational level and belong to lower social classes than responders. The frequency of respiratory symptoms and diseases, allergies and smoking is similar in R and NR except a higher frequency of wheezing during the last 12 month (R: 12.5%, NR: 5.6%, p = 0.03). The level of carbon monoxide in expired air is higher in NR (17.6 ppm) that in R (11.9 ppm) (p = 0.01). A similar difference exists between NR (30.7 pp) and R (24.8 ppm) among current smokers (p < 0.01). The main reasons for refusal are lack of time (27.5%), lack of interest for medical study (22.6%), fear of health professionals (18.3%) or the existence of a another disease (9.9%). Furthermore, 2.8% of the subjects consider a medical study as useless and refuse principally any participation. The role of local press and media in the decision to participate seems to be important. Globally, the differences between R and NR are minimal and should not influence the validity of the results of the SAPALDIA study.

  16. Parental exposure to mass violence and child mental health: the First Responder and WTC Evacuee Study.

    PubMed

    Hoven, Christina W; Duarte, Cristiane S; Wu, Ping; Doan, Thao; Singh, Navya; Mandell, Donald J; Bin, Fan; Teichman, Yona; Teichman, Meir; Wicks, Judith; Musa, George; Cohen, Patricia

    2009-06-01

    Children's reactions after being exposed to mass violence may be influenced by a spectrum of factors. Relatively unexplored is the extent to which family exposure to mass violence may affect child mental health, even when these children have not been directly exposed. In a representative sample of NYC public school children assessed 6 months after the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center (WTC), seemingly elevated rates of psychopathology were recorded among children of WTC evacuees. Children of NYC First Responders (police officers, EMTs, and fire fighters) displayed a complex pattern of response to the WTC attack. Overall, the findings from this previous study support putative transmission of trauma to children whose parents were exposed to the WTC attack. The "Children of First Responder and WTC Evacuee Study"-a two-site longitudinal study-is currently underway in the United States (New York City) and in Israel (Tel Aviv area) in an effort to understand the impact of different patterns of mass violence. The NYC sample permits us to examine the impact of a rare instance of mass violence (e.g., WTC attack), while the Israeli sample provides information about repeated and frequent exposure to mass violence brought about by acts of terrorism. In addition, children's exposure to mass violence is considered in the context of their exposure to other potentially traumatic events. This study aims to improve our general understanding of the impact of mass violence on children, especially the psychological effects on children whose parents' work experiences are by nature stressful. Knowledge generated by this study has implications for guiding efforts to meet the needs of children who have, directly or through a family member, been subjected to rare or infrequent mass violent event as well as to children whose exposure to mass violence is part of daily life.

  17. Dissecting high from low responders in a vitamin D3 intervention study.

    PubMed

    Saksa, Noora; Neme, Antonio; Ryynänen, Jussi; Uusitupa, Matti; de Mello, Vanessa D F; Voutilainen, Sari; Nurmi, Tarja; Virtanen, Jyrki K; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Carlberg, Carsten

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin D3 is a pleiotropic signaling molecule that has via activation of the transcription factor vitamin D receptor (VDR) a direct effect on the expression of more than 100 genes. The aim of this study was to find transcriptomic and clinical biomarkers that are most suited to identify vitamin D3 responders within 71 pre-diabetic subjects during a 5-month intervention study (VitDmet). In hematopoietic cells, the genes ASAP2, CAMP, CD14, CD97, DUSP10, G0S2, IL8, LRRC8A, NINJ1, NRIP1, SLC37A2 and THBD are known as primary vitamin D targets. We demonstrate that each of these 12 genes carries a conserved VDR binding site within its genomic region and is expressed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The changes in the expression of these genes in human PBMCs at the start and the end of the vitamin D-intervention were systematically correlated with the alteration in the circulating form of vitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3). Only 39-44 (55-62%) of the study subjects showed a highly significant response to vitamin D3, i.e., we considered them as "responders". In comparison, we found for 37-53 (52-75%) of the participants that only 12 biochemical and clinical parameters, such as concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and insulin, or computed values, such as homeostatic model assessment and insulin sensitivity index, show a correlation with serum 25(OH)D3 levels that is as high as that of the selected VDR target genes. All 24 parameters together described the pleiotropic vitamin D response of the VitDmet study subjects. Interestingly, they demonstrated a number of additional correlations that define a network, in which PTH plays the central role. In conclusion, vitamin D3-induced changes in human PBMCs can be described by transcriptomic and serum biomarkers and allow a segregation into high and low responders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop' .

  18. Dehydroepiandrosterone administration before IVF in poor responders: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Vlahos, Nikos; Papalouka, Maria; Triantafyllidou, Olga; Vlachos, Athanasios; Vakas, Panagiotis; Grimbizis, Gregory; Creatsas, George; Zikopoulos, Konstantinos

    2015-02-01

    The use of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may improve ovarian stimulation outcomes in women of advanced reproductive age and could reduce embryo aneuploidy. In this prospective study, 48 women diagnosed with poor ovarian response received DHEA supplementation for at least 12 weeks. These women were compared with a group of poor responders (n = 113) who did not receive supplementation. During the study period, patients taking day 2 FSH and oestradiol were measured monthly before and after treatment. Stimulation characteristics, stimulation outcome and clinical outcome (clinical pregnancy and live birth rates) were reported. Evaluation of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) was carried out before initiation of treatment and immediately before the subsequent stimulation. Supplementation with DHEA for at least 12 weeks resulted in a modest, but statistically significant, increase in AMH levels and decrease in baseline FSH (P < 0.001 and P = 0.007, respectively). Administration of DHEA had no effect on any of the stimulation parameters nor was there any difference in clinical pregnancy rates and live birth rates between the two groups. Supplementation with DHEA significantly affects women with poor prognosis undergoing ovarian stimulation for IVF. Patients should be counselled about the uncertain effectiveness, potential side-effects and cost of this treatment.

  19. Replicating studies in which samples of participants respond to samples of stimuli.

    PubMed

    Westfall, Jacob; Judd, Charles M; Kenny, David A

    2015-05-01

    In a direct replication, the typical goal is to reproduce a prior experimental result with a new but comparable sample of participants in a high-powered replication study. Often in psychology, the research to be replicated involves a sample of participants responding to a sample of stimuli. In replicating such studies, we argue that the same criteria should be used in sampling stimuli as are used in sampling participants. Namely, a new but comparable sample of stimuli should be used to ensure that the original results are not due to idiosyncrasies of the original stimulus sample, and the stimulus sample must often be enlarged to ensure high statistical power. In support of the latter point, we discuss the fact that in experiments involving samples of stimuli, statistical power typically does not approach 1 as the number of participants goes to infinity. As an example of the importance of sampling new stimuli, we discuss the bygone literature on the risky shift phenomenon, which was almost entirely based on a single stimulus sample that was later discovered to be highly unrepresentative. We discuss the use of both resampled and expanded stimulus sets, that is, stimulus samples that include the original stimuli plus new stimuli.

  20. [Respondent-Driven Sampling: a new sampling method to study visible and hidden populations].

    PubMed

    Mantecón, Alejandro; Juan, Montse; Calafat, Amador; Becoña, Elisardo; Román, Encarna

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a variant of chain-referral sampling: respondent-driven sampling (RDS). This sampling method shows that methods based on network analysis can be combined with the statistical validity of standard probability sampling methods. In this sense, RDS appears to be a mathematical improvement of snowball sampling oriented to the study of hidden populations. However, we try to prove its validity with populations that are not within a sampling frame but can nonetheless be contacted without difficulty. The basics of RDS are explained through our research on young people (aged 14 to 25) who go clubbing, consume alcohol and other drugs, and have sex. Fieldwork was carried out between May and July 2007 in three Spanish regions: Baleares, Galicia and Comunidad Valenciana. The presentation of the study shows the utility of this type of sampling when the population is accessible but there is a difficulty deriving from the lack of a sampling frame. However, the sample obtained is not a random representative one in statistical terms of the target population. It must be acknowledged that the final sample is representative of a 'pseudo-population' that approximates to the target population but is not identical to it.

  1. Communicating geohazard information for emergency responders, a case study from the UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Vanessa; Cooper, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    SSS11.4/ESSI4.6/HS11.39/NH9.13 Communication of uncertain information in earth sciences: data, models and visualization Communicating geohazard information for emergency responders, a case study from the UK. Cooper, A. H.1, Banks, V.J.1, Cowup, P.2, Curness, J.3, Davis, R.4, Dawson, L3. and Gazzard, L.4 1 British Geological Survey, Keyworth, NG12 5GG, UK 2 London Fire Brigade, 169 Union Street, London, SE1 0LL, UK 3.Coventry University, Priory Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB, UK 4.Avon Fire and Rescue, Temple Back, Bristol, BS1 6EU, UK. In February 2013 a sinkhole opened beneath a Florida Home resulting in the loss of a life and demolition of the affected home. The resulting void was in the order of 15 m deep. Neighbouring homes also had to be demolished. Television footage of this unfortunate incident resonated with an Assistant Commissioner of the London Fire Brigade who questioned whether or not such a feature would be recognised in the UK and if so, how the emergency response would be managed. Stemming from this, the British Geological Survey was invited to work with the Chief Fire Officers Association Urban Search and Rescue working group on geohazards. The aim of this group was to develop national tactical operational guidance on geohazards that would form the basis for regional guidance and training. The project was addressed collaboratively providing opportunities for two students from the Coventry University Disaster Management course, that were on placements with Avon Fire and Rescue, to work with the BGS to develop the guidance. Key to the success of the project was an iterative approach to knowledge exchange with respect to firstly, the characterization of the geohazards, and the processes and uncertainties associated with them and secondly, with respect to emergency responders' needs and priorities. Effective communication was achieved through challenging and rationalising the geoscience language for the end user and through a series of customised

  2. How nursing home residents with dementia respond to the interactive art installation 'VENSTER': a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Tom; Braun, Susy; Jamin, Gaston; van Hooren, Susan; de Witte, Luc

    2017-03-12

    The goal of this study was (1) to determine whether and how nursing home residents with dementia respond to the interactive art installation in general and (2) to identify whether responses change when the content type and, therefore, the nature of the interaction with the artwork changes. The interactive art installation 'VENSTER' evokes responses in nursing home residents with dementia, illustrating the potential of interactive artworks in the nursing home environment. Frequently observed responses were naming, recognizing or asking questions about depicted content and how the installation worked, physically gesturing towards or tapping on the screen and tapping or singing along to the music. It seemed content matters a lot. When VENSTER is to be used in routine care, the choice of a type of content is critical to the intended experience/usage in practice. In this study, recognition seemed to trigger memory and (in most cases) a verbal reaction, while indistinctness led to asking for more information. When (initially) coached by a care provider, residents actively engaged physically with the screen. Responses differed between content types, which makes it important to further explore different types of content and content as an interface to provide meaningful experiences for nursing home residents. Implications for rehabilitation VENSTER can facilitate different types of responses ranging from verbal reactions to active physical engagement. The choice of a type of content is critical to the intended experience/usage in practice. Activating content seems suitable for use as a meaningful experience during the spare time in between existing activities or therapy. Sessions with interactive content are short (avg. 30 mins) and intense and can therefore potentially be used as an activating therapy, activity or exercise. In order to actively engage residents with dementia, the role of the care provider seems very important.

  3. Mixed Methods Study of Help Seekers and Self-Changers Responding to an Online Recovery Survey

    PubMed Central

    Witbrodt, Jane; Borkman, Thomasina J.; Stunz, Aina; Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To compare self-changers (natural recovery) with help seekers on demographics, pre-recovery problem severity, and recovery beliefs and behaviors; and to augment these quantitative findings with information extracted from the qualitative stories of a subset of self-changers to explore themes in recovery paths as informed by a nascent natural recovery literature. Methods: Quantitative secondary analyses were conducted with persons who had responded to a US nationwide online survey called ‘What Is Recovery’ (WIR) and who reported a prior lifetime alcohol problem (n = 5495). Six men and six women (with longer-term recoveries) interviewed later were asked to tell their ‘recovery story from the beginning up to now’. These were coded using a narrative approach. Results: Compared with help seekers, self-changers were younger and never married: they did not differ on problem severity, gender, ethnicity or education. Self-changers identified with ‘used to have a problem’ more than in recovery/recovered, reported fewer years in that status, and reported more current, non-problematic substance use. A new concept of shadow help and shadow obstacles to help-seeking emerged from the qualitative analysis. Though self-changers believed that they had overcome their alcohol problem on their own, change actually occurred within a social context that allowed access to information, normative expectations, relationships, and other opportunities that provided important resources for change. Conclusion: Findings imply that the concept of help-seeking needs to be re-conceptualized to include the informal help we found in this study. PMID:25381088

  4. Hitting Reply: A Qualitative Study to Understand Student Decisions to Respond to Online Discussion Postings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Diane D.; Storberg-Walker, Julia; Stone, Sophia J.

    2007-01-01

    Providing tools for dialogue exchange does not ensure that students will respond to teammate postings or that online groups will grow in cohesiveness (Murphy, 2004). Students decide whether or not to reply, and it is increasingly important to understand how students make these decisions due to the increase in distance education, Millennials, and…

  5. Hitting Reply: A Qualitative Study to Understand Student Decisions to Respond to Online Discussion Postings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Diane D.; Storberg-Walker, Julia; Stone, Sophia J.

    2008-01-01

    Providing tools for dialogue exchange does not ensure that students will respond to team mate postings or that online groups will grow in cohesiveness. Students decide whether or not to reply, and it is increasingly important to understand how students make these decisions due to the increase in distance education, millenials, and asynchronous…

  6. A Phenomenological Study of Urban Search and Rescue Members Who Responded to a Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    The complicated world of disaster management requires urban search and rescue (US&R) members to be well trained to respond to complex, unpredictable, and difficult to manage disasters anywhere in the world on short notice. Disasters are becoming more complex and difficult to manage as was witnessed by the multi-faceted disaster in Japan in…

  7. How Institutional and University Counselor Policies Effectively Respond to Victims of Cyber Violent Acts: A Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gretchen M.

    2012-01-01

    This multisite case study examined how institutional and university counselor policies effectively respond to cyber violent acts. Stake's (2006) multisite case study methodology was used to identify seven themes from current literature. Two sites with four participants were selected. The participants included two counseling directors and the…

  8. Cultural differences in survey responding: Issues and insights in the study of response biases.

    PubMed

    Kemmelmeier, Markus

    2016-12-01

    This paper introduces the special section "Cultural differences in questionnaire responding" and discusses central topics in the research on response biases in cross-cultural survey research. Based on current conceptions of acquiescent, extreme, and socially desirable responding, the author considers current data on the correlated nature of response biases and the conditions under which different response styles they emerge. Based on evidence relating different response styles to the cultural dimension of individualism-collectivism, the paper explores how research presented as part of this special section might help resolves some tensions in this literature. The paper concludes by arguing that response styles should not be treated merely as measurement error, but as cultural behaviors in themselves.

  9. Preparing for the Worst: Psychological Excellence of First Responders - A Katrina Lessons Learned Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    used for first responders can be classified into two major areas: on-site training facilities and virtual simulation. - 11 - Classroom /Online...On-site Training In higher educational systems, students are normally taught in a classroom environment in order to obtain the fundamentals of...in a classroom setting, web-based, over a radio network, and/or in a state of the art training facility. In 2003, FEMA’s Emergency Management

  10. Developing Specific Self-Efficacy and Resilience as First Responders among Students of Social Work and Stress and Trauma Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farchi, Moshe; Cohen, Ayala; Mosek, Atalia

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the challenging task of preparing baccalaureate social work students to master proficiency as first responders in stress and trauma situations. We begin with a brief description of the context, goals, admission procedure, structure, and process of a stress and trauma studies (STS) program. We then compare the development of…

  11. Physiological responding to stress in middle-aged males enriched for longevity: a social stress study.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Steffy W M; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen; Westendorp, Rudi; Oei, Nicole Y L

    2016-01-01

    Individuals enriched for familial longevity display a lower prevalence of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular- and metabolic diseases. Since these diseases are associated with stress and increased cortisol levels, one of the underlying mechanisms that may contribute to healthy longevity might be a more adaptive response to stress. To investigate this, male middle-aged offspring from long-lived families (n = 31) and male non-offspring (with no familial history of longevity) (n = 26) were randomly allocated to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control condition in an experimental design. Physiological (cortisol, blood pressure, heart rate) and subjective responses were measured during the entire procedure. The results showed that Offspring had lower overall cortisol levels compared to Non-offspring regardless of condition, and lower absolute cortisol output (AUCg) during stress compared to Non-Offspring, while the increase (AUCi) did not differ between groups. In addition, systolic blood pressure in Offspring was lower compared to Non-offspring during the entire procedure. At baseline, Offspring had significantly lower systolic blood pressure and reported less subjective stress than Non-offspring and showed a trend towards lower heart rate. Offspring from long-lived families might thus be less stressed prior to potentially stressful events and consequently show overall lower levels in physiological responses. Although attenuated physiological responding cannot be ruled out, lower starting points and a lower peak level in physiological responding when confronted with an actual stressor, might already limit damage due to stress over a lifetime. Lower physiological responding may also contribute to the lower prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and other stress-related diseases in healthy longevity.

  12. Perception, Experience, and Response to Genetic Discrimination in Huntington Disease: The International RESPOND-HD Study

    PubMed Central

    Erwin, Cheryl; Williams, Janet K.; Juhl, Andrew R.; Mengeling, Michelle; Mills, James A.; Bombard, Yvonne; Hayden, Michael R.; Quaid, Kimberly; Shoulson, Ira; Taylor, Sandra; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic discrimination—defined as the denial of rights, privileges, or opportunities or other adverse treatment based solely on genetic information (including family history)—is an important concern to patients, healthcare professionals, lawmakers, and family members at risk for carrying a deleterious gene. Data from the United States, Canada, and Australia were collected from 433 individuals at risk for Huntington disease (HD) who have tested either positive or negative for the gene that causes HD and family members of affected individuals who have a 50% risk for developing the disorder but remain untested. Across all three countries, a total of 46.2% of respondents report genetic discrimination or stigma based on either their family history of HD or genetic testing for the HD gene mutation. We report on the overall incidence of discrimination and stigma in the domains of insurance (25.9%), employment (6.5%), relationships (32.9%), and other transactions (4.6%) in the United States, Canada, and Australia combined. The incidence of self-reported discrimination is less than the overall worry about the risk of discrimination, which is more prevalent in each domain. Despite a relatively low rate of perceived genetic discrimination in the areas of health insurance and employment, compared to the perception of discrimination and stigma in personal relationships, the cumulative burden of genetic discrimination across all domains of experience represents a challenge to those at risk for HD. The effect of this cumulative burden on daily life decisions remains unknown. PMID:20468061

  13. The relations of parental warmth and positive expressiveness to children's empathy-related responding and social functioning: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Losoya, Sandra H; Fabes, Richard A; Reiser, Mark; Guthrie, Ivanna K; Murphy, Bridget C; Cumberland, Amanda J; Shepard, Stephanie A

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the concurrent and cross-time relations of parental observed warmth and positive expressivity to children's situational facial and self-reported empathic responding, social competence, and externalizing problems in a sample of 180 elementary school children. Data was collected when the children were in second to fifth grades (age: M = 112.8 months), and again 2 years later. Cross-sectional and longitudinal structural equation models supported the hypothesis that parents' (mostly mothers') positive expressivity mediated the relation between parental warmth and children's empathy, and children's empathy mediated the relation between parental positive expressivity and children's social functioning. These relations persisted after controlling for prior levels of parenting and child characteristics. Moreover, concurrent and cross-time consistencies were found on measures of parenting, children's situational empathic responding, and social functioning.

  14. Respondent-driven sampling for an adolescent health study in vulnerable urban settings: a multi-country study

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Marshall, Beth; Emerson, Mark; Kalamar, Amanda; Covarrubias, Laura; Astone, Nan; Wang, Ziliang; Gao, Ersheng; Mashimbye, Lawrence; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Acharya, Rajib; Olumide, Adesola; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Blum, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The global adolescent population is larger than ever before and is rapidly urbanizing. Global surveillance systems to monitor youth health typically use household- and school-based recruitment methods. These systems risk not reaching the most marginalized youth made vulnerable by conditions of migration, civil conflict and other forms of individual and structural vulnerability. We describe the methodology of the Well Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) survey, which used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit male and female youth aged 15 to 19 years and living in economically distressed urban settings in Baltimore, USA, Johannesburg, South Africa, Ibadan, Nigeria, Delhi, India and Shanghai, China (migrant youth only) for a cross-sectional study. We describe a shared recruitment and survey administration protocol across the five sites, present recruitment parameters, and illustrate challenges and necessary adaptations for use of RDS with youth in disadvantaged urban settings. We describe the reach of RDS into populations of youth who may be missed by traditional householdbased and school-based sampling. Across all sites, an estimated 9.6% were unstably housed; among those enrolled in school, absenteeism was pervasive with 29% having missed over 6 days of school in the past month. Overall findings confirm the feasibility, efficiency and utility of RDS in quickly reaching diverse samples of youth, including those both in and out of school and those unstably housed, and provide direction for optimizing RDS methods with this population. In our rapidly urbanizing global landscape with an unprecedented youth population, RDS may serve as a valuable tool in complementing existing household- and school-based methods for health-related surveillance that can guide policy. PMID:25454005

  15. Respondent-driven sampling for an adolescent health study in vulnerable urban settings: a multi-country study.

    PubMed

    Decker, Michele R; Marshall, Beth Dail; Emerson, Mark; Kalamar, Amanda; Covarrubias, Laura; Astone, Nan; Wang, Ziliang; Gao, Ersheng; Mashimbye, Lawrence; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Acharya, Rajib; Olumide, Adesola; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Blum, Robert W; Sonenstein, Freya L

    2014-12-01

    The global adolescent population is larger than ever before and is rapidly urbanizing. Global surveillance systems to monitor youth health typically use household- and school-based recruitment methods. These systems risk not reaching the most marginalized youth made vulnerable by conditions of migration, civil conflict, and other forms of individual and structural vulnerability. We describe the methodology of the Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments survey, which used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit male and female youth aged 15-19 years and living in economically distressed urban settings in Baltimore, MD; Johannesburg, South Africa; Ibadan, Nigeria; New Delhi, India; and Shanghai, China (migrant youth only) for a cross-sectional study. We describe a shared recruitment and survey administration protocol across the five sites, present recruitment parameters, and illustrate challenges and necessary adaptations for use of RDS with youth in disadvantaged urban settings. We describe the reach of RDS into populations of youth who may be missed by traditional household- and school-based sampling. Across all sites, an estimated 9.6% were unstably housed; among those enrolled in school, absenteeism was pervasive with 29% having missed over 6 days of school in the past month. Overall findings confirm the feasibility, efficiency, and utility of RDS in quickly reaching diverse samples of youth, including those both in and out of school and those unstably housed, and provide direction for optimizing RDS methods with this population. In our rapidly urbanizing global landscape with an unprecedented youth population, RDS may serve as a valuable tool in complementing existing household- and school-based methods for health-related surveillance that can guide policy.

  16. Fish mucus as a rapidly responding tissue in diet switching studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. One aspect of our work focuses on the incorporation of marine-derived nutrients into the diet of overwintering coho salmon juveniles. These studie...

  17. Fish mucus as a rapid responding tissue in diet switching studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. One aspect of our work focuses on the incorporation of marine-derived nutrients into the diet of overwintering coho salmon juveniles. These studie...

  18. Speech Act of Responding to Rudeness: A Case Study of Malaysian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnia, Maryam; Sattar, Hiba Qusay Abdul; Mei, Hooi Chee

    2014-01-01

    Politeness conventions vary across cultures and so is impoliteness and rudeness. In some cases, what is considered rude in one culture or a society is not necessarily rude or impolite in another. This cannot be explained unless more studies on the use of language functions in a specific culture are conducted. The aim of this paper is to…

  19. Minimizing Respondent Attrition in Longitudinal Research: Practical Implications from a Cohort Study of Adolescent Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boys, Annabel; Marsden, John; Stillwell, Garry; Hatchings, Kevin; Griffiths, Paul; Farrell, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the methods used to maximize retention in a longitudinal study of adolescent drinking. Strategies to minimize attrition included the collection of detailed contact information, incentives for participation, postcard and telephone reminders and telephone interviews. Ninety-six percent of the original sample completed the first follow-up…

  20. Traumatic Responding in Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Peter; Elliston, Ellen J.

    2001-01-01

    A study examined posttraumatic stress disorder in Mexican, Mexican American, and non-Mexican American children exposed to domestic violence. Surveys of 68 mothers with children in shelters in Mexico and Texas revealed no ethnic differences in children's overall trauma symptoms. Mothers' experience of physical and sexual abuse predicted greater…

  1. Responding to the Increased Needs of College Students: A Case Study of Case Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelesky, Kristin; Weatherford, Ryan D.; Silbert, Janelle

    2016-01-01

    The psychological needs of college students lead to overwhelming demand on college counseling centers' resources. In this article, we review models of case management in Higher Education including the administrative, behavioral intervention, and counseling center models. We also present a case study of the 3-year development of a counseling center…

  2. Responding to the Gulf War: A Case Study of Instructional Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Merry M.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on study of teacher decision making regarding instruction about Gulf War. Finds teachers were influenced by student grade level, number of students in class from another culture, and their own knowledge of Middle Eastern history and geography. Concludes that local and state curriculum officials should provide more flexibility so teachers…

  3. Craniofacial characteristics of successful responders to mandibular advancement splint therapy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Seehra, Jadbinder; Sherriff, Martyn; Winchester, Lindsay

    2014-04-01

    Cephalometric variables that can be used to identify patients with obstructive sleep apnoea who are suitable for mandibular advancement splints and surgical maxillomandibular advancement are lacking. The aim of this pilot study was to describe the craniofacial characteristics of patients whose symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea were successfully treated with mandibular advancement splints and who were subsequently considered for maxillomandibular advancement. We retrospectively compared the craniofacial characteristics of our patients with data from 2 previously published studies. There were significant differences between the 2 groups for ANB (p<0.000), overjet (p<0.0001), Go-Me (p<0.0002), and ANS-PNS (p<0.0009). Patients, whose symptoms improve with the use of mandibular advancement splints and are potential candidates for maxillomandibular advancement, may have unique craniofacial features consisting of bimaxillary retrusion characterised by a shorter maxilla and mandible, and a greater class II skeletal tendency. The results of this study should be viewed as a pilot. Further research is required.

  4. Do anuran larvae respond behaviourally to chemical cues from an invasive crayfish predator? A community-wide study.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Ana L; Richter-Boix, Alex; Laurila, Anssi; Rebelo, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Antipredator behaviour is an important fitness component in most animals. A co-evolutionary history between predator and prey is important for prey to respond adaptively to predation threats. When non-native predator species invade new areas, native prey may not recognise them or may lack effective antipredator defences. However, responses to novel predators can be facilitated by chemical cues from the predators' diet. The red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii is a widespread invasive predator in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, where it preys upon native anuran tadpoles. In a laboratory experiment we studied behavioural antipredator defences (alterations in activity level and spatial avoidance of predator) of nine anurans in response to P. clarkii chemical cues, and compared them with the defences towards a native predator, the larval dragonfly Aeshna sp. To investigate how chemical cues from consumed conspecifics shape the responses, we raised tadpoles with either a tadpole-fed or starved crayfish, or dragonfly larva, or in the absence of a predator. Five species significantly altered their behaviour in the presence of crayfish, and this was largely mediated by chemical cues from consumed conspecifics. In the presence of dragonflies, most species exhibited behavioural defences and often these did not require the presence of cues from predation events. Responding to cues from consumed conspecifics seems to be a critical factor in facilitating certain behavioural responses to novel exotic predators. This finding can be useful for predicting antipredator responses to invasive predators and help directing conservation efforts to the species at highest risk.

  5. Reconceptualising public acceptability: A study of the ways people respond to policies aimed to reduce alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The issue of public acceptability of health policies is key if they are to have significant and lasting impact. This study, based on focus groups conducted in England, examines the ways people responded to, and made sense of, policy ideas aimed at reducing alcohol consumption. Although effective policies were supported in the abstract, specific proposals were consistently rejected because they were not thought to map onto the fundamental causes of excessive drinking, which was not attributed to alcohol itself but instead its cultural context. Rather than being influenced by the credibility of evidence, or assessed according to likely gains set against possible losses, such responses were established dynamically as people interacted with others to make sense of the topic. This has significant implications for policy-makers, suggesting that existing beliefs and knowledge need to be taken into account as potentially productive rather than obstructive resources. PMID:25769693

  6. An empirical examination of respondent driven sampling design effects among HIV risk groups from studies conducted around the world.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lisa G; Chen, Yea-Hung; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Raymond, H Fisher

    2013-07-01

    For studies using respondent driven sampling (RDS), the current practice of collecting a sample twice as large as that used in simple random sampling (SRS) (i.e. design effect of 2.00) may not be sufficient. This paper provides empirical evidence of sample-to-sample variability in design effects using data from nine studies in six countries among injecting drug users, female sex workers, men who have sex with men and male-to-female transgender (MTF) persons. We computed the design effect as the variance under RDS divided by the variance under SRS for a broad range of demographic and behavioral variables in each study. We also estimated several measures for each variable in each study that we hypothesized might be related to design effect: the number of waves needed for equilibrium, homophily, and mean network size. Design effects for all studies ranged from 1.20 to 5.90. Mean design effects among all studies ranged from 1.50 to 3.70. A particularly high design effect was found for employment status (design effect of 5.90) of MTF in Peru. This may be explained by a "bottleneck"--defined as the occurrence of a relatively small number of recruitment ties between two groups in the population. A design effect of two for RDS studies may not be sufficient. Since the mean design effect across all studies was 2.33, an effect slightly above 2.00 may be adequate; however, an effect closer to 3.00 or 4.00 might be more appropriate.

  7. Effectiveness of Respondent-Driven Sampling for Recruiting Drug Users in New York City: Findings from a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Heckathorn, Douglas D.; McKnight, Courtney; Bramson, Heidi; Nemeth, Chris; Sabin, Keith; Gallagher, Kathleen; Des Jarlais, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    A number of sampling methods are available to recruit drug users and collect HIV risk behavior data. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a modified form of chain-referral sampling with a mathematical system for weighting the sample to compensate for its not having been drawn randomly. It is predicated on the recognition that peers are better able than outreach workers and researchers to locate and recruit other members of a “hidden” population. RDS provides a means of evaluating the reliability of the data obtained and also allows inferences about the characteristics of the population from which the sample is drawn. In this paper we present findings from a pilot study conducted to assess the effectiveness of RDS to recruit a large and diversified group of drug users in New York City. Beginning with eight seeds (i.e., initial recruits) we recruited 618 drug users (injecting and non-injecting) in 13 weeks. The data document both cross-gender and cross-race and -ethnic recruitment as well as recruitment across drug-use status. Sample characteristics are similar to the characteristics of the drug users recruited in other studies conducted in New York City. The findings indicate that RDS is an effective sampling method for recruiting diversified drug users to participate in HIV-related behavioral surveys. PMID:16739048

  8. Exceptional Responders Initial Feasibility Results

    Cancer.gov

    A pilot study evaluating identification of cancer patients who respond to treatment that is ineffective in at least 90 percent of patients found that it was indeed able to confirm a majority of proposed patients as exceptional responders based on clinical

  9. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  10. Respondent-Driven Sampling with Hard-to-Reach Emerging Adults: An Introduction and Case Study with Rural African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Steven M.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Chen, Yi-fu; Brody, Gene H.; Slater, LaTrina M.

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining representative samples from populations of emerging adults who do not attend college is challenging for researchers. This article introduces respondent-driven sampling (RDS), a method for obtaining representative samples of hard-to-reach but socially interconnected populations. RDS combines a prescribed method for chain referral with a…

  11. The 1982 Youth Attitude Tracking Study (YATS): A Comparative Analysis of the ’Negative’ Male Respondents (YATS NEG).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    a. Examine the 1982 YATS male respondents. b. Task 1: Reconstruct 1982 YATS tabular data to seoarate those who replied positively into "definitely yes...lthough regress ion is not the mosc Doror iate tool Dr -ifi:s data it did prduce indications of imortant variables to Look for in the discriminant

  12. The Relations of Parental Warmth and Positive Expressiveness to Children's Empathy-Related Responding and Social Functioning: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Losoya, Sandra H.; Fabes, Richard A.; Reiser, Mark; Guthrie, Ivanna K.; Murphy, Bridget C.; Cumberland, Amanda J.; Shepard, Stephanie A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the concurrent and cross-time relations of parents' warmth and positive expressivity to elementary school children's situational facial and self-reported empathic responding, social competence, and externalizing problems. Found that parents' positive expressivity mediated the relation between parental warmth and children's empathy, and…

  13. Respondent-driven sampling in a study of drug users in New York City: notes from the field.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Courtney; Des Jarlais, Don; Bramson, Heidi; Tower, Lisa; Abdul-Quader, Abu S; Nemeth, Chris; Heckathorn, Douglas

    2006-11-01

    Beth Israel Medical Center (BIMC), in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH), used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in a study of HIV seroprevalence among drug users in New York City in 2004. We report here on operational issues with RDS including recruitment, coupon distribution, storefront operations, police and community relations, and the overall lessons we learned. Project staff recruited eight seeds from a syringe exchange in Lower Manhattan to serve as the initial study participants. Upon completion of the interview that lasted approximately 1 h and a blood draw, each seed was given three coupons to recruit three drug users into the study. Each of the subsequent eligible participants was also given three coupons to recruit three of their drug-using acquaintances. Eligible participants had to have: injected, smoked or snorted an illicit drug in the last 6 months (other than marijuana), aged 18 or older, adequate English language knowledge to permit informed consent and complete questionnaire. From April to July 2004, 618 drug users were interviewed, including 263 (43%) current injectors, 119 (19%) former injectors, and 236 (38%) never injectors. Four hundred sixty nine (76%) participants were men, 147 (24%) were women, and two (<1%) were transgender. By race/ethnicity, 285 (46%) were black, 218 (35%) Hispanic, 88 (14%) white, 23 (4%) mixed/not specified, and four (<1%) native American. Interviews were initially done on a drop-in basis but this system changed to appointments 1 month into the study due to the large volume of subjects coming in for interviews. Data collection was originally proposed to last for 1 year with a target recruitment of 500 drug users. Utilizing RDS, we were able to recruit and interview 118 more drug users than originally proposed in one quarter of the time. RDS was efficient with respect to time and economics (we did not have to hire an outreach worker) and

  14. Evaluation of respondent-driven sampling in a study of urban young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Lisa M; Kwon, Soyang; Ryan, Daniel T; Garofalo, Robert; Phillips, Gregory; Mustanski, Brian S

    2015-02-01

    Evidence suggests that respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is an efficient approach to sampling among varied populations of adult men who have sex with men (MSM) both in the USA and abroad, although no studies have yet evaluated its performance among younger MSM, a population with a steep rise in HIV infection in recent years. Young MSM (YMSM) may differ in terms of their connectedness to other YMSM (e.g., due to evolving sexual identity, internalization of sexual minority stigma, and lack of disclosure to others) and mobility (e.g., due to parental monitoring) which may inhibit the sampling process. The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of RDS-based sampling among young urban MSM and to identify factors associated with recruitment success. We hypothesized that demographic, social, behavioral, and network factors, including racial/ethnic minority status, homelessness (i.e., as an indicator of socioeconomic marginalization), HIV-positive status, substance use problems, gay community connectedness, and network size would be positively related to recruitment productivity, while sexual minority stigmatization, environmental barriers (e.g., parental monitoring), and meeting sex partners on the internet (i.e., virtual venue) would be negatively related to recruitment productivity. Between December 2009 and February 2013, we used RDS to recruit a sample of 450 YMSM, ages 16-20. Findings suggest that the use of RDS for sampling among YMSM is challenging and may not be feasible based on the slow pace of recruitment and low recruitment productivity. A large number of seeds (38 % of the sample, n = 172) had to be added to the sample to maintain a reasonable pace of recruitment, which makes use of the sample for RDS-based population estimates questionable. In addition, the prevalence of short recruitment chains and segmentation in patterns of recruitment by race/ethnicity further hamper the network recruitment process. Thus, RDS was not

  15. Expecting the unexpected: A mixed methods study of violence to EMS responders in an urban fire department

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Brittany; Davis, Andrea L.; Wright, Jasmine; Widman, Shannon; LeVasseur, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Struck by injuries experienced by females were observed to be higher compared to males in an urban fire department. The disparity was investigated while gaining a grounded understanding of EMS responder experiences from patient‐initiated violence. Methods A convergent parallel mixed methods design was employed. Using a linked injury dataset, patient‐initiated violence estimates were calculated comparing genders. Semi‐structured interviews and a focus group were conducted with injured EMS responders. Results Paramedics had significantly higher odds for patient‐initiated violence injuries than firefighters (OR 14.4, 95%CI: 9.2–22.2, P < 0.001). Females reported increased odds of patient‐initiated violence injuries compared to males (OR = 6.25, 95%CI 3.8–10.2), but this relationship was entirely mediated through occupation (AOR = 1.64, 95%CI 0.94–2.85). Qualitative data illuminated the impact of patient‐initiated violence and highlighted important organizational opportunities for intervention. Conclusions Mixed methods greatly enhanced the assessment of EMS responder patient‐initiated violence prevention. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:150–163, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26725756

  16. Responding to Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Sharon Ruth

    2002-01-01

    Provides classroom teachers with seven guidelines for responding to readers in ways that support the use of strategies for making sense of text. Discusses traditional responses to readers and "round-robin" reading versus reading conferences. Concludes that by responding appropriately to readers, teachers provide powerful demonstrations of the…

  17. What Respondents Really Expect from Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolar, Tomaz; Kolar, Iztok

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of falling response rates in telephone surveys. To better understand and maintain respondent goodwill, concepts of psychological contract and respondent expectations are introduced and explored. Results of the qualitative study show that respondent expectations are not only socially contingent but also…

  18. Basic and applied research on choice responding.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, W W; Mazur, J E

    1997-01-01

    Choice responding refers to the manner in which individuals allocate their time or responding among available response options. In this article, we first review basic investigations that have identified and examined variables that influence choice responding, such as response effort and reinforcement rate, immediacy, and quality. We then describe recent bridge and applied studies that illustrate how the results of basic research on choice responding can help to account for human behavior in natural environments and improve clinical assessments and interventions. PMID:9316255

  19. How Do the Laurentian Great Lakes Water Levels Respond to Climate Change? A Regional Climate Model Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, V.; Notaro, M.; Vavrus, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes contain twenty percent of the world's surface freshwater. Over the past century, inter-annual water levels have fluctuated in a primarily cyclic pattern with amplitudes from 0.2 m in Lake Superior to 0.7 m in Lake Erie. These changes in water levels result in more significant changes in coastlines of the Great Lakes and alter shoreline erosion, pollutant concentrations, and shoreline habitat. As climate changes, we are interested in how lake levels will respond. Global scale climate models do not depict the Great Lakes, and thus, are unlikely to accurately capture the mechanisms impacting water levels. We utilize the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model 4 at 20 km horizontal resolution with an improved, explicit lake model, a groundwater module, and a channel routing model. We simulate the past regional climate (1978-present) using NCEP Reanalysis to evaluate model performance and biases. We then simulate present and future water levels using boundary conditions from the global Community Climate System Model. Model evaluation and preliminary findings for future water levels will be presented.

  20. The Gesell Institute Responds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young Children, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Responding to Dr. Meisels' article concerning the uses and abuses of the Gesell readiness tests, the Gesell Institute of Child development maintains that the Gesell series of assessments are used by schools to gain a fuller developmental understanding of the child and have been predictive of school success. (BB)

  1. Responding to Misbehavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Kathryn; Forton, Mary Beth; Porter, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    As they learn to negotiate social expectations, children test limits, get carried away, forget, and make mistakes. In fact, having these experiences--and seeing how adults respond to them--is one way children learn about how to behave. Just as when they teach academics, teachers can use students' behavioral mistakes as opportunities for learning.…

  2. Responding to Tragedy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coopman, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author, a superintendent of Clark-Pleasant School Corporation in Whiteland, Indiana, relates how she and the school community responded to a car accident that killed two students. The author stresses the need to develop a comprehensive crisis plan. It is also important to be sensitive to the needs of family members who are…

  3. Sixteen Textbook Authors Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, John P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The articles on textbook publication written by Sheryl Fullerton and Franklin C. Graham were responded to by: John Hewitt, Henry Tischler, George Ritzer, Paul Baker, Erich Goode, D. Stanley Eitzen, Jon Shepard, Richard Schaefer, Caroline Persell, Beth Hess, Paul Zopf, Jr., Jeanne Ballantine, Duane Monette, Mary Ann Lamanna, John Macionis, and…

  4. "Cigarettes Are Priority": A Qualitative Study of How Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers Respond to Rising Cigarette Prices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Despite substantial modelling research assessing the impact of cigarette taxes on smoking rates across income groups, few studies have examined the broader financial effects and unintended consequences on very low-income smokers. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers in a high-income country manage smoking costs on…

  5. Connected Coaching: How Three Middle School Teachers Responded to the Challenge to Integrate Social Studies and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binkley, Russell; Keiser, Megan; Strahan, David

    2011-01-01

    This study examined three teachers' responses to professional development initiatives designed to support them in integrating literacy strategies with their social studies curriculum. Data from participant observation, interviews, archival records, and email exchanges provided insights regarding participants' efforts to weave together literacy…

  6. A Study of Some Conditions Relating to the Retarded Adult's Stereotyped Responding in a Binary-Choice Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Siegel, Paul S.

    1977-01-01

    Examined in a longitudinal study were the effects of conditions on alternation and perseveration of eight moderately and severely mentally retarded institutionalized adults. Available from: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 355 Chestnut Street, Norwood, New Jersey 07648. (CL)

  7. Responding to Mechanical Antigravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.; Thomas, Nicholas E.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the experiences of the NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project, suggestions are offered for constructively responding to proposals that purport breakthrough propulsion using mechanical devices. Because of the relatively large number of unsolicited submissions received (about 1 per workday) and because many of these involve similar concepts, this report is offered to help the would-be submitters make genuine progress as well as to help reviewers respond to such submissions. Devices that use oscillating masses or gyroscope falsely appear to create net thrust through differential friction or by misinterpreting torques as linear forces. To cover both the possibility of an errant claim and a genuine discovery, reviews should require that submitters meet minimal thresholds of proof before engaging in further correspondence; such as achieving sustained deflection of a level-platform pendulum in the case of mechanical thrusters.

  8. Responding to Workplace Absenteeism in Tanzania: The Case Study of Public and Private Schools in Ilala Municipality and Mkuranga District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mgonja, Michael Greyson

    2017-01-01

    Workplace absenteeism has widely been reported to be a serious problem which undermines smooth service delivery both in developed and developing nations. The problem is reported to be more serious in developing nations. This paper is therefore studying the mechanisms used to mitigate workplace absenteeism, their adequacy and the effective…

  9. The Effect of Active Student Responding during Computer-Assisted Instruction on Social Studies Learning by Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerome, Annamaria; Barbetta, Patricia M.

    2005-01-01

    An alternating treatments design with a best treatments phase was used to compare two active student response (ASR) conditions and one on-task (OT) condition on the acquisition and maintenance of social studies facts during computer-assisted instruction. Each week for six weeks, five students were provided daily computer-assisted instruction on 21…

  10. A transcriptomic study reveals differentially expressed genes and pathways respond to simulated acid rain in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting-Wu; Niu, Li; Fu, Bin; Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Chen, Juan; Wang, Wen-Hua; Hu, Wen-Jun; He, Jun-Xian; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2013-01-01

    Acid rain, as a worldwide environmental issue, can cause serious damage to plants. In this study, we provided the first case study on the systematic responses of arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) to simulated acid rain (SiAR) by transcriptome approach. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the expression of a set of genes related to primary metabolisms, including nitrogen, sulfur, amino acid, photosynthesis, and reactive oxygen species metabolism, were altered under SiAR. In addition, transport and signal transduction related pathways, especially calcium-related signaling pathways, were found to play important roles in the response of arabidopsis to SiAR stress. Further, we compared our data set with previously published data sets on arabidopsis transcriptome subjected to various stresses, including wound, salt, light, heavy metal, karrikin, temperature, osmosis, etc. The results showed that many genes were overlapped in several stresses, suggesting that plant response to SiAR is a complex process, which may require the participation of multiple defense-signaling pathways. The results of this study will help us gain further insights into the response mechanisms of plants to acid rain stress.

  11. Family-based association study of DRD4 gene in methylphenidate-responded Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Leung, Patrick Wing-Leung; Chan, Janice Ka Yan; Chen, Lu Hua; Lee, Chi Chiu; Hung, Se Fong; Ho, Ting Pong; Tang, Chun Pan; Moyzis, Robert K; Swanson, James M

    2017-01-01

    The 48-basepair (48-bp) variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in exon 3 of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) is implicated in the etiology of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In particular, ADHD in European-ancestry population is associated with an increased prevalence of the 7-repeat (7R) allele of the exon 3 VNTR. However, it is intriguing to note that the 7R allele has been found to be of very low prevalence in the Chinese general population. In a previous case-control study, our research team had found that the 7R allele was similarly absent in Chinese ADHD children in Hong Kong. Instead, there was an increased prevalence of the 2R allele in Chinese ADHD children. Interestingly, in Asian samples, the 2R allele had been found to be an evolutionary derivative of the 7R allele with equivalent biochemical functionality. So, the finding of an association between ADHD and 2R allele in Chinese population does not exactly contradict the original 7R allele finding in European-ancestry population. However, given the potential pitfall of population stratification in the previous case-control design, this current study tested the 2R allele and ADHD association using a methodologically more rigorous family-based approach on 33 Chinese ADHD probands who had favorable clinical responses to stimulant medication (methylphenidate). Haplotype Relative Risk (HRR) analysis and Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT) both showed a significant preferential transmission of the 2R allele from the biological parents to ADHD probands (pone-tailed = 0.038, OR = 2.04; pone-tailed = 0.048, OR = 2.29, respectively). A second hypothesis speculates that it is the deviation, including 7R and 2R alleles, from the conserved ancestral 4R allele which confers risk to ADHD. Thus, a preferential transmission of non-4R alleles, against the 4R allele, from biological parents to their ADHD probands is predicted. Both HRR analysis and TDT confirmed such prediction (pone

  12. Family-based association study of DRD4 gene in methylphenidate-responded Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Patrick Wing-leung; Chan, Janice Ka Yan; Chen, Lu Hua; Lee, Chi Chiu; Hung, Se Fong; Ho, Ting Pong; Tang, Chun Pan; Moyzis, Robert K.; Swanson, James M.

