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Sample records for responders study p04823am3terminated

  1. Communication Among Incident Responders-A Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Determine If More Teams Prefer Water or Coca - Cola 5 2.3.1 Description 5 2.3.2 Results 6 2.3.3 Analysis 7 2.4 Task #4: Complete Email Message...participating in this study: <REDACTED> Please determine whether more of these teams prefer Coca - Cola or Water to drink with dinner. Please...needs to express a preference for either water or Coca - Cola . We also did not describe how teams should communicate and tally votes in order to answer our

  2. NIH exceptional responders to cancer therapy study launched

    Cancer.gov

    The Exceptional Responders Initiative, a study to investigate the molecular factors of tumors associated with exceptional treatment responses of cancer patients to drug therapies, was launched today by NCI. Scientists will attempt to identify the molecula

  3. NIH exceptional responders to cancer therapy study launched

    Cancer.gov

    The Exceptional Responders Initiative, a study to investigate the molecular factors of tumors associated with exceptional treatment responses of cancer patients to drug therapies, was launched today by NCI. Scientists will attempt to identify the molecula

  4. ASA24® Instructions for Study Staff & Respondents

    Cancer.gov

    The following documents have been created by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) as resources for study staff and Respondents. Each resource is available as a ready-to-use PDF to allow users to adapt the content as desired.

  5. How the Brain Responds to "Any": An MEG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesan, Graciela; Johnson, Blake W.; Crain, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The word "any" may appear in some sentences, but not in others. For example, "any" is permitted in sentences that contain the word "nobody", as in "Nobody ate any fruit". However, in a minimally different context "any" seems strikingly anomalous: *"Everybody ate any fruit". The aim of the present study was to investigate how the brain responds to…

  6. How the Brain Responds to "Any": An MEG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesan, Graciela; Johnson, Blake W.; Crain, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The word "any" may appear in some sentences, but not in others. For example, "any" is permitted in sentences that contain the word "nobody", as in "Nobody ate any fruit". However, in a minimally different context "any" seems strikingly anomalous: *"Everybody ate any fruit". The aim of the present study was to investigate how the brain responds to…

  7. Potential Selective Responding in a Parent Questionnaire Study of Post-Institutionalized Children

    PubMed Central

    Hawk, Brandi N.; Wright, Amanda; Julian, Megan M.; Rosas, Johana M.; Merz, Emily C.; McCall, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Selective responding bias, though under-researched, is of particular concern in the study of post-institutionalized children because many studies rely on mailed questionnaires and response rates are often low. The current study addresses the impact of selective responding in a single wave of data collection and in a multi-wave study. Participants were 121 parents from a larger four-wave study of post-institutionalized children, identified as Never Responders, Previous Responders (but not to the current wave), or Wave 4 Responders. Parents were telephoned and asked about their adopted child's family, school, peer, and behavioral adjustment. The children (47% male) ranged in age from 2 to 20 years (M = 10.79, SD = 4.59) and had been adopted between 5 and 54 months of age (M = 15.49, SD = 9.94). There were no differences in parent ratings of adjustment for a single wave of data collection; however, participants who never responded reported poorer family and peer adjustment than those who had responded to at least one wave of data collection. Within a single wave of data collection, there was no evidence that selective responding contributes much bias. Over a multi-wave study, however, results may under-represent adjustment difficulties, especially with family and friends. PMID:23710124

  8. What is wrong with non-respondents? Alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity in a 12-year follow-up study of respondents and non-respondents in the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Gray, Linsay; Glümer, Charlotte; Juel, Knud

    2015-09-01

    Response rates in health surveys have diminished over the last two decades, making it difficult to obtain reliable information on health and health-related risk factors in different population groups. This study compared cause-specific mortality and morbidity among survey respondents and different types of non-respondents to estimate alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity among non-respondents. Prospective follow-up study of respondents and non-respondents in two cross-sectional health surveys. Denmark. A total sample of 39 540 Danish citizens aged 16 years or older. Register-based information on cause-specific mortality and morbidity at the individual level was obtained for respondents (n = 28 072) and different types of non-respondents (refusals n = 8954; illness/disabled n = 731, uncontactable n = 1593). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine differences in alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity, respectively, in a 12-year follow-up period. Overall, non-response was associated with a significantly increased hazard ratio (HR) of 1.56 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.36-1.78] for alcohol-related morbidity, 1.88 (95% CI = 1.38-2.57) for alcohol-related mortality, 1.55 (95% CI = 1.27-1.88) for drug-related morbidity, 3.04 (95% CI = 1.57-5.89) for drug-related mortality and 1.15 (95% CI = 1.03-1.29) for smoking-related morbidity. The hazard ratio for smoking-related mortality also tended to be higher among non-respondents compared with respondents, although no significant association was evident (HR = 1.14; 95% CI = 0.95-1.36). Uncontactable and ill/disabled non-respondents generally had a higher hazard ratio of alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity compared with refusal non-respondents. Health survey non-respondents in Denmark have an increased hazard ratio of alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity compared with

  9. World Trade Center disaster and sensitization to subsequent life stress: A longitudinal study of disaster responders.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Farris, Samantha G; Kotov, Roman; Schechter, Clyde B; Bromet, Evelyn; Gonzalez, Adam; Vujanovic, Anka; Pietrzak, Robert H; Crane, Michael; Kaplan, Julia; Moline, Jacqueline; Southwick, Steven M; Feder, Adriana; Udasin, Iris; Reissman, Dori B; Luft, Benjamin J

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined the role of World Trade Center (WTC) disaster exposure (hours spent working on the site, dust cloud exposure, and losing friend/loved one) in exacerbating the effects of post-disaster life stress on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and overall functioning among WTC responders. Participants were 18,896 responders (8466 police officers and 10,430 non-traditional responders) participating in the WTC Health Program who completed an initial examination between July, 2002 and April, 2010 and were reassessed an average of two years later. Among police responders, there was a significant interaction, such that the effect of post-disaster life stress on later PTSD symptoms and overall functioning was stronger among police responders who had greater WTC disaster exposure (β's=.029 and .054, respectively, for PTSD symptoms and overall functioning). This moderating effect was absent in non-traditional responders. Across both groups, post-disaster life stress also consistently was related to the dependent variables in a more robust manner than WTC exposure. The present findings suggest that WTC exposure may compound post-disaster life stress, thereby resulting in a more chronic course of PTSD symptoms and reduced functioning among police responders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fire fighters as basic life support responders: a study of successful implementation.

    PubMed

    Høyer, Christian Bjerre; Christensen, Erika Frischknecht

    2009-04-02

    First responders are recommended as a supplement to the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in order to achieve early defibrillation. Practical and organisational aspects are essential when trying to implement new parts in the "Chain of Survival"; areas to address include minimizing dispatch time, ensuring efficient and quick communication, and choosing areas with appropriate driving distances. The aim of this study was to implement a system using Basic Life Support (BLS) responders equipped with an automatic external defibrillator in an area with relatively short emergency medical services' response times. Success criteria for implementation was defined as arrival of the BLS responders before the EMS, attachment (and use) of the AED, and successful defibrillation. This was a prospective observational study from September 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007 (28 months) in the city of Aarhus, Denmark. The BLS responder system was implemented in an area up to three kilometres (driving distance) from the central fire station, encompassing approximately 81,500 inhabitants. The team trained on each shift and response times were reduced by choice of area and by sending the alarm directly to the fire brigade dispatcher. The BLS responders had 1076 patient contacts. The median response time was 3.5 minutes (25th percentile 2.75, 75th percentile 4.25). The BLS responders arrived before EMS in 789 of the 1076 patient contacts (73%). Cardiac arrest was diagnosed in 53 cases, the AED was attached in 29 cases, and a shockable rhythm was detected in nine cases. Eight were defibrillated using an AED. Seven of the eight obtained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Six of the seven obtaining ROSC survived more than 30 days. In this study, the implementation of BLS responders may have resulted in successful resuscitations. On basis of the close corporation between all participants in the chain of survival this project contributed to the first link: short response time and trained

