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Sample records for responders study p04823am3terminated

  1. NIH exceptional responders to cancer therapy study launched

    Cancer.gov

    The Exceptional Responders Initiative, a study to investigate the molecular factors of tumors associated with exceptional treatment responses of cancer patients to drug therapies, was launched today by NCI. Scientists will attempt to identify the molecula

  2. ASA24® Instructions for Study Staff & Respondents

    Cancer.gov

    The following documents have been created by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) as resources for study staff and Respondents. Each resource is available as a ready-to-use PDF to allow users to adapt the content as desired.

  3. Measurement of Respondent Burden: Study Design and Early Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Joanne

    This is an experimental 2-phase study which focuses upon perceived respondent burden (PRB), that is, upon negative feelings which may be experienced by people who participate in household surveys. For phase 1 of the study, whose results are reported here, the effects of two variables-- interview length and interview effort--upon PRB were assessed.…

  4. ASA24® Instructions for Study Staff & Respondents

    Cancer.gov

    The following documents have been created by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) as resources for study staff and Respondents. Each resource is available as a ready-to-use PDF as well as in Word format to allow users to adapt the content as desired.

  5. How the Brain Responds to "Any": An MEG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesan, Graciela; Johnson, Blake W.; Crain, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The word "any" may appear in some sentences, but not in others. For example, "any" is permitted in sentences that contain the word "nobody", as in "Nobody ate any fruit". However, in a minimally different context "any" seems strikingly anomalous: *"Everybody ate any fruit". The aim of the present study was to investigate how the brain responds to…

  6. Faculty Across the Disciplines Respond to Study Skills Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Ellizabeth F.; Haynes, Ada F.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study of faculty at Tennessee Technological University regarding their teaching styles and perceptions of student deficiencies and necessary study skills content. Indicates that faculty cited critical thinking, personal responsibility, time management, and problem-solving skills as essential and reported that students lacked critical…

  7. A Study of Interviewer-Respondent Interaction in the Urban Employment Survey. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquis, Kent H.; Cannell, Charles F.

    The purpose of this study was to provide basic knowledge about the kinds and amounts of behavior in a personal survey interview and to investigate the effects of certain respondent demographic characteristics on the verbal behavior of the interviewer and respondent during the interview. Four sample groups of employed males (Negroes and Caucasians…

  8. What is wrong with non‐respondents? Alcohol‐, drug‐ and smoking‐related mortality and morbidity in a 12‐year follow‐up study of respondents and non‐respondents in the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ekholm, Ola; Gray, Linsay; Glümer, Charlotte; Juel, Knud

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim Response rates in health surveys have diminished over the last two decades, making it difficult to obtain reliable information on health and health‐related risk factors in different population groups. This study compared cause‐specific mortality and morbidity among survey respondents and different types of non‐respondents to estimate alcohol‐, drug‐ and smoking‐related mortality and morbidity among non‐respondents. Design Prospective follow‐up study of respondents and non‐respondents in two cross‐sectional health surveys. Setting Denmark. Participants A total sample of 39 540 Danish citizens aged 16 years or older. Measurements Register‐based information on cause‐specific mortality and morbidity at the individual level was obtained for respondents (n = 28 072) and different types of non‐respondents (refusals n = 8954; illness/disabled n = 731, uncontactable n = 1593). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine differences in alcohol‐, drug‐ and smoking‐related mortality and morbidity, respectively, in a 12‐year follow‐up period. Findings Overall, non‐response was associated with a significantly increased hazard ratio (HR) of 1.56 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.36–1.78] for alcohol‐related morbidity, 1.88 (95% CI = 1.38–2.57) for alcohol‐related mortality, 1.55 (95% CI = 1.27–1.88) for drug‐related morbidity, 3.04 (95% CI = 1.57–5.89) for drug‐related mortality and 1.15 (95% CI = 1.03–1.29) for smoking‐related morbidity. The hazard ratio for smoking‐related mortality also tended to be higher among non‐respondents compared with respondents, although no significant association was evident (HR = 1.14; 95% CI = 0.95–1.36). Uncontactable and ill/disabled non‐respondents generally had a higher hazard ratio of alcohol‐, drug‐ and smoking‐related mortality and morbidity compared with refusal non‐respondents. Conclusion Health

  9. Responding to Racism and Racial Trauma in Doctoral Study: An Inventory for Coping and Mediating Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truong, Kimberly A.; Museus, Samuel D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Kimberly A. Truong and Samuel D. Museus focus on understanding strategies doctoral students of color use to respond to racism. The authors conducted semi-structured individual interviews with twenty-six participants who self-reported experiencing racism and racial trauma during doctoral studies. Analysis of the data resulted in…

  10. Evaluation of study design variables and their impact on food-maintained operant responding in mice.

    PubMed

    Haluk, Desirae M; Wickman, Kevin

    2010-03-01

    Operant conditioning paradigms are useful for studying factors involved in reward, particularly when combined with the tools of genetic manipulation in mice. Published operant studies involving mice vary widely with respect to design, and insight into the consequences of design choices on performance in mice is limited. Here, we evaluated the impact of five design variables on the performance of inbred male mice in operant tasks involving solid food pellets as reinforcing agents. We found that the use of lever-press or nose-poke during FR1 sessions did not impact the performance of C57BL/6 mice, but that the lever-press approach correlated with enhanced performance during PR testing. While FR1 session duration had a notable impact on the rate of acquisition of food-maintained responding, performance during FR1 and PR sessions was largely unaffected. Higher order schedules of reinforcement (FR3 and FR5) led to elevated responding during both FR and PR sessions, and improved the correspondence between rewards earned and consumed. Single and group-housed mice performed indistinguishably during FR1 and PR sessions, while environmental enrichment combined with group housing accelerated the rate of acquisition of food-maintained responding while decreasing responding during PR testing. Finally, while C57BL/6 and 129/Sv mice exhibited comparable behavior during FR1 sessions, C57BL/6 mice tended to acquire food-maintained responding faster than 129/Sv counterparts, and exhibited elevated responding during PR testing. Altogether, our findings indicate that while operant performance for food in mice is relatively insensitive to many study parameters, experimental outcomes can be shaped predictably with proper design decisions. PMID:19879302

  11. Understanding and Responding to Diversity in the Primary Classroom: An International Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Neil; Bartolo, Paul; Ale, Peter; Calleja, Colin; Hofsaess, Thomas; Janikova, Vera; Lous, Annemieke Mol Lous; Vilkiene, Vida; Wetso, Gun-Marie

    2006-01-01

    The increased diversification of classrooms in recent years has placed additional demands upon teachers who strive to facilitate the learning and participation of all pupils. The aim of the current study was to explore how primary teachers across Europe understand and respond to diversity in their classrooms. A total of 35 teachers from 7…

  12. Recommendations for the definition of clinical responder in insulin preservation studies.

    PubMed

    Beam, Craig A; Gitelman, Stephen E; Palmer, Jerry P

    2014-09-01

    Clinical responder studies should contribute to the translation of effective treatments and interventions to the clinic. Since ultimately this translation will involve regulatory approval, we recommend that clinical trials prespecify a responder definition that can be assessed against the requirements and suggestions of regulatory agencies. In this article, we propose a clinical responder definition to specifically assist researchers and regulatory agencies in interpreting the clinical importance of statistically significant findings for studies of interventions intended to preserve β-cell function in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. We focus on studies of 6-month β-cell preservation in type 1 diabetes as measured by 2-h-stimulated C-peptide. We introduce criteria (bias, reliability, and external validity) for the assessment of responder definitions to ensure they meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency guidelines. Using data from several published TrialNet studies, we evaluate our definition (no decrease in C-peptide) against published alternatives and determine that our definition has minimum bias with external validity. We observe that reliability could be improved by using changes in C-peptide later than 6 months beyond baseline. In sum, to support efficacy claims of β-cell preservation therapies in type 1 diabetes submitted to U.S. and European regulatory agencies, we recommend use of our definition.

  13. Allocation of Study Time in Chinese Junior School Students: Habitual Responding, Item Difficulty, and Time Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fuyun; Qin, Qiwen; Jiang, Yanju

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated factors influencing Chinese junior school students’ study time allocation and the age difference in the effect of habitual responding. Participants were 240 junior school students (120 girls, 120 boys; aged 13–15 years) with half taking part in Experiment 1 and half in Experiment 2, and 240 young adults aged 18–23 years, (120 women and 120 men,) involved in Experiments 3a and 3b, all native Chinese speakers. In Experiments 1 and 3a, Chinese word pairs (e.g., moon–star) were presented on the screen with three items in one array. In each trial, the items were arranged from left to right, either easy, moderate, then difficult, or the reverse. Participants had either 5 s or no time limits to study the word pairs. In Experiments 2 and 3b, word pairs were ordered in a column with the easiest items either at the top or bottom position. Results showed interactions among item difficulty, item order, and time limitation in terms of effects on study time allocation of junior school students. Participants tended to learn the items in order (from left to right and from top to bottom), but the effect of item difficulty was greater than that of item order on item selection. Results indicated that agenda and habitual responding have a combined effect on study time allocation and that the contribution of agenda is greater than that of habitual responding. The effect of habitual responding on the self-paced study and recall performance of junior school students is greater than its effect on young adults, and the study time allocation of junior school students is more likely to be affected by external conditions. PMID:27199865

  14. Parental exposure to mass violence and child mental health: the First Responder and WTC Evacuee Study.

    PubMed

    Hoven, Christina W; Duarte, Cristiane S; Wu, Ping; Doan, Thao; Singh, Navya; Mandell, Donald J; Bin, Fan; Teichman, Yona; Teichman, Meir; Wicks, Judith; Musa, George; Cohen, Patricia

    2009-06-01

    Children's reactions after being exposed to mass violence may be influenced by a spectrum of factors. Relatively unexplored is the extent to which family exposure to mass violence may affect child mental health, even when these children have not been directly exposed. In a representative sample of NYC public school children assessed 6 months after the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center (WTC), seemingly elevated rates of psychopathology were recorded among children of WTC evacuees. Children of NYC First Responders (police officers, EMTs, and fire fighters) displayed a complex pattern of response to the WTC attack. Overall, the findings from this previous study support putative transmission of trauma to children whose parents were exposed to the WTC attack. The "Children of First Responder and WTC Evacuee Study"-a two-site longitudinal study-is currently underway in the United States (New York City) and in Israel (Tel Aviv area) in an effort to understand the impact of different patterns of mass violence. The NYC sample permits us to examine the impact of a rare instance of mass violence (e.g., WTC attack), while the Israeli sample provides information about repeated and frequent exposure to mass violence brought about by acts of terrorism. In addition, children's exposure to mass violence is considered in the context of their exposure to other potentially traumatic events. This study aims to improve our general understanding of the impact of mass violence on children, especially the psychological effects on children whose parents' work experiences are by nature stressful. Knowledge generated by this study has implications for guiding efforts to meet the needs of children who have, directly or through a family member, been subjected to rare or infrequent mass violent event as well as to children whose exposure to mass violence is part of daily life. PMID:19484384

  15. Professional Uncertainty and Disempowerment Responding to Ethnic Diversity in Health Care: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Joe; Beavan, Jackie; Faull, Christina; Dodson, Lynne; Gill, Paramjit; Beighton, Angela

    2007-01-01

    Background While ethnic disparities in health and health care are increasing, evidence on how to enhance quality of care and reduce inequalities remains limited. Despite growth in the scope and application of guidelines on “cultural competence,” remarkably little is known about how practising health professionals experience and perceive their work with patients from diverse ethnic communities. Using cancer care as a clinical context, we aimed to explore this with a range of health professionals to inform interventions to enhance quality of care. Methods and Findings We conducted a qualitative study involving 18 focus groups with a purposeful sample of 106 health professionals of differing disciplines, in primary and secondary care settings, working with patient populations of varying ethnic diversity in the Midlands of the UK. Data were analysed by constant comparison and we undertook processes for validation of analysis. We found that, as they sought to offer appropriate care, health professionals wrestled with considerable uncertainty and apprehension in responding to the needs of patients of ethnicities different from their own. They emphasised their perceived ignorance about cultural difference and were anxious about being culturally inappropriate, causing affront, or appearing discriminatory or racist. Professionals' ability to think and act flexibly or creatively faltered. Although trying to do their best, professionals' uncertainty was disempowering, creating a disabling hesitancy and inertia in their practice. Most professionals sought and applied a knowledge-based cultural expertise approach to patients, though some identified the risk of engendering stereotypical expectations of patients. Professionals' uncertainty and disempowerment had the potential to perpetuate each other, to the detriment of patient care. Conclusions This study suggests potential mechanisms by which health professionals may inadvertently contribute to ethnic disparities in health

  16. What responders need to respond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eifried, Gary

    2004-12-01

    Developing equipment and instrumentation for use by first responders and HAZMAT professionals in a Homeland Defense role requires an understanding of the real needs of those responders. These needs are driven by the manner in which the incident response takes place and how the response actions occur over time. This paper describes a chemical terrorist incident, the response functions and related timelines, and the detection and identification needs during each phase. From this information, developers will be able to better understand requirements related to sensitivity, specificity, response time, weight, ruggedness, ease of use, and other design parameters.

  17. Communicating geohazard information for emergency responders, a case study from the UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Vanessa; Cooper, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    SSS11.4/ESSI4.6/HS11.39/NH9.13 Communication of uncertain information in earth sciences: data, models and visualization Communicating geohazard information for emergency responders, a case study from the UK. Cooper, A. H.1, Banks, V.J.1, Cowup, P.2, Curness, J.3, Davis, R.4, Dawson, L3. and Gazzard, L.4 1 British Geological Survey, Keyworth, NG12 5GG, UK 2 London Fire Brigade, 169 Union Street, London, SE1 0LL, UK 3.Coventry University, Priory Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB, UK 4.Avon Fire and Rescue, Temple Back, Bristol, BS1 6EU, UK. In February 2013 a sinkhole opened beneath a Florida Home resulting in the loss of a life and demolition of the affected home. The resulting void was in the order of 15 m deep. Neighbouring homes also had to be demolished. Television footage of this unfortunate incident resonated with an Assistant Commissioner of the London Fire Brigade who questioned whether or not such a feature would be recognised in the UK and if so, how the emergency response would be managed. Stemming from this, the British Geological Survey was invited to work with the Chief Fire Officers Association Urban Search and Rescue working group on geohazards. The aim of this group was to develop national tactical operational guidance on geohazards that would form the basis for regional guidance and training. The project was addressed collaboratively providing opportunities for two students from the Coventry University Disaster Management course, that were on placements with Avon Fire and Rescue, to work with the BGS to develop the guidance. Key to the success of the project was an iterative approach to knowledge exchange with respect to firstly, the characterization of the geohazards, and the processes and uncertainties associated with them and secondly, with respect to emergency responders' needs and priorities. Effective communication was achieved through challenging and rationalising the geoscience language for the end user and through a series of customised

  18. Mixed Methods Study of Help Seekers and Self-Changers Responding to an Online Recovery Survey

    PubMed Central

    Witbrodt, Jane; Borkman, Thomasina J.; Stunz, Aina; Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To compare self-changers (natural recovery) with help seekers on demographics, pre-recovery problem severity, and recovery beliefs and behaviors; and to augment these quantitative findings with information extracted from the qualitative stories of a subset of self-changers to explore themes in recovery paths as informed by a nascent natural recovery literature. Methods: Quantitative secondary analyses were conducted with persons who had responded to a US nationwide online survey called ‘What Is Recovery’ (WIR) and who reported a prior lifetime alcohol problem (n = 5495). Six men and six women (with longer-term recoveries) interviewed later were asked to tell their ‘recovery story from the beginning up to now’. These were coded using a narrative approach. Results: Compared with help seekers, self-changers were younger and never married: they did not differ on problem severity, gender, ethnicity or education. Self-changers identified with ‘used to have a problem’ more than in recovery/recovered, reported fewer years in that status, and reported more current, non-problematic substance use. A new concept of shadow help and shadow obstacles to help-seeking emerged from the qualitative analysis. Though self-changers believed that they had overcome their alcohol problem on their own, change actually occurred within a social context that allowed access to information, normative expectations, relationships, and other opportunities that provided important resources for change. Conclusion: Findings imply that the concept of help-seeking needs to be re-conceptualized to include the informal help we found in this study. PMID:25381088

  19. A Phenomenological Study of Urban Search and Rescue Members Who Responded to a Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    The complicated world of disaster management requires urban search and rescue (US&R) members to be well trained to respond to complex, unpredictable, and difficult to manage disasters anywhere in the world on short notice. Disasters are becoming more complex and difficult to manage as was witnessed by the multi-faceted disaster in Japan in…

  20. Hitting Reply: A Qualitative Study to Understand Student Decisions to Respond to Online Discussion Postings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Diane D.; Storberg-Walker, Julia; Stone, Sophia J.

    2007-01-01

    Providing tools for dialogue exchange does not ensure that students will respond to teammate postings or that online groups will grow in cohesiveness (Murphy, 2004). Students decide whether or not to reply, and it is increasingly important to understand how students make these decisions due to the increase in distance education, Millennials, and…

  1. Hitting Reply: A Qualitative Study to Understand Student Decisions to Respond to Online Discussion Postings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Diane D.; Storberg-Walker, Julia; Stone, Sophia J.

    2008-01-01

    Providing tools for dialogue exchange does not ensure that students will respond to team mate postings or that online groups will grow in cohesiveness. Students decide whether or not to reply, and it is increasingly important to understand how students make these decisions due to the increase in distance education, millenials, and asynchronous…

  2. How Institutional and University Counselor Policies Effectively Respond to Victims of Cyber Violent Acts: A Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gretchen M.

    2012-01-01

    This multisite case study examined how institutional and university counselor policies effectively respond to cyber violent acts. Stake's (2006) multisite case study methodology was used to identify seven themes from current literature. Two sites with four participants were selected. The participants included two counseling directors and the…

  3. Female Attacus atlas respond to pheromones of Antheraea polyphemus: a comparative electrophysiological and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Maida, R; Ziesmann, J

    2001-01-01

    Female Attacus atlas respond electrophysiologically to both of the Antheraea polyphemus pheromone components (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate and (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal. Moreover, they possess a pheromone-binding protein (PBP) and general odorant-binding proteins (GOBPs), as well as a pheromone-degrading sensillar esterase and aldehyde oxidase enzymes. They show no electroantennogram responses to their own gland extract. In contrast, female A. polyphemus do not respond to their own or to A. atlas pheromone. Male A. atlas do not detect any of the A. polyphemus compounds but only the conspecific female gland extracts. Both male A. atlas and female A. polyphemus possess PBP and GOBP but lack the pheromone-degrading esterases of male Antheraea. The results indicate that the two species use quite distinct classes of chemicals as pheromones. In spite of this, the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the PBPs show homology of 68%.

  4. Developing Specific Self-Efficacy and Resilience as First Responders among Students of Social Work and Stress and Trauma Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farchi, Moshe; Cohen, Ayala; Mosek, Atalia

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the challenging task of preparing baccalaureate social work students to master proficiency as first responders in stress and trauma situations. We begin with a brief description of the context, goals, admission procedure, structure, and process of a stress and trauma studies (STS) program. We then compare the development of…

  5. Physiological responding to stress in middle-aged males enriched for longevity: a social stress study.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Steffy W M; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen; Westendorp, Rudi; Oei, Nicole Y L

    2016-01-01

    Individuals enriched for familial longevity display a lower prevalence of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular- and metabolic diseases. Since these diseases are associated with stress and increased cortisol levels, one of the underlying mechanisms that may contribute to healthy longevity might be a more adaptive response to stress. To investigate this, male middle-aged offspring from long-lived families (n = 31) and male non-offspring (with no familial history of longevity) (n = 26) were randomly allocated to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control condition in an experimental design. Physiological (cortisol, blood pressure, heart rate) and subjective responses were measured during the entire procedure. The results showed that Offspring had lower overall cortisol levels compared to Non-offspring regardless of condition, and lower absolute cortisol output (AUCg) during stress compared to Non-Offspring, while the increase (AUCi) did not differ between groups. In addition, systolic blood pressure in Offspring was lower compared to Non-offspring during the entire procedure. At baseline, Offspring had significantly lower systolic blood pressure and reported less subjective stress than Non-offspring and showed a trend towards lower heart rate. Offspring from long-lived families might thus be less stressed prior to potentially stressful events and consequently show overall lower levels in physiological responses. Although attenuated physiological responding cannot be ruled out, lower starting points and a lower peak level in physiological responding when confronted with an actual stressor, might already limit damage due to stress over a lifetime. Lower physiological responding may also contribute to the lower prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and other stress-related diseases in healthy longevity.

  6. Differences in the prevalence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment and cognitive functions between early and delayed responders in a community-based study of the elderly.

    PubMed

    Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Yuki, Sohshi; Dohmoto, Chiaki; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Samuraki, Miharu; Iwasa, Kazuo; Yokogawa, Masami; Asai, Kimiko; Komai, Kiyonobu; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

    2013-01-01

    Significant differences exist in demographic characteristics between responders and non-responders in population-based studies on mental health and cognitive status, but much less is known regarding differences in the prevalence of dementia and cognitive dysfunction between them. Here we compared the prevalence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment between early responders of a mass brain function examination and delayed responders (non-responders of the mass brain function examination) in a survey of elderly Japanese citizens (≥65 years) to evaluate non-responder bias. All residents in an area of Nakajima, Japan, were considered as potential candidates (n = 783). Participants of a mass brain function examination were considered as "early responders." The cognitive functions of delayed responders were assessed by home visits. To assess the correlation between sociodemographic characteristics and cognitive functions, the early and delayed responders completed the same questionnaires and neuropsychological tests. Delayed responders (n = 320) were significantly older and less educated than the early responders (n = 307). The delayed responders also exhibited a higher frequency of dementia and mild cognitive impairment than the early responders, even when the groups were restricted to the age group 65-89 years. Our results suggest that population-based studies likely underestimate the prevalence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment, especially if the participation rate is low.

  7. High-Dimensional Gene Expression Profiling Studies in High and Low Responders to Primary Smallpox Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Haralambieva, Iana H.; Oberg, Ann L.; Dhiman, Neelam; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Kennedy, Richard B.; Grill, Diane E.; Jacobson, Robert M.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The mechanisms underlying smallpox vaccine-induced variations in immune responses are not well understood, but are of considerable interest to a deeper understanding of poxvirus immunity and correlates of protection. Methods. We assessed transcriptional messenger RNA expression changes in 197 recipients of primary smallpox vaccination representing the extremes of humoral and cellular immune responses. Results. The 20 most significant differentially expressed genes include a tumor necrosis factor–receptor superfamily member, an interferon (IFN) gene, a chemokine gene, zinc finger protein genes, nuclear factors, and histones (P ≤ 1.06E−20, q ≤ 2.64E−17). A pathway analysis identified 4 enriched pathways with cytokine production by the T-helper 17 subset of CD4+ T cells being the most significant pathway (P = 3.42E−05). Two pathways (antiviral actions of IFNs, P = 8.95E−05; and IFN-α/β signaling pathway, P = 2.92E−04), integral to innate immunity, were enriched when comparing high with low antibody responders (false discovery rate, < 0.05). Genes related to immune function and transcription (TLR8, P = .0002; DAPP1, P = .0003; LAMP3, P = 9.96E−05; NR4A2, P ≤ .0002; EGR3, P = 4.52E−05), and other genes with a possible impact on immunity (LNPEP, P = 3.72E−05; CAPRIN1, P = .0001; XRN1, P = .0001), were found to be expressed differentially in high versus low antibody responders. Conclusion. We identified novel and known immunity-related genes and pathways that may account for differences in immune response to smallpox vaccination. PMID:22949304

  8. The relations of parental warmth and positive expressiveness to children's empathy-related responding and social functioning: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Losoya, Sandra H; Fabes, Richard A; Reiser, Mark; Guthrie, Ivanna K; Murphy, Bridget C; Cumberland, Amanda J; Shepard, Stephanie A

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the concurrent and cross-time relations of parental observed warmth and positive expressivity to children's situational facial and self-reported empathic responding, social competence, and externalizing problems in a sample of 180 elementary school children. Data was collected when the children were in second to fifth grades (age: M = 112.8 months), and again 2 years later. Cross-sectional and longitudinal structural equation models supported the hypothesis that parents' (mostly mothers') positive expressivity mediated the relation between parental warmth and children's empathy, and children's empathy mediated the relation between parental positive expressivity and children's social functioning. These relations persisted after controlling for prior levels of parenting and child characteristics. Moreover, concurrent and cross-time consistencies were found on measures of parenting, children's situational empathic responding, and social functioning. PMID:12038559

  9. The relations of parental warmth and positive expressiveness to children's empathy-related responding and social functioning: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Losoya, Sandra H; Fabes, Richard A; Reiser, Mark; Guthrie, Ivanna K; Murphy, Bridget C; Cumberland, Amanda J; Shepard, Stephanie A

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the concurrent and cross-time relations of parental observed warmth and positive expressivity to children's situational facial and self-reported empathic responding, social competence, and externalizing problems in a sample of 180 elementary school children. Data was collected when the children were in second to fifth grades (age: M = 112.8 months), and again 2 years later. Cross-sectional and longitudinal structural equation models supported the hypothesis that parents' (mostly mothers') positive expressivity mediated the relation between parental warmth and children's empathy, and children's empathy mediated the relation between parental positive expressivity and children's social functioning. These relations persisted after controlling for prior levels of parenting and child characteristics. Moreover, concurrent and cross-time consistencies were found on measures of parenting, children's situational empathic responding, and social functioning.

  10. Perception, Experience, and Response to Genetic Discrimination in Huntington's Disease: The Australian Results of the International RESPOND-HD Study

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Edmond; Yastrubetskaya, Olga; Erwin, Cheryl; Williams, Janet K.; Juhl, Andrew R.; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This study examines elements of genetic discrimination among an at-risk, clinically undiagnosed Huntington's disease (HD) population. Methods: Sixty at-risk individuals, either positive or negative for the HD genetic mutation, completed a survey regarding their experiences of genetic discrimination, adverse and unfair treatment, and knowledge about existing laws and policies surrounding genetic discrimination. Results: Sixty eight percent of participants reported feeling “Great benefit” from knowing their genetic test results. Reported benefits of knowledge included planning for the future, making decisions, and many individuals found meaning in active participation in the HD community and in advocating for themselves or families at risk for HD. Many individuals found personal meaning and a sense of community from knowledge of this information and from the ability to participate in research. Despite these positive feelings toward gene testing, results demonstrated that 33% of participants perceived experiences of genetic discrimination, which occurred repeatedly and caused great self-reported distress. Significantly, more gene-positive respondents reported experiencing incidents of genetic discrimination, compared to gene-negative respondents. At least 58 separate incidents of discrimination were reported, the number of incidents ranged from 1 to 10, with 45% of individuals (9/20 respondents) indicating more than one event. Of the most significant events of discrimination, 58% were related to insurance, 21% to employment, 16% to transactions of daily life, and 5% to relationships. Conclusion: Results contribute toward validation of empirical data regarding genetic discrimination. PMID:23289616

  11. Respondent-driven sampling for an adolescent health study in vulnerable urban settings: a multi-country study.

    PubMed

    Decker, Michele R; Marshall, Beth Dail; Emerson, Mark; Kalamar, Amanda; Covarrubias, Laura; Astone, Nan; Wang, Ziliang; Gao, Ersheng; Mashimbye, Lawrence; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Acharya, Rajib; Olumide, Adesola; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Blum, Robert W; Sonenstein, Freya L

    2014-12-01

    The global adolescent population is larger than ever before and is rapidly urbanizing. Global surveillance systems to monitor youth health typically use household- and school-based recruitment methods. These systems risk not reaching the most marginalized youth made vulnerable by conditions of migration, civil conflict, and other forms of individual and structural vulnerability. We describe the methodology of the Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments survey, which used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit male and female youth aged 15-19 years and living in economically distressed urban settings in Baltimore, MD; Johannesburg, South Africa; Ibadan, Nigeria; New Delhi, India; and Shanghai, China (migrant youth only) for a cross-sectional study. We describe a shared recruitment and survey administration protocol across the five sites, present recruitment parameters, and illustrate challenges and necessary adaptations for use of RDS with youth in disadvantaged urban settings. We describe the reach of RDS into populations of youth who may be missed by traditional household- and school-based sampling. Across all sites, an estimated 9.6% were unstably housed; among those enrolled in school, absenteeism was pervasive with 29% having missed over 6 days of school in the past month. Overall findings confirm the feasibility, efficiency, and utility of RDS in quickly reaching diverse samples of youth, including those both in and out of school and those unstably housed, and provide direction for optimizing RDS methods with this population. In our rapidly urbanizing global landscape with an unprecedented youth population, RDS may serve as a valuable tool in complementing existing household- and school-based methods for health-related surveillance that can guide policy. PMID:25454005

  12. Fish mucus as a rapid responding tissue in diet switching studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. One aspect of our work focuses on the incorporation of marine-derived nutrients into the diet of overwintering coho salmon juveniles. These studie...

  13. Fish mucus as a rapidly responding tissue in diet switching studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. One aspect of our work focuses on the incorporation of marine-derived nutrients into the diet of overwintering coho salmon juveniles. These studie...

  14. Responding to the Increased Needs of College Students: A Case Study of Case Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelesky, Kristin; Weatherford, Ryan D.; Silbert, Janelle

    2016-01-01

    The psychological needs of college students lead to overwhelming demand on college counseling centers' resources. In this article, we review models of case management in Higher Education including the administrative, behavioral intervention, and counseling center models. We also present a case study of the 3-year development of a counseling center…

  15. Responding to the Call of Stories: Learning from Literary "Case Studies."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiedt, Iris McClellan

    1992-01-01

    Literary case studies do not offer solutions to problems but allow readers to engage in life with other human beings and empathize, understand, and share responses with others. This involvement and willingness to admit human frailty and vulnerability provide a type of learning for prospective teachers not found in pedagogical textbooks. (five…

  16. Responding to secondary traumatic stress: a pilot study of torture treatment programs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M; Keatley, Eva; Rasmussen, Andrew

    2012-04-01

    Providers who care for torture survivors may be at risk for secondary traumatic stress, yet there has been little documentation of the effects of repeated exposure to traumatic issues on their emotional health or exploration of the support systems and resources available to address their emotional needs. This study assessed the secondary stress experiences of service providers (N = 43) within the National Consortium of Torture Treatment Programs in the United States and examined the supports offered by their organizations. The study found a significant correlation between rates of anxiety and depression among providers, r(34) = .49, p = .003. Although these participants reported that their work with survivors of torture was stressful, 91% indicated that their organizations offered a variety of stress-reduction activities. Overall, participants reported that their own personal activities were the most-effective stress reducers. The results are discussed in light of challenges that professionals who work with this population face and the effectiveness of support systems available to support their work.

  17. A transcranial Doppler sonography study of shoot/don't-shoot responding.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Natasha B; Matthews, Gerald; Warm, Joel S; Washburn, David A

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between changes in cerebral blood-flow velocity and performance on a speeded shoot/don't-shoot task. Brain activity as indicated by cerebral blood-flow velocity (hemovelocity) was recorded using the transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. A shoot/don't-shoot decision-making task presented participants with threat/nonthreat stimuli in the form of bull's-eye images of various colors. Participants were required to shoot threat targets using a laser-modified handgun. Results support a vigilance decrement in both the performance measures and hemovelocity. Performance, as measured by reaction time, number of hits, and marksmanship, decreased across the length of the vigil. Hemovelocity slowed across the left and right hemispheres as the task progressed, and hemovelocity was slower in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. PMID:19587168

  18. Self-folding of Polymer Sheets Responding to Light: Applications and Mechanistic Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Dickey, Michael; Genzer, Jan

    2013-03-01

    We describe a simple approach to self-folding that uses localized light absorption on a pre-stressed polymer sheet. Self-folding takes advantage of 2D patterning techniques (e.g., lithography, inkjet printing) and converts predefined 2D templates into 3D structures. Self-folding is useful for packaging, actuation, and sensing. Most approaches to self-folding use hinges (regions that fold) that have unique chemical composition from the rest of the sheet, which requires photolithography or other multiple fabrication steps. Our approach employs homogeneous polymer sheets and inkjet printing. The black ink (i.e., the hinge) is patterned using a desktop printer on the sheet. Hinges absorb selectively the light to locally heat the underlying polymer and cause the shrinkage. We study experimentally the key physical parameters (hinge geometry, line width and support temperature) which affect the folding. We also explore various light and ink sources for folding complex 3D structures. Moreover, we model thermal profiles inside the polymer film, and investigate folding dynamics based on thermal shrinkage and rheological properties of polymer networks.

  19. Recognising and responding to suicidal crisis within family and social networks: qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Belam, Judith; Lloyd, Keith; Rapport, Frances; Donovan, Jenny; Lambert, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Objective To shed light on the difficulties faced by relatives, friends, and colleagues in interpreting signs of suicidality and deciding whether and how to intervene. Design Qualitative study of completed suicides, based on in-depth interviews with multiple informants. Setting London, southwest England, and south Wales. Participants 31 lay informants (one to five for each case), including parents, partners, siblings, friends, and colleagues of 14 cases of suicide in which the deceased was aged 18-34 and was not in contact with secondary mental health services. Results Informants described both intellectual and emotional barriers to awareness and intervention within the family and social network. They reported that signs and communications of distress were often oblique and difficult to interpret, that they may have disregarded warning signals and focused instead on positive signs, and that, even when they were aware that something was seriously wrong, taking any action at all involved considerable personal risks. Conclusions As the suicidal process unfolds, significant others are faced with a highly complex task. Their proximity to the suicidal person and their emotional investment in the relationship make it difficult for them to see what is happening, to say anything to the person or to other members of the network, or to seek help outside the network. Efforts to strengthen the capacity of lay people to play a role in preventing suicide are urgently needed and should be informed by a thorough understanding of these difficulties. They should highlight the ambiguous nature of warning signs and should focus on helping people to acknowledge and overcome their fears about intervening. PMID:22010126

  20. Reconceptualising public acceptability: A study of the ways people respond to policies aimed to reduce alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The issue of public acceptability of health policies is key if they are to have significant and lasting impact. This study, based on focus groups conducted in England, examines the ways people responded to, and made sense of, policy ideas aimed at reducing alcohol consumption. Although effective policies were supported in the abstract, specific proposals were consistently rejected because they were not thought to map onto the fundamental causes of excessive drinking, which was not attributed to alcohol itself but instead its cultural context. Rather than being influenced by the credibility of evidence, or assessed according to likely gains set against possible losses, such responses were established dynamically as people interacted with others to make sense of the topic. This has significant implications for policy-makers, suggesting that existing beliefs and knowledge need to be taken into account as potentially productive rather than obstructive resources. PMID:25769693

  1. Assessment of quality of life enjoyment and satisfaction questionnaire-short form responder thresholds in generalized anxiety disorder and bipolar disorder studies.

    PubMed

    Wyrwich, Kathleen W; Harnam, Neesha; Revicki, Dennis A; Locklear, Julie C; Svedsater, Henrik; Endicott, Jean

    2011-05-01

    Interpretation of change over time in patient-reported outcomes requires appropriate responder definitions. This study compares responder definitions for the short-form version of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire [Q-LES-Q(SF)] in populations with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and bipolar disorder. A review of the Q-LES-Q(SF) literature published in English from 1993 through May 2009 identified publications using the Q-LES-Q(SF) in GAD or bipolar disorder clinical trials. In six relevant articles reporting Q-LES-Q(SF) responder definitions in GAD or bipolar disorder, two methods for defining responders emerged: (i) return to a score within 10% of community norms for the Q-LES-Q(SF); and (ii) a change score at or greater than the condition-specific mean change achieved by patients with minimal improvement on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) at study endpoint or a 1-point decrease on the CGI-Severity scale between baseline and study endpoint. The magnitude of the CGI-I based responder thresholds differed across mental health conditions. Use of the Q-LES-Q(SF) community norms as a responder definition is discouraged. A responder definition needs to be investigated within each condition or disease using appropriate anchors, and may not be generalizable from one condition or disease to another.

  2. Concordance between respondent self-reports and medical records for chronic conditions: experience from the Veterans Health Study.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Katherine M; Miller, Donald R; Lincoln, Elizabeth; Lee, Austin; Kazis, Lewis E

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have frequently relied on case identification using clinician-based screening as the standard. This study evaluates a self-administered screening questionnaire developed for use in the Veterans Health Study. We compared concordance between elderly patients' reports of selected chronic illnesses and the medical record. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a self-report screening questionnaire for case identification in an outcomes study of elderly respondents. Reports of the presence of selected chronic illnesses were compared in a sample of patients (N=402) receiving outpatient care between 2 data sources, patient self-report and medical record, to determine overall concordance in 5 common chronic conditions (hypertension, adult-onset diabetes mellitus, chronic low-back pain, osteoarthritis of the knee, and chronic lung disease). Discordance between the 2 data sources varied by condition. Differences in reporting were small for diabetes and hypertension, intermediate for chronic lung disease, and larger for osteoarthritis of the knee and chronic low-back pain, where the chart did not identify substantial proportions of cases reported in the questionnaire. Use of patient-reported screening questionnaires, which are self-administered, is a valid, cost-efficient method to identify some chronic illnesses. Using medical records alone may result in underestimation of some symptom-based conditions.

  3. Exceptional Responders Initial Feasibility Results

    Cancer.gov

    A pilot study evaluating identification of cancer patients who respond to treatment that is ineffective in at least 90 percent of patients found that it was indeed able to confirm a majority of proposed patients as exceptional responders based on clinical

  4. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  5. Pre-hospital assessment by a single responder: The Swedish ambulance nurse in a new role: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Carl; Källenius, Christofer; Knutsson, Susanne; Herlitz, Johan; Axelsson, Christer

    2016-05-01

    When a person with vague symptoms calls 112, the dispatchers often have difficulty prioritising the severity of the call. Their only alternative has been to send an ambulance. In Gothenburg, Sweden, a nurse-manned single responder (SR) was initiated to assess this patient group. The study aims to describe patient characteristics and assessment level made by the SR nurse among patients assessed by the dispatcher as low priority and/or vague symptoms. A consecutive journal review was conducted. During six months, 529 patients were assessed; 329 (62%) attended the emergency department (ED) or inpatient care (IC). Of these, 85 patients (26%) were assessed as high priority. Only 108 were assessed as being in need of ambulance transport. ED/IC patients were significantly older. Two hundred (38%) stayed at the scene (SS) (n = 142) or were referred to primary care (PC) (n = 58). Of the 200 SS/PC patients, 38 (19%) attended the ED within 72 hrs with residual symptoms, 20 of whom were admitted to a ward. Nine patients (4% of 200 SS/PC patients) required inpatient treatment and 11 patients stayed overnight for observation. These results suggest a relatively high level of patient safety and the usefulness of an SR among patients assessed by the dispatcher as low priority. PMID:26472522

  6. Responding to racism: insights on how racism can damage health from an urban study of Australian Aboriginal people.

    PubMed

    Ziersch, Anna M; Gallaher, Gilbert; Baum, Fran; Bentley, Michael

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines responses to racism and the pathways through which racism can affect health and wellbeing for Aboriginal people living in an urban environment. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2006/07 with 153 Aboriginal people living in Adelaide, Australia. Participants were asked about their experience of, and responses to, racism, and the impact of these experiences on their health. Racism was regularly experienced by 93% of participants. Almost two thirds of people felt that racism affected their health. Using a thematic analysis with a particular focus on how agency and structure interacted, a number of key reactions and responses to racism were identified. These included: emotional and physiological reactions; and responses such as gaining support from social networks; confronting the person/situation; ignoring it; avoiding situations where they might experience racism; 'minimising' the significance or severity of racism or questioning whether incidents were racist; and consuming alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. A further theme was a conscious decision to not 'allow' racism to affect health. Our study found that most people used more than one of these coping strategies, and that strategies were selected with an awareness of positive and negative health impacts. While individuals demonstrated substantial agency in their responses, there were clear structural constraints on how they reacted and responded. We found that not only was racism potentially detrimental to health, but so too were some responses. However, while some strategies appeared 'healthier' than others, most strategies entailed costs and benefits, and these depended on the meanings of responses for individuals. This paper concludes that initiatives to promote health-protective responses to racism need to consider structural constraints and the overarching goal of reducing systemic racism.

  7. Respondent-Driven Sampling with Hard-to-Reach Emerging Adults: An Introduction and Case Study with Rural African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Steven M.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Chen, Yi-fu; Brody, Gene H.; Slater, LaTrina M.

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining representative samples from populations of emerging adults who do not attend college is challenging for researchers. This article introduces respondent-driven sampling (RDS), a method for obtaining representative samples of hard-to-reach but socially interconnected populations. RDS combines a prescribed method for chain referral with a…

  8. The Relations of Parental Warmth and Positive Expressiveness to Children's Empathy-Related Responding and Social Functioning: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Losoya, Sandra H.; Fabes, Richard A.; Reiser, Mark; Guthrie, Ivanna K.; Murphy, Bridget C.; Cumberland, Amanda J.; Shepard, Stephanie A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the concurrent and cross-time relations of parents' warmth and positive expressivity to elementary school children's situational facial and self-reported empathic responding, social competence, and externalizing problems. Found that parents' positive expressivity mediated the relation between parental warmth and children's empathy, and…

  9. Expecting the unexpected: A mixed methods study of violence to EMS responders in an urban fire department

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Brittany; Davis, Andrea L.; Wright, Jasmine; Widman, Shannon; LeVasseur, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Struck by injuries experienced by females were observed to be higher compared to males in an urban fire department. The disparity was investigated while gaining a grounded understanding of EMS responder experiences from patient‐initiated violence. Methods A convergent parallel mixed methods design was employed. Using a linked injury dataset, patient‐initiated violence estimates were calculated comparing genders. Semi‐structured interviews and a focus group were conducted with injured EMS responders. Results Paramedics had significantly higher odds for patient‐initiated violence injuries than firefighters (OR 14.4, 95%CI: 9.2–22.2, P < 0.001). Females reported increased odds of patient‐initiated violence injuries compared to males (OR = 6.25, 95%CI 3.8–10.2), but this relationship was entirely mediated through occupation (AOR = 1.64, 95%CI 0.94–2.85). Qualitative data illuminated the impact of patient‐initiated violence and highlighted important organizational opportunities for intervention. Conclusions Mixed methods greatly enhanced the assessment of EMS responder patient‐initiated violence prevention. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:150–163, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26725756

  10. Antibody titres and boosting after natural malaria infection in BK-SE36 vaccine responders during a follow-up study in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Masanori; Palacpac, Nirianne M. Q.; Ito, Kazuya; Oishi, Yuko; Itagaki, Sawako; Balikagala, Betty; Ntege, Edward H.; Yeka, Adoke; Kanoi, Bernard N.; Katuro, Osbert; Shirai, Hiroki; Fukushima, Wakaba; Hirota, Yoshio; Egwang, Thomas G.; Horii, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The malaria vaccine BK-SE36 is a recombinant protein (SE36) based on the Honduras 1 serine repeat antigen-5 of Plasmodium falciparum, adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide gel. The phase Ib trial in Uganda demonstrated the safety and immunogenicity of BK-SE36. Ancillary analysis in the follow-up study of 6–20 year-old volunteers suggest significant differences in time to first episodes of clinical malaria in vaccinees compared to placebo/control group. Here, we aimed to get further insights into the association of anti-SE36 antibody titres and natural P. falciparum infection. Children who received BK-SE36 and whose antibody titres against SE36 increased by ≥1.92-fold after vaccination were categorised as responders. Most responders did not have or only had a single episode of natural P. falciparum infection. Notably, responders who did not experience infection had relatively high anti-SE36 antibody titres post-second vaccination compared to those who were infected. The anti-SE36 antibody titres of the responders who experienced malaria were boosted after infection and they had lower risk of reinfection. These findings show that anti-SE36 antibody titres induced by BK-SE36 vaccination offered protection against malaria. The vaccine is now being evaluated in a phase Ib trial in children less than 5 years old. PMID:27703240

  11. What Respondents Really Expect from Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolar, Tomaz; Kolar, Iztok

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of falling response rates in telephone surveys. To better understand and maintain respondent goodwill, concepts of psychological contract and respondent expectations are introduced and explored. Results of the qualitative study show that respondent expectations are not only socially contingent but also…

  12. Basic and applied research on choice responding.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, W W; Mazur, J E

    1997-01-01

    Choice responding refers to the manner in which individuals allocate their time or responding among available response options. In this article, we first review basic investigations that have identified and examined variables that influence choice responding, such as response effort and reinforcement rate, immediacy, and quality. We then describe recent bridge and applied studies that illustrate how the results of basic research on choice responding can help to account for human behavior in natural environments and improve clinical assessments and interventions. PMID:9316255

  13. SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS WITH RESPONDENT-DRIVEN SAMPLING DATA: A STUDY OF RACIAL INTEGRATION ON CAMPUS1

    PubMed Central

    Wejnert, Cyprian

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) as a viable method of sampling and analyzing social networks with survey data. RDS is a network based sampling and analysis method that provides a middle ground compliment to ego-centric and saturated methods of social network analysis. The method provides survey data, similar to ego-centric approaches, on individuals who are connected by behaviorally documented ties, allowing for macro-level analysis of network structure, similar to that supported by saturated approaches. Using racial interaction of university undergraduates as an empirical example, the paper examines whether and to what extent racial diversity at the institutional level is reflected as racial integration at the interpersonal level by testing hypotheses regarding the quantity and quality of cross-race friendships. The primary goal of this article, however, is to introduce RDS to the network community and to stimulate further research toward the goal of expanding the analytical capacity of RDS. Advantages, limitations, and areas for future research to network analysis using RDS are discussed. PMID:20383316

  14. How Do the Laurentian Great Lakes Water Levels Respond to Climate Change? A Regional Climate Model Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, V.; Notaro, M.; Vavrus, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes contain twenty percent of the world's surface freshwater. Over the past century, inter-annual water levels have fluctuated in a primarily cyclic pattern with amplitudes from 0.2 m in Lake Superior to 0.7 m in Lake Erie. These changes in water levels result in more significant changes in coastlines of the Great Lakes and alter shoreline erosion, pollutant concentrations, and shoreline habitat. As climate changes, we are interested in how lake levels will respond. Global scale climate models do not depict the Great Lakes, and thus, are unlikely to accurately capture the mechanisms impacting water levels. We utilize the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model 4 at 20 km horizontal resolution with an improved, explicit lake model, a groundwater module, and a channel routing model. We simulate the past regional climate (1978-present) using NCEP Reanalysis to evaluate model performance and biases. We then simulate present and future water levels using boundary conditions from the global Community Climate System Model. Model evaluation and preliminary findings for future water levels will be presented.