    2017-01-01

    The 48-basepair (48-bp) variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in exon 3 of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) is implicated in the etiology of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In particular, ADHD in European-ancestry population is associated with an increased prevalence of the 7-repeat (7R) allele of the exon 3 VNTR. However, it is intriguing to note that the 7R allele has been found to be of very low prevalence in the Chinese general population. In a previous case-control study, our research team had found that the 7R allele was similarly absent in Chinese ADHD children in Hong Kong. Instead, there was an increased prevalence of the 2R allele in Chinese ADHD children. Interestingly, in Asian samples, the 2R allele had been found to be an evolutionary derivative of the 7R allele with equivalent biochemical functionality. So, the finding of an association between ADHD and 2R allele in Chinese population does not exactly contradict the original 7R allele finding in European-ancestry population. However, given the potential pitfall of population stratification in the previous case-control design, this current study tested the 2R allele and ADHD association using a methodologically more rigorous family-based approach on 33 Chinese ADHD probands who had favorable clinical responses to stimulant medication (methylphenidate). Haplotype Relative Risk (HRR) analysis and Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT) both showed a significant preferential transmission of the 2R allele from the biological parents to ADHD probands (pone-tailed = 0.038, OR = 2.04; pone-tailed = 0.048, OR = 2.29, respectively). A second hypothesis speculates that it is the deviation, including 7R and 2R alleles, from the conserved ancestral 4R allele which confers risk to ADHD. Thus, a preferential transmission of non-4R alleles, against the 4R allele, from biological parents to their ADHD probands is predicted. Both HRR analysis and TDT confirmed such prediction (pone

  13. The Trier Social Stress Test as a paradigm to study how people respond to threat in social interactions

    PubMed Central

    Frisch, Johanna U.; Häusser, Jan A.; Mojzisch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In our lives, we face countless situations in which we are observed and evaluated by our social interaction partners. Social-evaluative threat is frequently associated with strong neurophysiological stress reactions, in particular, an increase in cortisol levels. Yet, social variables do not only cause stress, but they can also buffer the neurophysiological stress response. Furthermore, social variables can themselves be affected by the threat or the threat-induced neurophysiological stress response. In order to study this complex interplay of social-evaluative threat, social processes and neurophysiological stress responses, a paradigm is needed that (a) reliably induces high levels of social-evaluative threat and (b) is extremely adaptable to the needs of the researcher. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is a well-established paradigm in biopsychology that induces social-evaluative threat in the laboratory by subjecting participants to a mock job-interview. In this review, we aim at demonstrating the potential of the TSST for studying the complex interplay of social-evaluative threat, social processes and neurophysiological stress responses. PMID:25698987

  14. Stress field respond to massive injection of cold water into a geothermal reservoir study by geomechanical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanne, P.; Rutqvist, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we study the evolution and distribution of the stress tensor within the northwest part of The Geysers geothermal field during 9 years of injection (from 2003 to 2012). Based on a refined 3D structural model, developed by Calpine Corporation, where the horizon surfaces are mapped, we use the GMS™ GUI to construct a realistic three-dimensional geologic model of the Northwest Geysers geothermal field. This model includes a low permeability graywacke layer that forms the caprock for the reservoir, an isothermal steam zone (the Normal Temperature Reservoir) within metagraywacke, a hornfels zone (the High Temperature Reservoir), and a felsite layer that is assumed to extend downward to the magmatic heat source. This model is mapped into a rectangular grid for use with the TOUGH-FLAC numerical simulator. Then, we reproduce the injection history of seven active wells between 2003 and 2012. Finally, our results are compared with previous works where the stress tensor was studied from the inversion of focal plane mechanism in the same area and during the same period. As in these publications we find that: (1) changes in the orientation of principal horizontal stress are very small after one decade of injection, and (2) at injection depth significant rotations of the initially vertically oriented maximum compressive principal stress occur in response to changes in the fluid injection rates. As observed in the field, we found that σ1 tilted towards the σ2 direction by approximately 15° when injection rates were at their peak level. Such a rotation consequently results in a local change in the state stress from a normal stress regime (Sv > SHmax> > Shmin) to a strike slip regime (SHmax> Sv > > Shmin) above and below the injection zone. Our results show that thermal processes are the principal cause for the stress tensor rotation.

  15. Vicarious trauma and first responders: a case study utilizing eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) as the primary treatment modality.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Paul; Royle, Liz

    2007-01-01

    Traumatic events can occur and adversely affect people during their lifetime. Natural disasters such as the earthquake in Pakistan in 2005 or the Tsunami in Asia in 2004, terrorist atrocities around the world, or personal events such as physical or sexual assault, can result in psychological difficulties for those people directly affected by these events. The diagnostic term Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, DSM IV 1994) is generally used to explain the often-severe psychological sequalae (van der Kolk, 1996; Servan-Schreiber 2004; Shapiro, 1995) that people may exhibit when directly affected by trauma. However, what of those people not directly involved in the trauma, but those who have borne witness to it, either by listening to the stories of survivors, or in the case of the helping professionals (such as police officers, nurses, doctors, psychotherapists, fire-fighters), actively working with survivors in psychological distress? This paper examines the potential psychological consequences for those in helping professions who are working with traumatized clients. This paper then focuses on a specific treatment intervention, EMDR, utilizing a case study by way of explanation.

  16. Skill acquisition and retention in automated external defibrillator (AED) use and CPR by lay responders: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Woollard, Malcolm; Whitfeild, Richard; Smith, Anna; Colquhoun, Michael; Newcombe, Robert G; Vetteer, Norman; Chamberlain, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    This prospective study evaluated the acquisition and retention of skills in cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the use of the automated external defibrillator (AED) by lay volunteers involved in the Department of Health, England National Defibrillator Programme. One hundred and twelve trainees were tested immediately before and after and initial 4-h class; 76 were similarly reassessed at refresher training 6 months later. A standardised test scenario that required assessment of the casualty, CPR and the use of on AED was evaluated using recording manikin data and video recordings. Before training only 44% of subjects delivered a shock. Afterwards, all did so and the average delay to first shock was reduced by 57 s. All trainees placed the defibrillator electrodes in an "acceptable" position after training, but very few did so in the recommended "ideal" position. After refresher training 80% of subjects used the correct sequence for CPR and shock delivery, yet a third failed to perform adequate safety checks before all shocks. The trainees self-assessed AED competence score was 86 (scale 0-100) after the initial class and their confidence that they would act in a real emergency was rated at a similar level. Initial training improved performance of all CPR skills, although all except compression rate had deteriorated after 6 months. The proportion of subjects able to correctly perform most CPR skill was higher following refresher training that after the initial class. Although this course was judged to be effective in teaching delivery of counter-shocks, the need was identified for more emphasis on positioning of electrodes, pre-shock safety checks, airway opening, ventilation volume, checking for signs of a circulation, hand positioning, and depth and rate of chest compressions.

  17. The marriage of surgical simulation and telementoring for damage-control surgical training of operational first responders: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Tien, Homer; LaPorta, Anthony T.; Lavell, Kit; Keillor, Jocelyn; Wright Beatty, Heather E.; McKee, Jessica Lynn; Brien, Susan; Roberts, Derek J.; Wong, Jonathan; Ball, Chad G.; Beckett, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable posttraumatic death. Many such deaths may be potentially salvageable with remote damage-control surgical interventions. As recent innovations in information technology enable remote specialist support to point-of-care providers, advanced interventions, such as remote damage-control surgery, may be possible in remote settings. METHODS An anatomically realistic perfused surgical training mannequin with intrinsic fluid loss measurements (the “Cut Suit”) was used to study perihepatic packing with massive liver hemorrhage. The primary outcome was loss of simulated blood (water) during six stages, namely, incision, retraction, direction, identification, packing, and postpacking. Six fully credentialed surgeons performed the same task as 12 military medical technicians who were randomized to remotely telementored (RTM) (n = 7) or unmentored (UTM) (n=5) real-time guidance by a trauma surgeon. RESULTS There were no significant differences in fluid loss between the surgeons and the UTM group or between the UTM and RTM groups. However, when comparing the RTM group with the surgeons, there was significantly more total fluid loss (p = 0.001) and greater loss during the identification (p = 0.002), retraction (p = 0.035), direction (p = 0.014), and packing(p = 0.022) stages. There were no significant differences in fluid loss after packing between the groups despite differences in the number of sponges used; RTM group used more sponges than the surgeons and significantly more than the UTM group (p = 0.048). However, mentoring significantly increased self-assessed nonsurgeon procedural confidence (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION Perihepatic packing of an exsanguinating liver hemorrhage model was readily performed by military medical technicians after a focused briefing. While real-time telementoring did not improve fluid loss, it significantly increased nonsurgeon procedural confidence, which may augment the feasibility of the

  18. Coordinating Care for Falls via Emergency Responders: A Feasibility Study of a Brief At-Scene Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Elizabeth A.; Herbert, Julia; Fahrenbruch, Carol; Stubbs, Benjamin A.; Meischke, Hendrika

    2016-01-01

    Falls account for a substantial portion of 9-1-1 calls, but few studies have examined the potential for an emergency medical system role in fall prevention. We tested the feasibility and effectiveness of an emergency medical technician (EMT)-delivered, at-scene intervention to link elders calling 9-1-1 for a fall with a multifactorial fall prevention program in their community. The intervention was conducted in a single fire department in King County, Washington and consisted of a brief public health message about the preventability of falls and written fall prevention program information left at scene. Data sources included 9-1-1 reports, telephone interviews with intervention department fallers and sociodemographically comparable fallers from three other fire departments in the same county, and in-person discussions with intervention department EMTs. Interviews elicited faller recall and perceptions of the intervention, EMT perceptions of intervention feasibility, and resultant referrals. Sixteen percent of all 9-1-1 calls during the intervention period were for falls. The intervention was delivered to 49% of fallers, the majority of whom (75%) were left at scene. Their mean age (N = 92) was 80 ± 8 years; 78% were women, 39% had annual incomes under $20K, and 34% lived alone. Thirty-five percent reported that an EMT had discussed falls and fall prevention (vs. 8% of comparison group, P < 0.01); 84% reported that the information was useful. Six percent reported having made an appointment with a fall prevention program (vs. 3% of comparison group). EMTs reported that the intervention was worthwhile and did not add substantially to their workload. A brief, at-scene intervention is feasible and acceptable to fallers and EMTs. Although it activates only a small percent to seek out fall prevention programs, the public health impact of this low-cost strategy may be substantial. PMID:27990416

  19. In their own words: reports of stigma and genetic discrimination by people at risk for Huntington disease in the International RESPOND-HD study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet K; Erwin, Cheryl; Juhl, Andrew R; Mengeling, Michelle; Bombard, Yvonne; Hayden, Michael R; Quaid, Kimberly; Shoulson, Ira; Taylor, Sandra; Paulsen, Jane S

    2010-09-01

    Genetic discrimination may be experienced in the day-to-day lives of people at risk for Huntington disease (HD), encompassing occurrences in the workplace, when seeking insurance, within social relationships, and during other daily encounters. At-risk individuals who have tested either positive or negative for the genetic expansion that causes HD, as well as at-risk persons with a 50% chance for developing the disorder but have not had DNA testing completed the International RESPOND-HD (I-RESPOND-HD) survey. One of the study's purposes was to examine perceptions of genetic stigmatization and discrimination. A total of 412 out of 433 participants provided narrative comments, and 191 provided related codable narrative data. The core theme, Information Control, refers to organizational policies and interpersonal actions. This theme was found in narrative comments describing genetic discrimination perceptions across employment, insurance, social, and other situations. These reports were elaborated with five themes: What They Encountered, What They Felt, What Others Did, What They Did, and What Happened. Although many perceptions were coded as hurtful, this was not true in all instances. Findings document that reports of genetic discrimination are highly individual, and both policy as well as interpersonal factors contribute to the outcome of potentially discriminating events.

  20. Social networks of men who have sex with men: a study of recruitment chains using Respondent Driven Sampling in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brignol, Sandra Mara Silva; Dourado, Inês; Amorim, Leila Denise; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas; Kerr, Lígia R F S

    2015-11-01

    Social and sexual contact networks between men who have sex with men (MSM) play an important role in understanding the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In Salvador (Bahia State, Brazil), one of the cities in the survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices, and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in 10 Brazilian Cities, data were collected in 2008/2009 from a sample of 383 MSM using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Network analysis was used to study friendship networks and sexual partner networks. The study also focused on the association between the number of links (degree) and the number of sexual partners, in addition to socio-demographic characteristics. The networks' structure potentially facilitates HIV transmission. However, the same networks can also be used to spread messages on STI/HIV prevention, since the proximity and similarity of MSM in these networks can encourage behavior change and positive attitudes towards prevention.

  1. Primary healthcare system capacities for responding to storm and flood-related health problems: a case study from a rural district in central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Tuan Anh, Tran; Rocklöv, Joacim; Bao Giang, Kim; Trang, Le Quynh; Sahlen, Klas-Göran; Nilsson, Maria; Weinehall, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Background As a tropical depression in the East Sea, Vietnam is greatly affected by climate change and natural disasters. Knowledge of the current capacity of the primary healthcare system in Vietnam to respond to health issues associated with storms and floods is very important for policy making in the country. However, there has been little scientific research in this area. Objective This research was to assess primary healthcare system capacities in a rural district in central Vietnam to respond to such health issues. Design This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods used self-administered questionnaires. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and focus groups discussions) were used to broaden understanding of the quantitative material and to get additional information on actions taken. Results 1) Service delivery: Medical emergency services, especially surgical operations and referral systems, were not always available during the storm and flood seasons. 2) Governance: District emergency plans focus largely on disaster response rather than prevention. The plans did not clearly define the role of primary healthcare and had no clear information on the coordination mechanism among different sectors and organizations. 3) Financing: The budget for prevention and control of flood and storm activities was limited and had no specific items for healthcare activities. Only a little additional funding was available, but the procedures to get this funding were usually time-consuming. 4) Human resources: Medical rescue teams were established, but there were no epidemiologists or environmental health specialists to take care of epidemiological issues. Training on prevention and control of climate change and disaster-related health issues did not meet actual needs. 5) Information and research: Data that can be used for planning and management (including population and epidemiological data) were largely

  2. Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH): Scientific Understanding of Arctic Environmental Change to Help Society Understand and Respond to a Rapidly Changing Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Myers, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) is a U.S. program with a mission to provide a foundation of Arctic change science through collaboration with the research community, funding agencies, and other stakeholders. To achieve this mission, SEARCH: Generates and synthesizes research findings and promotes Arctic science and scientific discovery across disciplines and among agencies. Identifies emerging issues in Arctic environmental change. Provides scientific information to Arctic stakeholders, policy-makers, and the public to help them understand and respond to arctic environmental change. Facilitates research activities across local-to-global scales, with an emphasis on addressing needs of decision-makers. Collaborates with national and international science programs integral to SEARCH goals. This poster presentation will present SEARCH activities and plans, highlighting those focused on providing information for decision-makers. http://www.arcus.org/search

  3. Formative research to optimize respondent-driven sampling surveys among hard-to-reach populations in HIV behavioral and biological surveillance: lessons learned from four case studies.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lisa Grazina; Whitehead, Sara; Simic-Lawson, Milena; Kendall, Carl

    2010-06-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is widely adopted as a method to assess HIV and other sexually transmitted infection prevalence and risk factors among hard-to-reach populations. Failures to properly implement RDS in several settings could potentially have been avoided, had formative research been conducted. However, to date there is no published literature addressing the use of formative research in preparing for RDS studies. This paper uses examples from Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bangkok, Thailand; Podgorica, Montenegro; and St Vincent's and Grenadine Islands, Eastern Caribbean; among populations of men who have sex with men, female sex workers, and injecting drug users to describe how formative research was used to plan, implement, and predict outcomes of RDS surveys and to provide a template of RDS-specific questions for conducting formative research in preparation for RDS surveys. We outline case studies to illustrate how formative research may help researchers to determine whether RDS methodology is appropriate for a particular population and sociocultural context, and to decide on implementation details that lead to successful study outcomes.

  4. Responders to Wide-Pulse, High-Frequency Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Show Reduced Metabolic Demand: A 31P-MRS Study in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Wegrzyk, Jennifer; Fouré, Alexandre; Le Fur, Yann; Maffiuletti, Nicola A.; Vilmen, Christophe; Guye, Maxime; Mattei, Jean-Pierre; Place, Nicolas; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Conventional (CONV) neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) (i.e., short pulse duration, low frequencies) induces a higher energetic response as compared to voluntary contractions (VOL). In contrast, wide-pulse, high-frequency (WPHF) NMES might elicit–at least in some subjects (i.e., responders)–a different motor unit recruitment compared to CONV that resembles the physiological muscle activation pattern of VOL. We therefore hypothesized that for these responder subjects, the metabolic demand of WPHF would be lower than CONV and comparable to VOL. 18 healthy subjects performed isometric plantar flexions at 10% of their maximal voluntary contraction force for CONV (25 Hz, 0.05 ms), WPHF (100 Hz, 1 ms) and VOL protocols. For each protocol, force time integral (FTI) was quantified and subjects were classified as responders and non-responders to WPHF based on k-means clustering analysis. Furthermore, a fatigue index based on FTI loss at the end of each protocol compared with the beginning of the protocol was calculated. Phosphocreatine depletion (ΔPCr) was assessed using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Responders developed four times higher FTI’s during WPHF (99 ± 37 ×103 N.s) than non-responders (26 ± 12 ×103 N.s). For both responders and non-responders, CONV was metabolically more demanding than VOL when ΔPCr was expressed relative to the FTI. Only for the responder group, the ∆PCr/FTI ratio of WPHF (0.74 ± 0.19 M/N.s) was significantly lower compared to CONV (1.48 ± 0.46 M/N.s) but similar to VOL (0.65 ± 0.21 M/N.s). Moreover, the fatigue index was not different between WPHF (-16%) and CONV (-25%) for the responders. WPHF could therefore be considered as the less demanding NMES modality–at least in this subgroup of subjects–by possibly exhibiting a muscle activation pattern similar to VOL contractions. PMID:26619330

  5. Investigation of alcohol-related social norms among youth aged 14–17 years in Perth, Western Australia: protocol for a respondent-driven sampling study

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Janina; Maycock, Bruce; Howat, Peter; Burns, Sharyn; Allsop, Steve; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Lobo, Roanna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use among young people is a major public health concern in Australia and internationally. Research elucidating social norms influencing alcohol use supports the desire to conform to peers. However, there is a lack of evidence on how social norms are transmitted from the community to young people and between family members and peers, as previous studies are limited to mainly school and university environments. This article describes the proposed process to investigate common alcohol-related norms held by 14-year-olds to 17-year-olds in Perth, Western Australia, and to clarify the process and pathways through which proalcohol norms are transmitted to adolescents. Methods and analysis This cross-sectional quantitative study will use respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit a sample of 672 adolescents from sporting groups, youth programmes and the community in Perth. Data will be collected with a previously developed and validated multidimensional online survey instrument. A variety of strategies will be explored to aid participation including face-to-face recruitment and survey administration, web-based RDS and a ‘mature minor’ consent assessment protocol. Data analysis will include descriptive statistics of demographic characteristics, as well as social network and dyadic analyses, to explore the connections between shared understanding of norms and behaviours among individuals and how these translate into reported practices. Ethics and dissemination This research is expected to extend our understanding of normative development pathways to inform future interventions, and will be widely disseminated through conference presentations, peer-reviewed papers, media channels and community seminars. A study reference group of key health industry stakeholders will be established to encourage integration of study findings into policy and practice, and results will guide the development of community interventions. The Curtin University Human

  6. Criticality Safety Basics for INL Emergency Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Valerie L. Putman

    2012-08-01

    This document is a modular self-study guide about criticality safety principles for Idaho National Laboratory emergency responders. This guide provides basic criticality safety information for people who, in response to an emergency, might enter an area that contains much fissionable (or fissile) material. The information should help responders understand unique factors that might be important in responding to a criticality accident or in preventing a criticality accident while responding to a different emergency.

    This study guide specifically supplements web-based training for firefighters (0INL1226) and includes information for other Idaho National Laboratory first responders. However, the guide audience also includes other first responders such as radiological control personnel.

    For interested readers, this guide includes clearly marked additional information that will not be included on tests. The additional information includes historical examples (Been there. Done that.), as well as facts and more in-depth information (Did you know …).

    INL criticality safety personnel revise this guide as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Revision 0, issued May 2007, established the basic text. Revision 1 incorporates operation, program, and training changes implemented since 2007. Revision 1 increases focus on first responders because later responders are more likely to have more assistance and guidance from facility personnel and subject matter experts. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that help keep emergency responders safe. The changes are based on and consistent with changes made to course 0INL1226.

  7. Thinking It Through: A Study of How Pre-Service Teachers Respond to Children Who Present with Possible Mental Health Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, David; Price, Deborah; Crowley, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Teachers are key professionals in responding to children and adolescents with possible mental health difficulties and who exhibit social, emotional or behavioural difficulties in the classroom. Health and education policy increasingly positions teachers as vital agents in connecting mental health services with affected young people. A growing…

  8. Evaluating Respondent-Driven Sampling as an Implementation Tool For Universal Coverage of Antiretroviral Studies among Men who have Sex with Men Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Baral, Stefan D.; Ketende, Sosthenes; Schwartz, Sheree; Orazulike, Ifeanyi; Ugoh, Kelechi; Peel, Sheila; Ake, Julie; Blattner, William; Charurat, Manhattan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The TRUST model based on experimental and observational data posits that integration of HIV prevention and universal coverage of antiretroviral treatment (UCT) at a trusted community venue provides a framework for achieving effective reduction in HIV-related morbidity and mortality among men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV as well as reducing HIV incidence. The analyses presented here evaluate the utility of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) as an implementation tool for engaging MSM in the TRUST intervention. Methods The TRUST integrated prevention and treatment model was established at a trusted community center serving MSM in Abuja Nigeria. Five seeds have resulted in 3–26 waves of accrual between March, 2013 and August, 2014 with results presented here characterizing HIV burden and engagement in HIV care for 722 men across study recruitment waves. For analytic purposes, the waves were collapsed into five groups; four equally spaced (0–4, 5–9, 10–14, 15–19) and one ranging from the 20 to the 26th wave with significance assessed using Pearson’s chi-squared test. Results In earlier waves, MSM were more likely to have reported testing for HIV (82.9% in waves 0–4, 47.7% in waves 20–26, p<0.01). In addition, biologically-confirmed HIV prevalence decreased from an average of 59.1 to 42.9% (p<0.05) in later waves. In earlier waves, about 80% of participants correctly reported their HIV status as compared to less than 25% in the later waves (p<0.01). Lastly, participants reporting being on ART decreased from 50% to 22.2 % in later waves (p<0.01). Conclusions Implementation science studies focused on demonstrating impact of universal HIV-treatment programs among people living with HIV necessitate different accrual methods than those focused on preventing HIV acquisition. Here, RDS was shown to be an efficient method for reaching marginalized populations of MSM living with HIV in Nigeria and engaging them in universal HIV treatment

  9. Emergency responders' critical infrared (ERCI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konsin, Larry S.

    2004-08-01

    Emergency Responders (Fire, Police, Medical, and Emergency Management) face a high risk of injury or death. Even before September 11, 2001, public and private organizations have been driven to better protect Emergency Responders through education, training and improved technology. Recent research on Emergency Responder safety, health risks, and personal protective requirements, shows infrared (IR) imaging as a critical need. Today"s Emergency Responders are increasingly challenged to do more, facing demands requiring technological assistance and/or solutions. Since the introduction of Fire Service IR imaging in the mid 1990s, applications have increased. Emergency response IR is no longer just seeing through smoke to find victims or the seat of a fire. Many more mission critical needs now exist across the broad spectrum of emergency response. At the same time, Emergency Responder injuries and deaths are increasing. The Office of Domestic Preparedness (ODP) has also recognized IR imaging as critical in protecting our communities -- and in preventing many of the injuries and deaths of Emergency Responders. Currently, only 25% of all fire departments (or less than 7% of individual firefighters) have IR imaging. Availability to Police, EMS and Emergency Management is even lower. Without ERCI, Emergency Responders and our communities are at risk.

  10. Responder Technology Alert (February 2015)

    SciTech Connect

    Upton, Jaki F.; Stein, Steven L.

    2015-04-10

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  11. School Principals and Racism: Responding to Aveling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Claire; Mahoney, Caroline; Fox, Brandi; Halse, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This study responds to Nado Aveling's call in "Anti-racism in Schools: A question of leadership?" ("Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education," 2007, 28(1), 69-85) for further investigation into racism in Australian schools. Aveling's interview study concluded that an overwhelming number of school principals…

  12. How Teachers Respond to Children's Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Susan; Randall, Kellie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how teachers respond when children engage in inquiry-based deviations from a planned task. Thirty-one teachers each completed a brief science activity and accompanying worksheet with a student confederate. Teachers were given one of two goals for the study: help the students complete a worksheet or help the students learn more…

  13. Mischievous responding in Internet Gaming Disorder research.

    PubMed

    Przybylski, Andrew K

    2016-01-01

    The most recent update to the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) included Internet Gaming Disorder as a new potential psychiatric condition that merited further scientific study. The present research was conducted in response to the APA Substance-Related Disorders Working Group's research call to estimate the extent to which mischievous responding-a known problematic pattern of participant self-report responding in questionnaires-is relevant to Internet Gaming Disorder research. In line with a registered sampling and analysis plan, findings from two studies (n tot = 11,908) provide clear evidence that mischievous responding is positively associated with the number of Internet Gaming Disorder indicators participants report. Results are discussed in the context of ongoing problem gaming research and the discussion provides recommendations for improving the quality of scientific practice in this area.

  14. Preschool Needle Pain Responding: Establishing 'Normal'.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Jordana A; DiLorenzo, Miranda G; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca R; Flora, David B; Greenberg, Saul; Garfield, Hartley

    2017-02-11

    The current study sets forth to provide both descriptive data for preschool vaccination pain responding and examine longitudinal relationships over early childhood. Growth mixture modeling (GMM) was first used to describe stable subgroups of preschoolers based on their pain response patterns over 2-minutes post-needle. Secondly, a parallel-process growth curve model was used to assess the stability of acute pain responding from 12-months of age to preschool age. Specifically, we examined whether preschool pain-related distress or regulation could be predicted from 12-month acute pain responding. Preschool participants were part of a Canadian longitudinal cohort (The OUCH Cohort; N = 302). GMM analyses discerned 3 distinct groups of preschoolers, with an important minority not regulating to low-no pain by 2 minutes post-needle. There were no significant associations between 12-month and preschool pain responding. These results highlight the steep trajectory of development between these different stages of early childhood and the variability of pain responding at the preschool vaccination.

  15. Comparison of the ultrashort gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist-antagonist protocol with microdose flare -up protocol in poor responders: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Berker, Bülent; Duvan, Candan İltemir; Kaya, Cemil; Aytaç, Ruşen; Şatıroğlu, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the potential effect of the ultrashort gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist/GnRH antagonist protocol versus the microdose GnRH agonist protocol in poor responders undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Material and Methods The patients in the Agonist-Antagonist Group (n=41) were administered the ultrashort GnRH-agonist/ antagonist protocol, while the patients in the Microdose Group (n=41) were stimulated according to the microdose flare-up protocol. The mean number of mature oocytes retrieved was the primary outcome measure. Fertilization rate, implantation rate per embryo and clinical pregnancy rates were secondary outcome measures. Results There was no differenc between the mean number of mature oocytes retrieved in the two groups. There were also no statistical differences between the two groups in terms of peak serum E2 level, canceled cycles, endometrial thickness on hCG day, number of 2 pronucleus and number of embryos transferred. However, the total gonadotropin consumption and duration of stimulation were significantly higher with the Agonist-Antagonist Group compared with the Microdose Group. The implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were similar between the two groups. Conclusion Despite the high dose of gonadotropin consumption and longer duration of stimulation with the ultrashort GnRH agonist/ antagonist protocol, it seems that the Agonist-Antagonist Protocol is not inferior to the microdose protocol in poor responders undergoing ICSI. PMID:24591934

  16. Differential DNA methylation patterns between high and low responders to a weight loss intervention in overweight or obese adolescents: the EVASYON study.

    PubMed

    Moleres, Adriana; Campión, Javier; Milagro, Fermín I; Marcos, Ascensión; Campoy, Cristina; Garagorri, Jesús M; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Martínez, J Alfredo; Azcona-Sanjulián, M Cristina; Martí, Amelia

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, epigenetic markers emerged as a new tool to understand the influence of lifestyle factors on obesity phenotypes. Adolescence is considered an important epigenetic window over a human's lifetime. The objective of this work was to explore baseline changes in DNA methylation that could be associated with a better weight loss response after a multidisciplinary intervention program in Spanish obese or overweight adolescents. Overweight or obese adolescents (n=107) undergoing 10 wk of a multidisciplinary intervention for weight loss were assigned as high or low responders to the treatment. A methylation microarray was performed to search for baseline epigenetic differences between the 2 groups (12 subjects/group), and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was used to validate (n=107) relevant CpG sites and surrounding regions. After validation, 5 regions located in or near AQP9, DUSP22, HIPK3, TNNT1, and TNNI3 genes showed differential methylation levels between high and low responders to the multidisciplinary weight loss intervention. Moreover, a calculated methylation score was significantly associated with changes in weight, BMI-SDS, and body fat mass loss after the treatment. In summary, we have identified 5 DNA regions that are differentially methylated depending on weight loss response. These methylation changes may help to better understand the weight loss response in obese adolescents.

  17. Responding to Complaints of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakeshaft, Charol

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes a study of 225 cases between 1990 and 1994 involving sexual abuse or harassment complaints against teachers. Interviews revealed how districts respond to complaints and the most effective preventive policies and procedures. School districts with rare occurrences screen prospective employees, have strong and clear policies, educate staff…

  18. 42 CFR 93.225 - Respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respondent. 93.225 Section 93.225 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON...

  19. In situ studies of the primary immune response to (4-hydroxy-3- nitrophenyl)acetyl. I. The architecture and dynamics of responding cell populations

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    After primary immunization with an immunogenic conjugate of (4-hydroxy- 3-nitrophenyl)acetyl, two anatomically and phenotypically distinct populations of antibody-forming cells arise in the spleen. As early as 2 d after immunization, foci of antigen-binding B cells are observed along the periphery of the periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths. These foci expand, occupying as much as 1% of the splenic volume by day 8 of the response. Later, foci grow smaller and are virtually absent from the spleen by day 14. A second responding population, germinal center B cells, appear on day 8-10 and persist at least until day 16 post- immunization. Individual foci and germinal centers represent discrete pauciclonal populations that apparently undergo somatic evolution in the course of the primary response. We suggest that foci may represent regions of predominantly interclonal competition for antigen among unmutated B cells, while germinal centers are sites of intraclonal clonal competition between mutated sister lymphocytes. PMID:1902502

  20. Babies: Responding Appropriately to Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleer, Marilyn; Linke, Pam

    1999-01-01

    This issue of the Australian Early Childhood Association Research in Practice Series discusses how educators can observe and respond appropriately to the infants in their care. The booklet examines the two major opportunities for early childhood educators that have been shown to influence outcomes for infants: (1) the opportunity to help infants…

  1. Responding to the Invisible Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Investigates what constitutes good reflection. Describes how one instructor used the Myers-Briggs type indicator (MBTI) to explore her responses to the reflective writing produced by preservice English teachers. Concludes that the MBTI can provide insight into and improve how instructors assign, respond to, and evaluate student reflection.…

  2. Responding to Hate at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Tolerance, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Describes a publication from Teaching Tolerance that is designed to help schools prepare for and respond effectively to bias incidents so that they can become catalysts for positive change. Presents two of the guidelines: (1) create an unwelcome environment for hate speech and symbols; and (2) put the lid on graffiti and other vandalism. (SLD)

  3. Short dialyzed children respond less to growth hormone than patients prior to dialysis. German Study Group for Growth Hormone Treatment in Chronic Renal Failure.

    PubMed

    Wühl, E; Haffner, D; Nissel, R; Schaefer, F; Mehls, O

    1996-06-01

    Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is a new treatment modality for short children with chronic renal failure (CRF) prior to and during dialysis. It is difficult to analyze whether dialysis patients respond less to rhGH than children with CRF on conservative treatment because they are older and often in a pubertal age range. One hundred and eight patients were treated with 28-30 IU rhGH/kg per week for at least 1 year. We analyzed the growth response to rhGH in 56 prepubertal patients aged less than 10 years at the start of rhGH treatment; 38 children with a mean age of 6.5 +/- 2.4 years were on conservative treatment (CT) and 18 patients with a mean age of 6.5 +/- 2 years on dialysis treatment (D). Mean height velocity was 4.9 +/- 2.3 cm/year in children on CT and 4.6 +/- 1.8 cm/year in children on D. During the 1st treatment year, height velocity was 9.5 +/- 3.8 cm/year in CT patients and 7.3 +/- 1.3 cm/year in D patients (P < 0.05). The change in height was +1.1 +/- 0.8 standard deviation (SD) in CT patients and +0.5 +/- 0.4 SD in D patients (P < 0.005). During the 2nd treatment year, the change in height was again greater in CT patients (0.5 +/- 0.4 SD vs. 0.2 +/- 0.4 SD; P < 0.05). The difference in height velocity and change in height standard deviation score was also significant when a subgroup of patients was matched for sex, age, height. Height velocity and the change in height velocity during rhGH treatment were not correlated with residual renal function, the degree of anemia, or metabolic acidosis. We conclude that short children on D respond less to rhGH than short children on CT, indicating a greater insensitivity to rhGH during D treatment.

  4. Prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and risk behaviours among female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya: results of a respondent driven sampling study.

    PubMed

    Musyoki, Helgar; Kellogg, Timothy A; Geibel, Scott; Muraguri, Nicholas; Okal, Jerry; Tun, Waimar; Fisher Raymond, H; Dadabhai, Sufia; Sheehy, Meredith; Kim, Andrea A

    2015-02-01

    We conducted a respondent driven sampling survey to estimate HIV prevalence and risk behavior among female sex workers (FSWs) in Nairobi, Kenya. Women aged 18 years and older who reported selling sex to a man at least once in the past 3 months were eligible to participate. Consenting FSWs completed a behavioral questionnaire and were tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Adjusted population-based prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using RDS analysis tool. Factors significantly associated with HIV infection were assessed using log-binomial regression analysis. A total of 596 eligible participants were included in the analysis. Overall HIV prevalence was 29.5 % (95 % CI 24.7-34.9). Median age was 30 years (IQR 25-38 years); median duration of sex work was 12 years (IQR 8-17 years). The most frequent client-seeking venues were bars (76.6 %) and roadsides (29.3 %). The median number of clients per week was seven (IQR 4-18 clients). HIV testing was high with 86.6 % reported ever been tested for HIV and, of these, 63.1 % testing within the past 12 months. Of all women, 59.7 % perceived themselves at 'great risk' for HIV infection. Of HIV-positive women, 51.0 % were aware of their infection. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, inconsistent condom use with paying clients, and use of a male condom as a method of contraception were independently associated with unrecognized HIV infection. Prevalence among STIs was low, ranging from 0.9 % for syphilis, 1.1 % for gonorrhea, and 3.1 % for Chlamydia. The data suggest high prevalence of HIV among FSWs in Nairobi. Targeted and routine HIV and STI combination prevention strategies need to be scaled up or established to meet the needs of this population.

  5. Emotional Risks to Respondents in Survey Research: Some Empirical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Labott, Susan M.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Fendrich, Michael; Feeny, Norah C.

    2014-01-01

    Some survey research has documented distress in respondents with pre-existing emotional vulnerabilities, suggesting the possibility of harm. In this study, respondents were interviewed about a personally distressing event; mood, stress, and emotional reactions were assessed. Two days later, respondents participated in interventions to either enhance or alleviate the effects of the initial interview. Results indicated that distressing interviews increased stress and negative mood, although no adverse events occurred. Between the interviews, moods returned to baseline. Respondents who again discussed a distressing event reported moods more negative than those who discussed a neutral or a positive event. This study provides evidence that, among nonvulnerable survey respondents, interviews on distressing topics can result in negative moods and stress, but they do not harm respondents. PMID:24169422

  6. Mischievous responding in Internet Gaming Disorder research

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The most recent update to the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) included Internet Gaming Disorder as a new potential psychiatric condition that merited further scientific study. The present research was conducted in response to the APA Substance-Related Disorders Working Group’s research call to estimate the extent to which mischievous responding—a known problematic pattern of participant self-report responding in questionnaires—is relevant to Internet Gaming Disorder research. In line with a registered sampling and analysis plan, findings from two studies (ntot = 11,908) provide clear evidence that mischievous responding is positively associated with the number of Internet Gaming Disorder indicators participants report. Results are discussed in the context of ongoing problem gaming research and the discussion provides recommendations for improving the quality of scientific practice in this area. PMID:27672496

  7. Brain Changes in Responders vs. Non-Responders in Chronic Migraine: Markers of Disease Reversal

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Catherine S.; Becerra, Lino; Smith, Jonathan H.; DeLange, Justin M.; Smith, Ryan M.; Black, David F.; Welker, Kirk M.; Burstein, Rami; Cutrer, Fred M.; Borsook, David

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify structural and functional brain changes that accompanied the transition from chronic (CM; ≥15 headache days/month) to episodic (EM; <15 headache days/month) migraine following prophylactic treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A). Specifically, we examined whether CM patients responsive to prophylaxis (responders; n = 11), as evidenced by a reversal in disease status (defined by at least a 50% reduction in migraine frequency and <15 headache days/month), compared to CM patients whose migraine frequency remained unchanged (non-responders; n = 12), showed differences in cortical thickness using surface-based morphometry. We also investigated whether areas showing group differences in cortical thickness displayed altered resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) using seed-to-voxel analyses. Migraine characteristics measured across groups included disease duration, pain intensity and headache frequency. Patient reports of headache frequency over the 4 weeks prior to (pre-treatment) and following (post-treatment) prophylaxis were compared (post minus pre) and this measure served as the clinical endpoint that determined group assignment. All patients were scanned within 2 weeks of the post-treatment visit. Results revealed that responders showed significant cortical thickening in the right primary somatosensory cortex (SI) and anterior insula (aINS), and left superior temporal gyrus (STG) and pars opercularis (ParsOp) compared to non-responders. In addition, disease duration was negatively correlated with cortical thickness in fronto-parietal and temporo-occipital regions in responders but not non-responders, with the exception of the primary motor cortex (MI) that showed the opposite pattern; disease duration was positively associated with MI cortical thickness in responders versus non-responders. Our seed-based RS-FC analyses revealed anti-correlations between the SI seed and lateral occipital (LOC) and dorsomedial

  8. Paroxysmal hemicrania responding to topiramate.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A S; Goadsby, P J

    2009-01-01

    Chronic paroxysmal hemicrania (CPH) is a rare primary headache syndrome, which is classified along with cluster headache and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT) as a trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia. CPH is exquisitely responsive to indomethacin, so much so that the response is one of the current diagnostic criteria. The case of a patient with CPH, who had marked epigastric symptoms with indomethacin treatment and responded well to topiramate 150 mg daily, is reported. Cessation of topiramate caused return of episodes, and the response has persisted for 2 years. Topiramate may be a treatment option in CPH.

  9. Paroxysmal hemicrania responding to topiramate.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A S; Goadsby, P J

    2007-01-01

    Chronic paroxysmal hemicrania (CPH) is a rare primary headache syndrome, which is classified along with cluster headache and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT) as a trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia. CPH is exquisitely responsive to indomethacin so much so that the response is one of the current diagnostic criteria. The case of a patient with CPH, who had marked epigastric symptoms with indomethacin treatment and responded well to topiramate 150 mg daily, is reported. Cessation of topiramate caused return of episodes, and the response has persisted for 2 years. Topiramate may be a treatment option in CPH.

  10. Biodetection Technologies for First Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, Cheryl L.; Seiner, Derrick R.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Colburn, Heather A.; Straub, Tim M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2012-10-24

    In a white powder scenario, there are a large number of field-deployable assays that can be used to determine if the suspicious substance contains biological material and warrants further investigation. This report summarizes commercially available technologies that are considered hand portable and can be used by first responders in the field. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, nor do the authors endorse any of the technologies described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about available technologies to help end-users make informed decisions about biodetection technology procurement and use.

  11. The microanalysis of fixed-interval responding

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, G. David; Weiss, Bernard; Laties, Victor G.

    1983-01-01

    The fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one of the more widely studied schedules in the experimental analysis of behavior and is also a common baseline for behavior pharmacology. Despite many intensive studies, the controlling variables and the pattern of behavior engendered are not well understood. The present study examined the microstructure and superstructure of the behavior engendered by a fixed-interval 5- and a fixed-interval 15-minute schedule of food reinforcement in the pigeon. Analysis of performance typical of fixed-interval responding indicated that the scalloped pattern does not result from smooth acceleration in responding, but, rather, from renewed pausing early in the interval. Individual interresponse-time (IRT) analyses provided no evidence of acceleration. There was a strong indication of alternation in shorter-longer IRTs, but these shorter-longer IRTs did not occur at random, reflecting instead a sequential dependency in successive IRTs. Furthermore, early in the interval there was a high relative frequency of short IRTs. Such a pattern of early pauses and short IRTs does not suggest behavior typical of reinforced responding as exemplified by the pattern found near the end of the interval. Thus, behavior from clearly scalloped performance can be classified into three states: postreinforcement pause, interim behavior, and terminal behavior. PMID:16812324

  12. Microanalysis of fixed-interval responding

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, G.D.; Weiss, B.; Laties, V.G.

    1983-03-01

    The fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one of the more widely studied schedules in the experimental analysis of behavior and is also a common baseline for behavior pharmacology. Despite many intensive studies, the controlling variables and the pattern of behavior engendered are not well understood. The present study examined the microstructure and superstructure of the behavior engendered by a fixed-interval 5- and a fixed-interval 15-minute schedule of food reinforcement in the pigeon. Analysis of performance typical of fixed-interval responding indicated that the scalloped pattern does not result from smooth acceleration in responding, but, rather, from renewed pausing early in the interval. Individual interresponse-time (IRT) analyses provided no evidence of acceleration. There was a strong indication of alternation is shorter-longer IRTs, but these shorter-longer IRTs did not occur at random, reflecting instead a sequential dependency in successive IRTs. Furthermore, early in the interval there was a high relative frequency of short IRTs. Such a pattern of early pauses and short IRTs does not suggest behavior typical of reinforced responding as exemplified by the pattern found near the end of the interval. Thus, behavior from clearly scalloped performance can be classified into three states: postreinforcement pause, interim behavior, and terminal behavior. 31 references, 11 figures, 4 tables.

  13. 37 CFR 41.68 - Respondent's brief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... respondent does not file an amended respondent brief within the set time period, or files an amended.... (a)(1) Respondent(s) in an appeal may once, within the time limit for filing set forth in § 41.66... must be specified with particularity. (v) Summary of claimed subject matter. A statement accepting...

  14. 37 CFR 41.68 - Respondent's brief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respondent's brief. 41.68... Respondent's brief. (a)(1) Respondent(s) in an appeal may once, within the time limit for filing set forth in... title. (2) The brief must be signed by the party, or the party's duly authorized attorney or agent,...

  15. Responding to the Ideals of Lassallian Education in the 21st Century: A Case Study of St. Paul's Secondary School in Marsabit, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marius, Boya Francois; Teklemariam, Amanuel Abraha; Akala, Winston Jumba

    2011-01-01

    De La Salle Brothers are Christian educators operating in more than 80 countries, including Kenya. The purpose of this study was to find if the ideals of Lasallian education are being realized in the 21st century in Kenya and to establish whether the findings concur with the Lasallian philosophy of education. The study was conducted at St. Paul's…

  16. An Observational Case Study of Four Second Grade General Education Students' Academic Responding and Inappropriate Behavior in the Presence of a Disruptive Student with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Steven F.; Jain, Sachin; Boone, Denise

    2010-01-01

    The current observational case study involves four second grade students without disabilities in a classroom in which a disruptive student with disabilities was included. The purpose of the study was to record and analyze the academic responses (AR) and inappropriate behaviors (IB) that were exhibited by students without disabilities in three…

  17. Chicana/o Students Respond to Arizona's Anti-Ethnic Studies Bill, SB 1108: Civic Engagement, Ethnic Identity, and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Anna Ochoa; Romero, Andrea J.

    2011-01-01

    Arizona Senate Bill 1108, the "anti-ethnic studies bill," proposed to eliminate ethnic studies programs and ethnic-based organizations from state-funded education. Along with other anti-immigrant legislation, this bill is creating an oppressive climate of discrimination against individuals of Mexican descent in Arizona. This study…

  18. Bubbles Responding to Ultrasound Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Bubble and Drop Nonlinear Dynamics (BDND) experiment was designed to improve understanding of how the shape and behavior of bubbles respond to ultrasound pressure. By understanding this behavior, it may be possible to counteract complications bubbles cause during materials processing on the ground. This 12-second sequence came from video downlinked from STS-94, July 5 1997, MET:3/19:15 (approximate). The BDND guest investigator was Gary Leal of the University of California, Santa Barbara. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced fluid dynamics experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (435KB, 13-second MPEG, screen 160 x 120 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300162.html.

  19. Habituation of salivation and motivated responding for food in children.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Saad, Frances G; Handley, Elizabeth A; Roemmich, James N; Hawk, Larry W; McSweeney, Frances K

    2003-12-01

    Repeated presentation of food cues results in habituation in adults, as demonstrated by a decrement in salivary responding that is reversed by presenting a new food cue in adults. Food reinforced behavior in animals shows the same pattern of responding, with a decrease in responding to obtain the food, followed by a recovery of responding when a new food is presented. The present study assessed whether children would show the same pattern of a decrement of food reinforced responding followed by recovery of responding when a new food is presented for both salivation and food reinforcement tasks. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups that differed in the trial that the new food stimulus was presented to ensure recovery was specific to the introduction of the new food stimulus. In the salivation task, subjects were provided repeated olfactory presentations of a cheeseburger with apple pie as the new food stimulus, while in the food reinforcement task subjects worked for the opportunity to consume a cheeseburger, followed by the opportunity to work for consumption of apple pie. Subjects in both groups showed a decrement in salivary and food reinforced responding to repeated food cues followed by immediate recovery of responding on the trial when a new food was presented. Subjects increased their energy intake by over 30% in the food reinforcement task when a new food was presented. These results are consistent with the general process theory of motivation that suggests that changes in food reinforced responding may be due in part to habituation.