  11. Fire fighters as basic life support responders: A study of successful implementation

    PubMed Central

    Høyer, Christian Bjerre; Christensen, Erika Frischknecht

    2009-01-01

    Background First responders are recommended as a supplement to the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in order to achieve early defibrillation. Practical and organisational aspects are essential when trying to implement new parts in the "Chain of Survival"; areas to address include minimizing dispatch time, ensuring efficient and quick communication, and choosing areas with appropriate driving distances. The aim of this study was to implement a system using Basic Life Support (BLS) responders equipped with an automatic external defibrillator in an area with relatively short emergency medical services' response times. Success criteria for implementation was defined as arrival of the BLS responders before the EMS, attachment (and use) of the AED, and successful defibrillation. Methods This was a prospective observational study from September 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007 (28 months) in the city of Aarhus, Denmark. The BLS responder system was implemented in an area up to three kilometres (driving distance) from the central fire station, encompassing approximately 81,500 inhabitants. The team trained on each shift and response times were reduced by choice of area and by sending the alarm directly to the fire brigade dispatcher. Results The BLS responders had 1076 patient contacts. The median response time was 3.5 minutes (25th percentile 2.75, 75th percentile 4.25). The BLS responders arrived before EMS in 789 of the 1076 patient contacts (73%). Cardiac arrest was diagnosed in 53 cases, the AED was attached in 29 cases, and a shockable rhythm was detected in nine cases. Eight were defibrillated using an AED. Seven of the eight obtained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Six of the seven obtaining ROSC survived more than 30 days. Conclusion In this study, the implementation of BLS responders may have resulted in successful resuscitations. On basis of the close corporation between all participants in the chain of survival this project contributed to the first link

  12. Responding to a suicidal friend or family member: A qualitative study of college students.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Williams, Amanda G; McGee, Robin E

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand how college students have responded, at any point in their lifetime, to a suicidal friend or family member. College students completed an online survey in which they described, in their own words, what they have done when a friend or family member disclosed being suicidal. These responses included providing social support, information, telling someone, and crisis support. Future studies are needed to determine how common these responses are, identify factors that predict certain responses, and examine the impact responding to a suicidal person can have on college student wellbeing.

  13. On responder analyses in the framework of within subject comparisons - considerations and two case studies.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Michael

    2014-07-30

    A responder analysis is a common tool when clinical data are reported. In this paper, we extend the definition of responders to within subject comparisons and present a rigorous definition of the corresponding statistical functional. Via simulation studies, we get further insights under which conditions these analyses can even result in a higher power compared with an analysis based on the arithmetic mean. We report two case studies where these analyses contributed to a better understanding of the clinical data especially as some large observations were present that had a notable impact on the observed standard deviation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR): A Reliability Generalization Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Andrew; Bagger, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) is one of the most widely used social desirability scales. The authors conducted a reliability generalization study to examine the typical reliability coefficients of BIDR scores and explored factors that explained the variability of reliability estimates across studies. The results indicated…

  15. Responding to Racism and Racial Trauma in Doctoral Study: An Inventory for Coping and Mediating Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truong, Kimberly A.; Museus, Samuel D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Kimberly A. Truong and Samuel D. Museus focus on understanding strategies doctoral students of color use to respond to racism. The authors conducted semi-structured individual interviews with twenty-six participants who self-reported experiencing racism and racial trauma during doctoral studies. Analysis of the data resulted in…

  16. Responding to Racism and Racial Trauma in Doctoral Study: An Inventory for Coping and Mediating Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truong, Kimberly A.; Museus, Samuel D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Kimberly A. Truong and Samuel D. Museus focus on understanding strategies doctoral students of color use to respond to racism. The authors conducted semi-structured individual interviews with twenty-six participants who self-reported experiencing racism and racial trauma during doctoral studies. Analysis of the data resulted in…

  17. Social skills group training in high-functioning autism: A qualitative responder study.

    PubMed

    Choque Olsson, Nora; Rautio, Daniel; Asztalos, Jenny; Stoetzer, Ulrich; Bölte, Sven

    2016-11-01

    Systematic reviews show some evidence for the efficacy of group-based social skills group training in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, but more rigorous research is needed to endorse generalizability. In addition, little is known about the perspectives of autistic individuals participating in social skills group training. Using a qualitative approach, the objective of this study was to examine experiences and opinions about social skills group training of children and adolescents with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder and their parents following participation in a manualized social skills group training ("KONTAKT"). Within an ongoing randomized controlled clinical trial (NCT01854346) and based on outcome data from the Social Responsiveness Scale, six high responders and five low-to-non-responders to social skills group training and one parent of each child (N = 22) were deep interviewed. Interestingly, both high responders and low-to-non-responders (and their parents) reported improvements in social communication and related skills (e.g. awareness of own difficulties, self-confidence, independence in everyday life) and overall treatment satisfaction, although more positive intervention experiences were expressed by responders. These findings highlight the added value of collecting verbal data in addition to quantitative data in a comprehensive evaluation of social skills group training. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Evaluation of study design variables and their impact on food-maintained operant responding in mice

    PubMed Central

    Haluk, Desirae M.; Wickman, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Operant conditioning paradigms are useful for studying factors involved in reward, particularly when combined with the tools of genetic manipulation in mice. Published operant studies involving mice vary widely with respect to design, and insight into the consequences of design choices on performance in mice is limited. Here, we evaluated the impact of five design variables on the performance of inbred male mice in operant tasks involving solid food pellets as reinforcing agents. We found that the use of lever-press or nose-poke during FR1 sessions did not impact the performance of C57BL/6 mice, but that the lever-press approach correlated with enhanced performance during PR testing. While FR1 session duration had a notable impact on the rate of acquisition of food-maintained responding, performance during FR1 and PR sessions was largely unaffected. Higher order schedules of reinforcement (FR3 and FR5) led to elevated responding during both FR and PR sessions, and improved the correspondence between rewards earned and consumed. Single and group-housed mice performed indistinguishably during FR1 and PR sessions, while environmental enrichment combined with group housing accelerated the rate of acquisition of food-maintained responding while decreasing responding during PR testing. Finally, while C57BL/6 and 129/Sv mice exhibited comparable behavior during FR1 sessions, C57BL/6 mice tended to acquire food-maintained responding faster than 129/Sv counterparts, and exhibited elevated responding during PR testing. Altogether, our findings indicate that while operant performance for food in mice is relatively insensitive to many study parameters, experimental outcomes can be shaped predictably with proper design decisions. PMID:19879302

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial Study of a Queered Adaptation of the Marital First Responder Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zrenchik, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    This study offers an evaluation of a community-based educational intervention to enhance the quality of confiding relationships in the LGBT community. Building off the original Marital First Responder (MFR) curriculum and intervention, the MFR-Q targets these confidants and provides an LGBT culturally-specific intervention with the goal of helping…

  20. Understanding and Responding to Diversity in the Primary Classroom: An International Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Neil; Bartolo, Paul; Ale, Peter; Calleja, Colin; Hofsaess, Thomas; Janikova, Vera; Lous, Annemieke Mol Lous; Vilkiene, Vida; Wetso, Gun-Marie

    2006-01-01

    The increased diversification of classrooms in recent years has placed additional demands upon teachers who strive to facilitate the learning and participation of all pupils. The aim of the current study was to explore how primary teachers across Europe understand and respond to diversity in their classrooms. A total of 35 teachers from 7…

  1. Recommendations for the definition of clinical responder in insulin preservation studies.

    PubMed

    Beam, Craig A; Gitelman, Stephen E; Palmer, Jerry P

    2014-09-01

    Clinical responder studies should contribute to the translation of effective treatments and interventions to the clinic. Since ultimately this translation will involve regulatory approval, we recommend that clinical trials prespecify a responder definition that can be assessed against the requirements and suggestions of regulatory agencies. In this article, we propose a clinical responder definition to specifically assist researchers and regulatory agencies in interpreting the clinical importance of statistically significant findings for studies of interventions intended to preserve β-cell function in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. We focus on studies of 6-month β-cell preservation in type 1 diabetes as measured by 2-h-stimulated C-peptide. We introduce criteria (bias, reliability, and external validity) for the assessment of responder definitions to ensure they meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency guidelines. Using data from several published TrialNet studies, we evaluate our definition (no decrease in C-peptide) against published alternatives and determine that our definition has minimum bias with external validity. We observe that reliability could be improved by using changes in C-peptide later than 6 months beyond baseline. In sum, to support efficacy claims of β-cell preservation therapies in type 1 diabetes submitted to U.S. and European regulatory agencies, we recommend use of our definition.