  15. Responding to Linguistic Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commins, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    Second language learners arrive at every grade level with a variety of experiences and differing academic backgrounds. Responding to their learning needs means accommodating the entire range of students from monolingual English speakers to monolingual speakers of other languages, and a variety of bilingual profiles in between. This article…

  16. Responding to Tragedy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coopman, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author, a superintendent of Clark-Pleasant School Corporation in Whiteland, Indiana, relates how she and the school community responded to a car accident that killed two students. The author stresses the need to develop a comprehensive crisis plan. It is also important to be sensitive to the needs of family members who are…

  17. Responding to Misbehavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Kathryn; Forton, Mary Beth; Porter, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    As they learn to negotiate social expectations, children test limits, get carried away, forget, and make mistakes. In fact, having these experiences--and seeing how adults respond to them--is one way children learn about how to behave. Just as when they teach academics, teachers can use students' behavioral mistakes as opportunities for learning.…

  18. The Gesell Institute Responds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young Children, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Responding to Dr. Meisels' article concerning the uses and abuses of the Gesell readiness tests, the Gesell Institute of Child development maintains that the Gesell series of assessments are used by schools to gain a fuller developmental understanding of the child and have been predictive of school success. (BB)

  19. Responding to Individual Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainscow, Mel

    1990-01-01

    Effective teachers of students with disabilities respond successfully to students' individual needs by ensuring that students understand the purpose of their activities, by presenting students with variety and choice, by encouraging them to reflect upon and review their learning, by making flexible use of time and resources, and by implementing…

  20. The Authors Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward F.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The authors of proposals for a child care allowance for poor families, a parental leave program to ensure infant care, and a linkage of child care and public education systems respond to comments by three reviewers. The commentaries illustrate the diversity of perspectives on child care and the public sector. (SLD)

  1. "Cigarettes Are Priority": A Qualitative Study of How Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers Respond to Rising Cigarette Prices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Despite substantial modelling research assessing the impact of cigarette taxes on smoking rates across income groups, few studies have examined the broader financial effects and unintended consequences on very low-income smokers. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers in a high-income country manage smoking costs on…

  2. A Study of Some Conditions Relating to the Retarded Adult's Stereotyped Responding in a Binary-Choice Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Siegel, Paul S.

    1977-01-01

    Examined in a longitudinal study were the effects of conditions on alternation and perseveration of eight moderately and severely mentally retarded institutionalized adults. Available from: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 355 Chestnut Street, Norwood, New Jersey 07648. (CL)

  3. Responding to Mechanical Antigravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.; Thomas, Nicholas E.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the experiences of the NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project, suggestions are offered for constructively responding to proposals that purport breakthrough propulsion using mechanical devices. Because of the relatively large number of unsolicited submissions received (about 1 per workday) and because many of these involve similar concepts, this report is offered to help the would-be submitters make genuine progress as well as to help reviewers respond to such submissions. Devices that use oscillating masses or gyroscope falsely appear to create net thrust through differential friction or by misinterpreting torques as linear forces. To cover both the possibility of an errant claim and a genuine discovery, reviews should require that submitters meet minimal thresholds of proof before engaging in further correspondence; such as achieving sustained deflection of a level-platform pendulum in the case of mechanical thrusters.

  4. The Prognosis of IVF in Poor Responders Depending on the Bologna Criteria: A Large Sample Retrospective Study from China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuo; Chen, Xinna; Zhen, Xiumei; Wang, Haiyan; Ma, Caihong; Li, Rong; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the treatment outcomes of patients who accepted IVF/ICSI-ET, diagnosed POR according to Bologna criteria. Study Design. Retrospective cohort study of one reproductive medical center, from 1st Jan., 2009, to 31st Dec., 2014. All patients fulfilled the Bologna criteria and accept IVF/ICSI-ET treatment with stimulation cycle. The main outcome measures were clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) and live birth rate (LBR). Results. There were 5770 eligible cycles included in this study. The incidence of POR was 10.3% (6286/62194). The overall CPR was 18.7%, IR was 11.6%, LBR/ET was 11.5%, and LBR/OPU was 8.3%. The cycle cancellation for no available oocyte or embryo was 4.9% and 18.6%, respectively. The subgroup of younger POR patients got highest CPR and LBR/ET, which decreased while increasing maternal age. Within three attempts, the patients got similar CPR and LBR. Conclusion. In conclusion, our study supports the Bologna criteria that defined women with poor IVF outcomes. But those younger than 42 years old with the first 3 attempts of IVF could got acceptable CPR and LBR. PMID:26844227

  5. The Effect of Active Student Responding during Computer-Assisted Instruction on Social Studies Learning by Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerome, Annamaria; Barbetta, Patricia M.

    2005-01-01

    An alternating treatments design with a best treatments phase was used to compare two active student response (ASR) conditions and one on-task (OT) condition on the acquisition and maintenance of social studies facts during computer-assisted instruction. Each week for six weeks, five students were provided daily computer-assisted instruction on 21…

  6. Responding to User's Expectation in the Library: Innovative Web 2.0 Applications at JUIT Library: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram, Shri; Anbu K., John Paul; Kataria, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to provide an insight into the implementation of some of the innovative Web 2.0 applications at Jaypee University of Information Technology with the aim of exploring the expectations of the users and their awareness and usage of such applications. Design/methodology/approach: The study was undertaken at the Learning…

  7. A transcriptomic study reveals differentially expressed genes and pathways respond to simulated acid rain in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting-Wu; Niu, Li; Fu, Bin; Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Chen, Juan; Wang, Wen-Hua; Hu, Wen-Jun; He, Jun-Xian; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2013-01-01

    Acid rain, as a worldwide environmental issue, can cause serious damage to plants. In this study, we provided the first case study on the systematic responses of arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) to simulated acid rain (SiAR) by transcriptome approach. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the expression of a set of genes related to primary metabolisms, including nitrogen, sulfur, amino acid, photosynthesis, and reactive oxygen species metabolism, were altered under SiAR. In addition, transport and signal transduction related pathways, especially calcium-related signaling pathways, were found to play important roles in the response of arabidopsis to SiAR stress. Further, we compared our data set with previously published data sets on arabidopsis transcriptome subjected to various stresses, including wound, salt, light, heavy metal, karrikin, temperature, osmosis, etc. The results showed that many genes were overlapped in several stresses, suggesting that plant response to SiAR is a complex process, which may require the participation of multiple defense-signaling pathways. The results of this study will help us gain further insights into the response mechanisms of plants to acid rain stress.

  8. A transcriptomic study reveals differentially expressed genes and pathways respond to simulated acid rain in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting-Wu; Niu, Li; Fu, Bin; Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Chen, Juan; Wang, Wen-Hua; Hu, Wen-Jun; He, Jun-Xian; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2013-01-01

    Acid rain, as a worldwide environmental issue, can cause serious damage to plants. In this study, we provided the first case study on the systematic responses of arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) to simulated acid rain (SiAR) by transcriptome approach. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the expression of a set of genes related to primary metabolisms, including nitrogen, sulfur, amino acid, photosynthesis, and reactive oxygen species metabolism, were altered under SiAR. In addition, transport and signal transduction related pathways, especially calcium-related signaling pathways, were found to play important roles in the response of arabidopsis to SiAR stress. Further, we compared our data set with previously published data sets on arabidopsis transcriptome subjected to various stresses, including wound, salt, light, heavy metal, karrikin, temperature, osmosis, etc. The results showed that many genes were overlapped in several stresses, suggesting that plant response to SiAR is a complex process, which may require the participation of multiple defense-signaling pathways. The results of this study will help us gain further insights into the response mechanisms of plants to acid rain stress. PMID:23379338

  9. The Trier Social Stress Test as a paradigm to study how people respond to threat in social interactions

    PubMed Central

    Frisch, Johanna U.; Häusser, Jan A.; Mojzisch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In our lives, we face countless situations in which we are observed and evaluated by our social interaction partners. Social-evaluative threat is frequently associated with strong neurophysiological stress reactions, in particular, an increase in cortisol levels. Yet, social variables do not only cause stress, but they can also buffer the neurophysiological stress response. Furthermore, social variables can themselves be affected by the threat or the threat-induced neurophysiological stress response. In order to study this complex interplay of social-evaluative threat, social processes and neurophysiological stress responses, a paradigm is needed that (a) reliably induces high levels of social-evaluative threat and (b) is extremely adaptable to the needs of the researcher. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is a well-established paradigm in biopsychology that induces social-evaluative threat in the laboratory by subjecting participants to a mock job-interview. In this review, we aim at demonstrating the potential of the TSST for studying the complex interplay of social-evaluative threat, social processes and neurophysiological stress responses. PMID:25698987

  10. Executive attention control and emotional responding in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder — A functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Soonjo; White, Stuart F.; Nolan, Zachary T.; Craig Williams, W.; Sinclair, Stephen; Blair, R.J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background There are suggestions that patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show impairment in executive attention control and emotion regulation. This study investigated emotion regulation as a function of the recruitment of executive attention in patients with ADHD. Methods Thirty-five healthy children/adolescents (mean age = 13.91) and twenty-six children/adolescents with ADHD (mean age = 14.53) participated in this fMRI study. They completed the affective Stroop paradigm viewing positive, neutral and negative images under varying cognitive loads. A 3-way ANOVA (diagnosis-by-condition-by-emotion) was conducted on the BOLD response data. Following this, 2 3-way ANOVAs (diagnosis-by-condition-by-emotion) were applied to context-dependent psychophysiological interaction (gPPI) analyses generated from a dorsomedial frontal cortex and an amygdala seed (identified from the BOLD response ANOVA main effects of condition and emotion respectively). Results A diagnosis-by-condition interaction within dorsomedial frontal cortex revealed reduced recruitment of dorsomedial frontal cortex as a function of increased task demands in the children/adolescents with ADHD relative to healthy children/adolescents. The level of reduction in recruitment of dorsomedial frontal cortex was significantly correlated with symptom severity (total and hyperactivity) measured by Conner's Parent Report Scale in the children/adolescents with ADHD. In addition, analysis of gPPI data from a dorsomedial frontal cortex seed revealed significant diagnosis-by-condition interactions within lateral frontal cortex; connectivity between dorsomedial frontal cortex and lateral frontal cortex was reduced in the patients with ADHD relative to comparison youth during congruent and incongruent task trials relative to view trials. There were no interactions of group, or main effect of group, within the amygdala in the BOLD response ANOVA (though children/adolescents with ADHD showed

  11. Stress field respond to massive injection of cold water into a geothermal reservoir study by geomechanical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanne, P.; Rutqvist, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we study the evolution and distribution of the stress tensor within the northwest part of The Geysers geothermal field during 9 years of injection (from 2003 to 2012). Based on a refined 3D structural model, developed by Calpine Corporation, where the horizon surfaces are mapped, we use the GMS™ GUI to construct a realistic three-dimensional geologic model of the Northwest Geysers geothermal field. This model includes a low permeability graywacke layer that forms the caprock for the reservoir, an isothermal steam zone (the Normal Temperature Reservoir) within metagraywacke, a hornfels zone (the High Temperature Reservoir), and a felsite layer that is assumed to extend downward to the magmatic heat source. This model is mapped into a rectangular grid for use with the TOUGH-FLAC numerical simulator. Then, we reproduce the injection history of seven active wells between 2003 and 2012. Finally, our results are compared with previous works where the stress tensor was studied from the inversion of focal plane mechanism in the same area and during the same period. As in these publications we find that: (1) changes in the orientation of principal horizontal stress are very small after one decade of injection, and (2) at injection depth significant rotations of the initially vertically oriented maximum compressive principal stress occur in response to changes in the fluid injection rates. As observed in the field, we found that σ1 tilted towards the σ2 direction by approximately 15° when injection rates were at their peak level. Such a rotation consequently results in a local change in the state stress from a normal stress regime (Sv > SHmax> > Shmin) to a strike slip regime (SHmax> Sv > > Shmin) above and below the injection zone. Our results show that thermal processes are the principal cause for the stress tensor rotation.

  12. Reboxetine for ADHD in children non-responders or with poor tolerance to methylphenidate: a prospective long-term open-label study.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Javier; López-Muñoz, Francisco; Alamo, Cecilio; Loro, Mercedes; García-Campos, Natalia

    2010-11-01

    Up to 30% of patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with psychostimulants discontinue the treatment because of intolerance or lack of therapeutic response. Therapeutic alternatives are needed for such patients. In the present case series, we study the effectiveness of reboxetine over a period of 6 months in a sample of 14 children diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV-TR criteria, who had responded only partially or had presented poor tolerance to conventional treatment with methylphenidate. Clinical efficacy was evaluated through the application of the 18-item Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD-RS-IV) and the Clinical Global Impressions-Global Improvement Scale (CGI-I). Percentages of responders (ADHD-RS ≥ 25%) and improvers (CGI-I absolute value < 4) were 90.9 and 72.7%, respectively. No serious side-effects were observed during treatment, the most frequent effects being headaches and insomnia. The initial findings of our study show that reboxetine may constitute an effective tool for long-term treatment of children with ADHD who present poor response or poor tolerance to initial treatment with methylphenidate.

  13. Reducing the trigger dose of recombinant hCG in high-responder patients attending an assisted reproductive technology program: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Tiboni, Gian Mario; Colangelo, Enrica Concetta; Ponzano, Adalisa

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the dose of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) used to trigger final oocyte maturation in assisted reproductive technology programs is regarded as a useful intervention in the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, but the minimal effective dose has not been yet identified. In this study, the capacity of a reduced dose of recombinant hCG (r-hCG) to provide adequate oocyte maturation was tested for the first time. Thirty-five high-responder patients received a dose of 125 µg (half of the standard dose) of r-hCG for triggering final oocyte maturation. The number of oocytes retrieved per patient and the proportion of mature oocytes were evaluated. As a result, a mean number of 14 oocytes were retrieved, of which 85% were found to be mature (MII). There was only one patient developing a moderate form of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and not requiring hospitalization. It is suggested that r-hCG at 125 µg can be effective in triggering final oocyte maturation in high-responder patients. Additional properly powered and controlled studies are needed to support this contention. PMID:27274202

  14. Investigating How Streptococcus Responds to Their Environment: Bringing Together Current Research, a Case Study and Laboratory Investigation †

    PubMed Central

    Quimby, B. Boots; McIver, Kevin S.; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Smith, Ann C.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the link between course work and unanswered authentic research questions being explored in the research lab is an important goal in undergraduate science teaching. The activity presented here focuses on current research regarding the virulence characteristics of Streptococcus pyogenes particularly targeting the control of sugar uptake regulated via catabolite repression. Students were challenged to formulate a research question and use higher-order thinking skills to analyze data, work collaboratively to solve problems, and pose and test a hypothesis in the laboratory setting. The activity employed an interrupted case study approach using both online and face-to-face settings. The case story and problems were distributed online and were followed by in-class discussions and lab work. Aspects of the activity required independent thinking, as well as collaborative work. Student learning gains were demonstrated via comparison of pre- and postscores on the Host Pathogen Interactions (HPI) concept inventory, results from an end of semester Student Perception Survey, and from analysis of students’ work. PMID:23653762

  15. Vicarious trauma and first responders: a case study utilizing eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) as the primary treatment modality.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Paul; Royle, Liz

    2007-01-01

    Traumatic events can occur and adversely affect people during their lifetime. Natural disasters such as the earthquake in Pakistan in 2005 or the Tsunami in Asia in 2004, terrorist atrocities around the world, or personal events such as physical or sexual assault, can result in psychological difficulties for those people directly affected by these events. The diagnostic term Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, DSM IV 1994) is generally used to explain the often-severe psychological sequalae (van der Kolk, 1996; Servan-Schreiber 2004; Shapiro, 1995) that people may exhibit when directly affected by trauma. However, what of those people not directly involved in the trauma, but those who have borne witness to it, either by listening to the stories of survivors, or in the case of the helping professionals (such as police officers, nurses, doctors, psychotherapists, fire-fighters), actively working with survivors in psychological distress? This paper examines the potential psychological consequences for those in helping professions who are working with traumatized clients. This paper then focuses on a specific treatment intervention, EMDR, utilizing a case study by way of explanation.

  16. The marriage of surgical simulation and telementoring for damage-control surgical training of operational first responders: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Tien, Homer; LaPorta, Anthony T.; Lavell, Kit; Keillor, Jocelyn; Wright Beatty, Heather E.; McKee, Jessica Lynn; Brien, Susan; Roberts, Derek J.; Wong, Jonathan; Ball, Chad G.; Beckett, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable posttraumatic death. Many such deaths may be potentially salvageable with remote damage-control surgical interventions. As recent innovations in information technology enable remote specialist support to point-of-care providers, advanced interventions, such as remote damage-control surgery, may be possible in remote settings. METHODS An anatomically realistic perfused surgical training mannequin with intrinsic fluid loss measurements (the “Cut Suit”) was used to study perihepatic packing with massive liver hemorrhage. The primary outcome was loss of simulated blood (water) during six stages, namely, incision, retraction, direction, identification, packing, and postpacking. Six fully credentialed surgeons performed the same task as 12 military medical technicians who were randomized to remotely telementored (RTM) (n = 7) or unmentored (UTM) (n=5) real-time guidance by a trauma surgeon. RESULTS There were no significant differences in fluid loss between the surgeons and the UTM group or between the UTM and RTM groups. However, when comparing the RTM group with the surgeons, there was significantly more total fluid loss (p = 0.001) and greater loss during the identification (p = 0.002), retraction (p = 0.035), direction (p = 0.014), and packing(p = 0.022) stages. There were no significant differences in fluid loss after packing between the groups despite differences in the number of sponges used; RTM group used more sponges than the surgeons and significantly more than the UTM group (p = 0.048). However, mentoring significantly increased self-assessed nonsurgeon procedural confidence (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION Perihepatic packing of an exsanguinating liver hemorrhage model was readily performed by military medical technicians after a focused briefing. While real-time telementoring did not improve fluid loss, it significantly increased nonsurgeon procedural confidence, which may augment the feasibility of the

  17. Obesity independently predicts responders to biphasic insulin 50/50 (Humalog Mix50 and Insuman Comb 50) following conversion from other insulin regimens: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mamza, J; Mehta, R; Idris, I

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study aims to examine the metabolic effects of intensification or initiation of insulin treatment with biphasic insulin 50/50, and determine the predictors of responders or non-responders to biphasic insulin 50/50. Methods A cohort of 2183 patients ≥18 years with diabetes, newly treated with biphasic insulin 50/50 between January 2000 and May 2012, were sourced from UK General Practices via The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. Baseline clinical parameters of 1267 patients with suboptimal glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) >7.5% (>58 mmol/mol) who had received background insulin regimens for at least 6 months preceding biphasic insulin 50/50 were compared against 12-month outcome data. Responders were defined as those with HbA1c <7.5% (58 mmol/mol) and/or HbA1c reduction of ≥1% (10.9 mmol/mol) at 12 months. Comparative analyses were carried out on subgroups of 237 patients initiating insulin therapy with biphasic insulin 50/50, and between users of the Humalog Mix50 (HM50) versus Insuman Comb 50 (IC50). Associations were examined using t tests and multivariate logistic regression techniques. Results The overall mean HbA1c reduction at 12 months as a result of intensification and initiation with biphasic insulin 50/50 was 0.5% (5.5 mmol/mol) and 1.6% (17.5 mmol/mol), respectively. Adjusted ORs show obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m2), treatment duration for ≥9 months, and baseline HbA1c are independent determinants of responders. In addition, stratified for baseline HbA1c levels, HM50 was associated with better HbA1c outcome compared with IC50. Conclusions biphasic insulin 50/50 is effective for achieving glycemic control in suboptimal HbA1c levels, especially among obese patients with insulin-treated diabetes. Stratified for baseline HbA1c, HM50 was associated with improved HbA1c outcome compared with IC50. PMID:25452865

  18. In their own words: reports of stigma and genetic discrimination by people at risk for Huntington disease in the International RESPOND-HD study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet K; Erwin, Cheryl; Juhl, Andrew R; Mengeling, Michelle; Bombard, Yvonne; Hayden, Michael R; Quaid, Kimberly; Shoulson, Ira; Taylor, Sandra; Paulsen, Jane S

    2010-09-01

    Genetic discrimination may be experienced in the day-to-day lives of people at risk for Huntington disease (HD), encompassing occurrences in the workplace, when seeking insurance, within social relationships, and during other daily encounters. At-risk individuals who have tested either positive or negative for the genetic expansion that causes HD, as well as at-risk persons with a 50% chance for developing the disorder but have not had DNA testing completed the International RESPOND-HD (I-RESPOND-HD) survey. One of the study's purposes was to examine perceptions of genetic stigmatization and discrimination. A total of 412 out of 433 participants provided narrative comments, and 191 provided related codable narrative data. The core theme, Information Control, refers to organizational policies and interpersonal actions. This theme was found in narrative comments describing genetic discrimination perceptions across employment, insurance, social, and other situations. These reports were elaborated with five themes: What They Encountered, What They Felt, What Others Did, What They Did, and What Happened. Although many perceptions were coded as hurtful, this was not true in all instances. Findings document that reports of genetic discrimination are highly individual, and both policy as well as interpersonal factors contribute to the outcome of potentially discriminating events. PMID:20468062

  19. In their own words: reports of stigma and genetic discrimination by people at risk for Huntington disease in the International RESPOND-HD study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet K; Erwin, Cheryl; Juhl, Andrew R; Mengeling, Michelle; Bombard, Yvonne; Hayden, Michael R; Quaid, Kimberly; Shoulson, Ira; Taylor, Sandra; Paulsen, Jane S

    2010-09-01

    Genetic discrimination may be experienced in the day-to-day lives of people at risk for Huntington disease (HD), encompassing occurrences in the workplace, when seeking insurance, within social relationships, and during other daily encounters. At-risk individuals who have tested either positive or negative for the genetic expansion that causes HD, as well as at-risk persons with a 50% chance for developing the disorder but have not had DNA testing completed the International RESPOND-HD (I-RESPOND-HD) survey. One of the study's purposes was to examine perceptions of genetic stigmatization and discrimination. A total of 412 out of 433 participants provided narrative comments, and 191 provided related codable narrative data. The core theme, Information Control, refers to organizational policies and interpersonal actions. This theme was found in narrative comments describing genetic discrimination perceptions across employment, insurance, social, and other situations. These reports were elaborated with five themes: What They Encountered, What They Felt, What Others Did, What They Did, and What Happened. Although many perceptions were coded as hurtful, this was not true in all instances. Findings document that reports of genetic discrimination are highly individual, and both policy as well as interpersonal factors contribute to the outcome of potentially discriminating events.

  20. Social networks of men who have sex with men: a study of recruitment chains using Respondent Driven Sampling in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brignol, Sandra Mara Silva; Dourado, Inês; Amorim, Leila Denise; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas; Kerr, Lígia R F S

    2015-11-01

    Social and sexual contact networks between men who have sex with men (MSM) play an important role in understanding the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In Salvador (Bahia State, Brazil), one of the cities in the survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices, and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in 10 Brazilian Cities, data were collected in 2008/2009 from a sample of 383 MSM using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Network analysis was used to study friendship networks and sexual partner networks. The study also focused on the association between the number of links (degree) and the number of sexual partners, in addition to socio-demographic characteristics. The networks' structure potentially facilitates HIV transmission. However, the same networks can also be used to spread messages on STI/HIV prevention, since the proximity and similarity of MSM in these networks can encourage behavior change and positive attitudes towards prevention.

  1. Understanding the HIV/AIDS epidemic in transgender women of Lima, Peru: results from a sero-epidemiologic study using respondent driven sampling.

    PubMed

    Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Raymond, H Fisher; Salazar, Ximena; Villayzan, Jana; Leon, Segundo; McFarland, Willi; Caceres, Carlos F

    2012-05-01

    In Latin America, transgender women (transwomen or male to female transgenders) have been included in MSM research but without addressing their specific needs in terms of the HIV/AIDS. We present results of the first seroepidemiologic study designed for transwomen in Peru. We conducted a study using respondent driven sampling to recruit transwomen from Lima. Our survey explored sociodemographic characteristics, gender enhancement procedures and sexual behavior. In addition, we conducted laboratory based HIV, genital herpes (HSV2) and syphilis testing. A total of 450 transwomen were recruited between April and July 2009. HIV prevalence was 30%, HSV2: 79% and syphilis: 23%. Sex-work was the main economic activity (64%). Gender enhancement procedures were reported by 70% of the population. Multivariable analysis showed HIV infection to be associated with being older than 35 recent, syphilis infection and HSV2 infection. Transwomen are the group most vulnerable to HIV/AIDS in Peru.

  2. Social networks of men who have sex with men: a study of recruitment chains using Respondent Driven Sampling in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brignol, Sandra Mara Silva; Dourado, Inês; Amorim, Leila Denise; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas; Kerr, Lígia R F S

    2015-11-01

    Social and sexual contact networks between men who have sex with men (MSM) play an important role in understanding the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In Salvador (Bahia State, Brazil), one of the cities in the survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices, and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in 10 Brazilian Cities, data were collected in 2008/2009 from a sample of 383 MSM using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Network analysis was used to study friendship networks and sexual partner networks. The study also focused on the association between the number of links (degree) and the number of sexual partners, in addition to socio-demographic characteristics. The networks' structure potentially facilitates HIV transmission. However, the same networks can also be used to spread messages on STI/HIV prevention, since the proximity and similarity of MSM in these networks can encourage behavior change and positive attitudes towards prevention. PMID:26648372

  3. Understanding the HIV/AIDS epidemic in transgender women of Lima, Peru: results from a sero-epidemiologic study using respondent driven sampling.

    PubMed

    Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Raymond, H Fisher; Salazar, Ximena; Villayzan, Jana; Leon, Segundo; McFarland, Willi; Caceres, Carlos F

    2012-05-01

    In Latin America, transgender women (transwomen or male to female transgenders) have been included in MSM research but without addressing their specific needs in terms of the HIV/AIDS. We present results of the first seroepidemiologic study designed for transwomen in Peru. We conducted a study using respondent driven sampling to recruit transwomen from Lima. Our survey explored sociodemographic characteristics, gender enhancement procedures and sexual behavior. In addition, we conducted laboratory based HIV, genital herpes (HSV2) and syphilis testing. A total of 450 transwomen were recruited between April and July 2009. HIV prevalence was 30%, HSV2: 79% and syphilis: 23%. Sex-work was the main economic activity (64%). Gender enhancement procedures were reported by 70% of the population. Multivariable analysis showed HIV infection to be associated with being older than 35 recent, syphilis infection and HSV2 infection. Transwomen are the group most vulnerable to HIV/AIDS in Peru. PMID:21983694

  4. Combined administration of FVIII and rFVIIa improves haemostasis in haemophilia A patients with high-responding inhibitors--a thrombin generation-guided pilot study.

    PubMed

    Livnat, T; Martinowitz, U; Azar-Avivi, S; Zivelin, A; Brutman-Barazani, T; Lubetsky, A; Kenet, G

    2013-09-01

    Treatment of haemophilia A patients with inhibitors is challenging, and may require individually tailored regimens. Whereas low titre inhibitor patients may respond to high doses of factor VIII (FVIII), high-responding inhibitor patients render replacement therapy ineffective and often require application of bypassing agents. Thrombin generation (TG) assays may be used to monitor haemostasis and/or predict patients' response to bypass agents. In this study we defined by TG, the potential contribution of FVIII to recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa)-induced haemostasis in inhibitor plasma. Based upon results, prospectively designed individual regimens of coadministration of rFVIIa and FVIII were applied. Plasma samples from 14 haemophilia patients with inhibitors (including high titre inhibitors) were tested. The response to increasing concentrations of FVIII, rFVIIa or both was assayed by TG. Eight patients, chosen following consent and at physician's discretion, comprised the combined FVIII-rFVIIa therapy clinical study cohort. Combined spiking with FVIII/rFVIIa improved TG induced by rFVIIa alone in all inhibitor plasmas. Combined rFVIIa and FVIII therapy was applied during bleeding or immune tolerance to eight patients, for a total of 393 episodes. Following a single combined dose, 90% haemostasis was documented and neither thrombosis nor any complications evolved. During study period decline of inhibitor levels and bleeding frequency were noted. Pre-analytical studies enabled us to prospectively tailor individual therapy regimens. We confirmed for the first time that the in vitro advantage of combining FVIII and rFVIIa, indeed accounts for improved haemostasis and may safely be applied to inhibitor patients.

  5. Primary healthcare system capacities for responding to storm and flood-related health problems: a case study from a rural district in central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Tuan Anh, Tran; Rocklöv, Joacim; Bao Giang, Kim; Trang, Le Quynh; Sahlen, Klas-Göran; Nilsson, Maria; Weinehall, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Background As a tropical depression in the East Sea, Vietnam is greatly affected by climate change and natural disasters. Knowledge of the current capacity of the primary healthcare system in Vietnam to respond to health issues associated with storms and floods is very important for policy making in the country. However, there has been little scientific research in this area. Objective This research was to assess primary healthcare system capacities in a rural district in central Vietnam to respond to such health issues. Design This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods used self-administered questionnaires. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and focus groups discussions) were used to broaden understanding of the quantitative material and to get additional information on actions taken. Results 1) Service delivery: Medical emergency services, especially surgical operations and referral systems, were not always available during the storm and flood seasons. 2) Governance: District emergency plans focus largely on disaster response rather than prevention. The plans did not clearly define the role of primary healthcare and had no clear information on the coordination mechanism among different sectors and organizations. 3) Financing: The budget for prevention and control of flood and storm activities was limited and had no specific items for healthcare activities. Only a little additional funding was available, but the procedures to get this funding were usually time-consuming. 4) Human resources: Medical rescue teams were established, but there were no epidemiologists or environmental health specialists to take care of epidemiological issues. Training on prevention and control of climate change and disaster-related health issues did not meet actual needs. 5) Information and research: Data that can be used for planning and management (including population and epidemiological data) were largely

  6. Money boys, HIV risks, and the associations between norms and safer sex: a respondent-driven sampling study in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjie; Liu, Hui; Cai, Yumao; Rhodes, Anne G; Hong, Fuchang

    2009-08-01

    Money boys (MBs) are male sex workers who sell sex to men who have sex with men (MSM). This study estimates the proportion of MBs in the Chinese MSM, compares HIV risks between MBs and non-MB MSM, and examines the associations between practicing safer sex and peer norms of condom use. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to sample 351 MSM in the city of Shenzhen in 2007. The RDS-adjusted proportion of MBs among MSM was 9%. Compared to non-MB MSM, more MBs reported having had multiple male and female sexual partners. Half of MBs and non-MB MSM had consistently used condoms. Both descriptive and subjective norms were positively associated with condom use. The MB proportion of 9% in MSM implies a relatively large population of MBs in China. The association between peer norms and consistent condom use can assist with the development of culturally competent HIV interventions that promote safer sex.

  7. Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH): Scientific Understanding of Arctic Environmental Change to Help Society Understand and Respond to a Rapidly Changing Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Myers, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) is a U.S. program with a mission to provide a foundation of Arctic change science through collaboration with the research community, funding agencies, and other stakeholders. To achieve this mission, SEARCH: Generates and synthesizes research findings and promotes Arctic science and scientific discovery across disciplines and among agencies. Identifies emerging issues in Arctic environmental change. Provides scientific information to Arctic stakeholders, policy-makers, and the public to help them understand and respond to arctic environmental change. Facilitates research activities across local-to-global scales, with an emphasis on addressing needs of decision-makers. Collaborates with national and international science programs integral to SEARCH goals. This poster presentation will present SEARCH activities and plans, highlighting those focused on providing information for decision-makers. http://www.arcus.org/search

  8. How do Midlatitude Blocks and Wave Amplitude Respond to Changes in the Midlatitude-to-Pole Near-Surface Temperature Gradient? A Study with an Idealized Dry GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, P.; Kuang, Z.; Farrell, B.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric blocks and amplified midlatitude planetary waves can lead to weather extremes such as heat waves, cold spells, droughts and heavy precipitation events. While assessing the influence of climate change on extreme weather events is of significant scientific and societal importance, how blocks and wave amplitude respond to changes in the large-scale atmospheric circulation is not well-understood. For example, whether the weakened midlatitude westerlies and Z500 meridional gradient, caused by a reduced midlatitude-to-pole near-surface temperature difference in the Northern Hemisphere (associated with Arctic Amplification), lead to an increase in atmospheric blocking events and wavier jet streams remains unclear, despite a number of recent studies addressing this issue using observation and comprehensive GCMs. Here we address the question of how blocks and wave amplitude respond to changes in the midlatitude-to-pole near-surface temperature difference using an idealized dry GCM with a simple setup as described in Held and Suarez (1994). Quasi-stationary long-lived blocks that split or substantially displace the jet are common in simulations made with this model, which is free of topography and zonally asymmetric forcing. Reducing the pole-to-equator surface temperature difference in the forcing of this model leads to a mean-state with smaller midlatitude-to-pole near-surface temperature difference and Z500 meridional gradient, smaller variances of temperature and Z500, and slower jet streams, which are consistent with changes expected from Arctic Amplification. Using long high-resolution simulations, we find a robust decline in blocked area and wave amplitude as the pole-to-equator surface temperature difference in the forcing is reduced. These findings are insensitive to numerical resolution, strength of hyperdiffusion, and parameters used in the blocking and wave amplitude indices. Statistical and dynamical diagnoses are used to investigate the underlying

  9. Responders to Wide-Pulse, High-Frequency Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Show Reduced Metabolic Demand: A 31P-MRS Study in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Wegrzyk, Jennifer; Fouré, Alexandre; Le Fur, Yann; Maffiuletti, Nicola A.; Vilmen, Christophe; Guye, Maxime; Mattei, Jean-Pierre; Place, Nicolas; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Conventional (CONV) neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) (i.e., short pulse duration, low frequencies) induces a higher energetic response as compared to voluntary contractions (VOL). In contrast, wide-pulse, high-frequency (WPHF) NMES might elicit–at least in some subjects (i.e., responders)–a different motor unit recruitment compared to CONV that resembles the physiological muscle activation pattern of VOL. We therefore hypothesized that for these responder subjects, the metabolic demand of WPHF would be lower than CONV and comparable to VOL. 18 healthy subjects performed isometric plantar flexions at 10% of their maximal voluntary contraction force for CONV (25 Hz, 0.05 ms), WPHF (100 Hz, 1 ms) and VOL protocols. For each protocol, force time integral (FTI) was quantified and subjects were classified as responders and non-responders to WPHF based on k-means clustering analysis. Furthermore, a fatigue index based on FTI loss at the end of each protocol compared with the beginning of the protocol was calculated. Phosphocreatine depletion (ΔPCr) was assessed using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Responders developed four times higher FTI’s during WPHF (99 ± 37 ×103 N.s) than non-responders (26 ± 12 ×103 N.s). For both responders and non-responders, CONV was metabolically more demanding than VOL when ΔPCr was expressed relative to the FTI. Only for the responder group, the ∆PCr/FTI ratio of WPHF (0.74 ± 0.19 M/N.s) was significantly lower compared to CONV (1.48 ± 0.46 M/N.s) but similar to VOL (0.65 ± 0.21 M/N.s). Moreover, the fatigue index was not different between WPHF (-16%) and CONV (-25%) for the responders. WPHF could therefore be considered as the less demanding NMES modality–at least in this subgroup of subjects–by possibly exhibiting a muscle activation pattern similar to VOL contractions. PMID:26619330

  10. Investigation of alcohol-related social norms among youth aged 14–17 years in Perth, Western Australia: protocol for a respondent-driven sampling study

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Janina; Maycock, Bruce; Howat, Peter; Burns, Sharyn; Allsop, Steve; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Lobo, Roanna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use among young people is a major public health concern in Australia and internationally. Research elucidating social norms influencing alcohol use supports the desire to conform to peers. However, there is a lack of evidence on how social norms are transmitted from the community to young people and between family members and peers, as previous studies are limited to mainly school and university environments. This article describes the proposed process to investigate common alcohol-related norms held by 14-year-olds to 17-year-olds in Perth, Western Australia, and to clarify the process and pathways through which proalcohol norms are transmitted to adolescents. Methods and analysis This cross-sectional quantitative study will use respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit a sample of 672 adolescents from sporting groups, youth programmes and the community in Perth. Data will be collected with a previously developed and validated multidimensional online survey instrument. A variety of strategies will be explored to aid participation including face-to-face recruitment and survey administration, web-based RDS and a ‘mature minor’ consent assessment protocol. Data analysis will include descriptive statistics of demographic characteristics, as well as social network and dyadic analyses, to explore the connections between shared understanding of norms and behaviours among individuals and how these translate into reported practices. Ethics and dissemination This research is expected to extend our understanding of normative development pathways to inform future interventions, and will be widely disseminated through conference presentations, peer-reviewed papers, media channels and community seminars. A study reference group of key health industry stakeholders will be established to encourage integration of study findings into policy and practice, and results will guide the development of community interventions. The Curtin University Human

  11. Genetically-based behavioral traits influence the effects of Shuttle Box avoidance overtraining and extinction upon intertrial responding: a study with the Roman rat strains.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Raúl; Gil, Luis; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto; Tobeña, Adolf

    2004-04-30

    In the present study, we evaluated the effects of extended exposure procedures to contextual fear cues as a way of reducing intertrial responses (ITRs), a characteristic stereotyped behavior displayed in 2-way Shuttle Box avoidance overtraining. We used rat strains psychogenetically selected for efficient (Roman high-avoidance; RHA) versus poor 2-way Shuttle Box performance (Roman low-avoidance; RLA), the former being fearless/impulsive relative to the latter. Additionally, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were compared with RHAs to have a measure of the ITRs exhibited by another, non-selected group of animals. The main findings were that after extended exposure RHAs diminished their ITRs without affecting avoidance performance, although they emitted a pattern of ITRs somewhat excessive as compared with SDs. We concluded that three factors could influence the expression of ITRs in RHA rats: (1) the repetitive and stereotyped responding induced by 2-way Shuttle Box overtraining; (2) contextual fear conditioning; and (3) a genetic background associated with high impulsiveness. PMID:15062972

  12. Criticality Safety Basics for INL Emergency Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Valerie L. Putman

    2012-08-01

    This document is a modular self-study guide about criticality safety principles for Idaho National Laboratory emergency responders. This guide provides basic criticality safety information for people who, in response to an emergency, might enter an area that contains much fissionable (or fissile) material. The information should help responders understand unique factors that might be important in responding to a criticality accident or in preventing a criticality accident while responding to a different emergency.

    This study guide specifically supplements web-based training for firefighters (0INL1226) and includes information for other Idaho National Laboratory first responders. However, the guide audience also includes other first responders such as radiological control personnel.

    For interested readers, this guide includes clearly marked additional information that will not be included on tests. The additional information includes historical examples (Been there. Done that.), as well as facts and more in-depth information (Did you know …).

    INL criticality safety personnel revise this guide as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Revision 0, issued May 2007, established the basic text. Revision 1 incorporates operation, program, and training changes implemented since 2007. Revision 1 increases focus on first responders because later responders are more likely to have more assistance and guidance from facility personnel and subject matter experts. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that help keep emergency responders safe. The changes are based on and consistent with changes made to course 0INL1226.

  13. Genome-Wide Association Studies Reveal that Diverse Heading Date Genes Respond to Short and Long Day Lengths between Indica and Japonica Rice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhongmin; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Hu; Ayaad, Mohammed; Xing, Yongzhong

    2016-01-01

    Rice is a short-day plant. Short-day length promotes heading, and long-day length suppresses heading. Many studies have evaluated rice heading in field conditions in which some individuals in the population were exposed to various day lengths, including short and long days, prior to a growth phase transition. In this study, we investigated heading date under natural short-day conditions (SD) and long-day conditions (LD) for 100s of accessions and separately conducted genome-wide association studies within indica and japonica subpopulations. Under LD, three and four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified in indica and japonica subpopulations, respectively, two of which were less than 80 kb from the known genes Hd17 and Ghd7. But no common QTLs were detected in both subpopulations. Under SD, six QTLs were detected in indica, three of which were less than 80 kb from the known heading date genes Ghd7, Ehd1, and RCN1. But no QTLs were detected in japonica subpopulation. qHd3 under SD and qHd4 under LD were two novel major QTLs, which deserve isolation in the future. Eleven known heading date genes were used to test the power of association mapping at the haplotype level. Hd17, Ghd7, Ehd1, and RCN1 were again detected at more significant level and three additional genes, Hd3a, OsMADS56, and Ghd7.1, were detected. However, of the detected seven genes, only one gene, Hd17, was commonly detected in both subpopulations and two genes, Ghd7 and Ghd7.1, were commonly detected in indica subpopulation under both conditions. Moreover, haplotype analysis identified favorable haplotypes of Ghd7 and OsMADS56 for breeding design. In conclusion, diverse heading date genes/QTLs between indica and japonica subpopulations responded to SD and LD, and haplotype-level association mapping was more powerful than SNP-level association in rice.

  14. Clinical-biochemical correlates of migraine attacks in rizatriptan responders and non-responders.

    PubMed

    Sarchielli, P; Pini, L A; Zanchin, G; Alberti, A; Maggioni, F; Rossi, C; Floridi, A; Calabresi, P

    2006-03-01

    The present study was aimed at verifying the clinical characteristics of a typical attack in 20 migraine patients, 10 responders and 10 non-responders to rizatriptan, and at investigating any differences in the levels of neuropeptides of the trigeminovascular or parasympathetic systems [calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neurokinin A (NKA) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) measured by radioimmunoassay methods in external jugular blood] between responders and non-responders. In all responders to rizatriptan, pain was unilateral, severe, and pulsating, and in five of them at least one sign suggestive of parasympathetic system activation was recorded. Five patients who were non-responders to rizatriptan referred bilateral and non-pulsating pain, even though severe in most of them. CGRP and NKA levels measured before rizatriptan administration were significantly higher in responders than in non-responders (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.002, respectively). In the five patients with autonomic signs among rizatriptan responders, detectable VIP levels were found at baseline. One hour after rizatriptan administration, a decrease in CGRP and NKA levels was evident in the external jugular venous blood of rizatriptan responders, and this corresponded to a significant pain relief and alleviation of accompanying symptoms. VIP levels were also significantly reduced at the same time in the five patients with autonomic signs. After rizatriptan administration, CGRP and NKA levels in non-responder patients showed less significant variations at all time points after rizatriptan administration compared with rizatriptan responders. The present study, although carried out on a limited number of patients, supports recent clinical evidence of increased trigeminal activation associated with a better triptan response in migraine patients accompanied by parasympathetic activation in a subgroup of patients with autonomic signs. In contrast, the poor response seems to be correlated with a

  15. Integrated respondent-driven sampling and peer support for persons who inject drugs in Haiphong, Vietnam: a case study with implications for interventions.

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, Don; Duong, Huong Thi; Pham Minh, Khue; Khuat, Oanh Hai Thi; Nham, Thanh Tuyet Thi; Arasteh, Kamyar; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Heckathorn, Douglas D; Peries, Marianne; Moles, Jean Pierre; Laureillard, Didier; Nagot, Nicolas

    2016-10-01

    Combined prevention for HIV among persons who inject drugs (PWID) has led to greatly reduced HIV transmission among PWID in many high-income settings, but these successes have not yet been replicated in resource-limited settings. Haiphong, Vietnam experienced a large HIV epidemic among PWID, with 68% prevalence in 2006. Haiphong has implemented needle/syringe programs, methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), and anti-retroviral treatment (ART), but there is an urgent need to identify high-risk PWID and link them to services. We examined integration of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and strong peer support groups as a mechanism for identifying high-risk PWID and linking them to services. The peer support staff performed the key tasks that required building and maintaining trust with the participants, including recruiting the RDS seeds, greeting and registering participants at the research site, taking electronic copies of participant fingerprints (to prevent multiple participation in the study), and conducting urinalyses. A 6-month cohort study with 250 participants followed the RDS cross-sectional study. The peer support staff maintained contact with these participants, tracking them if they missed appointments, and providing assistance in accessing methadone and ART. The RDS recruitment was quite rapid, with 603 participants recruited in three weeks. HIV prevalence was 25%, Hepatitis C (HCV) prevalence 67%, and participants reported an average of 2.7 heroin injections per day. Retention in the cohort study was high, with 86% of participants re-interviewed at 6-month follow-up. Assistance in accessing services led to half of the participants in need of methadone enrolled in methadone clinics, and half of HIV-positive participants in need of ART enrolled in HIV clinics by the 6-month follow-up. This study suggests that integrating large-scale RDS and strong peer support may provide a method for rapidly linking high-risk PWID to combined prevention and care, and

  16. Relational Responding in Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell, Amy R.; Wilson, Kelly G.; LaBorde, Cicely T.; Drake, Chad E.; Rogers, Leslie J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parenting stress and relational conditioning. Fourteen students who were not mothers, 14 mothers who reported high parenting stress and 14 mothers with low parenting stress completed two matching-to-sample (MTS) computer tasks, each requiring formation of three 3-member classes. The first MTS task…

  17. Thinking It Through: A Study of How Pre-Service Teachers Respond to Children Who Present with Possible Mental Health Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, David; Price, Deborah; Crowley, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Teachers are key professionals in responding to children and adolescents with possible mental health difficulties and who exhibit social, emotional or behavioural difficulties in the classroom. Health and education policy increasingly positions teachers as vital agents in connecting mental health services with affected young people. A growing…

  18. Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Anti-Müllerian Hormone per Oocyte in Predicting in vitro Fertilization Pregnancy in High Responders: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Weghofer, Andrea; Kim, Ann; Barad, David H.; Gleicher, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Background Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) are utilized to differentiate between good and poor response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Their respective roles in defining functional ovarian reserve remain, however, to be elucidated. To better understand those we investigated AMH and FSH per oocyte retrieved (AMHo and FSHo). Methodology/Principal Findings Three-hundred and ninety-six women, undergoing first in vitro fertilization cycles, were retrospectively evaluated. Women with oocyte yields >75th percentile for their age group were identified as high responders. In a series of logistic regression analyses, AMHo and FSHo levels were then evaluated as predictive factors for pregnancy potential in high responders. Patients presented with a mean age of 38.0±5.0 years, mean baseline FSH of 11.8±8.7 mIU/mL and mean AMH of 1.6±2.1 ng/mL. Those 88 women, who qualified as high responders, showed mean FSH of 9.7±6.5 mIU/mL, AMH of 3.1±3.1 ng/mL and oocyte yields of 15.8±7.1. Baseline FSH and AMH did not predict pregnancy in high responders. However, a statistically significant association between FSHo and pregnancy was observed in high responders, both after univariate regression (p = 0.02) and when adjusted for age, percentage of usable embryos, and number of embryos transferred (p = 0.03). Rate of useable embryos also significantly affected pregnancy outcome independently of FSHo (p = 0.01). AMHo was also associated with clinical pregnancy chances in high responders (p = 0.03) and remained significant when adjusted for usable embryos and number of embryos transferred (p = 0.04). Conclusions AMHo and FSHo are predictive of pregnancy potential in high responders, but likely reflect different responsibilities in recruitment and maturation of growing follicle cohorts. PMID:22545082

  19. Genome-Wide Association Studies Reveal that Diverse Heading Date Genes Respond to Short and Long Day Lengths between Indica and Japonica Rice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhongmin; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Hu; Ayaad, Mohammed; Xing, Yongzhong

    2016-01-01

    Rice is a short-day plant. Short-day length promotes heading, and long-day length suppresses heading. Many studies have evaluated rice heading in field conditions in which some individuals in the population were exposed to various day lengths, including short and long days, prior to a growth phase transition. In this study, we investigated heading date under natural short-day conditions (SD) and long-day conditions (LD) for 100s of accessions and separately conducted genome-wide association studies within indica and japonica subpopulations. Under LD, three and four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified in indica and japonica subpopulations, respectively, two of which were less than 80 kb from the known genes Hd17 and Ghd7. But no common QTLs were detected in both subpopulations. Under SD, six QTLs were detected in indica, three of which were less than 80 kb from the known heading date genes Ghd7, Ehd1, and RCN1. But no QTLs were detected in japonica subpopulation. qHd3 under SD and qHd4 under LD were two novel major QTLs, which deserve isolation in the future. Eleven known heading date genes were used to test the power of association mapping at the haplotype level. Hd17, Ghd7, Ehd1, and RCN1 were again detected at more significant level and three additional genes, Hd3a, OsMADS56, and Ghd7.1, were detected. However, of the detected seven genes, only one gene, Hd17, was commonly detected in both subpopulations and two genes, Ghd7 and Ghd7.1, were commonly detected in indica subpopulation under both conditions. Moreover, haplotype analysis identified favorable haplotypes of Ghd7 and OsMADS56 for breeding design. In conclusion, diverse heading date genes/QTLs between indica and japonica subpopulations responded to SD and LD, and haplotype-level association mapping was more powerful than SNP-level association in rice. PMID:27621738

  20. Genome-Wide Association Studies Reveal that Diverse Heading Date Genes Respond to Short and Long Day Lengths between Indica and Japonica Rice.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhongmin; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Hu; Ayaad, Mohammed; Xing, Yongzhong

    2016-01-01

    Rice is a short-day plant. Short-day length promotes heading, and long-day length suppresses heading. Many studies have evaluated rice heading in field conditions in which some individuals in the population were exposed to various day lengths, including short and long days, prior to a growth phase transition. In this study, we investigated heading date under natural short-day conditions (SD) and long-day conditions (LD) for 100s of accessions and separately conducted genome-wide association studies within indica and japonica subpopulations. Under LD, three and four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified in indica and japonica subpopulations, respectively, two of which were less than 80 kb from the known genes Hd17 and Ghd7. But no common QTLs were detected in both subpopulations. Under SD, six QTLs were detected in indica, three of which were less than 80 kb from the known heading date genes Ghd7, Ehd1, and RCN1. But no QTLs were detected in japonica subpopulation. qHd3 under SD and qHd4 under LD were two novel major QTLs, which deserve isolation in the future. Eleven known heading date genes were used to test the power of association mapping at the haplotype level. Hd17, Ghd7, Ehd1, and RCN1 were again detected at more significant level and three additional genes, Hd3a, OsMADS56, and Ghd7.1, were detected. However, of the detected seven genes, only one gene, Hd17, was commonly detected in both subpopulations and two genes, Ghd7 and Ghd7.1, were commonly detected in indica subpopulation under both conditions. Moreover, haplotype analysis identified favorable haplotypes of Ghd7 and OsMADS56 for breeding design. In conclusion, diverse heading date genes/QTLs between indica and japonica subpopulations responded to SD and LD, and haplotype-level association mapping was more powerful than SNP-level association in rice. PMID:27621738

  1. Clinical characteristics of elderly patients with proton pump inhibitor-refractory non-erosive reflux disease from the G-PRIDE study who responded to rikkunshito

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence and severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Japan tends to increase in elderly women. Rikkunshito (RKT), a traditional Japanese medicine, acts as a prokinetic agent and improves gastric emptying and gastric accommodation. Our previous prospective randomized placebo-controlled study showed that RKT combined with a standard-dose of rabeprazole (RPZ) significantly improved the acid-related dysmotility symptoms (ARD) in elderly patients with proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-refractory non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). This study aimed to evaluate clinical characteristics of elderly PPI-refractory NERD patients with ARD symptoms who responded to RKT. Methods Two hundred forty-two patients with PPI-refractory NERD were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of either RPZ (10 mg/q.d.) + RKT (7.5 g/t.i.d.) (RKT group) or RPZ + placebo (PL group). Among them, 95 were elderly (≥65 years) with ARD (RKT group: n = 52; PL group: n = 43). We analyzed the changes using the 12 subscale score of frequency scale for the symptoms of GERD (FSSG) and 15 items of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale at 4 and 8 weeks and compared the therapeutic efficacy between the 2 groups. Results There were no marked differences in baseline demographic or clinical characteristics in the 2 groups except for rate of current smoking. The FSSG score (mean ± SD at 0, 4, and 8 weeks) in both the RKT (16.0 ± 7.0; 9.9 ± 8.4; 7.0 ± 6.4) and PL (15.1 ± 6.4; 10.9 ± 6.7, 11.1 ± 8.5) groups significantly decreased after treatment. However, the degree of improvement of total and ARD scores of FSSG after the 8-week treatment was significantly greater in the RKT group than in the PL group. Combination therapy with RKT for 8 weeks showed significant improvement in 3 subscale scores (abdominal bloating, heavy feeling in stomach and sick feeling after meals) of the ARD domain and 1 subscale score (heartburn after meals) of the reflux symptom domain

  2. Emergency responders' critical infrared (ERCI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konsin, Larry S.

    2004-08-01

    Emergency Responders (Fire, Police, Medical, and Emergency Management) face a high risk of injury or death. Even before September 11, 2001, public and private organizations have been driven to better protect Emergency Responders through education, training and improved technology. Recent research on Emergency Responder safety, health risks, and personal protective requirements, shows infrared (IR) imaging as a critical need. Today"s Emergency Responders are increasingly challenged to do more, facing demands requiring technological assistance and/or solutions. Since the introduction of Fire Service IR imaging in the mid 1990s, applications have increased. Emergency response IR is no longer just seeing through smoke to find victims or the seat of a fire. Many more mission critical needs now exist across the broad spectrum of emergency response. At the same time, Emergency Responder injuries and deaths are increasing. The Office of Domestic Preparedness (ODP) has also recognized IR imaging as critical in protecting our communities -- and in preventing many of the injuries and deaths of Emergency Responders. Currently, only 25% of all fire departments (or less than 7% of individual firefighters) have IR imaging. Availability to Police, EMS and Emergency Management is even lower. Without ERCI, Emergency Responders and our communities are at risk.