  20. Using Multiple Imputation to Assign Pesticide Use for Non-Responders in the Follow-Up Questionnaire in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a large prospective cohort, was designed to elucidate associations between pesticide use and other agricultural exposures and health outcomes. The cohort includes 57,310 pesticide applicators who were enrolled between 1993 and 1997 in Iowa and...

  1. Factor structure of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS) across English and Spanish language responders in the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    PubMed

    Perera, Marisa J; Brintz, Carrie E; Birnbaum-Weitzman, Orit; Penedo, Frank J; Gallo, Linda C; Gonzalez, Patricia; Gouskova, Natalia; Isasi, Carmen R; Navas-Nacher, Elena L; Perreira, Krista M; Roesch, Scott C; Schneiderman, Neil; Llabre, Maria M

    2017-03-01

    Despite widespread use, psychometric investigation of the original English and translated Spanish versions of the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS; Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) has been limited among the U.S. Hispanic/Latino population. The present study examined the factor structure, factorial invariance, and reliability and validity of PSS scores from English and Spanish versions using data from 5,176 Hispanics/Latinos who participated in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study. The total sample and language multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported a bifactor model with all 10 PSS items loading on a general perceived stress factor, and the 4 reverse-worded items also loading on a reverse-worded factor. Internal consistency ranged from .68 to .78, and it was indicated that reliable variance exists beyond the general perceived stress factor. The model displayed configural, metric, scalar, and residual invariance across language groups. Convergent validity analyses indicated that both the general perceived stress factor and the reverse-worded factor were related to scores of depression, anxiety, and anger in the expected directions. The reverse-worded factor added to the validity of the PSS beyond the general perceived stress factor. The total computed score of the PSS can be recommended for use with Hispanics/Latinos in the United States that complete the measure in English or Spanish and the reverse-worded factor can enhance prediction. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Implementing an Audience-Specific Small-Group Gatekeeper Training Program to Respond to Suicide Risk among College Students: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimini, M. Dolores; Rivero, Estela M.; Bernier, Joseph E.; Stanley, Judith A.; Murray, Andrea D.; Anderson, Drew A.; Wright, Heidi R.; Bapat, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This case study evaluated the effectiveness of an audience-specific, single-session, small-group interactive gatekeeper training program conducted at a large northeastern public university. Participants: Participants were 335 faculty, staff, and students completing gatekeeper training programs tailored to their group needs. Methods:…

  3. The Child's Eye View of Family Life: A Report to Respondents in a Study Conducted in Victoria in Late 1982 and Early 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochiltree, Gay; Amato, Paul

    Marriage and the family traditionally have been structured around the key functions of the nurturing and socialization of children. This report looks closely at how effectively and competently various family types manage these tasks. Containing a brief overview of the "Australian Children in Families Study," this report concentrates on…

  4. Gaze Behavior of Older Adults in Responding to Unexpected Loss of Balance while Walking in an Unfamiliar Environment: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    King, Emily C.; McKay, Sandra M.; Lee, Tracy A.; Scovil, Carol Y.; Peters, Amy L.; Maki, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Rapid reach-to-grasp balance-recovery reactions play a critical role in preventing falls. Recent young-adult studies suggest these reactions may be guided using stored visuo-spatial information from the central field, and that peripheral vision may also play an important role. This study used gaze recordings to examine the visual control of reach-to-grasp reactions in older adults. Methods A motion platform was configured to simulate a “real-life” environment that included a handrail. Subjects performed an activity that required walking to the end of the platform, which was triggered to move suddenly and unexpectedly as they approached the handrail. Twelve healthy older adults (64-79 years old) were tested and compared to 12 healthy young adults (22-30 years old) tested as part of another study. Results Older adults were more than twice as likely as young adults to react to the platform perturbation by grasping the handrail (10/12 versus 4/12), despite being much less likely to visually fixate the handrail after entering the new environment. Grasping errors were remarkably common (5/10 older, 2/4 young), but there was no consistent relationship to the preceding gaze behavior. Conclusion Older adults were highly dependent on using a handrail to recover balance, but commonly failed to direct overt visual attention to the rail after entering the unfamiliar environment. The failure to fixate the rail required the reaching movement to be guided using peripheral vision. Further research is needed to determine whether grasping errors can be prevented via interventions that either attract overt attention to the handrail or improve processing of peripheral-field information.

  5. How do stream organisms respond to, and influence, the concentration of titanium dioxide nanoparticles? A mesocosm study with algae and herbivores.

    PubMed

    Kulacki, Konrad J; Cardinale, Bradley J; Keller, Arturo A; Bier, Raven; Dickson, Helen

    2012-10-01

    The biologically active properties of many nanomaterials, coupled with their rapidly expanding production and use, has generated concern that certain types of nanoparticles could have unintended impacts when released into natural ecosystems. In the present study, the authors report the results of an experiment in which they grew three common species of stream algae as monocultures and together as polycultures in the biofilms of stream mesocosms that were exposed to 0, 0.1, or 1.0 ppm nanoparticle titanium dioxide (nTiO(2) ). The nTiO(2) did not alter the growth trajectory of any algal biofilm over 10+ generations. However, Ti accrual in biofilms not only differed among the algal species but was also higher in polycultures than in the average monoculture. Variation in accrual among species compositions was readily predicted by differences in the total biomass achieved by the different biofilms. When biofilms were fed to the herbivorous snail Physa acuta at the end of the experiment, initial concentrations of nTiO(2) did not alter short-term rates of herbivory. However, because of differences in palatability among the algae, biofilm composition influenced the amount of nTiO(2) that accumulated in the herbivore tissue. The results have important implications for understanding how efficiently nTiO(2) is removed from surface waters and the potential transfer of nanomaterials to higher trophic levels.

  6. Immune response to a new hepatitis B vaccine in healthcare workers who had not responded to standard vaccine: randomised double blind dose-response study.

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, J. N.; Sabin, C.; Craig, F. M.; Williams, A.; Zuckerman, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a new triple S recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in a cohort of healthy people in whom currently licensed hepatitis B vaccines had persistently not induced an immune response. DESIGN: Single centre, randomised, double blind, dose-response study. SETTING: Research vaccine evaluation centre at a teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: 100 healthcare workers aged 18-70 years with a history of failure to seroconvert after at least four doses of a licensed hepatitis B vaccine containing the S component. INTERVENTION: Each subject was randomly allocated two doses of 5, 10, 20, or 40 micrograms of a new hepatitis B vaccine two months apart. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Immunogenicity of the four doses. Seroconversion and seroprotection were defined as an antibody tire > 10 IU/l and > 100 IU/l respectively against an international antibody standard. RESULTS: 69 subjects seroconverted after a single dose of the vaccine. After the booster vaccination one other subject seroconverted, bringing the overall seroconversion rate to 70%. Fifteen subjects given 5 micrograms of vaccine, 19 given 10 micrograms, 16 given 20 micrograms, and 20 given 40 micrograms seroconverted. Seroconversion rates in the four antigen dose groups were 60% (15/25), 76% (19/25), 64% (16/25), and 80% (20/25). After the booster dose there was no significant dose-response effect on the overall seroconversion rate, although the small sample size meant that a clinically important dose-response could not be ruled out. CONCLUSION: A single dose of 20 micrograms of the vaccine was as effective as two doses of either 40 micrograms or 20 micrograms of this vaccine formulation in terms of seroconversion, seroprotection, and geometric mean titres. PMID:9040320

  7. Let's Get Personal: Responding to Creative Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Suzanne

    In hopes of discovering how to respond to her students' work in a way that heads them toward meaningful revision, a creative writing teacher singles out several categories of student fiction she has trouble responding to and pinpoints common shortcomings of students' early drafts, the way students respond to comments regarding revisions, and genre…

  8. 5 CFR 919.1000 - Respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Respondent. 919.1000 Section 919.1000 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.1000 Respondent. Respondent means...

  9. 21 CFR 1404.1000 - Respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Respondent. 1404.1000 Section 1404.1000 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.1000 Respondent. Respondent means a person against whom an agency has initiated a...

  10. "Responding to Climate Change" Course: Research Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bowman, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The "Responding to Climate Change" Barnard/Columbia course integrates current research as well as hands-on research-based activities modified for a classroom environment. The course covers the major response themes of adaptation, mitigation and communication. In the spring of 2015 the course was oriented around Arctic and Antarctic case studies. Each week a different theme is addressed, such as the physical setting, changing ecosystems, governance issues, perspectives of residents and indigenous peoples, geoengineering, commercial interests, security, and health and developmental issues. Frequent guest lectures from thematic experts keep the course grounded in realities and present the students with cutting edge issues. Activities match the weekly theme, for example during the week on Arctic development, students engage with the marine spatial planning simulation Arctic SMARTIC (Strategic Management of Resources in Times of Change) based on research on Arctic sea ice trends and projections coupled with current and projected developmental interests of stakeholders. Created under the Polar Learning and Responding: PoLAR Climate Change Education Partnership (thepolarhub.org), a complete set of SMARTIC resources is available on line for use by others (http://www.camelclimatechange.org/view/article/175297/). The Responding to Climate Change course is designed to be current and respond to events. For the Arctic case study, students developed proposals for the US State Department as the upcoming Chair of the Arctic Council. Student evaluations indicated that they appreciated the opportunity to connect science with policy and presentation of preliminary proposals in a workshop format was valued as a way to develop and hone their ideas. An additional finding was that students were surprisingly tolerant of technical issues when guest lecturers were linked in via Skype, allowing interaction with thematic experts across the US. Students commented positively on this exposure to

  11. Bats respond to very weak magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth's magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years.

  12. Hazard perception in emergency medical service responders.

    PubMed

    Johnston, K A; Scialfa, C T

    2016-10-01

    The perception of on-road hazards is critically important to emergency medical services (EMS) professionals, the patients they transport and the general public. This study compared hazard perception in EMS and civilian drivers of similar age and personal driving experience. Twenty-nine EMS professionals and 24 non-professional drivers were given a dynamic hazard perception test (HPT). The EMS group demonstrated an advantage in HPT that was independent of simple reaction time, another indication of the validity of the test. These results are also consistent with the view that professional driving experience results in changes in the ability to identify and respond to on-road hazards. Directions for future research include the development of a profession-specific hazard perception tool for both assessment and training purposes.

  13. Journeying: Children Responding to Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Kathleen E., Ed.; And Others

    Based on Louise Rosenblatt's transactional theory of reader response, the studies collected in this book present findings and recommendations that contribute to the understanding of how children create meaning from stories, how they acquire literacy skills to express that meaning, and what role educators play in these literary processes. The book…

  14. Pretreatment cognitive and neural differences between sapropterin dihydrochloride responders and non-responders with phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Hawks, Zoë; Shimony, Joshua; Rutlin, Jerrel; Grange, Dorothy K; Christ, Shawn E; White, Desirée A

    2017-09-01

    Sapropterin dihydrochloride (BH4) reduces phenylalanine (Phe) levels and improves white matter integrity in a subset of individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) known as "responders." Although prior research has identified biochemical and genotypic differences between BH4 responders and non-responders, cognitive and neural differences remain largely unexplored. To this end, we compared intelligence and white matter integrity prior to treatment with BH4 in 13 subsequent BH4 responders with PKU, 16 subsequent BH4 non-responders with PKU, and 12 healthy controls. Results indicated poorer intelligence and white matter integrity in non-responders compared to responders prior to treatment. In addition, poorer white matter integrity was associated with greater variability in Phe across the lifetime in non-responders but not in responders. These results underscore the importance of considering PKU as a multi-faceted, multi-dimensional disorder and point to the need for additional research to delineate characteristics that predict response to treatment with BH4.

  15. Pretreatment with oral contraceptive pills to identify poor responders that may benefit from rLH supplementation during GnRH-antagonist treatment for IVF: A pilot perspective study proposal

    PubMed Central

    GIZZO, SALVATORE; ANDRISANI, ALESSANDRA; NOVENTA, MARCO; GANGEMI, MICHELE; NARDELLI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA; AMBROSINI, GUIDO

    2015-01-01

    Controlled ovarian stimulation, using a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol, is a potential treatment option for women with a low response to other fertility treatments as it appears to be at least as effective as GnRH agonists (long protocol). However, previous studies have indicated that the administration of GnRH antagonist may cause an excessive reduction in endogenous luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. The use of recombinant LH (rLH) supplementation during ovarian stimulation is controversial. The present article proposes a future study focused on women aged ≥40 years old, with the aim of identifying patients who are poor responders to GnRH-antagonist treatment that may benefit from rLH supplementation. We hypothesize that patients with suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activity may benefit from rLH supplementation, as GnRH-antagonist administration has the potential to induce a marked reduction in LH levels in such patients compared with that in patients that exhibit a regular recovery following the administration of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). Furthermore, patients with hyper-responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activity may be affected by ‘low-gonadotropin-responsiveness’, similar to that observed in patients with any mutation in the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor, who are known to benefit from rLH supplementation. The proposed pilot study would include 120 women who are predicted to be poor responders to GnRH-antagonist treatment. All subjects will be allocated at random (using 2:1 computerized randomization) into two study groups: Group A (OCP-treated) and group B (control). For all patients, the serum values of FSH, LH and 17β estradiol (E2) will be detected on day 3 of the menstrual cycle preceding OCP treatment (baseline) and at day 4 following OCP treatment. The Δ-variation from baseline levels for all markers, the FSH/LH ratio and the E2/FSH ratio will be determined. Δ-variation from the baseline

  16. Pretreatment with oral contraceptive pills to identify poor responders that may benefit from rLH supplementation during GnRH-antagonist treatment for IVF: A pilot perspective study proposal.

    PubMed

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Andrisani, Alessandra; Noventa, Marco; Gangemi, Michele; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista; Ambrosini, Guido

    2015-11-01

    Controlled ovarian stimulation, using a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol, is a potential treatment option for women with a low response to other fertility treatments as it appears to be at least as effective as GnRH agonists (long protocol). However, previous studies have indicated that the administration of GnRH antagonist may cause an excessive reduction in endogenous luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. The use of recombinant LH (rLH) supplementation during ovarian stimulation is controversial. The present article proposes a future study focused on women aged ≥40 years old, with the aim of identifying patients who are poor responders to GnRH-antagonist treatment that may benefit from rLH supplementation. We hypothesize that patients with suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activity may benefit from rLH supplementation, as GnRH-antagonist administration has the potential to induce a marked reduction in LH levels in such patients compared with that in patients that exhibit a regular recovery following the administration of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). Furthermore, patients with hyper-responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activity may be affected by 'low-gonadotropin-responsiveness', similar to that observed in patients with any mutation in the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor, who are known to benefit from rLH supplementation. The proposed pilot study would include 120 women who are predicted to be poor responders to GnRH-antagonist treatment. All subjects will be allocated at random (using 2:1 computerized randomization) into two study groups: Group A (OCP-treated) and group B (control). For all patients, the serum values of FSH, LH and 17β estradiol (E2) will be detected on day 3 of the menstrual cycle preceding OCP treatment (baseline) and at day 4 following OCP treatment. The Δ-variation from baseline levels for all markers, the FSH/LH ratio and the E2/FSH ratio will be determined. Δ-variation from the baseline of

  17. Bats Respond to Very Weak Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth’s magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944

  18. Relational Responding and Conditional Discrimination Procedures: An Apparent Inconsistency and Clarification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ian; McElwee, John

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses theoretical issues relating to an apparent terminological inconsistency between two recent studies involving relational responding. These studies employed a functionally similar protocol to establish contextual cues for arbitrarily applicable relational responding by using a nonarbitrary relational responding procedure;…

  19. The effect and safety of highly standardized Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia) extract supplementation on inflammation and chronic pain in NSAIDs poor responders. A pilot study in subjects with knee arthrosis.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Allegrini, Pietro; Faliva, Milena Anna; Naso, Maurizio; Miccono, Alessandra; Peroni, Gabriella; Degli Agosti, Irene; Perna, Simone

    2017-06-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zingiber officinale and Echinacea angustifolia extract supplementation (25 mg of ginger and 5 mg of Echinacea) for 30 days on inflammation and chronic pain in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Consecutive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory-drugs (NSAIDs) poor responders with chronic inflammation and pain due to knee arthrosis were assessed (15 subjects, age: 67.2 ± 7.9, body mass index: 30.6 ± 7.1, men/women:2/13). The primary endpoint was to determine pain improvement from baseline to Day 30 by Tegner Lysholm Knee Scoring. The secondary endpoints were the assessment of Visual Analog Scale for Pain, health-related quality of life, by the ShortForm36 (SF-36), anthropometric parameters, hydration. After supplementation, a significant improvement of 12.27 points was observed for Lysholm scale score (p < 0.05), SF-36 (p < 0.05), and a decrease in -0.52 cm in knee circumference (left) (p < 0.01). This pilot study provides feasibility and safety data for the use of highly standardised ginger and Echinacea extract supplementation in people with knee OA.

  20. A recombinant CHSE-214 cell line expressing an Mx1 promoter-reporter system responds to both interferon type I and type II from salmonids and represents a versatile tool to study the IFN-system in teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Jorunn B; Johansen, Audny; Hegseth, Marit N; Zou, Jun; Robertsen, Børre; Collet, Bertrand; Secombes, Christopher J

    2007-12-01

    A transgenic cell line for the detection of salmon interferons (IFNs) has been established. It is based on a CHSE-214 cell line containing a reporter construct expressing firefly luciferase under the control of the rainbow trout promoter for the IFN-induced Mx1 gene. This cell line, named CHSE-Mx10, showed IFN-induced luciferase expression after more than 80 passages, confirming the stability of this cell line. Interestingly, the Mx promoter was shown to respond to both salmon IFN-alpha/beta and trout IFN-gamma in a dose-dependent manner, while there was no response to TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. IFN-alpha/beta activity could be measured at a range of 9-150 U/ml, and IFN-gamma showed activity between 10 and 100 ng/ml. The reproducibility of both responses was good. The CHSE-Mx10 reporter system constitutes a versatile tool to study the induction and regulation of IFN signaling in teleost fish. A preliminary study presented herein suggests that both infectious pancreas necrosis virus (IPNV) and salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV) may block activation of the Mx promoter in CHSE-Mx10 stimulated with IFN-alpha/beta.

  1. The staffing shortage: AHRA responds.

    PubMed

    Olivi, Penny M

    2002-01-01

    The AHRA Board of Directors formed a Long-Term Staffing Task Force to study the question, "Should AHRA become involved in the resolution(s) of the current staffing crisis, and if so how?" Because the background information that could be gathered was extensive, the Task Force used the following four questions to guide its activity: SENSITIVITY TO MEMBERS' VIEWS: What do we know about the needs, wants and preferences of our members, prospective members and customers relevant to a decision to become involved in activities to resolve the staffing crisis? FORESIGHT ABOUT FUTURE ENVIRONMENT: What do we know about the current and evolving dynamics of our profession relevant to a decision to become involved in activities to resolve the staffing crisis? INSIGHT INTO THE ORGANIZATION: What do we know about the strategic position and internal capacity of our organization relevant to a decision to become involved in activities to resolve the staffing crisis? CONSIDERATION OF OUR CHOICES: What are the ethical implications of our choices relevant to a decision to become involved in activities to resolve the staffing crisis? After considerable investigation and discussion, the Task Force made the following recommendations to the Board: RAISE AWARENESS OF OUR PROFESSION: Expand the number of radiologic technologists in the workforce by increasing the diversity of our students and by changing the traditional method in which we educate students (i.e., full-time, day clinical education). Create a quality monitor useful to the majority of radiology leaders to begin to systematically document the shortage. Support limited licensure and/or create a defined position of "staff extender" for radiologic technology.

  2. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (December 2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Upton, Jaki F.; Stein, Steven L.

    2015-02-13

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  3. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (January 2015)

    SciTech Connect

    Upton, Jaki F.; Stein, Steven L.

    2015-02-01

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  4. Enhancing Academic Engagement: Providing Opportunities for Responding and Influencing Students to Choose to Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Christopher H.; Pappas, Danielle N.; Davis, Kai A.

    2005-01-01

    Although educators often provide opportunities for students to engage in active academic responding, in many situations, students either cannot or will not respond. In the current article, we analyze the reasons students fail to respond. Practical procedures educators can use to prevent "can't do" problems are provided. "Won't do" problems are…

  5. A Comparison of Gene Expression Profiles between Glucocorticoid Responder and Non-Responder Bovine Trabecular Meshwork Cells Using RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez, Jaclyn Y.; Webber, Hannah C.; Brown, Bartley; Braun, Terry A.; Clark, Abbot F.; Mao, Weiming

    2017-01-01

    The most common ocular side effect of glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is GC-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) and GC-induced glaucoma (GIG). GC-induced OHT occurs in about 40% of the general population, while the other 60% are resistant. This study aims to determine the genes and pathways involved in differential GC responsiveness in the trabecular meshwork (TM). Using paired bovine eyes, one eye was perfusion-cultured with 100nM dexamethasone (DEX), while the fellow eye was used to establish a bovine TM (BTM) cell strain. Based on maximum IOP change in the perfused eye, the BTM cell strain was identified as a DEX-responder or non-responder strain. Three responder and three non-responder BTM cell strains were cultured, treated with 0.1% ethanol or 100nM DEX for 7 days. RNA and proteins were extracted for RNA sequencing (RNAseq), qPCR, and Western immunoblotting (WB), respectively. Data were analyzed using the human and bovine genome databases as well as Tophat2 software. Genes were grouped and compared using Student’s t-test. We found that DEX induced fibronectin expression in responder BTM cells but not in non-responder cells using WB. RNAseq showed between 93 and 606 differentially expressed genes in different expression groups between responder and non-responder BTM cells. The data generated by RNAseq were validated using qPCR. Pathway analyses showed 35 pathways associated with differentially expressed genes. These genes and pathways may play important roles in GC-induced OHT and will help us to better understand differential ocular responsiveness to GCs. PMID:28068412

  6. Letter on Decontamination and First Responder Liability

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Addresses liability of hazardous materials incident responders for spreading contamination while attempting to save lives, and the acceptable level of contamination that could enter the Chesapeake Bay without being considered a threat to the ecosystem.

  7. Using Video Modeling to Teach Children with PDD-NOS to Respond to Facial Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axe, Judah B.; Evans, Christine J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders often exhibit delays in responding to facial expressions, and few studies have examined teaching responding to subtle facial expressions to this population. We used video modeling to train 3 participants with PDD-NOS (age 5) to respond to eight facial expressions: approval, bored, calming, disapproval,…

  8. Chromatin Proteins: Key Responders to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Karen T.; Workman, Jerry L.

    2012-01-01

    Environments can be ever-changing and stresses are commonplace. In order for organisms to survive, they need to be able to respond to change and adapt to new conditions. Fortunately, many organisms have systems in place that enable dynamic adaptation to immediate stresses and changes within the environment. Much of this cellular response is coordinated by modulating the structure and accessibility of the genome. In eukaryotic cells, the genome is packaged and rolled up by histone proteins to create a series of DNA/histone core structures known as nucleosomes; these are further condensed into chromatin. The degree and nature of the condensation can in turn determine which genes are transcribed. Histones can be modified chemically by a large number of proteins that are thereby responsible for dynamic changes in gene expression. In this Primer we discuss findings from a study published in this issue of PLoS Biology by Weiner et al. that highlight how chromatin structure and chromatin binding proteins alter transcription in response to environmental changes and stresses. Their study reveals the importance of chromatin in mediating the speed and amplitude of stress responses in cells and suggests that chromatin is a critically important component of the cellular response to stress. PMID:22859908

  9. The Auditory P3 in Antidepressant Pharmacotherapy Treatment Responders, Non-Responders and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Jaworska, Natalia; De Somma, Elisea; Blondeau, Claude; Tessier, Pierre; Norris, Sandhaya; Fusee, Wendy; Smith, Dylan; Blier, Pierre; Knott, Verner

    2013-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs), derived from electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, can index electrocortical activity related to cognitive operations. The fronto-central P3a ERP is involved in involuntary processing of novel auditory information, whereas the parietal P3b indexes controlled attention processing. The amplitude of the auditory P3b has been found to be decreased in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, few studies have examined the relationship between the P3b, the related P3a, and antidepressant treatment response. We tested 53 unmedicated individuals (25 females) with MDD as well as 43 non-depressed controls (23 females) on the novelty oddball task, wherein infrequent deviant (target) and frequent standard (non-target) tones were presented, along with infrequent novel (non-target/distractor) sounds. The P3a and P3b ERPs were assessed to the novel and target sounds, respectively, as were accompanying behavioural performance measures. Depression ratings and antidepressant response status were assessed following 12 weeks of pharmacotherapy with three different regimens. Antidepressant treatment non-responders had smaller baseline P3a/b amplitudes than responders and healthy controls. Baseline P3b amplitude also weakly predicted the extent of depression rating changes by week 12. Females exhibited larger P3a/b amplitudes than males. With respect to task performance, controls had more target hits than treatment non-responders. ERP measures correlated with clinical changes in males and with behavioural measures in females. These results suggest that greater (or control-like) baseline P3a/b amplitudes are associated with a positive antidepressant response, and that gender differences characterize the P3 and, hence, basic attentive processes. PMID:23664712

  10. Social networks of men who have sex with men and their implications for HIV/STI interventions: results from a cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling in a large and a small city in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Michael W; Larsson, Markus; Jacobson, Jerry; Nyoni, Joyce; Agardh, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Objective Men who have sex with men (MSM) in sub-Saharan Africa remain hidden and hard to reach for involvement in HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) services. The aim of the current study was to describe MSM social networks in a large and a small Tanzanian city in order to explore their utility for peer-based healthcare interventions. Methods Data were collected through respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in Dar es Salaam (n=197) and in Tanga (n=99) in 2012 and 2013, using 5 and 4 seeds, respectively. All results were adjusted for RDS sampling design. Results Mean personal network size based on the number of MSM who were reported by the participants, as known to them was 12.0±15.5 in Dar es Salaam and 7.6±8.1 in Tanga. Mean actual RDS network size was 39.4±31.4 in Dar es Salaam and 25.3±9.7 in Tanga. A majority (97%) reported that the person from whom they received the recruitment coupon was a sexual partner, close friend or acquaintance. Homophile in recruitment patterns (selective affiliation) was present for age, gay openness, and HIV status in Dar es Salaam, and for sexual identification in Tanga. Conclusions The personal network sizes and existence of contacts between recruiter and referral indicate that it is possible to use peer-driven interventions to reach MSM for HIV/STI interventions in larger and smaller sub-Saharan African cities. The study was reviewed and approved by the University of Texas Health Science Center's Institutional Review Board (HSC-SPH-10-0033) and the Tanzanian National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR/HQ/R.8a/Vol. IX/1088). PMID:27864245

  11. Effects of response requirement and alcohol on human aggressive responding.

    PubMed Central

    Cherek, D R; Spiga, R; Egli, M

    1992-01-01

    Nine men participated in two experiments to determine the effects of increased response requirement and alcohol administration on free-operant aggressive responding. Two response buttons (A and B) were available. Pressing Button A was maintained by a fixed-ratio 100 schedule of point presentation. Subjects were instructed that completion of each fixed-ratio 10 on Button B resulted in the subtraction of a point from a fictitious second subject. Button B presses were defined as aggressive because they ostensibly resulted in the presentation of an aversive stimulus to another person. Aggressive responses were engendered by a random-time schedule of point loss and were maintained by initiation of intervals free of point loss. Instructions attributed these point losses to Button B presses of the fictitious other subject. In Experiment 1, increasing the ratio requirement on Button B decreased the number of ratios completed in 4 of 5 subjects. In Experiment 2, the effects of placebo and three alcohol doses (0.125, 0.25, and 0.375 g/kg) were determined when Button B presses were maintained at ratio values of 20, 40 and 80. Three subjects who reduced aggressive responding with increasing fixed-ratio values reduced aggressive responding further at higher alcohol doses. One subject who did not reduce aggressive responding with increasing fixed-ratio values increased aggressive responding at the highest alcohol dose. The results of this study support suggestions that alcohol alters aggressive behavior by reducing the control of competing contingencies. PMID:1447545

  12. Poor responders: does the protocol make a difference?

    PubMed

    Mahutte, Neal G; Arici, Aydin

    2002-06-01

    An inadequate response to gonadotropins during in-vitro fertilization treatment may result in cycle cancellation, fewer embryos available for transfer and decreased pregnancy rates. For these reasons, numerous strategies to improve ovarian stimulation in poor responders have been proposed. These include variations in the type, dose and timing of gonadotropins, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists and gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists. Unfortunately, despite optimism generated by studies using retrospective controls, epidemiologically sound trials have been scarce. Indeed, of the three prospective randomized trials performed in poor responders to date no compelling advantage for one stimulation protocol over another has been established. Although this lack of improvement may reflect inadequate sample sizes, an alternative explanation is simply that the protocol, after a certain point, does not make a difference. Aside from oocyte donation, greater hope for poor responders may rest in aneuploidy screening, in-vitro oocyte maturation and cytoplasm/nuclear transfer.

  13. Feeling good: autonomic nervous system responding in five positive emotions.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Michelle N; Neufeld, Samantha L; Yeung, Wan H; Moser, Stephanie E; Perea, Elaine F

    2011-12-01

    Although dozens of studies have examined the autonomic nervous system (ANS) aspects of negative emotions, less is known about ANS responding in positive emotion. An evolutionary framework was used to define five positive emotions in terms of fitness-enhancing function, and to guide hypotheses regarding autonomic responding. In a repeated measures design, participants viewed sets of visual images eliciting these positive emotions (anticipatory enthusiasm, attachment love, nurturant love, amusement, and awe) plus an emotionally neutral state. Peripheral measures of sympathetic and vagal parasympathetic activation were assessed. Results indicated that the emotion conditions were characterized by qualitatively distinct profiles of autonomic activation, suggesting the existence of multiple, physiologically distinct positive emotions.

  14. Responding to Students' Learning Preferences in Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewthwaite, Brian; Wiebe, Rick

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports on a teacher's and his students' responsiveness to a new tetrahedral-oriented (Mahaffy in J Chem Educ 83(1):49-55, 2006) curriculum requiring more discursive classroom practices in the teaching of chemistry. In this instrumental case study, we identify the intentions of this learner-centered curriculum and a teacher's development in response to this curriculum. We also explore the tensions this teacher experiences as students subsequently respond to his adjusted teaching. We use a Chemistry Teacher Inventory (Lewthwaite and Wiebe in Res Sci Educ 40(11):667-689, 2011; Lewthwaite and Wiebe in Can J Math Sci Technol Educ 12(1):36-61, 2012; Lewthwaite in Chem Educ Res Pract. doi:10.1039/C3RP00122A, 2014) to assist the teacher in monitoring how he teaches and how he would like to improve his teaching. We also use a student form of the instrument, the Chemistry Classroom Inventory and Classroom Observation Protocol (Lewthwaite and Wiebe 2011) to verify the teacher's teaching and perception of student preferences for his teaching especially in terms of the discursive processes the curriculum encourages. By so doing, the teacher is able to use both sets of data as a foundation for critical reflection and work towards resolution of the incongruence in data arising from students' preferred learning orientations and his teaching aspirations. Implications of this study in regards to the authority of students' voice in triggering teachers' pedagogical change and the adjustments in `teachering' and `studenting' required by such curricula are considered.

  15. Support Framework for First Responder Family Members: A Proposed Model for Increasing Responder Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    able to engage this question from the perspective of domestic terrorism. The World Trade Center ( WTC ) attacks of 1993 and 2001 were major emphases of...of these respondents voiced concern over the unknown length of deployment required to mitigate the 1993 WTC attack. From these respondents... collapsed and it was obvious that those charged with bringing calm to a chaotic situation were in trouble, these respondents reflected how the thought

  16. Transfer of Aversive Respondent Elicitation in Accordance with Equivalence Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valverde, Miguel Rodriguez; Luciano, Carmen; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the transfer of aversively conditioned respondent elicitation through equivalence classes, using skin conductance as the measure of conditioning. The first experiment is an attempt to replicate Experiment 1 in Dougher, Augustson, Markham, Greenway, and Wulfert (1994), with different temporal parameters in the…

  17. Calibration of Observational Measurement of Rate of Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudford, Oliver C.; Zeleny, Jason R.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Klum, Molly E.; Owen, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of measurement systems used in almost all natural sciences other than behavior analysis is usually evaluated through calibration study rather than relying on interobserver agreement. We demonstrated some of the basic features of calibration using observer-measured rates of free-operant responding from 10 scripted 10-min calibration…

  18. Emergence of Intraverbal Responding Following Tact Instruction with Compound Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Bailey; Carp, Charlotte L.; Hiett, Kiley A.; Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    Effective intraverbal responding often requires control by multiple elements of a verbal stimulus. The purpose of this study was to examine the emergence of such intraverbal relations following tact instruction with compound stimuli and to analyze any resulting error patterns. Participants were seven typically developing children between 3 and…

  19. Meta-Analysis and Inadequate Responders to Intervention: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Hughes, Lisa C.

    2012-01-01

    In a recently published meta-analysis, Tran, Sanchez, Arellano, and Swanson (2011) synthesized 13 studies that permitted assessment of characteristics of children who were adequate and inadequate responders to instruction. The authors indicated that "[t]he central question addressed in this review is whether individual differences in…

  20. Questionnaire Response Scales: Design Factors That Influence Respondent Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Eric S.; Rife, Frank N.

    The goal of this study was to assess the relative merit of various ranges and types of response scales in terms of respondent satisfaction and comfort and the nature of the elicited information in a population of seventh grade students. Three versions of an attitudinal questionnaire, each containing the same items but employing a different…

  1. African Americans Respond Poorly to Hepatitis C Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    African Americans have a significantly lower response rate to treatment for chronic hepatitis C than non-Hispanic Whites, according to a new study led by Duke University Medical Center researchers. Some African Americans--19 percent--did respond to the drug combination of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. But in non-Hispanic Whites with the…

  2. Responding to Literature; Guide to the Film Series. Protokollon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lid, R. W.; Handler, Philip

    The Protocol Materials in English (PME) project was set up to study literature and the teaching of literature in an effort to determine whether it is possible to discover hierarchies of concepts and to create materials to illustrate those concepts. In the film series "Responding to Literature," the category system presented has as its…

  3. Responding Effectively to Pupils' Writing. Writing Research Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Anne; Philips, David

    A study (part of the New Zealand Writing Project) investigated how teachers respond effectively to their students' writing. Several related issues were investigated, including whether "good" teachers of writing at various levels differ in approach and techniques used, and which practices bring about improvement at different ages.…

  4. Supporting Children's Counterfactual Thinking with Alternative Modes of Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Sarah R.; Carroll, Daniel J.; Brunsdon, Victoria E. A.; Gryg, Charlotte K.

    2011-01-01

    To speculate about counterfactual worlds, children need to ignore what they know to be true about the real world. Prior studies yielding individual differences data suggested that counterfactual thinking may be related to overcoming prepotent responses. In two experiments, we manipulated how 3- to 5-year-olds responded to counterfactual…

  5. The recurrence of negatively reinforced responding of humans.

    PubMed

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Lattal, Kennon A; Cançado, Carlos R X

    2015-11-01

    The recurrence of negatively reinforced responding of humans was studied in three experiments. In each experiment during Baseline, key-pressing produced 3-s timeouts from a requirement to exert finger pressure on a force cell according to variable- or fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement. In Experiment 1, resurgence was studied by arranging a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule in the second phase, and extinction in the Test phase. In Experiment 2, ABA renewal was studied by extinguishing responding in the second phase in a different context and, in the Test phase, by presenting the Baseline-phase context when extinction still was in effect. In Experiment 3, reinstatement was studied by arranging extinction in the second phase, followed by the delivery of response-independent timeouts in the Test phase. Resurgence and renewal occurred consistently for each participant in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In Experiment 3, reinstatement was observed less consistently in four participants. The results of these experiments replicate and extend to negatively reinforced responding previous findings of the resurgence and renewal of positively reinforced responding obtained mainly with nonhuman animals.

  6. Lupus vulgaris responding to double antituberculous therapy.

    PubMed

    Heller, G L; Pavlidakey, G P; Hashimoto, K; Greenberg, M; Rosenberg, M

    1984-11-01

    A patient with a 3 by 4 cm ulcerated lesion on the nose and upper lip in whom previous antibiotics and antifungal treatments for a "mixed infection" were of no avail is presented. Her history revealed that she has had pulmonary and pharyngeal tuberculosis and subsequently scrofuloderma of cervical lymph nodes. She eventually responded well to isoniazid, rifampin, and pyridoxine therapy.

  7. Modeling Socially Desirable Responding and Its Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Matthias; Buehner, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The impact of socially desirable responding or faking on noncognitive assessments remains an issue of strong debate. One of the main reasons for the controversy is the lack of a statistical method to model such response sets. This article introduces a new way to model faking based on the assumption that faking occurs due to an interaction between…

  8. Hemicrania continua: who responds to indomethacin?

    PubMed

    Marmura, M J; Silberstein, S D; Gupta, M

    2009-03-01

    Hemicrania continua (HC) is a primary headache disorder characterized by a continuous, moderate to severe, unilateral headache and defined by its absolute responsiveness to indomethacin. However, some patients with the clinical phenotype of HC do not respond to indomethacin. We reviewed the records of 192 patients with the putative diagnosis of HC and divided them into groups based on their headaches' response to indomethacin. They were compared for age, gender, presence or absence of specific autonomic symptoms, medication overuse, rapidity of headache onset, and whether or not the headaches met criteria for migraine when severe. Forty-three patients had an absolute response and 122 patients did not respond to adequate doses of indomethacin. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of age, sex, presence of rapid-onset headache, or medication overuse. Autonomic symptoms, based on a questionnaire, did not predict response. Eighteen patients could not complete a trial of indomethacin due to adverse events. Nine patients could not be included in the HC group despite improvement with indomethacin: one patient probably had primary cough headache, another paroxysmal hemicrania; three patients improved but it was uncertain if they were absolutely pain free, and four patients dramatically improved but still had a baseline headache. We found no statistically significant differences between patients who did and did not respond to indomethacin. All patients with continuous, unilateral headache should receive an adequate trial of indomethacin. Most patients with unilateral headache suggestive of HC did not respond to indomethacin.

  9. Cleartalk: Police Responding to Intellectual Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Mark; Brennan, Roslin

    The Cleartalk project was developed in New South Wales (Australia) to help police respond to the communication needs of people with intellectual disabilities. Section 1 presents "The View from the Street: A Working Knowledge of Intellectual Disability," which discusses how individuals with intellectual disabilities are denied their right…

  10. Literacy Learning and Scientific Inquiry: Children Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Patricia Ruggiano; Gillen, Susan; Zollo, Teresa Colabufo; Stone, Rhaenel

    2002-01-01

    Tells a story of children with learning problems responding to scientific inquiry while practicing their literacy learning in ways their teachers never anticipated. Notes the students exhibited greater focus, more positive interactions, and a sustained interest. Suggests that the children not only learned scientific concepts, but also had many…

  11. Resurgence of Temporal Patterns of Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cancado, Carlos R. X.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2011-01-01

    The resurgence of temporal patterns of key pecking by pigeons was investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, positively accelerated and linear patterns of responding were established on one key under a discrete-trial multiple fixed-interval variable-interval schedule. Subsequently, only responses on a second key produced reinforcers…

  12. 8 CFR 1240.4 - Incompetent respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Incompetent respondents. 1240.4 Section 1240.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES...

  13. 8 CFR 1240.4 - Incompetent respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Incompetent respondents. 1240.4 Section 1240.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES...

  14. 8 CFR 1240.4 - Incompetent respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Incompetent respondents. 1240.4 Section 1240.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES...

  15. 8 CFR 1240.4 - Incompetent respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incompetent respondents. 1240.4 Section 1240.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES...

  16. 8 CFR 1240.4 - Incompetent respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Incompetent respondents. 1240.4 Section 1240.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES...

  17. A PROBABILISTIC MODEL FOR FREE-RESPONDING.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    positive ) reinforcement ’ - a small amount of food, for instance) occasionally after the action is performed. B. F. Skinner (’Behavior of Organisms.’ New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.) discovered that various reward regimes (or ’schedules of reinforcement’) generate distinctive behavior patterns in free-responding situations. Interest is centered around this

  18. Methods for Handling Missing Secondary Respondent Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Rebekah; Johnson, David

    2013-01-01

    Secondary respondent data are underutilized because researchers avoid using these data in the presence of substantial missing data. The authors reviewed, evaluated, and tested solutions to this problem. Five strategies of dealing with missing partner data were reviewed: (a) complete case analysis, (b) inverse probability weighting, (c) correction…

  19. From Recommendations to Reality: Educators Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedesco, Lisa A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper responds to the 1995 report of the Institute of Medicine concerning the present status and future needs of dental education in the United States. It describes the effort of the American Association of Dental Schools to systematically survey professional responses the IOM Report's recommendations. Among nine themes identified are…

  20. A comparison of physical and psychological features of responders and non-responders to cervical facet blocks in chronic whiplash

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical facet block (FB) procedures are often used as a diagnostic precursor to radiofrequency neurotomies (RFN) in the management of chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Some individuals will respond to the FB procedures and others will not respond. Such responders and non-responders provided a sample of convenience to question whether there were differences in their physical and psychological features. This information may inform future predictive studies and ultimately the clinical selection of patients for FB procedures. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 58 individuals with chronic WAD who responded to cervical FB procedures (WAD_R); 32 who did not respond (WAD_NR) and 30 Healthy Controls (HC)s. Measures included: quantitative sensory tests (pressure; thermal pain thresholds; brachial plexus provocation test); nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR); motor function (cervical range of movement (ROM); activity of the superficial neck flexors during the cranio-cervical flexion test (CCFT). Self-reported measures were gained from the following questionnaires: neuropathic pain (s-LANSS); psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire-28), post-traumatic stress (PDS) and pain catastrophization (PCS). Individuals with chronic whiplash attended the laboratory once the effects of the blocks had abated and symptoms had returned. Results Following FB procedures, both WAD groups demonstrated generalized hypersensitivity to all sensory tests, decreased neck ROM and increased superficial muscle activity with the CCFT compared to controls (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between WAD groups (all p > 0.05). Both WAD groups demonstrated psychological distress (GHQ-28; p < 0.05), moderate post-traumatic stress symptoms and pain catastrophization. The WAD_NR group also demonstrated increased medication intake and elevated PCS scores compared to the WAD_R group (p < 0.05). Conclusions Chronic WAD responders and non-responders to FB

  1. Drugs and punished responding I: rate-dependent effects under multiple schedules1

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of drugs were studied in pigeons whose responses were punished with electric shock during one component of a multiple fixed-interval 5-min fixed-interval 5-min schedule of food presentation. Most of the drugs analyzed for rate-dependent effects increased low rates of both punished and unpunished responding, while increasing higher rates less, or decreasing them; however, low rates of punished responding sometimes were increased more by pentobarbital, diazepam, and chlordiazepoxide than were matched rates of unpunished responding. In contrast, d-amphetamine and chlorpromazine usually increased low rates of unpunished responding more than matched rates of punished responding. These two drugs also decreased high rates of unpunished responding less than they decreased high rates of punished responding. Thus, the effects of drugs on punished responding depend on the control rate of punished responding; however, the rate-dependent effects of drugs on punished responding are not always the same as they are for unpunished responding. PMID:4706233

  2. Visual Motor Integration as a Screener for Responders and Non-Responders in Preschool and Early School Years: Implications for Inclusive Assessment in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed; Kazem, Ali Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Visual motor integration (VMI) is the ability of the eyes and hands to work together in smooth, efficient patterns. In Oman, there are few effective methods to assess VMI skills in children in inclusive settings. The current study investigated the performance of preschool and early school years responders and non-responders on a VMI test. The full…

  3. Sustained Blood Pressure Responding during Synthetic Work.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-15

    split-half reliabilities of both heart rate and mean * blood pressure were high during task performance. Significant correlations were observed between... blood pressure responses elicited by :1 16 an anagram task showed a high test-retest reliability, even over an interval of 13 months. Examination of the...8217AD-AI5 733 JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV BALTIMORE MO DEPT OF PSYCHIATRY F/6 6/5 SUSTAINED BLOOD PRESSURE RESPONDING DURING SYNTHETIC WORK.(U) JUN A2 R L RAY

  4. Challenges to Leadership: Responding to Biological Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    National Defense University October 2011 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the...Information Operations and Reports , 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that...currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE OCT 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE

  5. America under attack: ACHE affiliates respond.

    PubMed

    Lanser, Ellen G

    2002-01-01

    In the midst of the horror and uncertainty that swept over America on September 11, the healthcare sector helped to keep our nation firmly anchored. Within moments of the terrorist attacks, healthcare organizations in New York, Washington, D.C., and the surrounding areas responded swiftly, calmly, and effectively. Many of these hospitals are led by ACHE affiliates. Following are their accounts of that day, lessons they learned, and plans for the future.

  6. Preventing and responding to medical identity theft.

    PubMed

    Amori, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    Medical identity theft is a crime with two victims: patients and providers. It is easy to commit and lucrative because healthcare record keeping and business interactions are complex and mainly electronic. Patients whose identity has been stolen are vulnerable to both medical error and financial loss. Providers may suffer both reputation loss and financial loss. There are steps to help prevent and to respond appropriately to medical identity theft.