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial Study of a Queered Adaptation of the Marital First Responder Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zrenchik, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    This study offers an evaluation of a community-based educational intervention to enhance the quality of confiding relationships in the LGBT community. Building off the original Marital First Responder (MFR) curriculum and intervention, the MFR-Q targets these confidants and provides an LGBT culturally-specific intervention with the goal of helping…

  3. Allocation of Study Time in Chinese Junior School Students: Habitual Responding, Item Difficulty, and Time Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fuyun; Qin, Qiwen; Jiang, Yanju

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated factors influencing Chinese junior school students’ study time allocation and the age difference in the effect of habitual responding. Participants were 240 junior school students (120 girls, 120 boys; aged 13–15 years) with half taking part in Experiment 1 and half in Experiment 2, and 240 young adults aged 18–23 years, (120 women and 120 men,) involved in Experiments 3a and 3b, all native Chinese speakers. In Experiments 1 and 3a, Chinese word pairs (e.g., moon–star) were presented on the screen with three items in one array. In each trial, the items were arranged from left to right, either easy, moderate, then difficult, or the reverse. Participants had either 5 s or no time limits to study the word pairs. In Experiments 2 and 3b, word pairs were ordered in a column with the easiest items either at the top or bottom position. Results showed interactions among item difficulty, item order, and time limitation in terms of effects on study time allocation of junior school students. Participants tended to learn the items in order (from left to right and from top to bottom), but the effect of item difficulty was greater than that of item order on item selection. Results indicated that agenda and habitual responding have a combined effect on study time allocation and that the contribution of agenda is greater than that of habitual responding. The effect of habitual responding on the self-paced study and recall performance of junior school students is greater than its effect on young adults, and the study time allocation of junior school students is more likely to be affected by external conditions. PMID:27199865

  4. Allocation of Study Time in Chinese Junior School Students: Habitual Responding, Item Difficulty, and Time Constraints.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuyun; Qin, Qiwen; Jiang, Yanju

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated factors influencing Chinese junior school students' study time allocation and the age difference in the effect of habitual responding. Participants were 240 junior school students (120 girls, 120 boys; aged 13-15 years) with half taking part in Experiment 1 and half in Experiment 2, and 240 young adults aged 18-23 years, (120 women and 120 men,) involved in Experiments 3a and 3b, all native Chinese speakers. In Experiments 1 and 3a, Chinese word pairs (e.g., moon-star) were presented on the screen with three items in one array. In each trial, the items were arranged from left to right, either easy, moderate, then difficult, or the reverse. Participants had either 5 s or no time limits to study the word pairs. In Experiments 2 and 3b, word pairs were ordered in a column with the easiest items either at the top or bottom position. Results showed interactions among item difficulty, item order, and time limitation in terms of effects on study time allocation of junior school students. Participants tended to learn the items in order (from left to right and from top to bottom), but the effect of item difficulty was greater than that of item order on item selection. Results indicated that agenda and habitual responding have a combined effect on study time allocation and that the contribution of agenda is greater than that of habitual responding. The effect of habitual responding on the self-paced study and recall performance of junior school students is greater than its effect on young adults, and the study time allocation of junior school students is more likely to be affected by external conditions.

  5. [Bias due to non-responders in an epidemiological study (SAPALDIA)].

    PubMed

    Luthi, J C; Zellweger, J P; Grize, L; Leuenberger, P; Ackermann-Liebrich, U

    1997-01-01

    Within the Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) 16267 adults aged 18 to 60 years from 8 different locations in Switzerland were randomly selected for answering a questionnaire about respiratory health and have a lung function examination with allergy test. 9561 subjects agreed with the examination (59%) (= responders, R). In order to study the possible influence of the bias introduced by non-responders (NR), 221 subjects who refused to participate among the 966 first subjects selected in Payerne were contacted by phone. 142 accepted a home visit and answered a shortened questionnaire about the main respiratory symptoms and diseases and indicated furthermore the reasons for their refusal. Non-responders have a lower mean educational level and belong to lower social classes than responders. The frequency of respiratory symptoms and diseases, allergies and smoking is similar in R and NR except a higher frequency of wheezing during the last 12 month (R: 12.5%, NR: 5.6%, p = 0.03). The level of carbon monoxide in expired air is higher in NR (17.6 ppm) that in R (11.9 ppm) (p = 0.01). A similar difference exists between NR (30.7 pp) and R (24.8 ppm) among current smokers (p < 0.01). The main reasons for refusal are lack of time (27.5%), lack of interest for medical study (22.6%), fear of health professionals (18.3%) or the existence of a another disease (9.9%). Furthermore, 2.8% of the subjects consider a medical study as useless and refuse principally any participation. The role of local press and media in the decision to participate seems to be important. Globally, the differences between R and NR are minimal and should not influence the validity of the results of the SAPALDIA study.

  6. Cancer in World Trade Center responders: Findings from multiple cohorts and options for future study.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Wallenstein, Sylvan; Li, Jiehui; Brackbill, Robert; Cone, James; Farfel, Mark; Holden, William; Lucchini, Roberto; Webber, Mayris P; Prezant, David; Stellman, Steven D

    2016-02-01

    Three longitudinal studies of cancer incidence in varied populations of World Trade Center responders have been conducted. We compared the design and results of the three studies. Separate analyses of these cohorts revealed excess cancer incidence in responders for all cancers combined and for cancers of the thyroid and prostate. Methodological dissimilarities included recruitment strategies, source of cohort members, demographic characteristics, overlap between cohorts, assessment of WTC and other occupational exposures and confounders, methods and duration of follow-up, approaches for statistical analysis, and latency analyses. The presence of three cohorts strengthens the effort of identifying and quantifying the cancer risk; the heterogeneity in design might increase sensitivity to the identification of cancers potentially associated with exposure. The presence and magnitude of an increased cancer risk remains to be fully elucidated. Continued long-term follow up with minimal longitudinal dropout is crucial to achieve this goal. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Prospective study of the innate cellular immune response in low vaccine responder children.

    PubMed

    Surendran, Naveen; Nicolosi, Ted; Kaur, Ravinder; Morris, Matthew; Pichichero, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We recently reported our findings from a longitudinal, prospective study where we identified 10% infants who were low vaccine responders (LVR) at age 9-12 mo following routine primary series vaccine schedule. We found multiple cellular deficiencies in LVR children, including low number of memory B cells, reduced polyclonal stimulation of naïve/memory T cell response and suboptimal APC response. These children outgrew their poor vaccine response by the time they received booster doses of vaccine. Studies in human infant innate immunity are rare because of the unique challenges in specimen collection. As innate immunity instructs adaptive immunity, we hypothesized that the primary immune defect lies with innate immunity and in this study we sought to determine the ontogeny of innate immune response in LVR children between 6 and 36 mo of age. Interestingly, suboptimal APC response observed in LVR children at 6-9 mo of age characterized by significantly ( P < 0.05) low basal MHC II expression, low R848 induced IRF7 fold change, as well as low IFN-α, IL-12p70 and IL-1β levels, came to parity with normal vaccine responders by 12-15 mo of age, suggesting that the observed immune deficiency in LVR children may be the result of delayed maturation of immune system.