  3. School Principals and Racism: Responding to Aveling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Claire; Mahoney, Caroline; Fox, Brandi; Halse, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This study responds to Nado Aveling's call in "Anti-racism in Schools: A question of leadership?" ("Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education," 2007, 28(1), 69-85) for further investigation into racism in Australian schools. Aveling's interview study concluded that an overwhelming number of school principals…

  4. Responder Technology Alert (February 2015)

    SciTech Connect

    Upton, Jaki F.; Stein, Steven L.

    2015-04-10

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  5. Respondent Learning and Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roden, Aubrey H.; Hapkiewicz, Walter G.

    1973-01-01

    This discussion is based on the premise that a significant proportion of school learning is emotional or affective and that much of this learning is in the form of classical conditioning or respondent learning. (Authors/JA)

  6. How Teachers Respond to Children's Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Susan; Randall, Kellie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how teachers respond when children engage in inquiry-based deviations from a planned task. Thirty-one teachers each completed a brief science activity and accompanying worksheet with a student confederate. Teachers were given one of two goals for the study: help the students complete a worksheet or help the students learn more…

  7. Mischievous responding in Internet Gaming Disorder research.

    PubMed

    Przybylski, Andrew K

    2016-01-01

    The most recent update to the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) included Internet Gaming Disorder as a new potential psychiatric condition that merited further scientific study. The present research was conducted in response to the APA Substance-Related Disorders Working Group's research call to estimate the extent to which mischievous responding-a known problematic pattern of participant self-report responding in questionnaires-is relevant to Internet Gaming Disorder research. In line with a registered sampling and analysis plan, findings from two studies (n tot = 11,908) provide clear evidence that mischievous responding is positively associated with the number of Internet Gaming Disorder indicators participants report. Results are discussed in the context of ongoing problem gaming research and the discussion provides recommendations for improving the quality of scientific practice in this area.

  8. Mischievous responding in Internet Gaming Disorder research.

    PubMed

    Przybylski, Andrew K

    2016-01-01

    The most recent update to the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) included Internet Gaming Disorder as a new potential psychiatric condition that merited further scientific study. The present research was conducted in response to the APA Substance-Related Disorders Working Group's research call to estimate the extent to which mischievous responding-a known problematic pattern of participant self-report responding in questionnaires-is relevant to Internet Gaming Disorder research. In line with a registered sampling and analysis plan, findings from two studies (n tot = 11,908) provide clear evidence that mischievous responding is positively associated with the number of Internet Gaming Disorder indicators participants report. Results are discussed in the context of ongoing problem gaming research and the discussion provides recommendations for improving the quality of scientific practice in this area. PMID:27672496

  9. Assessing respondent-driven sampling.

    PubMed

    Goel, Sharad; Salganik, Matthew J

    2010-04-13

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a network-based technique for estimating traits in hard-to-reach populations, for example, the prevalence of HIV among drug injectors. In recent years RDS has been used in more than 120 studies in more than 20 countries and by leading public health organizations, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States. Despite the widespread use and growing popularity of RDS, there has been little empirical validation of the methodology. Here we investigate the performance of RDS by simulating sampling from 85 known, network populations. Across a variety of traits we find that RDS is substantially less accurate than generally acknowledged and that reported RDS confidence intervals are misleadingly narrow. Moreover, because we model a best-case scenario in which the theoretical RDS sampling assumptions hold exactly, it is unlikely that RDS performs any better in practice than in our simulations. Notably, the poor performance of RDS is driven not by the bias but by the high variance of estimates, a possibility that had been largely overlooked in the RDS literature. Given the consistency of our results across networks and our generous sampling conditions, we conclude that RDS as currently practiced may not be suitable for key aspects of public health surveillance where it is now extensively applied. PMID:20351258

  10. In their own words: Reports of stigma and genetic discrimination by people at risk for Huntington disease in the International RESPOND-HD study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Janet K; Erwin, Cheryl; Juhl, Andrew R; Mengeling, Michelle; Bombard, Yvonne; Hayden, Michael R; Quaid, Kimberly; Shoulson, Ira; Taylor, Sandra; Paulsen, Jane S

    2011-01-01

    Genetic discrimination may be experienced in the day-to-day lives of people at risk for Huntington Disease (HD), encompassing occurrences in the workplace, when seeking insurance, within social relationships, and during other daily encounters. At-risk individuals who have tested either positive or negative for the genetic expansion that causes HD, as well as at-risk persons with a 50% chance for developing the disorder but have not had DNA testing completed the International RESPOND-HD (I-RESPOND-HD) survey. One of the study’s purposes was to examine perceptions of genetic stigmatization and discrimination. A total of 412 out of 433 participants provided narrative comments, and 191 provided related codable narrative data. The core theme, Information Control, refers to organizational policies and interpersonal actions. This theme was found in narrative comments describing genetic discrimination perceptions across employment, insurance, social, and other situations. These reports were elaborated with five themes: What they encountered, What they felt, What others did, What they did, and What happened. Although many perceptions were coded as hurtful, this was not true in all instances. Findings document that reports of genetic discrimination are highly individual, and both policy as well as interpersonal factors contribute to the outcome of potentially discriminating events. PMID:20468062

  11. Comparison of the ultrashort gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist-antagonist protocol with microdose flare -up protocol in poor responders: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Berker, Bülent; Duvan, Candan İltemir; Kaya, Cemil; Aytaç, Ruşen; Şatıroğlu, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the potential effect of the ultrashort gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist/GnRH antagonist protocol versus the microdose GnRH agonist protocol in poor responders undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Material and Methods The patients in the Agonist-Antagonist Group (n=41) were administered the ultrashort GnRH-agonist/ antagonist protocol, while the patients in the Microdose Group (n=41) were stimulated according to the microdose flare-up protocol. The mean number of mature oocytes retrieved was the primary outcome measure. Fertilization rate, implantation rate per embryo and clinical pregnancy rates were secondary outcome measures. Results There was no differenc between the mean number of mature oocytes retrieved in the two groups. There were also no statistical differences between the two groups in terms of peak serum E2 level, canceled cycles, endometrial thickness on hCG day, number of 2 pronucleus and number of embryos transferred. However, the total gonadotropin consumption and duration of stimulation were significantly higher with the Agonist-Antagonist Group compared with the Microdose Group. The implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were similar between the two groups. Conclusion Despite the high dose of gonadotropin consumption and longer duration of stimulation with the ultrashort GnRH agonist/ antagonist protocol, it seems that the Agonist-Antagonist Protocol is not inferior to the microdose protocol in poor responders undergoing ICSI. PMID:24591934

  12. Responding to Children's Fears: A Partnership Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorin, Reesa

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study into children's fears and suggests that forging partnerships between parents, children, and teachers is one positive step toward addressing fear in young children. Defines partnerships and asserts that they can help in better recognizing fear displays in young children and in sharing ideas about best practice in responding to…

  13. 42 CFR 93.225 - Respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Respondent. 93.225 Section 93.225 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON...

  14. 42 CFR 93.225 - Respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Respondent. 93.225 Section 93.225 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON...

  15. 42 CFR 93.225 - Respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Respondent. 93.225 Section 93.225 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON...

  16. 42 CFR 93.225 - Respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respondent. 93.225 Section 93.225 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON...

  17. 42 CFR 93.225 - Respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Respondent. 93.225 Section 93.225 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON...

  18. Variations in Survey Respondent Selection by Telephone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaziano, Cecilie

    This paper describes seven studies (all that could be found on the subject) comparing nine respondent selection procedures with regard to their potential to reduce refusal rates and to increase representativeness of samples; particular concerns are underrepresentation of men and multiple-adult households. The paper states that (1) the seven…

  19. Responding to the Invisible Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Investigates what constitutes good reflection. Describes how one instructor used the Myers-Briggs type indicator (MBTI) to explore her responses to the reflective writing produced by preservice English teachers. Concludes that the MBTI can provide insight into and improve how instructors assign, respond to, and evaluate student reflection.…

  20. Babies: Responding Appropriately to Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleer, Marilyn; Linke, Pam

    1999-01-01

    This issue of the Australian Early Childhood Association Research in Practice Series discusses how educators can observe and respond appropriately to the infants in their care. The booklet examines the two major opportunities for early childhood educators that have been shown to influence outcomes for infants: (1) the opportunity to help infants…

  1. A New Rhythm for Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Jackie Acree; Sattes, Beth Dankert

    2015-01-01

    The authors have seen an inspiring phenomenon in certain classrooms--students thinking through their answers to teacher questions, responding thoughtfully to other students' answers, even self-correcting or providing more information after they've answered a teacher aloud. The strategy behind these student actions is a skillful use of "wait…

  2. Responding to Hate at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Tolerance, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Describes a publication from Teaching Tolerance that is designed to help schools prepare for and respond effectively to bias incidents so that they can become catalysts for positive change. Presents two of the guidelines: (1) create an unwelcome environment for hate speech and symbols; and (2) put the lid on graffiti and other vandalism. (SLD)

  3. Learning as Calling and Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jons, Lotta

    2014-01-01

    According to Martin Buber's philosophy of dialogue, our being-in-the-world is to be conceived of as an existential dialogue. Elsewhere, I have conceptualized the teacher-student-relation accordingly (see Jons 2008), as a matter of calling and responding. The conceptualization rests on a secularised notion of vocation, paving way for…

  4. Sixty years of lithium responders.

    PubMed

    Grof, Paul

    2010-01-01

    It has been 60 years since Cade first described patients who responded to antimanic lithium treatment. Two decades later, responders to lithium stabilization emerged in larger numbers. The responses of many severely ill bipolar patients to lithium were striking and called for an explanation. Remarkable reactions to a simple ion generated hope for an uncomplicated laboratory test of response and an extensive search for suitable biological markers ensued. But despite promising reports, particularly from molecular genetics, we are still waiting for a biological elucidation of the stabilizing effects of lithium. The most useful predictor of lithium stabilization has to date been the patient's clinical profile, based on a comprehensive clinical assessment: complete remissions and other characteristics of episodic clinical course, bipolar family history, low psychiatric comorbidity and a characteristic presenting psychopathology. In brief, the responders approximate the classical Kraepelinian description of a manic-depressive patient. But the most intriguing findings have recently emerged from prospective observations of the next generation: the children of lithium responders, their counterparts coming from parents who did not respond to lithium and controls. Overall, they indicate that parents and offspring suffer from a comparable brain dysfunction that manifests clinically in distinct stages. If the child's predicament starts early in childhood, it presents with varied, nonaffective or subclinical manifestations that are usually nonresponsive to standard treatments prescribed according to the symptoms. The next stage then unfolds in adolescence, first with depressive and later with activated episodes. The observations have a potential to markedly enrich the prevailing understanding and management of mood disorders. PMID:20453530

  5. Corifollitropin alfa followed by hpHMG in GnRH agonist protocols. Two prospective feasibility studies in poor ovarian responders.

    PubMed

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Corona, Roberta; Van De Vijver, Arne; Blockeel, Christophe; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis; Vloeberghs, Veerle; De Vos, Michel; Camus, Michel; Humaidan, Peter; Tournaye, Herman

    2015-01-01

    In two prospective uncontrolled feasibility trials, we examined the effect of corifollitropin alfa (CFA) followed by highly purified human menopausal gonadotrophin (hpHMG) in a short flare-up gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and a long GnRH agonist protocol for women with poor ovarian response. Overall, 45 patients were treated with short flare-up and 47 patients with the long agonist protocol. All patients received a single dose of 150 μg CFA, followed by 300 IU hpHMG 7 days later, triggering with 10 000 IU hCG, CSI and day 3 embryo transfer. Ongoing pregnancy rates (OPRs) did not differ between the short 15.6% and the long 17% agonist protocol (p = 0.85). Among patients treated with the short flare-up protocol, OPRs were 20% for younger patients (<40 years old) and 12% in older women (≥40 years old), p = 0.68. Similarly, in patients treated with the long agonist protocol younger women had an OPR of 26.7% versus 12.5% in older women, p = 0.23. Among patients treated with the short flare-up, live births rate were 15% and 4.3% for younger (<40 years old) and older patients (≥40 years old), respectively, p = 0.32. Similarly, in patients treated with the long agonist protocol, live births rate were 25% and 12.9% for younger (<40 years old) and older patients (≥40 years old), respectively, p = 0.41. None of the patients reported any serious adverse event related to treatment. According to our results, CFA followed by hpHMG in a short flare-up or long GnRH agonist protocol appears to be a feasible option for poor ovarian responders. Large phase III trials are mandatory prior to introduction in clinical practice. PMID:26172925

  6. Prevalence of HIV, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Risk Behaviours Among Female Sex Workers in Nairobi, Kenya: Results of a Respondent Driven Sampling Study

    PubMed Central

    Kellogg, Timothy A.; Geibel, Scott; Muraguri, Nicholas; Okal, Jerry; Tun, Waimar; Raymond, H. Fisher; Dadabhai, Sufia; Sheehy, Meredith; Kim, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a respondent driven sampling survey to estimate HIV prevalence and risk behavior among female sex workers (FSWs) in Nairobi, Kenya. Women aged 18 years and older who reported selling sex to a man at least once in the past 3 months were eligible to participate. Consenting FSWs completed a behavioral questionnaire and were tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Adjusted population-based prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using RDS analysis tool. Factors significantly associated with HIV infection were assessed using log-binomial regression analysis. A total of 596 eligible participants were included in the analysis. Overall HIV prevalence was 29.5 % (95 % CI 24.7–34.9). Median age was 30 years (IQR 25–38 years); median duration of sex work was 12 years (IQR 8–17 years). The most frequent client-seeking venues were bars (76.6 %) and roadsides (29.3 %). The median number of clients per week was seven (IQR 4–18 clients). HIV testing was high with 86.6 % reported ever been tested for HIV and, of these, 63.1 % testing within the past 12 months. Of all women, 59.7 % perceived themselves at ‘great risk’ for HIV infection. Of HIV-positive women, 51.0 % were aware of their infection. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, inconsistent condom use with paying clients, and use of a male condom as a method of contraception were independently associated with unrecognized HIV infection. Prevalence among STIs was low, ranging from 0.9 % for syphilis, 1.1 % for gonorrhea, and 3.1 % for Chlamydia. The data suggest high prevalence of HIV among FSWs in Nairobi. Targeted and routine HIV and STI combination prevention strategies need to be scaled up or established to meet the needs of this population. PMID:25428282

  7. Mischievous responding in Internet Gaming Disorder research

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The most recent update to the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) included Internet Gaming Disorder as a new potential psychiatric condition that merited further scientific study. The present research was conducted in response to the APA Substance-Related Disorders Working Group’s research call to estimate the extent to which mischievous responding—a known problematic pattern of participant self-report responding in questionnaires—is relevant to Internet Gaming Disorder research. In line with a registered sampling and analysis plan, findings from two studies (ntot = 11,908) provide clear evidence that mischievous responding is positively associated with the number of Internet Gaming Disorder indicators participants report. Results are discussed in the context of ongoing problem gaming research and the discussion provides recommendations for improving the quality of scientific practice in this area. PMID:27672496

  8. Mischievous responding in Internet Gaming Disorder research

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The most recent update to the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) included Internet Gaming Disorder as a new potential psychiatric condition that merited further scientific study. The present research was conducted in response to the APA Substance-Related Disorders Working Group’s research call to estimate the extent to which mischievous responding—a known problematic pattern of participant self-report responding in questionnaires—is relevant to Internet Gaming Disorder research. In line with a registered sampling and analysis plan, findings from two studies (ntot = 11,908) provide clear evidence that mischievous responding is positively associated with the number of Internet Gaming Disorder indicators participants report. Results are discussed in the context of ongoing problem gaming research and the discussion provides recommendations for improving the quality of scientific practice in this area.

  9. Brain Changes in Responders vs. Non-Responders in Chronic Migraine: Markers of Disease Reversal

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Catherine S.; Becerra, Lino; Smith, Jonathan H.; DeLange, Justin M.; Smith, Ryan M.; Black, David F.; Welker, Kirk M.; Burstein, Rami; Cutrer, Fred M.; Borsook, David

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify structural and functional brain changes that accompanied the transition from chronic (CM; ≥15 headache days/month) to episodic (EM; <15 headache days/month) migraine following prophylactic treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A). Specifically, we examined whether CM patients responsive to prophylaxis (responders; n = 11), as evidenced by a reversal in disease status (defined by at least a 50% reduction in migraine frequency and <15 headache days/month), compared to CM patients whose migraine frequency remained unchanged (non-responders; n = 12), showed differences in cortical thickness using surface-based morphometry. We also investigated whether areas showing group differences in cortical thickness displayed altered resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) using seed-to-voxel analyses. Migraine characteristics measured across groups included disease duration, pain intensity and headache frequency. Patient reports of headache frequency over the 4 weeks prior to (pre-treatment) and following (post-treatment) prophylaxis were compared (post minus pre) and this measure served as the clinical endpoint that determined group assignment. All patients were scanned within 2 weeks of the post-treatment visit. Results revealed that responders showed significant cortical thickening in the right primary somatosensory cortex (SI) and anterior insula (aINS), and left superior temporal gyrus (STG) and pars opercularis (ParsOp) compared to non-responders. In addition, disease duration was negatively correlated with cortical thickness in fronto-parietal and temporo-occipital regions in responders but not non-responders, with the exception of the primary motor cortex (MI) that showed the opposite pattern; disease duration was positively associated with MI cortical thickness in responders versus non-responders. Our seed-based RS-FC analyses revealed anti-correlations between the SI seed and lateral occipital (LOC) and dorsomedial

  10. Biodetection Technologies for First Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, Cheryl L.; Seiner, Derrick R.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Colburn, Heather A.; Straub, Tim M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2012-10-24

    In a white powder scenario, there are a large number of field-deployable assays that can be used to determine if the suspicious substance contains biological material and warrants further investigation. This report summarizes commercially available technologies that are considered hand portable and can be used by first responders in the field. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, nor do the authors endorse any of the technologies described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about available technologies to help end-users make informed decisions about biodetection technology procurement and use.

  11. The microanalysis of fixed-interval responding

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, G. David; Weiss, Bernard; Laties, Victor G.

    1983-01-01

    The fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one of the more widely studied schedules in the experimental analysis of behavior and is also a common baseline for behavior pharmacology. Despite many intensive studies, the controlling variables and the pattern of behavior engendered are not well understood. The present study examined the microstructure and superstructure of the behavior engendered by a fixed-interval 5- and a fixed-interval 15-minute schedule of food reinforcement in the pigeon. Analysis of performance typical of fixed-interval responding indicated that the scalloped pattern does not result from smooth acceleration in responding, but, rather, from renewed pausing early in the interval. Individual interresponse-time (IRT) analyses provided no evidence of acceleration. There was a strong indication of alternation in shorter-longer IRTs, but these shorter-longer IRTs did not occur at random, reflecting instead a sequential dependency in successive IRTs. Furthermore, early in the interval there was a high relative frequency of short IRTs. Such a pattern of early pauses and short IRTs does not suggest behavior typical of reinforced responding as exemplified by the pattern found near the end of the interval. Thus, behavior from clearly scalloped performance can be classified into three states: postreinforcement pause, interim behavior, and terminal behavior. PMID:16812324

  12. Microanalysis of fixed-interval responding

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, G.D.; Weiss, B.; Laties, V.G.

    1983-03-01

    The fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one of the more widely studied schedules in the experimental analysis of behavior and is also a common baseline for behavior pharmacology. Despite many intensive studies, the controlling variables and the pattern of behavior engendered are not well understood. The present study examined the microstructure and superstructure of the behavior engendered by a fixed-interval 5- and a fixed-interval 15-minute schedule of food reinforcement in the pigeon. Analysis of performance typical of fixed-interval responding indicated that the scalloped pattern does not result from smooth acceleration in responding, but, rather, from renewed pausing early in the interval. Individual interresponse-time (IRT) analyses provided no evidence of acceleration. There was a strong indication of alternation is shorter-longer IRTs, but these shorter-longer IRTs did not occur at random, reflecting instead a sequential dependency in successive IRTs. Furthermore, early in the interval there was a high relative frequency of short IRTs. Such a pattern of early pauses and short IRTs does not suggest behavior typical of reinforced responding as exemplified by the pattern found near the end of the interval. Thus, behavior from clearly scalloped performance can be classified into three states: postreinforcement pause, interim behavior, and terminal behavior. 31 references, 11 figures, 4 tables.

  13. Chicana/o Students Respond to Arizona's Anti-Ethnic Studies Bill, SB 1108: Civic Engagement, Ethnic Identity, and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Anna Ochoa; Romero, Andrea J.

    2011-01-01

    Arizona Senate Bill 1108, the "anti-ethnic studies bill," proposed to eliminate ethnic studies programs and ethnic-based organizations from state-funded education. Along with other anti-immigrant legislation, this bill is creating an oppressive climate of discrimination against individuals of Mexican descent in Arizona. This study investigates the…

  14. Bubbles Responding to Ultrasound Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Bubble and Drop Nonlinear Dynamics (BDND) experiment was designed to improve understanding of how the shape and behavior of bubbles respond to ultrasound pressure. By understanding this behavior, it may be possible to counteract complications bubbles cause during materials processing on the ground. This 12-second sequence came from video downlinked from STS-94, July 5 1997, MET:3/19:15 (approximate). The BDND guest investigator was Gary Leal of the University of California, Santa Barbara. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced fluid dynamics experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (435KB, 13-second MPEG, screen 160 x 120 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300162.html.

  15. Agriculture emergencies: a primer for first responders.

    PubMed

    Gilpen, Johnnie L; Carabin, Hélène; Regens, James L; Burden, Ray W

    2009-06-01

    Over the past several years, the primary focus of emergency preparedness has been on terrorism, and how a CBRNE event would directly affect human health. Limited emphasis has been placed on the direct (eg, zoonotic infections) and indirect (eg, mental health, financial loss) effects that an agricultural emergency event can have on human health outcomes, and how they relate to emergency preparedness. We critically reviewed the resources and information readily accessible to our target audience, emergency responders; the resources included military and civilian books, personal communications, internet sites, GAO reports, and peer-reviewed journals. Among more than 2,000 bioterrorism-related articles, we found 51 that addressed either agroterrorism and/or veterinary public health: 2 cross-sectional studies, 28 review papers, and 21 commentary papers. In order to properly respond to future agriculture emergencies, emergency response professionals need to understand the nature and implications of the event as well as their roles and responsibilities, but the availability of educational and training opportunities is limited. The results of our review are consistent with the hypothesis that more resources, education, and training opportunities should be available to responders as well as to producers, importers and shippers, international travelers, and the general public. Increased education and training will raise awareness among these groups of the relationship between animal and human health.

  16. Agriculture Emergencies: A Primer for First Responders

    PubMed Central

    Carabin, Hélène; Regens, James L.; Burden, Ray W.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past several years, the primary focus of emergency preparedness has been on terrorism, and how a CBRNE event would directly affect human health. Limited emphasis has been placed on the direct (eg, zoonotic infections) and indirect (eg, mental health, financial loss) effects that an agricultural emergency event can have on human health outcomes, and how they relate to emergency preparedness. We critically reviewed the resources and information readily accessible to our target audience, emergency responders; the resources included military and civilian books, personal communications, internet sites, GAO reports, and peer-reviewed journals. Among more than 2,000 bioterrorism-related articles, we found 51 that addressed either agroterrorism and/or veterinary public health: 2 cross-sectional studies, 28 review papers, and 21 commentary papers. In order to properly respond to future agriculture emergencies, emergency response professionals need to understand the nature and implications of the event as well as their roles and responsibilities, but the availability of educational and training opportunities is limited. The results of our review are consistent with the hypothesis that more resources, education, and training opportunities should be available to responders as well as to producers, importers and shippers, international travelers, and the general public. Increased education and training will raise awareness among these groups of the relationship between animal and human health. PMID:19635003

  17. Habituation of salivation and motivated responding for food in children.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Saad, Frances G; Handley, Elizabeth A; Roemmich, James N; Hawk, Larry W; McSweeney, Frances K

    2003-12-01

    Repeated presentation of food cues results in habituation in adults, as demonstrated by a decrement in salivary responding that is reversed by presenting a new food cue in adults. Food reinforced behavior in animals shows the same pattern of responding, with a decrease in responding to obtain the food, followed by a recovery of responding when a new food is presented. The present study assessed whether children would show the same pattern of a decrement of food reinforced responding followed by recovery of responding when a new food is presented for both salivation and food reinforcement tasks. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups that differed in the trial that the new food stimulus was presented to ensure recovery was specific to the introduction of the new food stimulus. In the salivation task, subjects were provided repeated olfactory presentations of a cheeseburger with apple pie as the new food stimulus, while in the food reinforcement task subjects worked for the opportunity to consume a cheeseburger, followed by the opportunity to work for consumption of apple pie. Subjects in both groups showed a decrement in salivary and food reinforced responding to repeated food cues followed by immediate recovery of responding on the trial when a new food was presented. Subjects increased their energy intake by over 30% in the food reinforcement task when a new food was presented. These results are consistent with the general process theory of motivation that suggests that changes in food reinforced responding may be due in part to habituation.

  18. Habituation of salivation and motivated responding for food in children.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Saad, Frances G; Handley, Elizabeth A; Roemmich, James N; Hawk, Larry W; McSweeney, Frances K

    2003-12-01

    Repeated presentation of food cues results in habituation in adults, as demonstrated by a decrement in salivary responding that is reversed by presenting a new food cue in adults. Food reinforced behavior in animals shows the same pattern of responding, with a decrease in responding to obtain the food, followed by a recovery of responding when a new food is presented. The present study assessed whether children would show the same pattern of a decrement of food reinforced responding followed by recovery of responding when a new food is presented for both salivation and food reinforcement tasks. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups that differed in the trial that the new food stimulus was presented to ensure recovery was specific to the introduction of the new food stimulus. In the salivation task, subjects were provided repeated olfactory presentations of a cheeseburger with apple pie as the new food stimulus, while in the food reinforcement task subjects worked for the opportunity to consume a cheeseburger, followed by the opportunity to work for consumption of apple pie. Subjects in both groups showed a decrement in salivary and food reinforced responding to repeated food cues followed by immediate recovery of responding on the trial when a new food was presented. Subjects increased their energy intake by over 30% in the food reinforcement task when a new food was presented. These results are consistent with the general process theory of motivation that suggests that changes in food reinforced responding may be due in part to habituation. PMID:14637327

  19. Implementing an Audience-Specific Small-Group Gatekeeper Training Program to Respond to Suicide Risk among College Students: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimini, M. Dolores; Rivero, Estela M.; Bernier, Joseph E.; Stanley, Judith A.; Murray, Andrea D.; Anderson, Drew A.; Wright, Heidi R.; Bapat, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This case study evaluated the effectiveness of an audience-specific, single-session, small-group interactive gatekeeper training program conducted at a large northeastern public university. Participants: Participants were 335 faculty, staff, and students completing gatekeeper training programs tailored to their group needs. Methods:…

  20. Using Multiple Imputation to Assign Pesticide Use for Non-Responders in the Follow-Up Questionnaire in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a large prospective cohort, was designed to elucidate associations between pesticide use and other agricultural exposures and health outcomes. The cohort includes 57,310 pesticide applicators who were enrolled between 1993 and 1997 in Iowa and...

  1. An Instructional Audit: An Interactive Process for Responding to National Studies by Assessing Program Status and Setting Direction and Priorities for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nylin, Donald W.

    Beginning in fall 1982 the Aurora West Public Schools (Illinois) conducted a multi-year study to identify the nature of their instructional programs and to establish a set of position statements that would serve as guides for program review and change. A significant element of the process was the involvement of the entire staff in development of…

  2. Use of a 12 months' self-referral reminder to facilitate uptake of bowel scope (flexible sigmoidoscopy) screening in previous non-responders: a London-based feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Kerrison, Robert S; McGregor, Lesley M; Marshall, Sarah; Isitt, John; Counsell, Nicholas; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: In March 2013, NHS England extended its national Bowel Cancer Screening Programme to include ‘one-off' Flexible Sigmoidoscopy screening (NHS Bowel Scope Screening, BSS) for men and women aged 55. With less than one in two people currently taking up the screening test offer, there is a strong public health mandate to develop system-friendly interventions to increase uptake while the programme is rolling out. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of sending a reminder to previous BSS non-responders, 12 months after the initial invitation, with consideration for its potential impact on uptake. Method: This study was conducted in the ethnically diverse London Boroughs of Brent and Harrow, where uptake is below the national average. Between September and November 2014, 160 previous non-responders were randomly selected to receive a reminder of the opportunity to self-refer 12 months after their initial invitation. The reminder included instructions on how to book an appointment, and provided options for the time and day of the appointment and the gender of the endoscopist performing the test. To address barriers to screening, the reminder was sent with a brief locally tailored information leaflet designed specifically for this study. Participants not responding within 4 weeks were sent a follow-up reminder, after which there was no further intervention. Self-referral rates were measured 8 weeks after the delivery of the follow-up reminder and accepted as final. Results: Of the 155 participants who received the 12 months' reminder (returned to sender, n=5), 30 (19.4%) self-referred for an appointment, of which 24 (15.5%) attended and were successfully screened. Attendance rates differed by gender, with significantly more women attending an appointment than men (20.7% vs 8.8%, respectively; OR=2.73, 95% CI=1.02–7.35, P=0.05), but not by area (Brent vs Harrow) or area-level deprivation. Of the 30 people who self-referred for an appointment, 27 (90

  3. Gaze Behavior of Older Adults in Responding to Unexpected Loss of Balance while Walking in an Unfamiliar Environment: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    King, Emily C.; McKay, Sandra M.; Lee, Tracy A.; Scovil, Carol Y.; Peters, Amy L.; Maki, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Rapid reach-to-grasp balance-recovery reactions play a critical role in preventing falls. Recent young-adult studies suggest these reactions may be guided using stored visuo-spatial information from the central field, and that peripheral vision may also play an important role. This study used gaze recordings to examine the visual control of reach-to-grasp reactions in older adults. Methods A motion platform was configured to simulate a “real-life” environment that included a handrail. Subjects performed an activity that required walking to the end of the platform, which was triggered to move suddenly and unexpectedly as they approached the handrail. Twelve healthy older adults (64-79 years old) were tested and compared to 12 healthy young adults (22-30 years old) tested as part of another study. Results Older adults were more than twice as likely as young adults to react to the platform perturbation by grasping the handrail (10/12 versus 4/12), despite being much less likely to visually fixate the handrail after entering the new environment. Grasping errors were remarkably common (5/10 older, 2/4 young), but there was no consistent relationship to the preceding gaze behavior. Conclusion Older adults were highly dependent on using a handrail to recover balance, but commonly failed to direct overt visual attention to the rail after entering the unfamiliar environment. The failure to fixate the rail required the reaching movement to be guided using peripheral vision. Further research is needed to determine whether grasping errors can be prevented via interventions that either attract overt attention to the handrail or improve processing of peripheral-field information.

  4. HIV testing experience and risk behavior among sexually active Black young adults: a CBPR-based study using respondent-driven sampling in Durham, North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    MacQueen, Kathleen M.; Chen, Mario; Jolly, David; Mueller, Monique P.; Okumu, Eunice; Eley, Natalie T.; Laws, Michelle; Isler, Malika Roman; Kalloo, Allison; Rogers, Randy C.

    2015-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic inclusive of men who have sex with men, heterosexual men, and women. As part of a community-based participatory research study we assessed HIV testing experience among sexually active 18 to 30 year old Black men and women in Durham, North Carolina. Of 508 participants, 173 (74%) men and 236 (86%; p=.0008) women reported ever being tested. Barriers to testing (e.g., perceived risk and stigma) were the same for men and women, but men fell behind mainly because a primary facilitator of testing---routine screening in clinical settings---was more effective at reaching women. Structural and behavioral risk factors associated with HIV infection were prevalent but did not predict HIV testing experience. Reduced access to health care services for low income Black young adults may exacerbate HIV testing barriers that already exist for men and undermine previous success rates in reaching women. PMID:25893817

  5. Changes in empathy-related cry responding as a function of time: A time course study of adult's responses to infant crying.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Chu; Manuel, Jessica; McFatter, Robert; Cech, Claude

    2016-02-01

    Describing temporal relations between perceptual and emotional elements underlying responses to infant crying is important to our understanding of sensitive parenting. Prior research on adults' responses to infant crying has mostly relied on playback and snapshot approaches to obtaining recall of responses following exposure to relatively short cry stimuli. This study documented continuous temporal relations in the perception of the infant's distress and affect-related processes in response to a 4-min-long bout of crying. Three visual-analog slider scales were used to collect 90 participants' real-time responses on perceived aversiveness of the cry, empathic concern for the infant, and personal distress elicited by the cry, respectively. The results highlighted a moderating role of empathic concern at certain second in the relation between personal distress and empathic concern at the following second. In addition, personal distress moderated the relation between concurrent perceived aversiveness and empathic concern. The findings carry potentially important implications for cognitive and emotional regulation in adaptive parenting.

  6. Immune response to a new hepatitis B vaccine in healthcare workers who had not responded to standard vaccine: randomised double blind dose-response study.

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, J. N.; Sabin, C.; Craig, F. M.; Williams, A.; Zuckerman, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a new triple S recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in a cohort of healthy people in whom currently licensed hepatitis B vaccines had persistently not induced an immune response. DESIGN: Single centre, randomised, double blind, dose-response study. SETTING: Research vaccine evaluation centre at a teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: 100 healthcare workers aged 18-70 years with a history of failure to seroconvert after at least four doses of a licensed hepatitis B vaccine containing the S component. INTERVENTION: Each subject was randomly allocated two doses of 5, 10, 20, or 40 micrograms of a new hepatitis B vaccine two months apart. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Immunogenicity of the four doses. Seroconversion and seroprotection were defined as an antibody tire > 10 IU/l and > 100 IU/l respectively against an international antibody standard. RESULTS: 69 subjects seroconverted after a single dose of the vaccine. After the booster vaccination one other subject seroconverted, bringing the overall seroconversion rate to 70%. Fifteen subjects given 5 micrograms of vaccine, 19 given 10 micrograms, 16 given 20 micrograms, and 20 given 40 micrograms seroconverted. Seroconversion rates in the four antigen dose groups were 60% (15/25), 76% (19/25), 64% (16/25), and 80% (20/25). After the booster dose there was no significant dose-response effect on the overall seroconversion rate, although the small sample size meant that a clinically important dose-response could not be ruled out. CONCLUSION: A single dose of 20 micrograms of the vaccine was as effective as two doses of either 40 micrograms or 20 micrograms of this vaccine formulation in terms of seroconversion, seroprotection, and geometric mean titres. PMID:9040320

  7. 34 CFR 85.1000 - Respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respondent. 85.1000 Section 85.1000 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.1000 Respondent. Respondent means a person against whom an agency has initiated a...

  8. Let's Get Personal: Responding to Creative Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Suzanne

    In hopes of discovering how to respond to her students' work in a way that heads them toward meaningful revision, a creative writing teacher singles out several categories of student fiction she has trouble responding to and pinpoints common shortcomings of students' early drafts, the way students respond to comments regarding revisions, and genre…

  9. 37 CFR 41.68 - Respondent's brief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 41.66, file a respondent brief and serve the brief on all parties in accordance with § 1.903 of this... in any proceeding identified pursuant to paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section. (x) Certificate of... period within which to file an amended brief. If respondent does not file an amended respondent...

  10. Responding changes systematically within sessions during conditioning procedures.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, F K; Roll, J M

    1993-11-01

    When the procedure is held constant within an experimental session, responding often changes systematically within that session. Many of these within-session changes in responding cannot be dismissed as learning curves or by-products of satiation. They have been observed in studies of positive reinforcement, avoidance, punishment, extinction, discrimination, delayed matching to sample, concept formation, maze and alley running, and laboratory analogues of foraging, as well as in the unconditioned substrates of conditioned behavior. When aversive stimuli are used, responding usually increases early in the session. When positive reinforcers are used, responding changes in a variety of ways, including increasing, decreasing, and bitonic functions. Both strong and minimal reinforcement procedures produce within-session decreases in positively reinforced behavior. Within-session changes in responding have substantial theoretical and methodological implications for research in conditioning. PMID:8283153

  11. Responding changes systematically within sessions during conditioning procedures.

    PubMed Central

    McSweeney, F K; Roll, J M

    1993-01-01

    When the procedure is held constant within an experimental session, responding often changes systematically within that session. Many of these within-session changes in responding cannot be dismissed as learning curves or by-products of satiation. They have been observed in studies of positive reinforcement, avoidance, punishment, extinction, discrimination, delayed matching to sample, concept formation, maze and alley running, and laboratory analogues of foraging, as well as in the unconditioned substrates of conditioned behavior. When aversive stimuli are used, responding usually increases early in the session. When positive reinforcers are used, responding changes in a variety of ways, including increasing, decreasing, and bitonic functions. Both strong and minimal reinforcement procedures produce within-session decreases in positively reinforced behavior. Within-session changes in responding have substantial theoretical and methodological implications for research in conditioning. PMID:8283153

  12. "Responding to Climate Change" Course: Research Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bowman, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The "Responding to Climate Change" Barnard/Columbia course integrates current research as well as hands-on research-based activities modified for a classroom environment. The course covers the major response themes of adaptation, mitigation and communication. In the spring of 2015 the course was oriented around Arctic and Antarctic case studies. Each week a different theme is addressed, such as the physical setting, changing ecosystems, governance issues, perspectives of residents and indigenous peoples, geoengineering, commercial interests, security, and health and developmental issues. Frequent guest lectures from thematic experts keep the course grounded in realities and present the students with cutting edge issues. Activities match the weekly theme, for example during the week on Arctic development, students engage with the marine spatial planning simulation Arctic SMARTIC (Strategic Management of Resources in Times of Change) based on research on Arctic sea ice trends and projections coupled with current and projected developmental interests of stakeholders. Created under the Polar Learning and Responding: PoLAR Climate Change Education Partnership (thepolarhub.org), a complete set of SMARTIC resources is available on line for use by others (http://www.camelclimatechange.org/view/article/175297/). The Responding to Climate Change course is designed to be current and respond to events. For the Arctic case study, students developed proposals for the US State Department as the upcoming Chair of the Arctic Council. Student evaluations indicated that they appreciated the opportunity to connect science with policy and presentation of preliminary proposals in a workshop format was valued as a way to develop and hone their ideas. An additional finding was that students were surprisingly tolerant of technical issues when guest lecturers were linked in via Skype, allowing interaction with thematic experts across the US. Students commented positively on this exposure to

  13. Hydrogen Safety Training for First Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, Linda L.

    2011-01-01

    The use of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies is emerging in the U.S. through vehicle demonstration programs and early deployments of fuel cells for onsite power generation, materials handling, and other applications. To help first responders prepare for hydrogen and fuel cell use in their communities, the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program has developed hydrogen safety training for first responders. A web-based awareness-level course, 'Introduction to Hydrogen Safety for First Responders,' launched in 2007, is available at http://hydrogen.pnl.gov/FirstResponders/. Approximately 17,000 first responders have accessed the online training.

  14. Bats respond to very weak magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth's magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years.

  15. Programmed Instruction: Construction Responding, Discrimination Responding, and Highlighted Keywords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Matthew L.; Malott, Richard W.

    2006-01-01

    Skinner (1958) expressed the need for an increase in the effectiveness and efficiency of education. In particular, he suggested that programmed instruction could provide such efficiency. The present study used a within-subject design to compare the effects of four types of instructional materials; those requiring overt construction responses,…

  16. Hazard perception in emergency medical service responders.

    PubMed

    Johnston, K A; Scialfa, C T

    2016-10-01

    The perception of on-road hazards is critically important to emergency medical services (EMS) professionals, the patients they transport and the general public. This study compared hazard perception in EMS and civilian drivers of similar age and personal driving experience. Twenty-nine EMS professionals and 24 non-professional drivers were given a dynamic hazard perception test (HPT). The EMS group demonstrated an advantage in HPT that was independent of simple reaction time, another indication of the validity of the test. These results are also consistent with the view that professional driving experience results in changes in the ability to identify and respond to on-road hazards. Directions for future research include the development of a profession-specific hazard perception tool for both assessment and training purposes.