  7. Identifying Careless Responding With the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised Validity Scales.

    PubMed

    Marcus, David K; Church, Abere Sawaqdeh; O'Connell, Debra; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2016-03-30

    The Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R) includes validity scales that assess Deviant Responding (DR), Virtuous Responding, and Inconsistent Responding. We examined the utility of these scales for identifying careless responding using data from two online studies that examined correlates of psychopathy in college students (Sample 1:N= 583; Sample 2:N= 454). Compared with those below the cut scores, those above the cut on the DR scale yielded consistently lower validity coefficients when PPI-R scores were correlated with corresponding scales from the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure. The other three PPI-R validity scales yielded weaker and less consistent results. Participants who completed the studies in an inordinately brief amount of time scored significantly higher on the DR and Virtuous Responding scales than other participants. Based on the findings from the current studies, researchers collecting PPI-R data online should consider identifying and perhaps screening out respondents with elevated scores on the DR scale.

  8. Adhesion and migration of cells responding to microtopography.

    PubMed

    Estévez, Maruxa; Martínez, Elena; Yarwood, Stephen J; Dalby, Matthew J; Samitier, Josep

    2015-05-01

    It is known that cells respond strongly to microtopography. However, cellular mechanisms of response are unclear. Here, we study wild-type fibroblasts responding to 25 µm(2) posts and compare their response to that of FAK(-/-) fibroblasts and fibroblasts with PMA treatment to stimulate protein kinase C (PKC) and the small g-protein Rac. FAK knockout cells modulated adhesion number and size in a similar way to cells on topography; that is, they used more, smaller adhesions, but migration was almost completely stalled demonstrating the importance of FAK signaling in contact guidance and adhesion turnover. Little similarity, however, was observed to PKC stimulated cells and cells on the topography. Interestingly, with PKC stimulation the cell nuclei became highly deformable bringing focus on these surfaces to the study of metastasis. Surfaces that aid the study of cellular migration are important in developing understanding of mechanisms of wound healing and repair in aligned tissues such as ligament and tendon.

  9. An operant analysis of human altruistic responding1

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Harold

    1977-01-01

    Human altruistic responding (called give responding), which delivered a reinforcer to someone other than the responder, was compared to responding where the responder was the recipient of the reinforcer (called earn responding). The same type of response (button pressing), the same reinforcer (a point representing a penny), and the same reinforcer contingency (a 40-response fixed-ratio schedule) were used for both give and earn responding. Since points representing pennies were used to reinforce give and earn responding, responding for points not worth money was also assessed. Give, earn, and point responding were arranged as concurrent incompatible operants. Lowest rates were obtained for point responding. Compared to earn responding, give responding occurred at lower rates, was more susceptible to cessation when point responding was possible, extinguished more rapidly in the absence of money, and produced less responding during reconditioning compared to conditioning when reconditioning followed a period of nonreinforcement. Give responding was less when it reduced the giver's opportunity to earn. Finally, histories of getting reinforcement from others were shown to determine give responding. PMID:16812010

  10. How and why does the proteome respond to microgravity?

    PubMed

    Grimm, Daniela; Wise, Petra; Lebert, Michael; Richter, Peter; Baatout, Sarah

    2011-02-01

    For medical and biotechnological reasons, it is important to study mammalian cells, animals, bacteria and plants exposed to simulated and real microgravity. It is necessary to detect the cellular changes that cause the medical problems often observed in astronauts, cosmonauts or animals returning from prolonged space missions. In order for in vitro tissue engineering under microgravity conditions to succeed, the features of the cell that change need to be known. In this article, we summarize current knowledge about the effects of microgravity on the proteome in different cell types. Many studies suggest that the effects of microgravity on major cell functions depend on the responding cell type. Here, we discuss and speculate how and why the proteome responds to microgravity, focusing on proteomic discoveries and their future potential.

  11. Evidence of More Immanent Justice Responding in Adults than Children: A Challenge to Traditional Developmental Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Lakshmi; Winer, Gerald A.

    2004-01-01

    Three studies investigated developmental changes in immanent justice responding by asking participants to respond to vignettes in which a person's bad behaviour was followed by a negative consequence. Study 1 consisted of 152 sixth graders and 128 college students and presented participants with a vignette that examined the notion of bad people…

  12. A Descriptive Analysis of Focus Group Respondents in the 1992 Presidential Debates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudczak, Craig A.; Altenbernd, Lisa M.

    A study assessed the selection techniques used to secure focus group respondents at one site as part of a larger study to determine what viewers learned from the 1992 Presidential Debates. A two-stage random sampling technique was developed to select focus group respondents from the 224,041 registered voters in Syracuse, New York. The random…

  13. 15 CFR 904.107 - Joint and several respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint and several respondents. 904.107... PROCEDURES Civil Penalties § 904.107 Joint and several respondents. (a) A NOVA may assess a civil penalty against two or more respondents jointly and severally. Each joint and several respondent is liable for...

  14. 15 CFR 904.107 - Joint and several respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint and several respondents. 904.107... PROCEDURES Civil Penalties § 904.107 Joint and several respondents. (a) A NOVA may assess a civil penalty against two or more respondents jointly and severally. Each joint and several respondent is liable for...

  15. 15 CFR 904.107 - Joint and several respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint and several respondents. 904.107... PROCEDURES Civil Penalties § 904.107 Joint and several respondents. (a) A NOVA may assess a civil penalty against two or more respondents jointly and severally. Each joint and several respondent is liable for...

  16. 15 CFR 904.107 - Joint and several respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Joint and several respondents. 904.107... PROCEDURES Civil Penalties § 904.107 Joint and several respondents. (a) A NOVA may assess a civil penalty against two or more respondents jointly and severally. Each joint and several respondent is liable for...

  17. 15 CFR 904.107 - Joint and several respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Joint and several respondents. 904.107... PROCEDURES Civil Penalties § 904.107 Joint and several respondents. (a) A NOVA may assess a civil penalty against two or more respondents jointly and severally. Each joint and several respondent is liable for...

  18. Smart physiological monitoring of first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, Anurag; Kaiser, William; Tamminedi, Tejaswi; Yadegar, Jacob

    2009-05-01

    Today's state-of-the-art medical vests and shirts for health status monitoring are inflexible and expensive. The high cost and the lack of flexibility and integral-unity of the current vests are prohibiting factors for their use in first responder applications. The vests also lack an in-built intelligence to accurately determine the health status of the person wearing the vest. We present a hardware plus software solution for monitoring the health status of first responders in pressurized and adversarial missions. The technology consists of two main components. The first component is a physiological vest consisting of a suite of physiological sensors interfaced with energy management units designed to prolong the life of the sensors. The sensors communicate wirelessly with a personal server consisting of a Decision Support Software (DSS), which forms the second major component of our technology. The DSS (1) integrates the physiologic sensors readings for global assessment of the individual's health status; (2) recommends medical Alerts and Actions based on the fusion of the sensor readings; and (3) applies cognitive computation to personalize the medical vest to the specific physiologic and motion characteristics of the individual wearing the vest, in the theater of the operation or during exercise.

  19. How tree roots respond to drought

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Ivano; Herzog, Claude; Dawes, Melissa A.; Arend, Matthias; Sperisen, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing climate change is characterized by increased temperatures and altered precipitation patterns. In addition, there has been an increase in both the frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events such as drought. Episodes of drought induce a series of interconnected effects, all of which have the potential to alter the carbon balance of forest ecosystems profoundly at different scales of plant organization and ecosystem functioning. During recent years, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of how aboveground parts of trees respond to drought and how these responses affect carbon assimilation. In contrast, processes of belowground parts are relatively underrepresented in research on climate change. In this review, we describe current knowledge about responses of tree roots to drought. Tree roots are capable of responding to drought through a variety of strategies that enable them to avoid and tolerate stress. Responses include root biomass adjustments, anatomical alterations, and physiological acclimations. The molecular mechanisms underlying these responses are characterized to some extent, and involve stress signaling and the induction of numerous genes, leading to the activation of tolerance pathways. In addition, mycorrhizas seem to play important protective roles. The current knowledge compiled in this review supports the view that tree roots are well equipped to withstand drought situations and maintain morphological and physiological functions as long as possible. Further, the reviewed literature demonstrates the important role of tree roots in the functioning of forest ecosystems and highlights the need for more research in this emerging field. PMID:26284083

  20. Responding during reinforcement delay in a self-control paradigm.

    PubMed Central

    Logue, A W; Peña-Correal, T E

    1984-01-01

    Eight pigeons chose between a small, immediate reinforcer and a large, increasingly delayed reinforcer. Responding during the large-reinforcer delays was examined. During large-reinforcer delays, pecks on one key produced the small, immediate reinforcer; pecks on the other key had no effect. Thus, a pigeon could reverse its initial choice of the large, delayed reinforcer, or it could maintain its original choice. Pigeons that made a relatively high number of initial large-reinforcer choices tended to maintain these choices, and those pigeons that actually received a relatively high number of large reinforcers, tended to respond more frequently on the ineffective key during the delay periods. The findings suggest that some previous studies of self-control training in pigeons may have resulted in increased self-control partially due to a lack of opportunity for the pigeons to change their choices. PMID:6736857

  1. Teaching children with autism to respond to conversation partners' interest.

    PubMed

    Peters, Lindsay C; Thompson, Rachel H

    2015-09-01

    Successful conversation requires that the speaker's behavior is sensitive to nonvocal listener responses. We observed children with autism spectrum disorder during conversation probes in which a listener periodically displayed nonvocal cues that she was uninterested in the conversation. We used behavioral skills training to teach conversation skills. First, we taught participants to tact nonvocal listener behavior (interested or uninterested), but this was insufficient to improve responding aimed at regaining listener interest. Participants were then taught to ask a question (Experiments 1 and 2) or change the topic (Experiment 2) when the listener was uninterested. Responding persisted over time and with changes in the stimulus conditions. The behavior change was also deemed socially valid by blind observers. In Experiment 3, participants learned to shift to the other trained response when exposed to extinction. This study illustrates a set of procedures for bringing speaker behavior under control of nonvocal listener cues.

  2. Turning (Ir gene) low responders into high responders by antibody manipulation of the developing immune system.

    PubMed Central

    Martinz, C; Marcos, M A; Pereira, P; Marquez, C; Toribio, M; de la Hera, A; Cazenave, P A; Coutinho, A

    1987-01-01

    The ability of helper T cells directed against trinitrophenyl-modified syngeneic spleen cells to recognize low-hapten densities on target cells is under major histocompatibility complex-linked Ir gene control. Thus, BALB/c (H-2d) mice are low responders while H-2 congenic BALB.C3H (H-2k) mice are high responders. Immunization of adult BALB/c mice with the monoclonal antibody F6(51), directed to shared idiotopes by anti-trinitrophenyl antibodies and clonal receptors on anti-trinitrophenyl-self helper T cells, leads to the production of high titers of circulating idiotype, has no influence on helper T cell idiotypic profiles, but shifts to a high-responder phenotype the ability of helper T cells to recognize low-hapten densities. These effects on Ir gene phenotype are even more striking in untreated progenies from F6(51)-immunized BALB/c females, which are better responders than genetically high-responder BALB.C3H mice, although completely different in the expression of the F6(51)-defined clonotype. The general significance of these findings on Ir gene-directed T-cell repertoire selection is discussed, for they constitute formal evidence against antigen-presentation as a mechanism of Ir gene effects and strong support for the importance of maternal influences on the development of T-cell repertoires. PMID:2954161

  3. Biodetection Technologies for First Responders: 2014 Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Ozanich, Richard M.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Colburn, Heather A.; Straub, Tim M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2014-03-28

    This report summarizes commercially-available, hand-portable technologies that can be used by first responders in the field. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, this report is meant to provide useful information about available technologies to help end-users make informed decisions about biodetection technology procurement and use. Information listed in this report is primarily vendor-provided; however, where possible it has been supplemented with additional information obtained from publications, reports, and websites. Manufacturers were given the chance to review summaries of their technologies from August through November 2013 to verify the accuracy of technical specifications, available references, and pricing.

  4. Space-Dynamically Responding Ultrasonic Matrix System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guigne, Jacques; Yi, Hu Chun

    2008-01-01

    Space-Dynamically Responding Ultrasonic Matrix System (SpaceDRUMS) comprises a suite of hardware that enables containerless processing (samples of experimental materials can be processed without ever touching a container wall). Using a collection of 20 acoustic beam emitters, SpaceDRUMS can completely suspend a baseball-sized solid or liquid sample during combustion or heat-based synthesis. Because the samples never contact the container walls, materials can be produced in microgravity with an unparalleled quality of shape and composition. The ultimate goal of the SpaceDRUMS hardware is to assist with the development of advanced materials of a commercial quantity and quality, using the space-based experiments to guide development of manufacturing processes on Earth. T

  5. Methods of responding to healthcare security incidents.

    PubMed

    Furnell, S; Gritzalis, D; Katsikas, S; Mavroudakis, K; Sanders, P; Warren, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers the increasing requirement for security in healthcare IT systems and, in particular, identifies the need for appropriate means by which healthcare establishments (HCEs) may respond to incidents. The main discussion focuses upon two significant initiatives that have been established in order to improve understanding and awareness of healthcare security issues. The first is the establishment of a dedicated Incident Reporting Scheme (IRS) for HCEs, enabling the level and types of security incidents faced within the healthcare community to be monitored and advice appropriately targeted. The second aspect presents a description of healthcare security World Wide Web service, which provides a comprehensive source of advice and guidance for establishments when trying to address and prevent IT security breaches. The discussion is based upon work that is currently being undertaken with the ISHTAR (Implementing Secure Healthcare Telematics Applications in Europe) project, as part of the Telematics Applications for Health programme of the European Commission.

  6. Responding to chemical attack. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bagley, R.W.

    1991-02-11

    In view of Iraq's stated intention of using chemical weapons in the Persian Gulf War, the Coalition forces must be prepared to respond. Iraq is capable of conducting such an attack. While the use of chemical weapons may not be militarily significant, the political effect of the use and the response to it may be very significant. Responses including the use of chemical and nuclear weapons are assessed in terms of their legality, political cost, and military effectiveness and found unacceptable. Reliance on diplomatic protests and on post-war criminal sanctions are judged ineffective. A response in the form of increased conventional attack on the Iraqi chemical infrastructure is recommended because that response will preserve the present Coalition, effectively counter the chemical attack, contribute to regional stability, and enhance the reputation of the United States for lawfulness and dependability.

  7. Responding to Literature through Storytelling, Artifacts and Multigenre Writing Practices: Explorations of Cultures and Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varga-Dobai, Kinga

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes how innovative literacy practices such as multigenre writing and artifactual critical literacy have been used to tap into pre-service teachers' cultural identities while responding to literature. In the process of responding to literature, personal experience is crucial; therefore, in this study, I focused on the…

  8. Social Desirability Responding on World Wide Web and Paper-Administered Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dawson R.; Flowers, Claudia P.

    Social desirability responding (SDR) on surveys administered on the World Wide Web and on paper was examined, with 178 graduate and undergraduate students as participants. To assess the extent to which participants would demonstrate SDR, this study used the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) (Paulhus, 1993). The BIDR consists of 40…

  9. Cortisol Reactivity and Regulation Associated with Shame Responding in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Imm, Gorette P.; Walling, Bobbi R.; Weiler, Hope A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize cortisol response and regulation associated with shame responding in early childhood and to examine how general the relation between shame and cortisol is. It was predicted that children responding to task failure with shame would show a larger and more prolonged cortisol response than other children.…

  10. Changes in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate during Fixed-Interval Responding in Squirrel Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWeese, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Episodic and sustained increases in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure can occur with recurring patterns of schedule-controlled behavior. Most previous studies were conducted under fixed-ratio schedules, which maintained a consistent high rate of responding that alternated with periods of no responding during times when the schedule was…

  11. Ecosystem Greenhouse Gas Fluxes Respond Directly to Weather Not Climate: A Case Study on the Relationship of Global Atmospheric Circulation, Foehn Frequency, and Winter Weather to Northern Alps Regional Grassland Phenology and Carbon Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, A. R.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Zeeman, M. J.; Katata, G.; Mauder, M.; Schmid, H. P. E.

    2014-12-01

    The impact of climate change on regional ecosystem structure and biogeochemical cycling has two important aspects that require better elaboration to improve projections of these effects. The first is that ecosystems don't respond directly to climate, but indirectly via frequency and occurrence of weather systems, which are driven by climatic shifts in global circulation and radiative processes. The second is that many responses of ecosystems to these weather patterns and extremes are lagged in time. Here, we examine these aspects for northern Alpine grasslands. Long-term eddy covariance flux tower and phenology observations in Austria and Germany and biophysical models reveal a strong influence of winter air temperature, snowfall, and snowmelt frequency on winter grass mortality and spring grassland carbon uptake. Further, the mode of climate variability that drives winter air temperature and snow depth patterns is primarily the frequency of strong regional southerly Foehn flow that promotes warm, dry conditions in winter. Finally, we demonstrate that much of the interannual variance in Foehn frequency and southerly flow is driven by statistics and climatic trends of 500 hPa pressure patterns in Greenland, part of the Arctic Oscillation. However, a few years, including the unusually warm and dry winter of 2013-2014 appear to have secondary, possibly local thermotopographic circulation factors that promoted its weather conditions regionally, which also included primarily cool and wet conditions in northern Europe and the southern Alps. These findings demonstrate that the regional response of ecosystems to climate change is modulated by how large-scale circulation patterns influence local meteorology and topographic flows both during and outside the growing season and provides a framework for future assessment and climate model improvements of linkages of climate change, weather patterns, and ecosystem responses.

  12. Software Assists in Responding to Anomalous Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark; Kronbert, F.; Weiner, A.; Morgan, T.; Stroozas, B.; Girouard, F.; Hopkins, A.; Wong, L.; Kneubuhl, J.; Malina, R.

    2004-01-01

    Fault Induced Document Retrieval Officer (FIDO) is a computer program that reduces the need for a large and costly team of engineers and/or technicians to monitor the state of a spacecraft and associated ground systems and respond to anomalies. FIDO includes artificial-intelligence components that imitate the reasoning of human experts with reference to a knowledge base of rules that represent failure modes and to a database of engineering documentation. These components act together to give an unskilled operator instantaneous expert assistance and access to information that can enable resolution of most anomalies, without the need for highly paid experts. FIDO provides a system state summary (a configurable engineering summary) and documentation for diagnosis of a potentially failing component that might have caused a given error message or anomaly. FIDO also enables high-level browsing of documentation by use of an interface indexed to the particular error message. The collection of available documents includes information on operations and associated procedures, engineering problem reports, documentation of components, and engineering drawings. FIDO also affords a capability for combining information on the state of ground systems with detailed, hierarchically-organized, hypertext- enabled documentation.

  13. Harbour porpoises respond to climate change.

    PubMed

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Iversen, Maria; Nielsen, Nynne Hjort; Lockyer, Christina; Stern, Harry; Ribergaard, Mads Hvid

    2011-12-01

    The effects of climate change on marine ecosystems and in particular on marine top predators are difficult to assess due to, among other things, spatial variability, and lack of clear delineation of marine habitats. The banks of West Greenland are located in a climate sensitive area and are likely to elicit pronounced responses to oceanographic changes in the North Atlantic. The recent increase in sea temperatures on the banks of West Greenland has had cascading effects on sea ice coverage, residency of top predators, and abundance of important prey species like Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Here, we report on the response of one of the top predators in West Greenland; the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). The porpoises depend on locating high densities of prey species with high nutritive value and they have apparently responded to the general warming on the banks of West Greenland by longer residence times, increased consumption of Atlantic cod resulting in improved body condition in the form of larger fat deposits in blubber, compared to the situation during a cold period in the 1990s. This is one of the few examples of a measurable effect of climate change on a marine mammal population.

  14. Physical and environmental considerations for first responders.

    PubMed

    Migl, Karen S; Powell, Rose M

    2010-12-01

    To prioritize the most common effects of a disaster, HCPs must decide in advance what is needed and how, when, and whom to provide the necessary support to deal with the posteffects of a disaster. During the rescue mission, the primary public health concern is clean drinking water, food, shelter, and medical care. Medical care is critical especially in areas where little or no medical care exists. Natural disasters do not necessarily cause an increase in infectious disease outbreaks. However, contaminated water and food supplies as well as the lack of shelter and medical care may have a secondary effect of worsening illnesses that already exists in the affected region. Appropriate preparation in the form of preplanning for immunizations as well as education about other forms of protection, such as appropriate apparel and water decontamination, promotes a safer environment for first responders and survivors. The continued need for postdisaster health monitoring for HCPs is imperative. The effects of a disaster last a long time; therefore there is an ongoing need to focus on the physical and environmental effects, including surveying and monitoring for infectious water or insect-transmitted diseases; restoring normal primary health services, water systems, transportation, housing, and employment; and continuing to assist the community’s recovery after the immediate crisis has subsided.

  15. Harbour porpoises respond to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Iversen, Maria; Nielsen, Nynne Hjort; Lockyer, Christina; Stern, Harry; Ribergaard, Mads Hvid

    2011-01-01

    The effects of climate change on marine ecosystems and in particular on marine top predators are difficult to assess due to, among other things, spatial variability, and lack of clear delineation of marine habitats. The banks of West Greenland are located in a climate sensitive area and are likely to elicit pronounced responses to oceanographic changes in the North Atlantic. The recent increase in sea temperatures on the banks of West Greenland has had cascading effects on sea ice coverage, residency of top predators, and abundance of important prey species like Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Here, we report on the response of one of the top predators in West Greenland; the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). The porpoises depend on locating high densities of prey species with high nutritive value and they have apparently responded to the general warming on the banks of West Greenland by longer residence times, increased consumption of Atlantic cod resulting in improved body condition in the form of larger fat deposits in blubber, compared to the situation during a cold period in the 1990s. This is one of the few examples of a measurable effect of climate change on a marine mammal population. PMID:22393524

  16. Differentiation between Good and Low-Responders to Intravitreal Ranibizumab for Macular Edema Secondary to Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Ebneter, Andreas; Zinkernagel, Martin S.; Wolf, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ranibizumab is approved for treatment of macular edema in eyes with retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Some eyes show low-response to treatment with regard to visual acuity gain (VA) and OCT central retinal thickness (CRT) reduction. The goal of this study was to quantify the percentage of low-responders. Methods. Treatment of naïve eyes with macular edema secondary to RVO was included and monthly VA and CRT were analyzed. Four weeks after the loading phase, and at the end of the study, eyes were grouped into low- and good responders based on predefined criteria. The responder and low-responder groups were then compared at various time points. Results. Forty-three eyes were included. Regarding VA, 27.9% were low-responders after the loading phase and 30.2% at the end of the study. For CRT, 34.9% were low-responders after the loading phase versus 27.9% at the end of the study. 75% of patients that were VA low-responders and 73.3% of CRT low-responders after loading phase remained low-responders at the end of the study. Conclusion. Approximately 30% of patients showed low response to ranibizumab after the loading phase and after 1 year of treatment. Two-thirds of patients that were low-responders after the loading phase remained low-responders after 1 year. PMID:28044102

  17. Improving Situational Awareness for First Responders via Mobile Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Bradley J.; Mah, Robert W.; Papasin, Richard; Del Mundo, Rommel; McIntosh, Dawn M.; Jorgensen, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This project looks to improve first responder incident command, and an appropriately managed flow of situational awareness using mobile computing techniques. The prototype system combines wireless communication, real-time location determination, digital imaging, and three-dimensional graphics. Responder locations are tracked in an outdoor environment via GPS and uploaded to a central server via GPRS or an 802. II network. Responders can also wireless share digital images and text reports, both with other responders and with the incident commander. A pre-built three dimensional graphics model of the emergency scene is used to visualize responder and report locations. Responders have a choice of information end points, ranging from programmable cellular phones to tablet computers. The system also employs location-aware computing to make responders aware of particular hazards as they approach them. The prototype was developed in conjunction with the NASA Ames Disaster Assistance and Rescue Team and has undergone field testing during responder exercises at NASA Ames.

  18. Improving Situational Awareness for First Responders via Mobile Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Bradley J.; Mah, Robert W.; Papasin, Richard; Del Mundo, Rommel; McIntosh, Dawn M.; Jorgensen, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This project looks to improve first responder situational awareness using tools and techniques of mobile computing. The prototype system combines wireless communication, real-time location determination, digital imaging, and three-dimensional graphics. Responder locations are tracked in an outdoor environment via GPS and uploaded to a central server via GPRS or an 802.11 network. Responders can also wirelessly share digital images and text reports, both with other responders and with the incident commander. A pre-built three dimensional graphics model of a particular emergency scene is used to visualize responder and report locations. Responders have a choice of information end points, ranging from programmable cellular phones to tablet computers. The system also employs location-aware computing to make responders aware of particular hazards as they approach them. The prototype was developed in conjunction with the NASA Ames Disaster Assistance and Rescue Team and has undergone field testing during responder exercise at NASA Ames.

  19. Socially desirable responding in Chinese university students: denial and enhancement?

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Li, Yongjuan; Wang, Yong

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) with one-, two-, three-, and four-dimensional models and tested the BIDR's discriminant validity with personality variables. A confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis of responses from 600 Chinese university students (314 men, 282 women, 4 missing; M age=20.0 yr.) provided results indicating that the four-factor model fit the data best; i.e., self-deception and impression management split into denial and enhancement. The Denial and Enhancement subscales with personality variables show significant differences, confirming the four-factor model. The cultural differences as a possible reason for the split were discussed.

  20. Please respond ASAP: workplace telepressure and employee recovery.

    PubMed

    Barber, Larissa K; Santuzzi, Alecia M

    2015-04-01

    Organizations rely heavily on asynchronous message-based technologies (e.g., e-mail) for the purposes of work-related communications. These technologies are primary means of knowledge transfer and building social networks. As a by-product, workers might feel varying levels of preoccupations with and urges for responding quickly to messages from clients, coworkers, or supervisors--an experience we label as workplace telepressure. This experience can lead to fast response times and thus faster decisions and other outcomes initially. However, research from the stress and recovery literature suggests that the defining features of workplace telepressure interfere with needed work recovery time and stress-related outcomes. The present set of studies defined and validated a new scale to measure telepressure. Study 1 tested an initial pool of items and found some support for a single-factor structure after problematic items were removed. As expected, public self-consciousness, techno-overload, and response expectations were moderately associated with telepressure in Study 1. Study 2 demonstrated that workplace telepressure was distinct from other personal (job involvement, affective commitment) and work environment (general and ICT work demands) factors and also predicted burnout (physical and cognitive), absenteeism, sleep quality, and e-mail responding beyond those factors. Implications for future research and workplace practices are discussed.

  1. LH Pretreatment as a Novel Strategy for Poor Responders

    PubMed Central

    Ferraretti, Anna Pia; Gianaroli, Luca; Motrenko, Tatiana; Feliciani, Elisabetta; Tabanelli, Carla; Magli, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Poor response to ovarian stimulation is still a major problem in IVF. The study presents a new stimulation protocol evaluated in a suppopulation of very difficult young poor ovarian responders. Material and Methods. The study consists in two sections. The first includes data from a randomized controlled study involving forty-three young patients with a poor ovarian response in at least two previous cycles (intended as cycle cancellation or with ≤3 collected oocytes). Patients were randomized in two groups: group A (control) received FSH (400 IU/day), while group B received the new stimulation protocol consisting in a sequential association of 150 IU r-LH for 4 days followed by 400 IU r-FSH/after downregulation with daily GnRh agonist. The second includes data from the overall results in 65 patients treated with the new protocol compared to their previous performance with conventional cycles (historical control). Results. Both in the RCT and in the historical control study, LH pretreatment was able to decrease the cancellation rate, to improve the in vitro performance, and to significantly increase the live birth rates. Conclusions. LH pretreatment improved oocyte quantity and quality in young repeated poor responders selected in accordance with the Bologna criteria. PMID:25197669

  2. 76 FR 6475 - Emergency Responder Health Monitoring and Surveillance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emergency Responder Health Monitoring and... responder safety and health by monitoring and conducting surveillance of their health and safety during the... of a response. The proposed system is referred to as the ``Emergency Responder Health Monitoring...

  3. 78 FR 53124 - First Responder Network Authority Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ...-1775] First Responder Network Authority Filing AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) on August 2, 2013, in PS Docket 12-94. The filing... by the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) in its August 2, 2013, filing in PS Docket 12-...

  4. 31 CFR 560.704 - Presentation responding to prepenalty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Presentation responding to prepenalty... Penalties § 560.704 Presentation responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within which to respond. The... presentation to the Director. (b) Form and contents of the written presentation. The written presentation...

  5. 31 CFR 595.703 - Presentation responding to prepenalty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Presentation responding to prepenalty... Penalties § 595.703 Presentation responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within which to respond. The... presentation to the Director of the Office of Foreign Assets Control. (b) Form and contents of...

  6. 31 CFR 535.703 - Presentation responding to prepenalty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Presentation responding to prepenalty... Penalties § 535.703 Presentation responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within which to respond. The... presentation to the Director. (b) Form and contents of written presentation. The written presentation need...

  7. 19 CFR 162.78 - Presentations responding to prepenalty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presentations responding to prepenalty notice. 162... Violations § 162.78 Presentations responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within which to respond. Unless a... notice to make a written and an oral presentation. The Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures Officer...

  8. 31 CFR 575.703 - Presentation responding to prepenalty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Presentation responding to prepenalty... Penalties § 575.703 Presentation responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within which to respond. The... presentation to the Director. (b) Form and contents of written presentation. The written presentation need...

  9. The relational responding task: toward a new implicit measure of beliefs

    PubMed Central

    De Houwer, Jan; Heider, Niclas; Spruyt, Adriaan; Roets, Arne; Hughes, Sean

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the Relational Responding Task (RRT) as a tool for capturing beliefs at the implicit level. Flemish participants were asked to respond as if they believed that Flemish people are more intelligent than immigrants (e.g., respond “true” to the statement “Flemish people are wiser than immigrants”) or to respond as if they believed that immigrants are more intelligent than Flemish people (e.g., respond “true” to the statement “Flemish people are dumber than immigrants”). The difference in performance between these two tasks correlated with ratings of the extent to which participants explicitly endorsed the belief that Flemish people are more intelligent than immigrants and with questionnaire measures of subtle and blatant racism. The current study provides a first step toward validating RRT effects as a viable measure of implicit beliefs. PMID:25852624

  10. Smart radio: spectrum access for first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvius, Mark D.; Ge, Feng; Young, Alex; MacKenzie, Allen B.; Bostian, Charles W.

    2008-04-01

    This paper details the Wireless at Virginia Tech Center for Wireless Telecommunications' (CWT) design and implementation of its Smart Radio (SR) communication platform. The CWT SR can identify available spectrum within a pre-defined band, rendezvous with an intended receiver, and transmit voice and data using a selected quality of service (QoS). This system builds upon previous cognitive technologies developed by CWT for the public safety community, with the goal of providing a prototype mobile communications package for military and public safety First Responders. A master control (MC) enables spectrum awareness by characterizing the radio environment with a power spectrum sensor and an innovative signal detection and classification module. The MC also enables spectrum and signal memory by storing sensor results in a knowledge database. By utilizing a family radio service (FRS) waveform database, the CWT SR can create a new communication link on any designated FRS channel frequency using FM, BPSK, QPSK, or 8PSK modulations. With FM, it supports analog voice communications with legacy hand-held FRS radios. With digital modulations, it supports IP data services, including a CWT developed CVSD-based VoIP protocol. The CWT SR coordinates spectrum sharing between analog primary users and digital secondary users by applying a simple but effective channel-change protocol. It also demonstrates a novel rendezvous protocol to facilitate the detection and initialization of communications links with neighboring SR nodes through the transmission of frequency-hopped rendezvous beacons. By leveraging the GNU Radio toolkit, writing key modules entirely in Python, and utilizing the USRP hardware front-end, the CWT SR provides a dynamic spectrum test bed for future smart and cognitive radio research.

  11. Fast-responder: Rapid mobile-phone access to recent remote sensing imagery for first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, L. M.; Talbot, B. G.

    We introduce Fast-Responder, a novel prototype data-dissemination application and architecture concept to rapidly deliver remote sensing imagery to smartphones to enable situational awareness. The architecture implements a Fast-Earth image caching system on the phone and interacts with a Fast-Earth server. Prototype evaluation successfully demonstrated that National Guard users could select a location, download multiple remote sensing images, and flicker between images, all in less than a minute on a 3G mobile commercial link. The Fast-Responder architecture is a significant advance that is designed to meet the needs of mobile users, such as National Guard response units, to rapidly access information during a crisis, such as a natural or man-made disaster. This paper focuses on the architecture design and advanced user interface concepts for small-screens for highly active mobile users. Novel Fast-Responder concepts can also enable rapid dissemination and evaluation of imagery on the desktop, opening new technology horizons for both desktop and mobile users.

  12. Per cent of patients with chronic migraine who responded per onabotulinumtoxinA treatment cycle: PREEMPT

    PubMed Central

    Silberstein, Stephen D; Dodick, David W; Aurora, Sheena K; Diener, Hans-Christoph; DeGryse, Ronald E; Lipton, Richard B; Turkel, Catherine C

    2015-01-01

    Objective The approved use of onabotulinumtoxinA for prophylaxis of headaches in patients with chronic migraine (CM) involves treatment every 12 weeks. It is currently unknown whether patients who fail to respond to the first onabotulinumtoxinA treatment cycle will respond to subsequent treatment cycles. To help inform decisions about treating non-responders, we examined the probability of treatment cycle 1 non-responders responding in cycle 2, and cycle 1 and 2 non-responders responding in cycle 3. Methods Pooled PREEMPT data (two studies: a 24-week, 2-cycle, double-blind, randomised (1:1), placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase, followed by a 32-week, 3-cycle, open-label phase) evaluated onabotulinumtoxinA (155–195 U) for prophylaxis of headaches in persons with CM (≥15 days/month with headache ≥4 h/day). End points of interest included the proportion of study patients who first achieved a ≥50% reduction in headache days, moderate/severe headache days, total cumulative hours of headache on headache days, or a ≥5-point improvement in Headache Impact Test (HIT)-6. For treatment cycle 1, all eligible participants were included. For subsequent cycles, responders in a previous cycle were no longer considered first responders. Results Among onabotulinumtoxinA-treated patients (n=688) 49.3% had a ≥50% reduction in headache-day frequency during treatment cycle 1, with 11.3% and 10.3% of patients first responding during cycles 2 and 3, respectively. 54.2%, 11.6% and 7.4% of patients first responded with a ≥50% reduction in cumulative hours of headache, and 56.3%, 14.5% and 7.7% of patients first responded with a ≥5-point improvement in total HIT-6 during treatment cycles 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Conclusions A meaningful proportion of patients with CM treated with onabotulinumtoxinA who did not respond to the first treatment cycle responded in the second and third cycles of treatment. Trial registration number NCT00156910, NCT00168428. PMID

  13. Respondent driven sampling of wheelchair users: A lack of traction?

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, John A.; Schluter, Philip J.; Hay-Smith, E. Jean C.; Snell, Deborah L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Internationally, wheelchair users are an emerging demographic phenomenon, due to their increased prevalence and rapidly increasing life-span. While having significant healthcare implications, basic robust epidemiological information about wheelchair users is often lacking due, in part, to this population’s ‘hidden’ nature. Increasingly popular in epidemiological research, Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) provides a mechanism for generating unbiased population-based estimates for hard-to-reach populations, overcoming biases inherent within other sampling methods. This paper reports the first published study to employ RDS amongst wheelchair users. Methods: Between October 2015 and January 2016, a short, successfully piloted, internet-based national survey was initiated. Twenty seeds from diverse organisations were invited to complete the survey then circulate it to peers within their networks following a well-defined protocol. A predetermined reminder protocol was triggered when seeds or their peers failed to respond. All participants were entered into a draw for an iPad. Results: Overall, 19 people participated (nine women); 12 initial seeds, followed by seven second-wave participants arising from four seeds . Completion time for the survey ranged between 7 and 36 minutes. Despite repeated reminders, no further people were recruited. Discussion: While New Zealand wheelchair user numbers are unknown, an estimated 14% of people have physical impairments that limited mobility. The 19 respondents generated from adopting the RDS methodology here thus represents a negligible fraction of wheelchair users in New Zealand, and an insufficient number to ensure equilibrium required for unbiased analyses. While successful in other hard-to-reach populations, applying RDS methodology to wheelchair users requires further consideration. Formative research exploring areas of network characteristics, acceptability of RDS, appropriate incentive options, and seed

  14. Sunlight upon a Dark Sky Haiti's Urban Poor Responds to Socio-Political and Socio-Cultural Conflicts: A Case Study of the Grande Ravine Community Human Rights Council

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmett, Deborah Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This case study investigates the organizational characteristics of a Haitian grassroots community human rights council (CHRC) that emerged as a response to three politically motivated massacres. The impromptu grassroots response of this poor urban community is at the core of the following research question investigated in this study: "What…

  15. CIRUN: Climate Information Responding to User Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busalacchi, A. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth System will experience real climate change over the next 50 years, exceeding the scope of natural climate variability. A paramount question facing society is how to adapt to this certainty of climate variability and change. In response, OSTP and NOAA are considering how comprehensive climate services would best inform decisions about adaptation. Similarly, NASA is considering the optimal configuration of the next generation of Earth, environmental, and climate observations to be deployed over the coming 10-20 years. Moreover, much of the added-value information for specific climate-related decisions will be provided by private, academic and non-governmental organizations. In this context, over the past several years the University of Maryland has established the CIRUN (Climate Information: Responding to User Needs) initiative to identify the nature of national needs for climate information and services from a decision support perspective. To date, CIRUN has brought together decisionmakers in a number of sectors to help understand their perspectives on climate with the goal of improving the usefulness of climate information, observations and prediction products to specific user communities. CIRUN began with a major workshop in October 2007 that convened 430 participants in agriculture, parks and recreation, terrestrial ecosystems, insurance/investment, energy, national security, state/local/municipal, water, human health, commerce and manufacturing, transportation, and coastal/marine sectors. Plenary speakers such as Norman Augustine, R. James Woolsey, James Mahoney, and former Senator Joseph Tydings, breakout panel sessions, and participants provided input based on the following: - How would you characterize the exposure or vulnerability to climate variability or change impacting your organization? - Does climate variability and/or change currently factor into your organization's objectives or operations? - Are any of your existing plans being affected by

  16. A Simple Evacuation Modeling and Simulation Tool for First Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Daniel B; Payne, Patricia W

    2015-01-01

    Although modeling and simulation of mass evacuations during a natural or man-made disaster is an on-going and vigorous area of study, tool adoption by front-line first responders is uneven. Some of the factors that account for this situation include cost and complexity of the software. For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been actively developing the free Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit (IMPACT) to address these issues. One of the components of IMPACT is a multi-agent simulation module for area-based and path-based evacuations. The user interface is designed so that anyone familiar with typical computer drawing tools can quickly author a geospatially-correct evacuation visualization suitable for table-top exercises. Since IMPACT is designed for use in the field where network communications may not be available, quick on-site evacuation alternatives can be evaluated to keep pace with a fluid threat situation. Realism is enhanced by incorporating collision avoidance into the simulation. Statistics are gathered as the simulation unfolds, including most importantly time-to-evacuate, to help first responders choose the best course of action.

  17. Effects of oxytocin on aggressive responding in healthy adult males

    PubMed Central

    Alcorn, Joseph L.; Green, Charles E.; Schmitz, Joy; Lane, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of oxytocin (OT) on human aggression using a well-established laboratory measure of state (reactive) aggression to test the hypothesis that OT would decrease the frequency of aggressive responding. In a within-subject design, 17 healthy male volunteers received placebo or 24 international units of intranasal OT. Aggression was measured via the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm at 30 min prior and 30, 60 and 90 min post-dose. Acute OT did not produce a significant main effect on aggressive behavior. OT attenuated the expected rise in diastolic blood pressure from morning to early afternoon observed under placebo, providing a possible indicator of biological activity. Examination of individual differences showed that aggressive responding following OT dosing (but not placebo) was positively correlated with psychometric measures of interpersonal manipulation and anger (Pearson’s r = 0.57), indicating that higher scores on these antisocial personality traits were related to increased aggressive behavior following OT administration. These preliminary results stand in contrast to previous work on the prosocial effects of OT and highlight the need for further understanding of individual differences in aggression following OT administration. Such individual differences may have implications for the therapeutic use of OT in individuals with psychiatric disorders and dysfunctional social behavior. PMID:26241153

  18. Language Generativity, Response Generalization, and Derived Relational Responding

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ian; McElwee, John; Ming, Siri

    2013-01-01

    Language generativity can be described as the ability to produce sentences never before said, and to understand sentences never before heard. One process often cited as underlying language generativity is response generalization. However, though the latter seems to promise a technical understanding of the former at a process level, an investigation of definitions and approaches to the term “response generalization” that appear in the literature suggests that it does not do so. We argue that a more promising candidate for the role of key process underlying language generativity is derived relational responding. We introduce the latter concept and describe empirical research showing its connection with language. We subsequently present a relational frame theory (RFT) conceptualization of derived relations as contextually controlled generalized relational responding. We then review a series of recent studies on derived manding in developmentally delayed children and adults that arguably demonstrate the applied utility of a derived relations-based approach with respect to the phenomenon of generative language. PMID:23814374

  19. Basic and translational evaluation of renewal of operant responding.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michael E; Liddon, Clare J; Ribeiro, Aurelia; Greif, Abigail E; Podlesnik, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Treatment relapse, defined as the reemergence of problem behavior after treatment, is a serious difficulty faced by clinicians. Failures of treatment integrity (i.e., failure to implement interventions as intended) are often invoked to explain the reemergence of problem behavior. Basic studies suggest that the prevailing stimulus context might also contribute. We conducted 2 experiments in which reinforcement for a target response was followed by 2 phases of extinction with different or identical stimulus contexts relative to baseline (ABA renewal). In Experiment 1, pigeons served as subjects using procedures typical of those used in basic behavioral research. Experiment 2 was designed as a translational replication of Experiment 1, and children who had been diagnosed with autism served as participants. Returning to the previously reinforced stimulus context in both species produced a clear and immediate increase of extinguished responding. These findings are consistent with previous studies that have suggested that both reinforcement contingencies and stimulus context influence the reemergence of extinguished behavior.

  20. A Model of First-responder Coping: An Approach/Avoidance Bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Arble, Eamonn; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2016-08-08

    The work of first responders is fraught with numerous stressors, ranging from potentially traumatic critical incidents to institutional strains. The severity and pervasiveness of these difficulties prompt a necessary consideration of the coping methods employed by first responders. The present study developed an empirical model of first-responder coping strategies, based upon a nationally representative survey sample of 6240 first responders. Participants were drawn from Swedish first responders in the following occupations: coast guard, customs control, military, emergency medical services, fire department and police services. In the final model, exposure to stress related to well-being through several indirect paths that in sum accounted for the original direct relationship between these constructs. These several indirect paths were classified theoretically as either approach or avoidance coping behaviours or subsequent health outcomes. In general, approach coping behaviours were related to better well-being; and avoidance was related to a decrease in the outcome. The size of the present sample, as well as the diverse nature of the included first responders, suggests that the resulting model may offer a unique insight into potentially adaptive pathways for first-responder coping. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Primate dental ecology: How teeth respond to the environment.

    PubMed

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Ungar, Peter S; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth are central for the study of ecology, as teeth are at the direct interface between an organism and its environment. Recent years have witnessed a rapid growth in the use of teeth to understand a broad range of topics in living and fossil primate biology. This in part reflects new techniques for assessing ways in which teeth respond to, and interact with, an organism's environment. Long-term studies of wild primate populations that integrate dental analyses have also provided a new context for understanding primate interactions with their environments. These new techniques and long-term field studies have allowed the development of a new perspective-dental ecology. We define dental ecology as the broad study of how teeth respond to, or interact with, the environment. This includes identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, as they reflect feeding ecology, behavior, and habitat variation, including areas impacted by anthropogenic disturbance, and how dental development can reflect environmental change and/or stress. The dental ecology approach, built on collaboration between dental experts and ecologists, holds the potential to provide an important theoretical and practical framework for inferring ecology and behavior of fossil forms, for assessing environmental change in living populations, and for understanding ways in which habitat impacts primate growth and development. This symposium issue brings together experts on dental morphology, growth and development, tooth wear and health, primate ecology, and paleontology, to explore the broad application of dental ecology to questions of how living and fossil primates interact with their environments.

  2. Long-Term, Open-Label, Safety Study of Edivoxetine 12 to 18 mg Once Daily as Adjunctive Treatment for Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Who Are Partial Responders to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ball, Susan G; Atkinson, Sarah; Sparks, JonDavid; Bangs, Mark; Goldberger, Celine; Dubé, Sanjay

    2015-06-01

    Long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of adjunctive edivoxetine hydrochloride (hereafter edivoxetine), a highly selective and potent norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, was assessed in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) experiencing partial response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment. Data are from a multicenter, 54-week, open-label trial of adjunctive edivoxetine 12 to 18 mg once daily in patients with MDD who had experienced partial response by history to 6 or more weeks of current selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor therapy and who had a 17-item GRID Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression total score 16 or higher at study entry. Safety measures included discontinuation rate, treatment-emergent adverse events, serious adverse events, and vital signs. Efficacy measures included the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. Of 608 patients, 328 (54%) completed the open-label adjunctive treatment. Study discontinuation due to adverse events occurred in 17.0%, and there were 13 serious adverse events (1 death). Treatment-emergent adverse events 5% or higher were nausea, hyperhidrosis, constipation, headache, dry mouth, dizziness, vomiting, insomnia, and upper respiratory tract infection. Mean increases were observed in systolic blood pressure (range, 0.0-2.3 mm Hg), diastolic blood pressure (range, 1.9-3.3 mm Hg), and pulse (range, 5.9-8.4 beats per minute). Mean improvements on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (-17.0) were observed from baseline to week 54. The safety profile from this study provides an overview of outcomes associated with edivoxetine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition as an adjunctive treatment in patients with MDD who were treated up to 1 year.

  3. On responder analyses when a continuous variable is dichotomized and measurement error is present.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Michael

    2011-02-01

    In clinical studies results are often reported as proportions of responders, i.e. the proportion of subjects who fulfill a certain response criterion is reported, although the underlying variable of interest is continuous. In this paper, we consider the situation where a subject is defined as a responder if the (error-free) continuous measurements post-treatment are below a certain fraction of (error-free) continuous measurements obtained pre-treatment. Focus is on the one-sample case, but an extension to the two-sample case is also presented. The bias of different estimates for the proportion of responders is derived and compared. In addition, an asymptotically unbiased ML-type estimate for the proportion of responders is presented. The results are illustrated using data obtained in a clinical study investigating pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).