  8. Trajectories of PTSD risk and resilience in World Trade Center responders: an 8-year prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, R H; Feder, A; Singh, R; Schechter, C B; Bromet, E J; Katz, C L; Reissman, D B; Ozbay, F; Sharma, V; Crane, M; Harrison, D; Herbert, R; Levin, S M; Luft, B J; Moline, J M; Stellman, J M; Udasin, I G; Landrigan, P J; Southwick, S M

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often characterized by heterogeneous trajectories, which may have unique pre-, peri- and post-trauma risk and protective factors. To date, however, no study has evaluated the nature and determinants of predominant trajectories of PTSD symptoms in World Trade Center (WTC) responders. A total of 10835 WTC responders, including 4035 professional police responders and 6800 non-traditional responders (e.g. construction workers) who participated in the WTC Health Program (WTC-HP), were evaluated an average of 3, 6 and 8 years after the WTC attacks. Among police responders, longitudinal PTSD symptoms were best characterized by four classes, with the majority (77.8%) in a resistant/resilient trajectory and the remainder exhibiting chronic (5.3%), recovering (8.4%) or delayed-onset (8.5%) symptom trajectories. Among non-traditional responders, a six-class solution was optimal, with fewer responders in a resistant/resilient trajectory (58.0%) and the remainder exhibiting recovering (12.3%), severe chronic (9.5%), subsyndromal increasing (7.3%), delayed-onset (6.7%) and moderate chronic (6.2%) trajectories. Prior psychiatric history, Hispanic ethnicity, severity of WTC exposure and WTC-related medical conditions were most strongly associated with symptomatic trajectories of PTSD symptoms in both groups of responders, whereas greater education and family and work support while working at the WTC site were protective against several of these trajectories. Trajectories of PTSD symptoms in WTC responders are heterogeneous and associated uniquely with pre-, peri- and post-trauma risk and protective factors. Police responders were more likely than non-traditional responders to exhibit a resistant/resilient trajectory. These results underscore the importance of prevention, screening and treatment efforts that target high-risk disaster responders, particularly those with prior psychiatric history, high levels of

  9. Parental exposure to mass violence and child mental health: the First Responder and WTC Evacuee Study.

    PubMed

    Hoven, Christina W; Duarte, Cristiane S; Wu, Ping; Doan, Thao; Singh, Navya; Mandell, Donald J; Bin, Fan; Teichman, Yona; Teichman, Meir; Wicks, Judith; Musa, George; Cohen, Patricia

    2009-06-01

    Children's reactions after being exposed to mass violence may be influenced by a spectrum of factors. Relatively unexplored is the extent to which family exposure to mass violence may affect child mental health, even when these children have not been directly exposed. In a representative sample of NYC public school children assessed 6 months after the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center (WTC), seemingly elevated rates of psychopathology were recorded among children of WTC evacuees. Children of NYC First Responders (police officers, EMTs, and fire fighters) displayed a complex pattern of response to the WTC attack. Overall, the findings from this previous study support putative transmission of trauma to children whose parents were exposed to the WTC attack. The "Children of First Responder and WTC Evacuee Study"-a two-site longitudinal study-is currently underway in the United States (New York City) and in Israel (Tel Aviv area) in an effort to understand the impact of different patterns of mass violence. The NYC sample permits us to examine the impact of a rare instance of mass violence (e.g., WTC attack), while the Israeli sample provides information about repeated and frequent exposure to mass violence brought about by acts of terrorism. In addition, children's exposure to mass violence is considered in the context of their exposure to other potentially traumatic events. This study aims to improve our general understanding of the impact of mass violence on children, especially the psychological effects on children whose parents' work experiences are by nature stressful. Knowledge generated by this study has implications for guiding efforts to meet the needs of children who have, directly or through a family member, been subjected to rare or infrequent mass violent event as well as to children whose exposure to mass violence is part of daily life.

  10. Parental Exposure to Mass Violence and Child Mental Health: The First Responder and WTC Evacuee Study

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Cristiane S.; Wu, Ping; Doan, Thao; Singh, Navya; Mandell, Donald J.; Bin, Fan; Teichman, Yona; Teichman, Meir; Wicks, Judith; Musa, George; Cohen, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Children’s reactions after being exposed to mass violence may be influenced by a spectrum of factors. Relatively unexplored is the extent to which family exposure to mass violence may affect child mental health, even when these children have not been directly exposed. In a representative sample of NYC public school children assessed 6 months after the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center (WTC), seemingly elevated rates of psychopathology were recorded among children of WTC evacuees. Children of NYC First Responders (police officers, EMTs, and fire fighters) displayed a complex pattern of response to the WTC attack. Overall, the findings from this previous study support putative transmission of trauma to children whose parents were exposed to the WTC attack. The “Children of First Responder and WTC Evacuee Study”—a two-site longitudinal study—is currently underway in the United States (New York City) and in Israel (Tel Aviv area) in an effort to understand the impact of different patterns of mass violence. The NYC sample permits us to examine the impact of a rare instance of mass violence (e.g., WTC attack), while the Israeli sample provides information about repeated and frequent exposure to mass violence brought about by acts of terrorism. In addition, children’s exposure to mass violence is considered in the context of their exposure to other potentially traumatic events. This study aims to improve our general understanding of the impact of mass violence on children, especially the psychological effects on children whose parents’ work experiences are by nature stressful. Knowledge generated by this study has implications for guiding efforts to meet the needs of children who have, directly or through a family member, been subjected to rare or infrequent mass violent event as well as to children whose exposure to mass violence is part of daily life. PMID:19484384

  11. REACT: A paraprofessional training program for first responders-A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Marks, Madeline R; Bowers, Clint; DePesa, Natasha S; Trachik, Benjamin; Deavers, Frances E; James, Nicholas T

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a newly designed peer support training program for first responders titled Recognize, Evaluate, Advocate, Coordinate, and Track (REACT). REACT was developed in partnership with public safety agencies to address the need for promoting psychological health. This resulted in the development of a program that uses train-the-trainer methodology to address primary prevention of stress injuries. REACT was an all-day training that consisted of four modules, each featuring instruction and practice. Six public safety agencies totaling 30 individuals (76.9% from four fire departments, 23.1% from two emergency communication centers) participated in REACT. The primary outcomes were knowledge and training-related self-efficacy; secondary outcomes included general self-efficacy, resilience, and improved attitudes and expectations. A peer-support model, using a train-the-trainer methodology, is a promising approach for addressing the promotion of psychological health.

  12. Pharmacogenomic study in patients with multiple sclerosis: Responders and nonresponders to IFN-β.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Marta F; Morcillo-Suárez, Carlos; Malhotra, Sunny; Rio, Jordi; Leyva, Laura; Fernández, Oscar; Zettl, Uwe K; Killestein, Joep; Brassat, David; García-Merino, Juan Antonio; Sánchez, Antonio J; Urcelay, Elena; Alvarez-Lafuente, Roberto; Villar, Lusia M; Alvarez-Cermeño, Jose Carlos; Farré, Xavier; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Vandenbroeck, Koen; Rodríguez-Antigüedad, Alfredo; Drulovic, Jelena S; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Chan, Andrew; Oksenberg, Jorge; Navarro, Arcadi; Montalban, Xavier; Comabella, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between polymorphisms located in type I interferon (IFN)-induced genes, genes belonging to the toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway, and genes encoding neurotransmitter receptors and the response to IFN-β treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In a first or screening phase of the study, 384 polymorphisms were genotyped in 830 patients with MS classified into IFN-β responders (n = 416) and nonresponders (n = 414) according to clinical criteria. In a second or validation phase, the most significant polymorphisms associated with IFN-β response were genotyped in an independent validation cohort of 555 patients with MS (281 IFN-β responders and 274 nonresponders). Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from the screening phase for further validation: rs832032 (GABRR3; p = 0.0006), rs6597 (STUB1; p = 0.019), rs3747517 (IFIH1; p = 0.010), rs2277302 (PELI3; p = 0.017), rs10958713 (IKBKB; p = 0.003), rs2834202 (IFNAR1; p = 0.030), and rs4422395 (CXCL1; p = 0.017). None of these SNPs were significantly associated with IFN-β response when genotyped in an independent cohort of patients. Combined analysis of these SNPs in all patients with MS (N = 1,385) revealed 2 polymorphisms associated with IFN-β response: rs2277302 (PELI3; p = 0.008) and rs832032 (GABRR3; p = 0.006). These findings do not support an association between polymorphisms located in genes related to the type I IFN or TLR pathways or genes encoding neurotransmitter receptors and the clinical response to IFN-β. Nevertheless, additional genetic and functional studies of PELI3 and GABRR3 are warranted.