  17. Hazard perception in emergency medical service responders.

    PubMed

    Johnston, K A; Scialfa, C T

    2016-10-01

    The perception of on-road hazards is critically important to emergency medical services (EMS) professionals, the patients they transport and the general public. This study compared hazard perception in EMS and civilian drivers of similar age and personal driving experience. Twenty-nine EMS professionals and 24 non-professional drivers were given a dynamic hazard perception test (HPT). The EMS group demonstrated an advantage in HPT that was independent of simple reaction time, another indication of the validity of the test. These results are also consistent with the view that professional driving experience results in changes in the ability to identify and respond to on-road hazards. Directions for future research include the development of a profession-specific hazard perception tool for both assessment and training purposes. PMID:27415813

  18. Journeying: Children Responding to Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Kathleen E., Ed.; And Others

    Based on Louise Rosenblatt's transactional theory of reader response, the studies collected in this book present findings and recommendations that contribute to the understanding of how children create meaning from stories, how they acquire literacy skills to express that meaning, and what role educators play in these literary processes. The book…

  19. Pretreatment with oral contraceptive pills to identify poor responders that may benefit from rLH supplementation during GnRH-antagonist treatment for IVF: A pilot perspective study proposal

    PubMed Central

    GIZZO, SALVATORE; ANDRISANI, ALESSANDRA; NOVENTA, MARCO; GANGEMI, MICHELE; NARDELLI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA; AMBROSINI, GUIDO

    2015-01-01

    Controlled ovarian stimulation, using a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol, is a potential treatment option for women with a low response to other fertility treatments as it appears to be at least as effective as GnRH agonists (long protocol). However, previous studies have indicated that the administration of GnRH antagonist may cause an excessive reduction in endogenous luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. The use of recombinant LH (rLH) supplementation during ovarian stimulation is controversial. The present article proposes a future study focused on women aged ≥40 years old, with the aim of identifying patients who are poor responders to GnRH-antagonist treatment that may benefit from rLH supplementation. We hypothesize that patients with suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activity may benefit from rLH supplementation, as GnRH-antagonist administration has the potential to induce a marked reduction in LH levels in such patients compared with that in patients that exhibit a regular recovery following the administration of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). Furthermore, patients with hyper-responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activity may be affected by ‘low-gonadotropin-responsiveness’, similar to that observed in patients with any mutation in the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor, who are known to benefit from rLH supplementation. The proposed pilot study would include 120 women who are predicted to be poor responders to GnRH-antagonist treatment. All subjects will be allocated at random (using 2:1 computerized randomization) into two study groups: Group A (OCP-treated) and group B (control). For all patients, the serum values of FSH, LH and 17β estradiol (E2) will be detected on day 3 of the menstrual cycle preceding OCP treatment (baseline) and at day 4 following OCP treatment. The Δ-variation from baseline levels for all markers, the FSH/LH ratio and the E2/FSH ratio will be determined. Δ-variation from the baseline

  20. Who cares and who is careless? Insufficient effort responding as a reflection of respondent personality.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Nathan A; Huang, Jason L; Bragg, Caleb B; Khazon, Steve; Liu, Mengqiao; Blackmore, Caitlin E

    2016-08-01

    Insufficient effort responding (IER) to surveys, which occurs when respondents fail to carefully read questionnaire instructions or item content, has recently gained attention as a source of inaccuracy in self-report data (Huang, Curran, Keeney, Poposki, & DeShon, 2012; Johnson, 2005; Maniaci & Rogge, 2014; Meade & Craig, 2012). Whereas previous studies have focused on IER as a methodological nuisance, the current studies examined IER as a substantive variable. Specifically, we hypothesized that IER is a reflection of enduring individual differences. In Study 1, we found that IER displayed rank-order consistency over the course of 13 months; in Studies 2 and 3, we found that IER displayed rank-order consistency across multiple research situations; in Study 4, we found that acquaintance-reported conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion, and emotional stability were each negatively related to IER; and in Study 5, we found that IER was related to college grade point average and class absences. Together, these 5 studies suggest that IER is in part a manifestation of enduring individual differences. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26927958

  1. 8 CFR 1240.4 - Incompetent respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1240.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.4 Incompetent respondents. When it is impracticable for the respondent to be present at...

  2. 8 CFR 1240.4 - Incompetent respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1240.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.4 Incompetent respondents. When it is impracticable for the respondent to be present at...

  3. 8 CFR 1240.4 - Incompetent respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1240.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.4 Incompetent respondents. When it is impracticable for the respondent to be present at...

  4. 8 CFR 1240.4 - Incompetent respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1240.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.4 Incompetent respondents. When it is impracticable for the respondent to be present at...

  5. 8 CFR 1240.4 - Incompetent respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1240.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.4 Incompetent respondents. When it is impracticable for the respondent to be present at...

  6. Stereotypic responding: a review of intervention research.

    PubMed

    LaGrow, S J; Repp, A C

    1984-05-01

    More than 60 studies using behavioral strategies to suppress stereotypic responding in handicapped individuals were reviewed in order to identify the populations studied, the behavior observed, the interventions employed, and the relative effectiveness of these interventions when used alone or in combinations. The target populations were distributed across nine categories, three of which (severely mentally retarded, profoundly mentally retarded, and severely emotionally disturbed) constituted approximately three-quarters of all subjects studied. Fifty types of target behavior were identified; body rocking was the target in approximately two-thirds of all studies, and mouthing and complex finger and hand movements were the targets in at least one-third. Ten interventions (seven aversive, three positive) were identified. The aversive interventions were used in approximately three-quarters of the studies whereas positive procedures were used in approximately one-third. One aversive procedure (overcorrection) was used in more than one-third of the studies, whereas another, shock, was the most effective. The other six aversive procedures, however, and three positive procedures were relatively equal in effectiveness. Discussion centered on the relative effectiveness of the interventions and their relationship to the concept of least restrictive alternatives. PMID:6377896

  7. Bats Respond to Very Weak Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth’s magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944

  8. Evaluation of Respondent-Driven Sampling

    PubMed Central

    McCreesh, Nicky; Frost, Simon; Seeley, Janet; Katongole, Joseph; Tarsh, Matilda Ndagire; Ndunguse, Richard; Jichi, Fatima; Lunel, Natasha L; Maher, Dermot; Johnston, Lisa G; Sonnenberg, Pam; Copas, Andrew J; Hayes, Richard J; White, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    Background Respondent-driven sampling is a novel variant of link-tracing sampling for estimating the characteristics of hard-to-reach groups, such as HIV prevalence in sex-workers. Despite its use by leading health organizations, the performance of this method in realistic situations is still largely unknown. We evaluated respondent-driven sampling by comparing estimates from a respondent-driven sampling survey with total-population data. Methods Total-population data on age, tribe, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual activity and HIV status were available on a population of 2402 male household-heads from an open cohort in rural Uganda. A respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey was carried out in this population, employing current methods of sampling (RDS sample) and statistical inference (RDS estimates). Analyses were carried out for the full RDS sample and then repeated for the first 250 recruits (small sample). Results We recruited 927 household-heads. Full and small RDS samples were largely representative of the total population, but both samples under-represented men who were younger, of higher socioeconomic status, and with unknown sexual activity and HIV status. Respondent-driven-sampling statistical-inference methods failed to reduce these biases. Only 31%-37% (depending on method and sample size) of RDS estimates were closer to the true population proportions than the RDS sample proportions. Only 50%-74% of respondent-driven-sampling bootstrap 95% confidence intervals included the population proportion. Conclusions Respondent-driven sampling produced a generally representative sample of this well-connected non-hidden population. However, current respondent-driven-sampling inference methods failed to reduce bias when it occurred. Whether the data required to remove bias and measure precision can be collected in a respondent-driven sampling survey is unresolved. Respondent-driven sampling should be regarded as a (potentially superior) form of convenience

  9. The staffing shortage: AHRA responds.

    PubMed

    Olivi, Penny M

    2002-01-01

    The AHRA Board of Directors formed a Long-Term Staffing Task Force to study the question, "Should AHRA become involved in the resolution(s) of the current staffing crisis, and if so how?" Because the background information that could be gathered was extensive, the Task Force used the following four questions to guide its activity: SENSITIVITY TO MEMBERS' VIEWS: What do we know about the needs, wants and preferences of our members, prospective members and customers relevant to a decision to become involved in activities to resolve the staffing crisis? FORESIGHT ABOUT FUTURE ENVIRONMENT: What do we know about the current and evolving dynamics of our profession relevant to a decision to become involved in activities to resolve the staffing crisis? INSIGHT INTO THE ORGANIZATION: What do we know about the strategic position and internal capacity of our organization relevant to a decision to become involved in activities to resolve the staffing crisis? CONSIDERATION OF OUR CHOICES: What are the ethical implications of our choices relevant to a decision to become involved in activities to resolve the staffing crisis? After considerable investigation and discussion, the Task Force made the following recommendations to the Board: RAISE AWARENESS OF OUR PROFESSION: Expand the number of radiologic technologists in the workforce by increasing the diversity of our students and by changing the traditional method in which we educate students (i.e., full-time, day clinical education). Create a quality monitor useful to the majority of radiology leaders to begin to systematically document the shortage. Support limited licensure and/or create a defined position of "staff extender" for radiologic technology.

  10. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (December 2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Upton, Jaki F.; Stein, Steven L.

    2015-02-13

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  11. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (January 2015)

    SciTech Connect

    Upton, Jaki F.; Stein, Steven L.

    2015-02-01

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  12. Enhancing Academic Engagement: Providing Opportunities for Responding and Influencing Students to Choose to Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Christopher H.; Pappas, Danielle N.; Davis, Kai A.

    2005-01-01

    Although educators often provide opportunities for students to engage in active academic responding, in many situations, students either cannot or will not respond. In the current article, we analyze the reasons students fail to respond. Practical procedures educators can use to prevent "can't do" problems are provided. "Won't do" problems are…

  13. Using Video Modeling to Teach Children with PDD-NOS to Respond to Facial Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axe, Judah B.; Evans, Christine J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders often exhibit delays in responding to facial expressions, and few studies have examined teaching responding to subtle facial expressions to this population. We used video modeling to train 3 participants with PDD-NOS (age 5) to respond to eight facial expressions: approval, bored, calming, disapproval,…

  14. The Effect of Missing Data on Estimating a Respondent's Location Using Ratings Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Ayala, R. J.

    In social science research there are a number of instruments that use a rating scale such as a Likert response scale. For a number of reasons, a respondent's response vector may not contain responses to each item. This study investigated the effect on a respondent's location estimate when a respondent is presented an item, has ample time to answer…

  15. Responding to JCAHO standards: everybody's business.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, John C

    1996-01-01

    At this stage, JCAHO [Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations] site visitors simply want to know how the institution plans to respond to the organization ethics standard. In the near future, however, they will expect data on how ethical issues have been addressed that faced the organization in marketing, billing, managed care contracts, and so on. Pointing to an organizational code of ethics will not be enough. Examples of leadership utilizing the processes of the committee or an appropriate consultant or group, to the ends of education, policy studies, and consultation on specific choices will meet the standard. Organizations that evade or choose not to supply data along these lines will presumably be negatively evaluated. Noncompliance presumably means a risk to accreditation. The message to the clinical ethics committee is a serious one. We must engage in the regional planning and organization needed to provide education and training needed by ethics committees for these two tasks, within the constraints of realism, that is, that these are requirements that are primarily expected of the clinical community and the organizations that provide care to patients.

  16. Intrusion of stereotyped responding in pigeon spatial memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, D M; Kennedy, D

    1985-08-01

    Pigeons appear predisposed to respond in stereotyped manners in multi-item spatial memory tasks in which the items are simultaneously presented. We discovered this when we attempted to study primacy and recency serial position effects using a delayed matching of key location task (Experiment 1) and when we attempted to develop a keypack analog of the radial-arm maze task (Experiment 4). In Experiment 1 matching accuracy for first-pecked sample was above chance, approximately chance for the second-pecked sample, and below chance for the third-pecked sample. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that the results of Experiment 1 were due to "superstitious" stereotyped responding: When pigeons were allowed to respond to two or three keys in any order and then respond to the same keys again, they responded in the same order on the second occasion. In Experiment 4, the pigeons successfully avoided pecking previously-pecked keys but did so by pecking the keys in a fixed sequence.

  17. Effects of response requirement and alcohol on human aggressive responding.

    PubMed Central

    Cherek, D R; Spiga, R; Egli, M

    1992-01-01

    Nine men participated in two experiments to determine the effects of increased response requirement and alcohol administration on free-operant aggressive responding. Two response buttons (A and B) were available. Pressing Button A was maintained by a fixed-ratio 100 schedule of point presentation. Subjects were instructed that completion of each fixed-ratio 10 on Button B resulted in the subtraction of a point from a fictitious second subject. Button B presses were defined as aggressive because they ostensibly resulted in the presentation of an aversive stimulus to another person. Aggressive responses were engendered by a random-time schedule of point loss and were maintained by initiation of intervals free of point loss. Instructions attributed these point losses to Button B presses of the fictitious other subject. In Experiment 1, increasing the ratio requirement on Button B decreased the number of ratios completed in 4 of 5 subjects. In Experiment 2, the effects of placebo and three alcohol doses (0.125, 0.25, and 0.375 g/kg) were determined when Button B presses were maintained at ratio values of 20, 40 and 80. Three subjects who reduced aggressive responding with increasing fixed-ratio values reduced aggressive responding further at higher alcohol doses. One subject who did not reduce aggressive responding with increasing fixed-ratio values increased aggressive responding at the highest alcohol dose. The results of this study support suggestions that alcohol alters aggressive behavior by reducing the control of competing contingencies. PMID:1447545

  18. Extinguished operant responding shows stimulus specificity.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, Frances K; Murphy, Eric S; Kowal, Benjamin P

    2004-03-31

    The experiment tested for stimulus specificity in extinguished operant responding. Eight pigeons pecked keys for food reinforcers delivered by a variable interval (VI) 60-s schedule. The key was illuminated with red light during some sessions and white light during others. Then, responding was placed on extinction. During some sessions of extinction, the color of the key light remained constant throughout the session (red or white). During other sessions the color changed at 30 min into the session (red to white or white to red). Response rate increased after the change of key color in extinction. If it is assumed that key color is part of the stimulus to which subjects habituate, then these results are consistent with McSweeney and Swindell's [J. Gen. Psychol. 129 (2002) 364] suggestion that responding declines in extinction partly because subjects habituate to the stimuli that support conditioned responding. Habituation is relatively specific to the exact nature of the stimulus presented. Therefore, changes in the stimulus violate stimulus specificity and restore habituated responding. The results are also consistent with other theories that attribute extinction to a reduction of stimulus control [e.g., Psychol. Bull. 114 (1993) 80; J. Exp. Psychol.: Anim. Behav. Process. 16 (1990) 235], but considerations such as parsimony and testability favor the habituation hypothesis over these theories.

  19. Stimulus specificity and dishabituation of operant responding in humans.

    PubMed

    Kenzer, Amy L; Ghezzi, Patrick M; Fuller, Timothy

    2013-07-01

    Habituation has recently been addressed within the operant conditioning paradigm. While the literature on this topic is growing, the examination of dishabituation, a fundamental characteristic of habituation, remains limited. This study expanded research on habituation of operant responding in non-human animals to research involving humans. Specifically, dishabituation and stimulus specificity were examined under a variety of conditions involving changes in the reinforcer type, reinforcement schedule, reinforcer amount, and selected properties of the antecedent stimuli for a computerized task with 46 undergraduate students. An additional 3 participants were exposed to a control condition. Evaluation of within session patterns of responding indicates that the introduction of stimulus changes into the operant context reliably produced dishabituation of operant responding in humans.

  20. Responding to Students' Learning Preferences in Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewthwaite, Brian; Wiebe, Rick

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports on a teacher's and his students' responsiveness to a new tetrahedral-oriented (Mahaffy in J Chem Educ 83(1):49-55, 2006) curriculum requiring more discursive classroom practices in the teaching of chemistry. In this instrumental case study, we identify the intentions of this learner-centered curriculum and a teacher's development in response to this curriculum. We also explore the tensions this teacher experiences as students subsequently respond to his adjusted teaching. We use a Chemistry Teacher Inventory (Lewthwaite and Wiebe in Res Sci Educ 40(11):667-689, 2011; Lewthwaite and Wiebe in Can J Math Sci Technol Educ 12(1):36-61, 2012; Lewthwaite in Chem Educ Res Pract. doi:10.1039/C3RP00122A, 2014) to assist the teacher in monitoring how he teaches and how he would like to improve his teaching. We also use a student form of the instrument, the Chemistry Classroom Inventory and Classroom Observation Protocol (Lewthwaite and Wiebe 2011) to verify the teacher's teaching and perception of student preferences for his teaching especially in terms of the discursive processes the curriculum encourages. By so doing, the teacher is able to use both sets of data as a foundation for critical reflection and work towards resolution of the incongruence in data arising from students' preferred learning orientations and his teaching aspirations. Implications of this study in regards to the authority of students' voice in triggering teachers' pedagogical change and the adjustments in `teachering' and `studenting' required by such curricula are considered.

  1. Global warming: fly populations are responding rapidly to climate change.

    PubMed

    van Heerwaarden, Belinda; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2007-01-01

    New studies on chromosome inversion polymorphisms in Drosophila species show that the genetic constitution of populations is responding to recent climate change and that widespread species may have the potential to undergo adaptive shifts. Genetic markers in widespread species can act as indicators of climate change on natural populations.

  2. The recurrence of negatively reinforced responding of humans.

    PubMed

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Lattal, Kennon A; Cançado, Carlos R X

    2015-11-01

    The recurrence of negatively reinforced responding of humans was studied in three experiments. In each experiment during Baseline, key-pressing produced 3-s timeouts from a requirement to exert finger pressure on a force cell according to variable- or fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement. In Experiment 1, resurgence was studied by arranging a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule in the second phase, and extinction in the Test phase. In Experiment 2, ABA renewal was studied by extinguishing responding in the second phase in a different context and, in the Test phase, by presenting the Baseline-phase context when extinction still was in effect. In Experiment 3, reinstatement was studied by arranging extinction in the second phase, followed by the delivery of response-independent timeouts in the Test phase. Resurgence and renewal occurred consistently for each participant in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In Experiment 3, reinstatement was observed less consistently in four participants. The results of these experiments replicate and extend to negatively reinforced responding previous findings of the resurgence and renewal of positively reinforced responding obtained mainly with nonhuman animals. PMID:26676180

  3. Variational Pragmatics and "Responding to Thanks"--Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieswanger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, Klaus P. Schneider published a fascinating article with the title "'No problem, you're welcome, anytime': Responding to thanks in Ireland, England, and the U.S.A." Adopting the then emerging and now established framework of variational pragmatics, Schneider's pioneering paper presents the results of a study on differences…

  4. African Americans Respond Poorly to Hepatitis C Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    African Americans have a significantly lower response rate to treatment for chronic hepatitis C than non-Hispanic Whites, according to a new study led by Duke University Medical Center researchers. Some African Americans--19 percent--did respond to the drug combination of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. But in non-Hispanic Whites with the…

  5. Calibration of Observational Measurement of Rate of Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudford, Oliver C.; Zeleny, Jason R.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Klum, Molly E.; Owen, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of measurement systems used in almost all natural sciences other than behavior analysis is usually evaluated through calibration study rather than relying on interobserver agreement. We demonstrated some of the basic features of calibration using observer-measured rates of free-operant responding from 10 scripted 10-min calibration…

  6. The recurrence of negatively reinforced responding of humans.

    PubMed

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Lattal, Kennon A; Cançado, Carlos R X

    2015-11-01

    The recurrence of negatively reinforced responding of humans was studied in three experiments. In each experiment during Baseline, key-pressing produced 3-s timeouts from a requirement to exert finger pressure on a force cell according to variable- or fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement. In Experiment 1, resurgence was studied by arranging a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule in the second phase, and extinction in the Test phase. In Experiment 2, ABA renewal was studied by extinguishing responding in the second phase in a different context and, in the Test phase, by presenting the Baseline-phase context when extinction still was in effect. In Experiment 3, reinstatement was studied by arranging extinction in the second phase, followed by the delivery of response-independent timeouts in the Test phase. Resurgence and renewal occurred consistently for each participant in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In Experiment 3, reinstatement was observed less consistently in four participants. The results of these experiments replicate and extend to negatively reinforced responding previous findings of the resurgence and renewal of positively reinforced responding obtained mainly with nonhuman animals.

  7. Supporting Children's Counterfactual Thinking with Alternative Modes of Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Sarah R.; Carroll, Daniel J.; Brunsdon, Victoria E. A.; Gryg, Charlotte K.

    2011-01-01

    To speculate about counterfactual worlds, children need to ignore what they know to be true about the real world. Prior studies yielding individual differences data suggested that counterfactual thinking may be related to overcoming prepotent responses. In two experiments, we manipulated how 3- to 5-year-olds responded to counterfactual…

  8. Methods for Handling Missing Secondary Respondent Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Rebekah; Johnson, David

    2013-01-01

    Secondary respondent data are underutilized because researchers avoid using these data in the presence of substantial missing data. The authors reviewed, evaluated, and tested solutions to this problem. Five strategies of dealing with missing partner data were reviewed: (a) complete case analysis, (b) inverse probability weighting, (c) correction…

  9. From Recommendations to Reality: Educators Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedesco, Lisa A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper responds to the 1995 report of the Institute of Medicine concerning the present status and future needs of dental education in the United States. It describes the effort of the American Association of Dental Schools to systematically survey professional responses the IOM Report's recommendations. Among nine themes identified are…

  10. Responding to Children Victimized by Their Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Brock, Stephen E.; Chang, Yiping; O'Malley, Meagan D.

    2006-01-01

    Because victimization results from the dynamic interplay between the victim and his or her parents, peers, and teachers, responding to this problem should involve both direct and indirect interventions. This paper describes and reviews empirically supported direct interventions with victims, as well as indirect interventions with parents, peers,…

  11. Helping Your Children Respond to Global Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFarge, Phyllis

    1992-01-01

    Discusses what it is like for children to grow up with an awareness that they live in a world in which unrestrained technological prowess has created vulnerabilities on a global scale. The article examines how parents and teachers can help their children cope with and respond to world issues. (SM)

  12. Introduction to Hydrogen Safety for First Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, Linda L.; Akers, Bret M.; Cooper, Christy

    2007-08-01

    This article is intended to inform firefighters about a new web-based training course called "Introduction to Hydrogen Safety for First Responders." It provides a very brief overview of the course contents, the web address to access the online course, where to get CDs and hard copies of the course, and who to contact for further information.

  13. Cleartalk: Police Responding to Intellectual Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Mark; Brennan, Roslin

    The Cleartalk project was developed in New South Wales (Australia) to help police respond to the communication needs of people with intellectual disabilities. Section 1 presents "The View from the Street: A Working Knowledge of Intellectual Disability," which discusses how individuals with intellectual disabilities are denied their right of access…

  14. Resurgence of Temporal Patterns of Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cancado, Carlos R. X.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2011-01-01

    The resurgence of temporal patterns of key pecking by pigeons was investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, positively accelerated and linear patterns of responding were established on one key under a discrete-trial multiple fixed-interval variable-interval schedule. Subsequently, only responses on a second key produced reinforcers…

  15. ASA24® Respondent Website Features

    Cancer.gov

    The ASA24 Respondent Website guides the participant through the completion of either a 24-hour recall for the previous day (from midnight-to-midnight or for the past 24-hours) or for a single or multiple day food record.

  16. Individual mouse taste cells respond to multiple chemical stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Caicedo, Alejandro; Kim, Kyung-Nyun; Roper, Stephen D

    2002-01-01

    Sensory organs are specialized to detect and decode stimuli in terms of intensity and quality. In the gustatory system, the process of identifying and distinguishing taste qualities (e.g. bitter versus sweet) begins in taste buds. A central question in gustatory research is how information about taste quality is extracted by taste receptor cells. For instance, whether and how individual taste cells respond to multiple chemical stimuli is still a matter for debate. A recent study showed that taste cells expressing bitter-responsive taste receptors do not also express sweet-responsive taste receptors and vice versa. These results suggest that the gustatory system may use separate cellular pathways to process bitter and sweet signals independently. Results from electrophysiological studies, however, reveal that individual taste receptor cells respond to stimuli representing multiple taste qualities. Here we used non-invasive Ca2+ imaging in slices of lingual tissue containing taste buds to address the issue of quality detection in murine taste receptor cells. We recorded calcium transients elicited by chemical stimuli representing different taste qualities (sweet, salty, sour and bitter). Many receptor cells (38 %) responded to multiple taste qualities, with some taste cells responding to both appetitive (‘sweet’) and aversive (‘bitter’) stimuli. Thus, there appears to be no strict and separate detection of taste qualities by distinct subpopulations of taste cells in peripheral gustatory sensory organs in mice. PMID:12381822

  17. Timely Completion of Paperwork: Are Some Residents Consistently Late Responders?

    PubMed Central

    Metheny, William P.

    2014-01-01

    Background One element of competence in professionalism entails the timely completion of paperwork. Early identification of residents who are consistently late in completing their assignments might be the first step in helping them change this habit. Objective This study sought to determine if program coordinators' ratings of residents' response habits to completing assignments were associated with existing measures of resident response times tracked by the institution. Methods Program coordinators rated residents as early, mid, or late responders based on their experience with them. We compared coordinators' ratings with the response time of these same residents in returning orientation materials to the institution, completing a patient safety survey and duty hour logs, and providing their required countersignature on telephone and verbal orders. A total of 196 residents enrolled at this institution were eligible for this comparison in the 2012–2013 academic year. Results Program coordinators rated 23% (40 of 177) of the residents as late responders. These ratings were significantly associated with the response time of residents in returning orientation materials and the completed patient safety survey. Residents identified as late responders were 2.45 times (confidence interval, 1.09 ± 5.64) more likely to have delinquent medical records. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that residents who are late responders can be identified as early as orientation and that they likely maintain this response habit in completing assignments throughout residency. To address this professionalism issue, programs should track and counsel residents on their timeliness in completing paperwork. PMID:24949137

  18. Visual Motor Integration as a Screener for Responders and Non-Responders in Preschool and Early School Years: Implications for Inclusive Assessment in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed; Kazem, Ali Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Visual motor integration (VMI) is the ability of the eyes and hands to work together in smooth, efficient patterns. In Oman, there are few effective methods to assess VMI skills in children in inclusive settings. The current study investigated the performance of preschool and early school years responders and non-responders on a VMI test. The full…

  19. Strategies for responding to RAC requests electronically.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Providers that would like to respond to complex RAC reviews electronically should consider three strategies: Invest in an EHR software package or a high-powered scanner that can quickly scan large amounts of paper. Implement an audit software platform that will allow providers to manage the entire audit process in one place. Use a CONNECT-compatible gateway capable of accessing the Nationwide Health Information Network (the network on which the electronic submission of medical documentation program runs).

  20. Preventing and responding to medical identity theft.

    PubMed

    Amori, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    Medical identity theft is a crime with two victims: patients and providers. It is easy to commit and lucrative because healthcare record keeping and business interactions are complex and mainly electronic. Patients whose identity has been stolen are vulnerable to both medical error and financial loss. Providers may suffer both reputation loss and financial loss. There are steps to help prevent and to respond appropriately to medical identity theft.

  1. An operant analysis of human altruistic responding1

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Harold

    1977-01-01

    Human altruistic responding (called give responding), which delivered a reinforcer to someone other than the responder, was compared to responding where the responder was the recipient of the reinforcer (called earn responding). The same type of response (button pressing), the same reinforcer (a point representing a penny), and the same reinforcer contingency (a 40-response fixed-ratio schedule) were used for both give and earn responding. Since points representing pennies were used to reinforce give and earn responding, responding for points not worth money was also assessed. Give, earn, and point responding were arranged as concurrent incompatible operants. Lowest rates were obtained for point responding. Compared to earn responding, give responding occurred at lower rates, was more susceptible to cessation when point responding was possible, extinguished more rapidly in the absence of money, and produced less responding during reconditioning compared to conditioning when reconditioning followed a period of nonreinforcement. Give responding was less when it reduced the giver's opportunity to earn. Finally, histories of getting reinforcement from others were shown to determine give responding. PMID:16812010

  2. Diagnostics for Respondent-driven Sampling

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a widely used method for sampling from hard-to-reach human populations, especially populations at higher risk for HIV. Data are collected through peer-referral over social networks. RDS has proven practical for data collection in many difficult settings and is widely used. Inference from RDS data requires many strong assumptions because the sampling design is partially beyond the control of the researcher and partially unobserved. We introduce diagnostic tools for most of these assumptions and apply them in 12 high risk populations. These diagnostics empower researchers to better understand their data and encourage future statistical research on RDS. PMID:27226702

  3. Liquid-Flow Controller Responds To Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, George B., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Mechanism controls flow of liquid in fuel-spraying head in combustion chamber responds nonlinearly to pressure of liquid. Shell of spraybar expands or contracts laterally as its internal pressure rises or falls, forcing collar down or up on entry tube. Area of window formed by slots in collar and entry tube thus increases or decreases. Drop in pressure through variable-area orifice increases much more with flow through orifice than does corresponding drop in pressure with flow through fixed-area orifice. In practical terms, lower pump pressure needed with variable orifice for given flow of liquid. Principle of operation applicable to spraying heads for other fluids.

  4. Responding to Boy Readers: A Closer Look at the Role of the Teacher in Dialogue Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werderich, Donna E.

    2010-01-01

    In this qualitative study, the author examined the ways middle school literacy teachers responded to their boys' dialogue journals. The participants were 3 middle school literacy teachers and 19 middle school boys. The findings of this study indicated that the teachers took 4 roles (teacher as reader, teacher as responder, teacher as facilitator,…

  5. Revaccination of non- and low- responders after a standard three dose hepatitis B vaccine schedule

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ke; Shao, Xiaoping; Zheng, Huizhen; Wu, Chenggang; Zhu, Jianqiong; Zheng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yonghui

    2012-01-01

    Background:   Guangdong province of China is HBV high endemicity and 1.6 million neonates are administrated 5 μg yeast recombinant anti-HBV vaccine each year. But few studies are performed to evaluate the immunogenicity and revaccination effect on non- and low- responders. Methods: 2,199 children were administered intramuscularly with 5 μg vaccine at 0, 1 and 6 mo after birth. A 3 ml blood sample was drawn from each infant 1 mo after the third dose for determination of anti-HBs level. Three additional doses (10 μg each) were given to non- and low- responders. Results: Of 1,814 subjects, 3.1% were non-responders (anti-HBs titer < 10 mIUml−1) and 28.9% were low-responders (anti-HBs ≥ 10 mIUml−1 and < 100 mIUml−1). Low birth weight (LBW) was a risk factor for non- and low- responders (RR = 1.6, 95%CI = 1.2–2.0). After revaccination, of the 34 non-responders, 14.7% became low-responders and 85.3% became responders. Of the 74 low-responders, 21.6% remained at the same level and 78.4% shifted into responder category. Conclusions: Based on the lower responding rate after the primary immunization cycle and the higher responding rate after the additional cycle, measurement of anti-HBs level should be considered for people who had been immunized with three-dose 5 μg HB vaccine in Guangdong, especially for specific populations including LBW infants, healthcare workers, and patients with immunodeficiency disorders. An amount of 10 μg vaccine should be revaccinated to any non- and low- responders to provide adequate seroprotection. PMID:22906933

  6. To respond or not to respond, the recurring question in plant mechanosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Leblanc-Fournier, Nathalie; Martin, Ludovic; Lenne, Catherine; Decourteix, Mélanie

    2014-01-01

    In nature, terrestrial plants experience many kinds of external mechanical stimulation and respond by triggering a network of signaling events to acclimate their growth and development. Some environmental cues, especially wind, recur on time scales varying from seconds to days. Plants thus have to adapt their sensitivity to such stimulations to avoid constitutive activation of stress responses. The study of plant mechanosensing has been attracting more interest in the last two decades, but plant responses to repetitive mechanical stimulation have yet to be described in detail. In this mini review, alongside classic experiments we survey recent descriptions of the kinetics of plant responses to recurrent stimulation. The ability of plants to modulate their responses to recurrent stimulation at the molecular, cellular, or organ scale is also relevant to other abiotic stimuli. It is possible that plants reduce their responsiveness to environmental signals as a function of their recurrence, recovering full sensitivity several days later. Finally, putative mechanisms underlying mechanosensing regulation are discussed. PMID:25177327

  7. To respond or not to respond, the recurring question in plant mechanosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Leblanc-Fournier, Nathalie; Martin, Ludovic; Lenne, Catherine; Decourteix, Mélanie

    2014-01-01

    In nature, terrestrial plants experience many kinds of external mechanical stimulation and respond by triggering a network of signaling events to acclimate their growth and development. Some environmental cues, especially wind, recur on time scales varying from seconds to days. Plants thus have to adapt their sensitivity to such stimulations to avoid constitutive activation of stress responses. The study of plant mechanosensing has been attracting more interest in the last two decades, but plant responses to repetitive mechanical stimulation have yet to be described in detail. In this mini review, alongside classic experiments we survey recent descriptions of the kinetics of plant responses to recurrent stimulation. The ability of plants to modulate their responses to recurrent stimulation at the molecular, cellular, or organ scale is also relevant to other abiotic stimuli. It is possible that plants reduce their responsiveness to environmental signals as a function of their recurrence, recovering full sensitivity several days later. Finally, putative mechanisms underlying mechanosensing regulation are discussed. PMID:25177327

  8. 15 CFR 904.107 - Joint and several respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint and several respondents. 904.107... PROCEDURES Civil Penalties § 904.107 Joint and several respondents. (a) A NOVA may assess a civil penalty against two or more respondents jointly and severally. Each joint and several respondent is liable for...

  9. 15 CFR 904.107 - Joint and several respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint and several respondents. 904.107... PROCEDURES Civil Penalties § 904.107 Joint and several respondents. (a) A NOVA may assess a civil penalty against two or more respondents jointly and severally. Each joint and several respondent is liable for...

  10. Smart physiological monitoring of first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, Anurag; Kaiser, William; Tamminedi, Tejaswi; Yadegar, Jacob

    2009-05-01

    Today's state-of-the-art medical vests and shirts for health status monitoring are inflexible and expensive. The high cost and the lack of flexibility and integral-unity of the current vests are prohibiting factors for their use in first responder applications. The vests also lack an in-built intelligence to accurately determine the health status of the person wearing the vest. We present a hardware plus software solution for monitoring the health status of first responders in pressurized and adversarial missions. The technology consists of two main components. The first component is a physiological vest consisting of a suite of physiological sensors interfaced with energy management units designed to prolong the life of the sensors. The sensors communicate wirelessly with a personal server consisting of a Decision Support Software (DSS), which forms the second major component of our technology. The DSS (1) integrates the physiologic sensors readings for global assessment of the individual's health status; (2) recommends medical Alerts and Actions based on the fusion of the sensor readings; and (3) applies cognitive computation to personalize the medical vest to the specific physiologic and motion characteristics of the individual wearing the vest, in the theater of the operation or during exercise.

  11. How tree roots respond to drought

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Ivano; Herzog, Claude; Dawes, Melissa A.; Arend, Matthias; Sperisen, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing climate change is characterized by increased temperatures and altered precipitation patterns. In addition, there has been an increase in both the frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events such as drought. Episodes of drought induce a series of interconnected effects, all of which have the potential to alter the carbon balance of forest ecosystems profoundly at different scales of plant organization and ecosystem functioning. During recent years, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of how aboveground parts of trees respond to drought and how these responses affect carbon assimilation. In contrast, processes of belowground parts are relatively underrepresented in research on climate change. In this review, we describe current knowledge about responses of tree roots to drought. Tree roots are capable of responding to drought through a variety of strategies that enable them to avoid and tolerate stress. Responses include root biomass adjustments, anatomical alterations, and physiological acclimations. The molecular mechanisms underlying these responses are characterized to some extent, and involve stress signaling and the induction of numerous genes, leading to the activation of tolerance pathways. In addition, mycorrhizas seem to play important protective roles. The current knowledge compiled in this review supports the view that tree roots are well equipped to withstand drought situations and maintain morphological and physiological functions as long as possible. Further, the reviewed literature demonstrates the important role of tree roots in the functioning of forest ecosystems and highlights the need for more research in this emerging field. PMID:26284083

  12. Innovative Recruitment Using Online Networks: Lessons Learned From an Online Study of Alcohol and Other Drug Use Utilizing a Web-Based, Respondent-Driven Sampling (webRDS) Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Johns, Michelle M.; Glowacki, Pietreck; Stoddard, Sarah; Volz, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We used a web version of Respondent-Driven Sampling (webRDS) to recruit a sample of young adults (ages 18–24) and examined whether this strategy would result in alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevalence estimates comparable to national estimates (National Survey on Drug Use and Health [NSDUH]). Method: We recruited 22 initial participants (seeds) via Facebook to complete a web survey examining AOD risk correlates. Sequential, incentivized recruitment continued until our desired sample size was achieved. After correcting for webRDS clustering effects, we contrasted our AOD prevalence estimates (past 30 days) to NSDUH estimates by comparing the 95% confidence intervals of prevalence estimates. Results: We found comparable AOD prevalence estimates between our sample and NSDUH for the past 30 days for alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, or MDMA), and hallucinogens. Cigarette use was lower than NSDUH estimates. Conclusions: WebRDS may be a suitable strategy to recruit young adults online. We discuss the unique strengths and challenges that may be encountered by public health researchers using webRDS methods. PMID:22846248

  13. Biodetection Technologies for First Responders: 2014 Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Ozanich, Richard M.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Colburn, Heather A.; Straub, Tim M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2014-03-28

    This report summarizes commercially-available, hand-portable technologies that can be used by first responders in the field. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, this report is meant to provide useful information about available technologies to help end-users make informed decisions about biodetection technology procurement and use. Information listed in this report is primarily vendor-provided; however, where possible it has been supplemented with additional information obtained from publications, reports, and websites. Manufacturers were given the chance to review summaries of their technologies from August through November 2013 to verify the accuracy of technical specifications, available references, and pricing.

  14. Space-Dynamically Responding Ultrasonic Matrix System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guigne, Jacques; Yi, Hu Chun

    2008-01-01

    Space-Dynamically Responding Ultrasonic Matrix System (SpaceDRUMS) comprises a suite of hardware that enables containerless processing (samples of experimental materials can be processed without ever touching a container wall). Using a collection of 20 acoustic beam emitters, SpaceDRUMS can completely suspend a baseball-sized solid or liquid sample during combustion or heat-based synthesis. Because the samples never contact the container walls, materials can be produced in microgravity with an unparalleled quality of shape and composition. The ultimate goal of the SpaceDRUMS hardware is to assist with the development of advanced materials of a commercial quantity and quality, using the space-based experiments to guide development of manufacturing processes on Earth. T

  15. Methods of responding to healthcare security incidents.

    PubMed

    Furnell, S; Gritzalis, D; Katsikas, S; Mavroudakis, K; Sanders, P; Warren, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers the increasing requirement for security in healthcare IT systems and, in particular, identifies the need for appropriate means by which healthcare establishments (HCEs) may respond to incidents. The main discussion focuses upon two significant initiatives that have been established in order to improve understanding and awareness of healthcare security issues. The first is the establishment of a dedicated Incident Reporting Scheme (IRS) for HCEs, enabling the level and types of security incidents faced within the healthcare community to be monitored and advice appropriately targeted. The second aspect presents a description of healthcare security World Wide Web service, which provides a comprehensive source of advice and guidance for establishments when trying to address and prevent IT security breaches. The discussion is based upon work that is currently being undertaken with the ISHTAR (Implementing Secure Healthcare Telematics Applications in Europe) project, as part of the Telematics Applications for Health programme of the European Commission.

  16. Academic Responding during Instruction and Reading Outcomes for Kindergarten Students At-Risk for Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the academic responding of students at-risk for reading difficulties in beginning reading instruction. Opportunities for kindergarten students at-risk for reading difficulties to respond academically during teacher-facilitated reading instruction in the general education classroom were examined in…

  17. Changes in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate during Fixed-Interval Responding in Squirrel Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWeese, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Episodic and sustained increases in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure can occur with recurring patterns of schedule-controlled behavior. Most previous studies were conducted under fixed-ratio schedules, which maintained a consistent high rate of responding that alternated with periods of no responding during times when the schedule was…

  18. Cortisol Reactivity and Regulation Associated with Shame Responding in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Imm, Gorette P.; Walling, Bobbi R.; Weiler, Hope A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize cortisol response and regulation associated with shame responding in early childhood and to examine how general the relation between shame and cortisol is. It was predicted that children responding to task failure with shame would show a larger and more prolonged cortisol response than other children.…

  19. Affective and Cardiovascular Responding to Unpleasant Events from Adolescence to Old Age: Complexity of Events Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Muller, Viktor; Wagner, Gert G.; Lindenberger, Ulman; Riediger, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigated the "overpowering hypothesis" as a possible explanation for the currently inconclusive empirical picture on age differences in affective responding to unpleasant events. The overpowering hypothesis predicts that age differences in affective responding are particularly evident in highly resource-demanding situations that…

  20. Social Desirability Responding on World Wide Web and Paper-Administered Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dawson R.; Flowers, Claudia P.

    Social desirability responding (SDR) on surveys administered on the World Wide Web and on paper was examined, with 178 graduate and undergraduate students as participants. To assess the extent to which participants would demonstrate SDR, this study used the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) (Paulhus, 1993). The BIDR consists of 40…

  1. Responding to Literature through Storytelling, Artifacts and Multigenre Writing Practices: Explorations of Cultures and Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varga-Dobai, Kinga

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes how innovative literacy practices such as multigenre writing and artifactual critical literacy have been used to tap into pre-service teachers' cultural identities while responding to literature. In the process of responding to literature, personal experience is crucial; therefore, in this study, I focused on the…

  2. Which drug for which patient? Is there a fluoxetine responding versus a bupropion responding personality profile?

    PubMed

    Bell, D Stewart; Shipman, W Mark; Cleves, Mario A; Siegelman, Jill

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes that a certain premorbid personality type - that of hard driving, achievement-oriented, often exercise-oriented individuals - correlates with bupropion response; conversely, patients without these premorbid traits and whose depression is marked by mood swings, irritability and rumination are likely fluoxetine responders. The authors developed the Fluoxetine Bupropion Assessment Scale (FBAS), a 10-question, self-administered rating scale, to assess these traits and hypothesized that its use would improve outcomes. A Marriage and Family Therapist (MFT) and a Registered Nurse/Nurse Practitioner (RN/NP) retrospectively reviewed 72 charts from one psychiatrist's office for two time periods: before and after the psychiatrist utilized the questionnaire to guide antidepressant selection (33 charts before and 39 charts after). Raters were blinded to the theory and to the treatment time period. On the basis of clinical information in the charts, they formulated Clinical Global Impression assessments of treatment response in patients with Beck Depression Inventory scores ≥17 who were not on either drug at the time of intake, and who were prescribed either fluoxetine or bupropion. The data were in the direction of better results in the FBAS-guided group, particularly after adjusting for age, gender and marital status (efficacy p = 0.087). When global improvement data were combined into three groups describing treatment response (improved, minimal to no improvement, and worse) there were statistically significant better results (p = 0.047) in the FBAS-guided treatment group. Revision and validation of the questionnaire and a larger, randomized study seem indicated. PMID:23935697

  3. Ecosystem Greenhouse Gas Fluxes Respond Directly to Weather Not Climate: A Case Study on the Relationship of Global Atmospheric Circulation, Foehn Frequency, and Winter Weather to Northern Alps Regional Grassland Phenology and Carbon Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, A. R.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Zeeman, M. J.; Katata, G.; Mauder, M.; Schmid, H. P. E.

    2014-12-01

    The impact of climate change on regional ecosystem structure and biogeochemical cycling has two important aspects that require better elaboration to improve projections of these effects. The first is that ecosystems don't respond directly to climate, but indirectly via frequency and occurrence of weather systems, which are driven by climatic shifts in global circulation and radiative processes. The second is that many responses of ecosystems to these weather patterns and extremes are lagged in time. Here, we examine these aspects for northern Alpine grasslands. Long-term eddy covariance flux tower and phenology observations in Austria and Germany and biophysical models reveal a strong influence of winter air temperature, snowfall, and snowmelt frequency on winter grass mortality and spring grassland carbon uptake. Further, the mode of climate variability that drives winter air temperature and snow depth patterns is primarily the frequency of strong regional southerly Foehn flow that promotes warm, dry conditions in winter. Finally, we demonstrate that much of the interannual variance in Foehn frequency and southerly flow is driven by statistics and climatic trends of 500 hPa pressure patterns in Greenland, part of the Arctic Oscillation. However, a few years, including the unusually warm and dry winter of 2013-2014 appear to have secondary, possibly local thermotopographic circulation factors that promoted its weather conditions regionally, which also included primarily cool and wet conditions in northern Europe and the southern Alps. These findings demonstrate that the regional response of ecosystems to climate change is modulated by how large-scale circulation patterns influence local meteorology and topographic flows both during and outside the growing season and provides a framework for future assessment and climate model improvements of linkages of climate change, weather patterns, and ecosystem responses.

  4. How species respond to multiple extinction threats.

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, Nick J. B.; Cowlishaw, Guy

    2004-01-01

    It is well established that different species vary in their vulnerability to extinction risk and that species biology can underpin much of this variation. By contrast, very little is known about how the same species responds to different threat processes. The purpose of this paper is therefore twofold: to examine the extent to which a species' vulnerability to different types of threat might covary and to explore the biological traits that are associated with threat-specific responses. We use an objective and quantitative measure of local extinction risk to show that vulnerability to local population decline in primates varies substantially among species and between threat types. Our results show that a species' response to one threat type does not predict its response to others. Multivariate analyses also suggest that different mechanisms of decline are associated with each type of threat, since different biological traits are correlated with each threat-specific response. Primate species at risk from forestry tend to exhibit low ecological flexibility, while those species vulnerable to agriculture tend to live in the canopy and eat low-fruit diets; in further contrast, primates at risk from hunting tend to exhibit large body size. Our analyses therefore indicate that a species' vulnerability to local extinction can be highly variable and is likely to depend on both threat type and biology. PMID:15306363

  5. 33 CFR 20.1311 - Admissions by respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Supplementary Evidentiary Rules for Suspension and Revocation Hearings § 20.1311 Admissions by respondent. No person may testify regarding admissions made by the respondent during an investigation under 46 CFR...

  6. Improving Situational Awareness for First Responders via Mobile Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Bradley J.; Mah, Robert W.; Papasin, Richard; Del Mundo, Rommel; McIntosh, Dawn M.; Jorgensen, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This project looks to improve first responder situational awareness using tools and techniques of mobile computing. The prototype system combines wireless communication, real-time location determination, digital imaging, and three-dimensional graphics. Responder locations are tracked in an outdoor environment via GPS and uploaded to a central server via GPRS or an 802.11 network. Responders can also wirelessly share digital images and text reports, both with other responders and with the incident commander. A pre-built three dimensional graphics model of a particular emergency scene is used to visualize responder and report locations. Responders have a choice of information end points, ranging from programmable cellular phones to tablet computers. The system also employs location-aware computing to make responders aware of particular hazards as they approach them. The prototype was developed in conjunction with the NASA Ames Disaster Assistance and Rescue Team and has undergone field testing during responder exercise at NASA Ames.

  7. Improving Situational Awareness for First Responders via Mobile Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Bradley J.; Mah, Robert W.; Papasin, Richard; Del Mundo, Rommel; McIntosh, Dawn M.; Jorgensen, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This project looks to improve first responder incident command, and an appropriately managed flow of situational awareness using mobile computing techniques. The prototype system combines wireless communication, real-time location determination, digital imaging, and three-dimensional graphics. Responder locations are tracked in an outdoor environment via GPS and uploaded to a central server via GPRS or an 802. II network. Responders can also wireless share digital images and text reports, both with other responders and with the incident commander. A pre-built three dimensional graphics model of the emergency scene is used to visualize responder and report locations. Responders have a choice of information end points, ranging from programmable cellular phones to tablet computers. The system also employs location-aware computing to make responders aware of particular hazards as they approach them. The prototype was developed in conjunction with the NASA Ames Disaster Assistance and Rescue Team and has undergone field testing during responder exercises at NASA Ames.

  8. Please respond ASAP: workplace telepressure and employee recovery.

    PubMed

    Barber, Larissa K; Santuzzi, Alecia M

    2015-04-01

    Organizations rely heavily on asynchronous message-based technologies (e.g., e-mail) for the purposes of work-related communications. These technologies are primary means of knowledge transfer and building social networks. As a by-product, workers might feel varying levels of preoccupations with and urges for responding quickly to messages from clients, coworkers, or supervisors--an experience we label as workplace telepressure. This experience can lead to fast response times and thus faster decisions and other outcomes initially. However, research from the stress and recovery literature suggests that the defining features of workplace telepressure interfere with needed work recovery time and stress-related outcomes. The present set of studies defined and validated a new scale to measure telepressure. Study 1 tested an initial pool of items and found some support for a single-factor structure after problematic items were removed. As expected, public self-consciousness, techno-overload, and response expectations were moderately associated with telepressure in Study 1. Study 2 demonstrated that workplace telepressure was distinct from other personal (job involvement, affective commitment) and work environment (general and ICT work demands) factors and also predicted burnout (physical and cognitive), absenteeism, sleep quality, and e-mail responding beyond those factors. Implications for future research and workplace practices are discussed.