  4. Lithium response in bipolar disorder: No difference in GADL1 gene expression between cell lines from excellent-responders and non-responders.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Jeverson; Courtin, Cindie; Geoffroy, Pierre A; Curis, Emmanuel; Bellivier, Frank; Marie-Claire, Cynthia

    2017-05-01

    Previous association studies have shown mixed results between glutamic acid decarboxylase like-1 (GADL1) gene polymorphism and prophylactic lithium response in bipolar disorder (BD) patients. In the present study, GADL1 gene expression was investigated in regard to lithium response, using Alda scale, in lymphoblastoid cells (LCLs) of 36 Caucasian BD patients. No difference in GADL1 expression was observed among LCLs from excellent-responders, non-responders or controls. Furthermore, lithium did not induce significant changes in GADL1 expression levels after 4 or 8 days. These results did not support an association of GADL1 expression in the determination of a lithium response in BD patients.

  5. Interactions between delta and mu opioid agonists in assays of schedule-controlled responding, thermal nociception, drug self-administration, and drug versus food choice in rhesus monkeys: studies with SNC80 [(+)-4-[(alphaR)-alpha-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide] and heroin.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Glenn W; Folk, John E; Rice, Kenner C; Negus, S Stevens

    2005-07-01

    Interactions between delta and mu opioid agonists in rhesus monkeys vary as a function of the behavioral endpoint. The present study compared interactions between the delta agonist SNC80 [(+)-4-[(alphaR)-alpha-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide] and the mu agonist heroin in assays of schedule-controlled responding, thermal nociception, and drug self-administration. Both SNC80 (ED50 = 0.43 mg/kg) and heroin (ED50 = 0.088 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent and complete suppression of response rates in the assay of schedule-controlled responding. Heroin also produced thermal antinociception (ED(5 degrees C) = 0.18 mg/kg) and maintained drug self-administration under both a fixed ratio schedule [dose-effect curve peak at 0.0032 mg/kg/injection (inj)] and under a food versus heroin concurrent-choice schedule (ED50 = 0.013 mg/kg/inj), whereas SNC80 did not produce thermal antinociception or maintain self-administration. Fixed ratio mixtures of SNC80 and heroin (1.6:1, 4.7:1, and 14:1 SNC80/heroin) produced additive effects in the assay of schedule-controlled responding and superadditive effects in the assay of thermal nociception. Also, SNC80 did not enhance the reinforcing effects of heroin, indicating that mixtures of SNC80 and heroin produced additive or infra-additive reinforcing effects. These results provide additional evidence to suggest that delta/mu interactions depend on the experimental endpoint and further suggest that delta agonists may selectively enhance the antinociceptive effects of mu agonists while either not affecting or decreasing the sedative and reinforcing effects of mu agonists.

  6. An integrated command control and communications center for first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messner, Richard A.; Hludik, Frank; Vidacic, Dragan; Melnyk, Pavlo

    2005-05-01

    First responders to a major incident include many different agencies. These may include law enforcement officers, multiple fire departments, paramedics, HAZMAT response teams, and possibly even federal personnel such as FBI and FEMA. Often times multiple jurisdictions respond to the incident which causes interoperability issues with respect to communication and dissemination of time critical information. Accurate information from all responding sources needs to be rapidly collected and made available to the current on site responders as well as the follow-on responders who may just be arriving on scene. The creation of a common central database with a simple easy to use interface that is dynamically updated in real time would allow prompt and efficient information distribution between different jurisdictions. Such a system is paramount to the success of any response to a major incident. First responders typically arrive in mobile vehicles that are equipped with communications equipment. Although the first responders may make reports back to their specific home based command centers, the details of those reports are not typically available to other first responders who are not a part of that agencies infrastructure. Furthermore, the collection of information often occurs outside of the first responder vehicle and the details of the scene are normally either radioed from the field or written down and then disseminated after significant delay. Since first responders are not usually on the same communications channels, and the fact that there is normally a considerable amount of confusion during the first few hours on scene, it would be beneficial if there were a centralized location for the repository of time critical information which could be accessed by all the first responders in a common fashion without having to redesign or add significantly to each first responders hardware/software systems. Each first responder would then be able to provide information

  7. Functional imaging in obese children responding to long-term sports therapy.

    PubMed

    Kinder, M; Lotze, M; Davids, S; Domin, M; Thoms, K; Wendt, J; Hirschfeld, H; Hamm, A; Lauffer, H

    2014-10-01

    Functional imaging studies on responders and non-responders to therapeutic interventions in obese children are rare. We applied fMRI before and after a one-year sports therapy in 14 obese or overweight children aged 7-16 years. During scanning, participants observed a set of standardized pictures from food categories, sports, and pleasant and neutral images. We were interested in alterations of the cerebral activation to food images in association with changes in the BMI-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) after therapy and therefore separated the observation group into two outcome subgroups. One with reduction of BMI-SDS >0.2 (responder group) and one without (non-responder group). Before therapy fMRI-activation between groups did not differ. After therapy we found the following results: in response to food images, obese children of the responder group showed increased activation in the left putamen when compared with the non-responder group. Pleasant images evoked increased insula activation in the responder group. Only the responder group showed enhanced activity within areas known to store trained motor patterns in response to sports images. Both the putamen and the insula are involved in the processing of emotional valence and were only active for the therapy responders during the observation of food or pleasant stimuli. Elevated activity in these regions might possibly be seen in the context of an increase of dopaminergic response to emotional positive stimuli during intervention. In addition, sport images activated motor representations only in those subjects who profited from the sports therapy. Overall, an altered response to rewarding and pleasant images and an increased recruitment of motor engrams during observations of sports pictures indicates a more normal cerebral processing in response to these stimuli after successful sports therapy in obese children.

  8. The Exceptional Responders Initiative: Welcoming More Cases

    Cancer.gov

    The initiative is studying tissue, clinical, and genomic data from patients with cancer who have had dramatic and long-lasting responses to standard and experimental treatments that were not seen in similar patients who received the same treatment.

  9. Reinforcement magnitude and responding during treatment with differential reinforcement.

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, Dorothea C; Kelley, Michael E; Vorndran, Christina M; Kuhn, Stephanie A C; LaRue, Robert H

    2002-01-01

    Basic findings indicate that the amount or magnitude of reinforcement can influence free-operant responding prior to and during extinction. In this study, the relation between reinforcement magnitude and adaptive behavior was evaluated with 3 children as part of treatment with differential reinforcement. In the first experiment, a communicative response was shaped and maintained by the same reinforcer that was found to maintain problem behavior. Two reinforcement magnitudes (20-s or 60-s access to toys or escape from demands) were compared and found to be associated with similar levels of resistance to extinction. The relation between reinforcement magnitude and response maintenance was further evaluated in the second experiment by exposing the communicative response to 20-s or 300-s access to toys or escape. Results for 2 participants suggested that this factor may alter the duration of postreinforcement pauses. PMID:11936544

  10. Radar detection of drones responding to honeybee queen pheromone.

    PubMed

    Loper, G M; Wolf, W W; Taylor, O R

    1993-09-01

    The response of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) drones to queen pheromone(s) (either natural from a mated queen, or synthetic from a lure) was recorded using an X-band, ground-based radar. The distribution of drones (insect targets on the radar screen) changed from a scattered distribution to a line concentration (downwind) when the pheromone was released. Displacement within the line concentration was toward the pheromone. This response was seen as far as 800±15 m downwind from a lure with 10 mg of synthetic 9-oxodec-trans-2-enoic acid (9-ODA) and as far as 420±15 m from a mated queen. These studies demonstrate that queen pheromone can be detected by drones at much greater distances than previously believed and illustrate how X-band radar may be used to establish the distances at which insects of similar or larger size respond to pheromones.

  11. Responding to Diversity? Refugee Families and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Carol; Warren, Simon

    This paper reports on a small-scale, recently completed qualitative project conducted in the United Kingdom that focuses on links between refugee families and the schools their children attend. The project attempted to study the relationships between refugee parents and education professionals in order to identify factors that encourage or hinder…

  12. Multimodal Narrative Inquiry: Six Teacher Candidates Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morawski, Cynthia M.; Rottmann, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present findings of a study on the implementation of a multimodal teacher narrative inquiry component, theoretically grounded by Rosenblatt's theory of transaction analysis, methodologically supported by action research and practically enacted by narrative inquiry and multimodal learning. In particular, the component offered…

  13. Transit Economy Market Challenge and University Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiulis, Algirdas Vaclovas

    2003-01-01

    In an ever-changing labour market, university tries to make efforts to estimate the free labour market demands for university graduates. The strength of Engineering Education lies in the range and depth of fundamental knowledge the students acquire during their studies, but the abilities like: taking risk, taking initiative, teamwork,…

  14. Fetal Cardiac Responding: Maturational and Behavioral Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emory, Eugene K.; Noonan, John R.

    1984-01-01

    Classified fetuses as accelerators or decelerators based on intrapartum fetal heart rate (FHR). Explored the relationship of the classification with gestational age and neonatal behavior in clinically healthy neonates to provide an empirical basis for using FHR in the study of infant behavior. Subjects were 48 "healthy term" or…

  15. Responding to Literature: Theme 2, Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rexford

    This study presents the second of four reports of the results of the 1970-71 National Assessment of Literature. The educational attainments of nine-year-olds, thirteen-year-olds, seventeen-year-olds, and adults (ages 26-35) were surveyed according to the subjects' ability to become engaged in, find meanings in, and evaluate a work of literature.…

  16. How School Administrators Respond to Teacher Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuestion, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    The teacher-student relationship is a vital component to the social, emotional, and academic growth of students. Nationwide the one constant in teachers' classrooms are the observations by administrators. Administrators play a supporting role for students and teachers in our modern educational system. The present case study examined four middle…

  17. Smart Bodies: Louisiana Responds to Youth Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Ellen P.; Holston, Denise; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2005-01-01

    In Louisiana, it is estimated that almost 33% of school-age children are at risk for becoming overweight or are already overweight (Louisiana Office of Public Health, 2004). Studies have shown that poor nutrition, physical inactivity, and weight problems often associated with being overweight adversely affect academic performance in school…

  18. How Institutions Respond to Training Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Andrew

    The impact of the transition to training packages (TPs) on institutionally based training in Australia was examined. Information was gathered from 14 case studies of registered trade organizations (RTOs) delivering qualifications to institutionally based students in TPs in the following areas: administration, beauty therapy, community services,…

  19. Is assessment of anti-Müllerian hormone and/or antral follicle count useful in the prediction of ovarian response in expected normal responders treated with a fixed dose of recombinant FSH and GnRH antagonists? A prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Ganidou, Maria A; Kolibianakis, Efstratios M; Venetis, Christos A; Gerou, Spiros; Makedos, Georgios A; Klearchou, Nikolaos; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this prospective observational study was to evaluate whether the assessment of AMH and AFC is useful in the prediction of ovarian response in expected normal responders treated with a fixed dose of recombinant FSH (rec-FSH) and GnRH antagonists. A base model including age and basal FSH as independent predictors of COCs could explain 15% of the variance observed in the number of COCs retrieved (p = 0.002). The addition of AFC did not increase significantly the predictive ability of the above model, whereas the addition of AMH increased the performance of the base model by 13% (p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that only when AMH was added to the base model, including age and FSH, its predictive capacity for high ovarian response was statistically significant (F-test: p = 0.001; c-statistic: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.70-0.88), but this was not the case for poor ovarian response. In conclusion, the addition of AMH, but not of AFC, to a model including female age and basal FSH, is useful in the prediction of ovarian response in expected normal responders treated with a fixed dose of recombinant FSH and GnRH antagonists.

  20. Opportunities to Respond: A Key Component of Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Todd; MacSuga-Gage, Ashley S.; Simonsen, Brandi; Hawkins, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Effective instruction is a key component of successful classroom management and includes practices that maximize the likelihood of student participation, active responding, and correct responding while minimizing errors. Researchers have established the connection between effective instruction and (a) increases in desired student behaviors,…

  1. 28 CFR 115.164 - Staff first responder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... first law enforcement staff member to respond to the report shall be required to: (1) Separate the..., defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating; and (4) If the abuse occurred within a time period that still... clothes, urinating, defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating. (b) If the first staff responder is not...

  2. 28 CFR 115.164 - Staff first responder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... first law enforcement staff member to respond to the report shall be required to: (1) Separate the..., defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating; and (4) If the abuse occurred within a time period that still... clothes, urinating, defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating. (b) If the first staff responder is not...

  3. 28 CFR 115.164 - Staff first responder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... first law enforcement staff member to respond to the report shall be required to: (1) Separate the..., defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating; and (4) If the abuse occurred within a time period that still... clothes, urinating, defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating. (b) If the first staff responder is not...

  4. 78 FR 5422 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting... public meeting of the Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) to be held on February 12...) Radio Building 1 (Room 1107), 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305-3328. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  5. Training Law Enforcement Officials on Responding to Equine Calls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kathleen P.; Stauffer, Gary; Stauffer, Monte; Anderson, Doug; Biodrowski, Kristie

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of equine abuse/neglect cases is an ongoing issue. However, officials responding to equine cases are rarely experienced in handling horses. Therefore, workshops teaching basic horse husbandry were offered to better equip and prepare officials to respond to equine cases. Trainings consisted of both classroom and hands-on sessions.…

  6. Responding when Students Don't Get It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy; Lapp, Diane

    2010-01-01

    When students make mistakes, have misconceptions, or are simply wrong, how their teachers respond either builds new skills and understanding or reinforces errors. An intentional approach to responding when students don't get it includes questions to check for understanding, prompts for cognitive and metacognitive work, cues to divert attention,…

  7. 31 CFR 585.703 - Presentation responding to prepenalty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Presentation responding to prepenalty... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 585.703 Presentation responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within... to make a written presentation to the Director. (b) Form and contents of written presentation....

  8. Discourse Cues That Respondents Have Misunderstood Survey Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Michael F.; Bloom, Jonathan E.

    2004-01-01

    When survey respondents' answers include pauses, stammers, and hedges, does this indicate that they are in danger of misinterpreting the survey question? Or are disfluencies so common in ordinary discourse that they are nondiagnostic? We analyzed respondents' first utterances after survey questions in a corpus of 42 laboratory-based telephone…

  9. Understanding and Responding to Adolescent Girls' Online Cruelty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokal, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Many school counsellors have identified "cyber-bullying" among adolescent girls as a growing concern. In order to respond to this issue, this article begins with a new model of cyber-communications from the unique perspective of adolescent girls. Next, it explores the limitations of responding to this model, based on current understandings of…

  10. EIA responds to Nature article on shale gas projections

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    EIA has responded to a December 4, 2014 Nature article on projections of shale gas production made by EIA and by the Bureau of Economic Geology of the University of Texas at Austin (BEG/UT) with a letter to the editors of Nature. BEG/UT has also responded to the article in their own letter to the editor.

  11. 45 CFR 5.24 - Responding to your request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responding to your request. 5.24 Section 5.24 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION FREEDOM OF INFORMATION REGULATIONS Obtaining a Record § 5.24 Responding to your request. (a) Retrieving records. The Department is required to furnish copies of records...

  12. 49 CFR 630.7 - Failure to respond to questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Failure to respond to questions. 630.7 Section 630.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.7 Failure to respond to...

  13. 49 CFR 630.7 - Failure to respond to questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Failure to respond to questions. 630.7 Section 630.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.7 Failure to respond to...

  14. 49 CFR 630.7 - Failure to respond to questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Failure to respond to questions. 630.7 Section 630.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.7 Failure to respond to...

  15. 49 CFR 630.7 - Failure to respond to questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Failure to respond to questions. 630.7 Section 630.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.7 Failure to respond to...

  16. Meta-Analysis and Inadequate Responders to Intervention: A Reply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis by Tran, Sanchez, Arellano, and Swanson (2011) of the published RTI literature found that the magnitude of effect size (ES) between responders and low responders at posttest was significantly moderated by the pretest ES and the type of dependent measure administered, whereas no significant moderating effects were found in the mixed…

  17. 18 CFR 1301.4 - Responsibility for responding to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Responsibility for responding to requests. 1301.4 Section 1301.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Freedom of Information Act § 1301.4 Responsibility for responding to requests. (a)...

  18. 18 CFR 1301.4 - Responsibility for responding to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Responsibility for responding to requests. 1301.4 Section 1301.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Freedom of Information Act § 1301.4 Responsibility for responding to requests. (a)...

  19. 18 CFR 1301.4 - Responsibility for responding to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Responsibility for responding to requests. 1301.4 Section 1301.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Freedom of Information Act § 1301.4 Responsibility for responding to requests. (a)...

  20. How Women Principals Respond to Conflict: A Qualitative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Formisano, Joan

    Women frequently encounter stereotypes concerning their conflict management skills when seeking administrative positions. So far, the literature has focused on conflict management models involving male subjects and male researchers. As women's representation in educational administration increases, traditional viewpoints and theories concerning…

  1. Ready to Respond: Case Studies in Campus Safety and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Is your campus primed for the next big emergency? The National Campus Safety and Security Project (NCSSP), led by NACUBO, sought to help colleges and universities develop comprehensive emergency management plans that address the four phases of emergency management: prevention/mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. A major component of…

  2. Lysosomal adaptation: How cells respond to lysosomotropic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shuyan; Sung, Tae; Lin, Nianwei; Abraham, Robert T.; Jessen, Bart A.

    2017-01-01

    Lysosomes are acidic organelles essential for degradation and cellular homoeostasis and recently lysosomes have been shown as signaling hub to respond to the intra and extracellular changes (e.g. amino acid availability). Compounds including pharmaceutical drugs that are basic and lipophilic will become sequestered inside lysosomes (lysosomotropic). How cells respond to the lysosomal stress associated with lysosomotropism is not well characterized. Our goal is to assess the lysosomal changes and identify the signaling pathways that involve in the lysosomal changes. Eight chemically diverse lysosomotropic drugs from different therapeutic areas were subjected to the evaluation using the human adult retinal pigmented epithelium cell line, ARPE-19. All lysosomotropic drugs tested triggered lysosomal activation demonstrated by increased lysosotracker red (LTR) and lysosensor green staining, increased cathepsin activity, and increased LAMP2 staining. However, tested lysosomotropic drugs also prompted lysosomal dysfunction exemplified by intracellular and extracellular substrate accumulation including phospholipid, SQSTM1/p62, GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and opsin. Lysosomal activation observed was likely attributed to lysosomal dysfunction, leading to compensatory responses including nuclear translocation of transcriptional factors TFEB, TFE3 and MITF. The adaptive changes are protective to the cells under lysosomal stress. Mechanistic studies implicate calcium and mTORC1 modulation involvement in the adaptive changes. These results indicate that lysosomotropic compounds could evoke a compensatory lysosomal biogenic response but with the ultimate consequence of lysosomal functional impairment. This work also highlights a pathway of response to lysosomal stress and evidences the role of TFEB, TFE3 and MITF in the stress response. PMID:28301521

  3. Involuntariness in hypnotic responding and dissociative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Dell, Paul F

    2010-01-01

    Clark Hull's (1933) research on dissociation was based on a 'straw man' formulation of dissociation; he claimed that dissociation requires noninterference. Hull completely ignored the then-current paradigm of dissociation--dissociation as automatism--and claimed that he had refuted the validity of the phenomenon of dissociation. Hull's view of dissociation held sway in the hypnosis field for 60 years. This essay seeks to retrieve the Janetian paradigm of dissociation as automatism. Automatisms are unexpected, uninitiated, involuntary behaviors that just 'happen.' The author argues that human sensitivity to the experience of involuntariness (a) is quite important, (b) was selected by evolution, and (c) is central to both hypnotic responses and dissociative symptoms. This editorial urges the hypnosis field and the dissociation field to jointly undertake a renewed investigation of the experience of involuntariness and to follow recent neuroimaging studies which indicate that the parietal cortex underlies the experience of involuntariness.

  4. Gene Regions Responding to Skeletal Muscle Atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Frank W.

    1997-01-01

    Our stated specific aims for this project were: 1) Identify the region(s) of the mouse IIb myosin heavy chain (MHC) promoter necessary for in vivo expression in mouse fast-twitch muscle, and 2) Identify the region(s) of the mouse IIb MHC promoter responsive to immobilization in mouse slow-twitch muscle in vivo. We sought to address these specific aims by introducing various MHC IIb promoter/reporter gene constructs directly into the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles of living mice. Although the method of somatic gene transfer into skeletal muscle by direct injection has been successfully used in our laboratory to study the regulation of the skeletal alpha actin gene in chicken skeletal muscle, we had many difficulties utilizing this procedure in the mouse. Because of the small size of the mouse soleus and the difficulty in obtaining consistent results, we elected not to study this muscle as first proposed. Rather, our MHC IIb promoter deletion experiments were performed in the gastrocnemius. Further, we decided to use hindlimb unloading via tail suspension to induce an upregulation of the MHC IIb gene, rather than immobilization of the hindlimbs via plaster casts. This change was made because tail suspension more closely mimics spaceflight, and this procedure in our lab results in a smaller loss of overall body mass than the mouse hindlimb immobilization procedure. This suggests that the stress level during tail suspension is less than during immobilization. This research has provided an important beginning point towards understanding the molecular regulation of the MHC lIb gene in response to unweighting of skeletal muscle Future work will focus on the regulation of MHC IIb mRNA stability in response to altered loading of skeletal muscle

  5. Relation between Self-Esteem and Socially Desirable Responding and the Role of Socially Desirable Responding in the Relation between Self-Esteem and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examines the relation between self-esteem and socially desirable responding by integrating previous findings via a meta-analysis. In 55 studies containing 73 independent samples (N?=?11,901), the correlation between self-esteem and Impression Management was weak, that between self-esteem and Self-Deceptive Enhancement was from…

  6. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    PubMed

    Melcón, Mariana L; Cummins, Amanda J; Kerosky, Sara M; Roche, Lauren K; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  7. Blue Whales Respond to Anthropogenic Noise

    PubMed Central

    Melcón, Mariana L.; Cummins, Amanda J.; Kerosky, Sara M.; Roche, Lauren K.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood. PMID:22393434

  8. A test of the cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia in adequate and inadequate responders to reading intervention.

    PubMed

    Barth, Amy E; Denton, Carolyn A; Stuebing, Karla K; Fletcher, Jack M; Cirino, Paul T; Francis, David J; Vaughn, Sharon

    2010-05-01

    The cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia posits that cerebellar deficits are associated with reading disabilities and may explain why some individuals with reading disabilities fail to respond to reading interventions. We tested these hypotheses in a sample of children who participated in a grade 1 reading intervention study (n = 174) and a group of typically achieving children (n = 62). At posttest, children were classified as adequately responding to the intervention (n = 82), inadequately responding with decoding and fluency deficits (n = 36), or inadequately responding with only fluency deficits (n = 56). Based on the Bead Threading and Postural Stability subtests from the Dyslexia Screening Test-Junior, we found little evidence that assessments of cerebellar functions were associated with academic performance or responder status. In addition, we did not find evidence supporting the hypothesis that cerebellar deficits are more prominent for poor readers with "specific" reading disabilities (i.e., with discrepancies relative to IQ) than for poor readers with reading scores consistent with IQ. In contrast, measures of phonological awareness, rapid naming, and vocabulary were strongly associated with responder status and academic outcomes. These results add to accumulating evidence that fails to associate cerebellar functions with reading difficulties.

  9. Mid-luteal estradiol levels of poor/good responders and intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Rehana; Tariq, Sundus; Tariq, Saba; Hashmi, Faisal; Baig, Mukhtiar

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess mid-luteal estradiol (E2) levels in poor and good responders and determine its effect on the outcome after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Methods: The current study was carried out in females who underwent ICSI from June 2011 to September 2013 in “Islamabad Clinic Serving Infertile Couples”. They were categorized into good and poor responders on the basis of female age ≤40 years, basal follicle stimulating hormone ≤12 mIU/ml, and antral follicle count >5, respectively. Their mid-luteal E2 measured on the day of embryo transfer was stratified into groups (A-E) on the basis of 20th, 40th, 60th and 80th percentile values. The outcome was categorized into non-pregnant with beta human chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG) 5-25 m IU/ml, and clinical pregnancy with beta hCG>25 m IU/ml. Results: The conception rate was 12% (63/513) in poor responders and 72% (237/329) in good responders respectively. The mid-luteal E2 levels were higher in conception as compared to non-conception cycles (p<0.001) in good and poor responders. Conclusion: Maximum pregnancies in poor and good responders (53% and 98% respectively) with mid-luteal E2 levels above 80th percentiles confirm the role of the increase in mid-luteal E2 for augmentation in conception rate of females after ICSI. PMID:28367196

  10. Professional responsibilities versus familial responsibilities: an examination of role conflict among first responders during the Hurricane Katrina disaster.

    PubMed

    Adams, Terri; Turner, Mila

    2014-01-01

    In the event of a human-caused or natural disaster, the police are essential front-line first responders. The ability of police departments to provide adequate services is contingent upon critical response personnel working and functioning in an efficient manner. Currently, it is assumed that first responders will continue to work in the event of a disaster, even if they are personally impacted by the disaster to which they are expected to respond. This study examines role conflict among police officers who served as first responders during the Hurricane Katrina disaster.

  11. First responder tracking and visualization for command and control toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Petrov, Plamen; Meisinger, Roger

    2010-04-01

    In order for First Responder Command and Control personnel to visualize incidents at urban building locations, DHS sponsored a small business research program to develop a tool to visualize 3D building interiors and movement of First Responders on site. 21st Century Systems, Inc. (21CSI), has developed a toolkit called Hierarchical Grid Referenced Normalized Display (HiGRND). HiGRND utilizes three components to provide a full spectrum of visualization tools to the First Responder. First, HiGRND visualizes the structure in 3D. Utilities in the 3D environment allow the user to switch between views (2D floor plans, 3D spatial, evacuation routes, etc.) and manually edit fast changing environments. HiGRND accepts CAD drawings and 3D digital objects and renders these in the 3D space. Second, HiGRND has a First Responder tracker that uses the transponder signals from First Responders to locate them in the virtual space. We use the movements of the First Responder to map the interior of structures. Finally, HiGRND can turn 2D blueprints into 3D objects. The 3D extruder extracts walls, symbols, and text from scanned blueprints to create the 3D mesh of the building. HiGRND increases the situational awareness of First Responders and allows them to make better, faster decisions in critical urban situations.

  12. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (Oct-Nov 2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Upton, Jaki F.; Stein, Steven L.

    2015-01-21

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  13. The Proton Pump Inhibitor Non-Responder: A Clinical Conundrum

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Zilla H; Henderson, Emily E; Maradey-Romerao, Carla; George, Nina; Fass, Ronnie; Lacy, Brian E

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a highly prevalent chronic condition where in stomach contents reflux into the esophagus causing symptoms, esophageal injury, and subsequent complications. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) remain the mainstay of therapy for acid suppression. Despite their efficacy, significant proportions of GERD patients are either partial or non-responders to PPI therapy. Patients should be assessed for mechanisms that can lead to PPI failure and may require further evaluation to investigate for alternative causes. This monograph will outline a diagnostic approach to the PPI non-responder, review mechanisms associated with PPI failure, and discuss therapeutic options for those who fail to respond to PPI therapy. PMID:26270485

  14. Estimating hidden population size using Respondent-Driven Sampling data

    PubMed Central

    Handcock, Mark S.; Gile, Krista J.; Mar, Corinne M.

    2015-01-01

    Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) is n approach to sampling design and inference in hard-to-reach human populations. It is often used in situations where the target population is rare and/or stigmatized in the larger population, so that it is prohibitively expensive to contact them through the available frames. Common examples include injecting drug users, men who have sex with men, and female sex workers. Most analysis of RDS data has focused on estimating aggregate characteristics, such as disease prevalence. However, RDS is often conducted in settings where the population size is unknown and of great independent interest. This paper presents an approach to estimating the size of a target population based on data collected through RDS. The proposed approach uses a successive sampling approximation to RDS to leverage information in the ordered sequence of observed personal network sizes. The inference uses the Bayesian framework, allowing for the incorporation of prior knowledge. A flexible class of priors for the population size is used that aids elicitation. An extensive simulation study provides insight into the performance of the method for estimating population size under a broad range of conditions. A further study shows the approach also improves estimation of aggregate characteristics. Finally, the method demonstrates sensible results when used to estimate the size of known networked populations from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and when used to estimate the size of a hard-to-reach population at high risk for HIV. PMID:26180577

  15. Accelerated maternal responding following intra-VTA pertussis toxin treatment.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, John J; Gleason, Erin D; Schoen, Matthew K; Schoen, Mathew T; Lovelock, Dennis F; Carini, Lindsay M; Byrnes, Elizabeth M; Bridges, Robert S

    2011-10-01

    Prior studies have supported a role for mesolimbic dopaminergic mechanisms in the regulation of maternal behavior. Accordingly, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and its dopaminergic projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) have been implicated in both the onset and maintenance of normal maternal behavior. To date, studies of direct manipulation of VTA neurochemistry at the onset of maternal behavior have been limited. The current study was undertaken to directly test the hypothesis that enhancement of dopaminergic transmission in the mesolimbic dopamine system can stimulate maternal activity using a pup-induced virgin model. Nulliparous female rats were stereotaxically infused with pertussis toxin (PTX 0, 0.1, or 0.3 μg/hemisphere) into the VTA to chronically stimulate the activity of dopaminergic projection neurons. After 3 days of recovery, maternal responding to donor pups was tested daily, and latency (in days) to full maternal behavior was recorded. Intra-VTA PTX treatment produced a robust dose-dependent decrease in maternal behavior latency, and a long-lasting increase in locomotor activity. These effects were associated with significantly decreased dopamine D1 receptor mRNA expression in the NAc. No effects of PTX treatment on mesolimbic dopamine utilization or mPFC receptor expression were observed. The findings indicate that chronic neural activation in the VTA accelerates the onset of maternal behavior in virgin female rats via modification of the NAc dopamine D1 receptor.

  16. Accelerated Maternal Responding Following Intra-VTA Pertussis Toxin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, John J.; Gleason, Erin D.; Schoen, Mathew K.; Lovelock, Dennis F.; Carini, Lindsay M.; Byrnes, Elizabeth M.; Bridges, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have supported a role for mesolimbic dopaminergic mechanisms in the regulation of maternal behavior. Accordingly, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and its dopaminergic projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) have been implicated in both the onset and maintenance of normal maternal behavior. To date, studies of direct manipulation of VTA neurochemistry at the onset of maternal behavior have been limited. The current study was undertaken to directly test the hypothesis that enhancement of dopaminergic transmission in the mesolimbic dopamine system can stimulate maternal activity using a pup-induced virgin model. Nulliparous female rats were stereotaxically infused with pertussis toxin (PTX 0, 0.1, or 0.3 μg/hemisphere) into the VTA to chronically stimulate the activity of dopaminergic projection neurons. After 3 days of recovery, maternal responding to donor pups was tested daily, and latency (in days) to full maternal behavior was recorded. Intra-VTA PTX treatment produced a robust dose-dependent decrease in maternal behavior latency, and a long-lasting increase in locomotor activity. These effects were associated with significantly decreased dopamine D1 receptor mRNA expression in the NAc. No effects of PTX treatment on mesolimbic dopamine utilization or mPFC receptor expression were observed. The findings indicate that chronic neural activation in the VTA accelerates the onset of maternal behavior in virgin female rats via modification of the NAc dopamine D1 receptor. PMID:21571006

  17. U.S. Responds to Galena Train Derailment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chicago, Illinois (March 6, 2015) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is responding to the derailment of a BNSF freight train that occurred near Galena, Illinois on March 5th. EPA is conducting air monitoring, taking water samples, assessing

  18. Cluster Headaches Can Defy Diagnosis but Respond to Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162837.html Cluster Headaches Can Defy Diagnosis But Respond to Treatment ... 2, 2017 MONDAY, Jan. 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Cluster headaches are extremely painful, but treatable and preventable, ...

  19. Emergency First Responders' Experience with Colorimetric Detection Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sandra L. Fox; Keith A. Daum; Carla J. Miller; Marnie M. Cortez

    2007-10-01

    Nationwide, first responders from state and federal support teams respond to hazardous materials incidents, industrial chemical spills, and potential weapons of mass destruction (WMD) attacks. Although first responders have sophisticated chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive detectors available for assessment of the incident scene, simple colorimetric detectors have a role in response actions. The large number of colorimetric chemical detection methods available on the market can make the selection of the proper methods difficult. Although each detector has unique aspects to provide qualitative or quantitative data about the unknown chemicals present, not all detectors provide consistent, accurate, and reliable results. Included here, in a consumer-report-style format, we provide “boots on the ground” information directly from first responders about how well colorimetric chemical detection methods meet their needs in the field and how they procure these methods.

  20. 78 FR 38014 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information Administration, U.S. Department of...

  1. 78 FR 63168 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce.... Smith, Chief Counsel, National Telecommunications and Information Administration. BILLING CODE 3510-60-P...

  2. 78 FR 54241 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information Administration, U.S. Department of...

  3. Astronaut Sally Ride responds to question from interviewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Astronaut Sally K. Ride, mission specialist for STS-7, responds to a question from an interviewer during a taping session for ABC's Night Line. Dr. Ride is in the shuttle mockup and integration laboratory.

  4. Responding to the Image World: A Proposal for Art Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadaner, Dan

    1985-01-01

    Reasons why art education should be concerned with contemporary visual culture are examined. Three ways the art curriculum can be restructured to respond critically to visuals such as photographs, advertising, television, and rock videos are outlined. (RM)

  5. Differential effects of carbamazepine on negatively versus positively reinforced responding.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Mary; Harvey, Mark T; Roberts, Celeste; Patterson, Tina G; Kennedy, Craig H

    2002-12-01

    To assess its effects on negatively versus positively reinforced operant behavior, carbamazepine (CBZ) or vehicle was acutely administered to rats. Negative reinforcement baselines consisted of a free-operant avoidance task with 5-s shock-shock and 20-s response-shock intervals. Positive reinforcement baselines consisted of responding for food pellets on a variable interval 30-s schedule. Ascending dose-effect functions were established using CBZ for negatively reinforced responding (vehicle, 25, 50, 100 mg/kg ip) and positively reinforced responding (vehicle, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 mg/kg ip). Negatively reinforced responses and avoided shocks were significantly reduced by CBZ injections at 100 mg/kg. Positively reinforced responses and food pellet deliveries were significantly reduced by CBZ injections at 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg. The results show that CBZ has differential, dose-dependent effects on negatively versus positively reinforced responding.

  6. What Is That Lapping the Miles?: Responding to Reader Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seib, Kenneth

    1995-01-01

    Responds to an article in an earlier issue of this journal about using reading response in a college literature classroom. Argues that the use of reader-response theory with two-year college students requires some caution. (SR)

  7. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 4: Summary report to phase 1 respondents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; White, Terry F.

    1991-01-01

    Phase 1 of a 4 part study was undertaken studying the use of scientific and technical information (STI) by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Specific attention was paid to institutional and socioeconomic variables and to the step-by-step process of information gathering used by the respondents. Data were collected by means of three self administered mail-back questionnaires. The approximately 34,000 members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) served as the study population. More than 65 percent of the randomly selected respondents returned the questionnaires in each of the three groups. Respondents relied more heavily upon informal sources of information than formal sources and turned to librarians and other technical information specialists only when they did not obtain results via informal means or their own formal searches.

  8. The Responders' Gender Stereotypes Modulate the Strategic Decision-Making of Proposers Playing the Ultimatum Game.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Eve F; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wealth of studies investigating factors affecting decisions, not much is known about the impact of stereotypical beliefs on strategic economic decision-making. In the present study, we used the ultimatum game paradigm to investigate how participants playing as proposer modulate their strategic economic behavior, according to their game counterparts' stereotypical identity (i.e., responders). The latter were introduced to the participants using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender paired with feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., linguist-Anna; economist-David; economist-Cristina; linguist-Leonardo). When playing with male-stereotyped responders, proposers quickly applied the equity rule, behaving fairly, while they adopted a strategic behavior with responders characterized by female stereotypes. They were also longer to make their offers to female than to male responders but both kinds of responders received comparable offers, suggesting a greater cognitive effort to treat females as equally as males. The present study explicitly demonstrates that gender stereotypical information affect strategic economic decision-making and highlights a possible evolution of gender discrimination into a more insidious discrimination toward individuals with female characteristics.

  9. Strategies in Responding to the New TOEFL Reading Tasks. TOEFL Monograph Series. MS-33. ETS RR-06-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew D.; Upton, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the reading and test-taking strategies that test takers used in the Reading section of the LanguEdge courseware (ETS, 2002a). These materials were developed to familiarize prospective respondents with the new TOEFL®. The investigation focused on strategies used to respond to more traditional single selection multiple-choice…

  10. Development of an IgG4-RD Responder Index

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, Mollie N.; Stone, John H.; Deshpande, Vikram; Khosroshahi, Arezou

    2012-01-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a multiorgan inflammatory disease in which diverse organ manifestations are linked by common histopathological and immunohistochemical features. Prospective studies of IgG4-RD patients are required to clarify the natural history, long-term prognosis, and treatment approaches in this recently recognized condition. Patients with IgG4-RD have different organ manifestations and are followed by multiple specialties. Divergent approaches to the assessment of patients can complicate the interpretation of studies, emphasizing the critical need for validated outcome measures, particularly assessments of disease activity and response to treatment. We developed a prototype IgG4-RD Responder Index (IgG4-RD RI) based on the approach used in the development of the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score for Wegener's granulomatosis (BVAS/WG). The IgG4-RD RI was refined by members of the International IgG4-RD Symposium Organizing Committee in a paper case exercise. The revised instrument was applied retrospectively to fifteen IgG4-RD patients at our institution. Those scores were compared to physician's global assessment scale for the same visits. This paper describes the philosophy and goals of the IgG4-RD RI, the steps in the development of this instrument to date, and future plans for validation of this instrument as an outcome measure. PMID:22611406

  11. Methodology for Assessing Radiation Detectors Used by Emergency Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Wasiolek; April Simpson

    2008-03-01

    The threat of weapons of mass destruction terrorism resulted in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security deploying large quantities of radiation detectors throughout the emergency responder community. However, emergency responders specific needs were not always met by standard health physics instrumentation used in radiation facilities. Several American National Standards Institute standards were developed and approved to evaluate the technical capabilities of detection equipment. Establishing technical capability is a critical step, but it is equally important to emergency responders that the instruments are easy to operate and can withstand the rugged situations they encounter. The System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program (managed by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Grants and Training, Systems Support Division) focuses predominantly on the usability, ergonomics, readability, and other features of the detectors, rather than performance controlled by industry standards and the manufacturers. National Security Technologies, LLC, as a SAVER Technical Agent, conducts equipment evaluations using active emergency responders who are familiar with the detection equipment and knowledgeable of situations encountered in the field, which provides more relevant data to emergency responders.

  12. How to define, diagnose and treat poor responders? Responses from a worldwide survey of IVF clinics.

    PubMed

    Patrizio, Pasquale; Vaiarelli, Alberto; Levi Setti, Paolo E; Tobler, Kyle J; Shoham, Gon; Leong, Milton; Shoham, Zeev

    2015-06-01

    Poor responders represent a significant percentage of couples treated in IVF units (10-24%), but the standard definition of poor responders remains uncertain and consequently optimal treatment options remain subjective and not evidence-based. In an attempt to provide uniformity on the definition, diagnosis and treatment of poor responders, a worldwide survey was conducted asking IVF professionals a set of questions on this complex topic. The survey was posted on www.IVF-worldwide.com, the largest and most comprehensive IVF-focused website for physicians and embryologists. A total of 196 centres replied, forming a panel of IVF units with a median of 400 cycles per year. The present study shows that the definition of poor responders is still subjective, and many practices do not use evidence-based treatment for this category of patients. Our hope is that by leveraging the great potential of the internet, future studies may provide immediate large-scale sampling to standardize both poor responder definition and treatment options.

  13. Spatial Coding as a Function of Handedness and Responding Hand: Theoretical and Methodological Implications.

    PubMed

    Arend, Isabel; Weiss, Peter H; Timpert, David C; Fink, Gereon R; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    The Simon effect shows that choice reactions are faster if the location of the stimulus and the response correspond, even when stimulus location is task-irrelevant. The Simon effect raises the question of what factors influence spatial coding. Until now, the effects of handedness, responding hand, and visual field were addressed in separate studies that used bimanual and unimanual tasks, providing inconclusive results. Here we aimed to close this empirical gap by looking at the effects of these variables in the same study. We used a unimanual version of a Simon task with four groups of participants: left-handed and right-handed, responding with the dominant or nondominant hand. Our results show that the Simon effect is substantially reduced in the field of the responding hand for all groups of participants, except for left-handed individuals responding with the left-hand. These findings highlight the importance of attention mechanisms in stimulus-response coding. They reflect that stimulus-response interference is influenced by hierarchical activation of response units. At a practical level, these findings call for a number of methodological considerations (e.g., handedness, responding hand, and visual field) when using stimulus-response conflict to address spatial coding and cognitive control functions in neurological populations.

  14. Student-Level Effects of Increased Teacher-Directed Opportunities to Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacSuga-Gage, Ashley S.; Gage, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Antecedent-based classroom management strategies, including teacher-directed opportunities to respond (TD-OTR), have been identified and studied in the literature, but the link between those practices and student outcomes is still developing. This study describes a within-subject interrupted time-series analysis of the relationship between…

  15. Campuses Respond to Violent Tragedy. American Council on Education Series on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Dorothy G.

    This book presents 10 case studies of how universities and colleges respond to violent tragedies, both on- and off-campus, and offers suggestions for institutions to prepare themselves to deal with such crises. Each case study of a specific case of violence or other tragedy was based on interviews with the participants and reports on the specific…

  16. Responding to Recession: IT Funding and Cost Management in Higher Education. Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the key findings from "Responding to Recession: IT Funding and Cost Management in Higher Education", the 2010 ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study of how the economic recession is impacting information technology (IT) organizations and operations in higher education. The study was designed to address the…

  17. Response Cards as a Strategy for Increasing Opportunities to Respond: An Examination of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnorr, Crystalyn I.; Freeman-Green, Shaqwana; Test, David W.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the quality of the research and evidence base for using response cards to increase opportunities to respond (OTR) for students with and without disabilities at the elementary level (i.e., kindergarten through Grade 5). Using quality indicator criteria for single-case research, six single-case studies investigating response…

  18. Establishing Derived Categorical Responding in Children with Disabilities Using the Peak-E Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mark R.; Belisle, Jordan; Stanley, Caleb R.; Speelman, Ryan C.; Rowsey, Kyle E.; Kime, Dena; Daar, Jacob H.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate a procedure to generate derived categorical responding by three children with disabilities and to promote the emergence of untrained intraverbal categorical responses. In the study, three 4-member equivalence classes including three stimuli (A, B, and C) and a category name (D) for each class were trained…

  19. No impact of repeated extinction exposures on operant responding maintained by different reinforcer rates.

    PubMed

    Bai, John Y H; Podlesnik, Christopher A

    2017-02-16

    Greater rates of intermittent reinforcement in the presence of discriminative stimuli generally produce greater resistance to extinction, consistent with predictions of behavioral momentum theory. Other studies reveal more rapid extinction with higher rates of reinforcers - the partial reinforcement extinction effect. Further, repeated extinction often produces more rapid decreases in operant responding due to learning a discrimination between training and extinction contingencies. The present study examined extinction repeatedly with training with different rates of intermittent reinforcement in a multiple schedule. We assessed whether repeated extinction would reverse the pattern of greater resistance to extinction with greater reinforcer rates. Counter to this prediction, resistance to extinction was consistently greater across twelve assessments of training followed by six successive sessions of extinction. Moreover, patterns of responding during extinction resembled those observed during satiation tests, which should not alter discrimination processes with repeated testing. These findings join others suggesting operant responding in extinction can be durable across repeated tests.

  20. Individual and sex differences in high and low responder phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Carreira, María B; Cossio, Ricardo; Britton, Gabrielle B

    2017-03-01

    Individual differences in responses to a novel environment are an important tool to predict predisposition to neuropsychiatric disorders. One way to examine individual differences involves classifying animals based on locomotion in a novel context. In this study we focused on individual and sex differences by categorizing female and male mice as high (HR) or low responders (LR) on the basis of open field locomotion. We then assessed whether groups differed on behavioral measures of spontaneous alternations, anxiety, depression and contextual fear conditioning. In the Y-maze, we observed no differences across HR/LR or sex on spontaneous alternations, but HR displayed more locomotion. HR male mice showed less anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark test but not the elevated plus maze. We observed no differences in the forced swim test across HR/LR, although males exhibited greater depression-like behavior overall. HR mice exhibited less contextual fear memory compared to LR regardless of sex. Principal component analyses suggested sex-specific patterns of behaviors across tests, with female responses within individual tests tending to load together. In females anxiety- and depression-like behaviors explained a large part of the variance observed across tests in our battery, whereas male behavior was primarily explained by variables related to locomotion.

  1. Sharka: how do plants respond to Plum pox virus infection?

    PubMed

    Clemente-Moreno, María J; Hernández, José A; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV), the causal agent of sharka disease, is one of the most studied plant viruses, and major advances in detection techniques, genome characterization and organization, gene expression, transmission, and the description of candidate genes involved in PPV resistance have been described. However, information concerning the plant response to PPV infection is very scarce. In this review, we provide an updated summary of the research carried out to date in order to elucidate how plants cope with PPV infection and their response at different levels, including the physiological, biochemical, proteomic, and genetic levels. Knowledge about how plants respond to PPV infection can contribute to the development of new strategies to cope with this disease. Due to the fact that PPV induces an oxidative stress in plants, the bio-fortification of the antioxidative defences, by classical or biotechnological approaches, would be a useful tool to cope with PPV infection. Nevertheless, there are still some gaps in knowledge related to PPV-plant interaction that remain to be filled, such as the effect of PPV on the hormonal profile of the plant or on the plant metabolome.