  13. Towards the estimation of effect measures in studies using respondent-driven sampling.

    PubMed

    Rotondi, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is an increasingly common sampling technique to recruit hidden populations. Statistical methods for RDS are not straightforward due to the correlation between individual outcomes and subject weighting; thus, analyses are typically limited to estimation of population proportions. This manuscript applies the method of variance estimates recovery (MOVER) to construct confidence intervals for effect measures such as risk difference (difference of proportions) or relative risk in studies using RDS. To illustrate the approach, MOVER is used to construct confidence intervals for differences in the prevalence of demographic characteristics between an RDS study and convenience study of injection drug users. MOVER is then applied to obtain a confidence interval for the relative risk between education levels and HIV seropositivity and current infection with syphilis, respectively. This approach provides a simple method to construct confidence intervals for effect measures in RDS studies. Since it only relies on a proportion and appropriate confidence limits, it can also be applied to previously published manuscripts.

  14. A preliminary longitudinal study on the cognitive and functional outcome of bipolar excellent lithium responders.

    PubMed

    Mora, E; Portella, M J; Forcada, I; Vieta, E; Mur, M

    2016-11-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder represents a possible marker of underlying pathophysiology, but to date, most studies are cross-sectional and heterogeneous with regard to pharmacological treatments. In the present study we investigated the 6-year cognitive and functional outcome of a sample of euthymic excellent lithium responders (ELR). A total sample of twenty subjects was assessed at baseline and 6years later: ten diagnosed of bipolar disorder according to DSM-IV criteria and ten healthy matched controls. The sample size was enough to find statistical differences between groups, with a statistical power of 0.8. Bipolar patients were on lithium treatment during all this follow-up period and fulfilled ELR criteria as measured by the Alda scale. A neuropsychological test battery tapping into the main cognitive domains was used at baseline and at after 6-year of follow-up. Functional outcome was evaluated by means of the Functioning Assessment Short Test at study endpoint. Repeated measures multivariate analyses of variance showed that bipolar patients were cognitively impaired in the executive functioning, inhibition, processing speed and verbal memory domains (p<0.03) compared to controls and such deficits were stable over time. Longer duration of illness and lower psychosocial outcome were significantly related to cognitive impairment (p<0.05). Cognitive dysfunction was present even in euthymic ELR. These deficits remain stable over the long term, and are basically associated with greater symptoms and poorer psychosocial adjustment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. How do pharmacists respond to complaints of acute insomnia? A simulated patient study.

    PubMed

    Kippist, Carly; Wong, Keith; Bartlett, Delwyn; Saini, Bandana

    2011-04-01

    It is known that many people with insomnia choose to self medicate and present at community pharmacies, particularly in cases of acute insomnia. The objective of this study is to investigate how community pharmacists respond to complaints of acute insomnia from people who seek self treatment and determine the factors affecting this response. Community pharmacies in New South Wales, Australia. A simulated patient study was conducted in 100 randomly selected pharmacies located in Newcastle and Sydney, Australia. A standardized scenario of acute sleep onset insomnia and a scoring system was used in each pharmacy. Main outcome measures included supply/non supply of an over the counter sleep aid to the simulated patient, and scores for pharmacists for skills in eliciting information prior to supply of medication (Pre Supply Score), counseling about medication (Supply Score), or about sleep (Sleep Score). Of the 100 pharmacies, upon simulated patient presentation, 96% supplied a product, the remaining 4% referred to a physician. Non-pharmacological advice was provided in 42%. Pharmacists scored highly on advice provided with supply of a medication (Supply scores/4, 3.1 ± 0.9), but lower on skills in eliciting information prior to supply (Pre-supply score/8, 3.6 ± 1.9) and sleep related counselling (Sleep Score/9, 2.1 ± 1.7). Lower estimated pharmacist age, being in a chain type pharmacy, and having a visible symbol of quality accreditation were found to significantly improve (P < 0.05 the Sleep Score outcome. Lower estimated pharmacist age as also significantly associated with higher Supply Score (P < 0.05); whilst both lower estimated age an visible quality assurance signage were associated with higher Pre-Supply scores (P < 0.05). The results of this study suggest that many pharmacists are responding appropriately to complaints of sleeplessness in terms of eliciting insomnia type and counseling about medicines use. However more education for pharmacists would help

  16. An epigenome-wide DNA methylation study of PTSD and depression in World Trade Center responders.

    PubMed

    Kuan, P-F; Waszczuk, M A; Kotov, R; Marsit, C J; Guffanti, G; Gonzalez, A; Yang, X; Koenen, K; Bromet, E; Luft, B J

    2017-06-27

    Previous epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) have been inconsistent. This may be due to small sample sizes, and measurement and tissue differences. The current two EWA analyses of 473 World Trade Center responders are the largest to date for both PTSD and MDD. These analyses investigated DNA methylation patterns and biological pathways influenced by differentially methylated genes associated with each disorder. Methylation was profiled on blood samples using Illumina 450 K Beadchip. Two EWA analyses compared current versus never PTSD, and current versus never MDD, adjusting for cell types and demographic confounders. Pathway and gene set enrichment analyses were performed to understand the complex biological systems of PTSD and MDD. No significant epigenome-wide associations were found for PTSD or MDD at an FDR P<0.05. The majority of genes with differential methylation at a suggestive threshold did not overlap between the two disorders. Pathways significant in PTSD included a regulator of synaptic plasticity, oxytocin signaling, cholinergic synapse and inflammatory disease pathways, while only phosphatidylinositol signaling and cell cycle pathways emerged in MDD. The failure of the current EWA analyses to detect significant epigenome-wide associations is in contrast with disparate findings from previous, smaller EWA and candidate gene studies of PTSD and MDD. Enriched gene sets involved in several biological pathways, including stress response, inflammation and physical health, were identified in PTSD, supporting the view that multiple genes play a role in this complex disorder.

  17. Dehydroepiandrosterone administration before IVF in poor responders: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Vlahos, Nikos; Papalouka, Maria; Triantafyllidou, Olga; Vlachos, Athanasios; Vakas, Panagiotis; Grimbizis, Gregory; Creatsas, George; Zikopoulos, Konstantinos

    2015-02-01

    The use of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may improve ovarian stimulation outcomes in women of advanced reproductive age and could reduce embryo aneuploidy. In this prospective study, 48 women diagnosed with poor ovarian response received DHEA supplementation for at least 12 weeks. These women were compared with a group of poor responders (n = 113) who did not receive supplementation. During the study period, patients taking day 2 FSH and oestradiol were measured monthly before and after treatment. Stimulation characteristics, stimulation outcome and clinical outcome (clinical pregnancy and live birth rates) were reported. Evaluation of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) was carried out before initiation of treatment and immediately before the subsequent stimulation. Supplementation with DHEA for at least 12 weeks resulted in a modest, but statistically significant, increase in AMH levels and decrease in baseline FSH (P < 0.001 and P = 0.007, respectively). Administration of DHEA had no effect on any of the stimulation parameters nor was there any difference in clinical pregnancy rates and live birth rates between the two groups. Supplementation with DHEA significantly affects women with poor prognosis undergoing ovarian stimulation for IVF. Patients should be counselled about the uncertain effectiveness, potential side-effects and cost of this treatment.

  18. The use of proxy respondents in studies of older adults: lessons, challenges, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Neumann, P J; Araki, S S; Gutterman, E M

    2000-12-01

    Proxies play a critical role as sources of health information for older persons with cognitive impairment and other chronic debilitating conditions. This paper reviews the validity of proxy responses for people older than age 60 in the following areas: functioning, physical and mental health, cognition, medical care utilization, and preferences for types of care and health states. A Medline review identified 24 clinical studies from 1990 to 1999 that use proxy data as a source of information about older adults. In general, studies report fairly good agreement between subjects and proxies in assessments of functioning, physical health, and cognitive status, and fair-to-poor agreement in assessments of psychological well-being. Proxies tend to describe more impairment in functioning and emotional well-being, relative to subjects, a pattern that is particularly marked among persons with cognitive impairment. In addition, proxies who report more caregiver responsibilities and subjective stress from caregiver duties provide more negative assessments of subjects' health and well-being. Findings tend to support the use of proxy ratings among older adults in many areas but not all when self-reports are not feasible. There is a need for more evaluation of proxy data in relation to other measures, such as performance assessments, medical records, and claims data, which may be less subject to respondent biases.