  9. The relational responding task: toward a new implicit measure of beliefs.

    PubMed

    De Houwer, Jan; Heider, Niclas; Spruyt, Adriaan; Roets, Arne; Hughes, Sean

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the Relational Responding Task (RRT) as a tool for capturing beliefs at the implicit level. Flemish participants were asked to respond as if they believed that Flemish people are more intelligent than immigrants (e.g., respond "true" to the statement "Flemish people are wiser than immigrants") or to respond as if they believed that immigrants are more intelligent than Flemish people (e.g., respond "true" to the statement "Flemish people are dumber than immigrants"). The difference in performance between these two tasks correlated with ratings of the extent to which participants explicitly endorsed the belief that Flemish people are more intelligent than immigrants and with questionnaire measures of subtle and blatant racism. The current study provides a first step toward validating RRT effects as a viable measure of implicit beliefs.

  10. The relational responding task: toward a new implicit measure of beliefs

    PubMed Central

    De Houwer, Jan; Heider, Niclas; Spruyt, Adriaan; Roets, Arne; Hughes, Sean

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the Relational Responding Task (RRT) as a tool for capturing beliefs at the implicit level. Flemish participants were asked to respond as if they believed that Flemish people are more intelligent than immigrants (e.g., respond “true” to the statement “Flemish people are wiser than immigrants”) or to respond as if they believed that immigrants are more intelligent than Flemish people (e.g., respond “true” to the statement “Flemish people are dumber than immigrants”). The difference in performance between these two tasks correlated with ratings of the extent to which participants explicitly endorsed the belief that Flemish people are more intelligent than immigrants and with questionnaire measures of subtle and blatant racism. The current study provides a first step toward validating RRT effects as a viable measure of implicit beliefs. PMID:25852624

  11. Responding to the needs of people.

    PubMed

    Morales-gomez, D A

    1994-01-01

    Social policy reform based on human development rather than on economic adjustment is gaining widespread acceptance as a major goal for the 1990s. It is no longer enough to find a new balance between affordability, growing needs, and basic social justice, radically different ways of making and implementing social development decisions are required. During the 1980s, governments had to adjust social contracts in order to manage public resources more efficiently. Social programs which had historically brought the politically disenfranchised one of their few advantages were reduced or eliminated because they were considered too costly. In fact, economic solutions to social reform and development have not worked; economic disparity is greater today than ever before, with the richest 20% of the world benefiting from 150 times the income of the poorest 20%. The new theoretical approach demanded by this situation will rely heavily on cross-sectoral planning, identifying target groups, and prioritizing needs. The collapse of the East-West ideological divide resulted in a market-driven, interconnected world in which developing countries must improve international competitiveness, adapt to rapid technological changes, and accommodate production systems to external, rather than internal, demands. The social challenges faced by developing countries are exacerbated by the fact that developing countries have yet to find the appropriate development paradigm for the next century. Also, past development efforts have not fully responded to individual and community needs or to cultural values and capabilities. In order to place the needs of people at the center of a development policy which is driven by social rather than economic concerns, new forms of government must evolve which emphasize democratization, greater fiscal accountability, decentralization, privatization, and local initiative. PMID:12345567

  12. The Influence of Clinical and Biological Factors on Transfusion-Associated Non-ABO Antigen Alloimmunization: Responders, Hyper-Responders, and Non-Responders.

    PubMed

    Gehrie, Eric A; Tormey, Christopher A

    2014-11-01

    In the context of transfusion medicine, alloimmunization most often refers to the development of antibodies to non-ABO red blood cell (RBC) antigens following pregnancy, transfusion, or transplantation. The development of RBC alloantibodies can have important clinical consequences, particularly in patients who require chronic transfusions. It has been suggested that alloimmunization is more common in some clinical circumstances and patient populations than in others. As such, individuals that develop alloantibodies are frequently referred to as 'responders' in the medical literature. In contrast, individuals that do not develop alloantibodies despite repeated exposures to non-self blood group antigens have been referred to as 'non-responders'. The purpose of this article is to review the phenomenon of RBC alloimmunization in the context of responders and non-responders to: i) establish a basic framework for alloimmunization as reported across several diverse patient populations; ii) more fully explore literature reports which support the concept of responders/non-responders regarding blood group antigen alloimmunization; iii) summarize the mechanisms that have been shown to predispose an individual to alloimmunization to determine how these factors may differentiate 'responders' from 'non-responders'; and iv) briefly discuss some practical approaches to prevent alloimmunization in patients who may be prone to alloantibody development.

  13. Respondent driven sampling of wheelchair users: A lack of traction?

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, John A.; Schluter, Philip J.; Hay-Smith, E. Jean C.; Snell, Deborah L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Internationally, wheelchair users are an emerging demographic phenomenon, due to their increased prevalence and rapidly increasing life-span. While having significant healthcare implications, basic robust epidemiological information about wheelchair users is often lacking due, in part, to this population’s ‘hidden’ nature. Increasingly popular in epidemiological research, Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) provides a mechanism for generating unbiased population-based estimates for hard-to-reach populations, overcoming biases inherent within other sampling methods. This paper reports the first published study to employ RDS amongst wheelchair users. Methods: Between October 2015 and January 2016, a short, successfully piloted, internet-based national survey was initiated. Twenty seeds from diverse organisations were invited to complete the survey then circulate it to peers within their networks following a well-defined protocol. A predetermined reminder protocol was triggered when seeds or their peers failed to respond. All participants were entered into a draw for an iPad. Results: Overall, 19 people participated (nine women); 12 initial seeds, followed by seven second-wave participants arising from four seeds . Completion time for the survey ranged between 7 and 36 minutes. Despite repeated reminders, no further people were recruited. Discussion: While New Zealand wheelchair user numbers are unknown, an estimated 14% of people have physical impairments that limited mobility. The 19 respondents generated from adopting the RDS methodology here thus represents a negligible fraction of wheelchair users in New Zealand, and an insufficient number to ensure equilibrium required for unbiased analyses. While successful in other hard-to-reach populations, applying RDS methodology to wheelchair users requires further consideration. Formative research exploring areas of network characteristics, acceptability of RDS, appropriate incentive options, and seed

  14. Respondent driven sampling of wheelchair users: A lack of traction?

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, John A.; Schluter, Philip J.; Hay-Smith, E. Jean C.; Snell, Deborah L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Internationally, wheelchair users are an emerging demographic phenomenon, due to their increased prevalence and rapidly increasing life-span. While having significant healthcare implications, basic robust epidemiological information about wheelchair users is often lacking due, in part, to this population’s ‘hidden’ nature. Increasingly popular in epidemiological research, Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) provides a mechanism for generating unbiased population-based estimates for hard-to-reach populations, overcoming biases inherent within other sampling methods. This paper reports the first published study to employ RDS amongst wheelchair users. Methods: Between October 2015 and January 2016, a short, successfully piloted, internet-based national survey was initiated. Twenty seeds from diverse organisations were invited to complete the survey then circulate it to peers within their networks following a well-defined protocol. A predetermined reminder protocol was triggered when seeds or their peers failed to respond. All participants were entered into a draw for an iPad. Results: Overall, 19 people participated (nine women); 12 initial seeds, followed by seven second-wave participants arising from four seeds . Completion time for the survey ranged between 7 and 36 minutes. Despite repeated reminders, no further people were recruited. Discussion: While New Zealand wheelchair user numbers are unknown, an estimated 14% of people have physical impairments that limited mobility. The 19 respondents generated from adopting the RDS methodology here thus represents a negligible fraction of wheelchair users in New Zealand, and an insufficient number to ensure equilibrium required for unbiased analyses. While successful in other hard-to-reach populations, applying RDS methodology to wheelchair users requires further consideration. Formative research exploring areas of network characteristics, acceptability of RDS, appropriate incentive options, and seed

  15. Punished behavior: increases in responding after d-amphetamine.

    PubMed

    McKearney, J W; Barrett, J E

    1975-01-01

    Responding maintained in squirrel monkeys under a 10-min fixed-interval schedule of food presentation was suppressed by presenting a shock after every 30th response (punishment). During alternate 10-min periods of the same experimental session, but in the presence of a different discriminative stimulus, responding either had no effect (extinction) or postponed delivery of an electric shock (avoidance). During sessions when the avoidance schedule was not in effect, d-amphetamine sulfate decreased punished responding. When the avoidance schedule was present during alternate 10-min periods, however, d-amphetamine (0.01 minus 0.56 mg/kg, i.m.) markedly increased responding during punishment components. Increases in responding during avoidance components were also evident. The effects of d-amphetamine on punished responding depend on the context in which that responding occurs. PMID:804701

  16. Sunlight upon a Dark Sky Haiti's Urban Poor Responds to Socio-Political and Socio-Cultural Conflicts: A Case Study of the Grande Ravine Community Human Rights Council

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmett, Deborah Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This case study investigates the organizational characteristics of a Haitian grassroots community human rights council (CHRC) that emerged as a response to three politically motivated massacres. The impromptu grassroots response of this poor urban community is at the core of the following research question investigated in this study: "What…

  17. CIRUN: Climate Information Responding to User Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busalacchi, A. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth System will experience real climate change over the next 50 years, exceeding the scope of natural climate variability. A paramount question facing society is how to adapt to this certainty of climate variability and change. In response, OSTP and NOAA are considering how comprehensive climate services would best inform decisions about adaptation. Similarly, NASA is considering the optimal configuration of the next generation of Earth, environmental, and climate observations to be deployed over the coming 10-20 years. Moreover, much of the added-value information for specific climate-related decisions will be provided by private, academic and non-governmental organizations. In this context, over the past several years the University of Maryland has established the CIRUN (Climate Information: Responding to User Needs) initiative to identify the nature of national needs for climate information and services from a decision support perspective. To date, CIRUN has brought together decisionmakers in a number of sectors to help understand their perspectives on climate with the goal of improving the usefulness of climate information, observations and prediction products to specific user communities. CIRUN began with a major workshop in October 2007 that convened 430 participants in agriculture, parks and recreation, terrestrial ecosystems, insurance/investment, energy, national security, state/local/municipal, water, human health, commerce and manufacturing, transportation, and coastal/marine sectors. Plenary speakers such as Norman Augustine, R. James Woolsey, James Mahoney, and former Senator Joseph Tydings, breakout panel sessions, and participants provided input based on the following: - How would you characterize the exposure or vulnerability to climate variability or change impacting your organization? - Does climate variability and/or change currently factor into your organization's objectives or operations? - Are any of your existing plans being affected by

  18. Effects of oxytocin on aggressive responding in healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Alcorn, Joseph L; Green, Charles E; Schmitz, Joy; Lane, Scott D

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of oxytocin (OT) on human aggression using a well-established laboratory measure of state (reactive) aggression to test the hypothesis that OT would decrease the frequency of aggressive responding. In a within-subject design, 17 healthy male volunteers received placebo or 24 IU of intranasal OT. Aggression was measured using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm at 30 min before and 30, 60, and 90 min after dose. Acute OT did not produce a significant main effect on aggressive behavior. OT attenuated the expected rise in diastolic blood pressure from morning to early afternoon observed under placebo, providing a possible indication of biological activity. Examination of individual differences showed that aggressive responding following OT dosing (but not placebo) was positively correlated with psychometric measures of interpersonal manipulation and anger (Pearson's r=0.57), indicating that higher scores on these antisocial personality traits were related to increased aggressive behavior following OT administration. These preliminary results stand in contrast to previous work on the prosocial effects of OT and highlight the need for further understanding of individual differences in aggression following OT administration. Such individual differences may have implications for the therapeutic use of OT in individuals with psychiatric disorders and dysfunctional social behavior. PMID:26241153

  19. Language Generativity, Response Generalization, and Derived Relational Responding

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ian; McElwee, John; Ming, Siri

    2013-01-01

    Language generativity can be described as the ability to produce sentences never before said, and to understand sentences never before heard. One process often cited as underlying language generativity is response generalization. However, though the latter seems to promise a technical understanding of the former at a process level, an investigation of definitions and approaches to the term “response generalization” that appear in the literature suggests that it does not do so. We argue that a more promising candidate for the role of key process underlying language generativity is derived relational responding. We introduce the latter concept and describe empirical research showing its connection with language. We subsequently present a relational frame theory (RFT) conceptualization of derived relations as contextually controlled generalized relational responding. We then review a series of recent studies on derived manding in developmentally delayed children and adults that arguably demonstrate the applied utility of a derived relations-based approach with respect to the phenomenon of generative language. PMID:23814374

  20. Blood pressure responder rates versus goal rates: which metric matters?

    PubMed

    Basile, Jan

    2009-04-01

    Reducing blood pressure (BP) to guideline-recommended goals associated with reductions in cardiovascular risk is central to effective hypertension management. In addition to measuring BP reduction, clinical trials of antihypertensive agents should assess the percentage of patients responding to treatment. The Food and Drug Administration's defined rate of response required for drug approval is a reduction in diastolic BP (DBP) to <90 mmHg and/or a DBP reduction of > or = 10 mmHg. Consequently, some patients may be counted as responders even if they have not reached DBP <90 mmHg. An antihypertensive agent's effectiveness may be better assessed by the proportion of patients who achieve recommended BP goals. This article analyzes the frequency of response rates versus goal rates as endpoints in randomized trials since January 2001. Data showed that goal rates, especially combined systolic BP (SBP)/DBP goal rates, are consistently lower than response rates in studies evaluating both endpoints. Goal rates incorporating both SBP and DBP, or having a focus on SBP for individuals >50 years of age, provide the most clinically relevant information and are a more clinically relevant metric of an agent's ability to reduce BP than DBP alone.

  1. A Simple Evacuation Modeling and Simulation Tool for First Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Daniel B; Payne, Patricia W

    2015-01-01

    Although modeling and simulation of mass evacuations during a natural or man-made disaster is an on-going and vigorous area of study, tool adoption by front-line first responders is uneven. Some of the factors that account for this situation include cost and complexity of the software. For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been actively developing the free Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit (IMPACT) to address these issues. One of the components of IMPACT is a multi-agent simulation module for area-based and path-based evacuations. The user interface is designed so that anyone familiar with typical computer drawing tools can quickly author a geospatially-correct evacuation visualization suitable for table-top exercises. Since IMPACT is designed for use in the field where network communications may not be available, quick on-site evacuation alternatives can be evaluated to keep pace with a fluid threat situation. Realism is enhanced by incorporating collision avoidance into the simulation. Statistics are gathered as the simulation unfolds, including most importantly time-to-evacuate, to help first responders choose the best course of action.

  2. Calibration of observational measurement of rate of responding.

    PubMed

    Mudford, Oliver C; Zeleny, Jason R; Fisher, Wayne W; Klum, Molly E; Owen, Todd M

    2011-01-01

    The quality of measurement systems used in almost all natural sciences other than behavior analysis is usually evaluated through calibration study rather than relying on interobserver agreement. We demonstrated some of the basic features of calibration using observer-measured rates of free-operant responding from 10 scripted 10-min calibration samples on video. Five novice and 5 experienced observers recorded (on laptop computers) response samples with a priori determined response rates ranging from 0 to 8 responses per minute. Observer records were then compared with these predetermined reference values using linear regression and related graphical depiction. Results indicated that all of the observers recorded rates that were accurate to within ±0.4 responses per minute and 5 were accurate to within ±0.1 responses per minute, indicating that continuous recording of responding on computers can be highly accurate and precise. Additional research is recommended to investigate conditions that affect the quality of direct observational measurement of behavior. PMID:21941386

  3. CALIBRATION OF OBSERVATIONAL MEASUREMENT OF RATE OF RESPONDING

    PubMed Central

    Mudford, Oliver C; Zeleny, Jason R; Fisher, Wayne W; Klum, Molly E; Owen, Todd M

    2011-01-01

    The quality of measurement systems used in almost all natural sciences other than behavior analysis is usually evaluated through calibration study rather than relying on interobserver agreement. We demonstrated some of the basic features of calibration using observer-measured rates of free-operant responding from 10 scripted 10-min calibration samples on video. Five novice and 5 experienced observers recorded (on laptop computers) response samples with a priori determined response rates ranging from 0 to 8 responses per minute. Observer records were then compared with these predetermined reference values using linear regression and related graphical depiction. Results indicated that all of the observers recorded rates that were accurate to within ±0.4 responses per minute and 5 were accurate to within ±0.1 responses per minute, indicating that continuous recording of responding on computers can be highly accurate and precise. Additional research is recommended to investigate conditions that affect the quality of direct observational measurement of behavior. PMID:21941386

  4. First aid skill retention of first responders within the workplace

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent literature states that many necessary skills of CPR and first aid are forgotten shortly after certification. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill and knowledge decay in first aid in those who are paid to respond to emergency situations within a workplace. Methods Using a choking victim scenario, the sequence and accuracy of events were observed and recorded in 257 participants paid to act as first responders in large industrial or service industry settings. A multiple choice exam was also written to determine knowledge retention. Results First aid knowledge was higher in those who were trained at a higher level, and did not significantly decline over time. Those who had renewed their certificate one or more times performed better than those who had learned the information only once. During the choking scenario many skills were performed poorly, regardless of days since last training, such as hand placement and abdominal thrusts. Compressions following the victim becoming unconscious also showed classic signs of skill deterioration after 30 days. Conclusions As many skills deteriorate rapidly over the course of the first 90 days, changing frequency of certification is not necessarily the most obvious choice to increase retention of skill and knowledge. Alternatively, methods of regularly "refreshing" a skill should be explored that could be delivered at a high frequency - such as every 90 days. PMID:21303536

  5. Basic and translational evaluation of renewal of operant responding.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michael E; Liddon, Clare J; Ribeiro, Aurelia; Greif, Abigail E; Podlesnik, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Treatment relapse, defined as the reemergence of problem behavior after treatment, is a serious difficulty faced by clinicians. Failures of treatment integrity (i.e., failure to implement interventions as intended) are often invoked to explain the reemergence of problem behavior. Basic studies suggest that the prevailing stimulus context might also contribute. We conducted 2 experiments in which reinforcement for a target response was followed by 2 phases of extinction with different or identical stimulus contexts relative to baseline (ABA renewal). In Experiment 1, pigeons served as subjects using procedures typical of those used in basic behavioral research. Experiment 2 was designed as a translational replication of Experiment 1, and children who had been diagnosed with autism served as participants. Returning to the previously reinforced stimulus context in both species produced a clear and immediate increase of extinguished responding. These findings are consistent with previous studies that have suggested that both reinforcement contingencies and stimulus context influence the reemergence of extinguished behavior.

  6. Long-Term, Open-Label, Safety Study of Edivoxetine 12 to 18 mg Once Daily as Adjunctive Treatment for Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Who Are Partial Responders to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ball, Susan G; Atkinson, Sarah; Sparks, JonDavid; Bangs, Mark; Goldberger, Celine; Dubé, Sanjay

    2015-06-01

    Long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of adjunctive edivoxetine hydrochloride (hereafter edivoxetine), a highly selective and potent norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, was assessed in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) experiencing partial response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment. Data are from a multicenter, 54-week, open-label trial of adjunctive edivoxetine 12 to 18 mg once daily in patients with MDD who had experienced partial response by history to 6 or more weeks of current selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor therapy and who had a 17-item GRID Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression total score 16 or higher at study entry. Safety measures included discontinuation rate, treatment-emergent adverse events, serious adverse events, and vital signs. Efficacy measures included the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. Of 608 patients, 328 (54%) completed the open-label adjunctive treatment. Study discontinuation due to adverse events occurred in 17.0%, and there were 13 serious adverse events (1 death). Treatment-emergent adverse events 5% or higher were nausea, hyperhidrosis, constipation, headache, dry mouth, dizziness, vomiting, insomnia, and upper respiratory tract infection. Mean increases were observed in systolic blood pressure (range, 0.0-2.3 mm Hg), diastolic blood pressure (range, 1.9-3.3 mm Hg), and pulse (range, 5.9-8.4 beats per minute). Mean improvements on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (-17.0) were observed from baseline to week 54. The safety profile from this study provides an overview of outcomes associated with edivoxetine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition as an adjunctive treatment in patients with MDD who were treated up to 1 year. PMID:25815754

  7. Habituation and recovery of salivation and motivated responding for food in children

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Jennifer L.; Kent, Kristine M.; Giacomelli, April M.; Paluch, Rocco A.; Roemmich, James N.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2008-01-01

    Salivary responses habituate to repeated presentations of food cues, and these responses recover when new food stimuli are presented. Research suggests that within-session changes in motivated responding for food may also habituate, and motivated responding may, therefore, recover when new foods are presented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate similarities in the pattern of salivation and motivated responding for a cheeseburger stimulus in children, followed by either a novel stimulus (French fries) or another cheeseburger trial. The order of the task (salivation or motivation) was counterbalanced over days. Salivation and motivated responding for cheeseburger were reliably reduced over seven trials, and responses recovered after presentation of French fries on trial 8. Random regression models showed a significant relationship between the rate of change in motivated responding and salivation. These results provide additional support for similarities in processes that regulate salivation and motivated responding for food and strengthen support for the hypothesis that changes in motivated responding can be understood by habituation theory. PMID:16624446

  8. Primate dental ecology: How teeth respond to the environment.

    PubMed

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Ungar, Peter S; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth are central for the study of ecology, as teeth are at the direct interface between an organism and its environment. Recent years have witnessed a rapid growth in the use of teeth to understand a broad range of topics in living and fossil primate biology. This in part reflects new techniques for assessing ways in which teeth respond to, and interact with, an organism's environment. Long-term studies of wild primate populations that integrate dental analyses have also provided a new context for understanding primate interactions with their environments. These new techniques and long-term field studies have allowed the development of a new perspective-dental ecology. We define dental ecology as the broad study of how teeth respond to, or interact with, the environment. This includes identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, as they reflect feeding ecology, behavior, and habitat variation, including areas impacted by anthropogenic disturbance, and how dental development can reflect environmental change and/or stress. The dental ecology approach, built on collaboration between dental experts and ecologists, holds the potential to provide an important theoretical and practical framework for inferring ecology and behavior of fossil forms, for assessing environmental change in living populations, and for understanding ways in which habitat impacts primate growth and development. This symposium issue brings together experts on dental morphology, growth and development, tooth wear and health, primate ecology, and paleontology, to explore the broad application of dental ecology to questions of how living and fossil primates interact with their environments.

  9. Primate dental ecology: How teeth respond to the environment.

    PubMed

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Ungar, Peter S; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth are central for the study of ecology, as teeth are at the direct interface between an organism and its environment. Recent years have witnessed a rapid growth in the use of teeth to understand a broad range of topics in living and fossil primate biology. This in part reflects new techniques for assessing ways in which teeth respond to, and interact with, an organism's environment. Long-term studies of wild primate populations that integrate dental analyses have also provided a new context for understanding primate interactions with their environments. These new techniques and long-term field studies have allowed the development of a new perspective-dental ecology. We define dental ecology as the broad study of how teeth respond to, or interact with, the environment. This includes identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, as they reflect feeding ecology, behavior, and habitat variation, including areas impacted by anthropogenic disturbance, and how dental development can reflect environmental change and/or stress. The dental ecology approach, built on collaboration between dental experts and ecologists, holds the potential to provide an important theoretical and practical framework for inferring ecology and behavior of fossil forms, for assessing environmental change in living populations, and for understanding ways in which habitat impacts primate growth and development. This symposium issue brings together experts on dental morphology, growth and development, tooth wear and health, primate ecology, and paleontology, to explore the broad application of dental ecology to questions of how living and fossil primates interact with their environments. PMID:22610891

  10. Certified first responder: a comprehensive model for pediatric training.

    PubMed

    Markenson, D; Foltin, G; Tunik, M; Cooper, A; Treiber, M; Welborn, C; Clappin, J; Fitton, A; Giordano, L

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a general approach to educating the First Responder in Emergency Pediatric Care. The First Responder is especially important in the emergency care of the sick or injured child. The majority of mortality and morbidity associated with pediatric emergencies is a result of airway and ventilatory compromise. In addition, most airway and ventilation problems can be corrected with only basic life support interventions that are within the scope of practice of the First Responder. As a result, it is of paramount importance to assure that the First Responder is adequately trained in the initial care of the pediatric patient. This document will review some of the key objectives and topics which the First Responder needs to understand in order to adequately care for children until further emergency care arrives. Templates for lesson plans and suggested activities for training the First Responder are also presented. PMID:9127426

  11. Cost of treatment in patients with metastatic soft tissue sarcoma who respond favourably to chemotherpy. The SArcoma treatment and Burden of Illness in North America and Europe (SABINE) study.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, L; Justo, N; Musayev, A; Krishna, A; Burke, T; Pellissier, J; Judson, I; Staddon, A; Blay, J Y

    2016-05-01

    Treatment of metastatic soft tissue sarcoma (mSTS) commonly includes multiple lines of chemotherapy, until a decline in performance status precludes further treatment. The primary objective of this study was to describe the lifetime healthcare resource utilisation and cost among mSTS patients with favourable response to chemotherapy. SABINE was a multi-centre (n = 25), multi-country (n = 9) retrospective chart review study of mSTS patients with favourable response to chemotherapy following 4 cycles. Healthcare resource utilisation was collected from first line until death or end of follow-up. Costs were analysed by health states (defined by treatment line, chemotherapy use and disease progression) and estimated by multiplying the mean weekly cost per health state by the expected number of weeks spent in each health state. Expected per-patient lifetime medical cost was €65 616 (95% CI: €51 454-€85 003); comprised of IV chemotherapy (31.7%), inpatient care (24.8%), concomitant medication (11.0%), oral chemotherapy (8.9%), outpatient visits (8.8%), radiotherapy (6.3%), hospice (4.0%), imaging (3.7%) and laboratory (0.7%). Weekly costs were 280-330% higher during chemotherapy treatment periods than off-chemotherapy, especially after disease progression. Per-patient costs were highest in the USA and lowest in the Netherlands and UK. The economic burden of mSTS is considerable and the amount of resources devoted to its treatment varies across countries.

  12. The Discrimination of Fully Randomized and Partially Randomized Responding from Nonrandomized Responding on the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire-Fifth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietrzak, Dale; Korcuska, James S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the detection of various rates of noncontent responding on the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire-Fifth Edition (R. Cattell, H. Eber, & M. Tatsuoka, 1970). The study used a sample of 237 adult volunteers. New scales were developed and tested. (Contains 3 tables.)

  13. An integrated command control and communications center for first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messner, Richard A.; Hludik, Frank; Vidacic, Dragan; Melnyk, Pavlo

    2005-05-01

    First responders to a major incident include many different agencies. These may include law enforcement officers, multiple fire departments, paramedics, HAZMAT response teams, and possibly even federal personnel such as FBI and FEMA. Often times multiple jurisdictions respond to the incident which causes interoperability issues with respect to communication and dissemination of time critical information. Accurate information from all responding sources needs to be rapidly collected and made available to the current on site responders as well as the follow-on responders who may just be arriving on scene. The creation of a common central database with a simple easy to use interface that is dynamically updated in real time would allow prompt and efficient information distribution between different jurisdictions. Such a system is paramount to the success of any response to a major incident. First responders typically arrive in mobile vehicles that are equipped with communications equipment. Although the first responders may make reports back to their specific home based command centers, the details of those reports are not typically available to other first responders who are not a part of that agencies infrastructure. Furthermore, the collection of information often occurs outside of the first responder vehicle and the details of the scene are normally either radioed from the field or written down and then disseminated after significant delay. Since first responders are not usually on the same communications channels, and the fact that there is normally a considerable amount of confusion during the first few hours on scene, it would be beneficial if there were a centralized location for the repository of time critical information which could be accessed by all the first responders in a common fashion without having to redesign or add significantly to each first responders hardware/software systems. Each first responder would then be able to provide information

  14. GnRH agonist trigger with intensive luteal phase support vs. human chorionic gonadotropin trigger in high responders: an observational study reporting pregnancy outcomes and incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Georgios; Vlismas, Antonios; Carby, Anna; Lavery, Stuart; Trew, Geoffrey

    2016-09-01

    A retrospective, cohort study of high-risk patients undergoing IVF treatment was performed to assess if there is a difference in clinical pregnancy rate, live birth rate and the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, when a GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger with intensive luteal support is compared to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) with standard luteal support. The control group consisted of 382 high-risk patients having a GnRH antagonist protocol with 194 receiving an hCG trigger. All patients had ≥18 follicles ≥11mm or serum oestradiol >18,000pmol/l on the day of trigger. Patients had a single or double embryo transfer at cleavage or blastocyst stage. Logistic regression was used to adjust for differences between the groups. An intention-to-treat analysis of all cycles was performed. No statistically significant differences were observed in terms of positive pregnancy test, clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate. Only one patient (0.3%) was hospitalized with severe OHSS in the GnRHa group, compared to 26 patients (13%) in the hCG group. In conclusion, GnRHa trigger is associated with similar pregnancy rates with hCG trigger and a significant reduction in hospitalization for severe OHSS after an intention to treat analysis was performed. PMID:27662416

  15. Functional imaging in obese children responding to long-term sports therapy.

    PubMed

    Kinder, M; Lotze, M; Davids, S; Domin, M; Thoms, K; Wendt, J; Hirschfeld, H; Hamm, A; Lauffer, H

    2014-10-01

    Functional imaging studies on responders and non-responders to therapeutic interventions in obese children are rare. We applied fMRI before and after a one-year sports therapy in 14 obese or overweight children aged 7-16 years. During scanning, participants observed a set of standardized pictures from food categories, sports, and pleasant and neutral images. We were interested in alterations of the cerebral activation to food images in association with changes in the BMI-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) after therapy and therefore separated the observation group into two outcome subgroups. One with reduction of BMI-SDS >0.2 (responder group) and one without (non-responder group). Before therapy fMRI-activation between groups did not differ. After therapy we found the following results: in response to food images, obese children of the responder group showed increased activation in the left putamen when compared with the non-responder group. Pleasant images evoked increased insula activation in the responder group. Only the responder group showed enhanced activity within areas known to store trained motor patterns in response to sports images. Both the putamen and the insula are involved in the processing of emotional valence and were only active for the therapy responders during the observation of food or pleasant stimuli. Elevated activity in these regions might possibly be seen in the context of an increase of dopaminergic response to emotional positive stimuli during intervention. In addition, sport images activated motor representations only in those subjects who profited from the sports therapy. Overall, an altered response to rewarding and pleasant images and an increased recruitment of motor engrams during observations of sports pictures indicates a more normal cerebral processing in response to these stimuli after successful sports therapy in obese children.

  16. The Exceptional Responders Initiative: Welcoming More Cases

    Cancer.gov

    The initiative is studying tissue, clinical, and genomic data from patients with cancer who have had dramatic and long-lasting responses to standard and experimental treatments that were not seen in similar patients who received the same treatment.

  17. Radar detection of drones responding to honeybee queen pheromone.

    PubMed

    Loper, G M; Wolf, W W; Taylor, O R

    1993-09-01

    The response of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) drones to queen pheromone(s) (either natural from a mated queen, or synthetic from a lure) was recorded using an X-band, ground-based radar. The distribution of drones (insect targets on the radar screen) changed from a scattered distribution to a line concentration (downwind) when the pheromone was released. Displacement within the line concentration was toward the pheromone. This response was seen as far as 800±15 m downwind from a lure with 10 mg of synthetic 9-oxodec-trans-2-enoic acid (9-ODA) and as far as 420±15 m from a mated queen. These studies demonstrate that queen pheromone can be detected by drones at much greater distances than previously believed and illustrate how X-band radar may be used to establish the distances at which insects of similar or larger size respond to pheromones.

  18. Reinforcement magnitude and responding during treatment with differential reinforcement.

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, Dorothea C; Kelley, Michael E; Vorndran, Christina M; Kuhn, Stephanie A C; LaRue, Robert H

    2002-01-01

    Basic findings indicate that the amount or magnitude of reinforcement can influence free-operant responding prior to and during extinction. In this study, the relation between reinforcement magnitude and adaptive behavior was evaluated with 3 children as part of treatment with differential reinforcement. In the first experiment, a communicative response was shaped and maintained by the same reinforcer that was found to maintain problem behavior. Two reinforcement magnitudes (20-s or 60-s access to toys or escape from demands) were compared and found to be associated with similar levels of resistance to extinction. The relation between reinforcement magnitude and response maintenance was further evaluated in the second experiment by exposing the communicative response to 20-s or 300-s access to toys or escape. Results for 2 participants suggested that this factor may alter the duration of postreinforcement pauses. PMID:11936544

  19. Reinforcement magnitude and responding during treatment with differential reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Dorothea C; Kelley, Michael E; Vorndran, Christina M; Kuhn, Stephanie A C; LaRue, Robert H

    2002-01-01

    Basic findings indicate that the amount or magnitude of reinforcement can influence free-operant responding prior to and during extinction. In this study, the relation between reinforcement magnitude and adaptive behavior was evaluated with 3 children as part of treatment with differential reinforcement. In the first experiment, a communicative response was shaped and maintained by the same reinforcer that was found to maintain problem behavior. Two reinforcement magnitudes (20-s or 60-s access to toys or escape from demands) were compared and found to be associated with similar levels of resistance to extinction. The relation between reinforcement magnitude and response maintenance was further evaluated in the second experiment by exposing the communicative response to 20-s or 300-s access to toys or escape. Results for 2 participants suggested that this factor may alter the duration of postreinforcement pauses.

  20. Responding to Literature: Theme 2, Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rexford

    This study presents the second of four reports of the results of the 1970-71 National Assessment of Literature. The educational attainments of nine-year-olds, thirteen-year-olds, seventeen-year-olds, and adults (ages 26-35) were surveyed according to the subjects' ability to become engaged in, find meanings in, and evaluate a work of literature.…

  1. Smart Bodies: Louisiana Responds to Youth Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Ellen P.; Holston, Denise; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2005-01-01

    In Louisiana, it is estimated that almost 33% of school-age children are at risk for becoming overweight or are already overweight (Louisiana Office of Public Health, 2004). Studies have shown that poor nutrition, physical inactivity, and weight problems often associated with being overweight adversely affect academic performance in school…

  2. How Institutions Respond to Training Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Andrew

    The impact of the transition to training packages (TPs) on institutionally based training in Australia was examined. Information was gathered from 14 case studies of registered trade organizations (RTOs) delivering qualifications to institutionally based students in TPs in the following areas: administration, beauty therapy, community services,…

  3. Responding to Teachers' Concerns with Qualitative Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasho, Stefan J.

    Five ethnographic researchers worked with five elementary school teachers to develop individualized research topics related to teaching in multiethnic classrooms. The teachers were familiar with the ethnographers, having participated in previous naturalistic studies in their newly desegregated schools. Subjects included two teachers from a…

  4. Responding to Diversity? Refugee Families and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Carol; Warren, Simon

    This paper reports on a small-scale, recently completed qualitative project conducted in the United Kingdom that focuses on links between refugee families and the schools their children attend. The project attempted to study the relationships between refugee parents and education professionals in order to identify factors that encourage or hinder…

  5. Multimodal Narrative Inquiry: Six Teacher Candidates Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morawski, Cynthia M.; Rottmann, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present findings of a study on the implementation of a multimodal teacher narrative inquiry component, theoretically grounded by Rosenblatt's theory of transaction analysis, methodologically supported by action research and practically enacted by narrative inquiry and multimodal learning. In particular, the component offered…

  6. Transit Economy Market Challenge and University Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiulis, Algirdas Vaclovas

    2003-01-01

    In an ever-changing labour market, university tries to make efforts to estimate the free labour market demands for university graduates. The strength of Engineering Education lies in the range and depth of fundamental knowledge the students acquire during their studies, but the abilities like: taking risk, taking initiative, teamwork,…

  7. Barnsley Responds to the 1981 Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Jim; Hepworth, Roy

    1987-01-01

    A case study of a local education agency (LEA) in Barnsley, England reveals how one LEA implemented the 1981 Education Act. A description of LEA characteristics is followed by a discussion of assessment procedures (e.g., annual screening and a Teacher Information Package) and a within-child interpretation of special needs. (JW)

  8. Ready to Respond: Case Studies in Campus Safety and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Is your campus primed for the next big emergency? The National Campus Safety and Security Project (NCSSP), led by NACUBO, sought to help colleges and universities develop comprehensive emergency management plans that address the four phases of emergency management: prevention/mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. A major component of…

  9. 49 CFR 630.7 - Failure to respond to questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Failure to respond to questions. 630.7 Section 630.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.7 Failure to respond to...

  10. 49 CFR 630.7 - Failure to respond to questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Failure to respond to questions. 630.7 Section 630.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.7 Failure to respond to...

  11. 49 CFR 630.7 - Failure to respond to questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Failure to respond to questions. 630.7 Section 630.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.7 Failure to respond to...

  12. 49 CFR 630.7 - Failure to respond to questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Failure to respond to questions. 630.7 Section 630.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.7 Failure to respond to...

  13. 49 CFR 630.7 - Failure to respond to questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Failure to respond to questions. 630.7 Section 630.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.7 Failure to respond to...

  14. Transforming Higher Education in the Information Age: Presidents Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Richard D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    College presidents respond to an article by Richard Nolan challenging college and university presidents and chancellors to transform their campuses for survival and competitive advantage in the information age. Respondents include Richard D. Breslin, David M. Clarke, Joseph Cronin, Thomas Ehrlich, Donald N. Langenberg, Harold McAninch, and Donald…

  15. 77 FR 56622 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet). DATES: The meeting will be held on September 25, 2012... the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) as an independent authority within the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA). The Act directs FirstNet to establish a single...

  16. 39 CFR 958.11 - Respondent's access to information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Respondent's access to information. 958.11 Section... § 958.11 Respondent's access to information. Except as provided in this section, after receiving the... Determining Official under 39 U.S.C. 3018, and all exculpatory information in the possession of...

  17. Opportunities to Respond: A Key Component of Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Todd; MacSuga-Gage, Ashley S.; Simonsen, Brandi; Hawkins, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Effective instruction is a key component of successful classroom management and includes practices that maximize the likelihood of student participation, active responding, and correct responding while minimizing errors. Researchers have established the connection between effective instruction and (a) increases in desired student behaviors,…

  18. Understanding and Responding to Adolescent Girls' Online Cruelty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokal, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Many school counsellors have identified "cyber-bullying" among adolescent girls as a growing concern. In order to respond to this issue, this article begins with a new model of cyber-communications from the unique perspective of adolescent girls. Next, it explores the limitations of responding to this model, based on current understandings of…

  19. The CODE RED Solution: biothreat response training for first responders.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Cassandra D; Egan, Christina; Cirino, Nick M

    2006-01-01

    The terrorist events of 2001 brought to light the need for a close working relationship between the first responder communities and the public health laboratories in New York State (NYS). Since 2002, the Wadsworth Center's Biodefense Laboratory (BDL) has been providing outreach training to first responders in New York, to enable them to respond safely, correctly, and confidently to biothreat events. A pocket trifold was developed, titled "CODE RED," which describes sampling protocols, risk analysis criteria, and important contact information for use during an emergency response to a potential bioterrorism situation. In addition, the BDL has provided training to more than 1,000 first responders in the basic knowledge of biothreat agents, routes of dissemination, sampling and decontamination methods, contamination control protocols, biothreat risk assessment, and legal chain of custody procedures. The training methods have been established for use by first responders wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). All states can benefit from highly trained first responders who are capable of efficient, safe, and effective biothreat response, resulting in increased safety of the first responders and laboratorians, as well as decreased turnaround times for laboratory results. The CODE RED trifold provides a working model for training first responders at the state and county levels for emergency biothreat response. PMID:17238823

  20. EIA responds to Nature article on shale gas projections

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    EIA has responded to a December 4, 2014 Nature article on projections of shale gas production made by EIA and by the Bureau of Economic Geology of the University of Texas at Austin (BEG/UT) with a letter to the editors of Nature. BEG/UT has also responded to the article in their own letter to the editor.

  1. Meta-Analysis and Inadequate Responders to Intervention: A Reply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis by Tran, Sanchez, Arellano, and Swanson (2011) of the published RTI literature found that the magnitude of effect size (ES) between responders and low responders at posttest was significantly moderated by the pretest ES and the type of dependent measure administered, whereas no significant moderating effects were found in the mixed…

  2. Training Law Enforcement Officials on Responding to Equine Calls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kathleen P.; Stauffer, Gary; Stauffer, Monte; Anderson, Doug; Biodrowski, Kristie

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of equine abuse/neglect cases is an ongoing issue. However, officials responding to equine cases are rarely experienced in handling horses. Therefore, workshops teaching basic horse husbandry were offered to better equip and prepare officials to respond to equine cases. Trainings consisted of both classroom and hands-on sessions.…

  3. 6 CFR 5.4 - Responsibility for responding to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for responding to requests. 5.4 Section 5.4 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 5.4 Responsibility for responding to requests. (a)...

  4. 14 CFR 437.75 - Mishap reporting, responding, and investigating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mishap reporting, responding, and investigating. 437.75 Section 437.75 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.75 Mishap reporting, responding,...

  5. 14 CFR 437.75 - Mishap reporting, responding, and investigating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mishap reporting, responding, and investigating. 437.75 Section 437.75 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.75 Mishap reporting, responding,...

  6. 14 CFR 437.75 - Mishap reporting, responding, and investigating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mishap reporting, responding, and investigating. 437.75 Section 437.75 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.75 Mishap reporting, responding,...

  7. Responding to uncertainty in nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Thompson, C; Dowding, D

    2001-10-01

    Uncertainty is a fact of life for practising clinicians and cannot be avoided. This paper outlines the model of uncertainty presented by Katz (1988, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. pp. 544-565) and examines the descriptive and normative power of three broad theoretical and strategic approaches to dealing with uncertainty: rationality, bounded rationality and intuition. It concludes that nursing research and development (R&D) must acknowledge uncertainty more fully in its R&D agenda and that good-quality evaluation studies which directly compare intuitive with rational-analytical approaches for given clinical problems should be a dominant feature of future R&D.

  8. Agreement among response to intervention criteria for identifying responder status

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Anthony, Jason L.; Denton, Carolyn A.; Mathes, Patricia G.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Francis, David J.

    2008-01-01

    In order to better understand the extent to which operationalizations of response to intervention (RTI) overlap and agree in identifying adequate and inadequate responders, an existing database of 399 first grade students was evaluated in relation to cut-points, measures, and methods frequently cited for the identification of inadequate responders to instruction. A series of 543 2×2 measures of association (808 total comparisons) were computed to address the agreement of different operationalizations of RTI. The results indicate that agreement is generally poor and that different methods tend to identify different students as inadequate responders, although agreement for identifying adequate responders is higher. Approaches to the assessment of responder status must use multiple criteria and avoid formulaic decision making. PMID:19081758

  9. How Do Membranes Respond to Pressure?

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Bilayers formed by phospholipids are fundamental structures of biological membranes. The mechanical perturbation brought about by pressure significantly affects the membrane states of phospholipid bilayers. In this chapter, we focus our attention on the pressure responsivity for bilayers of some major phospholipids contained in biological membranes. At first, the membrane states and phase transitions of phospholipid bilayers depending on water content, temperature and pressure are explained by using the bilayer phase diagrams of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), which is the most familiar phospholipid in model membrane studies. Subsequently, the thermotropic and barotropic bilayer phase behavior of various kinds of phospholipids with different molecular structures is discussed from the comparison of their temperature--pressure phase diagrams to that of the DPPC bilayer. It turns out that a slight change in the molecular structure of the phospholipids produces a significant difference in the bilayer phase behavior. The systematic pressure studies on the phase behavior of the phospholipid bilayers reveal not only the pressure responsivity for the bilayers but also the role and meaning of several important phospholipids existing in real biological membranes. PMID:26174389

  10. Cortisol concentrations in follicular fluid of 'low responder' patients.

    PubMed

    Bider, D; Shine, S; Tur-Kaspa, I; Levron, J; Dor, J

    1998-01-01

    The study was undertaken to examine any differences existing in total cortisol concentrations in the follicular fluid (FF) of pre-ruptured follicles between 'low responder' patients (group 1, n = 20) and 'good responder' patients (group 2, n = 15). The groups were defined according to how many oocytes had been retrieved during the previous in-vitro fertilization procedure (group 1: three or fewer; group 2: more than three) and total oestradiol concentration at previous in-vitro fertilization (IVF) (group 1: < or = 500 pg/ml; group 2: > 500 pg/ml). All patients were aged 36-43 years (group 1 mean +/- SD: 38.2 +/- 4.7; group 2: 32.1 +/- 3.8 years) and were diagnosed with tubal or unexplained infertility. The total FF cortisol concentrations obtained in conjunction with an IVF procedure were assayed and related to oocyte fertilization. Follicular fluid was analysed for total cortisol content. Only follicles between 19 and 20 mm diameter were analysed in both groups. After aspiration of blood-free FF, total cortisol concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay, designed for the quantitative measurement of cortisol, and related to oocyte fertilization. Total cortisol concentration in FF from fertilized oocytes was 9.7 +/- 0.6 microg/ml (mean +/- SD) in group 1 compared to 9.2 +/- 4.4 microg/ml in group 2 (not statistically significant). Total cortisol concentrations were not associated with oocyte fertilization and no difference between the groups was found in total cortisol concentrations in the FF of unfertilized oocytes or empty follicles.

  11. Gene Regions Responding to Skeletal Muscle Atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Frank W.

    1997-01-01

    Our stated specific aims for this project were: 1) Identify the region(s) of the mouse IIb myosin heavy chain (MHC) promoter necessary for in vivo expression in mouse fast-twitch muscle, and 2) Identify the region(s) of the mouse IIb MHC promoter responsive to immobilization in mouse slow-twitch muscle in vivo. We sought to address these specific aims by introducing various MHC IIb promoter/reporter gene constructs directly into the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles of living mice. Although the method of somatic gene transfer into skeletal muscle by direct injection has been successfully used in our laboratory to study the regulation of the skeletal alpha actin gene in chicken skeletal muscle, we had many difficulties utilizing this procedure in the mouse. Because of the small size of the mouse soleus and the difficulty in obtaining consistent results, we elected not to study this muscle as first proposed. Rather, our MHC IIb promoter deletion experiments were performed in the gastrocnemius. Further, we decided to use hindlimb unloading via tail suspension to induce an upregulation of the MHC IIb gene, rather than immobilization of the hindlimbs via plaster casts. This change was made because tail suspension more closely mimics spaceflight, and this procedure in our lab results in a smaller loss of overall body mass than the mouse hindlimb immobilization procedure. This suggests that the stress level during tail suspension is less than during immobilization. This research has provided an important beginning point towards understanding the molecular regulation of the MHC lIb gene in response to unweighting of skeletal muscle Future work will focus on the regulation of MHC IIb mRNA stability in response to altered loading of skeletal muscle

  12. Relation between Self-Esteem and Socially Desirable Responding and the Role of Socially Desirable Responding in the Relation between Self-Esteem and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examines the relation between self-esteem and socially desirable responding by integrating previous findings via a meta-analysis. In 55 studies containing 73 independent samples (N?=?11,901), the correlation between self-esteem and Impression Management was weak, that between self-esteem and Self-Deceptive Enhancement was from…

  13. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    PubMed

    Melcón, Mariana L; Cummins, Amanda J; Kerosky, Sara M; Roche, Lauren K; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood. PMID:22393434

  14. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    PubMed

    Melcón, Mariana L; Cummins, Amanda J; Kerosky, Sara M; Roche, Lauren K; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  15. Professional responsibilities versus familial responsibilities: an examination of role conflict among first responders during the Hurricane Katrina disaster.