  2. The effects of differential and lag reinforcement schedules on varied verbal responding by individuals with autism.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ronald; McComas, Jennifer J; Jawor, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    Variability has been shown to be a reinforceable dimension of behavior. One procedure that has been demonstrated to increase variability in basic research is the lag reinforcement schedule. On this type of schedule, a response is reinforced if it differs from a specified number of previous responses. Lag schedules are rarely used, however, for increasing response variability in applied settings. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of a lag schedule of differential reinforcement on varied and appropriate verbal responding to social questions by 3 males with autism. A reversal design with a multiple baseline across subjects was used to evaluate the effects of the lag schedule. During baseline, differential reinforcement of appropriate responding (DRA) resulted in little or no varied responding. During the intervention, a Lag 1 requirement was added to the DRA (Lag 1/DRA) resulting in an increase in the percentage of trials with varied and appropriate verbal responding for 2 of the 3 participants. In addition, an increase in the cumulative number of novel verbal responses was also observed for the same 2 participants. These results are discussed in terms of reinforcement schedules that support variability, generalization, and potential stimulus control over varied responding. PMID:12555910

  3. Effects of drugs on food- and cocaine-maintained responding, III: Dopaminergic antagonists.

    PubMed

    Glowa, J R; Wojnicki, F H

    1996-12-01

    The effects of three dopamine (DA) antagonists (SCH23390, pimozide, and chlorpromazine), with various degrees of selectivity for D1 and D2 receptors, and an agonist (the cocaine analog, CFT) were studied on responding maintained under a multiple fixed-ratio (FR) 30 food, FR30 cocaine (1-100 micrograms/kg per injection) delivery, with an interposed 10-min time-out (TO), schedule in rhesus monkeys. The effects of each drug depended upon the unit dose of cocaine. With an intermediate (10 micrograms/kg per injection) unit dose of cocaine, each antagonist decreased rates of responding maintained by either event in a dose-related manner. At higher (56-100 micrograms/kg per injection) unit doses of cocaine, antagonists generally increased and then decreased both food- and cocaine-maintained responding in a dose-related manner. These increases appeared to result from the blockade of non-specific rate-decreasing effects of self-administered cocaine, questioning their relevance to the reinforcing effects of cocaine. The results failed to support a role for pharmacological selectivity in this rate-decreasing effect of cocaine, as both D1 and D2 antagonists were able to reverse the effect. In contrast, CFT decreased cocaine-maintained responding at doses less than those that decreased food-maintained responding, and failed to shift the cocaine dose-effect function to the left. These results, together with previous work, suggest that agonists can selectively decrease drug-seeking behavior.

  4. Cognitive Reactivity, Dysfunctional Attitudes, and Depressive Relapse and Recurrence in Cognitive Therapy Responders

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Robin B.; Minhajuddin, Abu; Borman, Patricia D.; Dunlap, Lauren; Segal, Zindel V.; Kidner, Cindy L.; Friedman, Edward S.; Thase, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Dysfunctional attitudes can foreshadow depressive relapse/recurrence. Priming mood, through induction paradigms, is hypothesized to activate dysfunctional attitudes. Cognitive reactivity (CR) refers to mood-linked increases in dysfunctional attitudes after priming. Here we explored the extent to which CR as well as residual, unprimed, dysfunctional attitudes predicted depressive relapse/recurrence among depressed patients who responded to acute phase cognitive therapy (CT). Consenting adults, aged 18–70, with recurrent major depressive disorder (n = 523) participated in a two-site randomized controlled trial examining the durability of continuation phase treatments. Patients received 16–20 sessions of CT. Among the 245 incompletely remitted responders, 213 agreed to undergo a mood induction paradigm. After 8 months of continuation phase treatments, participants were followed an additional 24 months. Although the mood induction significantly lowered mood in 80% of responders, the expected CR was not evident. By contrast, higher unprimed dysfunctional attitudes following CT did predict relapse/recurrence over 20 and 32 months post randomization. The findings of this large longitudinal study of incompletely remitted CT responders challenge the notion that it is necessary to prime mood in order to maximize dysfunctional attitudes’ prediction of relapse and/or recurrence. While findings cannot be generalized beyond CT responders, they emphasize the clinical importance of reducing dysfunctional attitudes in preventing depression. PMID:22445946

  5. Effect of a single free food presentation on extinction responding in a multiple schedule.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Adam J; Bell, Matthew C

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to assess the effect of a single, response-independent food presentation on responding during extinction. Using a two-component multiple schedule, we examined differences in pigeons' extinction responding resulting from a single response-independent food presentation occurring at the beginning of the experimental session (30-s prior to the beginning of the first component). One component presented reinforcement according to a variable interval 45-s schedule and the second presented reinforcement according to a variable interval 180-s schedule. After establishing stable baseline responding we extinguished responding. We systematically manipulated the presence or absence of a single 3-s free food presentation using the food hopper that occurred 30-s prior to the presentation of the first component. We found the single free food presentation increased persistence of responding in extinction. This finding is inconsistent with behavioral momentum theory inasmuch as it assigns a response disruptive role to food presentations occurring outside of the context of the target operant.

  6. Measurement of the frequency stability of responders in aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xiaofan

    1994-01-01

    Measurement on an aircraft orbit, such as a satellite launching orbit, is made by the responder in the aircraft along with several remote track stations on the ground. During the launching, the system is required to have precise time synchronization and frequency accuracy. At the same time, accurate measurement of aircraft velocity requires high frequency stability of the system. However, atomic frequency standards in the ground stations supply time and frequency reference standard with excellent long term and short term frequency stability for the above-mentioned goals. The stability of responder is also an important factor affecting the performance of the system and there are more requirements for the corresponding time/frequency measurements. In the system, the responders do not use continuous wave (CW) but narrow pulse modulated wave; consequently, the characterization theory of their stability is more complicated and the measurement technique is more difficult for pulsed wave than that for CW. A systematic characterization theory of the frequency stability for pulsed wave is demonstrated and the measuring methods are discussed. The measurement systems, which have been set up in Beijing Institute of Radio Metrology and Measurement (BIRMM) and can be used to test the frequency stability of pulse coherent responders in time domain and frequency domain with high sensitivity and accuracy, are described. Using these measurement systems, successful measurements for the responders were made with which the satellite launching orbits were precisely obtained and tracked.

  7. A comparison of small monetary incentives to convert survey non-respondents: a randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Maximizing response rates is critically important in order to provide the most generalizable and unbiased research results. High response rates reduce the chance of respondents being systematically different from non-respondents, and thus, reduce the risk of results not truly reflecting the study population. Monetary incentives are often used to improve response rates, but little is known about whether larger incentives improve response rates in those who previously have been unenthusiastic about participating in research. In this study we compared the response rates and cost-effectiveness of a $5 versus $2 monetary incentive accompanying a short survey mailed to patients who did not respond or refused to participate in research study with a face-to-face survey. Methods 1,328 non-responders were randomly assigned to receive $5 or $2 and a short, 10-question survey by mail. Reminder postcards were sent to everyone; those not returning the survey were sent a second survey without incentive. Overall response rates, response rates by incentive condition, and odds of responding to the larger incentive were calculated. Total costs (materials, postage, and labor) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were also calculated and compared by incentive condition. Results After the first mailing, the response rate within the $5 group was significantly higher (57.8% vs. 47.7%, p < .001); after the second mailing, the difference narrowed by 80%, resulting in a non-significant difference in cumulative rates between the $5 and $2 groups (67.3% vs. 65.4%, respectively, p = .47). Regardless of incentive or number of contacts, respondents were significantly more likely to be male, white, married, and 50-75 years old. Total costs were higher with the larger versus smaller incentive ($13.77 versus $9.95 per completed survey). Conclusions A $5 incentive provides a significantly higher response rate than a $2 incentive if only one survey mailing is used but not if two survey

  8. Inactivation of the Prelimbic Cortex Attenuates Context-Dependent Operant Responding.

    PubMed

    Trask, Sydney; Shipman, Megan L; Green, John T; Bouton, Mark E

    2017-03-01

    Operant responding in rats provides an analog to voluntary behavior in humans and is used to study maladaptive behaviors, such as overeating, drug taking, or relapse. In renewal paradigms, extinguished behavior recovers when tested outside the context where extinction was learned. Inactivation of the prelimbic (PL) region of the medial prefrontal cortex by baclofen/muscimol (B/M) during testing attenuates renewal when tested in the original acquisition context after extinction in another context (ABA renewal). Two experiments tested the hypothesis that the PL is important in context-dependent responding learned during conditioning. In the first, rats learned to lever-press for a sucrose-pellet reward. Following acquisition, animals were infused with either B/M or vehicle in the PL and tested in the acquisition context (A) and in a different context (B). All rats showed a decrement in responding when switched from Context A to Context B, but PL inactivation decreased responding only in Context A. Experiment 2a examined the effects of PL inactivation on ABC renewal in the same rats. Here, following reacquisition of the response, responding was extinguished in a new context (C). Following infusions of B/M or vehicle in the PL, responding was tested in Context C and another new context (D). The rats exhibited ACD renewal regardless of PL inactivation. Experiment 2b demonstrated that PL inactivation attenuated the ABA renewal effect in the same animals, replicating earlier results and demonstrating that cannulae were still functional. The results suggest that, rather than attenuating renewal generally, PL inactivation specifically affects ABA renewal by reducing responding in the conditioning context.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Extinguished operant behavior can recover ("renew") when tested outside the extinction context. This suggests that behaviors, such as overeating or drug taking, might be especially prone to relapse following treatment. In rats, inactivation of the

  9. Vital analysis: field validation of a framework for annotating biological signals of first responders in action.

    PubMed

    Gomes, P; Lopes, B; Coimbra, M

    2012-01-01

    First responders are professionals that are exposed to extreme stress and fatigue during extended periods of time. That is why it is necessary to research and develop technological solutions based on wearable sensors that can continuously monitor the health of these professionals in action, namely their stress and fatigue levels. In this paper we present the Vital Analysis smartphone-based framework, integrated into the broader Vital Responder project, that allows the annotation and contextualization of the signals collected during real action. After a contextual study we have implemented and deployed this framework in a firefighter team with 5 elements, from where we have collected over 3300 hours of annotations during 174 days, covering 382 different events. Results are analysed and discussed, validating the framework as a useful and usable tool for annotating biological signals of first responders in action.

  10. Increased aggressive responding in male volunteers following the administration of gradually increasing doses of testosterone cypionate.

    PubMed

    Kouri, E M; Lukas, S E; Pope, H G; Oliva, P S

    1995-11-01

    The present study assessed the effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on aggressive responding in a controlled laboratory setting. Eight male subjects received gradually increasing doses of testosterone cypionate (150 mg/week for two weeks, 300 mg/week for two weeks, and 600 mg/week for two weeks) or placebo using a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design. Subjects were tested both before and after the series of injections. During the experimental session subjects could press a button to accumulate points exchangeable for money (non-aggressive response) or press another button to subtract points from a fictitious opponent (aggressive response). Aggressive responding was instigated by subtracting points from the subject which was attributable to the fictitious opponent. Testosterone administration resulted in a significantly higher number of aggressive responding compared to placebo.

  11. The role of citzens in detecting and responding to a rapid marine invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scyphers, Stephen B.; Powers, Sean P.; Akins, J. Lad; Drymon, J. Marcus; Martin, Charles M.; Schobernd, Zeb H.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Shipp, Robert L.; Switzer, Theodore S.

    2015-01-01

    Documenting and responding to species invasions requires innovative strategies that account for ecological and societal complexities. We used the recent expansion of Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) throughout northern Gulf of Mexico coastal waters to evaluate the role of stakeholders in documenting and responding to a rapid marine invasion. We coupled an online survey of spearfishers and citizen science monitoring programs with traditional fishery-independent data sources and found that citizen observations documented lionfish 1–2 years earlier and more frequently than traditional reef fish monitoring programs. Citizen observations first documented lionfish in 2010 followed by rapid expansion and proliferation in 2011 (+367%). From the survey of spearfishers, we determined that diving experience and personal observations of lionfish strongly influenced perceived impacts, and these perceptions were powerful predictors of support for initiatives. Our study demonstrates the value of engaging citizens for assessing and responding to large-scale and time-sensitive conservation problems.

  12. The genetic differences with whole genome linkage disequilibrium mapping between responder and non-responder in interferon-alpha and ribavirin combined therapy for chronic hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, P-J; Hwang, Y; Lin, C G-J; Wu, Y-J; Wu, L S-H

    2008-04-01

    Interferon-alpha and ribavirin combined therapy has been a mainstream treatment for hepatitis C infection. The efficacy of this combined treatment is around 30% to 60%, and the factors affecting the responsiveness are still poorly defined. Our study is intended to investigate the genetic differences between responder and non-responder patients. The genome-wide linkage disequilibrium screening for loci associated with genetic difference between two patient groups was conducted by using 382 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers involving 92 patients. We have identified 19 STR markers displaying different allele frequencies between the two patient groups. In addition, based on their genomic location and biological function, we selected the CD81 and IL15 genes to perform single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping. In conclusion, this study may provide a new approach for identifying the associated polymorphisms and the susceptible loci for interferon-alpha and ribavirin combined therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  13. Heartbeat and Economic Decisions: Observing Mental Stress among Proposers and Responders in the Ultimatum Bargaining Game

    PubMed Central

    Dulleck, Uwe; Schaffner, Markus; Torgler, Benno

    2014-01-01

    The ultimatum bargaining game (UBG), a widely used method in experimental economics, clearly demonstrates that motives other than pure monetary reward play a role in human economic decision making. In this study, we explore the behaviour and physiological reactions of both responders and proposers in an ultimatum bargaining game using heart rate variability (HRV), a small and nonintrusive technology that allows observation of both sides of an interaction in a normal experimental economics laboratory environment. We find that low offers by a proposer cause signs of mental stress in both the proposer and the responder; that is, both exhibit high ratios of low to high frequency activity in the HRV spectrum. PMID:25247817

  14. Mixed lymphocyte culture stimulatory and responding capacity of lymphocytes from patients with lymphoproliferative diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Rühl, H; Vogt, W; Bochert, G; Schmidt, S; Moelle, R; Schaoua, H

    1975-01-01

    Lymphocyte reactivity in vitro was studied in patients with Hodgkin's disease, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and lymphosarcoma. The responding capacity to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) was markedly depressed and delayed in all three groups of patients compared with the PHA response observed in lymphocyte cultures from normal individuals. In one-way mixed lymphocyte culture experiments a significant decrease in responding capacity of the patients' lymphocytes to lymphocytes from normal donors could be demonstrated. In contrast, the stimulatory capacity of the patients' lymphocytes was found to be intact, or only slightly reduced. PMID:128426

  15. Worker health and safety training: assessing impact among responders.

    PubMed

    Weidner, B L; Gotsch, A R; Delnevo, C D; Newman, J B; McDonald, B

    1998-03-01

    A mail survey was conducted among emergency responders who received training at the New Jersey/New York Hazardous Materials Worker Training Center. Responses indicate that technical topics are extremely important (i.e., decontamination, personal protection); that the vast preponderance of trainees felt confident in their ability to recall specific critical concepts in a crisis; and that 42% of respondents (75) had experienced an incident that would have resulted in injury or death without training. Phone surveys for details of specific incidents reported by 43 of the 75 mail survey respondents revealed that anecdotal data provide powerful evidence of the value of training; that extensive and uniform training is needed across jurisdictions; that training should emphasize the technical aspects of health and safety, and should include demonstration and hands-on techniques; and that integrated organizational support for implementation of health and safety practices is critical.

  16. Microbial communities respond to experimental warming, but site matters

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Nathan J.; Dunn, Robert R.; Classen, Aimée T.

    2014-01-01

    Because microorganisms are sensitive to temperature, ongoing global warming is predicted to influence microbial community structure and function. We used large-scale warming experiments established at two sites near the northern and southern boundaries of US eastern deciduous forests to explore how microbial communities and their function respond to warming at sites with differing climatic regimes. Soil microbial community structure and function responded to warming at the southern but not the northern site. However, changes in microbial community structure and function at the southern site did not result in changes in cellulose decomposition rates. While most global change models rest on the assumption that taxa will respond similarly to warming across sites and their ranges, these results suggest that the responses of microorganisms to warming may be mediated by differences across the geographic boundaries of ecosystems. PMID:24795850

  17. How to respond to referee comments for scientific articles?

    PubMed

    Kalemci, Mustafa Serdar; Turna, Burak

    2013-09-01

    Currently, the increasing number of article submissions to scientific journals forces editors to be more selective in their acceptance of papers. Consequently, editors have increased the frequency of their use of scientific referee mechanisms. For many researchers, the publication of a scientific article in a high impact factor journal is a gradual and difficult process. After preparation and submission of a manuscript, one of the most important issue is responding to the comments of referees. However, there is a paucity of published reports in the literature describing how to respond to these comments. The aim of this review is to assist researchers/authors in responding to referee comments as part of the publication process for scientific articles.

  18. Secondary calcification and dissolution respond differently to future ocean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silbiger, N. J.; Donahue, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change threatens both the accretion and erosion processes that sustain coral reefs. Secondary calcification, bioerosion, and reef dissolution are integral to the structural complexity and long-term persistence of coral reefs, yet these processes have received less research attention than reef accretion by corals. In this study, we use climate scenarios from RCP 8.5 to examine the combined effects of rising ocean acidity and sea surface temperature (SST) on both secondary calcification and dissolution rates of a natural coral rubble community using a flow-through aquarium system. We found that secondary reef calcification and dissolution responded differently to the combined effect of pCO2 and temperature. Calcification had a non-linear response to the combined effect of pCO2 and temperature: the highest calcification rate occurred slightly above ambient conditions and the lowest calcification rate was in the highest temperature-pCO2 condition. In contrast, dissolution increased linearly with temperature-pCO2 . The rubble community switched from net calcification to net dissolution at +271 μatm pCO2 and 0.75 °C above ambient conditions, suggesting that rubble reefs may shift from net calcification to net dissolution before the end of the century. Our results indicate that (i) dissolution may be more sensitive to climate change than calcification and (ii) that calcification and dissolution have different functional responses to climate stressors; this highlights the need to study the effects of climate stressors on both calcification and dissolution to predict future changes in coral reefs.

  19. Secondary calcification and dissolution respond differently to future ocean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silbiger, N. J.; Donahue, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Climate change threatens both the accretion and erosion processes that sustain coral reefs. Secondary calcification, bioerosion, and reef dissolution are integral to the structural complexity and long-term persistence of coral reefs, yet these processes have received less research attention than reef accretion by corals. In this study, we use climate scenarios from RCP8.5 to examine the combined effects of rising ocean acidity and SST on both secondary calcification and dissolution rates of a natural coral rubble community using a flow-through aquarium system. We found that secondary reef calcification and dissolution responded differently to the combined effect of pCO2 and temperature. Calcification had a non-linear response to the combined effect of pCO2-temperature: the highest calcification rate occurred slightly above ambient conditions and the lowest calcification rate was in the highest pCO2-temperature condition. In contrast, dissolution increased linearly with pCO2-temperature. The rubble community switched from net calcification to net dissolution at +272 μatm pCO2 and 0.84 °C above ambient conditions, suggesting that rubble reefs may shift from net calcification to net dissolution before the end of the century. Our results indicate that dissolution may be more sensitive to climate change than calcification, and that calcification and dissolution have different functional responses to climate stressors, highlighting the need to study the effects of climate stressors on both calcification and dissolution to predict future changes in coral reefs.

  20. Dissociating Indifferent, Directional, and Extreme Responding in Personality Data: Applying the Three-Process Model to Self- and Observer Reports.

    PubMed

    Zettler, Ingo; Lang, Jonas W B; Hülsheger, Ute R; Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2016-08-01

    Research suggests that respondents vary in their tendency to use the response scale of typical (Likert-style) questionnaires. We study the nature of the response process by applying a recently introduced item response theory modeling procedure, the three-process model, to data of self- and observer reports of personality traits. The three-process model captures indifferent, directional, and extreme responding. Substantively, we hypothesize that, and test whether, trait Honesty-Humility is negatively linked to extreme responding. We applied the three-process model to personality data of 577 dyads (self- and observer reports of the HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised; Lee & Ashton, ) of Dutch and German undergraduate respondents. First, we provide evidence that indifferent, directional, and extreme responding can be separated from each other in personality data through the use of the three-process model. Second, we show that the various response processes show a pattern of correlations across traits and rating sources which is in line with the idea that indifferent and extreme responding are person-specific tendencies, whereas directional responding is content-specific. Third, we report findings supporting the hypothesis that Honesty-Humility is negatively linked to extreme responding. In Likert-based personality data, applying the three-process model can unveil individual differences in the response process.

  1. Addition of simvastatin to carvedilol non responders: A new pharmacological therapy for treatment of portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Zeeshan Ahmad; Mohapatra, Sonmoon; Khan, Afaq Ahmad; Mohapatra, Ashutosh; Yatoo, Ghulam Nabi

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine whether addition of simvastatin could be an important pharmacological rescue therapy for carvedilol non-responders. METHODS One hundred and two consecutive patients of cirrhosis of liver with significant portal hypertension were included. Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) was measured at the base line and after proper optimization of dose; chronic response was assessed at 3 mo. Carvedilol non-responders were given simvastatin 20 mg per day (increased to 40 mg per day at day 15). Carvedilol plus simvastatin was continued for 1 mo and hemodynamic response was again measured at 1 mo. RESULTS A total of 102 patients with mean age of 58.3 ± 6.6 years were included. Mean baseline HVPG was 16.75 ± 2.12 mmHg and after optimization of dose and reassessment of HVPG at 3 mo, mean reduction of HVPG from baseline was 5.5 ± 1.7 mmHg and 2.8 ± 1.6 mmHg among responders and non-responders respectively (P < 0.001). Addition of simvastatin to carvedilol non-responders resulted in significant response in 16 patients (42.1%) and thus overall response with carvedilol and carvedilol plus simvastatin was seen in 78 patients (80%). Two patients were removed in chronic protocol study with carvedilol and three patients were removed in carvedilol plus simvastatin study due to side effects. CONCLUSION Addition of simvastatin to carvedilol non-responders may prove to be an excellent rescue therapy in patients with portal hypertension. PMID:28261384

  2. Some effects of punishment shock intensity upon discriminative responding.

    PubMed

    Powell, R W

    1971-01-01

    Three pigeons received visual discrimination training under both multiple variable-ratio extinction and variable-interval extinction schedules. All birds developed nearly perfect discrimination. When punishment for every tenth response during food reinforcement was presented, responding decreased as shock intensity increased. At the same time, responding during extinction, which was not punished, increased at intermediate punishment intensities, but returned to low levels under severe punishment. A second procedure, in which punishment and no-punishment sessions alternated unsystematically, was employed with two of the birds. The results under this procedure essentially replicated the data obtained as punishment shock intensity increased gradually.

  3. How the Public Sees Higher Education [and] How Higher Education Is Responding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netherton, Robin; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Two articles look at higher education public relations issues. The first reviews three studies of public opinion of higher education, undertaken through broad survey, focus groups, and a survey of civic leaders. In the second article, five college and university public relations professionals reveal their battle plans to respond to public…

  4. Question-Posing and Question-Responding: The Heart of "Possibility Thinking" in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Kerry; Craft, Anna; Burnard, Pamela; Cremin, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on research that sought to explore the characteristics of "Possibility Thinking" as central to creativity in young children's learning, this paper considers question-posing and question-responding as the driving features of "Possibility Thinking" (PT). This qualitative study employed micro-event analysis of peer and…

  5. (Dis)Located Readers? High School Students Responding to African Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Ingrid; Mangat, Jyoti

    A study explored whether high school readers respond significantly differently to African novels in which unfamiliar cultural elements are presented "aggressively" than to those with an "assimilative" presentation of unfamiliar cultural elements. The three novels are set in Africa: Nancy Farmer's "A Girl Named…

  6. Effects of Post-Session Wheel Running on Within-Session Changes in Operant Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoyama, Kenjiro

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the effects of post-session wheel running on within-session changes in operant responding. Lever-pressing by six rats was reinforced by a food pellet under a continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedule in 30-min sessions. Two different flavored food pellets were used as reinforcers. In the wheel conditions, 30-min operant-sessions…

  7. How Preservice Teachers Interpret and Respond to Student Errors: Ratio and Proportion in Similar Rectangles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Ji-Won

    2013-01-01

    Interpreting and responding to student thinking are central tasks of reform-minded mathematics teaching. This study examined preservice teachers' (PSTs) interpretations of and responses to a student's error(s) involving finding a missing length in similar rectangles through a teaching scenario task. Fifty-seven PSTs' responses were…

  8. How Schools Responded to Student Mental Health Needs Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RAND Corporation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This fact sheet summarizes a study that examined how schools in the U.S. Gulf Coast region perceived the mental health needs of students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and how schools responded. According to the report, despite strong initial efforts to support the mental health needs of students displaced by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, many…

  9. Evaluating the Impact of Careless Responding on Aggregated-Scores: To Filter Unmotivated Examinees or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios, Joseph A.; Guo, Hongwen; Mao, Liyang; Liu, Ou Lydia

    2017-01-01

    When examinees' test-taking motivation is questionable, practitioners must determine whether careless responding is of practical concern and if so, decide on the best approach to filter such responses. As there has been insufficient research on these topics, the objectives of this study were to: a) evaluate the degree of underestimation in the…

  10. Responding to Children's Everyday Transgressions in Chinese Working-Class Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiao-lei; Bernas, Ronan; Eberhard, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how working-class mothers in the People's Republic of China respond to their young children's transgressions in everyday contexts. Twenty 4-year-old children and their mothers in a working-class neighbourhood were observed in their daily routines at home. When addressing children's transgressions and socialising desirable…

  11. A Comparison of Active Student Responding Modalities in a General Psychology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayac, Ryan M.; Ratkos, Thom; Frieder, Jessica E.; Paulk, Amber

    2016-01-01

    Research on teaching has shown that incorporating active student responding (ASR) into classroom instruction facilitates learning and should be considered best practice. Nevertheless, few published studies have examined ASR using a within-participant design across a semester. Using a counterbalanced alternating treatment design, a direct…

  12. Effects of Task Difficulty and Type of Contingency on Students' Allocation of Responding to Math Worksheets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lannie, Amanda L.; Martens, Brian K.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated students' allocation of responding as a function of task difficulty and type of reinforcement contingency (i.e., accuracy based or time based). Four regular education fourth-grade students were presented with two identical stacks of easy and then difficult math worksheets using a reversal design. Regardless of condition,…

  13. Examining the Content Validity of the WHOQOL-BRF from Respondents' Perspective by Quantitative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Grace; Wu, Chia-Huei; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2008-01-01

    Content validity, the extent to which a measurement reflects the specific intended domain of content, is a basic type of validity for a valid measurement. It was usually examined qualitatively and relied on experts' subjective judgments, not on respondents' responses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to introduce and demonstrate how to use…

  14. Exit Strategies: How Low-Performing High Schools Respond to High School Exit Examination Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Jennifer Jellison

    2013-01-01

    Background: Over the past several decades, a significant number of states have either adopted or increased high school exit examination requirements. Although these policies are intended to generate improvement in schools, little is known about how high schools are responding to exit testing pressures. Purpose: This study examined how five…

  15. Providing Student Opportunities to Respond in Reading and Mathematics: A Look across Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Todd; Cooper, Justin T.; Lingo, Amy S.

    2015-01-01

    The evidence for providing sufficient opportunities for students to respond has been established in terms of student engagement and achievement in reading and mathematics. Although supported by research, the question remains whether teachers are incorporating this effective practice in their classroom instruction. This study examines the analysis…

  16. Preferred Strategies for Responding to Hostile Questions in Environmental Public Meetings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Kim Sydow; Follender, Saroya I.; Shane, Guy

    1998-01-01

    States that current guidance for organizational spokespersons lacks a clear theoretical and empirical foundation. Describes a study designed to rank preferences for five previously identified rhetorical strategies for responding to hostile questions in environmental meetings based on speech act theory. Finds responses based on the timing strategy…

  17. The Practical Implication of Comparing How Adults with and without Intellectual Disability Respond to Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Jeff; Wigram, Tony; Carson, Derek; Lindsay, Bill

    2011-01-01

    Previous researchers who compared how people with, and without, an intellectual disability respond to music focused on musical aptitude, but not on arousal. This paper presents the background, methodology, and results of a study that selected fifteen different pieces of music, and compared the arousal response of adults with (n = 48), and without…

  18. Supporting Preservice Science Teachers' Ability to Attend and Respond to Student Thinking by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hosun; Anderson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    A teacher's ability to attend and respond to student thinking is a key instructional capacity for promoting complex and deeper learning in science classrooms. This qualitative multiple case study examines 14 preservice science teachers' (PSTs) responses to learning opportunities created to develop this capacity, as provided by a teacher…

  19. Assessing Sample Bias among Venue-Based Respondents at Medical Marijuana Dispensaries

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Crystal; Freisthler, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Venue-based sampling is the identification of, and outreach to, locations visited by the population of interest for the purpose of collecting data. The method is frequently used to reach specific populations, commonly referred to as “hidden populations.” Medical marijuana users represent a hidden population of persons who use marijuana for medicinal purposes. We examine whether venue-based procedures introduce selection or non-respondent bias into the study. The venue based sampling procedures employed for the UCLA Medical Marijuana Study used a two-stage, venue-based sampling approach. First, analyses were conducted to assess potential bias within dispensaries that agreed to participate in the surveys. Secondly, analyses were conducted to examine differences among patrons who responded to surveys. Overall, selection bias was generally absent among study results. Results also illuminated the minimal respondent bias observed among the survey respondents. Results suggest that the use of dispensaries to access and survey medical marijuana users is a viable option to gather patient information that adequately represents the greater population of medical marijuana users in Los Angeles. Thus, recommendations and conclusions based on findings from venue-based studies of medical marijuana users at dispensary sites serve to impartially inform meaningful research. PMID:26882461

  20. Rasch Modeling of the Self-Deception Scale of the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervellione, Kelly L.; Lee, Young-Sun; Bonanno, George A.

    2009-01-01

    Self-deception has become a construct of great interest in individual differences research because it has been associated with levels of resilience and mental health. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) is a self-report measure used for quantifying self-deception. In this study we used Rasch modeling to examine the properties of…

  1. Attitudes toward buying online as predictors of shopping online for British and American respondents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bijou; Lester, David; James, Simon

    2007-04-01

    This study compared the attitudes toward online shopping of British and American individuals. Using a sample of 327 British and American university students, the British respondents were found to have less favorable attitudes toward online shopping. Attitudes toward online shopping were found to be significant predictors of making online purchases. The implications of these results were discussed and suggestions made for future research.

  2. Rat embryonic palatal shelves respond to TCDD in organ culture

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, B.D.; Birnbaum, L.S. )

    1990-05-01

    TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), a highly toxic environmental contaminant, is teratogenic in mice, inducing cleft palate (CP) and hydronephrosis at doses which are not overtly maternally or embryo toxic. Palatal shelves of embryonic mice respond to TCDD, both in vivo and in organ culture, with altered differentiation of medial epithelial cells. By contrast, in the rat TCDD produces substantial maternal, embryonic, and fetal toxicity, including fetal lethality, with few malformations. In this study the possible effects of maternal toxicity on induction of cleft palate were eliminated by exposure of embryonic rat palatal shelves in organ culture. The shelves were examined for specific TCDD-induced alterations in differentiation of the medial cells. On Gestation Day (GD) 14 or 15 palatal shelves from embryonic F344 rats were placed in organ culture for 2 to 3 days (IMEM:F12 medium, 5% FBS, 0.1% DMSO) containing 0, 1 x 10(-8), 1 x 10(-9), 1 x 10(-10), or 5 x 10(-11) M TCDD. The medial epithelial peridermal cells degenerated on shelves exposed to control media or 5 x 10(-11) M TCDD. Exposure to 10(-10), 10(-9), and 10(-8) M TCDD inhibited this degeneration in 20, 36, and 60% of the shelves, respectively, and was statistically significant at the two highest doses. A normally occurring decrease in (3H)TdR incorporation was inhibited in some GD 15 shelves cultured with 10(-10) and 10(-9) M TCDD. The medial cells of TCDD-exposed shelves continued to express high levels of immunohistochemically detected EGF receptors. The altered differentiation of rat medial epithelium is similar to that reported for TCDD-exposed mouse medial cells in vivo and in vitro. However, in order to obtain these responses, the cultured rat shelves require much higher concentrations of TCDD than the mouse shelves.

  3. Methods for Evaluating Respondent Attrition in Web-Based Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Sabo, Roy T; Krist, Alex H; Day, Teresa; Cyrus, John; Woolf, Steven H

    2016-01-01

    Background Electronic surveys are convenient, cost effective, and increasingly popular tools for collecting information. While the online platform allows researchers to recruit and enroll more participants, there is an increased risk of participant dropout in Web-based research. Often, these dropout trends are simply reported, adjusted for, or ignored altogether. Objective To propose a conceptual framework that analyzes respondent attrition and demonstrates the utility of these methods with existing survey data. Methods First, we suggest visualization of attrition trends using bar charts and survival curves. Next, we propose a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to detect or confirm significant attrition points. Finally, we suggest applications of existing statistical methods to investigate the effect of internal survey characteristics and patient characteristics on dropout. In order to apply this framework, we conducted a case study; a seventeen-item Informed Decision-Making (IDM) module addressing how and why patients make decisions about cancer screening. Results Using the framework, we were able to find significant attrition points at Questions 4, 6, 7, and 9, and were also able to identify participant responses and characteristics associated with dropout at these points and overall. Conclusions When these methods were applied to survey data, significant attrition trends were revealed, both visually and empirically, that can inspire researchers to investigate the factors associated with survey dropout, address whether survey completion is associated with health outcomes, and compare attrition patterns between groups. The framework can be used to extract information beyond simple responses, can be useful during survey development, and can help determine the external validity of survey results. PMID:27876687

  4. Assessment of emergency responders after a vinyl chloride release from a train derailment - New Jersey, 2012.

    PubMed

    Brinker, Kimberly; Lumia, Margaret; Markiewicz, Karl V; Duncan, Mary Anne; Dowell, Chad; Rey, Araceli; Wilken, Jason; Shumate, Alice; Taylor, Jamille; Funk, Renée

    2015-01-09

    On November 30, 2012, at approximately 7:00 am, a freight train derailed near a small town in New Jersey. Four tank cars, including a breached tank car carrying vinyl chloride, landed in a tidal creek. Vinyl chloride, a colorless gas with a mild, sweet odor, is used in plastics manufacture. Acute exposure can cause respiratory irritation and headache, drowsiness, and dizziness; chronic occupational exposure can result in liver damage, accumulation of fat in the liver, and tumors (including angiosarcoma of the liver). Because health effects associated with acute exposures have not been well studied, the New Jersey Department of Health requested assistance from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and CDC. On December 11, teams from these agencies deployed to assist the New Jersey Department of Health in conducting an assessment of exposures in the community as well as the occupational health and safety of emergency personnel who responded to the incident. This report describes the results of the investigation of emergency personnel. A survey of 93 emergency responders found that 26% of respondents experienced headache and upper respiratory symptoms during the response. A minority (22%) reported using respiratory protection during the incident. Twenty-one (23%) of 92 respondents sought medical evaluation. Based on these findings, CDC recommended that response agencies 1) implement the Emergency Responder Health Monitoring and Surveillance (ERHMS) system for ongoing health monitoring of the emergency responders involved in the train derailment response and 2) ensure that in future incidents, respiratory protection is used when exposure levels are unknown or above the established occupational exposure limits.

  5. 77 FR 64795 - In the Matter of: Micei International, Respondent

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security In the Matter of: Micei International, Respondent Order Relating to Micei...). The 2012 Regulations set forth the procedures that apply to this matter. \\2\\ 50 U.S.C. app. Sec. Sec... Agreement pursuant to Section 766.18(b) of the Regulations, whereby they agreed to settle this matter...

  6. 76 FR 68828 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Responder Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2011-28791] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2011-0295] Pipeline Safety: Emergency Responder Forum AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Forum. SUMMARY: PHMSA is...

  7. 18 CFR 1301.55 - Responding to demands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Responding to demands. 1301.55 Section 1301.55 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES... agree to keep the testimony under seal; (3) Requiring that the testimony be used or made available...

  8. 18 CFR 1301.55 - Responding to demands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Responding to demands. 1301.55 Section 1301.55 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES... agree to keep the testimony under seal; (3) Requiring that the testimony be used or made available...

  9. 18 CFR 1301.55 - Responding to demands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Responding to demands. 1301.55 Section 1301.55 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES... agree to keep the testimony under seal; (3) Requiring that the testimony be used or made available...

  10. Effectively Responding to Public Scrutiny When Communicating Climate Science.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, A.; Halpern, M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate researchers face regular scrutiny of their work from groups outside academia. In recent years, interest groups that oppose climate policy have targeted scientists with hate-mail campaigns, invasive document requests, hostile questioning and legal threats. In their day-to-day work, scientists struggle to respond to heated discussions about their research, whether from online commentators, opinion columnists, or special interest groups. Based on decades of experience and interviews with scientists, the Union of Concerned Scientists has developed a guide for communicating science amid heightened scrutiny. Building on the information contained in the UCS guide, this presentation will discuss best practices for climate researchers, including suggestions for when scrutiny can be ignored or when it deserves a response and methods for responding that can uphold scientific integrity while also protecting an individual researcher's reputation and ability to publicly communicate. Examples include scientists who have responded to bloggers criticizing their research, advocacy groups demanding their personal emails and policymakers targeting them with personal attacks. In understanding how to respond to scrutiny, scientists can bolster their own ability to communicate and curtail the chilling effect that scrutiny can have on other scientists conducting public enegagement.

  11. 77 FR 56622 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... Information Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Open Public Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces an open public meeting of the Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet... Avenue NW., Washington, DC. Other Information: The meeting is open to the public and press. The...

  12. Responding to Young Adult Literature. Young Adult Literature Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monseau, Virginia R.

    This book focuses on how readers respond to the power of young adult literature--negating the assumption that because such literature appeals to adolescents it cannot possibly be worthy of a place in the language arts curriculum. The book serves two purposes: it describes and discusses the oral and written response of adolescents and adults to…

  13. 45 CFR 612.4 - Responding to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION § 612.4 Responding to requests. (a) Monitoring of requests. The NSF Office of the... the part of the request that has been referred, unless such notification would disclose...

  14. 45 CFR 612.4 - Responding to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION § 612.4 Responding to requests. (a) Monitoring of requests. The NSF Office of the... the part of the request that has been referred, unless such notification would disclose...

  15. Assessment of Respondent Acceptability for Preference Measures in Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franic, Duska M.; Bothe, Anne K.; Bramlett, Robin E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of using one or more of four standard economic preference measures to assess health-related quality of life in stuttering, by assessing respondents' views of the acceptability of those measures. Method and results: A graphic positioning scale approach was used with 80 adults to assess four variables previously…

  16. Resources for Responding to Doomsday 2012: An Annotated Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Educators at all levels and in all settings are getting questions these days about the approaching "end of the world" catastrophes supposedly coming in December 2012. This resource guide provides a selection of useful resources for responding to student and public questions in this arena. The latest internet myth to gain traction is the notion…

  17. Special Education Mediations: Responding to a Proposal for Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Steven S.

    2001-01-01

    Responds to Jonathan Beyer's proposal in the January 1999 issue of this Journal (EJ583600) that traditional mediation would be useful for resolving special education disputes by formalizing the way that mediators are trained. Relying on empirical research, warns that Beyer's proposals for further quality controls and consequent formalization may…

  18. 78 FR 26323 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone conference.... to 5:30 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time. ADDRESSES: The Special Meeting will be conducted...

  19. 78 FR 57621 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Board meeting via teleconference on September 23... Daylight Time. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be conducted via teleconference. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  20. 78 FR 15357 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone conference... p.m. to 1:00 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time. ADDRESSES: The Special Meeting will be conducted...

  1. 14 CFR 437.75 - Mishap reporting, responding, and investigating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mishap reporting, responding, and investigating. 437.75 Section 437.75 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION...) Notify within 24 hours the FAA's Office of Commercial Space Transportation if there is a mishap that...

  2. 14 CFR 437.75 - Mishap reporting, responding, and investigating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mishap reporting, responding, and investigating. 437.75 Section 437.75 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION...) Notify within 24 hours the FAA's Office of Commercial Space Transportation if there is a mishap that...

  3. 14 CFR 437.75 - Mishap reporting, responding, and investigating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mishap reporting, responding, and investigating. 437.75 Section 437.75 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION...) Notify within 24 hours the FAA's Office of Commercial Space Transportation if there is a mishap that...

  4. Agreement among Response to Intervention Criteria for Identifying Responder Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Amy E.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Anthony, Jason L.; Denton, Carolyn A.; Mathes, Patricia G.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Francis, David J.

    2008-01-01

    In order to better understand the extent to which operationalizations of response to intervention (RTI) overlap and agree in identifying adequate and inadequate responders, an existing database of 399 first grade students was evaluated in relation to cut-points, measures, and methods frequently cited for the identification of inadequate responders…

  5. 18 CFR 1301.4 - Responsibility for responding to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Responsibility for responding to requests. 1301.4 Section 1301.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY... agreements with other agencies to eliminate the need for consultations or referrals for particular types...

  6. 18 CFR 1301.4 - Responsibility for responding to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Responsibility for responding to requests. 1301.4 Section 1301.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY... agreements with other agencies to eliminate the need for consultations or referrals for particular types...

  7. Responding to School Disaffection: Insights from the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    In a recent publication, Fitzgerald (2003) inquired if the educational system in the Republic of Ireland was catering adequately for the less able learners and/or those from disadvantaged backgrounds. This paper responds to the question by providing an overview of educational inequality in the Irish context with a particular focus on what are…

  8. Results of the 2012 CASE Compensation Survey: Community College Respondents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradise, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE) has conducted compensations surveys to track trends in the profession and to help members benchmark salaries since 1982. The 2012 Community College Compensation Report summarizes the results of CASE's most recent compensation survey just for community college respondents. This report…

  9. Authors' Rejoinder to Respondents (Shulman, Steinberg, & Piquero, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Mike A.; Brown, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Respondents, in "A Mistaken Account of the Age-Crime Curve: Response to Males and Brown," dispute our finding that virtually all of the discrepancy in violent crime rates between adolescents/emerging adults versus older adults is explained not by young age per se but by higher poverty levels among the young. Our rejoinder argues that…

  10. First Responders: Community Colleges on the Front Line of Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community Colleges, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Although homeland security has gained prominence as a national focus and investment, it is clear that much of the most effective preparation must begin at local, state, and regional levels. This report reveals that an astonishing number of community colleges offer degree and certificate programs for first responders--law enforcement officers,…

  11. Context modulates effects of nicotine abstinence on human cooperative responding.

    PubMed

    Spiga, R; Day, J D; Schmitz, J M; Broitman, M; Elk, R; Caperton-Brown, H

    1998-11-01

    The effects of ad libitum smoking, abstinence, and 0-, 2-, and 4-mg nicotine gum on human cooperative responding were examined. Participants were provided the opportunity to respond cooperatively or independently to episodes initiated by a computer-simulated other person. Participants could also initiate episodes that ostensibly provided the other person the opportunity to respond cooperatively or independently of the participant. Working cooperatively added points to both the participant's and other person's counters. Working independently added points only to the participant's counter. Results demonstrated that abstinence decreased cooperative responses during episodes initiated by the computer-stimulated other person. Relative to abstinence and placebo gum conditions, ad libitum smoking and administration of 2- and 4-mg nicotine gum increased these cooperative responses. No gender differences were observed. The number of cooperative episodes initiated by the participants was not affected significantly by the smoking or gum conditions. Nicotine increased reports of vigor and decreased abstinence-engendered reports of depression, anger, confusion, and tension. The difference in the effects of nicotine abstinence on the 2 classes of cooperative responding demonstrates that the social contingency mediates the behavioral effects of abstinence.

  12. 76 FR 9039 - Emergency Responder Field Operations Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... (ER FOG). The ER FOG was drafted to assist emergency response personnel in the use of the National... Responder Field Operations Guide (ER FOG) is intended for use when implementing the Incident Command System... and appropriate training to perform their assigned duties and tasks. The ER FOG is available on...

  13. Evaluation of the Recognizing and Responding to Suicide Risk Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Jodi Michelle; Osteen, Philip; Jones, Andrea; Berman, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Changes in attitudes, confidence, and practice behaviors were assessed among 452 clinicians who completed the training, Recognizing and Responding to Suicide Risk, and who work with clients at risk for suicide. Data were collected at three time points. Scores on measures of attitudes toward suicide prevention and confidence to work with clients at…

  14. 28 CFR 115.64 - Staff first responder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Staff first responder duties. 115.64 Section 115.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Official Response Following An Inmate Report §...

  15. 28 CFR 115.64 - Staff first responder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Staff first responder duties. 115.64 Section 115.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Official Response Following An Inmate Report §...

  16. 28 CFR 115.64 - Staff first responder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Staff first responder duties. 115.64 Section 115.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Official Response Following An Inmate Report §...

  17. Life After Traumatic Injury: How the Body Responds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Traumatic Injury: How the Body Responds Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Life After Traumatic Injury: How the ... Threatening Bacterial Infection Remains Mysterious This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  18. Increasing Students' Opportunities to Respond: A Strategy for Supporting Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menzies, Holly M.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Ennis, Robin Parks

    2017-01-01

    This article offers a rationale for using a low-intensity support, increasing opportunities to respond, to promote students' academic engagement and decrease disruptive behaviors. A step-by-step guide to implementing this strategy in the classroom setting is presented.

  19. 42 CFR 88.3 - Eligibility-currently identified responders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in the WTC Health Program. (1) No individual who is determined to be a positive match to the terrorist watch list maintained by the Federal government will be considered to be enrolled in the WTC Health Program. (2) (b) WTC Responders identified as enrolled under this section are not required...

  20. 42 CFR 88.3 - Eligibility-currently identified responders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in the WTC Health Program. (1) No individual who is determined to be a positive match to the terrorist watch list maintained by the Federal government will be considered to be enrolled in the WTC Health Program. (2) (b) WTC Responders identified as enrolled under this section are not required...

  1. 42 CFR 88.3 - Eligibility-currently identified responders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in the WTC Health Program. (1) No individual who is determined to be a positive match to the terrorist watch list maintained by the Federal government will be considered to be enrolled in the WTC Health Program. (2) (b) WTC Responders identified as enrolled under this section are not required...

  2. 42 CFR 88.3 - Eligibility-currently identified responders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in the WTC Health Program. (1) No individual who is determined to be a positive match to the terrorist watch list maintained by the Federal government will be considered to be enrolled in the WTC Health Program. (2) (b) WTC Responders identified as enrolled under this section are not required...