  19. Replicating studies in which samples of participants respond to samples of stimuli.

    PubMed

    Westfall, Jacob; Judd, Charles M; Kenny, David A

    2015-05-01

    In a direct replication, the typical goal is to reproduce a prior experimental result with a new but comparable sample of participants in a high-powered replication study. Often in psychology, the research to be replicated involves a sample of participants responding to a sample of stimuli. In replicating such studies, we argue that the same criteria should be used in sampling stimuli as are used in sampling participants. Namely, a new but comparable sample of stimuli should be used to ensure that the original results are not due to idiosyncrasies of the original stimulus sample, and the stimulus sample must often be enlarged to ensure high statistical power. In support of the latter point, we discuss the fact that in experiments involving samples of stimuli, statistical power typically does not approach 1 as the number of participants goes to infinity. As an example of the importance of sampling new stimuli, we discuss the bygone literature on the risky shift phenomenon, which was almost entirely based on a single stimulus sample that was later discovered to be highly unrepresentative. We discuss the use of both resampled and expanded stimulus sets, that is, stimulus samples that include the original stimuli plus new stimuli.

  20. [Respondent-Driven Sampling: a new sampling method to study visible and hidden populations].

    PubMed

    Mantecón, Alejandro; Juan, Montse; Calafat, Amador; Becoña, Elisardo; Román, Encarna

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a variant of chain-referral sampling: respondent-driven sampling (RDS). This sampling method shows that methods based on network analysis can be combined with the statistical validity of standard probability sampling methods. In this sense, RDS appears to be a mathematical improvement of snowball sampling oriented to the study of hidden populations. However, we try to prove its validity with populations that are not within a sampling frame but can nonetheless be contacted without difficulty. The basics of RDS are explained through our research on young people (aged 14 to 25) who go clubbing, consume alcohol and other drugs, and have sex. Fieldwork was carried out between May and July 2007 in three Spanish regions: Baleares, Galicia and Comunidad Valenciana. The presentation of the study shows the utility of this type of sampling when the population is accessible but there is a difficulty deriving from the lack of a sampling frame. However, the sample obtained is not a random representative one in statistical terms of the target population. It must be acknowledged that the final sample is representative of a 'pseudo-population' that approximates to the target population but is not identical to it.

  1. Communicating geohazard information for emergency responders, a case study from the UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Vanessa; Cooper, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    SSS11.4/ESSI4.6/HS11.39/NH9.13 Communication of uncertain information in earth sciences: data, models and visualization Communicating geohazard information for emergency responders, a case study from the UK. Cooper, A. H.1, Banks, V.J.1, Cowup, P.2, Curness, J.3, Davis, R.4, Dawson, L3. and Gazzard, L.4 1 British Geological Survey, Keyworth, NG12 5GG, UK 2 London Fire Brigade, 169 Union Street, London, SE1 0LL, UK 3.Coventry University, Priory Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB, UK 4.Avon Fire and Rescue, Temple Back, Bristol, BS1 6EU, UK. In February 2013 a sinkhole opened beneath a Florida Home resulting in the loss of a life and demolition of the affected home. The resulting void was in the order of 15 m deep. Neighbouring homes also had to be demolished. Television footage of this unfortunate incident resonated with an Assistant Commissioner of the London Fire Brigade who questioned whether or not such a feature would be recognised in the UK and if so, how the emergency response would be managed. Stemming from this, the British Geological Survey was invited to work with the Chief Fire Officers Association Urban Search and Rescue working group on geohazards. The aim of this group was to develop national tactical operational guidance on geohazards that would form the basis for regional guidance and training. The project was addressed collaboratively providing opportunities for two students from the Coventry University Disaster Management course, that were on placements with Avon Fire and Rescue, to work with the BGS to develop the guidance. Key to the success of the project was an iterative approach to knowledge exchange with respect to firstly, the characterization of the geohazards, and the processes and uncertainties associated with them and secondly, with respect to emergency responders' needs and priorities. Effective communication was achieved through challenging and rationalising the geoscience language for the end user and through a series of customised

  2. Respondent-driven sampling among gay and bisexual men: experiences from a New Zealand pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ludlam, Adrian H; Saxton, Peter J W; Dickson, Nigel P; Adams, Jeffery

    2015-10-09

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a method of approximating random sampling of populations that are difficult to locate and engage in research such as gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM). However, its effectiveness among established urban gay communities in high-income countries is largely unexplored outside North America. We conducted a pilot study of RDS among urban GBM in Auckland, New Zealand to assess its local applicability for sexual health research. Pre-fieldwork formative assessment explored RDS suitability among local GBM. Highly-networked initial participants ("seeds") and subsequent participants completed a questionnaire, took a rectal swab for chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing, and were asked to recruit up to three eligible peers over the subsequent 2 weeks using study coupons. Compensation was given for participating and for each peer enrolled. Feedback on the pilot was obtained through questionnaire items, participant follow-up, and a focus group. Nine seeds commenced recruitment, directly enrolling 10 participants (Wave One), who in turn enrolled a further three (Wave Two). Two of the 22 participants (9 %) had undiagnosed rectal chlamydia. The coupon redemption rate (23 %) was lower than the expected rate (33 %) for this population. Participants were motivated by altruism above financial incentives; however, time, transport and reluctance recruiting peers were perceived as barriers to enrolment. Slow recruitment in our pilot study suggests that RDS might not be an effective or efficient method of sampling gay men in all high-income urban settings. However those who participated in the pilot were willing to provide anal swabs and information on their sexual behaviour, and also on the size of their GBM social network which is necessary to weight data in RDS. Refinements and adaptations such as reducing the transaction costs of taking part (e.g. offering online participation) could improve responses but these have their own

  3. How nursing home residents with dementia respond to the interactive art installation 'VENSTER': a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Tom; Braun, Susy; Jamin, Gaston; van Hooren, Susan; de Witte, Luc

    2017-03-12

    The goal of this study was (1) to determine whether and how nursing home residents with dementia respond to the interactive art installation in general and (2) to identify whether responses change when the content type and, therefore, the nature of the interaction with the artwork changes. The interactive art installation 'VENSTER' evokes responses in nursing home residents with dementia, illustrating the potential of interactive artworks in the nursing home environment. Frequently observed responses were naming, recognizing or asking questions about depicted content and how the installation worked, physically gesturing towards or tapping on the screen and tapping or singing along to the music. It seemed content matters a lot. When VENSTER is to be used in routine care, the choice of a type of content is critical to the intended experience/usage in practice. In this study, recognition seemed to trigger memory and (in most cases) a verbal reaction, while indistinctness led to asking for more information. When (initially) coached by a care provider, residents actively engaged physically with the screen. Responses differed between content types, which makes it important to further explore different types of content and content as an interface to provide meaningful experiences for nursing home residents. Implications for rehabilitation VENSTER can facilitate different types of responses ranging from verbal reactions to active physical engagement. The choice of a type of content is critical to the intended experience/usage in practice. Activating content seems suitable for use as a meaningful experience during the spare time in between existing activities or therapy. Sessions with interactive content are short (avg. 30 mins) and intense and can therefore potentially be used as an activating therapy, activity or exercise. In order to actively engage residents with dementia, the role of the care provider seems very important.