    PubMed

    Adams, Terri; Turner, Mila

    2014-01-01

    In the event of a human-caused or natural disaster, the police are essential front-line first responders. The ability of police departments to provide adequate services is contingent upon critical response personnel working and functioning in an efficient manner. Currently, it is assumed that first responders will continue to work in the event of a disaster, even if they are personally impacted by the disaster to which they are expected to respond. This study examines role conflict among police officers who served as first responders during the Hurricane Katrina disaster.

  16. Professional responsibilities versus familial responsibilities: an examination of role conflict among first responders during the Hurricane Katrina disaster.

    PubMed

    Adams, Terri; Turner, Mila

    2014-01-01

    In the event of a human-caused or natural disaster, the police are essential front-line first responders. The ability of police departments to provide adequate services is contingent upon critical response personnel working and functioning in an efficient manner. Currently, it is assumed that first responders will continue to work in the event of a disaster, even if they are personally impacted by the disaster to which they are expected to respond. This study examines role conflict among police officers who served as first responders during the Hurricane Katrina disaster. PMID:24691915

  17. Completeness and utility of interview data from proxy respondents in prenatal care research in rural China.

    PubMed

    Nwaru, Bright I; Klemetti, Reija; Yuan, Shen; Kun, Huang; Wang, Yang; Hemminki, Elina

    2012-05-01

    In household surveys, the use of data provided by relatives can increase response rates and generalisability of research findings. This study assessed the quality of data from relatives and the impact of the data source on the association between the use of prenatal care and pregnancy outcomes. Data for 3,673 new mothers and 293 proxy respondents were available from a house-hold survey in 2008-2009 in rural China. Analyses were performed using chi-square test, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, and logistic regression models. Differences in the studied variables were small, but proxy respondents were slightly more likely to have missing data than the new mothers. Differences and missing data were more common for the use of prenatal care and outcome variables (mode of delivery, place of delivery, birth weight, use of postnatal care, and gestational age at birth) than for the background characteristics of the participants. Husbands' reports were closer to the index reports than that of the other proxies. The associations between the exposures and outcomes were mostly similar between the proxy and index respondents. Relatives can be interviewed instead of women to study prenatal care without a substantial negative impact on study results. Studies using proxy respondents should stratify the analysis by type of respondents.

  18. First responder and physician liability during an emergency.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    First responders, especially emergency medical technicians and paramedics, along with physicians, will be expected to render care during a mass casualty event. It is highly likely that these medical first responders and physicians will be rendering care in suboptimal conditions due to the mass casualty event. Furthermore, these individuals are expected to shift their focus from individually based care to community- or population-based care when assisting disaster response. As a result, patients may feel they have not received adequate care and may seek to hold the medical first responder or physician liable, even if they did everything they could given the emergency circumstances. Therefore, it is important to protect medical first responders and physicians rendering care during a mass casualty event so that their efforts are not unnecessarily impeded by concerns about civil liability. In this article, the author looks at the standard of care for medical first responders and physicians and describes the current framework of laws limiting liability for these persons during an emergency. The author concludes that the standard of care and current laws fail to offer adequate liability protection for medical first responders and physicians, especially those in the private sector, and recommends that states adopt clear laws offering liability protection for all medical first responders and physicians who render assistance during a mass casualty event.

  19. Re-treatment of patients with hepatitis C who failed to respond (nonresponders) to previous treatment.

    PubMed

    Sharvadze, L G; Gogichaishvili, Sh Sh; Sakandelidze, Ts G; Zhamutashvili, M T; Chkhartishvili, N I

    2009-01-01

    The aim of four-year follow up study was evaluation of re-treatment efficacy of antiviral therapy in patients with hepatitis C who failed to respond (non responders) to previous therapy. Study enrolled 29 patients, aged 21-59 with HCV infection (15 had HCV genotype 1, and 14 had HCV non-genotype1), who previously were treated with unmodified interferon alfa (conventional interferon) 2a or 2b 5 MIU TIW plus ribavirin (1000-1200 mg/day) and who failed under this therapy. Study subjects were randomized into two groups: in group I were included 17 patients--relapsers (patient in whom HCV RNA becomes undetectable on treatment and is undetectable at the end of therapy, but is detected again after discontinuation of treatment). Group II was composed of 12 patients: 4 were non responders (patient in whom HCV RNA levels remain stable on treatment), 4--partial responders (HCV RNA levels decline by >2 logs, but never become undetectable during treatment) and 4--breakthrough non responders (HCV RNA become undetectable during treatment, but before-treatment termination again become detectable). The diagnosis of HCV infection was made based on detection of HCV antibodies by ELISA and confirmed by RIBA. Detection of HCV RNA (qualitative) and HCV RNA Viral load--by Real time PCR technique (COBAS TaqMan Test). HCV genotypes were detected by INNO-Lipa method. In group I--rapid virological response (RVR) was observed in 10 (58%) patients, early viral response (EVR) in 12 patients (70%). Among them 9 (52%) patients remained HCV RNA undetectable by the end of treatment. After 6 months sustained viral response (SVR) was received in 7 (41%) patients from group I. In group II--RVR was observed in 5 (41%), EVR in 6 (50%) patients. Among them 5 (41%) patients remained HCV RNA undetectable by the end of treatment. After 6 months Sustained Viral Response was received in 3 (25%) patients. Re-treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin in patients with hepatitis C who failed to responds

  20. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (Oct-Nov 2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Upton, Jaki F.; Stein, Steven L.

    2015-01-21

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  1. The Proton Pump Inhibitor Non-Responder: A Clinical Conundrum

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Zilla H; Henderson, Emily E; Maradey-Romerao, Carla; George, Nina; Fass, Ronnie; Lacy, Brian E

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a highly prevalent chronic condition where in stomach contents reflux into the esophagus causing symptoms, esophageal injury, and subsequent complications. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) remain the mainstay of therapy for acid suppression. Despite their efficacy, significant proportions of GERD patients are either partial or non-responders to PPI therapy. Patients should be assessed for mechanisms that can lead to PPI failure and may require further evaluation to investigate for alternative causes. This monograph will outline a diagnostic approach to the PPI non-responder, review mechanisms associated with PPI failure, and discuss therapeutic options for those who fail to respond to PPI therapy. PMID:26270485

  2. Fearful responding to interoceptive exposure in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Collimore, Kelsey C; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2014-03-01

    There is accumulating evidence suggesting that anxiety sensitivity (AS) may play a role in social anxiety disorder (SAD; e.g., Ball, Otto, Pollack, Uccello, & Rosenbaum, 1995). Precedent research has demonstrated the role of AS in panic disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, and subsequently, treatment techniques aimed at reducing AS (i.e., interoceptive exposure (IE)) have been studied in these populations (Schmidt & Trakowski, 2004; Wald & Taylor, 2008). The purpose of this study was to examine the types of responses elicited during IE exercises among individuals with SAD. This study describes the responses of individuals with SAD (n = 37) and nonclinical control participants (n = 28) to six IE exercises. Significant differences in responses to the IE exercises were found between participants with SAD and nonclinical controls. However, there were no significant differences in responses to the exercises among persons with SAD, depending on whether the exercises were completed in private versus group settings. Similarity to symptoms during naturally occurring anxiety significantly predicted fearful responding across all exercises in persons with SAD. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24295848

  3. Repeated vaccinations do not improve specific immune defenses against Hepatitis B in non-responder health care workers.

    PubMed

    Zaffina, Salvatore; Marcellini, Valentina; Santoro, Anna Paola; Scarsella, Marco; Camisa, Vincenzo; Vinci, Maria Rosaria; Musolino, Anna Maria; Nicolosi, Luciana; Rosado, M Manuela; Carsetti, Rita

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis B is a major infectious occupational hazard for health care workers and can be prevented with a safe and effective vaccine. The serum titer of anti-HBsAg antibodies is the most commonly used correlate of protection and post-vaccination anti-HBsAg concentrations of ≥ 10 mIU/ml are considered protective. Subjects with post-vaccination anti-HBsAg titers of <10 mIU/ml 1-6 months post-vaccination, who tested negative for HBsAg and anti-HBc, are defined as non-responders. The question of whether non-responders should be repeatedly vaccinated is still open. The aim of the study was to (i) evaluate the distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations and the percentage of HBsAg-specific memory B cells in responders and non-responders (ii) assess whether non-responders can be induced to produce antibodies after administration of a booster dose of vaccine (iii) determine whether booster vaccination increases the number of specific memory B cells in non-responders. Combining flow-cytometry, ELISPOT and serology we tested the integrity and function of the immune system in 24 health care workers, confirmed to be non-responders after at least three vaccine injections. We compared the results with those obtained in 21 responders working in the same institution. We found that the great majority of the non-responders had a functional immune system and a preserved ability to respond to other conventional antigens. Our most important findings are that the frequency of HBsAg-specific memory B cells is comparable in non-responders and controls and that booster immunization does not lead either to antibody production or memory B cell increase in non-responders.

  4. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 4: Summary report to phase 1 respondents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; White, Terry F.

    1991-01-01

    Phase 1 of a 4 part study was undertaken studying the use of scientific and technical information (STI) by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Specific attention was paid to institutional and socioeconomic variables and to the step-by-step process of information gathering used by the respondents. Data were collected by means of three self administered mail-back questionnaires. The approximately 34,000 members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) served as the study population. More than 65 percent of the randomly selected respondents returned the questionnaires in each of the three groups. Respondents relied more heavily upon informal sources of information than formal sources and turned to librarians and other technical information specialists only when they did not obtain results via informal means or their own formal searches.

  5. Emergency First Responders' Experience with Colorimetric Detection Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sandra L. Fox; Keith A. Daum; Carla J. Miller; Marnie M. Cortez

    2007-10-01

    Nationwide, first responders from state and federal support teams respond to hazardous materials incidents, industrial chemical spills, and potential weapons of mass destruction (WMD) attacks. Although first responders have sophisticated chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive detectors available for assessment of the incident scene, simple colorimetric detectors have a role in response actions. The large number of colorimetric chemical detection methods available on the market can make the selection of the proper methods difficult. Although each detector has unique aspects to provide qualitative or quantitative data about the unknown chemicals present, not all detectors provide consistent, accurate, and reliable results. Included here, in a consumer-report-style format, we provide “boots on the ground” information directly from first responders about how well colorimetric chemical detection methods meet their needs in the field and how they procure these methods.

  6. Co-responding Police-Mental Health Programs: A Review.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, G K; Cusi, A; Kirst, M; O'Campo, P; Nakhost, A; Stergiopoulos, V

    2015-09-01

    Co-responding police-mental health programs are increasingly used to respond to 'Emotionally Disturbed Persons' in the community; however, there is limited understanding of program effectiveness and the mechanisms that promote program success. The academic and gray literature on co-responding police-mental health programs was reviewed. This review synthesized evidence of outcomes along seven dimensions, and the available evidence was further reviewed to identify potential mechanisms of program success. Co-responding police-mental health programs were found to have strong linkages with community services and reduce pressure on the justice system, but there is limited evidence on other impacts. The relevance of these findings for practitioners and the major challenges of this program model are discussed, and future research directions are identified. PMID:25239523

  7. Astronaut Sally Ride responds to question from interviewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Astronaut Sally K. Ride, mission specialist for STS-7, responds to a question from an interviewer during a taping session for ABC's Night Line. Dr. Ride is in the shuttle mockup and integration laboratory.

  8. 28 CFR 115.164 - Staff first responder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating; and (4) If the abuse occurred within a time period that still... clothes, urinating, defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating. (b) If the first staff responder is not...

  9. 28 CFR 115.364 - Staff first responder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating; and (4) If the abuse occurred within a time period that still... clothes, urinating, defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating. (b) If the first staff responder is not...

  10. 28 CFR 115.364 - Staff first responder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating; and (4) If the abuse occurred within a time period that still... clothes, urinating, defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating. (b) If the first staff responder is not...

  11. 28 CFR 115.164 - Staff first responder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating; and (4) If the abuse occurred within a time period that still... clothes, urinating, defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating. (b) If the first staff responder is not...

  12. 28 CFR 115.364 - Staff first responder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating; and (4) If the abuse occurred within a time period that still... clothes, urinating, defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating. (b) If the first staff responder is not...

  13. 28 CFR 115.164 - Staff first responder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating; and (4) If the abuse occurred within a time period that still... clothes, urinating, defecating, smoking, drinking, or eating. (b) If the first staff responder is not...

  14. Project Responder: technology needs for local emergency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beakley, Guy; Garwin, Thomas; Pollard, Neal A.; Singley, George T., III; Tuohy, Robert V.; Lupo, Jasper

    2003-09-01

    Since April 2001, the Oklahoma City National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism has funded an effort by Hicks &Associates, Inc. and the Terrorism Research Center, Inc., aimed ultimately at improving local, state, and federal emergency responders" capabilities for mitigating the effects of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive/ incendiary (CBRNE) terrorism. This effort, titled "Project Responder," began by developing an understanding of how state and local responders view their current capabilities, shortfalls, and needs. This paper discusses some of the results of this first phase of the effort that has resulted in a comprehensive report titled "Emergency Responders" Needs, Goals, and Priorities." This paper addresses two of the capabilities from that report which we believe are of most interest to this conference. There are ten other capabilities discussed in the report, which may also be of interest.

  15. Impaired leukocyte influx in cervix of postterm women not responding to prostaglandin priming

    PubMed Central

    Sahlin, Lena; Stjernholm-Vladic, Ylva; Roos, Nathalie; Masironi, Britt; Ekman-Ordeberg, Gunvor

    2008-01-01

    Background Prolonged pregnancies are associated with increased rate of maternal and fetal complications. Post term women could be divided into at least two subgroups, one where parturition is possible to induce by prostaglandins and one where it is not. Our aim was to study parameters in cervical biopsies in women with spontaneous delivery at term (controls) and compare to those that are successfully induced post term (responders), and those that are not induced (non-responders), by local prostaglandin treatment. Methods Stromal parameters examined in this study were the accumulation of leukocytes (CD45, CD68), mRNAs and/or proteins for the extracellular matrix degrading enzymes (matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-8 and MMP-9), their inhibitors (tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2), interleukin-8 (IL-8), the platelet activating factor-receptor (PAF-R), syndecan-1 and estrogen binding receptors (estrogen receptor (ER)α, ERβ and G-coupled protein receptor (GPR) 30) as well as the proliferation marker Ki-67. Results The influx of leukocytes as assessed by CD45 was strongest in the responders, thereafter in the controls and significantly lower in the non-responders. IL-8, PAF-R and MMP-9, all predominantly expressed in leukocytes, showed significantly reduced immunostaining in the group of non-responders, while ERα and GPR30 were more abundant in the non-responders, as compared to the controls. Conclusion The impaired leukocyte influx, as reflected by the reduced number of CD45 positive cells as well as decreased immunostaining of IL-8, PAF-R and MMP-9 in the non-responders, could be one explanation of the failed ripening of the cervix in post term women. If the decreased leukocyte influx is a primary explanation to absent ripening or secondary, as a result of other factors, is yet to be established. PMID:18764934

  16. Basic and translational evaluation of renewal of operant responding.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michael E; Liddon, Clare J; Ribeiro, Aurelia; Greif, Abigail E; Podlesnik, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Treatment relapse, defined as the reemergence of problem behavior after treatment, is a serious difficulty faced by clinicians. Failures of treatment integrity (i.e., failure to implement interventions as intended) are often invoked to explain the reemergence of problem behavior. Basic studies suggest that the prevailing stimulus context might also contribute. We conducted 2 experiments in which reinforcement for a target response was followed by 2 phases of extinction with different or identical stimulus contexts relative to baseline (ABA renewal). In Experiment 1, pigeons served as subjects using procedures typical of those used in basic behavioral research. Experiment 2 was designed as a translational replication of Experiment 1, and children who had been diagnosed with autism served as participants. Returning to the previously reinforced stimulus context in both species produced a clear and immediate increase of extinguished responding. These findings are consistent with previous studies that have suggested that both reinforcement contingencies and stimulus context influence the reemergence of extinguished behavior. PMID:25891414

  17. Methodology for Assessing Radiation Detectors Used by Emergency Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Wasiolek; April Simpson

    2008-03-01

    The threat of weapons of mass destruction terrorism resulted in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security deploying large quantities of radiation detectors throughout the emergency responder community. However, emergency responders specific needs were not always met by standard health physics instrumentation used in radiation facilities. Several American National Standards Institute standards were developed and approved to evaluate the technical capabilities of detection equipment. Establishing technical capability is a critical step, but it is equally important to emergency responders that the instruments are easy to operate and can withstand the rugged situations they encounter. The System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program (managed by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Grants and Training, Systems Support Division) focuses predominantly on the usability, ergonomics, readability, and other features of the detectors, rather than performance controlled by industry standards and the manufacturers. National Security Technologies, LLC, as a SAVER Technical Agent, conducts equipment evaluations using active emergency responders who are familiar with the detection equipment and knowledgeable of situations encountered in the field, which provides more relevant data to emergency responders.

  18. Ghrelin receptor activation in the ventral tegmental area amplified instrumental responding but not the excitatory influence of Pavlovian stimuli on instrumental responding.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Susanne; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2016-10-01

    Pavlovian stimuli predictive of food are able to amplify instrumental responding for food. This phenomenon termed Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) critically depends on intact VTA function and mesoaccumbens dopamine transmission. Considerable evidence suggests that food-predictive stimuli can enhance the release of ghrelin, an orexigen hormone that promotes food-directed responding. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) appears to be a key region through which stimulation of ghrelin receptors (GHS-R1A) invigorates food-directed responding, in part by activating the mesoaccumbens dopamine system. Thus, it is conceivable that stimulation of GHS-R1A in the VTA can amplify PIT, i.e. stimulus-elicited increase in lever pressing for food. Here we examined in rats the effects of VTA ghrelin microinfusion on PIT. Our results demonstrate that ghrelin microinfusion into the VTA failed to enhance PIT suggesting that VTA GHS-R1A stimulation was unable to enhance the motivational significance of food-predictive stimuli. Consistent with previous studies, our results further indicate that intra-VTA ghrelin microinfusion invigorated instrumental responding under a progressive ratio schedule. These data provide support to the notion that VTA GHS-R1A stimulation increases the tendency to work for food. PMID:27521247

  19. Response Cards as a Strategy for Increasing Opportunities to Respond: An Examination of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnorr, Crystalyn I.; Freeman-Green, Shaqwana; Test, David W.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the quality of the research and evidence base for using response cards to increase opportunities to respond (OTR) for students with and without disabilities at the elementary level (i.e., kindergarten through Grade 5). Using quality indicator criteria for single-case research, six single-case studies investigating response…

  20. MMPI-2 Random Responding Indices: Validation Using a Self-Report Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, David T. R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Validity of 3 scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), the F, back F, and variable response inconsistency, for detecting self-reported partially random responding was supported by 3 studies involving 195 college students and 68 community participants but not by a study with 32 police job applicants. (SLD)

  1. Responding to Recession: IT Funding and Cost Management in Higher Education. Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the key findings from "Responding to Recession: IT Funding and Cost Management in Higher Education", the 2010 ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study of how the economic recession is impacting information technology (IT) organizations and operations in higher education. The study was designed to address the…

  2. Campuses Respond to Violent Tragedy. American Council on Education Series on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Dorothy G.

    This book presents 10 case studies of how universities and colleges respond to violent tragedies, both on- and off-campus, and offers suggestions for institutions to prepare themselves to deal with such crises. Each case study of a specific case of violence or other tragedy was based on interviews with the participants and reports on the specific…

  3. Student-Level Effects of Increased Teacher-Directed Opportunities to Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacSuga-Gage, Ashley S.; Gage, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Antecedent-based classroom management strategies, including teacher-directed opportunities to respond (TD-OTR), have been identified and studied in the literature, but the link between those practices and student outcomes is still developing. This study describes a within-subject interrupted time-series analysis of the relationship between…

  4. Consensus in landscape preference judgments: the effects of landscape visual aesthetic quality and respondents' characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kalivoda, Ondřej; Vojar, Jiří; Skřivanová, Zuzana; Zahradník, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Landscape's visual aesthetic quality (VAQ) has been widely regarded as a valuable resource worthy of protection. Although great effort has been devoted to determining the factors driving aesthetic preferences, public consensus in judgments has been neglected in the vast majority of such studies. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze three main possible sources of judgment variance: landscape VAQ, landscape type, and variability among respondents. Based upon an extensive perception-based investigation including more than 400 hikers as respondents, we found that variance in respondents' judgments differed significantly among assessed landscape scenes. We discovered a significant difference in judgment variances within each investigated respondent characteristic (gender, age, education level, occupational classification, and respondent's type of residence). Judgment variance was at the same time affected by landscape VAQ itself - the higher the VAQ, the better the consensus. While differences caused by characteristics indicate subjectivity of aesthetic values, the knowledge that people better find consensus for positively perceived landscapes provides a cogent argument for legal protection of valuable landscape scenes.

  5. How to define, diagnose and treat poor responders? Responses from a worldwide survey of IVF clinics.

    PubMed

    Patrizio, Pasquale; Vaiarelli, Alberto; Levi Setti, Paolo E; Tobler, Kyle J; Shoham, Gon; Leong, Milton; Shoham, Zeev

    2015-06-01

    Poor responders represent a significant percentage of couples treated in IVF units (10-24%), but the standard definition of poor responders remains uncertain and consequently optimal treatment options remain subjective and not evidence-based. In an attempt to provide uniformity on the definition, diagnosis and treatment of poor responders, a worldwide survey was conducted asking IVF professionals a set of questions on this complex topic. The survey was posted on www.IVF-worldwide.com, the largest and most comprehensive IVF-focused website for physicians and embryologists. A total of 196 centres replied, forming a panel of IVF units with a median of 400 cycles per year. The present study shows that the definition of poor responders is still subjective, and many practices do not use evidence-based treatment for this category of patients. Our hope is that by leveraging the great potential of the internet, future studies may provide immediate large-scale sampling to standardize both poor responder definition and treatment options. PMID:25892496

  6. Spatial Coding as a Function of Handedness and Responding Hand: Theoretical and Methodological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Arend, Isabel; Weiss, Peter H.; Timpert, David C.; Fink, Gereon R.; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    The Simon effect shows that choice reactions are faster if the location of the stimulus and the response correspond, even when stimulus location is task-irrelevant. The Simon effect raises the question of what factors influence spatial coding. Until now, the effects of handedness, responding hand, and visual field were addressed in separate studies that used bimanual and unimanual tasks, providing inconclusive results. Here we aimed to close this empirical gap by looking at the effects of these variables in the same study. We used a unimanual version of a Simon task with four groups of participants: left-handed and right-handed, responding with the dominant or nondominant hand. Our results show that the Simon effect is substantially reduced in the field of the responding hand for all groups of participants, except for left-handed individuals responding with the left-hand. These findings highlight the importance of attention mechanisms in stimulus-response coding. They reflect that stimulus-response interference is influenced by hierarchical activation of response units. At a practical level, these findings call for a number of methodological considerations (e.g., handedness, responding hand, and visual field) when using stimulus-response conflict to address spatial coding and cognitive control functions in neurological populations. PMID:27031523

  7. Spatial Coding as a Function of Handedness and Responding Hand: Theoretical and Methodological Implications.

    PubMed

    Arend, Isabel; Weiss, Peter H; Timpert, David C; Fink, Gereon R; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    The Simon effect shows that choice reactions are faster if the location of the stimulus and the response correspond, even when stimulus location is task-irrelevant. The Simon effect raises the question of what factors influence spatial coding. Until now, the effects of handedness, responding hand, and visual field were addressed in separate studies that used bimanual and unimanual tasks, providing inconclusive results. Here we aimed to close this empirical gap by looking at the effects of these variables in the same study. We used a unimanual version of a Simon task with four groups of participants: left-handed and right-handed, responding with the dominant or nondominant hand. Our results show that the Simon effect is substantially reduced in the field of the responding hand for all groups of participants, except for left-handed individuals responding with the left-hand. These findings highlight the importance of attention mechanisms in stimulus-response coding. They reflect that stimulus-response interference is influenced by hierarchical activation of response units. At a practical level, these findings call for a number of methodological considerations (e.g., handedness, responding hand, and visual field) when using stimulus-response conflict to address spatial coding and cognitive control functions in neurological populations.

  8. Processes responding to restoration in forestry-drained peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvainen, Oili; Laine, Anna; Tolvanen, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Almost one third, nearly 100 000 km2, of the total land area is covered by peatlands in Finland, which is a higher relative cover than in any other country in the world. Over a half of the peatland area has been drained for forestry, and many invaluable wetland habitat types are severely degraded. Restoration of forestry-drained peatlands is a relatively new measure, and long term results are still relatively scarce. Reinstating the ecological function with its feedback cycles can be a slow and gradual process. Nevertheless, since forestry-drained peatlands are not destroyed habitats in terms of their ecosystem functions, they can be expected to be reinstated through the returning of the crucial element, the high water-table level and its natural variability. To evaluate the development of peatland function and structure after restoration, indicators which respond at different speed to restoration are therefore useful. Vegetation indicators are commonly assessed to indicate restoration progress, but they can be slow to respond. Changes in the mineralization and decomposition rates may indicate sooner, if processes typical for undrained peatlands are initiating after restoration. However, despite the increasing amount of information on the vegetation structure after restoring forestry-drained peatlands, there is no sufficient information on the ecological processes, which may be reasons behind the existing difference between restored and pristine peatlands. Information on the ecological processes and the speed of their recovery helps to evaluate whether the restored peatlands have turned their development towards natural situation, despite that the structure does not yet show sufficient recovery. We studied how restoration affects the hydrology, peat forming processes, and vegetation in boreal fen type of peatlands. Fens drained for forestry 30 - 40 year earlier were restored in northern Finland in 2007 by harvesting trees and by damming and filling ditches. After

  9. A case report of an autistic boy. Selective responding to components of bidimensional visual and auditory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J L; Shigley, R H; Edwards, R P

    1976-06-01

    A case study was reported in which a 9-year-old male autistic boy was initially trained to discriminate between two auditory stimuli and two visual stimuli. He was then tested for overselective responding to bidimensional combinations of the four stimuli. It was hypothesized that the overselectivity results reported in previous studies were partially a function of a procedure in which autistic children were reinforced for responding in the presence of a multidimensional stimulus complex and then tested with individual stimuli. The child in the present investigation, with the alternative procedure, did not demonstrate overselective responding. Two interpretations of the results were presented, neither of which was consistent with an overselectivity theory. Future research should delineate the specific conditions which produce overselective responding, and suggest methods to facilitate more adaptive responding of autistic children.

  10. Microalgae respond differently to nitrogen availability during culturing.

    PubMed

    Gigova, Liliana G; Ivanova, Natalia J

    2015-06-01

    Variations in the exogenous nitrogen level are known to significantly affect the physiological status and metabolism of microalgae. However, responses of red, green and yellow-green algae to nitrogen (N) availability have not been compared yet. Porphyridium cruentum, Scenedesmus incrassatulus and Trachydiscus minutus were cultured in the absence of N in the medium and subsequent resupply of N to the starved cells. Culture growth and in-gel changes in isoenzyme pattern and activity of glutamate synthase, glutamate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were studied. The results demonstrated that the algae responded to the fully N-depleted and N-replete culture conditions by species-specific metabolic enzyme changes, suggesting differential regulation of both enzyme activity and cellular metabolism. Substantial differences in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes between N-depleted and N-replete cells of each species as well as between the species were also found. In the present work, besides the more general responses, such as adjustment of growth and pigmentation, we report on the involvement of specific metabolic and antioxidant enzymes and their isoforms in the mechanisms operating during N starvation and recovery in P. cruentum, T. minutus and S. incrassatulus.

  11. Predictors of posttraumatic stress in police and other first responders.

    PubMed

    Marmar, Charles R; McCaslin, Shannon E; Metzler, Thomas J; Best, Suzanne; Weiss, Daniel S; Fagan, Jeffery; Liberman, Akiva; Pole, Nnamdi; Otte, Christian; Yehuda, Rachel; Mohr, David; Neylan, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    We provide an overview of previous research conducted by our group on risk and resilience factors for PTSD symptoms in police and other first responders. Based on our work, the findings of other investigators on individual differences in risk for PTSD, and drawing on preclinical studies fear conditioning and extinction, we propose a conceptual model for the development of PTSD symptoms emphasizing the role of vulnerability and resilience to peritraumatic panic reactions. We tested this conceptual model in a cross-sectional sample of police officers (n = 715). Utilizing an hierarchical linear regression model we were able to explain 39.7% of the variance in PTSD symptoms. Five variables remained significant in the final model; greater peritraumatic distress (beta = 0.240, P < .001), greater peritraumatic dissociation (beta = 0.174, P < .001), greater problem-solving coping (beta = 0.103, P < .01), greater routine work environment stress (beta = 0.182, P < .001), and lower levels of social support (beta = -0.246, P < .001). These results were largely consistent with the proposed conceptual model. Next steps in this line of research will be to test this model prospectively in a sample of 400 police academy recruits assessed during training and currently being followed for the first 2 years of police service.

  12. Microalgae respond differently to nitrogen availability during culturing.

    PubMed

    Gigova, Liliana G; Ivanova, Natalia J

    2015-06-01

    Variations in the exogenous nitrogen level are known to significantly affect the physiological status and metabolism of microalgae. However, responses of red, green and yellow-green algae to nitrogen (N) availability have not been compared yet. Porphyridium cruentum, Scenedesmus incrassatulus and Trachydiscus minutus were cultured in the absence of N in the medium and subsequent resupply of N to the starved cells. Culture growth and in-gel changes in isoenzyme pattern and activity of glutamate synthase, glutamate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were studied. The results demonstrated that the algae responded to the fully N-depleted and N-replete culture conditions by species-specific metabolic enzyme changes, suggesting differential regulation of both enzyme activity and cellular metabolism. Substantial differences in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes between N-depleted and N-replete cells of each species as well as between the species were also found. In the present work, besides the more general responses, such as adjustment of growth and pigmentation, we report on the involvement of specific metabolic and antioxidant enzymes and their isoforms in the mechanisms operating during N starvation and recovery in P. cruentum, T. minutus and S. incrassatulus. PMID:25963263

  13. Effect of a single free food presentation on extinction responding in a multiple schedule.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Adam J; Bell, Matthew C

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to assess the effect of a single, response-independent food presentation on responding during extinction. Using a two-component multiple schedule, we examined differences in pigeons' extinction responding resulting from a single response-independent food presentation occurring at the beginning of the experimental session (30-s prior to the beginning of the first component). One component presented reinforcement according to a variable interval 45-s schedule and the second presented reinforcement according to a variable interval 180-s schedule. After establishing stable baseline responding we extinguished responding. We systematically manipulated the presence or absence of a single 3-s free food presentation using the food hopper that occurred 30-s prior to the presentation of the first component. We found the single free food presentation increased persistence of responding in extinction. This finding is inconsistent with behavioral momentum theory inasmuch as it assigns a response disruptive role to food presentations occurring outside of the context of the target operant. PMID:27423967

  14. Effect of a single free food presentation on extinction responding in a multiple schedule.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Adam J; Bell, Matthew C

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to assess the effect of a single, response-independent food presentation on responding during extinction. Using a two-component multiple schedule, we examined differences in pigeons' extinction responding resulting from a single response-independent food presentation occurring at the beginning of the experimental session (30-s prior to the beginning of the first component). One component presented reinforcement according to a variable interval 45-s schedule and the second presented reinforcement according to a variable interval 180-s schedule. After establishing stable baseline responding we extinguished responding. We systematically manipulated the presence or absence of a single 3-s free food presentation using the food hopper that occurred 30-s prior to the presentation of the first component. We found the single free food presentation increased persistence of responding in extinction. This finding is inconsistent with behavioral momentum theory inasmuch as it assigns a response disruptive role to food presentations occurring outside of the context of the target operant.

  15. The effects of differential and lag reinforcement schedules on varied verbal responding by individuals with autism.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ronald; McComas, Jennifer J; Jawor, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    Variability has been shown to be a reinforceable dimension of behavior. One procedure that has been demonstrated to increase variability in basic research is the lag reinforcement schedule. On this type of schedule, a response is reinforced if it differs from a specified number of previous responses. Lag schedules are rarely used, however, for increasing response variability in applied settings. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of a lag schedule of differential reinforcement on varied and appropriate verbal responding to social questions by 3 males with autism. A reversal design with a multiple baseline across subjects was used to evaluate the effects of the lag schedule. During baseline, differential reinforcement of appropriate responding (DRA) resulted in little or no varied responding. During the intervention, a Lag 1 requirement was added to the DRA (Lag 1/DRA) resulting in an increase in the percentage of trials with varied and appropriate verbal responding for 2 of the 3 participants. In addition, an increase in the cumulative number of novel verbal responses was also observed for the same 2 participants. These results are discussed in terms of reinforcement schedules that support variability, generalization, and potential stimulus control over varied responding. PMID:12555910

  16. A comparison of small monetary incentives to convert survey non-respondents: a randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Maximizing response rates is critically important in order to provide the most generalizable and unbiased research results. High response rates reduce the chance of respondents being systematically different from non-respondents, and thus, reduce the risk of results not truly reflecting the study population. Monetary incentives are often used to improve response rates, but little is known about whether larger incentives improve response rates in those who previously have been unenthusiastic about participating in research. In this study we compared the response rates and cost-effectiveness of a $5 versus $2 monetary incentive accompanying a short survey mailed to patients who did not respond or refused to participate in research study with a face-to-face survey. Methods 1,328 non-responders were randomly assigned to receive $5 or $2 and a short, 10-question survey by mail. Reminder postcards were sent to everyone; those not returning the survey were sent a second survey without incentive. Overall response rates, response rates by incentive condition, and odds of responding to the larger incentive were calculated. Total costs (materials, postage, and labor) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were also calculated and compared by incentive condition. Results After the first mailing, the response rate within the $5 group was significantly higher (57.8% vs. 47.7%, p < .001); after the second mailing, the difference narrowed by 80%, resulting in a non-significant difference in cumulative rates between the $5 and $2 groups (67.3% vs. 65.4%, respectively, p = .47). Regardless of incentive or number of contacts, respondents were significantly more likely to be male, white, married, and 50-75 years old. Total costs were higher with the larger versus smaller incentive ($13.77 versus $9.95 per completed survey). Conclusions A $5 incentive provides a significantly higher response rate than a $2 incentive if only one survey mailing is used but not if two survey

  17. The role of citzens in detecting and responding to a rapid marine invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scyphers, Stephen B.; Powers, Sean P.; Akins, J. Lad; Drymon, J. Marcus; Martin, Charles M.; Schobernd, Zeb H.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Shipp, Robert L.; Switzer, Theodore S.

    2015-01-01

    Documenting and responding to species invasions requires innovative strategies that account for ecological and societal complexities. We used the recent expansion of Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) throughout northern Gulf of Mexico coastal waters to evaluate the role of stakeholders in documenting and responding to a rapid marine invasion. We coupled an online survey of spearfishers and citizen science monitoring programs with traditional fishery-independent data sources and found that citizen observations documented lionfish 1–2 years earlier and more frequently than traditional reef fish monitoring programs. Citizen observations first documented lionfish in 2010 followed by rapid expansion and proliferation in 2011 (+367%). From the survey of spearfishers, we determined that diving experience and personal observations of lionfish strongly influenced perceived impacts, and these perceptions were powerful predictors of support for initiatives. Our study demonstrates the value of engaging citizens for assessing and responding to large-scale and time-sensitive conservation problems.

  18. Accurate Delayed Matching-to-Sample Responding without Rehearsal: An Unintentional Demonstration with Children.

    PubMed

    Ratkos, Thom; Frieder, Jessica E; Poling, Alan

    2016-06-01

    Research on joint control has focused on mediational responses, in which simultaneous stimulus control from two sources leads to the emission of a single response, such as choosing a comparison stimulus in delayed matching-to-sample. Most recent studies of joint control examined the role of verbal mediators (i.e., rehearsal) in evoking accurate performance. They suggest that mediation is a necessity for accurate delayed matching-to-sample responding. We designed an experiment to establish covert rehearsal responses in young children. Before participants were taught such responses; however, we observed that they responded accurately at delays of 15 and 30 s without overt rehearsal. These findings suggest that in some cases, rehearsal is not necessary for accurate responding in such tasks. PMID:27606223

  19. Effects of familiar versus unfamiliar therapists on responding in the analog functional analysis.

    PubMed

    English, Carie L; Anderson, Cynthia M

    2004-01-01

    The analog functional analysis involves the manipulation of pre-determined antecedent and consequent events and typically is conducted by trained experimenters. Inclusion of idiosyncratic variables in the analog functional analysis may affect responding. Inclusion of caregivers is one potential antecedent that may affect problem behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of including caregivers in the analog. Four individuals with developmental disabilities and their caregivers served as participants. For 3 of 4 participants, different patterns of responding were observed when caregivers versus experimenters conducted the functional analysis. PMID:14733975

  20. Secondary calcification and dissolution respond differently to future ocean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silbiger, N. J.; Donahue, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Climate change threatens both the accretion and erosion processes that sustain coral reefs. Secondary calcification, bioerosion, and reef dissolution are integral to the structural complexity and long-term persistence of coral reefs, yet these processes have received less research attention than reef accretion by corals. In this study, we use climate scenarios from RCP8.5 to examine the combined effects of rising ocean acidity and SST on both secondary calcification and dissolution rates of a natural coral rubble community using a flow-through aquarium system. We found that secondary reef calcification and dissolution responded differently to the combined effect of pCO2 and temperature. Calcification had a non-linear response to the combined effect of pCO2-temperature: the highest calcification rate occurred slightly above ambient conditions and the lowest calcification rate was in the highest pCO2-temperature condition. In contrast, dissolution increased linearly with pCO2-temperature. The rubble community switched from net calcification to net dissolution at +272 μatm pCO2 and 0.84 °C above ambient conditions, suggesting that rubble reefs may shift from net calcification to net dissolution before the end of the century. Our results indicate that dissolution may be more sensitive to climate change than calcification, and that calcification and dissolution have different functional responses to climate stressors, highlighting the need to study the effects of climate stressors on both calcification and dissolution to predict future changes in coral reefs.

  1. Secondary calcification and dissolution respond differently to future ocean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silbiger, N. J.; Donahue, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change threatens both the accretion and erosion processes that sustain coral reefs. Secondary calcification, bioerosion, and reef dissolution are integral to the structural complexity and long-term persistence of coral reefs, yet these processes have received less research attention than reef accretion by corals. In this study, we use climate scenarios from RCP 8.5 to examine the combined effects of rising ocean acidity and sea surface temperature (SST) on both secondary calcification and dissolution rates of a natural coral rubble community using a flow-through aquarium system. We found that secondary reef calcification and dissolution responded differently to the combined effect of pCO2 and temperature. Calcification had a non-linear response to the combined effect of pCO2 and temperature: the highest calcification rate occurred slightly above ambient conditions and the lowest calcification rate was in the highest temperature-pCO2 condition. In contrast, dissolution increased linearly with temperature-pCO2 . The rubble community switched from net calcification to net dissolution at +271 μatm pCO2 and 0.75 °C above ambient conditions, suggesting that rubble reefs may shift from net calcification to net dissolution before the end of the century. Our results indicate that (i) dissolution may be more sensitive to climate change than calcification and (ii) that calcification and dissolution have different functional responses to climate stressors; this highlights the need to study the effects of climate stressors on both calcification and dissolution to predict future changes in coral reefs.

  2. Internal and external motivation to respond without sexism.

    PubMed

    Klonis, Suzanne C; Plant, E Ashby; Devine, Patricia G

    2005-09-01

    Based on Plant and Devine's (1998) measures of Internal and External Motivation to Respond Without Prejudice toward Blacks, new scales were developed to assess Internal and External Motivation to Respond Without Sexism (IMS-S and EMS-S, respectively). The scales possess good psychometric properties. Providing evidence of convergent and discriminant validity, the IMS-S was strongly related to measures of sexism yet unrelated to measures of social evaluation. The EMS-S was modestly related to both sexism and social evaluative concerns. Providing evidence of predictive validity, participants who were either internally or externally motivated to respond without sexism rated sexist jokes more negatively in a situation discouraging sexism compared to participants low in both sources of motivation. However, only high IMS-S participants rated the jokes negatively whether the situation encouraged or discouraged sexism and whether their response was public or private. Implications for understanding the similarities and differences between sexism and racism are discussed.

  3. How to respond to referee comments for scientific articles?

    PubMed Central

    Kalemci, Mustafa Serdar; Turna, Burak

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the increasing number of article submissions to scientific journals forces editors to be more selective in their acceptance of papers. Consequently, editors have increased the frequency of their use of scientific referee mechanisms. For many researchers, the publication of a scientific article in a high impact factor journal is a gradual and difficult process. After preparation and submission of a manuscript, one of the most important issue is responding to the comments of referees. However, there is a paucity of published reports in the literature describing how to respond to these comments. The aim of this review is to assist researchers/authors in responding to referee comments as part of the publication process for scientific articles. PMID:26328133

  4. Cyclic responding by pigeons on the peak timing procedure.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick-Steger, K; Miller, S S; Betti, C A; Wasserman, E A

    1996-10-01

    The present experiment examined whether discrimination learning shapes the single-peaked response distributions usually obtained with the peak procedure. Two sources of learning in pigeons were disclosed: learning to respond near the time of reinforcement on fixed interval (FI) trials and learning to withhold responding once the FI duration had elapsed on peak interval (PI) trials. Pigeons also produced a highly unexpected second peak in responding on nonreinforced PI trials at 3 times the FI duration. Follow-up experiments showed that a 1:4 FI:PI duration ratio supported double peaks, but only 1 peak was obtained with a 1:8 FI:PI duration ratio. Finally, 4 peaks could be observed on extra-long PI trials under a 1:4:8 FI:PI:PI ratio procedure. The multiple-peaked response distributions are an unprecedented finding that present a major challenge to any theory of time perception.

  5. Microbial communities respond to experimental warming, but site matters.

    PubMed

    Cregger, Melissa A; Sanders, Nathan J; Dunn, Robert R; Classen, Aimée T

    2014-01-01

    Because microorganisms are sensitive to temperature, ongoing global warming is predicted to influence microbial community structure and function. We used large-scale warming experiments established at two sites near the northern and southern boundaries of US eastern deciduous forests to explore how microbial communities and their function respond to warming at sites with differing climatic regimes. Soil microbial community structure and function responded to warming at the southern but not the northern site. However, changes in microbial community structure and function at the southern site did not result in changes in cellulose decomposition rates. While most global change models rest on the assumption that taxa will respond similarly to warming across sites and their ranges, these results suggest that the responses of microorganisms to warming may be mediated by differences across the geographic boundaries of ecosystems.

  6. Some effects of punishment shock intensity upon discriminative responding.

    PubMed

    Powell, R W

    1971-01-01

    Three pigeons received visual discrimination training under both multiple variable-ratio extinction and variable-interval extinction schedules. All birds developed nearly perfect discrimination. When punishment for every tenth response during food reinforcement was presented, responding decreased as shock intensity increased. At the same time, responding during extinction, which was not punished, increased at intermediate punishment intensities, but returned to low levels under severe punishment. A second procedure, in which punishment and no-punishment sessions alternated unsystematically, was employed with two of the birds. The results under this procedure essentially replicated the data obtained as punishment shock intensity increased gradually. PMID:5547283

  7. Exit Strategies: How Low-Performing High Schools Respond to High School Exit Examination Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Jennifer Jellison

    2013-01-01

    Background: Over the past several decades, a significant number of states have either adopted or increased high school exit examination requirements. Although these policies are intended to generate improvement in schools, little is known about how high schools are responding to exit testing pressures. Purpose: This study examined how five…

  8. Three Factors that Promote Positive Induction when Rats Respond for 1% Sucrose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Huls, Amber

    2008-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that rats will increase their operant rate of response for a low-valued reinforcer if a high-valued reinforcer will be available later in the session. Research on this positive induction effect suggests that at least three factors account for its appearance: premature responding for the yet unavailable high-valued…

  9. Rasch Modeling of the Self-Deception Scale of the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervellione, Kelly L.; Lee, Young-Sun; Bonanno, George A.

    2009-01-01

    Self-deception has become a construct of great interest in individual differences research because it has been associated with levels of resilience and mental health. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) is a self-report measure used for quantifying self-deception. In this study we used Rasch modeling to examine the properties of…

  10. Pre-Assessment Exposure to Schedule-Correlated Stimuli Affects Choice Responding for Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michael E.; Shamlian, Kenneth; Lomas, Joanna E.; Pabico, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing compliance with academic and daily-living-skills instructions is important for shaping and maintaining behavior. In the current study, we exposed two participants to two stimulus conditions that were correlated with different consequences (more work vs. reinforcement) subsequent to a baseline in which responding was undifferentiated.…

  11. 40 CFR 24.10 - Scheduling the hearing; pre-hearing submissions by respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scheduling the hearing; pre-hearing submissions by respondent. 24.10 Section 24.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Hearings on Orders Requiring Investigations or Studies § 24.10 Scheduling the hearing;...

  12. 40 CFR 24.10 - Scheduling the hearing; pre-hearing submissions by respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Scheduling the hearing; pre-hearing submissions by respondent. 24.10 Section 24.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Hearings on Orders Requiring Investigations or Studies § 24.10 Scheduling the hearing;...

  13. 40 CFR 24.10 - Scheduling the hearing; pre-hearing submissions by respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Scheduling the hearing; pre-hearing submissions by respondent. 24.10 Section 24.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Hearings on Orders Requiring Investigations or Studies § 24.10 Scheduling the hearing;...

  14. 40 CFR 24.10 - Scheduling the hearing; pre-hearing submissions by respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scheduling the hearing; pre-hearing submissions by respondent. 24.10 Section 24.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Hearings on Orders Requiring Investigations or Studies § 24.10 Scheduling the hearing;...

  15. 40 CFR 24.10 - Scheduling the hearing; pre-hearing submissions by respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scheduling the hearing; pre-hearing submissions by respondent. 24.10 Section 24.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Hearings on Orders Requiring Investigations or Studies § 24.10 Scheduling the hearing;...

  16. Responding to Diversity: Statements and Practices in Two Early Childhood Education Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveridge, J.; Rosewarne, S.; Shuker, M. J.; Barker, A.; Nager, J.