  3. Building Community-University Partnerships by Listening, Learning, and Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martenson, Diana M.; Newman, Dawn A.; Zak, Deborah M.

    2011-01-01

    University of Minnesota Extension is expanding work in Indian country by building community-university partnerships through a methodology of listening by gathering data in Indian country; learning by creating opportunities for professional development; and responding by building trusting relationships, resulting in more educators working in…

  4. Serial Killers: Academic Libraries Respond to Soaring Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Discusses ways in which academic libraries are responding to rising costs of serials. Topics addressed include pricing by publishers; the effect of journal cancellations on research activities; interlibrary loans and document delivery services; coordinated cancelling; electronic journals; and experiences at the University of Arizona. (LRW)

  5. Recognizing and Responding to the Child of Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garanzini, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Describes characteristic behaviors of preschoolers, early and later latency children, and adolescents experiencing the effects of divorce. Suggests ways that teachers should respond to these behaviors, stressing the importance of sensitivity and communication. Delineates six developmental tasks faced by children when dealing with divorce. (DMM)

  6. Relational Responding Modulates and Reverses Affective Ratings in Evaluative Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molet, Mikael; Macquet, Benjamin; Charley, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments explored relational responding in evaluative conditioning. In Experiment 1, the participants were trained with a computer task to make relational responses by putting CSs of different sizes in boxes in order of size. Subsequently they were instructed that these different sized CSs represented different intensities of hypothetical…

  7. Poetic Voices: Writing, Reading, and Responding to Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandre, Patricia E.

    2012-01-01

    "Poetic Voices: Writing, Reading, and Responding to Poetry" was the title of the 2011 Master Class in Children's Literature. Woven into this session were the insights of poets Joyce Sidman and Pat Mora who shared their creative processes and the voices that inspire their poetry. In addition, Barbara Kiefer provided advice regarding how to connect…

  8. Plant Reproduction: AMOR Enables Males to Respond to Female Signals.

    PubMed

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Coimbra, Silvia

    2016-04-25

    The pollen tube of flowering plants undertakes a long journey to transport two sperm cells for double fertilization. New work on pollen tube guidance has identified an arabinogalactan-derived ovular factor that primes tubes to respond to female gametophyte-secreted attraction signals.

  9. Responding to the Needs of the Homeless and Hungry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American National Red Cross, Washington, DC.

    This report describes the Hotels-Motels in Partnership Program, a human services resource sponsored by the Red Cross and other organizations to respond to housing needs of the homeless, disaster victims, and others in need of emergency assistance. The partnership program involves several hundred businesses in more than 240 communities. Since its…

  10. Responding to Minor Misbehavior through Verbal and Nonverbal Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhaem, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining a positive classroom environment that will encourage learning is a challenge, particularly in classes that require frequent interventions due to students' disruptive behaviors. Punitive disciplinary reactions are generally ineffective when responding to students who are frequently disruptive. More importantly, negative teacher…

  11. Habituation and within session changes in motivated responding for food in children

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Jennifer L.; Giacomelli, April M.; Roemmich, James N.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2008-01-01

    Within-session decreases in instrumental responding to obtain food, consistent with habituation, have been reliably demonstrated in adults and children. This study tested the hypothesis that within-session decreases in instrumental responding for food are due to habituation rather than satiation. Thirty-eight 8–12 year old children performed a computer- based operant task to earn points toward access to potato chips for 20 minutes, and for chocolate candies for the final six minutes of the session. Portion size of the food reinforcer (75 vs 225 kcal) and food consumption (consumption/no consumption) were varied during the first 20 minutes. There was no difference in the rate of response decrease between the two portion size conditions. Both the consumption and non-consumption groups showed response decelerations during the first 20 minutes, with responses in the consumption group decreasing at a faster rate. When the novel food was presented, participants in all conditions recovered responding. Although satiation may contribute to reductions in motivated responding for food when food is consumed, habituation provides a more complete explanation for the results observed in this study. PMID:17961817

  12. Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Differentially Affects Lithium Sensitivity of Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines from Lithium Responder and Non-responder Bipolar Disorder Patients.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Elena; Hadar, Adva; Maffioletti, Elisabetta; Werner, Haim; Shomron, Noam; Gennarelli, Massimo; Schulze, Thomas G; Costa, Marta; Del Zompo, Maria; Squassina, Alessio; Gurwitz, David

    2015-07-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic psychiatric illness with an unknown etiology. Lithium is considered the cornerstone in the management of BD, though about 50-60 % of patients do not respond sufficiently to chronic treatment. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) has been identified as a candidate gene for BD susceptibility, and its low expression has been suggested as a putative biomarker for lithium unresponsiveness. In this study, we examined the in vitro effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on lithium sensitivity in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from lithium responder (R) and non-responder (NR) bipolar patients. Moreover, we evaluated levels of microRNA let-7c, a small RNA predicted to target IGF1. We found that exogenous IGF-1 added to serum-free media increased lithium sensitivity selectively in LCLs from NR BD patients. However, no significant differences were observed when comparing let-7c expression in LCLs from R vs. NR BD patients. Our data support a key role for IGF-1 in lithium resistance/response in the treatment of bipolar disorder.

  13. The clothing effect: Tactile neurons in the precentral gyrus do not respond to the touch of the familiar primate chair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graziano, Michael S. A.; Alisharan, Shalani E.; Hu, Xintian; Gross, Charles G.

    2002-09-01

    Neurons in a restricted zone in the precentral gyrus of macaque monkeys respond to tactile, visual, and auditory stimuli. The tactile receptive fields of these multimodal cells are usually located on the face, arm, or upper torso. In the present study, in awake monkeys sitting in a primate chair, the neurons responded to a tactile probe touching the skin within the tactile receptive field. However, the same neurons did not respond when the tactile receptive field was touched by the primate chair, to which the monkey was habituated.

  14. Practice and Perception of First Aid Among Lay First Responders in a Southern District of India

    PubMed Central

    Pallavisarji, Uthkarsh; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Girish, Rao Nagaraja

    2013-01-01

    Background Injuries rank among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and are steadily increasing in developing countries like India. However, it is often possible to minimize injury and crash consequences by providing effective pre-hospital services promptly. In most low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), transportation of road traffic victims, is usually provided by relatives, taxi drivers, truck drivers, police officers and other motorists who are often untrained. Objectives The current study was conducted to understand the current practice and perception of first aid among lay first responders in a rural southern district of India. Materials and Methods The current cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in the southern district of Tumkur in India within three months from January to March 2011 and covered the population including all police, ambulance personnel, taxi drivers, bus and auto drivers, and primary and middle school teachers within the study area. Results Nearly 60% of the responders had witnessed more than two emergencies in the previous six months and 55% had actively participated in helping the injured person. The nature of the help was mainly by calling for an ambulance (41.5%), transporting the injured (19.7%) and consoling the victim (14.9%). Majority (78.1%) of the responders informed that they had run to the victim (42.4%) or had called for an ambulance. The predominant reason for not providing help was often the ‘fear of legal complications’ (30%) that would follow later. Significant number (81.4%) of respondents reported that they did not have adequate skills to manage an emergency and were willing to acquire knowledge and skills in first aid to help victims. Conclusions Regular and periodical community-based first aid training programs for first care responders will help to provide care and improve outcomes for injured persons. PMID:24396770

  15. Predictors for the immediate responders to cervical manipulation in patients with neck pain.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yuh-Liang; Wang, Wendy T J; Chen, Wen-Yin; Hou, Tsun-Jen; Chen, Tzu-Ching; Lieu, Fu-Kong

    2006-11-01

    Cervical manipulation has been considered an effective treatment for managing neck pain. However, clinical observation showed that cervical manipulation was not effective for every patient. Development of clinical prediction rules for identifying patients with neck pain who are likely to respond to cervical manipulation may improve clinical decision-making and the treatment success rate. The purpose of the study was to identify predictors for the immediate responders to cervical manipulation treatment in patients with neck pain. One hundred patients with neck pain (34 males and 66 females, mean age = 46 +/- 11 years) participated in the study. Patient's demographic data, symptom aggravating or easing factors, pain, and disability level were obtained through an initial assessment. A series of physical examinations were also administered. After receiving a single session of cervical manipulation, the patient was re-evaluated immediately to determine if a successful response to treatment was obtained. The successful response was determined by improvements seen in one of the three outcome variables that included reduction of pain intensity, significant perceived improvement, and high satisfaction level. From these judgment criteria, patients were classified into either responders or nonresponders to the cervical manipulation. Univariate analyses were used to assess if the treatment responders and nonresponders were different in their clinical presentations. The clinical factors that showed significant differences between two groups were then entered into a stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis to identify significant predictors and the prediction rule for treatment responders. Six predictors including "initial scores on Neck Disability Index < 11.50", "having bilateral involvement pattern", "not performing sedentary work > 5 h/day", "feeling better while moving the neck", "without feeling worse while extending the neck", and "the diagnosis of spondylosis

  16. Refractory cold agglutinin-immunohaemolytic anaemia associated to marginal zone lymphoma responding to rituximab.

    PubMed

    Petit, José; Clavo, Mercedes; de Sevilla, Alberto Fernández; González-Barca, Eva; Domingo-Doménech, Eva; Grañena, Albert

    2003-01-01

    Cold agglutinin immunohaemolytic anaemia (CAIA) responds poorly to standard treatment. We report a case of marginal zone lymphoma complicated by CAIA that responded to rituximab after failing to respond to corticosteroids and chlorambucil.

  17. Development of an Inconsistent Responding Scale for the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure.

    PubMed

    Mowle, Elyse N; Kelley, Shannon E; Edens, John F; Donnellan, M Brent; Smith, Shannon Toney; Wygant, Dustin B; Sellbom, Martin

    2016-10-17

    Inconsistent or careless responding to self-report measures is estimated to occur in approximately 10% of university research participants and may be even more common among offender populations. Inconsistent responding may be a result of a number of factors including inattentiveness, reading or comprehension difficulties, and cognitive impairment. Many stand-alone personality scales used in applied and research settings, however, do not include validity indicators to help identify inattentive response patterns. Using multiple archival samples, the current study describes the development of an inconsistent responding scale for the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM; Patrick, 2010), a widely used self-report measure of psychopathy. We first identified pairs of correlated TriPM items in a derivation sample (N = 2,138) and then created a total score based on the sum of the absolute value of the differences for each item pair. The resulting scale, the Triarchic Assessment Procedure for Inconsistent Responding (TAPIR), strongly differentiated between genuine TriPM protocols and randomly generated TriPM data (N = 1,000), as well as between genuine protocols and those in which 50% of the original data were replaced with random item responses. TAPIR scores demonstrated fairly consistent patterns of association with some theoretically relevant correlates (e.g., inconsistency scales embedded in other personality inventories), although not others (e.g., measures of conscientiousness) across our cross-validation samples. Tentative TAPIR cut scores that may discriminate between attentively and carelessly completed protocols are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Responding to inequities: gorillas try to maintain their competitive advantage during play fights.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Zimmermann, Elke; Ross, Marina Davila

    2011-02-23

    Humans respond to unfair situations in various ways. Experimental research has revealed that non-human species also respond to unequal situations in the form of inequity aversions when they have the disadvantage. The current study focused on play fights in gorillas to explore for the first time, to our knowledge, if/how non-human species respond to inequities in natural social settings. Hitting causes a naturally occurring inequity among individuals and here it was specifically assessed how the hitters and their partners engaged in play chases that followed the hitting. The results of this work showed that the hitters significantly more often moved first to run away immediately after the encounter than their partners. These findings provide evidence that non-human species respond to inequities by trying to maintain their competitive advantages. We conclude that non-human primates, like humans, may show different responses to inequities and that they may modify them depending on if they have the advantage or the disadvantage.

  19. Responding to aggression and reactive behaviours in the home.

    PubMed

    Herron, Rachel V; Rosenberg, Mark W

    2017-01-01

    Behaviours such as hitting, spitting, swearing and kicking can be a common response to personal, social and environmental challenges experienced by people with dementia. Little attention, however, has been given to how partners in care experience and respond to these behaviours in the home. This paper examines the emerging theme of 'aggression,' in seven interviews with nine former partners in care of people with dementia in Ontario, Canada. We explore how partners in care talk about, interpret and respond to these behaviours drawing on recent conceptualizations of structural and interpersonal violence in health and social geography and contributing to the growing body of research on relational care. We discuss the responses to, and implications of, these behaviours at a range of spatial scales and identify important considerations for future research.

  20. Neural Circuits Underlying Crying and Cry Responding in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Newman, John D.

    2007-01-01

    Crying is a universal vocalization in human infants, as well as in the infants of other mammals. Little is known about the neural structures underlying cry production, or the circuitry that mediates a caregiver’s response to cry sounds. In this review, the specific structures known or suspected to be involved in this circuit are identified, along with neurochemical systems and hormones for which evidence suggests a role in responding to infants and infant cries. In addition, evidence that crying elicits parental responses in different mammals is presented. An argument is made for including ‘crying’ as a functional category in the vocal repertoire of all mammalian infants (and the adults of some species). The prevailing neural model for crying production considers forebrain structures to be dispensable. However, evidence for the anterior cingulate gyrus in cry production, and this structure along with the amygdala and some other forebrain areas in responding to cries is presented. PMID:17363076

  1. How Did Climate and Humans Respond to Past Volcanic Eruptions?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toohey, Matthew; Ludlow, Francis; Legrande, Allegra N.

    2016-01-01

    To predict and prepare for future climate change, scientists are striving to understand how global-scale climatic change manifests itself on regional scales and also how societies adapt or don't to sometimes subtle and complex climatic changes. In this regard, the strongest volcanic eruptions of the past are powerful test cases, showcasing how the broad climate system responds to sudden changes in radiative forcing and how societies have responded to the resulting climatic shocks. These issues were at the heart of the inaugural workshop of the Volcanic Impacts on Climate and Society (VICS) Working Group, convened in June 2016 at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University in Palisades, N.Y. The 3-day meeting gathered approximately 50 researchers, who presented work intertwining the history of volcanic eruptions and the physical processes that connect eruptions with human and natural systems on a global scale.

  2. Apparatus for responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Wilde, Tyson; Barlow, Jonathan S.

    2010-04-13

    A method of responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure in a bore hole comprises detecting the anomalous change in downhole pressure, sending a signal along the segmented electromagnetic transmission path, receiving the signal, and performing a automated response. The anomalous change in downhole pressure is detected at a first location along a segmented electromagnetic transmission path, and the segmented electromagnetic transmission path is integrated into the tool string. The signal is received by at least one receiver in communication with the segmented electromagnetic transmission path. The automated response is performed along the tool string. Disclosed is an apparatus for responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure in a downhole tool string, comprising a segmented electromagnetic transmission path connecting one or more receivers and at least one pressure sensor.

  3. Correlates of cyberbullying and how school nurses can respond.

    PubMed

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Walrave, Michel; Vandebosch, Heidi

    2015-05-01

    Cyberbullying is one of many online risks that affect an increasing number of children and teenagers. This form of abuse often occurs under the radar of adults as it usually takes place outside of school and away from adult supervision. Moreover, bystanders and victims are often reluctant to report what they have experienced. School nurses might be among the first to witness the real-life consequences of this virtual behavior, as involvement in cyberbullying is often correlated with psychological and behavioral problems. For this reason, school nurses should know how to recognize the warning signs so that they can respond and intervene appropriately. This article provides a discussion of what cyberbullying is and a summary of research on factors associated with cyberbullying, in terms of both victimization and perpetration. It also provides school nurses with evidence-based strategies for responding effectively.

  4. Engineering an allosteric transcription factor to respond to new ligands.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Noah D; Garruss, Alexander S; Moretti, Rocco; Chan, Sum; Arbing, Mark A; Cascio, Duilio; Rogers, Jameson K; Isaacs, Farren J; Kosuri, Sriram; Baker, David; Fields, Stanley; Church, George M; Raman, Srivatsan

    2016-02-01

    Genetic regulatory proteins inducible by small molecules are useful synthetic biology tools as sensors and switches. Bacterial allosteric transcription factors (aTFs) are a major class of regulatory proteins, but few aTFs have been redesigned to respond to new effectors beyond natural aTF-inducer pairs. Altering inducer specificity in these proteins is difficult because substitutions that affect inducer binding may also disrupt allostery. We engineered an aTF, the Escherichia coli lac repressor, LacI, to respond to one of four new inducer molecules: fucose, gentiobiose, lactitol and sucralose. Using computational protein design, single-residue saturation mutagenesis or random mutagenesis, along with multiplex assembly, we identified new variants comparable in specificity and induction to wild-type LacI with its inducer, isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The ability to create designer aTFs will enable applications including dynamic control of cell metabolism, cell biology and synthetic gene circuits.

  5. An alternative framework for responding to the amphibian crisis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin L.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2017-01-01

    Volumes of data illustrate the severity of the crisis affecting amphibians, where > 32% of amphibians worldwide are threatened with declining populations. Although there have been isolated victories, the current approach to the issue is unsuccessful. We suggest that a radically different approach, something akin to human emergency response management (i.e. the Incident Command System), is one alternative to addressing the inertia and lack of cohesion in responding to amphibian issues. We acknowledge existing efforts and the useful research that has been conducted, but we suggest that a change is warranted and that the identification of a new amphibian chytrid provides the impetus for such a change. Our goal is to recognize that without a centralized effort we (collectively) are likely to fail in responding to this challenge.

  6. Protecting Emergency Responders: Lessons Learned from Terrorist Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    terrorist attacks—about one-sixth of the total number of victims. Hun - dreds more were seriously injured. In this light, the terrorist events are...the police have always been gun -toters . . . writing tickets. Terrorist acts with chem/bio and those types of things have always been sec- ondary...out how to put the helmet together.” Chin - straps are not well suited for use by responders who are wearing respirators. Another complaint was that

  7. Integration of Training Civilian and Military Disaster Responders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    TRAINING CIVILIAN AND MILITARY DISASTER RESPONDERS by Leonard H. Guercia, Jr. September 2011 Thesis Advisor: Sam Clovis Second Reader...Guercia, Jr. Approved by: Sam Clovis Thesis Advisor William Austin Second Reader Harold A. Trinkunas, PhD Chair, Department...admiration. Their efforts transformed me from a tentative new student to a well-written professional. I want to extend a special thanks to Dr. Clovis

  8. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    SciTech Connect

    Divan, Deepak; Moghe, Rohit; Tholomier, Damien

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  9. NARAC Dispersion Model Product Integration With RadResponder

    SciTech Connect

    Aluzzi, Fernando

    2015-09-30

    Work on enhanced cooperation and interoperability of Nuclear Incident Response Teams (NIRT) is a joint effort between DHS/FEMA, DOE/NNSA and EPA. One such effort was the integration between the RadResponder Network, a resource sponsored by FEMA for the management of radiological data during an emergency, and the National Atmospheric Advisory Center (NARAC), a DOE/NNSA modeling resource whose predictions are used to aid radiological emergency preparedness and response. Working together under a FEMA-sponsored project these two radiological response assets developed a capability to read and display plume model prediction results from the NARAC computer system in the RadResponder software tool. As a result of this effort, RadResponder users have been provided with NARAC modeling predictions of contamination areas, radiological dose levels, and protective action areas (e.g., areas warranting worker protection or sheltering/evacuation) to help guide protective action decisions and field monitoring surveys, and gain key situation awareness following a radiological/nuclear accident or incident (e.g., nuclear power plant accident, radiological dispersal device incident, or improvised nuclear detonation incident). This document describes the details of this integration effort.

  10. Socially desirable responding on the web: investigating the candor hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Risko, Evan F; Quilty, Lena C; Oakman, Jonathan M

    2006-12-01

    The investigation presented here explores the hypothesis that participants are less likely to respond in a socially desirable fashion on self-report questionnaires completed on the Web relative to those completed in the laboratory--the candor hypothesis. A battery of social desirability questionnaires (i.e., Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding [Paulhaus, 1984], Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale [Crowne & Marlowe, 1964], Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Lie Scale [Eysenck & Eysenck, 1994]) was administered to 3 groups: 2 groups consisted of undergraduate participants who were randomly assigned to complete the measures either in the laboratory (n = 60) or on the Web (n = 60), and 1 group consisted of self-selected participants who visited our experimental Web page and completed the measures online (n = 284). This design allowed us to assess the role of Web administration while controlling for differences in sample type, an oft-neglected issue in the Web literature. Results do not support the claim that administering self-report measures over the Web results in a decrease in socially desirable responding. Furthermore, these findings highlight the problems associated with confounding sample and medium. Implications for the use of Web as a research tool are discussed.

  11. Challenges for Early Responders to a Nuclear / Radiological Terrorism Incident

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, M.A.; Stearns, L.J.; Davie, A.D.; Day, E.

    2007-07-01

    Even in the best of circumstances, most municipalities would face severe challenges in providing effective incident response to a large scale radiation release caused by nuclear terrorism or accident. Compounding obvious complexities, the effectiveness of first and early responders to a radiological emergency may also be hampered by an insufficient distribution of radiation detection and monitoring equipment, local policies concerning triage and field decontamination of critical victims, malfunctioning communications, inadequate inter-agency agility, and the psychological 'fear' impact on early responders. This paper examines several issues impeding the early response to nuclear terrorism incidents with specific consideration given to the on-going and forward-thinking preparedness efforts currently being developed in the Sacramento, California region. Specific recommendations are provided addressing hot zone protocols, radiation detection and monitoring equipment, hasty patient packaging techniques, vertically and horizontally integrated pre-event training, mitigating psychological fear, and protocols for the effective 'hand-off' from first responders to subsequent early response-recovery teams. (authors)

  12. Risks to emergency medical responders at terrorist incidents: a narrative review of the medical literature.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Julian; Rehn, Marius; Lossius, Hans Morten; Lockey, David

    2014-09-24

    As the threat of international terrorism rises, there is an increasing requirement to provide evidence-based information and training for the emergency personnel who will respond to terrorist incidents. Current major incident training advises that emergency responders prioritize their own personal safety above that of the 'scene and survivors'. However, there is limited information available on the nature of these threats and how they may be accurately evaluated. This study reviews the published medical literature to identify the hazards experienced by emergency responders who have attended previous terrorist incidents. A PubMed literature search identified 10,894 articles on the subject of 'terrorism', and there was a dramatic increase in publications after the 9/11 attacks in 2001. There is heterogeneity in the focus and quality of this literature, and 307 articles addressing the subject of scene safety were assessed for information regarding the threats encountered at terrorist incidents. These articles demonstrate that emergency responders have been exposed to both direct terrorist threats and environmental scene hazards, including airborne particles, structural collapse, fire, and psychological stress. The emphasis of training and preparedness for terrorist incidents has been primarily on the direct threats, but the published literature suggests that the dominant causes of mortality and morbidity in responders after such incidents are the indirect environmental hazards. If the medical response to terrorist incidents is to be based on evidence rather than anecdote, analysis of the current literature should be incorporated into major incident training, and consistent collection of key data from future incidents is required.

  13. Effects of cocaine on fixed-interval responding reinforced by the opportunity to run.

    PubMed Central

    Belke, T W; Dunbar, M J

    2001-01-01

    Rate-dependent drug effects have been observed for operant responding maintained by food, water, heat, light onset, electrical brain stimulation, shock-stimulus termination, and shock presentation. The present study sought to determine if the effects of cocaine on lever pressing maintained by the opportunity to run could also be described as rate dependent. Seven male Wistar rats were trained to respond on levers for the opportunity to run in a wheel. The schedule of reinforcement was fixed-interval 60 s, and the reinforcing consequence was the opportunity to run for 60 s. On this schedule, overall rates of responding were low, usually below six presses per minute, and pauses frequently exceeded the 60-s interval. Despite these differences, an overall scalloped pattern of lever pressing was evident for each rat. Doses of 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mg/kg cocaine were administered 10 min prior to a session. Only at the 16 mg/kg dose did the responding of the majority of rats change in a manner suggestive of a rate-dependent drug effect. Specifically, lower response rates at the beginning of the intervals increased and higher rates at the end of the intervals decreased, as indicated by the fact that slopes from the regression of drug rates on control rates decreased. These data provide tentative support for the generalization of rate-dependent effects to operant responding maintained by wheel running. Differences in the baseline performance maintained by wheel running compared to those for food and water point to the need for further experimentation before this effect can be firmly established. PMID:11256868

  14. Learning as change: Responding to socio-scientific issues through informal education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Lauren Brooks

    Informal learning is an important venue for educating the general public about complex socio-scientific issues: intersections of scientific understanding and society. My dissertation is a multi-tiered analysis of how informal education, and particularly informal educators, can leverage learning to respond to one particular socio-scientific issue: climate change. Life-long, life-wide, and life-deep learning not only about the science of climate change, but how communities and society as a whole can respond to it in ways that are commensurate with its scale are necessary. In my three-article dissertation, I investigated the changes in practice and learning that informal educators from a natural history museum underwent in the process of implementing a new type of field trip about climate change. This study focused on inquiry-based learning principles taken on by the museum educators, albeit in different ways: learner autonomy, conversation, and deep investigation. My second article, a short literature review, makes the argument that climate change education must have goals beyond simply increasing learners' knowledge of climate science, and proposes three research-based principles for such learning: participation, relevance, and interconnectedness. These principles are argued to promote learning to respond to climate change as well as increased collective efficacy, necessary for responding. Finally, my third article is an in-depth examination of a heterogeneous network of informal educators and environmental professionals who worked together to design and implement a city-wide platform for informal climate change learning. By conceptualizing climate change learning at the level of the learning ecology, educators and learners are able to see how it can be responded to at the community level, and understand how climate change is interconnected with other scientific, natural, and social systems. I briefly discuss a different socio-scientific issue to which these

  15. Resistant cyclic vomiting syndrome successfully responding to chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Hasan H; Bulut, Serpil; Berilgen, M Said; Kapan, Oktay; Balduz, Metin; Demir, Caner F

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a disorder characterized by recurrent, stereotypic episodes of nausea, vomiting, and other symptoms, separated by intervals of comparative wellness. These episodes carry on for hours or days. The patient is healthy between the episodes and has no clinical finding. For the treatment of the CVS, antiemetic, antimigraine and sedative medications were used. However, in some cases CVS treatment is very difficult. We report about a young patient, who did not respond to many agents, but was succesfully treated with chlorpomazine.

  16. Implications for practice: Resurgence and differential reinforcement of alternative responding.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Sarah E; Lambert, Joseph M

    2015-12-01

    During the maintenance stages of differential reinforcement of alternative responding (DRA), failure to reinforce alternative responses could result in a resurgence of problem behavior. However, translational work done with arbitrary human responses suggests that teaching individuals to emit multiple alternative responses in sequential order may facilitate the resurgence of appropriate, rather than problem, behavior. This paper discusses the practical implications of serial DRA training on problem and appropriate behavior resurgence, as presented in the preceding article, "Serial Alternative Response Training As Intervention for Target Response Resurgence." Clinical scenarios as well as implications for self-advocacy and acceptability of behavioral interventions are considered.

  17. A Decision Process for Determining Whether to Conduct Responder Health Research Following Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Decker, John A.; Kiefer, Max; Reissman, Dori B.; Funk, Renée; Halpin, John; Bernard, Bruce; Ehrenberg, Richard L.; Schuler, Christine R.; Whelan, Elizabeth; Myers, Kyle; Howard, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Disasters often set the stage for scientific inquiry within the field of occupational safety and health. This is especially true when the long-term consequences of exposures associated with a particular disaster are unclear. However, a responder research study can be costly and difficult to design, and researchers must consider whether the proposed study will produce useful, reliable results and is a prudent public health investment. Methods Senior NIOSH scientists, experienced with disaster response and representing the disciplines of epidemiology, occupational medicine and psychiatry, and industrial hygiene, were convened at the request of the NIOSH Director to develop a decision process to help determine when to conduct responder health research following disasters. Results The decision process can be broken down into various components, including scientific rationale that should be formally recognized as critical to efficiently and effectively determine whether a research study is warranted. The scientific rationale includes certain controlling or “gatekeeper” factors that should be present to proceed with research. Providing the foundation for responder disaster research also requires strategizing before an event occurs, so that critical baseline and comparison data can be collected. Conclusions The recommended framework should ensure that research that is most needed and justified will be identified and prioritized. PMID:23716371

  18. MINER - A Mobile Imager of Neutrons for Emergency Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, John E. M.; Brennan, James S.; Gerling, Mark D; Kiff, Scott D.; Mascarenhas, Nicholas; Van De Vreugde, James L.

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a mobile fast neutron imaging platform to enhance the capabilities of emergency responders in the localization and characterization of special nuclear material. This mobile imager of neutrons for emergency responders (MINER) is based on the Neutron Scatter Camera, a large segmented imaging system that was optimized for large-area search applications. Due to the reduced size and power requirements of a man-portable system, MINER has been engineered to fit a much smaller form factor, and to be operated from either a battery or AC power. We chose a design that enabled omnidirectional (4π) imaging, with only a ~twofold decrease in sensitivity compared to the much larger neutron scatter cameras. The system was designed to optimize its performance for neutron imaging and spectroscopy, but it does also function as a Compton camera for gamma imaging. This document outlines the project activities, broadly characterized as system development, laboratory measurements, and deployments, and presents sample results in these areas. Additional information can be found in the documents that reside in WebPMIS.

  19. Using facebook for medical education: will students respond?

    PubMed

    Sood, S

    2015-02-01

    There is little information about the willingness of medical students to participate in Facebook for education. I analyzed my interactions with students for the past 14 months to estimate the quantity of student interaction. A Facebook Group was created. Students friend requests were accepted, but "friending" was never solicited. Questions were created around a clinical situation and posted. Forty questions were posted. 5/40 questions were about physics/chemistry. 24 questions focused on basic medical sciences. 11 questions were primarily about clinical medicine. In fourteen months, 533/810 (66%) college students joined the Group. In all, 163/533 students (30%) responded at least once. Half of all responses were comments; the rest were clicks on the "like" button. The average number of responses was 9.5 unique students/question. If participation is voluntary, and targeted students are large in number, one can expect about 66% of students to become members of a site, and about 30% of these to interact. For any given question posted on the site, about 2% of members will respond, regardless of the nature of question: clinically oriented or basic.

  20. Behavioral momentum and relapse of extinguished operant responding.

    PubMed

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2009-11-01

    Previous experiments on behavioral momentum have shown that relative resistance to extinction of operant behavior in the presence of a stimulus depends on the rate of reinforcement associated with that stimulus, even if some of those reinforcers occur independently of the behavior. We present three experiments examining whether the rate of reinforcement in the presence of a stimulus similarly modulates the relative relapse of operant behavior produced by reinstatement, resurgence, and renewal paradigms. During baseline conditions, pigeons responded for food reinforcement on variable-interval 120-sec schedules in alternating periods of exposure to two stimuli arranged by a multiple schedule. Additional response-independent food presentations were also delivered in the presence of one of the multiple-schedule stimuli. Consistent with previous research, baseline response rates were lower in the presence of the stimulus with the added response-independent reinforcement, and relative resistance to extinction was greater in the presence of that stimulus. In addition, following extinction, the relative relapse of responding produced by reinstatement, resurgence, and renewal paradigms was greater in the presence of the stimulus associated with the higher rate of reinforcement. We suggest that a model of extinction from behavioral momentum theory may be useful for understanding these results.

  1. Enabling complex genetic circuits to respond to extrinsic environmental signals.

    PubMed

    Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Shopera, Tatenda; Hinman, Kristina; Creamer, John Philip; Moon, Tae Seok

    2017-03-06

    Genetic circuits have the potential to improve a broad range of metabolic engineering processes and address a variety of medical and environmental challenges. However, in order to engineer genetic circuits that can meet the needs of these real-world applications, genetic sensors that respond to relevant extrinsic and intrinsic signals must be implemented in complex genetic circuits. In this work, we construct the first AND and NAND gates that respond to temperature and pH, two signals that have relevance in a variety of real-world applications. A previously identified pH-responsive promoter and a temperature-responsive promoter were extracted from the E. coli genome, characterized, and modified to suit the needs of the genetic circuits. These promoters were combined with components of the type III secretion system in Salmonella typhimurium and used to construct a set of AND gates with up to 23-fold change. Next, an antisense RNA was integrated into the circuit architecture to invert the logic of the AND gate and generate a set of NAND gates with up to 1168-fold change. These circuits provide the first demonstration of complex pH- and temperature-responsive genetic circuits, and lay the groundwork for the use of similar circuits in real-world applications. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;9999: 1-6. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Wild robins (Petroica longipes) respond to human gaze.

    PubMed

    Garland, Alexis; Low, Jason; Armstrong, Nicola; Burns, Kevin C

    2014-09-01

    Gaze following and awareness of attentional cues are hallmarks of human and non-human social intelligence. Here, we show that the North Island robin (Petroica longipes), a food-hoarding songbird endemic to New Zealand, responds to human eyes. Robins were presented with six different conditions, in which two human experimenters altered the orientation or visibility of their body, head or eyes in relation to mealworm prey. One experimenter had visual access to the prey, and the second experimenter did not. Robins were then given the opportunity to 'steal' one of two mealworms presented by each experimenter. Robins responded by preferentially choosing the mealworm in front of the experimenter who could not see, in all conditions but one. Robins failed to discriminate between experimenters who were facing the mealworm and those who had their head turned 90° to the side. This may suggest that robins do not make decisions using the same eye visibility cues that primates and corvids evince, whether for ecological, experiential or evolutionary reasons.

  3. A Role for Science in Responding to Health Crises

    PubMed Central

    Brothers, Reginald; Murata, Christina E.

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) Science and Technology (S&T) Directorate plays a role in public health that extends beyond biodefense. These responsibilities were exercised as part of the 2014-16 Ebola outbreak, leading to productive and beneficial contributions to the international public health response and improved operations in the United States. However, we and others have identified numerous areas for improvement. Based on our successes and lessons learned, we propose a number of ways that DHS, the interagency, and academia can act now to ensure improved responses to future public health crises. These include pre-developing scientific capabilities to respond agnostically to threats, and disease-specific master question lists to organize and inform initial efforts. We are generating DHS-specific playbooks and tools for anticipating future needs and capturing requests from DHS components and our national and international partners, where efforts will also be used to refine and exercise communication and information-sharing practices. These experiences and improvement efforts have encouraged discussions on the role of science in developing government policy, specifically responding to public health crises. We propose specific considerations for both scientists and government decision makers to ensure that the best available science is incorporated into policy and operational decisions to facilitate highly effective responses to future health crises. PMID:27482881

  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transcription Machinery: Ready To Respond to Host Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Flentie, Kelly; Garner, Ashley L.

    2016-01-01

    Regulating responses to stress is critical for all bacteria, whether they are environmental, commensal, or pathogenic species. For pathogenic bacteria, successful colonization and survival in the host are dependent on adaptation to diverse conditions imposed by the host tissue architecture and the immune response. Once the bacterium senses a hostile environment, it must enact a change in physiology that contributes to the organism's survival strategy. Inappropriate responses have consequences; hence, the execution of the appropriate response is essential for survival of the bacterium in its niche. Stress responses are most often regulated at the level of gene expression and, more specifically, transcription. This minireview focuses on mechanisms of regulating transcription initiation that are required by Mycobacterium tuberculosis to respond to the arsenal of defenses imposed by the host during infection. In particular, we highlight how certain features of M. tuberculosis physiology allow this pathogen to respond swiftly and effectively to host defenses. By enacting highly integrated and coordinated gene expression changes in response to stress, M. tuberculosis is prepared for battle against the host defense and able to persist within the human population. PMID:26883824

  5. Spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus) do not respond to thymus-independent type 2 antigens.

    PubMed

    Pennello, Anthony; Taylor, Justin; Matlack, Robin; Karp, Jonathan; Riggs, James

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of the immune system of spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus) has been limited. Originally grouped with Mus, Acomys has recently been placed closer to Meriones (gerbils). This study compared immunity in Acomys, Mus, and Meriones. Lymphocytes from all rodents examined proliferated in response to mitogen and superantigen stimulation. Only Mus T cells responded to anti-CD3 stimulation. Acomys, like Meriones, and Mus that express xid, did not respond to thymus-independent type 2 antigens. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that T cell-specific MAbs did not bind Acomys or Meriones lymphocytes. The B cell-specific anti-CD45R (B220) MAb detected all rodent B cells and revealed the absence of a CD45R(lo) subset in the peritoneal cavity of Acomys and Meriones. Bone marrow from Acomys and Meriones failed to reconstitute B cell function in SCID mice. Thus, in terms of immunity, Acomys appears to be more similar to Meriones than Mus.

  6. Condom Use among Immigrant Latino Sexual Minorities: Multilevel Analysis after Respondent-Driven Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored correlates of condom use within a respondent-driven sample of 190 Spanish-speaking immigrant Latino sexual minorities, including gay and bisexual men, other men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender person, in North Carolina. Five analytic approaches for modeling data collected using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) were compared. Across most approaches, knowledge of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and increased condom use self-efficacy predicted consistent condom use and increased homophobia predicted decreased consistent condom use. The same correlates were not significant in all analyses but were consistent in most. Clustering due to recruitment chains was low, while clustering due to recruiter was substantial. This highlights the importance accounting for clustering when analyzing RDS data. PMID:25646728

  7. Condom use among immigrant Latino sexual minorities: multilevel analysis after respondent-driven sampling.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; McCoy, Thomas P

    2015-02-01

    This study explored correlates of condom use within a respondent-driven sample of 190 Spanish-speaking immigrant Latino sexual minorities, including gay and bisexual men, other men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender person, in North Carolina. Five analytic approaches for modeling data collected using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) were compared. Across most approaches, knowledge of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and increased condom use self-efficacy predicted consistent condom use and increased homophobia predicted decreased consistent condom use. The same correlates were not significant in all analyses but were consistent in most. Clustering due to recruitment chains was low, while clustering due to recruiter was substantial. This highlights the importance accounting for clustering when analyzing RDS data.

  8. Distinct populations of neurons respond to emotional valence and arousal in the human subthalamic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Sieger, Tomáš; Serranová, Tereza; Růžička, Filip; Vostatek, Pavel; Wild, Jiří; Šťastná, Daniela; Bonnet, Cecilia; Novák, Daniel; Růžička, Evžen; Urgošík, Dušan; Jech, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Both animal studies and studies using deep brain stimulation in humans have demonstrated the involvement of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in motivational and emotional processes; however, participation of this nucleus in processing human emotion has not been investigated directly at the single-neuron level. We analyzed the relationship between the neuronal firing from intraoperative microrecordings from the STN during affective picture presentation in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and the affective ratings of emotional valence and arousal performed subsequently. We observed that 17% of neurons responded to emotional valence and arousal of visual stimuli according to individual ratings. The activity of some neurons was related to emotional valence, whereas different neurons responded to arousal. In addition, 14% of neurons responded to visual stimuli. Our results suggest the existence of neurons involved in processing or transmission of visual and emotional information in the human STN, and provide evidence of separate processing of the affective dimensions of valence and arousal at the level of single neurons as well. PMID:25713375

  9. Baroreflex sensitivity might predict responders to milrinone in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Takuya; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    The phosphodiesterase III inhibitor milrinone (MIL) is considered to be effective for "wet and cold" heart failure. In some cases, however, the inotropic effects of milrinone are insufficient. A previous study suggested that baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) predicts the cases in which MIL increases left ventricular dp/dt. The aim of this study was to determine whether BRS measured using the spontaneous sequence method predicts the MIL responders. Twenty-four patients with "wet and cold" heart failure whose systolic blood pressure > 100 mmHg were enrolled. At 2 hours MIL improved dys-pnea, general fatigue, urine volume, and tricuspid regurgitant pressure gradient in 13 patients (responders; R group), whereas it failed to improve in 11 patients (nonresponders; NR group). BRS in the R group was significantly higher than that in the NR group prior to the MIL infusion. At 2 hours after the MIL infusion, BRS was further increased in the R group, but did not increase in the NR group. The sensitivity and specificity of BRS at a cut-off level of 5 ms/mmHg for the prediction of R group were 0.94 and 0.93, respectively. BRS might be useful for identifying potential responders to milrinone in patients with blood pressure-preserved "wet and cold" heart failure.

  10. Aping expressions? Chimpanzees produce distinct laugh types when responding to laughter of others.

    PubMed

    Davila-Ross, Marina; Allcock, Bethan; Thomas, Chris; Bard, Kim A

    2011-10-01

    Humans have the ability to replicate the emotional expressions of others even when they undergo different emotions. Such distinct responses of expressions, especially positive expressions, play a central role in everyday social communication of humans and may give the responding individuals important advantages in cooperation and communication. The present work examined laughter in chimpanzees to test whether nonhuman primates also use their expressions in such distinct ways. The approach was first to examine the form and occurrence of laugh replications (laughter after the laughter of others) and spontaneous laughter of chimpanzees during social play and then to test whether their laugh replications represented laugh-elicited laugh responses (laughter triggered by the laughter of others) by using a quantitative method designed to measure responses in natural social settings. The results of this study indicated that chimpanzees produce laugh-elicited laughter that is distinct in form and occurrence from their spontaneous laughter. These findings provide the first empirical evidence that nonhuman primates have the ability to replicate the expressions of others by producing expressions that differ in their underlying emotions and social implications. The data further showed that the laugh-elicited laugh responses of the subjects were closely linked to play maintenance, suggesting that chimpanzees might gain important cooperative and communicative advantages by responding with laughter to the laughter of their social partners. Notably, some chimpanzee groups of this study responded more with laughter than others, an outcome that provides empirical support of a socialization of expressions in great apes similar to that of humans.

  11. Conceptual and methodological challenges to measuring political commitment to respond to HIV

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Researchers have long recognized the importance of a central government’s political “commitment” in order to mount an effective response to HIV. The concept of political commitment remains ill-defined, however, and little guidance has been given on how to measure this construct and its relationship with HIV-related outcomes. Several countries have experienced declines in HIV infection rates, but conceptual difficulties arise in linking these declines to political commitment as opposed to underlying social and behavioural factors. Methods This paper first presents a critical review of the literature on existing efforts to conceptualize and measure political commitment to respond to HIV and the linkages between political commitment and HIV-related outcomes. Based on the elements identified in this review, the paper then develops and presents a framework to assist researchers in making choices about how to assess a government's level of political commitment to respond to HIV and how to link political commitment to HIV-related outcomes. Results The review of existing studies identifies three components of commitment (expressed, institutional and budgetary commitment) as different dimensions along which commitment can be measured. The review also identifies normative and ideological aspects of commitment and a set of variables that mediate and moderate political commitment that need to be accounted for in order to draw valid inferences about the relationship between political commitment and HIV-related outcomes. The framework summarizes a set of steps that researchers can follow in order to assess a government's level of commitment to respond to HIV and suggests ways to apply the framework to country cases. Conclusions Whereas existing studies have adopted a limited and often ambiguous conception of political commitment, we argue that conceiving of political commitment along a greater number of dimensions will allow researchers to draw a more complete

  12. Contractility sensor-guided optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy: results from the RESPOND-CRT trial

    PubMed Central

    Delnoy, Peter Paul; Brachmann, Johannes; Reynolds, Dwight; Padeletti, Luigi; Noelker, Georg; Kantipudi, Charan; Rubin Lopez, José Manuel; Dichtl, Wolfgang; Borri-Brunetto, Alberto; Verhees, Luc; Ritter, Philippe; Singh, Jagmeet P.

    2017-01-01

    Aims Although cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is effective in patients with systolic heart failure (HF) and a wide QRS interval, a substantial proportion of patients remain non-responsive. The SonR contractility sensor embedded in the right atrial lead enables individualized automatic optimization of the atrioventricular (AV) and interventricular (VV) timings. The RESPOND-CRT study investigated the safety and efficacy of the contractility sensor system in HF patients undergoing CRT. Methods and results RESPOND-CRT was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, multicentre, non-inferiority trial. Patients were randomized (2:1, respectively) to receive weekly, automatic CRT optimization with SonR vs. an Echo-guided optimization of AV and VV timings. The primary efficacy endpoint was the rate of clinical responders (patients alive, without adjudicated HF-related events, with improvement in New York Heart Association class or quality of life), at 12 months. The study randomized 998 patients. Responder rates were 75.0% in the SonR arm and 70.4% in the Echo arm (mean difference, 4.6%; 95% CI, −1.4% to 10.6%; P < 0.001 for non-inferiority margin −10.0%) (Table 2). At an overall mean follow-up of 548 ± 190 days SonR was associated with a 35% risk reduction in HF hospitalization (hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.46–0.92; log-rank P = 0.01). Conclusion Automatic AV and VV optimization using the contractility sensor was safe and as effective as Echo-guided AV and VV optimization in increasing response to CRT. ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01534234 PMID:27941020

  13. Groupthink: How Should Clinicians Respond to Human Trafficking?

    PubMed

    Cheshire, William Polk

    2017-01-01

    Human trafficking is a pervasive problem that exceeds the capacity of social and organizational resources to restrain and for which guidelines are inadequate to assist medical professionals in responding to the special needs of victims when they present as patients. One obstacle to appropriate disagreement with an inadequate status quo is the lure of group cohesion. "Groupthink" is a social psychological phenomenon in which presumed group consensus prevails despite potentially adverse consequences. In the context of the medical response to human trafficking, groupthink may foster complacency, rationalize acquiescence with inaction on the basis of perceived futility, create an illusion of unanimity, and accommodate negative stereotyping. Despite these inhibiting influences, even in apparently futile situations, medical professionals have unique opportunities to be a force for good.

  14. Responding to emergencies: How organization and management make a difference

    SciTech Connect

    Metlay, D.S.; Haber, S.B.; Luckas, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    There is an observable and definable process that occurs during the course of responding to an abnormal event at a nuclear power plant. Each of the elements that comprise that process involves collective action and consequently is influenced by the character and effectiveness of organizational and managerial arrangements. Factors which affect each element include overt ones like the allocation of authority and responsibility and the skill of personnel, as well as covert factors like the methods used to resolve uncertainty. The purpose of this research project is to examine the process of response that occurs to an abnormal event at a nuclear power plant and where possible to identify the organizational and management factors that influence that process.