  4. Mixed Methods Study of Help Seekers and Self-Changers Responding to an Online Recovery Survey

    PubMed Central

    Witbrodt, Jane; Borkman, Thomasina J.; Stunz, Aina; Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To compare self-changers (natural recovery) with help seekers on demographics, pre-recovery problem severity, and recovery beliefs and behaviors; and to augment these quantitative findings with information extracted from the qualitative stories of a subset of self-changers to explore themes in recovery paths as informed by a nascent natural recovery literature. Methods: Quantitative secondary analyses were conducted with persons who had responded to a US nationwide online survey called ‘What Is Recovery’ (WIR) and who reported a prior lifetime alcohol problem (n = 5495). Six men and six women (with longer-term recoveries) interviewed later were asked to tell their ‘recovery story from the beginning up to now’. These were coded using a narrative approach. Results: Compared with help seekers, self-changers were younger and never married: they did not differ on problem severity, gender, ethnicity or education. Self-changers identified with ‘used to have a problem’ more than in recovery/recovered, reported fewer years in that status, and reported more current, non-problematic substance use. A new concept of shadow help and shadow obstacles to help-seeking emerged from the qualitative analysis. Though self-changers believed that they had overcome their alcohol problem on their own, change actually occurred within a social context that allowed access to information, normative expectations, relationships, and other opportunities that provided important resources for change. Conclusion: Findings imply that the concept of help-seeking needs to be re-conceptualized to include the informal help we found in this study. PMID:25381088

  5. Mixed methods study of help seekers and self-changers responding to an online recovery survey.

    PubMed

    Witbrodt, Jane; Borkman, Thomasina J; Stunz, Aina; Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina

    2015-01-01

    To compare self-changers (natural recovery) with help seekers on demographics, pre-recovery problem severity, and recovery beliefs and behaviors; and to augment these quantitative findings with information extracted from the qualitative stories of a subset of self-changers to explore themes in recovery paths as informed by a nascent natural recovery literature. Quantitative secondary analyses were conducted with persons who had responded to a US nationwide online survey called 'What Is Recovery' (WIR) and who reported a prior lifetime alcohol problem (n = 5495). Six men and six women (with longer-term recoveries) interviewed later were asked to tell their 'recovery story from the beginning up to now'. These were coded using a narrative approach. Compared with help seekers, self-changers were younger and never married: they did not differ on problem severity, gender, ethnicity or education. Self-changers identified with 'used to have a problem' more than in recovery/recovered, reported fewer years in that status, and reported more current, non-problematic substance use. A new concept of shadow help and shadow obstacles to help-seeking emerged from the qualitative analysis. Though self-changers believed that they had overcome their alcohol problem on their own, change actually occurred within a social context that allowed access to information, normative expectations, relationships, and other opportunities that provided important resources for change. Findings imply that the concept of help-seeking needs to be re-conceptualized to include the informal help we found in this study. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. Hitting Reply: A Qualitative Study to Understand Student Decisions to Respond to Online Discussion Postings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Diane D.; Storberg-Walker, Julia; Stone, Sophia J.

    2008-01-01

    Providing tools for dialogue exchange does not ensure that students will respond to team mate postings or that online groups will grow in cohesiveness. Students decide whether or not to reply, and it is increasingly important to understand how students make these decisions due to the increase in distance education, millenials, and asynchronous…

  7. Hitting Reply: A Qualitative Study to Understand Student Decisions to Respond to Online Discussion Postings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Diane D.; Storberg-Walker, Julia; Stone, Sophia J.

    2007-01-01

    Providing tools for dialogue exchange does not ensure that students will respond to teammate postings or that online groups will grow in cohesiveness (Murphy, 2004). Students decide whether or not to reply, and it is increasingly important to understand how students make these decisions due to the increase in distance education, Millennials, and…

  8. A Phenomenological Study of Urban Search and Rescue Members Who Responded to a Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    The complicated world of disaster management requires urban search and rescue (US&R) members to be well trained to respond to complex, unpredictable, and difficult to manage disasters anywhere in the world on short notice. Disasters are becoming more complex and difficult to manage as was witnessed by the multi-faceted disaster in Japan in…

  9. A Phenomenological Study of Urban Search and Rescue Members Who Responded to a Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    The complicated world of disaster management requires urban search and rescue (US&R) members to be well trained to respond to complex, unpredictable, and difficult to manage disasters anywhere in the world on short notice. Disasters are becoming more complex and difficult to manage as was witnessed by the multi-faceted disaster in Japan in…

  10. Hitting Reply: A Qualitative Study to Understand Student Decisions to Respond to Online Discussion Postings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Diane D.; Storberg-Walker, Julia; Stone, Sophia J.

    2008-01-01

    Providing tools for dialogue exchange does not ensure that students will respond to team mate postings or that online groups will grow in cohesiveness. Students decide whether or not to reply, and it is increasingly important to understand how students make these decisions due to the increase in distance education, millenials, and asynchronous…

  11. Cultural differences in survey responding: Issues and insights in the study of response biases.

    PubMed

    Kemmelmeier, Markus

    2016-12-01

    This paper introduces the special section "Cultural differences in questionnaire responding" and discusses central topics in the research on response biases in cross-cultural survey research. Based on current conceptions of acquiescent, extreme, and socially desirable responding, the author considers current data on the correlated nature of response biases and the conditions under which different response styles they emerge. Based on evidence relating different response styles to the cultural dimension of individualism-collectivism, the paper explores how research presented as part of this special section might help resolves some tensions in this literature. The paper concludes by arguing that response styles should not be treated merely as measurement error, but as cultural behaviors in themselves.

  12. Live birth rates in the different combinations of the Bologna criteria poor ovarian responders: a validation study.

    PubMed

    La Marca, Antonio; Grisendi, Valentina; Giulini, Simone; Sighinolfi, Giovanna; Tirelli, Alessandra; Argento, Cindy; Re, Claudia; Tagliasacchi, Daniela; Marsella, Tiziana; Sunkara, Sesh Kamal

    2015-06-01

    to compare the baseline characteristics and chance of live birth in the different categories of poor responders identified by the combinations of the Bologna criteria and establish whether these groups comprise a homogenous population. database containing clinical and laboratory information on IVF treatment cycles carried out at the Mother-Infant Department of the University Hospital of Modena between year 2007 and 2011 was analysed. This data was collected prospectively and recorded in the registered database of the fertility centre. Eight hundred and thirty women fulfilled the inclusion/ exclusion criteria of the study and 210 women fulfilled the Bologna criteria definition for poor ovarian response (POR). Five categories of poor responders were identified by different combinations of the Bologna criteria. There were no significant differences in female age, AFC, AMH, cycle cancellation rate and number of retrieved oocytes between the five groups. The live birth rate ranged between 5.5 and 7.4 % and was not statistically different in the five different categories of women defined as poor responders according to the Bologna criteria. The study demonstrates that the different groups of poor responders based on the Bologna criteria have similar IVF outcomes. This information validates the Bologna criteria definition as women having a uniform poor prognosis and also demonstrates that the Bologna criteria poor responders in the various subgroups represent a homogenous population with similar pre-clinical and clinical outcomes.

  13. How Institutional and University Counselor Policies Effectively Respond to Victims of Cyber Violent Acts: A Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gretchen M.

    2012-01-01

    This multisite case study examined how institutional and university counselor policies effectively respond to cyber violent acts. Stake's (2006) multisite case study methodology was used to identify seven themes from current literature. Two sites with four participants were selected. The participants included two counseling directors and the…

  14. How Institutional and University Counselor Policies Effectively Respond to Victims of Cyber Violent Acts: A Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gretchen M.

    2012-01-01

    This multisite case study examined how institutional and university counselor policies effectively respond to cyber violent acts. Stake's (2006) multisite case study methodology was used to identify seven themes from current literature. Two sites with four participants were selected. The participants included two counseling directors and the…

  15. Physiological responding to stress in middle-aged males enriched for longevity: a social stress study.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Steffy W M; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen; Westendorp, Rudi; Oei, Nicole Y L

    2016-01-01

    Individuals enriched for familial longevity display a lower prevalence of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular- and metabolic diseases. Since these diseases are associated with stress and increased cortisol levels, one of the underlying mechanisms that may contribute to healthy longevity might be a more adaptive response to stress. To investigate this, male middle-aged offspring from long-lived families (n = 31) and male non-offspring (with no familial history of longevity) (n = 26) were randomly allocated to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control condition in an experimental design. Physiological (cortisol, blood pressure, heart rate) and subjective responses were measured during the entire procedure. The results showed that Offspring had lower overall cortisol levels compared to Non-offspring regardless of condition, and lower absolute cortisol output (AUCg) during stress compared to Non-Offspring, while the increase (AUCi) did not differ between groups. In addition, systolic blood pressure in Offspring was lower compared to Non-offspring during the entire procedure. At baseline, Offspring had significantly lower systolic blood pressure and reported less subjective stress than Non-offspring and showed a trend towards lower heart rate. Offspring from long-lived families might thus be less stressed prior to potentially stressful events and consequently show overall lower levels in physiological responses. Although attenuated physiological responding cannot be ruled out, lower starting points and a lower peak level in physiological responding when confronted with an actual stressor, might already limit damage due to stress over a lifetime. Lower physiological responding may also contribute to the lower prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and other stress-related diseases in healthy longevity.