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on data from research on how early childhood centres in Aotearoa New Zealand are responding to diversity. The historical and contemporary contexts which are shaping possible responses to diversity are discussed. Two case studies of a parent-led and a teacher-led centre are presented. It is argued that it is important to be more…

  17. Responding to Children's Everyday Transgressions in Chinese Working-Class Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiao-lei; Bernas, Ronan; Eberhard, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how working-class mothers in the People's Republic of China respond to their young children's transgressions in everyday contexts. Twenty 4-year-old children and their mothers in a working-class neighbourhood were observed in their daily routines at home. When addressing children's transgressions and socialising desirable…

  18. (Dis)Located Readers? High School Students Responding to African Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Ingrid; Mangat, Jyoti

    A study explored whether high school readers respond significantly differently to African novels in which unfamiliar cultural elements are presented "aggressively" than to those with an "assimilative" presentation of unfamiliar cultural elements. The three novels are set in Africa: Nancy Farmer's "A Girl Named Disaster," Buchi Emecheta's "The…

  19. How Schools Responded to Student Mental Health Needs Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RAND Corporation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This fact sheet summarizes a study that examined how schools in the U.S. Gulf Coast region perceived the mental health needs of students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and how schools responded. According to the report, despite strong initial efforts to support the mental health needs of students displaced by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, many…

  20. Effects of Post-Session Wheel Running on Within-Session Changes in Operant Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoyama, Kenjiro

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the effects of post-session wheel running on within-session changes in operant responding. Lever-pressing by six rats was reinforced by a food pellet under a continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedule in 30-min sessions. Two different flavored food pellets were used as reinforcers. In the wheel conditions, 30-min operant-sessions…

  1. The Effects of Presession Manipulations on Automatically Maintained Challenging Behavior and Task Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Yi-Chieh; Cannella-Malone, Helen I.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of presession exposure to attention, response blocking, attention with response blocking, and noninteraction conditions on subsequent engagement in automatically maintained challenging behavior and correct responding in four individuals with significant intellectual disabilities. Following a functional analysis, the…

  2. Supporting Preservice Science Teachers' Ability to Attend and Respond to Student Thinking by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hosun; Anderson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    A teacher's ability to attend and respond to student thinking is a key instructional capacity for promoting complex and deeper learning in science classrooms. This qualitative multiple case study examines 14 preservice science teachers' (PSTs) responses to learning opportunities created to develop this capacity, as provided by a teacher…

  3. Effects of Task Difficulty and Type of Contingency on Students' Allocation of Responding to Math Worksheets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lannie, Amanda L.; Martens, Brian K.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated students' allocation of responding as a function of task difficulty and type of reinforcement contingency (i.e., accuracy based or time based). Four regular education fourth-grade students were presented with two identical stacks of easy and then difficult math worksheets using a reversal design. Regardless of condition,…

  4. Examining the Content Validity of the WHOQOL-BRF from Respondents' Perspective by Quantitative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Grace; Wu, Chia-Huei; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2008-01-01

    Content validity, the extent to which a measurement reflects the specific intended domain of content, is a basic type of validity for a valid measurement. It was usually examined qualitatively and relied on experts' subjective judgments, not on respondents' responses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to introduce and demonstrate how to use…

  5. Respondent Reactions to Selected Aspects of Mail Survey Instruments and Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerhill, William R.; And Others

    Attitudes and preferences toward mail surveys were studied from the viewpoint of the recipient. Approximately 386 residents of a small rural community in Florida were sent a questionnaire about attitudes toward mail surveys, with half receiving a follow-up card after 4 days. A total of 123 usable questionnaires were returned. Respondents were…

  6. Rat embryonic palatal shelves respond to TCDD in organ culture

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, B.D.; Birnbaum, L.S. )

    1990-05-01

    TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), a highly toxic environmental contaminant, is teratogenic in mice, inducing cleft palate (CP) and hydronephrosis at doses which are not overtly maternally or embryo toxic. Palatal shelves of embryonic mice respond to TCDD, both in vivo and in organ culture, with altered differentiation of medial epithelial cells. By contrast, in the rat TCDD produces substantial maternal, embryonic, and fetal toxicity, including fetal lethality, with few malformations. In this study the possible effects of maternal toxicity on induction of cleft palate were eliminated by exposure of embryonic rat palatal shelves in organ culture. The shelves were examined for specific TCDD-induced alterations in differentiation of the medial cells. On Gestation Day (GD) 14 or 15 palatal shelves from embryonic F344 rats were placed in organ culture for 2 to 3 days (IMEM:F12 medium, 5% FBS, 0.1% DMSO) containing 0, 1 x 10(-8), 1 x 10(-9), 1 x 10(-10), or 5 x 10(-11) M TCDD. The medial epithelial peridermal cells degenerated on shelves exposed to control media or 5 x 10(-11) M TCDD. Exposure to 10(-10), 10(-9), and 10(-8) M TCDD inhibited this degeneration in 20, 36, and 60% of the shelves, respectively, and was statistically significant at the two highest doses. A normally occurring decrease in (3H)TdR incorporation was inhibited in some GD 15 shelves cultured with 10(-10) and 10(-9) M TCDD. The medial cells of TCDD-exposed shelves continued to express high levels of immunohistochemically detected EGF receptors. The altered differentiation of rat medial epithelium is similar to that reported for TCDD-exposed mouse medial cells in vivo and in vitro. However, in order to obtain these responses, the cultured rat shelves require much higher concentrations of TCDD than the mouse shelves.

  7. Altered self-report of empathic responding in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Cusi, Andrée; Macqueen, Glenda M; McKinnon, Margaret C

    2010-07-30

    Despite evidence of impairments in social cognition in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), systematic investigations of empathic responding in this population have not been conducted. The objectives of the current study were to investigate empathic responding in patients with BD in varying states of illness and to determine whether course of illness variables and symptom severity predicted responding. Twenty well-characterized patients with BD and 20 matched healthy control subjects completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Social Adjustment Scale Self-Report (SAS-SR), self-report measures of cognitive and emotional empathy and of psychosocial functioning, respectively. Patients with BD reported significantly reduced levels of cognitive empathy ('Perspective Taking') and higher levels of personal distress in response to others' negative experiences than did controls. Altered affective empathic abilities correlated significantly with reduced psychosocial functioning in family, social and occupational domains and with increased symptom severity. This study provides preliminary evidence of alterations in empathic responding in patients with BD. Alterations in the ability to adopt the perspective of others may contribute to the difficulties in social communication inherent in this patient population. Additional studies, involving larger samples, are required to determine the contribution of social cognitive performance to impaired social functioning in BD. PMID:20483472

  8. Assessment of emergency responders after a vinyl chloride release from a train derailment - New Jersey, 2012.

    PubMed

    Brinker, Kimberly; Lumia, Margaret; Markiewicz, Karl V; Duncan, Mary Anne; Dowell, Chad; Rey, Araceli; Wilken, Jason; Shumate, Alice; Taylor, Jamille; Funk, Renée

    2015-01-01

    On November 30, 2012, at approximately 7:00 am, a freight train derailed near a small town in New Jersey. Four tank cars, including a breached tank car carrying vinyl chloride, landed in a tidal creek. Vinyl chloride, a colorless gas with a mild, sweet odor, is used in plastics manufacture. Acute exposure can cause respiratory irritation and headache, drowsiness, and dizziness; chronic occupational exposure can result in liver damage, accumulation of fat in the liver, and tumors (including angiosarcoma of the liver). Because health effects associated with acute exposures have not been well studied, the New Jersey Department of Health requested assistance from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and CDC. On December 11, teams from these agencies deployed to assist the New Jersey Department of Health in conducting an assessment of exposures in the community as well as the occupational health and safety of emergency personnel who responded to the incident. This report describes the results of the investigation of emergency personnel. A survey of 93 emergency responders found that 26% of respondents experienced headache and upper respiratory symptoms during the response. A minority (22%) reported using respiratory protection during the incident. Twenty-one (23%) of 92 respondents sought medical evaluation. Based on these findings, CDC recommended that response agencies 1) implement the Emergency Responder Health Monitoring and Surveillance (ERHMS) system for ongoing health monitoring of the emergency responders involved in the train derailment response and 2) ensure that in future incidents, respiratory protection is used when exposure levels are unknown or above the established occupational exposure limits. PMID:25577988

  9. 76 FR 68828 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Responder Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...'s complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Emergency Responder Forum AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Forum....

  10. Evaluation of the Recognizing and Responding to Suicide Risk Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Jodi Michelle; Osteen, Philip; Jones, Andrea; Berman, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Changes in attitudes, confidence, and practice behaviors were assessed among 452 clinicians who completed the training, Recognizing and Responding to Suicide Risk, and who work with clients at risk for suicide. Data were collected at three time points. Scores on measures of attitudes toward suicide prevention and confidence to work with clients at…

  11. 28 CFR 115.64 - Staff first responder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Staff first responder duties. 115.64 Section 115.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Official Response Following An Inmate Report §...

  12. 28 CFR 115.64 - Staff first responder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Staff first responder duties. 115.64 Section 115.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Official Response Following An Inmate Report §...

  13. 28 CFR 115.64 - Staff first responder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Staff first responder duties. 115.64 Section 115.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Official Response Following An Inmate Report §...

  14. Special Education Mediations: Responding to a Proposal for Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Steven S.

    2001-01-01

    Responds to Jonathan Beyer's proposal in the January 1999 issue of this Journal (EJ583600) that traditional mediation would be useful for resolving special education disputes by formalizing the way that mediators are trained. Relying on empirical research, warns that Beyer's proposals for further quality controls and consequent formalization may…

  15. Assessment of Respondent Acceptability for Preference Measures in Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franic, Duska M.; Bothe, Anne K.; Bramlett, Robin E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of using one or more of four standard economic preference measures to assess health-related quality of life in stuttering, by assessing respondents' views of the acceptability of those measures. Method and results: A graphic positioning scale approach was used with 80 adults to assess four variables previously…

  16. 76 FR 6475 - Emergency Responder Health Monitoring and Surveillance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-19-P ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emergency Responder Health Monitoring and Surveillance AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for...

  17. Responding to Young Adult Literature. Young Adult Literature Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monseau, Virginia R.

    This book focuses on how readers respond to the power of young adult literature--negating the assumption that because such literature appeals to adolescents it cannot possibly be worthy of a place in the language arts curriculum. The book serves two purposes: it describes and discusses the oral and written response of adolescents and adults to…

  18. Life After Traumatic Injury: How the Body Responds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Traumatic Injury: How the Body Responds Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Life After Traumatic Injury: How the ... Threatening Bacterial Infection Remains Mysterious This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  19. 29 CFR 458.56 - Service on respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Service on respondent. 458.56 Section 458.56 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STANDARDS OF CONDUCT STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Proceedings for Enforcing Standards of Conduct Procedures Involving Bill of Rights...

  20. 29 CFR 458.56 - Service on respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Service on respondent. 458.56 Section 458.56 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STANDARDS OF CONDUCT STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Proceedings for Enforcing Standards of Conduct Procedures Involving Bill of Rights...

  1. 29 CFR 458.56 - Service on respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Service on respondent. 458.56 Section 458.56 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STANDARDS OF CONDUCT STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Proceedings for Enforcing Standards of Conduct Procedures Involving Bill of Rights...

  2. 29 CFR 458.56 - Service on respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service on respondent. 458.56 Section 458.56 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STANDARDS OF CONDUCT STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Proceedings for Enforcing Standards of Conduct Procedures Involving Bill of Rights...

  3. 29 CFR 458.56 - Service on respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Service on respondent. 458.56 Section 458.56 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STANDARDS OF CONDUCT STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Proceedings for Enforcing Standards of Conduct Procedures Involving Bill of Rights...

  4. 78 FR 57843 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... Washington, DC See First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting, Notice of Open Public Meetings, 77 FR...Net). DATES: The meeting will be held on October 17, 2013, from 9 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. Pacific Daylight... Onyeije, Secretary, FirstNet, National Telecommunications and Information Administration, U.S....

  5. 78 FR 5422 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ..., 2013 in Boulder, Colorado. 78 FR 2660 (Jan. 14, 2013). This Notice is intended to inform the public... public meeting of the Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) to be held on February 12...: Uzoma Onyeije, Secretary, FirstNet, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1401 Constitution Avenue...

  6. 78 FR 63168 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone conference... passcode ``FirstNet.'' Due to the limited number of ports, attendance via teleconference will be on a first-come, first-served basis. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Uzoma Onyeije, Secretary, FirstNet,...

  7. 78 FR 54241 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone conference... passcode ``FirstNet.'' Due to the limited number of ports, attendance via teleconference will be on a first-come, first-served basis. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Uzoma Onyeije, Secretary, FirstNet,...

  8. 78 FR 72667 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... would publish a future notice for this meeting. 77 FR 67342 (Nov. 9, 2012). This notice provides an... Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will convene an open public meeting on December 17, 2013. DATES: The... Street, Denver, Colorado 80207. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Uzoma Onyeije, Secretary,...

  9. 78 FR 38014 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone conference... passcode ``FirstNet.'' Due to the limited number of ports, attendance via teleconference will be on a first-come, first-served basis. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Uzoma Onyeije, Secretary, FirstNet,...

  10. 78 FR 26323 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone conference... first-come, first- served basis. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Uzoma Onyeije, Secretary, FirstNet, U... 2012 (Act), Public Law 112-96, 126 Stat. 156 (2012), created FirstNet as an independent...

  11. 78 FR 72666 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will convene open public meetings of the Board Committees on December.... Mountain Standard Time. There will be sequential meetings of FirstNet's four committees: (1) Governance and...) Outreach Committee. ADDRESSES: FirstNet's committee members will meet in Grand Ballroom 1 of the...

  12. 77 FR 67342 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... (NTIA) will convene open public meetings of the Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet... (2012), created FirstNet as an independent authority within NTIA. The Act directs FirstNet to establish a single nationwide, interoperable public safety broadband network. The FirstNet Board...

  13. 78 FR 15357 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone conference... first-come, first- served basis. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Uzoma Onyeije, Secretary, FirstNet, U... Act of 2012 (Act), Public Law 112-96, 126 Stat. 156 (2012), created FirstNet as an...

  14. 78 FR 57621 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Board meeting via teleconference on September 23...: Uzoma Onyeije, Secretary, FirstNet, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1401 Constitution Avenue NW...), created FirstNet as an independent authority within the NTIA. The Act directs FirstNet to establish...

  15. 78 FR 2660 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet). DATES: The meeting will be held on February 12, 2013, from... Job Creation Act of 2012 (Act), Public Law 112-96, 126 Stat. 156 (2012), created FirstNet as an... directs FirstNet to establish a nationwide, interoperable public safety broadband network. The...

  16. Serial Killers: Academic Libraries Respond to Soaring Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Discusses ways in which academic libraries are responding to rising costs of serials. Topics addressed include pricing by publishers; the effect of journal cancellations on research activities; interlibrary loans and document delivery services; coordinated cancelling; electronic journals; and experiences at the University of Arizona. (LRW)

  17. 17 CFR 200.113 - Opportunity to respond; interception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Opportunity to respond; interception. 200.113 Section 200.113 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Code of Behavior Governing Ex...

  18. Responding to Critical Incidents: A Resource Guide for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This resource guide is intended to assist schools in developing protocols for responding to critical incidents. It focuses on proactive plans to deal with the traumatic aftereffects of a critical incident which affects some or all of the members of a school community. The guide outlines a generic protocol which includes steps to be undertaken in…

  19. John Goodlad Responds: On Dogma and Straw Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlad, John

    1983-01-01

    John Goodlad, author of "A Place Called School," responds to Hersh Waxman's critical review by claiming Waxman takes terms out of context, ignores the author's caveats, and critiques what the book is not, contrary to everything the author says it is. (MLF)

  20. Effectively Responding to Public Scrutiny When Communicating Climate Science.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, A.; Halpern, M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate researchers face regular scrutiny of their work from groups outside academia. In recent years, interest groups that oppose climate policy have targeted scientists with hate-mail campaigns, invasive document requests, hostile questioning and legal threats. In their day-to-day work, scientists struggle to respond to heated discussions about their research, whether from online commentators, opinion columnists, or special interest groups. Based on decades of experience and interviews with scientists, the Union of Concerned Scientists has developed a guide for communicating science amid heightened scrutiny. Building on the information contained in the UCS guide, this presentation will discuss best practices for climate researchers, including suggestions for when scrutiny can be ignored or when it deserves a response and methods for responding that can uphold scientific integrity while also protecting an individual researcher's reputation and ability to publicly communicate. Examples include scientists who have responded to bloggers criticizing their research, advocacy groups demanding their personal emails and policymakers targeting them with personal attacks. In understanding how to respond to scrutiny, scientists can bolster their own ability to communicate and curtail the chilling effect that scrutiny can have on other scientists conducting public enegagement.

  1. 49 CFR 1114.31 - Failure to respond to discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Failure to respond to discovery. 1114.31 Section... governed by 49 CFR 1104.13. (2) Reply to motion to compel in stand-alone cost and simplified standards rate... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE EVIDENCE; DISCOVERY Discovery § 1114.31 Failure...

  2. 49 CFR 1114.31 - Failure to respond to discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Failure to respond to discovery. 1114.31 Section... governed by 49 CFR 1104.13. (2) Reply to motion to compel in stand-alone cost and simplified standards rate... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE EVIDENCE; DISCOVERY Discovery § 1114.31 Failure...

  3. 49 CFR 1114.31 - Failure to respond to discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Failure to respond to discovery. 1114.31 Section... governed by 49 CFR 1104.13. (2) Reply to motion to compel in stand-alone cost and simplified standards rate... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE EVIDENCE; DISCOVERY Discovery § 1114.31 Failure...

  4. 49 CFR 1114.31 - Failure to respond to discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Failure to respond to discovery. 1114.31 Section... governed by 49 CFR 1104.13. (2) Reply to motion to compel in stand-alone cost and simplified standards rate... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE EVIDENCE; DISCOVERY Discovery § 1114.31 Failure...

  5. 49 CFR 1114.31 - Failure to respond to discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Failure to respond to discovery. 1114.31 Section... governed by 49 CFR 1104.13. (2) Reply to motion to compel in stand-alone cost and simplified standards rate... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE EVIDENCE; DISCOVERY Discovery § 1114.31 Failure...

  6. Responding Proactively to the Politics of Language Arts Bashing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanacore, Joseph

    The education profession as well as the public do not need exposure to more one-sided opinions about the need for academic preschools, about how to generate higher standards, about how poorly United States schools perform as compared to schools in other industrialized nations, and about other potentially volatile issues. In responding to the…

  7. 16 CFR 5.62 - Hearing rights of respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearing rights of respondent. 5.62 Section 5.62 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.62...

  8. Building Community-University Partnerships by Listening, Learning, and Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martenson, Diana M.; Newman, Dawn A.; Zak, Deborah M.

    2011-01-01

    University of Minnesota Extension is expanding work in Indian country by building community-university partnerships through a methodology of listening by gathering data in Indian country; learning by creating opportunities for professional development; and responding by building trusting relationships, resulting in more educators working in…

  9. 18 CFR 1301.55 - Responding to demands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Freedom of Information Act regulations, 16 CFR 1301.10. ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Responding to demands. 1301.55 Section 1301.55 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY...

  10. 18 CFR 1301.55 - Responding to demands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Freedom of Information Act regulations, 16 CFR 1301.10. ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Responding to demands. 1301.55 Section 1301.55 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY...

  11. Relational Responding Modulates and Reverses Affective Ratings in Evaluative Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molet, Mikael; Macquet, Benjamin; Charley, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments explored relational responding in evaluative conditioning. In Experiment 1, the participants were trained with a computer task to make relational responses by putting CSs of different sizes in boxes in order of size. Subsequently they were instructed that these different sized CSs represented different intensities of hypothetical…

  12. 45 CFR 612.4 - Responding to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION § 612.4 Responding to requests. (a) Monitoring of requests. The NSF Office of the... the part of the request that has been referred, unless such notification would disclose...

  13. Resources for Responding to Doomsday 2012: An Annotated Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Educators at all levels and in all settings are getting questions these days about the approaching "end of the world" catastrophes supposedly coming in December 2012. This resource guide provides a selection of useful resources for responding to student and public questions in this arena. The latest internet myth to gain traction is the notion…

  14. Authors' Rejoinder to Respondents (Shulman, Steinberg, & Piquero, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Mike A.; Brown, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Respondents, in "A Mistaken Account of the Age-Crime Curve: Response to Males and Brown," dispute our finding that virtually all of the discrepancy in violent crime rates between adolescents/emerging adults versus older adults is explained not by young age per se but by higher poverty levels among the young. Our rejoinder argues that…

  15. 42 CFR 88.3 - Eligibility-currently identified responders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Eligibility-currently identified responders. 88.3 Section 88.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES WORLD TRADE CENTER HEALTH PROGRAM § 88.3...

  16. 42 CFR 88.3 - Eligibility-currently identified responders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility-currently identified responders. 88.3 Section 88.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES WORLD TRADE CENTER HEALTH PROGRAM § 88.3...

  17. 42 CFR 88.3 - Eligibility-currently identified responders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Eligibility-currently identified responders. 88.3 Section 88.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES WORLD TRADE CENTER HEALTH PROGRAM § 88.3...

  18. 76 FR 9039 - Emergency Responder Field Operations Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... (ER FOG). The ER FOG was drafted to assist emergency response personnel in the use of the National... Responder Field Operations Guide (ER FOG) is intended for use when implementing the Incident Command System... and appropriate training to perform their assigned duties and tasks. The ER FOG is available on...

  19. Plant Reproduction: AMOR Enables Males to Respond to Female Signals.

    PubMed

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Coimbra, Silvia

    2016-04-25

    The pollen tube of flowering plants undertakes a long journey to transport two sperm cells for double fertilization. New work on pollen tube guidance has identified an arabinogalactan-derived ovular factor that primes tubes to respond to female gametophyte-secreted attraction signals.

  20. 39 CFR 958.11 - Respondent's access to information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 958.11 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS... Notice of Docketing and Hearing the respondent may review and obtain a copy of all relevant and material documents, transcripts, records, and other materials which relate to the determination of liability by...

  1. 39 CFR 962.11 - Respondent access to information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Respondent is not entitled to review or obtain a copy of any document, transcript, record, or other material... 962.11 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS... Notice of Hearing required by § 962.6, may review, and upon payment of a duplication fee...

  2. Responding to the Needs of the Homeless and Hungry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American National Red Cross, Washington, DC.

    This report describes the Hotels-Motels in Partnership Program, a human services resource sponsored by the Red Cross and other organizations to respond to housing needs of the homeless, disaster victims, and others in need of emergency assistance. The partnership program involves several hundred businesses in more than 240 communities. Since its…

  3. Poetic Voices: Writing, Reading, and Responding to Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandre, Patricia E.

    2012-01-01

    "Poetic Voices: Writing, Reading, and Responding to Poetry" was the title of the 2011 Master Class in Children's Literature. Woven into this session were the insights of poets Joyce Sidman and Pat Mora who shared their creative processes and the voices that inspire their poetry. In addition, Barbara Kiefer provided advice regarding how to connect…

  4. First Responders: Community Colleges on the Front Line of Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community Colleges, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Although homeland security has gained prominence as a national focus and investment, it is clear that much of the most effective preparation must begin at local, state, and regional levels. This report reveals that an astonishing number of community colleges offer degree and certificate programs for first responders--law enforcement officers,…

  5. Responding to a Fiscal Crisis: A Data-Driven Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banta, Trudy W.; Busby, A. Katherine; Kahn, Susan; Black, Karen E.; Johnson, James N.

    2007-01-01

    The Division of Planning and Institutional Improvement (PAII) at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis provides for the campus data for academic planning and management, assessment and evaluation services, and progress reports on mission-critical goals. To respond to a forecast fiscal crisis and support long-range planning for the…

  6. Responders and non-responders to bifemelane hydrochloride in Alzheimer-type and multi-infarct dementia.

    PubMed

    Shigeta, M; Nishikawa, Y; Shimizu, M; Usui, M; Hyoki, K; Kawamuro, Y

    1993-01-01

    Although metabolically active compounds sometime attenuate cognitive deficits of dementia patients, this mechanism has not been discussed or investigated. We hypothesized that these compounds improve cognitive disorders not by directly acting on this cognitive function, but by increasing the arousal level. Based on this hypothesis, we investigated the change of arousal levels and the improvement of intellectual functions in 10 patients with Alzheimer-type dementia (ATD) and 10 patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID) before and 3 months after pharmacotherapy using bifemelane hydrochloride. For each patient, a psychological test battery was carried out and the arousal level was evaluated using the frequency of rapid eye movements in the electro-oculogram (EOG) and the frequency analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) before and after the treatment. Evaluation of the cognitive improvement was made and eight out of the 20 patients were regarded as responders to the treatment. The frequency of small rapid eye movements (SREM) in the EOG increased significantly only in responders and the rate of change in SREM appearance in responders was significantly different from that in non-responders. This finding suggests that a part of the intellectual improvement in ATD and MID results from the increased level of arousal.

  7. Practice and Perception of First Aid Among Lay First Responders in a Southern District of India

    PubMed Central

    Pallavisarji, Uthkarsh; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Girish, Rao Nagaraja

    2013-01-01

    Background Injuries rank among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and are steadily increasing in developing countries like India. However, it is often possible to minimize injury and crash consequences by providing effective pre-hospital services promptly. In most low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), transportation of road traffic victims, is usually provided by relatives, taxi drivers, truck drivers, police officers and other motorists who are often untrained. Objectives The current study was conducted to understand the current practice and perception of first aid among lay first responders in a rural southern district of India. Materials and Methods The current cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in the southern district of Tumkur in India within three months from January to March 2011 and covered the population including all police, ambulance personnel, taxi drivers, bus and auto drivers, and primary and middle school teachers within the study area. Results Nearly 60% of the responders had witnessed more than two emergencies in the previous six months and 55% had actively participated in helping the injured person. The nature of the help was mainly by calling for an ambulance (41.5%), transporting the injured (19.7%) and consoling the victim (14.9%). Majority (78.1%) of the responders informed that they had run to the victim (42.4%) or had called for an ambulance. The predominant reason for not providing help was often the ‘fear of legal complications’ (30%) that would follow later. Significant number (81.4%) of respondents reported that they did not have adequate skills to manage an emergency and were willing to acquire knowledge and skills in first aid to help victims. Conclusions Regular and periodical community-based first aid training programs for first care responders will help to provide care and improve outcomes for injured persons. PMID:24396770

  8. The clothing effect: Tactile neurons in the precentral gyrus do not respond to the touch of the familiar primate chair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graziano, Michael S. A.; Alisharan, Shalani E.; Hu, Xintian; Gross, Charles G.

    2002-09-01

    Neurons in a restricted zone in the precentral gyrus of macaque monkeys respond to tactile, visual, and auditory stimuli. The tactile receptive fields of these multimodal cells are usually located on the face, arm, or upper torso. In the present study, in awake monkeys sitting in a primate chair, the neurons responded to a tactile probe touching the skin within the tactile receptive field. However, the same neurons did not respond when the tactile receptive field was touched by the primate chair, to which the monkey was habituated.

  9. Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Differentially Affects Lithium Sensitivity of Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines from Lithium Responder and Non-responder Bipolar Disorder Patients.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Elena; Hadar, Adva; Maffioletti, Elisabetta; Werner, Haim; Shomron, Noam; Gennarelli, Massimo; Schulze, Thomas G; Costa, Marta; Del Zompo, Maria; Squassina, Alessio; Gurwitz, David

    2015-07-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic psychiatric illness with an unknown etiology. Lithium is considered the cornerstone in the management of BD, though about 50-60 % of patients do not respond sufficiently to chronic treatment. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) has been identified as a candidate gene for BD susceptibility, and its low expression has been suggested as a putative biomarker for lithium unresponsiveness. In this study, we examined the in vitro effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on lithium sensitivity in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from lithium responder (R) and non-responder (NR) bipolar patients. Moreover, we evaluated levels of microRNA let-7c, a small RNA predicted to target IGF1. We found that exogenous IGF-1 added to serum-free media increased lithium sensitivity selectively in LCLs from NR BD patients. However, no significant differences were observed when comparing let-7c expression in LCLs from R vs. NR BD patients. Our data support a key role for IGF-1 in lithium resistance/response in the treatment of bipolar disorder.

  10. Eye-Tracking Data: New Insights on Response Order Effects and Other Cognitive Shortcuts in Survey Responding.

    PubMed

    Galesic, Mirta; Tourangeau, Roger; Couper, Mick P; Conrad, Frederick G

    2008-01-01

    Survey researchers since Cannell have worried that respondents may take various shortcuts to reduce the effort needed to complete a survey. The evidence for such shortcuts is often indirect. For instance, preferences for earlier versus later response options have been interpreted as evidence that respondents do not read beyond the first few options. This is really only a hypothesis, however, that is not supported by direct evidence regarding the allocation of respondent attention. In the current study, we used a new method to more directly observe what respondents do and do not look at by recording their eye movements while they answered questions in a Web survey. The eye-tracking data indicate that respondents do in fact spend more time looking at the first few options in a list of response options than those at the end of the list; this helps explain their tendency to select the options presented first regardless of their content. In addition, the eye-tracking data reveal that respondents are reluctant to invest effort in reading definitions of survey concepts that are only a mouse click away or paying attention to initially hidden response options. It is clear from the eye-tracking data that some respondents are more prone to these and other cognitive shortcuts than others, providing relatively direct evidence for what had been suspected based on more conventional measures.

  11. Diminished self-conscious emotional responding in frontotemporal lobar degeneration patients.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Virginia E; Ascher, Elizabeth A; Miller, Bruce L; Levenson, Robert W

    2008-12-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a neurodegenerative disease that dramatically alters social and emotional behavior. Recent work has suggested that self-conscious emotions (e.g., embarrassment) may be particularly vulnerable to disruption in this disease. Self-conscious emotions require the ability to monitor the self in relation to others. These abilities are thought to be subserved by brain regions (e.g., medial prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and insula) that are particularly vulnerable to damage in FTLD. This study examined emotional responding (expressive behavior, peripheral physiology, and subjective experience) in 24 FTLD patients and 16 cognitively normal control participants using a karaoke task known to elicit self-conscious emotion reliably and a nonemotional control task (isometric handgrip). Results indicated that FTLD patients showed diminished self-conscious emotional behavior (embarrassment and amusement) and diminished physiological responding while watching themselves singing. No differences were found between patients and controls in the nonemotional control task. These findings offer evidence of marked disruption of self-conscious emotional responding in FTLD. Diminished self-conscious emotional responding likely contributes significantly to social inappropriateness and other behavioral abnormalities in FTLD. PMID:19102597

  12. Responding to inequities: gorillas try to maintain their competitive advantage during play fights.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Zimmermann, Elke; Ross, Marina Davila

    2011-02-23

    Humans respond to unfair situations in various ways. Experimental research has revealed that non-human species also respond to unequal situations in the form of inequity aversions when they have the disadvantage. The current study focused on play fights in gorillas to explore for the first time, to our knowledge, if/how non-human species respond to inequities in natural social settings. Hitting causes a naturally occurring inequity among individuals and here it was specifically assessed how the hitters and their partners engaged in play chases that followed the hitting. The results of this work showed that the hitters significantly more often moved first to run away immediately after the encounter than their partners. These findings provide evidence that non-human species respond to inequities by trying to maintain their competitive advantages. We conclude that non-human primates, like humans, may show different responses to inequities and that they may modify them depending on if they have the advantage or the disadvantage.

  13. What’s the Big Deal? Responder Experiences of Large Animal Rescue in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Bradley; Thompson, Kirrilly; Taylor, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: The management of large animals during disasters and emergencies creates difficult operational environments for responders. The aims of this study were to identify the exact challenges faced by Australian emergency response personnel in their interactions with large animals and their owners, and to determine the readiness for large animal rescue (LAR) in Australia. Methods: A survey tool collected the views and experiences of a broad cross section of emergency services personnel operating across Australia and across all hazards. Data were collected from 156 responders including Australian emergency services personnel, emergency managers such as federal agricultural departments, and local government. Results: Overall, many of the respondents had serious concerns, and felt that there were significant issues in relation to LAR in Australia. These included the coordination of emergency care for animals, physical management of large animals, inter-agency coordination, and dealing with animal owners. Very few respondents had received any formal training in LAR, with an overwhelming majority indicating they would attend formal training if it were made available. Discussion: Results help to guide the development of evidence-informed support tools to assist operational response and community engagement, and the production of professional development resources. PMID:25685637

  14. Correlates of cyberbullying and how school nurses can respond.

    PubMed

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Walrave, Michel; Vandebosch, Heidi

    2015-05-01

    Cyberbullying is one of many online risks that affect an increasing number of children and teenagers. This form of abuse often occurs under the radar of adults as it usually takes place outside of school and away from adult supervision. Moreover, bystanders and victims are often reluctant to report what they have experienced. School nurses might be among the first to witness the real-life consequences of this virtual behavior, as involvement in cyberbullying is often correlated with psychological and behavioral problems. For this reason, school nurses should know how to recognize the warning signs so that they can respond and intervene appropriately. This article provides a discussion of what cyberbullying is and a summary of research on factors associated with cyberbullying, in terms of both victimization and perpetration. It also provides school nurses with evidence-based strategies for responding effectively.

  15. Apparatus for responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Wilde, Tyson; Barlow, Jonathan S.

    2010-04-13

    A method of responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure in a bore hole comprises detecting the anomalous change in downhole pressure, sending a signal along the segmented electromagnetic transmission path, receiving the signal, and performing a automated response. The anomalous change in downhole pressure is detected at a first location along a segmented electromagnetic transmission path, and the segmented electromagnetic transmission path is integrated into the tool string. The signal is received by at least one receiver in communication with the segmented electromagnetic transmission path. The automated response is performed along the tool string. Disclosed is an apparatus for responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure in a downhole tool string, comprising a segmented electromagnetic transmission path connecting one or more receivers and at least one pressure sensor.

  16. An alternative framework for responding to the amphibian crisis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin L.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Volumes of data illustrate the severity of the crisis affecting amphibians, where > 32% of amphibians worldwide are threatened with declining populations. Although there have been isolated victories, the current approach to the issue is unsuccessful. We suggest that a radically different approach, something akin to human emergency response management (i.e. the Incident Command System), is one alternative to addressing the inertia and lack of cohesion in responding to amphibian issues. We acknowledge existing efforts and the useful research that has been conducted, but we suggest that a change is warranted and that the identification of a new amphibian chytrid provides the impetus for such a change. Our goal is to recognize that without a centralized effort we (collectively) are likely to fail in responding to this challenge.

  17. Engineering an allosteric transcription factor to respond to new ligands.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Noah D; Garruss, Alexander S; Moretti, Rocco; Chan, Sum; Arbing, Mark A; Cascio, Duilio; Rogers, Jameson K; Isaacs, Farren J; Kosuri, Sriram; Baker, David; Fields, Stanley; Church, George M; Raman, Srivatsan

    2016-02-01

    Genetic regulatory proteins inducible by small molecules are useful synthetic biology tools as sensors and switches. Bacterial allosteric transcription factors (aTFs) are a major class of regulatory proteins, but few aTFs have been redesigned to respond to new effectors beyond natural aTF-inducer pairs. Altering inducer specificity in these proteins is difficult because substitutions that affect inducer binding may also disrupt allostery. We engineered an aTF, the Escherichia coli lac repressor, LacI, to respond to one of four new inducer molecules: fucose, gentiobiose, lactitol and sucralose. Using computational protein design, single-residue saturation mutagenesis or random mutagenesis, along with multiplex assembly, we identified new variants comparable in specificity and induction to wild-type LacI with its inducer, isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The ability to create designer aTFs will enable applications including dynamic control of cell metabolism, cell biology and synthetic gene circuits. PMID:26689263

  18. Engineering an allosteric transcription factor to respond to new ligands

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Noah D; Garruss, Alexander S; Moretti, Rocco; Chan, Sum; Arbing, Mark A; Cascio, Duilio; Rogers, Jameson K; Isaacs, Farren J; Kosuri, Sriram; Baker, David; Fields, Stanley; Church, George M; Raman, Srivatsan

    2016-01-01

    Genetic regulatory proteins inducible by small molecules are useful synthetic biology tools as sensors and switches. Bacterial allosteric transcription factors (aTFs) are a major class of regulatory proteins, but few aTFs have been redesigned to respond to new effectors beyond natural aTF-inducer pairs. Altering inducer specificity in these proteins is difficult because substitutions that affect inducer binding may also disrupt allostery. We engineered an aTF, the Escherichia coli lac repressor, LacI, to respond to one of four new inducer molecules: fucose, gentiobiose, lactitol or sucralose. Using computational protein design, single-residue saturation mutagenesis or random mutagenesis, along with multiplex assembly, we identified new variants comparable in specificity and induction to wild-type LacI with its inducer, isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The ability to create designer aTFs will enable applications including dynamic control of cell metabolism, cell biology and synthetic gene circuits. PMID:26689263

  19. Preparedness and training in staff responding to a burns disaster.

    PubMed

    May, Jolyon; Colbert, David; Rea, Suzanne; Wood, Fiona; Nara-Venkata, Raghav

    Effective disaster response is preceded by effective disaster planning, and insufficient staff training has been identified as a problem in the preparation of hospitals for major incidents. Despite this, little is known about the exact levels of training doctors and nurses responding to a disaster receive. The authors conducted a six-question survey delivered to staff involved in the hospital response to a burns mass disaster in Western Australia. The occupation, and also the clinical area in which the respondent worked, influenced the level of training they received. Training in formal disaster courses and practical exercises in mock disaster situations needs to be ongoing for all staff members for correct implantation of disaster plans. Findings may be useful in informing current and future efforts to improve hospital preparedness.

  20. Correlates of cyberbullying and how school nurses can respond.

    PubMed

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Walrave, Michel; Vandebosch, Heidi

    2015-05-01

    Cyberbullying is one of many online risks that affect an increasing number of children and teenagers. This form of abuse often occurs under the radar of adults as it usually takes place outside of school and away from adult supervision. Moreover, bystanders and victims are often reluctant to report what they have experienced. School nurses might be among the first to witness the real-life consequences of this virtual behavior, as involvement in cyberbullying is often correlated with psychological and behavioral problems. For this reason, school nurses should know how to recognize the warning signs so that they can respond and intervene appropriately. This article provides a discussion of what cyberbullying is and a summary of research on factors associated with cyberbullying, in terms of both victimization and perpetration. It also provides school nurses with evidence-based strategies for responding effectively. PMID:25870099

  1. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    SciTech Connect

    Divan, Deepak; Moghe, Rohit; Tholomier, Damien

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  2. Measurement of the nonuniformity of first responder thermal imaging cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lock, Andrew; Amon, Francine

    2008-04-01

    Police, firefighters, and emergency medical personnel are examples of first responders that are utilizing thermal imaging cameras in a very practical way every day. However, few performance metrics have been developed to assist first responders in evaluating the performance of thermal imaging technology. This paper describes one possible metric for evaluating the nonuniformity of thermal imaging cameras. Several commercially available uncooled focal plane array cameras were examined. Because of proprietary property issues, each camera was considered a 'black box'. In these experiments, an extended area black body (18 cm square) was placed very close to the objective lens of the thermal imaging camera. The resultant video output from the camera was digitized at a resolution of 640x480 pixels and a grayscale depth of 10 bits. The nonuniformity was calculated using the standard deviation of the digitized image pixel intensities divided by the mean of those pixel intensities. This procedure was repeated for each camera at several blackbody temperatures in the range from 30° C to 260° C. It has observed that the nonuniformity initially increases with temperature, then asymptotically approaches a maximum value. Nonuniformity is also applied to the calculation of Spatial Frequency Response as well providing a noise floor. The testing procedures described herein are being developed as part of a suite of tests to be incorporated into a performance standard covering thermal imaging cameras for first responders.

  3. Regularities in responding during performance of a complex choice task.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Eduardo; Orduña, Vladimir

    2015-12-01

    Systematic variations in the rate and temporal patterns of responding under a multiple concurrent-chains schedule were quantified using recurrence metrics and self-organizing maps to assess whether individual rats showed consistent or idiosyncratic patterns. The results indicated that (1) the temporal regularity of response patterns varied as a function of number of training sessions, time on task, magnitude of reinforcement, and reinforcement contingencies; (2) individuals showed heterogeneous, stereotyped patterns of responding, despite similarities in matching behavior; (3) the specific trajectories of behavioral variation shown by individuals were less evident in group-level analyses; and (4) reinforcement contingencies within terminal links strongly modulated response patterns within initial links. Temporal regularity in responding was most evident for responses that led to minimally delayed reinforcers of larger magnitude. Models of response production and selection that take into account the time between individual responses, probabilities of transitions between response options, periodicity within response sequences, and individual differences in response dynamics can clarify the mechanisms that drive behavioral adjustments during operant conditioning. PMID:26077440

  4. NARAC Dispersion Model Product Integration With RadResponder

    SciTech Connect

    Aluzzi, Fernando

    2015-09-30

    Work on enhanced cooperation and interoperability of Nuclear Incident Response Teams (NIRT) is a joint effort between DHS/FEMA, DOE/NNSA and EPA. One such effort was the integration between the RadResponder Network, a resource sponsored by FEMA for the management of radiological data during an emergency, and the National Atmospheric Advisory Center (NARAC), a DOE/NNSA modeling resource whose predictions are used to aid radiological emergency preparedness and response. Working together under a FEMA-sponsored project these two radiological response assets developed a capability to read and display plume model prediction results from the NARAC computer system in the RadResponder software tool. As a result of this effort, RadResponder users have been provided with NARAC modeling predictions of contamination areas, radiological dose levels, and protective action areas (e.g., areas warranting worker protection or sheltering/evacuation) to help guide protective action decisions and field monitoring surveys, and gain key situation awareness following a radiological/nuclear accident or incident (e.g., nuclear power plant accident, radiological dispersal device incident, or improvised nuclear detonation incident). This document describes the details of this integration effort.

  5. Challenges for Early Responders to a Nuclear / Radiological Terrorism Incident

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, M.A.; Stearns, L.J.; Davie, A.D.; Day, E.

    2007-07-01

    Even in the best of circumstances, most municipalities would face severe challenges in providing effective incident response to a large scale radiation release caused by nuclear terrorism or accident. Compounding obvious complexities, the effectiveness of first and early responders to a radiological emergency may also be hampered by an insufficient distribution of radiation detection and monitoring equipment, local policies concerning triage and field decontamination of critical victims, malfunctioning communications, inadequate inter-agency agility, and the psychological 'fear' impact on early responders. This paper examines several issues impeding the early response to nuclear terrorism incidents with specific consideration given to the on-going and forward-thinking preparedness efforts currently being developed in the Sacramento, California region. Specific recommendations are provided addressing hot zone protocols, radiation detection and monitoring equipment, hasty patient packaging techniques, vertically and horizontally integrated pre-event training, mitigating psychological fear, and protocols for the effective 'hand-off' from first responders to subsequent early response-recovery teams. (authors)

  6. Risks to emergency medical responders at terrorist incidents: a narrative review of the medical literature.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Julian; Rehn, Marius; Lossius, Hans Morten; Lockey, David

    2014-01-01

    As the threat of international terrorism rises, there is an increasing requirement to provide evidence-based information and training for the emergency personnel who will respond to terrorist incidents. Current major incident training advises that emergency responders prioritize their own personal safety above that of the 'scene and survivors'. However, there is limited information available on the nature of these threats and how they may be accurately evaluated. This study reviews the published medical literature to identify the hazards experienced by emergency responders who have attended previous terrorist incidents. A PubMed literature search identified 10,894 articles on the subject of 'terrorism', and there was a dramatic increase in publications after the 9/11 attacks in 2001. There is heterogeneity in the focus and quality of this literature, and 307 articles addressing the subject of scene safety were assessed for information regarding the threats encountered at terrorist incidents. These articles demonstrate that emergency responders have been exposed to both direct terrorist threats and environmental scene hazards, including airborne particles, structural collapse, fire, and psychological stress. The emphasis of training and preparedness for terrorist incidents has been primarily on the direct threats, but the published literature suggests that the dominant causes of mortality and morbidity in responders after such incidents are the indirect environmental hazards. If the medical response to terrorist incidents is to be based on evidence rather than anecdote, analysis of the current literature should be incorporated into major incident training, and consistent collection of key data from future incidents is required. PMID:25323086

  7. Risks to emergency medical responders at terrorist incidents: a narrative review of the medical literature.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Julian; Rehn, Marius; Lossius, Hans Morten; Lockey, David

    2014-09-24

    As the threat of international terrorism rises, there is an increasing requirement to provide evidence-based information and training for the emergency personnel who will respond to terrorist incidents. Current major incident training advises that emergency responders prioritize their own personal safety above that of the 'scene and survivors'. However, there is limited information available on the nature of these threats and how they may be accurately evaluated. This study reviews the published medical literature to identify the hazards experienced by emergency responders who have attended previous terrorist incidents. A PubMed literature search identified 10,894 articles on the subject of 'terrorism', and there was a dramatic increase in publications after the 9/11 attacks in 2001. There is heterogeneity in the focus and quality of this literature, and 307 articles addressing the subject of scene safety were assessed for information regarding the threats encountered at terrorist incidents. These articles demonstrate that emergency responders have been exposed to both direct terrorist threats and environmental scene hazards, including airborne particles, structural collapse, fire, and psychological stress. The emphasis of training and preparedness for terrorist incidents has been primarily on the direct threats, but the published literature suggests that the dominant causes of mortality and morbidity in responders after such incidents are the indirect environmental hazards. If the medical response to terrorist incidents is to be based on evidence rather than anecdote, analysis of the current literature should be incorporated into major incident training, and consistent collection of key data from future incidents is required.

  8. Attitudes toward buying online as predictors of shopping online for British and American respondents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bijou; Lester, David; James, Simon

    2007-04-01

    This study compared the attitudes toward online shopping of British and American individuals. Using a sample of 327 British and American university students, the British respondents were found to have less favorable attitudes toward online shopping. Attitudes toward online shopping were found to be significant predictors of making online purchases. The implications of these results were discussed and suggestions made for future research. PMID:17474836

  9. Medical resources and requirements for responding to radiological terrorism.

    PubMed

    Mettler, Fred A

    2005-11-01

    Medical planning and response to radiological terrorism is different than planning or responding to an event such as a nuclear power plant accident. The major differences are that now we must plan for multiple simultaneous events, suicide scenarios, and the possibility of biological, chemical, and radiological agents being used at the same time. This demands an "all-hazards" approach and not just a radiological response. An overview of the issues related to diagnosis, treatment, training, and resources is provided. Although the requirements for medical management are clear, the available resources have not been applied in a manner that results in adequate preparedness for radiological events.

  10. Implications for practice: Resurgence and differential reinforcement of alternative responding.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Sarah E; Lambert, Joseph M

    2015-12-01

    During the maintenance stages of differential reinforcement of alternative responding (DRA), failure to reinforce alternative responses could result in a resurgence of problem behavior. However, translational work done with arbitrary human responses suggests that teaching individuals to emit multiple alternative responses in sequential order may facilitate the resurgence of appropriate, rather than problem, behavior. This paper discusses the practical implications of serial DRA training on problem and appropriate behavior resurgence, as presented in the preceding article, "Serial Alternative Response Training As Intervention for Target Response Resurgence." Clinical scenarios as well as implications for self-advocacy and acceptability of behavioral interventions are considered. PMID:26477525

  11. Implications for practice: Resurgence and differential reinforcement of alternative responding.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Sarah E; Lambert, Joseph M

    2015-12-01

    During the maintenance stages of differential reinforcement of alternative responding (DRA), failure to reinforce alternative responses could result in a resurgence of problem behavior. However, translational work done with arbitrary human responses suggests that teaching individuals to emit multiple alternative responses in sequential order may facilitate the resurgence of appropriate, rather than problem, behavior. This paper discusses the practical implications of serial DRA training on problem and appropriate behavior resurgence, as presented in the preceding article, "Serial Alternative Response Training As Intervention for Target Response Resurgence." Clinical scenarios as well as implications for self-advocacy and acceptability of behavioral interventions are considered.