  15. Recognising and responding to partner abuse: challenging the key facts.

    PubMed

    Goodyear-Smith, Felicity

    2004-09-24

    Inter-partner violence is a serious public health problem for a minority of the population. Frequently the problem is hidden and goes undetected. Recognising this violence within the primary healthcare setting and responding appropriately are laudable aims, with significant health gains. However it is important that in raising professional and public awareness of the issue, the case is not over-stated. Too often figures such as a NZ$141 million annual cost of family violence to health are quoted and presented as 'fact' without critical appraisal. Family violence is an emotional topic, and challenge to prevailing viewpoints may be misconstrued as a denial of the problem. These are important issues, and I invite academic debate.

  16. Psychogenic excoriation responding to fluoxetine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Himanshu

    2008-04-01

    Compulsive skin picking, 'acne excoriee', neurotic (psychogenic) excoriation, dermatotillomania, occurring in 2% dermatology patients mostly in women, is a result of excessive scratching, picking, gouging or squeezing of the skin using teeth, tweezers, nail files, pins and knives, etc. The lesions are usually found on face and also on upper limbs and upper back, areas patients can easily reach. They may occur in absence or in response to skin pathology or sensation of itching. A young female patient attended OPD with the complaints of multiple excoriated lesions over the face, arms and forearms. The diagnosis was psychogenic excoriation which is an uncommon psychodermatological condition. She was treated with fluoxetine and behaviour therapy. The patient recovered fully with above treatment at the end of 3 months. Psychogenic excoriation is an uncommon psychodermatological condition which responds well to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and behaviour therapy (habit reversal training).

  17. Ability of transplanted cultured epithelium to respond to dermal papillae.

    PubMed

    Xing, L; Kobayashi, K

    2001-10-01

    Cultured epithelium has been used successfully in the treatment of extensive burns. Regenerated epidermis, however, lacks such as hair follicles and sweat glands that are common in mammalian skin. We attempted to determine whether cultured epithelium could be induced to form hair follicles by dermal papillae, which are most important for the morphogenesis and growth of hair follicles. We cultivated adult rat sole keratinocytes, obtained the cultured epithelium, and prepared recombinants consisting of cultured epithelium and fresh dermal papillae with or without the sole dermis. These recombinants were then transplanted underneath the dermis of the dorsal skin of syngeneic rats or athymic mice. Histologic examination revealed that the transplanted cultured epithelium formed the follicular structures with sebaceous gland-like structure following induction of the dermal papillae, especially when supported by the dermis. We concluded that transplanted cultured epithelium of adult rat sole keratinocytes can respond to growth signals from adult dermal papillae.

  18. Novel nano-composite biomaterials that respond to light.

    PubMed

    Hribar, Kolin C; Metter, Robert B; Burdick, Jason A

    2009-01-01

    Composites of nanoparticles and polymers are finding wide applications to alter material properties, conductivity, and utility. Here, we show that nano-composites can be designed to heat in the presence of near infrared light. This process is useful in transitioning materials through a transition temperature for a range of applications. For example, shape-memory materials (including polymers, metals, and ceramics) are those that are processed into a temporary shape and respond to some external stimuli (e.g., temperature) to undergo a transition back to a permanent shape and may be useful in a range of applications from aerospace to fabrics, to biomedical devices and microsystem components. In this work, we formulated composites of gold nanorods (<1% by volume) and biodegradable networks, where exposure to infrared light induced heating and consequently, shape transitions. The heating is repeatable and tunable based on nanorod concentration and light intensity.

  19. Misery loves company: mood-congruent emotional responding to music.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Patrick G; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Griffith, Andrew T

    2011-10-01

    We examined emotional responding to music after mood induction. On each trial, listeners heard a 30-s music excerpt and rated how much they liked it, whether it sounded happy or sad, and how familiar it was. When the excerpts sounded unambiguously happy or sad (Experiment 1), the typical preference for happy-sounding music was eliminated after inducing a sad mood. When the excerpts sounded ambiguous with respect to happiness and sadness (Experiment 2), listeners perceived more sadness after inducing a sad mood. Sad moods had no influence on familiarity ratings (Experiments 1 and 2). These findings imply that "misery loves company." Listeners in a sad mood fail to show the typical preference for happy-sounding music, and they perceive more sadness in music that is ambiguous with respect to mood.

  20. Plants respond to leaf vibrations caused by insect herbivore chewing.

    PubMed

    Appel, H M; Cocroft, R B

    2014-08-01

    Plant germination and growth can be influenced by sound, but the ecological significance of these responses is unclear. We asked whether acoustic energy generated by the feeding of insect herbivores was detected by plants. We report that the vibrations caused by insect feeding can elicit chemical defenses. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) rosettes pre-treated with the vibrations caused by caterpillar feeding had higher levels of glucosinolate and anthocyanin defenses when subsequently fed upon by Pieris rapae (L.) caterpillars than did untreated plants. The plants also discriminated between the vibrations caused by chewing and those caused by wind or insect song. Plants thus respond to herbivore-generated vibrations in a selective and ecologically meaningful way. A vibration signaling pathway would complement the known signaling pathways that rely on volatile, electrical, or phloem-borne signals. We suggest that vibration may represent a new long distance signaling mechanism in plant-insect interactions that contributes to systemic induction of chemical defenses.

  1. Respondents, Operants, and Emergents: Toward an Integrated Perspective on Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Daune M.; Washburn, David A.; Hillix, William A.

    1996-01-01

    A triarchic organization of behavior, building on Skinner's description of respondents and operants, is proposed by introducing a third class of behavior called 'emergents.' Emergents are new responses, never specifically reinforced, that require operations more complex than association. Some of these operations occur naturally only in animals above a minimum level of brain complexity, and are developed in an interaction between treatment and organismic variables. (Here complexity is defined in terms of relative levels of hierarchical integration made possible both by the amount of brain, afforded both by brain-body allometric relationships and by encephalization, and, also, the elaboration of dendritic and synaptic connections within the cortex and connections between various parts/regions of the brain.) Examples of emergents are discussed to advance this triarchic view, of behavior. The prime example is language. This triarchic view reflects both the common goals and the cumulative nature of psychological science.

  2. Measuring the Prevalence of Problematic Respondent Behaviors among MTurk, Campus, and Community Participants

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, Stephanie; Norman, Greg J.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2016-01-01

    The reliance on small samples and underpowered studies may undermine the replicability of scientific findings. Large sample sizes may be necessary to achieve adequate statistical power. Crowdsourcing sites such as Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) have been regarded as an economical means for achieving larger samples. Because MTurk participants may engage in behaviors which adversely affect data quality, much recent research has focused on assessing the quality of data obtained from MTurk samples. However, participants from traditional campus- and community-based samples may also engage in behaviors which adversely affect the quality of the data that they provide. We compare an MTurk, campus, and community sample to measure how frequently participants report engaging in problematic respondent behaviors. We report evidence that suggests that participants from all samples engage in problematic respondent behaviors with comparable rates. Because statistical power is influenced by factors beyond sample size, including data integrity, methodological controls must be refined to better identify and diminish the frequency of participant engagement in problematic respondent behaviors. PMID:27351378

  3. Men's Intentions to Have Sex With a New Partner: Sexual and Emotional Responding, Alcohol, and Condoms.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Amanda K; George, William H; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Granato, Hollie F; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R

    2016-01-01

    Findings regarding the relation between alcohol and intentions to have sex have been mixed, and little research has examined the role of condom availability on intentions to have sex. Sexual and emotional responding may influence subsequent sexual decisions. Thus, a better understanding of sexual and emotional responding combined with situational factors such as condom presence could help explain the discrepancies in findings regarding alcohol's effect on intentions to have sex. The effects of alcohol and condom presence on men's intentions to have sex were examined using an experimental paradigm involving an alcohol administration study and a second-person eroticized scenario. The effects of sexual and emotional responding were also examined in relation to intentions to have sex. It was found that alcohol increased positive mood, which was associated with higher intentions to have sex. In addition, condom presence was directly associated with higher intentions to have sex. More sexual desire was related to increased likelihood of sexual intentions. These findings increase understanding of mechanisms underlying the relation between alcohol and intentions to have sex.

  4. Divergent Soybean Calmodulins Respond Similarly to Calcium Transients: Insight into Differential Target Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Shane D.; Chakravarthy, Harshini; Shettigar, Vikram; O’Neil, Andrew J.; Siddiqui, Jalal K.; Jones, Benjamin R.; Tikunova, Svetlana B.; Davis, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    Plants commonly respond to stressors by modulating the expression of a large family of calcium binding proteins including isoforms of the ubiquitous signaling protein calmodulin (CaM). The various plant CaM isoforms are thought to differentially regulate the activity of specific target proteins to modulate cellular stress responses. The mechanism(s) behind differential target activation by the plant CaMs is unknown. In this study, we used steady-state and stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate the strategy by which two soybean CaMs (sCaM1 and sCaM4) have evolved to differentially regulate NAD kinase (NADK), which is activated by sCaM1 but inhibited by sCaM4. Although the isolated proteins have different cation binding properties, in the presence of Mg2+ and the CaM binding domains from proteins that are differentially regulated, the two plant CaMs respond nearly identically to rapid and slow Ca2+ transients. Our data suggest that the plant CaMs have evolved to bind certain targets with comparable affinities, respond similarly to a particular Ca2+ signature, but achieve different structural states, only one of which can activate the enzyme. Understanding the basis for differential enzyme regulation by the plant CaMs is the first step to engineering a vertebrate CaM that will selectively alter the CaM signaling network. PMID:28261258

  5. Dorsal hippocampus inactivation impairs spontaneous recovery of Pavlovian magazine approach responding in rats

    PubMed Central

    Campese, Vincent D.; Delamater, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    Destruction or inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus (DH) has been shown to eliminate the renewal of extinguished fear [1–4]. However, it has recently been reported that the contextual control of responding to extinguished appetitive stimuli is not disrupted when the DH is destroyed or inactivated prior to tests for renewal of Pavlovian conditioned magazine approach [5]. In the present study we extend the analysis of DH control of appetitive extinction learning to the spontaneous recovery of Pavlovian conditioned magazine approach responding. Subjects were trained to associate two separate stimuli with the delivery of food and had muscimol or vehicle infused into the DH prior to a single test-session for spontaneous recovery occurring immediately following extinction of one of these stimuli, but one week following extinction of the other. While vehicle treated subjects showed more recovery to the distally extinguished stimulus than the proximal one, muscimol treated subjects failed to show spontaneous recovery to either stimulus. This result suggests that, while the DH is not involved in the control of extinction by physical contexts [5], it may be involved when time is the gating factor controlling recovery of extinguished responding. PMID:24742862

  6. The Subventricular Zone Is Able to Respond to a Demyelinating Lesion After Localized Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Capilla-Gonzalez, Vivian; Guerrero-Cazares, Hugo; Bonsu, Janice M.; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar; Achanta, Pragathi; Wong, John; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Radiation is a common tool in the treatment of brain tumors that induces neurological deficits as a side effect. Some of these deficits appear to be related to the impact of radiation on the neurogenic niches, producing a drastic decrease in the proliferative capacity of these regions. In the adult mammalian brain, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles is the main neurogenic niche. Neural stem/precursor cells (NSCs) within the SVZ play an important role in brain repair following injuries. However, the irradiated NSCs' ability to respond to damage has not been previously elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the effects of localized radiation on the SVZ ability to respond to a lysolecithin-induced demyelination of the striatum. We demonstrated that the proliferation rate of the irradiated SVZ was increased after brain damage and that residual NSCs were reactivated. The irradiated SVZ had an expansion of doublecortin positive cells that appeared to migrate from the lateral ventricles toward the demyelinated striatum, where newly generated oligodendrocytes were found. In addition, in the absence of demyelinating damage, remaining cells in the irradiated SVZ appeared to repopulate the neurogenic niche a year post-radiation. These findings support the hypothesis that NSCs are radioresistant and can respond to a brain injury, recovering the neurogenic niche. A more complete understanding of the effects that localized radiation has on the SVZ may lead to improvement of the current protocols used in the radiotherapy of cancer. PMID:24038623

  7. Improved cycle outcomes after laparoscopic ovarian diathermy in hyper-responder patients with previous ART failure.

    PubMed

    Pabuccu, Recai; Pabuccu, Emre Goksan; Gursoy, Asli Yarci; Caglar, Gamze Sinem; Yilmaz, Muserref Banu; Ozdegirmenci, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Excessive response to ovarian stimulation is common among hyper-responder patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART). Cycle cancellations and severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) are all detrimental consequences observed within this cohort and several approaches have been proposed to enhance outcomes. The current study is designed to evaluate whether laparoscopic ovarian diathermy (LOD) improves ART outcomes and pregnancy rates by reducing Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) levels in a group of patients who had a history of recurrent ART failure and high response. A total of 40 hyper-responder patients with history of previous ART failure were included. Group I consisted of 22 patients that underwent LOD prior to ART. Group II consisted of 18 patients that underwent only ART. Cycle outcomes of groups were compared. Following LOD, significant reduction in AMH levels were detected in group I (4.75 ng/mL to 2.25 ng/mL). Clinical pregnancies were similar among groups (40% versus 27.8% p = 0.65). There was no cycle cancellation in Group I, whereas there were three cycle cancellations observed due to OHSS in Group II. Our results indicate that LOD might offer enhanced fertility outcomes and may reduce the likelihood of cycle cancellations in hyper-responders with previous ART failures.

  8. Fire service and first responder thermal imaging camera (TIC) advances and standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konsin, Lawrence S.; Nixdorff, Stuart

    2007-04-01

    Fire Service and First Responder Thermal Imaging Camera (TIC) applications are growing, saving lives and preventing injury and property damage. Firefighters face a wide range of serious hazards. TICs help mitigate the risks by protecting Firefighters and preventing injury, while reducing time spent fighting the fire and resources needed to do so. Most fire safety equipment is covered by performance standards. Fire TICs, however, are not covered by such standards and are also subject to inadequate operational performance and insufficient user training. Meanwhile, advancements in Fire TICs and lower costs are driving product demand. The need for a Fire TIC Standard was spurred in late 2004 through a Government sponsored Workshop where experts from the First Responder community, component manufacturers, firefighter training, and those doing research on TICs discussed strategies, technologies, procedures, best practices and R&D that could improve Fire TICs. The workshop identified pressing image quality, performance metrics, and standards issues. Durability and ruggedness metrics and standard testing methods were also seen as important, as was TIC training and certification of end-users. A progress report on several efforts in these areas and their impact on the IR sensor industry will be given. This paper is a follow up to the SPIE Orlando 2004 paper on Fire TIC usage (entitled Emergency Responders' Critical Infrared) which explored the technological development of this IR industry segment from the viewpoint of the end user, in light of the studies and reports that had established TICs as a mission critical tool for firefighters.

  9. The effects of presession manipulations on automatically maintained challenging behavior and task responding.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yi-Chieh; Cannella-Malone, Helen I

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the effects of presession exposure to attention, response blocking, attention with response blocking, and noninteraction conditions on subsequent engagement in automatically maintained challenging behavior and correct responding in four individuals with significant intellectual disabilities. Following a functional analysis, the effects of the four presession conditions were examined using multielement designs. Results varied across the 4 participants (e.g., presession noninteraction acted as an abolishing operation for 2 participants, but as an establishing operation for the other 2 participants). As such, both the results replicated and contradicted previous research examining the effects of motivating operations on automatically maintained challenging behavior. Although the results varied across participants, at least one condition resulting in a decrease in challenging behavior and an increase in correct responding were identified for each participant. These findings suggested that presession manipulations resulted in decreases in subsequent automatically maintained challenging behavior and simultaneous increases in correct responding might need to be individually identified when the maintaining contingencies cannot be identified.

  10. Perseverative instrumental and Pavlovian responding to conditioned stimuli in serotonin transporter knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Nonkes, Lourens J P; Homberg, Judith R

    2013-02-01

    Environmental stimuli can influence behavior via the process of Pavlovian conditioning. Recent genetic research suggests that some individuals are more sensitive to environmental stimuli for behavioral guidance than others. One important mediator of this effect is serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genetic variance, which increases sensitivity to Pavlovian conditioned stimuli through changes in the build-up of corticolimbic circuits. As these stimuli can have reinforcing effects on instrumental responding, we here investigated their effects on instrumental behavior in 5-HTT knockout rats and their wild-type counterparts by means of the signal attenuation paradigm. In this paradigm animals acquired a Pavlovian association between a stimulus and food reward, and subsequently they had to lever press in order to gain access to this food reward-associated stimulus. Thereafter, half of the animals underwent extinction training during which extinction of the primary Pavlovian association was induced via non-reinforced stimulus presentations, whereas the other half did not receive this training. During a final test session all animals were tested for instrumental responding for the non-reinforced Pavlovian conditioned stimulus, as well as instrumental and Pavlovian responding to the stimulus after an initial lever-press. No genotype differences were observed during the training and extinction sessions. However, during the test session 5-HTT knockout rats that had not received prior extinction training displayed excessive instrumental responding. This was specifically observed during presentation of the stimulus (induced by the first lever press) and was accompanied by an increased number of feeder visits after termination of the stimulus presentation. An additionally performed c-Fos immunohistochemistry study revealed that the behaviors in these animals were associated with abnormal c-Fos immunoreactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala, regions important

  11. Assessing the role of alternative response rates and reinforcer rates in resistance to extinction of target responding when combining stimuli.

    PubMed

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Bai, John Y H; Skinner, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    Studies of behavioral momentum reveal that reinforcing an alternative response in the presence of a target response reduces the rate of target responding but increases its persistence, relative to training the target response on its own. Because of the parallels between these studies and differential-reinforcement techniques to reduce problem behavior in clinical settings, alternative techniques to reduce problem behavior without enhancing its persistence are being explored. One potential solution is to train an alternative response in a separate stimulus context from problem behavior before combining the alternative stimulus with the target stimulus. The present study assessed how differences in reinforcement contingencies and rate for alternative responding influenced resistance to extinction of target responding when combining alternative and target stimuli in pigeons. Across three experiments, alternative stimuli signaling a response-reinforcer dependency and greater reinforcer rates more effectively decreased the persistence of target responding when combining alternative and target stimuli within the same extinction tests, but not when compared across separate extinction tests. Overall, these findings reveal that differences in competition between alternative and target responding produced by contingencies of alternative reinforcement could influence the effectiveness of treating problem behavior through combining stimulus contexts.

  12. Attributions of Blame and Credibility in a Hypothetical Child Sexual Abuse Case: Roles of Victim Disability, Victim Resistance and Respondent Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Paul; Titterington, Leigh; Davies, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effects victim disability (physical vs. intellectual vs. none), victim resistance (physical vs. verbal vs. none) and respondent gender (male vs. female) have on attributions of blame and credibility in a hypothetical case of child sexual abuse. Three hundred and thirty-five respondents read a fictional police statement…

  13. Selected effects of the Conservation Reserve Program on program participants: A report to survey respondents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandever, Mark W.; Allen, Arthur W.; Sexton, Natalie R.

    2002-01-01

    As a result, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was asked to survey CRP contractees on these issues. Preliminary results from this study have been furnished to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and are being considered as new conservation and management policies for the CRP are being developed (as part of the recently passed Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002). This report includes preliminary results of the study and is being sent to survey respondents. A formal publication of survey results is also being prepared and should be completed by the winter of 2002.

  14. Dealing with dissonance: responding to an incongruent test result in a new media environment.

    PubMed

    Vraga, Emily K

    2011-11-01

    In a new media environment replete with opportunities to test and express political identity, this study examines how people respond when confronted with a political test result that contradicts their partisan affiliation. An incongruent test result should produce motivated processing, but only when individuals do not dismiss the incongruent result will they experience dissonance and alter their social identification. Using a series of experiments, the results of this study supported these hypotheses. Implications of these findings for political psychology and message response are discussed.

  15. "This Is a Field That's Open, Not Closed": Multilingual and International Writing Faculty Respond to Composition Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Lisa R.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a qualitative, interview-based study in which multilingual writing faculty based at the American University of Beirut, in Beirut, Lebanon, read and responded to "core" texts of composition scholarship primarily published in North America, for a North American audience. This study is premised on the…

  16. Perceptions of Children's Television Advertising: An Empirical Investigation of the Beliefs and Attitudes of Consumer, Industry, and Government Respondents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culley, James D.

    This paper summarizes the findings of a study investigating the beliefs and attitudes of six key respondent groups regarding issues surrounding television advertising and children. The six groups included in the study are spokesmen for Action for Children's Television (ACT); the presidents and top executive officers of advertising agencies…

  17. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 5:] Summary report to phase 1 respondents including frequency distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; White, Terry F.

    1991-01-01

    Phase 1 of a four part study was undertaken to investigate the use of scientific and technical information (STI) by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Specific attention was paid to institutional and sociometric variables and to the step-by-step process of information gathering used by the respondents. Data were collected by means of three self-administered mail-back questionnaires. The approximately 34,000 members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics served as the study population. More than 65 percent of the randomly selected respondants returned the questionnaires in each of the three groups. Respondants relied more heavily on informal sources of information than formal sources and turned to librarians and other technical information specialists only when they did not obtain results via informal means or their own formal searches. The report includes frequency distributions for the questions.

  18. Accumulation of oocytes: a new strategy for managing low-responder patients.

    PubMed

    Cobo, A; Garrido, Nicolás; Crespo, Juana; José, Remohí; Pellicer, Antonio

    2012-04-01

    Accumulation of oocytes from several ovarian stimulation cycles is currently possible using novel vitrification technologies. This strategy could increase the inseminated cohort, creating a similar situation to normoresponders. This study included 242 low-responder (LR) patients (594 cycles) whose mature oocytes were accumulated by vitrification and inseminated simultaneously (LR-Accu-Vit) and 482 patients (588 cycles) undergoing IVF/embryo transfer with fresh oocytes in each stimulation cycle (LR-fresh). Drop-out rate in the LR-fresh group was >75%. The embryo-transfer cancellation per patient was significantly lower in the LR-Accu-Vit group (9.1%) than the LR-fresh group (34.0%). Live-birth rate (LBR)/patient was higher in the LR-Accu-Vit group (30.2%) than the LR-fresh group (22.4%). Cumulative LBR/patient was statistically higher in the LR-Accu-Vit group (36.4%) than the LR-fresh group (23.7%) and a similar outcome was observed among patients aged ⩾40years (LR-Accu-Vit 15.8% versus LR-fresh 7.1%). The LR-Accu-Vit group had more cycles with embryo cryopreservation (LR-Accu-Vit 28.9% versus LR-fresh 8.7%). Accumulation of oocytes by vitrification and simultaneous insemination represents a successful alternative for LR patients, yielding comparable success rates to those in normoresponders and avoiding adverse effects of a low response. The accumulation of oocytes from several ovarian stimulation cycles is currently possible with the aid of novel vitrification technologies. This strategy could be useful for low-responder patients, contributing to increase the inseminated cohort and creating a similar situation as in normal responders. According to the results presented herein (higher live-birth rate per patient treated), this strategy represents a successful alternative for low-responder patients, yielding comparable success rates to those in normal responders and avoiding the adverse effects of a low response.

  19. Baclofen blocks yohimbine-induced increases in ethanol-reinforced responding in rats.

    PubMed

    Williams, Keith L; Nickel, Melissa M; Bielak, Justin T

    2016-05-01

    Chronic or repeated stress increases alcohol consumption. The GABA-B agonist baclofen decreases alcohol consumption and may be most effective for individuals with comorbid anxiety/stress disorders. The present study sought to determine if baclofen blocks stress-induced increases in ethanol self-administration as modeled by repeated yohimbine injections in rats. Rats were trained to respond for 15% w/v ethanol in operant chambers using a method that applies neither water deprivation nor saccharin/sucrose fading. Following training, the rats received 6 injections of 1.25mg/kg yohimbine were given immediately prior to the operant sessions during a 2-week time period. Subsequently, some rats were pair-matched to receive either 1.25mg/kg yohimbine or saline in the presence of 0.3, 1, and 3mg/kg baclofen prior to sessions. Acquisition of ethanol self-administration was poor. Pretreatment with yohimbine consistently increased responding across repeated injections. Yohimbine's effect on ethanol intake unexpectedly diverged from the effect on responding as the rats failed to consume all reinforcers earned. Smaller doses of baclofen paired with saline injections had no effect on ethanol responding; only 3mg/kg baclofen reduced ethanol self-administration. The smallest baclofen dose of 0.3mg/kg failed to block the yohimbine-induced increase in self-administration. The large baclofen dose of 3mg/kg continued to suppress ethanol self-administration when given with yohimbine. Baclofen 1mg/kg blocked the effect of yohimbine even though it had no effect when given in the absence of yohimbine. Exposure to high ethanol concentrations may induce self-administration only in certain conditions. The dissociation between responding and intake suggests that repeated yohimbine injections may initiate other behavioral or physiological mechanisms that confound its effects as a pharmacological stressor. Furthermore, an optimal baclofen dose range may specifically protect against stress

  20. Canada's National Forest Inventory (responding to current information needs).

    PubMed

    Gillis, M D

    2001-01-01

    Canada's current National Forest Inventory is a periodic compilation of existing inventory material from across the country. While the current approach has many advantages, it lacks information on the nature and rate of changes to the resource, and does not permit projections or forecasts. Being a compilation of inventories of different dates, the current national forest inventory cannot reflect the current state of the forests and therefore cannot be used as a satisfactory baseline for monitoring change. The current format of Canada's National Forest Inventory has served its purpose by providing national statistical compilations and reporting. However, its useful life is coming to a conclusion. To meet new demands, Canada is considering a new National Forest Inventory design consisting of a plot-based system of permanent observational units located on a national grid. The objective of the new inventory design is to assess and monitor the extent, state and sustainability of Canada's forests in a timely and accurate manner. Details of the new inventory design are described. A strategy to respond to Canada's national and international forest reporting commitments through a National Forest Information System is also discussed.

  1. Network Structure and Biased Variance Estimation in Respondent Driven Sampling.

    PubMed

    Verdery, Ashton M; Mouw, Ted; Bauldry, Shawn; Mucha, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores bias in the estimation of sampling variance in Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Prior methodological work on RDS has focused on its problematic assumptions and the biases and inefficiencies of its estimators of the population mean. Nonetheless, researchers have given only slight attention to the topic of estimating sampling variance in RDS, despite the importance of variance estimation for the construction of confidence intervals and hypothesis tests. In this paper, we show that the estimators of RDS sampling variance rely on a critical assumption that the network is First Order Markov (FOM) with respect to the dependent variable of interest. We demonstrate, through intuitive examples, mathematical generalizations, and computational experiments that current RDS variance estimators will always underestimate the population sampling variance of RDS in empirical networks that do not conform to the FOM assumption. Analysis of 215 observed university and school networks from Facebook and Add Health indicates that the FOM assumption is violated in every empirical network we analyze, and that these violations lead to substantially biased RDS estimators of sampling variance. We propose and test two alternative variance estimators that show some promise for reducing biases, but which also illustrate the limits of estimating sampling variance with only partial information on the underlying population social network.

  2. Sequential Responding and Planning in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Parrish, Audrey E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous experiments have assessed planning during sequential responding to computer generated stimuli by Old World nonhuman primates including chimpanzees and rhesus macaques. However, no such assessment has been made with a New World primate species. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) are an interesting test case for assessing the distribution of cognitive processes in the order Primates because they sometimes show proficiency in tasks also mastered by apes and Old World monkeys, but in other cases fail to match the proficiency of those other species. In two experiments, eight capuchin monkeys selected five arbitrary stimuli in distinct locations on a computer monitor in a learned sequence. In Experiment 1, shift trials occurred in which the second and third stimuli were transposed when the first stimulus was selected by the animal. In Experiment 2, mask trials occurred in which all remaining stimuli were masked after the monkey selected the first stimulus. Monkeys made more mistakes on trials in which the locations of the second and third stimuli were interchanged than on trials in which locations were not interchanged, suggesting they had already planned to select a location that no longer contained the correct stimulus. When mask trials occurred, monkeys performed at levels significantly better than chance, but their performance exceeded chance levels only for the first and the second selections on a trial. These data indicate that capuchin monkeys performed very similarly to chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys and appeared to plan their selection sequences during the computerized task, but only to a limited degree. PMID:22801861

  3. Avian flu: sites seek to respond and reassure.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Marilynn

    2005-03-01

    Avian flu outbreaks in Thailand and Vietnam, followed by a reported case of human-to-human transmission in Cambodia (http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/country/cases_table_2005_02_02/en/) prompted rapid responses by health authorities around the world. The WHO and local health ministries launched investigations into the potential source(s) of the outbreaks, and millions of ducks and other farm poultry were slaughtered (http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/cidrap/content/influenza/avianflu/news/feb0205cambodian.html). The US Centers for Disease Control responded by elevating its previous advice to travellers about avian influenza A (H5N1) in Asia from an Outbreak Notice to a Travel Health Precaution, and increased surveillance for the disease. Some experts predict that the world is on the brink of an avian flu pandemic; others say a pandemic may not be inevitable, but urge caution and ongoing monitoring. The following sites offer background information and the latest news on avian flu.

  4. Cognitive mechanisms for responding to mimicry from others.

    PubMed

    Hale, Joanna; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2016-04-01

    Compared to our understanding of neurocognitive processes involved producing mimicry, the downstream consequences of being mimicked are less clear. A wide variety of positive consequences of mimicry, such as liking and helping, have been reported in behavioural research. However, an in-depth review suggests the link from mimicry to liking and other positive outcomes may be fragile. Positive responses to mimicry can break down due to individual factors and social situations where mimicry may be unexpected. It remains unclear how the complex behavioural effects of mimicry relate to neural systems which respond to being mimicked. Mimicry activates regions associated with mirror properties, self-other processing and reward. In this review, we outline three potential models linking these regions with cognitive consequences of being mimicked. The models suggest that positive downstream consequences of mimicry may depend upon self-other overlap, detection of contingency or low prediction error. Finally, we highlight limitations with traditional research designs and suggest alternative methods for achieving highly ecological validity and experimental control. We also highlight unanswered questions which may guide future research.

  5. Network Structure and Biased Variance Estimation in Respondent Driven Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Verdery, Ashton M.; Mouw, Ted; Bauldry, Shawn; Mucha, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores bias in the estimation of sampling variance in Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Prior methodological work on RDS has focused on its problematic assumptions and the biases and inefficiencies of its estimators of the population mean. Nonetheless, researchers have given only slight attention to the topic of estimating sampling variance in RDS, despite the importance of variance estimation for the construction of confidence intervals and hypothesis tests. In this paper, we show that the estimators of RDS sampling variance rely on a critical assumption that the network is First Order Markov (FOM) with respect to the dependent variable of interest. We demonstrate, through intuitive examples, mathematical generalizations, and computational experiments that current RDS variance estimators will always underestimate the population sampling variance of RDS in empirical networks that do not conform to the FOM assumption. Analysis of 215 observed university and school networks from Facebook and Add Health indicates that the FOM assumption is violated in every empirical network we analyze, and that these violations lead to substantially biased RDS estimators of sampling variance. We propose and test two alternative variance estimators that show some promise for reducing biases, but which also illustrate the limits of estimating sampling variance with only partial information on the underlying population social network. PMID:26679927

  6. Peripheral Sensory Neurons Expressing Melanopsin Respond to Light

    PubMed Central

    Matynia, Anna; Nguyen, Eileen; Sun, Xiaoping; Blixt, Frank W.; Parikh, Sachin; Kessler, Jason; Pérez de Sevilla Müller, Luis; Habib, Samer; Kim, Paul; Wang, Zhe Z.; Rodriguez, Allen; Charles, Andrew; Nusinowitz, Steven; Edvinsson, Lars; Barnes, Steven; Brecha, Nicholas C.; Gorin, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of light to cause pain is paradoxical. The retina detects light but is devoid of nociceptors while the trigeminal sensory ganglia (TG) contain nociceptors but not photoreceptors. Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are thought to mediate light-induced pain but recent evidence raises the possibility of an alternative light responsive pathway independent of the retina and optic nerve. Here, we show that melanopsin is expressed in both human and mouse TG neurons. In mice, they represent 3% of small TG neurons that are preferentially localized in the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve and are likely nociceptive C fibers and high-threshold mechanoreceptor Aδ fibers based on a strong size-function association. These isolated neurons respond to blue light stimuli with a delayed onset and sustained firing, similar to the melanopsin-dependent intrinsic photosensitivity observed in ipRGCs. Mice with severe bilateral optic nerve crush exhibit no light-induced responses including behavioral light aversion until treated with nitroglycerin, an inducer of migraine in people and migraine-like symptoms in mice. With nitroglycerin, these same mice with optic nerve crush exhibit significant light aversion. Furthermore, this retained light aversion remains dependent on melanopsin-expressing neurons. Our results demonstrate a novel light-responsive neural function independent of the optic nerve that may originate in the peripheral nervous system to provide the first direct mechanism for an alternative light detection pathway that influences motivated behavior. PMID:27559310

  7. An ABI3-interactor of conifers responds to multiple hormones.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ying; Zhao, Tiehan; Kermode, Allison

    2013-11-01

    CnAIP2 (Callitropsis nootkatensis ABI3-Interacting Protein 2) was previously identified as a protein that interacts with the yellow-cedar ABI3 protein. CnAIP2 plays important roles during several key transitions of the plant lifecycle and acts as a global regulator with functions opposite to those of ABI3 proteins. Here we report that the CnAIP2 gene promoter is strongly upregulated by all of the major plant hormones. Young Arabidopsis seedlings expressing a chimeric CnAIP2pro-GUS construct were subjected to exogenously applied hormones; the maximum fold-enhancement of GUS activity was as high as 47-fold, and each hormone showed a distinctive cell/tissue-specific pattern of GUS induction. By far the greatest response was elicited by the synthetic auxin 2,4-D (47-fold induction); the other hormones tested stimulated GUS activities by 8- to 21-fold. The CnAIP2 promoter also responded to glucose and salt (NaCl), albeit to a lesser extent (2- to 3-fold induction). As well as acting in an antagonistic way to the global regulator ABI3, CnAIP2 appears to participate in multiple hormonal crosstalk pathways to carry out its functions.

  8. An ABI3-interactor of conifers responds to multiple hormones

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ying; Zhao, Tiehan; Kermode, Allison R.

    2013-01-01

    CnAIP2 (Callitropsis nootkatensis ABI3-Interacting Protein 2) was previously identified as a protein that interacts with the yellow-cedar ABI3 protein. CnAIP2 plays important roles during several key transitions of the plant lifecycle and acts as a global regulator with functions opposite to those of ABI3 proteins. Here we report that the CnAIP2 gene promoter is strongly upregulated by all of the major plant hormones. Young Arabidopsis seedlings expressing a chimeric CnAIP2pro-GUS construct were subjected to exogenously applied hormones; the maximum fold-enhancement of GUS activity was as high as 47-fold, and each hormone showed a distinctive cell/tissue-specific pattern of GUS induction. By far the greatest response was elicited by the synthetic auxin 2,4-D (47-fold induction); the other hormones tested stimulated GUS activities by 8- to 21-fold. The CnAIP2 promoter also responded to glucose and salt (NaCl), albeit to a lesser extent (2- to 3-fold induction). As well as acting in an antagonistic way to the global regulator ABI3, CnAIP2 appears to participate in multiple hormonal crosstalk pathways to carry out its functions. PMID:23989243

  9. CGRPα-expressing sensory neurons respond to stimuli that evoke sensations of pain and itch.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Eric S; Taylor-Blake, Bonnie; Zylka, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRPα, encoded by Calca) is a classic marker of nociceptive dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Despite years of research, it is unclear what stimuli these neurons detect in vitro or in vivo. To facilitate functional studies of these neurons, we genetically targeted an axonal tracer (farnesylated enhanced green fluorescent protein; GFP) and a LoxP-stopped cell ablation construct (human diphtheria toxin receptor; DTR) to the Calca locus. In culture, 10-50% (depending on ligand) of all CGRPα-GFP-positive (+) neurons responded to capsaicin, mustard oil, menthol, acidic pH, ATP, and pruritogens (histamine and chloroquine), suggesting a role for peptidergic neurons in detecting noxious stimuli and itch. In contrast, few (2.2±1.3%) CGRPα-GFP(+) neurons responded to the TRPM8-selective cooling agent icilin. In adult mice, CGRPα-GFP(+) cell bodies were located in the DRG, spinal cord (motor neurons and dorsal horn neurons), brain and thyroid-reproducibly marking all cell types known to express Calca. Half of all CGRPα-GFP(+) DRG neurons expressed TRPV1, ∼25% expressed neurofilament-200, <10% contained nonpeptidergic markers (IB4 and Prostatic acid phosphatase) and almost none (<1%) expressed TRPM8. CGRPα-GFP(+) neurons innervated the dorsal spinal cord and innervated cutaneous and visceral tissues. This included nerve endings in the epidermis and on guard hairs. Our study provides direct evidence that CGRPα(+) DRG neurons respond to agonists that evoke pain and itch and constitute a sensory circuit that is largely distinct from nonpeptidergic circuits and TRPM8(+)/cool temperature circuits. In future studies, it should be possible to conditionally ablate CGRPα-expressing neurons to evaluate sensory and non-sensory functions for these neurons.

  10. Does cognitive impairment in treatment-resistant and ultra-treatment-resistant schizophrenia differ from that in treatment responders?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Valerie M; McIlwain, Meghan E; Kydd, Robert R; Russell, Bruce R

    2015-12-30

    This study aimed to investigate whether cognitive impairment is more pronounced in people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia compared with those who respond well to first-line antipsychotic medication. Fifty-one patients with schizophrenia were assigned to one of three groups dependent on their clinical history: (i) 16 people who had responded well to first-line antipsychotic medication, (ii) 20 people who were treatment-resistant but responding to clozapine monotherapy, (iii) 15 people who were ultra-treatment-resistant/clozapine-resistant but responding to antipsychotic polypharmacy. Twenty-two controls were also recruited. Groups were matched for age, sex, disease duration and psychopathology. All participants undertook a computerised battery of neuropsychological tests that assessed multiple cognitive domains. Raw data were converted to z-scores, and test performance was compared between groups. People with schizophrenia performed significantly worse than controls in the majority of neuropsychological tests, with verbal memory, sustained attention, and sensorimotor the most commonly impaired domains. No significant differences in performance between people deemed to be treatment-resistant or ultra-treatment-resistant, and those who responded well to first-line antipsychotic medication were observed. There was no significant relationship between antipsychotic dose and scores on any of the neuropsychological tests. Cognitive impairment is a central feature of schizophrenia, but our results suggest that treatment-resistance may not be associated with more severe deficits.

  11. Sensitive responders among bacterial and fungal microbiome to pyrogenic organic matter (biochar) addition differed greatly between rhizosphere and bulk soils

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhongmin; Hu, Jiajie; Xu, Xingkun; Zhang, Lujun; Brookes, Philip C.; He, Yan; Xu, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Sensitive responses among bacterial and fungal communities to pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) (biochar) addition in rhizosphere and bulk soils are poorly understood. We conducted a pot experiment with manure and straw PyOMs added to an acidic paddy soil, and identified the sensitive “responders” whose relative abundance was significantly increased/decreased among the whole microbial community following PyOM addition. Results showed that PyOMs significantly (p < 0.05) increased root growth, and simultaneously changed soil chemical parameters by decreasing soil acidity and increasing biogenic resource. PyOM-induced acidity and biogenic resource co-determined bacterial responder community structure whereas biogenic resource was the dominant parameter structuring fungal responder community. Both number and proportion of responders in rhizosphere soil was larger than in bulk soil, regardless of PyOM types and microbial domains, indicating the microbial community in rhizosphere soil was sensitive to PyOM addition than bulk soil. The significant increased root biomass and length caused by PyOM addition, associated with physiological processes, e.g. C exudates secretion, likely favored more sensitive responders in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil. Our study identified the responders at fine taxonomic resolution in PyOM amended soils, improved the understanding of their ecological phenomena associated with PyOM addition, and examined their interactions with plant roots. PMID:27824111

  12. Incubation of saccharin craving and within-session changes in responding for a cue previously associated with saccharin.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, K; Barnes, J; Grimm, J W

    2014-01-01

    Time-dependent increases in cue-induced sucrose seeking after forced abstinence have been described in rats with a history of sucrose self-administration, suggesting sucrose craving "incubates". In the present study, we examined whether the incubation of craving generalizes to the artificial sweetener, saccharin. Thirty-one male Long-Evans rats lever pressed for 0.3% saccharin solution 1h/day for 10 days. On either Day 1 or 30 of forced abstinence, rats responded for 1h for presentation of a tone+light cue previously presented with every saccharin delivery during self-administration training. Rats responded more during this cue-reactivity test session following 30 vs. 1 day of forced abstinence ("incubation of craving"). This result is the first demonstration of the "incubation of saccharin craving" and suggests that a post-ingestive caloric consequence of self-administration is not a necessary condition for the development of incubation of sucrose craving. We also examined the time course (within-session decreases) of active-lever responding during the 1-h cue-reactivity test session. Rats in the Day 30 group responded more than rats in the Day 1 group from the beginning of the test session. In addition, within-session decreases in responding were shallower in slope in the Day 30 than the Day 1 group. These results indicate that "incubation of saccharin craving" enhances the persistence of seeking behavior.

  13. Effects of transdermal testosterone in poor responders undergoing IVF: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    González-Comadran, Mireia; Durán, Montserrat; Solà, Ivan; Fábregues, Francisco; Carreras, Ramón; Checa, Miguel A

    2012-11-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of transdermal testosterone preceding ovarian stimulation in women with poor ovarian response undergoing IVF. Studies comparing pretreatment with transdermal testosterone versus standard ovarian stimulation among poor responders were included. The main outcome assessed was live birth. Three trials were included (113 women in the testosterone group, 112 in the control group). Testosterone-treated women achieved significantly higher live birth rate (risk ratio, RR, 1.91, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.63), clinical pregnancy rate (RR 2.07, 95% CI 1.13 to 3.78) and required significantly lower doses of FSH (RR -461.96, 95% CI -611.82 to -312.09). However, differences observed in clinical pregnancy per embryo transferred were not statistically significant (RR 1.72, 95% CI 0.91 to 3.26). No differences were observed regarding number and quality of the oocytes retrieved. In conclusion, transdermal testosterone significantly increases live birth and reduces the doses of FSH required. These findings support the theoretical synergistic role of androgens and FSH on folliculogenesis. The present data should be interpreted with caution because of the small number of trials and clinical heterogeneity. The identification of poor responders that could especially benefit from testosterone treatment should be addressed in further studies. The poor response to ovarian stimulation among women undergoing IVF is of great concern in reproductive medicine. Certain modalities have been tested to improve this response to gonadotrophin stimulation, although results from some studies have shown conflicting results. Hence, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed in order to evaluate the effect of transdermal testosterone prior to ovarian stimulation among these women with poor ovarian response. The main outcome assessed was live birth rate. In all, three trials were included, which comprehended 113 women in the

  14. Empathy-related Responding: Associations with Prosocial Behavior, Aggression, and Intergroup Relations

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Eggum, Natalie D.; Di Giunta, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Empathy-related responding, including empathy, sympathy, and personal distress, has been implicated in conceptual models and theories about prosocial behavior and altruism, aggression and antisocial behavior, and intergroup relationships. Conceptual arguments and empirical findings related to each of these topics are reviewed. In general, there is evidence that empathy and/or sympathy are important correlates of, and likely contributors to, other-oriented prosocial behavior, the inhibition of aggression and antisocial behavior, and the quality of intergroup relationships. Applied implications of these findings, including preventative studies, are discussed, as are possible future directions. PMID:21221410

  15. Responding to Environmental Challenges in Central Asia and the Caspian Basin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    cyanide spill that followed a tailings pond burst in Baia 1-13 Responding to Environmental Challenges in Central Asia and the Caspian Basin Mare ...Valdez Oil Spill Vice Admiral Clyde Robbins, USCG (Retired) Mozambique Floods Mr. L.J. Buys iii v ix xi 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-6 1-9 2-1 2-3 2-25...dimensions (Chapter 2). The Panel also examined case studies on the Exxon- Valdez Oil Spill and the Mozambique floods. The accepted definition of

  16. Proteomic analysis of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler responds to COS fumigation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Li, Li; Qu, Haixia; Zhan, Guoping; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin

    2010-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is a new fumigant which has been a potential alternative to methyl bromide and phosphine in many applications. In this study, we investigated the fungitoxicity of COS towards the pathogen of pear black spot disease Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler (A. alternata). Moreover, proteomic analysis and RT-PCR was performed and our results showed that during the fumigation, the regulation of 21 proteins in protein expression and mRNA accumulation levels is involved, which respond to growth inhibition caused by COS. These results provide new clues for the mechanism of the fungitoxicity of COS.

  17. The role of space-based observation in understanding and responding to active tectonics and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J. R.; Walters, R. J.; Wright, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    The quantity and quality of satellite-geodetic measurements of tectonic deformation have increased dramatically over the past two decades improving our ability to observe active tectonic processes. We now routinely respond to earthquakes using satellites, mapping surface ruptures and estimating the distribution of slip on faults at depth for most continental earthquakes. Studies directly link earthquakes to their causative faults allowing us to calculate how resulting changes in crustal stress can influence future seismic hazard. This revolution in space-based observation is driving advances in models that can explain the time-dependent surface deformation and the long-term evolution of fault zones and tectonic landscapes.

  18. The training of New Jersey emergency service first responders in autism awareness

    PubMed Central

    Hassett-Walker, Connie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent and adequacy of training among New Jersey first responders (e.g., police, firefighters, emergency medical technicians) specifically as relates to a 2008 state law mandating that autism and hidden disability recognition and response training be conducted. The results show that a significant percentage of emergency service personnel have not completed the state mandated training. Recommendations for improving the training, such as by involving parents, advocates, and field and training personnel as a part of the training process, are discussed. PMID:28344542

  19. 11 CFR 111.39 - When must the respondent pay the civil money penalty?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false When must the respondent pay the civil money... (2 U.S.C. 437g, 437d(a)) Administrative Fines § 111.39 When must the respondent pay the civil money... States, the respondent must remit payment of the civil money penalty within thirty (30) days of...

  20. 11 CFR 111.39 - When must the respondent pay the civil money penalty?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When must the respondent pay the civil money... (2 U.S.C. 437g, 437d(a)) Administrative Fines § 111.39 When must the respondent pay the civil money... States, the respondent must remit payment of the civil money penalty within thirty (30) days of...