  12. Medical resources and requirements for responding to radiological terrorism.

    PubMed

    Mettler, Fred A

    2005-11-01

    Medical planning and response to radiological terrorism is different than planning or responding to an event such as a nuclear power plant accident. The major differences are that now we must plan for multiple simultaneous events, suicide scenarios, and the possibility of biological, chemical, and radiological agents being used at the same time. This demands an "all-hazards" approach and not just a radiological response. An overview of the issues related to diagnosis, treatment, training, and resources is provided. Although the requirements for medical management are clear, the available resources have not been applied in a manner that results in adequate preparedness for radiological events. PMID:16217192

  13. What information strategy responding to social needs should be?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Kunihiko

    With the contemporary social phenomena that people think much of diversity of value, they are concerned with differentiation from others. Consumers' tendency to seek unique goods is common to all, giving impetus to makers' attitude that they try to produce varieties of goods but small amount for each. Consequently, life cycle of goods has become smaller than ever, and rapid and creative information gathering and utilization have become essential when makers produce goods responding to consumers' need. The author discusses how information strategy should be worked in the comprehensive business activities, and how information should be located as the powerful management resource.

  14. The human cost of being a 'first responder'.

    PubMed

    Rabjohn, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    It is curious that among all the literature published on emergency planning and business continuity, the impact on those individuals tasked with dealing with the human cost of disasters is rarely considered. Emergency service personnel are certainly considered a vital component of any response; heroes when outcomes are successful, valiant when they do their best but fail, and occasionally incompetent when the media think it makes a good story. This paper argues that human suffering carries a cost for both responders and society. PMID:23615066

  15. Missing piece of first-responder DNA repair machine revealed

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Scripps Research Institute have revealed the role played by the least-understood part of a first-responder molecule that rushes in to bind and repair breaks in DNA strands, a process that helps people avoid cancer. With this final piece of the puzzle in place, scientists can better understand how the repair mechanism fends off cancer in healthy people, and conversely, how it helps cancer cells resist chemotherapy. This could enable researchers to develop more effective therapies with fewer side effects. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-releases/2009/10/01/dna-repair-uncovered/

  16. The employee who complains. Understanding and responding to staff complaints.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, R

    1991-01-01

    A manager's mood sets the tone for the work environment and should be a positive role model. When employees complain, the manager should listen and make careful note not only of the content of what is expressed but also of the feelings behind the message. In short, the manager should address the dynamics behind the complaint in order to be able to appropriately receive, investigate, and respond to complaints. It is the wise manager who accepts that complaints are an inevitable part of the managerial role and who works to develop expertise in ways of handling this human reaction.

  17. A Decision Process for Determining Whether to Conduct Responder Health Research Following Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Decker, John A.; Kiefer, Max; Reissman, Dori B.; Funk, Renée; Halpin, John; Bernard, Bruce; Ehrenberg, Richard L.; Schuler, Christine R.; Whelan, Elizabeth; Myers, Kyle; Howard, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Disasters often set the stage for scientific inquiry within the field of occupational safety and health. This is especially true when the long-term consequences of exposures associated with a particular disaster are unclear. However, a responder research study can be costly and difficult to design, and researchers must consider whether the proposed study will produce useful, reliable results and is a prudent public health investment. Methods Senior NIOSH scientists, experienced with disaster response and representing the disciplines of epidemiology, occupational medicine and psychiatry, and industrial hygiene, were convened at the request of the NIOSH Director to develop a decision process to help determine when to conduct responder health research following disasters. Results The decision process can be broken down into various components, including scientific rationale that should be formally recognized as critical to efficiently and effectively determine whether a research study is warranted. The scientific rationale includes certain controlling or “gatekeeper” factors that should be present to proceed with research. Providing the foundation for responder disaster research also requires strategizing before an event occurs, so that critical baseline and comparison data can be collected. Conclusions The recommended framework should ensure that research that is most needed and justified will be identified and prioritized. PMID:23716371

  18. A Role for Science in Responding to Health Crises.

    PubMed

    Colf, Leremy A; Brothers, Reginald; Murata, Christina E

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) Science and Technology (S&T) Directorate plays a role in public health that extends beyond biodefense. These responsibilities were exercised as part of the 2014-16 Ebola outbreak, leading to productive and beneficial contributions to the international public health response and improved operations in the United States. However, we and others have identified numerous areas for improvement. Based on our successes and lessons learned, we propose a number of ways that DHS, the interagency, and academia can act now to ensure improved responses to future public health crises. These include pre-developing scientific capabilities to respond agnostically to threats, and disease-specific master question lists to organize and inform initial efforts. We are generating DHS-specific playbooks and tools for anticipating future needs and capturing requests from DHS components and our national and international partners, where efforts will also be used to refine and exercise communication and information-sharing practices. These experiences and improvement efforts have encouraged discussions on the role of science in developing government policy, specifically responding to public health crises. We propose specific considerations for both scientists and government decision makers to ensure that the best available science is incorporated into policy and operational decisions to facilitate highly effective responses to future health crises. PMID:27482881

  19. Behavioral momentum and relapse of extinguished operant responding.

    PubMed

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2009-11-01

    Previous experiments on behavioral momentum have shown that relative resistance to extinction of operant behavior in the presence of a stimulus depends on the rate of reinforcement associated with that stimulus, even if some of those reinforcers occur independently of the behavior. We present three experiments examining whether the rate of reinforcement in the presence of a stimulus similarly modulates the relative relapse of operant behavior produced by reinstatement, resurgence, and renewal paradigms. During baseline conditions, pigeons responded for food reinforcement on variable-interval 120-sec schedules in alternating periods of exposure to two stimuli arranged by a multiple schedule. Additional response-independent food presentations were also delivered in the presence of one of the multiple-schedule stimuli. Consistent with previous research, baseline response rates were lower in the presence of the stimulus with the added response-independent reinforcement, and relative resistance to extinction was greater in the presence of that stimulus. In addition, following extinction, the relative relapse of responding produced by reinstatement, resurgence, and renewal paradigms was greater in the presence of the stimulus associated with the higher rate of reinforcement. We suggest that a model of extinction from behavioral momentum theory may be useful for understanding these results.

  20. Niacin-respondent subset of schizophrenia – a therapeutic review.

    PubMed

    Xu, X J; Jiang, G S

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that niacin deficiency manifests with several psychiatric manifestations. Also historically evidence has accumulated that niacin augmentation can be used for treatment of schizophrenia. However, the etiopathological associations between niacin deficiency and schizophrenia as well as the mechanism of action of niacin in its treatment. More importantly, the subgroups of schizophrenia which will respond to niacin augmentation has never been highlighted in the literature. In this article, we review three of the mechanisms in which niacin deficiency could lead to schizophrenic symptoms: (1) Niacin deficiency neurodegeneration (2) Membrane phospholipid deficiency hypothesis and (3) Adrenochrome hypothesis. We will further move towards the clinical as well as treatment related associations as reviewed from the literature. Here, we propose a model that a subset of schizophrenia can respond to niacin augmentation therapy better than other subsets because these patients have contributions in their psychotic manifestations from the neural degeneration resulting from niacin deficiency. We present a short description of our case report which showed rapid improvement in schizophrenic psychotic symptoms subsequent to administration of niacin as an augmentation therapy. We, thus, propose that niacin deficiency is a contributory factor in schizophrenia development in some patients and symptom alleviation in these patients will benefit from niacin augmentation, especially in some particular psychotic features.

  1. Life Threatening Idiopathic Recurrent Angioedema Responding to Cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Amit; Roy-Shapira, Aviel; Evgeni, Brotfain; Leonid, Koyfman; Borer, Abraham; Klein, Moti

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 27-year-old man with recurrent episodes of angioedema since he was 19, who responded well to treatment with medical grade cannabis. Initially, he responded to steroids and antihistamines, but several attempts to withdraw treatment resulted in recurrence. In the last few months before prescribing cannabis, the frequency and severity of the attacks worsened and included several presyncope events, associated with scrotal and neck swelling. No predisposing factors were identified, and extensive workup was negative. The patient reported that he was periodically using cannabis socially and that during these periods he was free of attacks. Recent data suggest that cannabis derivatives are involved in the control of mast cell activation. Consequently, we decided to try a course of inhaled cannabis as modulators of immune cell functions. The use of inhaled cannabis resulted in a complete response, and he has been free of symptoms for 2 years. An attempt to withhold the inhaled cannabis led to a recurrent attack within a week, and resuming cannabis maintained the remission, suggesting a cause and effect relationship. PMID:26257969

  2. A Role for Science in Responding to Health Crises

    PubMed Central

    Brothers, Reginald; Murata, Christina E.

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) Science and Technology (S&T) Directorate plays a role in public health that extends beyond biodefense. These responsibilities were exercised as part of the 2014-16 Ebola outbreak, leading to productive and beneficial contributions to the international public health response and improved operations in the United States. However, we and others have identified numerous areas for improvement. Based on our successes and lessons learned, we propose a number of ways that DHS, the interagency, and academia can act now to ensure improved responses to future public health crises. These include pre-developing scientific capabilities to respond agnostically to threats, and disease-specific master question lists to organize and inform initial efforts. We are generating DHS-specific playbooks and tools for anticipating future needs and capturing requests from DHS components and our national and international partners, where efforts will also be used to refine and exercise communication and information-sharing practices. These experiences and improvement efforts have encouraged discussions on the role of science in developing government policy, specifically responding to public health crises. We propose specific considerations for both scientists and government decision makers to ensure that the best available science is incorporated into policy and operational decisions to facilitate highly effective responses to future health crises. PMID:27482881

  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transcription Machinery: Ready To Respond to Host Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Flentie, Kelly; Garner, Ashley L.

    2016-01-01

    Regulating responses to stress is critical for all bacteria, whether they are environmental, commensal, or pathogenic species. For pathogenic bacteria, successful colonization and survival in the host are dependent on adaptation to diverse conditions imposed by the host tissue architecture and the immune response. Once the bacterium senses a hostile environment, it must enact a change in physiology that contributes to the organism's survival strategy. Inappropriate responses have consequences; hence, the execution of the appropriate response is essential for survival of the bacterium in its niche. Stress responses are most often regulated at the level of gene expression and, more specifically, transcription. This minireview focuses on mechanisms of regulating transcription initiation that are required by Mycobacterium tuberculosis to respond to the arsenal of defenses imposed by the host during infection. In particular, we highlight how certain features of M. tuberculosis physiology allow this pathogen to respond swiftly and effectively to host defenses. By enacting highly integrated and coordinated gene expression changes in response to stress, M. tuberculosis is prepared for battle against the host defense and able to persist within the human population. PMID:26883824

  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transcription Machinery: Ready To Respond to Host Attacks.

    PubMed

    Flentie, Kelly; Garner, Ashley L; Stallings, Christina L

    2016-05-01

    Regulating responses to stress is critical for all bacteria, whether they are environmental, commensal, or pathogenic species. For pathogenic bacteria, successful colonization and survival in the host are dependent on adaptation to diverse conditions imposed by the host tissue architecture and the immune response. Once the bacterium senses a hostile environment, it must enact a change in physiology that contributes to the organism's survival strategy. Inappropriate responses have consequences; hence, the execution of the appropriate response is essential for survival of the bacterium in its niche. Stress responses are most often regulated at the level of gene expression and, more specifically, transcription. This minireview focuses on mechanisms of regulating transcription initiation that are required by Mycobacterium tuberculosis to respond to the arsenal of defenses imposed by the host during infection. In particular, we highlight how certain features of M. tuberculosis physiology allow this pathogen to respond swiftly and effectively to host defenses. By enacting highly integrated and coordinated gene expression changes in response to stress,M. tuberculosis is prepared for battle against the host defense and able to persist within the human population.

  5. Wild robins (Petroica longipes) respond to human gaze.

    PubMed

    Garland, Alexis; Low, Jason; Armstrong, Nicola; Burns, Kevin C

    2014-09-01

    Gaze following and awareness of attentional cues are hallmarks of human and non-human social intelligence. Here, we show that the North Island robin (Petroica longipes), a food-hoarding songbird endemic to New Zealand, responds to human eyes. Robins were presented with six different conditions, in which two human experimenters altered the orientation or visibility of their body, head or eyes in relation to mealworm prey. One experimenter had visual access to the prey, and the second experimenter did not. Robins were then given the opportunity to 'steal' one of two mealworms presented by each experimenter. Robins responded by preferentially choosing the mealworm in front of the experimenter who could not see, in all conditions but one. Robins failed to discriminate between experimenters who were facing the mealworm and those who had their head turned 90° to the side. This may suggest that robins do not make decisions using the same eye visibility cues that primates and corvids evince, whether for ecological, experiential or evolutionary reasons.

  6. Behavioral momentum and relapse of extinguished operant responding.

    PubMed

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2009-11-01

    Previous experiments on behavioral momentum have shown that relative resistance to extinction of operant behavior in the presence of a stimulus depends on the rate of reinforcement associated with that stimulus, even if some of those reinforcers occur independently of the behavior. We present three experiments examining whether the rate of reinforcement in the presence of a stimulus similarly modulates the relative relapse of operant behavior produced by reinstatement, resurgence, and renewal paradigms. During baseline conditions, pigeons responded for food reinforcement on variable-interval 120-sec schedules in alternating periods of exposure to two stimuli arranged by a multiple schedule. Additional response-independent food presentations were also delivered in the presence of one of the multiple-schedule stimuli. Consistent with previous research, baseline response rates were lower in the presence of the stimulus with the added response-independent reinforcement, and relative resistance to extinction was greater in the presence of that stimulus. In addition, following extinction, the relative relapse of responding produced by reinstatement, resurgence, and renewal paradigms was greater in the presence of the stimulus associated with the higher rate of reinforcement. We suggest that a model of extinction from behavioral momentum theory may be useful for understanding these results. PMID:19815932

  7. The effects of concurrent responding and reinforcement on behavioral output.

    PubMed

    Duncan, H J; Silberberg, A

    1982-09-01

    Four birds key pecked on concurrent variable-interval one-minute variable-interval four-minute schedules with a two-second changeover delay. Response rates to the variable-interval one-minute key were then reduced by signaling its reinforcer availability and later by providing its reinforcers independently of responding. Each manipulation increased response rates to the variable-interval four-minute key even though relative reinforcement rates were unchanged. In a final phase, eliminating the variable-interval one-minute key and its schedule produced the highest rates of all to the variable-interval four-minute key. These results show that both reinforcement and response rates to one schedule influence response rates to another schedule. These results join those of Guilkey, Shull, & Brownstein (1975) in failing to replicate Catania (1963). Moreover, they violate the predictions of the equation for simple action (de Villiers & Herrnstein, 1976). In terms of a median-rate measure (reciprocal of the median interresponse time), rates to the variable-interval four-minute key were high when responding was not reduced to the variable-interval one-minute key and were low when it was reduced. This rate difference suggests a process difference between concurrent-schedule procedures that maintain high concurrent response rates versus those that do not. This process difference jeopardizes attempts to integrate single- and concurrent-operant performances within a single formulation.

  8. Anxiolytic-like effects of leptin on fixed interval responding.

    PubMed

    Tyree, Susan M; Munn, Robert G K; McNaughton, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Leptin has been shown to affect energy homeostasis, learning and memory, and some models of anxiolytic action. However, leptin has produced inconsistent results in previous non-operant behavioural tests of anxiety. Here, we test the anxiolytic potential of leptin in an operant paradigm that has produced positive results across all classes of anxiolytic so far tested. Rats were tested in the Fixed Interval 60 Seconds (FI60) task following administration of 0/0.5/1.0mg/kg (i.p.) leptin or an active anxiolytic control of 5mg/kg (i.p.) chlordiazepoxide (CDP). By the end of the 14days of testing in the FI60 task, 0.5mg/kg leptin released suppressed responding in a manner similar to CDP, and 1.0mg/kg leptin produced a relative depression in responding, a similar outcome pattern to previously tested 5HT-agonist anxiolytics. This suggests that leptin behaves similarly to established serotonergic anxiolytics such as buspirone and fluoxetine; with the delay in development of effect during testing, and the inverted-U dose-response curve explaining the inconsistent behaviour of leptin in behavioural tests of anxiety, as this type of pattern is common to serotonergic anxiolytics. PMID:27180106

  9. Differential expression of hepatic genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in high- and low-responding strains of laboratory opossums.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jeannie; Donalson, Lisa M; Kushwaha, Rampratap S; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; VandeBerg, Jane F; VandeBerg, John L

    2008-05-01

    Plasma very low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein (VLDL+LDL) cholesterol levels of 2 partially inbred strains of opossums (Monodelphis domestica) differ markedly when they are fed a high-cholesterol and low-fat (HCLF) diet. High-responding opossums exhibit a dramatic increase (>10-fold) in VLDL+LDL cholesterol, whereas low-responding opossums exhibit a minimal increase (<2-fold) in VLDL+LDL cholesterol. The genes responsible for the accumulation of high levels of plasma VLDL+LDL cholesterol in high-responding opossums have not yet been identified. In this study, we analyzed the expression of genes encoding for (1) 4 bile acid synthesis enzymes (CYP7A1, CYP27A1, CYP8B1, and CYP7B1); (2) 3 cholesterol synthesis enzymes (HMGCR, HMGCS1, and SQLE); (3) the LDL receptor (LDLR); (4) 2 sterol transporters (ABCG5 and ABCG8); and (5) 2 bile acid transporters (ABCB11 and SLC10A1) to determine how the expression of these genes was affected by dietary cholesterol in the 2 strains of opossums. We found differences between high and low responders in the expression of cholesterol synthesis genes on the basal diet, as well as differences in the expression of the CYP27A1, ABCG5, ABCG8, and SLC10A1 genes on the HCLF diet. CYP27A1 messenger RNA levels were lower in the livers of high responders compared with low responders, whereas CYP27A1 messenger RNA levels in extrahepatic tissues were similar in high and low responders on the HCLF diet. Low levels of CYP27A1, ABCG5, and ABCG8 expression in the liver may contribute to hypercholesterolemia in high-responding opossums.

  10. Comparing the validity of informant and self-reports of personality using laboratory indices of emotional responding as criterion variables.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Lynne; Liu, Huiting; Huggins, Ashley A; Katz, Andrea C; Zvolensky, Michael J; Shankman, Stewart A

    2016-09-01

    Personality traits relate to risk for psychopathology and can inform predictions about treatment outcome. In an effort to obtain a comprehensive index of personality, informant reports of personality are sometimes obtained in addition to self-reports of personality. However, there is limited research comparing the validity of self- and informant reports of personality, particularly among those with internalizing psychopathology. This is important given that informants may provide an additional (and perhaps different) perspective on individuals' personality. The present study therefore compared how both reports of positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectivity (NA) relate to psychophysiological and subjective measures of emotional responding to positive and negative stimuli. Given that our sample (n = 117) included individuals with no history of psychopathology, as well as individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) and/or panic disorder (PD), we were also able to explore whether these internalizing diagnoses moderated the association between personality reports and measures of emotional responding. Informant-reported PA predicted physiological responses to positive stimuli (but not negative). Informant-reported NA predicted physiological responses to negative stimuli (but not positive). Self-reported personality did not predict physiological responding, but did predict subjectively measured emotional responding (NA for negative responding, PA for positive responding). Diagnoses of internalizing psychopathology (PD or MDD) did not moderate these associations. Results suggest self- and informant reports of personality may each provide valid indices of an individual's emotional response tendencies, but predict different aspects of those tendencies. PMID:27273802

  11. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 does not modify methamphetamine reinstatement of responding.

    PubMed

    Boctor, Sherin Y; Martinez, Joe L; Koek, Wouter; France, Charles P

    2007-09-24

    Cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonists can decrease methamphetamine self-administration. This study examined whether the CB(1) receptor antagonist AM251 [N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-indophonyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide] modifies reinstatement in rats that previously self-administered methamphetamine. Rats (n=10) self-administered methamphetamine (0.1 mg/kg/infusion) under a fixed ratio 2 schedule. Non-contingent methamphetamine (0.01-1.78 mg/kg, i.v.) yielded responding for saline (reinstatement) that was similar to responding for self-administered methamphetamine. AM251 (0.032-0.32, i.v.) did not affect methamphetamine-induced reinstatement but significantly attenuated Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (2.0 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced hypothermia. These data fail to support a role for endogenous cannabinoids or cannabinoid CB(1) receptors in reinstatement and, therefore, relapse to stimulant abuse.

  12. Condom Use among Immigrant Latino Sexual Minorities: Multilevel Analysis after Respondent-Driven Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored correlates of condom use within a respondent-driven sample of 190 Spanish-speaking immigrant Latino sexual minorities, including gay and bisexual men, other men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender person, in North Carolina. Five analytic approaches for modeling data collected using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) were compared. Across most approaches, knowledge of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and increased condom use self-efficacy predicted consistent condom use and increased homophobia predicted decreased consistent condom use. The same correlates were not significant in all analyses but were consistent in most. Clustering due to recruitment chains was low, while clustering due to recruiter was substantial. This highlights the importance accounting for clustering when analyzing RDS data. PMID:25646728

  13. Effects of task difficulty and type of contingency on students' allocation of responding to math worksheets.

    PubMed Central

    Lannie, Amanda L; Martens, Brian K

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated students' allocation of responding as a function of task difficulty and type of reinforcement contingency (i.e., accuracy based or time based). Four regular education fourth-grade students were presented with two identical stacks of easy and then difficult math worksheets using a reversal design. Regardless of condition, completing problems from each stack of worksheets was reinforced according to a different contingency; one required correct completion of math problems (accuracy based) and one required on-task behavior (time based). Results suggested that 3 of the 4 students preferred the accuracy-based contingency when given easy material and the time-based contingency when given difficult material. One student allocated more responding to the accuracy-based contingency when given easy problems but did not show a clear preference for either contingency with difficult problems. The implications of these findings for designing reinforcement-based programs for tasks of varying difficulty are discussed. PMID:15154215

  14. Condom use among immigrant Latino sexual minorities: multilevel analysis after respondent-driven sampling.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; McCoy, Thomas P

    2015-02-01

    This study explored correlates of condom use within a respondent-driven sample of 190 Spanish-speaking immigrant Latino sexual minorities, including gay and bisexual men, other men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender person, in North Carolina. Five analytic approaches for modeling data collected using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) were compared. Across most approaches, knowledge of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and increased condom use self-efficacy predicted consistent condom use and increased homophobia predicted decreased consistent condom use. The same correlates were not significant in all analyses but were consistent in most. Clustering due to recruitment chains was low, while clustering due to recruiter was substantial. This highlights the importance accounting for clustering when analyzing RDS data. PMID:25646728

  15. The behavioral treatment of auditory hallucinatory responding of a schizophrenic patient.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, J M; Todman, M; Perez, M; Godoy, J F; Landon-Jimenez, D V

    1996-09-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of a behaviorally based treatment package to decrease the frequency of verbal responding to auditory hallucinations and to increase attention to important external stimuli, rather than to the hallucinations. The subject, a 49-year-old male, with a 20-year history of auditory hallucinatory responding (AHR), laughing and talking to himself, was seen in an outpatient clinic. Observations were made during management skill training, given usually twice a week. Observation sessions were divided into 15-minute intervals. The intervention package included reinforcement in the form of praise, pats on the back, and token reinforcement contingent on the absence of auditory hallucinations. Cancellation tests were given to measure his ability to attend to external tasks. Using an ABCAD design, it was seen that the data indicated that the intervention resulted in both a sharp decrease in auditory hallucinations and an increase in the subject's ability to attend to external tasks.

  16. A comparison of placebo responders and nonresponders in subgroups of depressive disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Bialik, R J; Ravindran, A V; Bakish, D; Lapierre, Y D

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the placebo treatment response varied in subgroups of depressed patients (single episode, recurrent, and double depression). Data from placebo-treated patients from seven placebo-controlled clinical trials were pooled and analyzed retrospectively. The placebo response rate was highest for females with a single episode of depression (66.7%) and lowest for females with recurrent depressive episodes (13.3%). Among patients experiencing their first episode, placebo responders had lower Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) total scores at baseline and lower ratings of pschomotor retardation than nonresponders. For patients having a recurrence of an episode, placebo responders had lower baseline ratings of somatic anxiety. The major finding was that patients suffering from their first depressive episode differed from patients with recurrent depressive episodes in the rate of placebo response, effect of gender, and the clinical symptoms that were associated with a positive placebo response. PMID:7647079

  17. Characterising the immune profile of the kidney biopsy at lupus nephritis flare differentiates early treatment responders from non-responders

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Samir V; Malvar, Ana; Song, Huijuan; Alberton, Valeria; Lococo, Bruno; Vance, Jay; Zhang, Jianying; Yu, Lianbo; Rovin, Brad H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The kidney biopsy is used to diagnose and guide initial therapy in patients with lupus nephritis (LN). Kidney histology does not correlate well with clinical measurements of kidney injury or predict how patients will respond to standard-of-care immunosuppression. We postulated that the gene expression profile of kidney tissue at the time of biopsy may differentiate patients who will from those who will not respond to treatment. Methods The expression of 511 immune-response genes was measured in kidney biopsies from 19 patients with proliferative LN and 4 normal controls. RNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded kidney biopsies done at flare. After induction therapy, 5 patients achieved a complete clinical response (CR), 10 had a partial response (PR) and 4 patients were non-responders (NRs). Transcript expression was compared with normal controls and between renal response groups. Results A principal component analysis showed that intrarenal transcript expression from normal kidney, CR biopsies and NR biopsies segregated from each other. The top genes responsible for CR clustering included several interferon pathway genes (STAT1, IRF1, IRF7, MX1, STAT2, JAK2), while complement genes (C1R, C1QB, C6, C9, C5, MASP2) were mainly responsible for NR clustering. Overall, 35 genes were uniquely expressed in NR compared with CR. Pathway analysis revealed that interferon signalling and complement activation pathways were upregulated in both groups, while BAFF, APRIL, nuclear factor-κB and interleukin-6 signalling were increased in CR but suppressed in NR. Conclusions These data suggest that molecular profiling of the kidney biopsy at LN flare may be useful in predicting treatment response to induction therapy. PMID:26629350

  18. Aping expressions? Chimpanzees produce distinct laugh types when responding to laughter of others.

    PubMed

    Davila-Ross, Marina; Allcock, Bethan; Thomas, Chris; Bard, Kim A

    2011-10-01

    Humans have the ability to replicate the emotional expressions of others even when they undergo different emotions. Such distinct responses of expressions, especially positive expressions, play a central role in everyday social communication of humans and may give the responding individuals important advantages in cooperation and communication. The present work examined laughter in chimpanzees to test whether nonhuman primates also use their expressions in such distinct ways. The approach was first to examine the form and occurrence of laugh replications (laughter after the laughter of others) and spontaneous laughter of chimpanzees during social play and then to test whether their laugh replications represented laugh-elicited laugh responses (laughter triggered by the laughter of others) by using a quantitative method designed to measure responses in natural social settings. The results of this study indicated that chimpanzees produce laugh-elicited laughter that is distinct in form and occurrence from their spontaneous laughter. These findings provide the first empirical evidence that nonhuman primates have the ability to replicate the expressions of others by producing expressions that differ in their underlying emotions and social implications. The data further showed that the laugh-elicited laugh responses of the subjects were closely linked to play maintenance, suggesting that chimpanzees might gain important cooperative and communicative advantages by responding with laughter to the laughter of their social partners. Notably, some chimpanzee groups of this study responded more with laughter than others, an outcome that provides empirical support of a socialization of expressions in great apes similar to that of humans.

  19. Conceptual and methodological challenges to measuring political commitment to respond to HIV

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Researchers have long recognized the importance of a central government’s political “commitment” in order to mount an effective response to HIV. The concept of political commitment remains ill-defined, however, and little guidance has been given on how to measure this construct and its relationship with HIV-related outcomes. Several countries have experienced declines in HIV infection rates, but conceptual difficulties arise in linking these declines to political commitment as opposed to underlying social and behavioural factors. Methods This paper first presents a critical review of the literature on existing efforts to conceptualize and measure political commitment to respond to HIV and the linkages between political commitment and HIV-related outcomes. Based on the elements identified in this review, the paper then develops and presents a framework to assist researchers in making choices about how to assess a government's level of political commitment to respond to HIV and how to link political commitment to HIV-related outcomes. Results The review of existing studies identifies three components of commitment (expressed, institutional and budgetary commitment) as different dimensions along which commitment can be measured. The review also identifies normative and ideological aspects of commitment and a set of variables that mediate and moderate political commitment that need to be accounted for in order to draw valid inferences about the relationship between political commitment and HIV-related outcomes. The framework summarizes a set of steps that researchers can follow in order to assess a government's level of commitment to respond to HIV and suggests ways to apply the framework to country cases. Conclusions Whereas existing studies have adopted a limited and often ambiguous conception of political commitment, we argue that conceiving of political commitment along a greater number of dimensions will allow researchers to draw a more complete

  20. A systematic review of probable posttraumatic stress disorder in first responders following man-made mass violence.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Laura C

    2015-09-30

    The current study was a systematic review examining probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in first responders following man-made mass violence. A systematic literature search yielded 20 studies that fit the inclusion criteria. The prevalence rates of probable PTSD across all 20 studies ranged from 1.3% to 22.0%. Fifteen of the 20 articles focused on first responders following the September 11th terrorist attacks and many of the studies used the same participant recruitment pools. Overall, the results of the systematic review described here suggest that our understanding of PTSD in first responders following man-made mass violence is based on a very small set of articles that have focused on a few particular events. This paper is meant to serve as a call for additional research and to encourage more breadth in the specific incidents that are examined. PMID:26253760

  1. Plants respond to leaf vibrations caused by insect herbivore chewing.

    PubMed

    Appel, H M; Cocroft, R B

    2014-08-01

    Plant germination and growth can be influenced by sound, but the ecological significance of these responses is unclear. We asked whether acoustic energy generated by the feeding of insect herbivores was detected by plants. We report that the vibrations caused by insect feeding can elicit chemical defenses. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) rosettes pre-treated with the vibrations caused by caterpillar feeding had higher levels of glucosinolate and anthocyanin defenses when subsequently fed upon by Pieris rapae (L.) caterpillars than did untreated plants. The plants also discriminated between the vibrations caused by chewing and those caused by wind or insect song. Plants thus respond to herbivore-generated vibrations in a selective and ecologically meaningful way. A vibration signaling pathway would complement the known signaling pathways that rely on volatile, electrical, or phloem-borne signals. We suggest that vibration may represent a new long distance signaling mechanism in plant-insect interactions that contributes to systemic induction of chemical defenses.

  2. Respondents, Operants, and Emergents: Toward an Integrated Perspective on Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Daune M.; Washburn, David A.; Hillix, William A.

    1996-01-01

    A triarchic organization of behavior, building on Skinner's description of respondents and operants, is proposed by introducing a third class of behavior called 'emergents.' Emergents are new responses, never specifically reinforced, that require operations more complex than association. Some of these operations occur naturally only in animals above a minimum level of brain complexity, and are developed in an interaction between treatment and organismic variables. (Here complexity is defined in terms of relative levels of hierarchical integration made possible both by the amount of brain, afforded both by brain-body allometric relationships and by encephalization, and, also, the elaboration of dendritic and synaptic connections within the cortex and connections between various parts/regions of the brain.) Examples of emergents are discussed to advance this triarchic view, of behavior. The prime example is language. This triarchic view reflects both the common goals and the cumulative nature of psychological science.

  3. Lysosomal adaptation: how the lysosome responds to external cues.

    PubMed

    Settembre, Carmine; Ballabio, Andrea

    2014-06-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the importance of the lysosome in cell metabolism and organism physiology goes far beyond the simple disposal of cellular garbage. This dynamic organelle is situated at the crossroad of the most important cellular pathways and is involved in sensing, signaling, and transcriptional mechanisms that respond to environmental cues, such as nutrients. Two main mediators of these lysosomal adaptation mechanisms are the mTORC1 kinase complex and the transcription factor EB (TFEB). These two factors are linked in a lysosome-to-nucleus signaling pathway that provides the lysosome with the ability to adapt to extracellular cues and control its own biogenesis. Modulation of lysosomal function by acting on TFEB has a profound impact on cellular clearance and energy metabolism and is a promising therapeutic target for a large variety of disease conditions.

  4. Responding to and managing casualties: detection, personal protection, and decontamination.

    PubMed

    Lepler, Lawrence; Lucci, Edward

    2004-03-01

    Unfortunately, a mass casualty caused by chemical or biologic terrorism has become a real threat to the United States. A well-considered preparedness plan is needed to minimize tOe impact of a chemical or biologic attack on civilians and responders. This article describes some of the key elements in a preparedness plan, specifically issues regarding early detection, decontamination. and personal protection. Although chemical and biologic terrorism is often considered as a single entity, there are important distinctions in detection, decontamination, and personal protection procedures that effect preparedness planning. Therefore, any preparedness plan needs to be flexible enough to deal with both biologic and chemical terrorism. Preparedness plans also need to be thorough enough to deal with the differences in response to a variety of specific chemical or biologic agents. PMID:15062224

  5. Responding to the global economic crisis: inclusive social work practice.

    PubMed

    Strier, Ron

    2013-10-01

    The present global economic crisis raises new concerns for social workers. One of its most visible results is the further socioeconomic decline and marginalization of excluded populations. This article suggests that the current circumstances require a much more engaged, egalitarian, and reflexive practice-a practice, based on social rights, that matches the magnitude of the crisis and its negative impact on traditional social work constituencies. Consequently, the article suggests the concept of inclusive social work practice (ISWP), a conceptual framework whose main principles respond to four processes of social exclusion closely related to the present global crisis: extreme social isolation, growing dependency, multiple deprivation, and internalized oppression. The author describes the impact of the global crisis on patterns of social exclusion and presents the methodological foundations of the ISWP framework.

  6. Response time characterization of fast responding pressure-sensitive paint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Tatsuya; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Sakaue, Hirotaka

    2010-11-01

    Response time characterization of a fast responding pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) is important information in measuring an unsteady flow field. PSP is an optical pressure sensor. The luminescent image from the PSP is related to a pressure map. In the previous works, a time delay from a step change of pressure is generally used to characterize the response time. The thickness of the PSP as well as the PSP binding material greatly influences the response time. Because the temperature influences the diffusion or permeation of a PSP binder, it is also an important parameter to influence the response time. We build a shock tube to create a step change of pressure for response time characterization. This can control the temperature of the PSP. We discuss the PSP response times related to the temperature of the binder as well as the binding materials.

  7. Responding to the global economic crisis: inclusive social work practice.

    PubMed

    Strier, Ron

    2013-10-01

    The present global economic crisis raises new concerns for social workers. One of its most visible results is the further socioeconomic decline and marginalization of excluded populations. This article suggests that the current circumstances require a much more engaged, egalitarian, and reflexive practice-a practice, based on social rights, that matches the magnitude of the crisis and its negative impact on traditional social work constituencies. Consequently, the article suggests the concept of inclusive social work practice (ISWP), a conceptual framework whose main principles respond to four processes of social exclusion closely related to the present global crisis: extreme social isolation, growing dependency, multiple deprivation, and internalized oppression. The author describes the impact of the global crisis on patterns of social exclusion and presents the methodological foundations of the ISWP framework. PMID:24450021

  8. Yap1: A DNA damage responder in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Lori A.; Degtyareva, Natalya; Doetsch, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of signaling pathways in response to genotoxic stress is crucial for cells to properly repair DNA damage. In response to DNA damage, intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species increase. One important function of such a response could be to initiate signal transduction processes. We have employed the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae to delineate DNA damage sensing mechanisms. We report a novel, unanticipated role for the transcription factor Yap1 as a DNA damage responder, providing direct evidence that reactive oxygen species are an important component of the DNA damage signaling process. Our findings reveal an epistatic link between Yap1 and the DNA base excision repair pathway. Corruption of the Yap1-mediated DNA damage response influences cell survival and genomic stability in response to exposure to genotoxic agents. PMID:22433435

  9. Responding to emergencies: How organization and management make a difference

    SciTech Connect

    Metlay, D.S.; Haber, S.B.; Luckas, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    There is an observable and definable process that occurs during the course of responding to an abnormal event at a nuclear power plant. Each of the elements that comprise that process involves collective action and consequently is influenced by the character and effectiveness of organizational and managerial arrangements. Factors which affect each element include overt ones like the allocation of authority and responsibility and the skill of personnel, as well as covert factors like the methods used to resolve uncertainty. The purpose of this research project is to examine the process of response that occurs to an abnormal event at a nuclear power plant and where possible to identify the organizational and management factors that influence that process.

  10. Yap1: a DNA damage responder in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Lori A; Degtyareva, Natalya; Doetsch, Paul W

    2012-04-01

    Activation of signaling pathways in response to genotoxic stress is crucial for cells to properly repair DNA damage. In response to DNA damage, intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species increase. One important function of such a response could be to initiate signal transduction processes. We have employed the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae to delineate DNA damage sensing mechanisms. We report a novel, unanticipated role for the transcription factor Yap1 as a DNA damage responder, providing direct evidence that reactive oxygen species are an important component of the DNA damage signaling process. Our findings reveal an epistatic link between Yap1 and the DNA base excision repair pathway. Corruption of the Yap1-mediated DNA damage response influences cell survival and genomic stability in response to exposure to genotoxic agents.

  11. Assessing and responding to infant mental health needs.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Judy

    2013-09-01

    Early recognition of mental health problems in maltreated infants, coupled with tailored support to aid recovery, has the potential to offer significant benefits to a population whose needs have perhaps remained hidden in the past. All forms of maltreatment may adversely affect infant mental health, but perhaps none more so than emotional neglect. Universal contact with families with young children makes health visitors ideally placed to provide early support to this vulnerable group, but such practice requires considerable knowledge and understanding. This paper examines how emotional neglect can impact on an infant's mental health and explores how health visitors can assess and respond effectively to this key health need. Throughout, the term 'infant' is used to describe children from birth to age three.

  12. Lysosomal adaptation: how the lysosome responds to external cues.

    PubMed

    Settembre, Carmine; Ballabio, Andrea

    2014-06-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the importance of the lysosome in cell metabolism and organism physiology goes far beyond the simple disposal of cellular garbage. This dynamic organelle is situated at the crossroad of the most important cellular pathways and is involved in sensing, signaling, and transcriptional mechanisms that respond to environmental cues, such as nutrients. Two main mediators of these lysosomal adaptation mechanisms are the mTORC1 kinase complex and the transcription factor EB (TFEB). These two factors are linked in a lysosome-to-nucleus signaling pathway that provides the lysosome with the ability to adapt to extracellular cues and control its own biogenesis. Modulation of lysosomal function by acting on TFEB has a profound impact on cellular clearance and energy metabolism and is a promising therapeutic target for a large variety of disease conditions. PMID:24799353

  13. Misery loves company: mood-congruent emotional responding to music.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Patrick G; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Griffith, Andrew T

    2011-10-01

    We examined emotional responding to music after mood induction. On each trial, listeners heard a 30-s music excerpt and rated how much they liked it, whether it sounded happy or sad, and how familiar it was. When the excerpts sounded unambiguously happy or sad (Experiment 1), the typical preference for happy-sounding music was eliminated after inducing a sad mood. When the excerpts sounded ambiguous with respect to happiness and sadness (Experiment 2), listeners perceived more sadness after inducing a sad mood. Sad moods had no influence on familiarity ratings (Experiments 1 and 2). These findings imply that "misery loves company." Listeners in a sad mood fail to show the typical preference for happy-sounding music, and they perceive more sadness in music that is ambiguous with respect to mood.

  14. Lysosomal Adaptation: How the Lysosome Responds to External Cues

    PubMed Central

    Settembre, Carmine; Ballabio, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the importance of the lysosome in cell metabolism and organism physiology goes far beyond the simple disposal of cellular garbage. This dynamic organelle is situated at the crossroad of the most important cellular pathways and is involved in sensing, signaling, and transcriptional mechanisms that respond to environmental cues, such as nutrients. Two main mediators of these lysosomal adaptation mechanisms are the mTORC1 kinase complex and the transcription factor EB (TFEB). These two factors are linked in a lysosome-to-nucleus signaling pathway that provides the lysosome with the ability to adapt to extracellular cues and control its own biogenesis. Modulation of lysosomal function by acting on TFEB has a profound impact on cellular clearance and energy metabolism and is a promising therapeutic target for a large variety of disease conditions. PMID:24799353

  15. Fire service and first responder thermal imaging camera (TIC) advances and standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konsin, Lawrence S.; Nixdorff, Stuart

    2007-04-01

    Fire Service and First Responder Thermal Imaging Camera (TIC) applications are growing, saving lives and preventing injury and property damage. Firefighters face a wide range of serious hazards. TICs help mitigate the risks by protecting Firefighters and preventing injury, while reducing time spent fighting the fire and resources needed to do so. Most fire safety equipment is covered by performance standards. Fire TICs, however, are not covered by such standards and are also subject to inadequate operational performance and insufficient user training. Meanwhile, advancements in Fire TICs and lower costs are driving product demand. The need for a Fire TIC Standard was spurred in late 2004 through a Government sponsored Workshop where experts from the First Responder community, component manufacturers, firefighter training, and those doing research on TICs discussed strategies, technologies, procedures, best practices and R&D that could improve Fire TICs. The workshop identified pressing image quality, performance metrics, and standards issues. Durability and ruggedness metrics and standard testing methods were also seen as important, as was TIC training and certification of end-users. A progress report on several efforts in these areas and their impact on the IR sensor industry will be given. This paper is a follow up to the SPIE Orlando 2004 paper on Fire TIC usage (entitled Emergency Responders' Critical Infrared) which explored the technological development of this IR industry segment from the viewpoint of the end user, in light of the studies and reports that had established TICs as a mission critical tool for firefighters.

  16. Measuring the Prevalence of Problematic Respondent Behaviors among MTurk, Campus, and Community Participants

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, Stephanie; Norman, Greg J.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2016-01-01

    The reliance on small samples and underpowered studies may undermine the replicability of scientific findings. Large sample sizes may be necessary to achieve adequate statistical power. Crowdsourcing sites such as Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) have been regarded as an economical means for achieving larger samples. Because MTurk participants may engage in behaviors which adversely affect data quality, much recent research has focused on assessing the quality of data obtained from MTurk samples. However, participants from traditional campus- and community-based samples may also engage in behaviors which adversely affect the quality of the data that they provide. We compare an MTurk, campus, and community sample to measure how frequently participants report engaging in problematic respondent behaviors. We report evidence that suggests that participants from all samples engage in problematic respondent behaviors with comparable rates. Because statistical power is influenced by factors beyond sample size, including data integrity, methodological controls must be refined to better identify and diminish the frequency of participant engagement in problematic respondent behaviors. PMID:27351378

  17. A quantification of the physiological demands of the army emergency responder in the Australian army.

    PubMed

    Tofari, Paul J; Laing Treloar, Alison K; Silk, Aaron J

    2013-05-01

    The Australian Defence Force is reviewing the physical demands of all employment categories in the Australian Army to establish valid and legally defensible assessments. The current assessments, performed in physical training attire, are not specific to job demands. Moreover, the fitness standards decrease based on age and are lower for females, and as job requirements are constant, these assessments are counterintuitive. With regard to the Army Emergency Responder employment category, tasks of physical demand in the present study were selected through consultation with subject-matter experts. Participants consisted of 10 qualified Army Emergency Responder soldiers and three noncareer firefighters under instruction. Real-life firefighting scenarios were witnessed by researchers and helped form task simulations allowing measurement of heart rate and oxygen consumption. Peak oxygen consumption ranged from 21.8 ± 3.8 to 40.0 ± 3.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1) during cutting activities and a search and rescue task, respectively, representing values similar to or higher than the current entry standards. Manual handling tasks were also assessed, with the heaviest measured being two soldiers lifting a 37.7-kg Utility Trunk to 150 cm. The findings provide a quantitative assessment of the physiological demands of Army Emergency Responders, and highlight the need for change in current fitness assessments.

  18. Improved cycle outcomes after laparoscopic ovarian diathermy in hyper-responder patients with previous ART failure.

    PubMed

    Pabuccu, Recai; Pabuccu, Emre Goksan; Gursoy, Asli Yarci; Caglar, Gamze Sinem; Yilmaz, Muserref Banu; Ozdegirmenci, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Excessive response to ovarian stimulation is common among hyper-responder patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART). Cycle cancellations and severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) are all detrimental consequences observed within this cohort and several approaches have been proposed to enhance outcomes. The current study is designed to evaluate whether laparoscopic ovarian diathermy (LOD) improves ART outcomes and pregnancy rates by reducing Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) levels in a group of patients who had a history of recurrent ART failure and high response. A total of 40 hyper-responder patients with history of previous ART failure were included. Group I consisted of 22 patients that underwent LOD prior to ART. Group II consisted of 18 patients that underwent only ART. Cycle outcomes of groups were compared. Following LOD, significant reduction in AMH levels were detected in group I (4.75 ng/mL to 2.25 ng/mL). Clinical pregnancies were similar among groups (40% versus 27.8% p = 0.65). There was no cycle cancellation in Group I, whereas there were three cycle cancellations observed due to OHSS in Group II. Our results indicate that LOD might offer enhanced fertility outcomes and may reduce the likelihood of cycle cancellations in hyper-responders with previous ART failures.

  19. Characteristics of exceptional responders to lenalidomide-based therapy in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Vu, T; Gonsalves, W; Kumar, S; Dispenzieri, A; Lacy, M Q; Buadi, F; Gertz, M A; Rajkumar, S V

    2015-01-01

    We studied all patients at our institution with a diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM), from 1 January 2004 to 1 July 2009, who received lenalidomide–dexamethasone (Rd) as initial therapy and had a time to progression of 72 months or longer. Of 240 patients, we identified 33 exceptional responders. Twenty-five patients received primary therapy with Rd and eight patients received Rd induction followed by early stem cell transplantation (SCT). Seven of the eight patients who received SCT did not receive maintenance therapy; one patient received 9 months of lenalidomide post transplant. Fifteen (45%) patients had known clonal plasma cell disorder before the diagnosis of MM. The dominant mode of clinical presentation was with lytic lesions in 28 patients. Of those with informative cytogenetics (n=24), trisomies were present in 19 (79%), including one patient with concurrent trisomies and t(11;14). Overall, 21 of 24 patients (88%) had either trisomies or t(11;14). None of these exceptional responders had high-risk cytogenetic features at baseline. Twenty-five patients (76%) had a complete response (CR), whereas eight patients (24%) achieved the exceptional response state without ever achieving a CR. We identify a cohort of exceptional responders to Rd-based therapy, representing ~10–15% newly diagnosed MM patients with normal renal function. PMID:26495860

  20. Anxiety Impairs Depression Remission in Partial Responders During Extended Treatment in Late-Life

    PubMed Central

    Greenlee, Adam; Karp, Jordan F.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Houck, Patricia; Andreescu, Carmen; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives More than half of older adults with major depressive disorder require extended treatment because of incomplete response during acute treatment. This study characterizes the effect of anxiety on remission during extended treatment for partial responders. Methods Following 6 weeks of escitalopram 10mg/day + Depression Care Management (DCM), 124 partial-responders (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) scores of 11–14) were randomly assigned to receive extended treatment with escitalopram 20 mg/day + DCM with or without interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for 16 weekly sessions. Remission was defined as three consecutive weekly scores ≤7 on the HRSD. We assessed concurrent symptoms of anxiety using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HRSA) at pre-treatment and after 6 weeks. We conducted Cox regression analysis of time to remission and logistic modeling of rates of remission. We also explored whether anxiety severity altered any impact of IPT. Results Pre-treatment anxiety was not associated with time to or rates of remission during 16 weeks of extended treatment. In contrast, more severe psychological symptoms of anxiety after 6 weeks of treatment was associated with both longer time to and lower rates of remission. However, there was no evidence that IPT showed any differential effects as a function of anxiety. Conclusions In partial responders to six weeks of lower-dose escitalopram and DCM, planning for extended treatment should account for psychological symptoms of anxiety. PMID:20186975