  16. Developing Specific Self-Efficacy and Resilience as First Responders among Students of Social Work and Stress and Trauma Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farchi, Moshe; Cohen, Ayala; Mosek, Atalia

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the challenging task of preparing baccalaureate social work students to master proficiency as first responders in stress and trauma situations. We begin with a brief description of the context, goals, admission procedure, structure, and process of a stress and trauma studies (STS) program. We then compare the development of…

  17. Effectiveness of a Time-Limited Incentive on Participation by Hard-to-Reach Respondents in a Panel Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fomby, Paula; Sastry, Narayan; McGonagle, Katherine A.

    2017-01-01

    We describe an experiment to provide a time-limited incentive among a random sample of 594 hard-to-reach respondents, 200 of whom were offered the incentive to complete all survey components of a study during a three-week winter holiday period. Sample members were primary caregivers of children included in the 2014 Child Development Supplement to…

  18. Developing Specific Self-Efficacy and Resilience as First Responders among Students of Social Work and Stress and Trauma Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farchi, Moshe; Cohen, Ayala; Mosek, Atalia

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the challenging task of preparing baccalaureate social work students to master proficiency as first responders in stress and trauma situations. We begin with a brief description of the context, goals, admission procedure, structure, and process of a stress and trauma studies (STS) program. We then compare the development of…

  19. The Effects of Respondents' Consent to Be Recorded on Interview Length and Data Quality in a National Panel Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGonagle, Katherine A.; Brown, Charles; Schoeni, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Recording interviews is a key feature of quality control protocols for most survey organizations. We examine the effects on interview length and data quality of a new protocol adopted by a national panel study. The protocol recorded a randomly chosen one-third of all interviews digitally, although all respondents were asked for permission to…

  20. Sample Size Calculations for Population Size Estimation Studies Using Multiplier Methods With Respondent-Driven Sampling Surveys.

    PubMed

    Fearon, Elizabeth; Chabata, Sungai T; Thompson, Jennifer A; Cowan, Frances M; Hargreaves, James R

    2017-09-14

    While guidance exists for obtaining population size estimates using multiplier methods with respondent-driven sampling surveys, we lack specific guidance for making sample size decisions. To guide the design of multiplier method population size estimation studies using respondent-driven sampling surveys to reduce the random error around the estimate obtained. The population size estimate is obtained by dividing the number of individuals receiving a service or the number of unique objects distributed (M) by the proportion of individuals in a representative survey who report receipt of the service or object (P). We have developed an approach to sample size calculation, interpreting methods to estimate the variance around estimates obtained using multiplier methods in conjunction with research into design effects and respondent-driven sampling. We describe an application to estimate the number of female sex workers in Harare, Zimbabwe. There is high variance in estimates. Random error around the size estimate reflects uncertainty from M and P, particularly when the estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey is low. As expected, sample size requirements are higher when the design effect of the survey is assumed to be greater. We suggest a method for investigating the effects of sample size on the precision of a population size estimate obtained using multipler methods and respondent-driven sampling. Uncertainty in the size estimate is high, particularly when P is small, so balancing against other potential sources of bias, we advise researchers to consider longer service attendance reference periods and to distribute more unique objects, which is likely to result in a higher estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey.

  1. Comparison of early and delayed respondents to a postal health survey: a questionnaire study of personality traits and neuropsychological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruoling; Wei, Li; Syme, Paul D

    2003-01-01

    Delayed response to a mail survey is related to age, lifestyle and socioeconomic status, and may provoke bias in epidemiological study. We investigated whether delayed respondents were associated with their personality traits and neuropsychological symptoms. Two hundred and ninety-eight painters from a Scottish dockyard cohort and their 571 male controls (general subjects) randomly recruited from the local residents completed a questionnaire, which included 24 statements of the Eysenck personality scales and 22 questions of neuropsychological symptoms. There was a similar distribution of delayed response between general subjects and painters, with a total of 55.6% early (returning questionnaires within 4 weeks), 33.4% intermediate (within 8 weeks) and 11.0% late respondents (after 8 weeks). The delayed response was related to only a few individual statements or symptoms, which varied between general subjects and painters. There were no significant differences in scores in statements of personality traits and neuropsychological symptoms among the three respondent groups, except for the late respondents in painters having an increased score of total neuropsychological symptoms at borderline significance. After adjustment for confounding the case-control analysis showed no significant association of the high scores of social conformity, neuroticism and symptoms with a delayed response. This study suggests that response to a postal health survey may not be influenced or biased by personality traits and neuropsychological symptoms.

  2. Empathic-like responding by domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) to distress in humans: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Custance, Deborah; Mayer, Jennifer

    2012-09-01

    Empathy covers a range of phenomena from cognitive empathy involving metarepresentation to emotional contagion stemming from automatically triggered reflexes. An experimental protocol first used with human infants was adapted to investigate empathy in domestic dogs. Dogs oriented toward their owner or a stranger more often when the person was pretending to cry than when they were talking or humming. Observers, unaware of experimental hypotheses and the condition under which dogs were responding, more often categorized dogs' approaches as submissive as opposed to alert, playful or calm during the crying condition. When the stranger pretended to cry, rather than approaching their usual source of comfort, their owner, dogs sniffed, nuzzled and licked the stranger instead. The dogs' pattern of response was behaviorally consistent with an expression of empathic concern, but is most parsimoniously interpreted as emotional contagion coupled with a previous learning history in which they have been rewarded for approaching distressed human companions.

  3. Acrylonitrile exposure assessment in the emergency responders of a major train accident in Belgium: a human biomonitoring study.

    PubMed

    Van Nieuwenhuyse, A; Fierens, S; De Smedt, T; De Cremer, K; Vleminckx, C; Mertens, B; Van Overmeire, I; Bader, M; De Paepe, P; Göen, T; Nemery, B; Schettgen, T; Stove, C; Van Oyen, H; Van Loco, J

    2014-12-15

    On May 4, 2013, a train transporting chemicals derailed in Wetteren, Belgium. Several tanks loaded with acrylonitrile (ACN) exploded, resulting in a fire and a leakage of ACN. To determine exposure to ACN and to assess discriminating factors for ACN exposure in the emergency responders involved in the on-site management of the train accident. The study population consisted of 841 emergency responders. Between May 21 and June 28, they gave blood for the determination of N-2-cyanoethylvaline (CEV) hemoglobin adducts and urine for the measurement of cotinine. They also filled in a short questionnaire. 163 (26%) non-smokers and 55 (27%) smokers showed CEV concentrations above the reference values of 10 and 200 pmol/g globin, respectively. The 95th percentile in the non-smokers was 73 pmol/g globin and the maximum was 452 pmol/g globin. ACN exposure among the non-smokers was predicted by (1) the distance to the accident, (2) the duration of exposure, and (3) the occupational function. Emergency responders involved in the on-site management of the train accident were clearly exposed to ACN from the accident. However, the extent of exposure remained relatively moderate with CEV concentrations staying within the ranges described in literature as background for a smoking population. Moreover, the exposure was less pronounced in the emergency responders as compared to that in the local population. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Perception, Experience, and Response to Genetic Discrimination in Huntington Disease: The International RESPOND-HD Study

    PubMed Central

    Erwin, Cheryl; Williams, Janet K.; Juhl, Andrew R.; Mengeling, Michelle; Mills, James A.; Bombard, Yvonne; Hayden, Michael R.; Quaid, Kimberly; Shoulson, Ira; Taylor, Sandra; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic discrimination—defined as the denial of rights, privileges, or opportunities or other adverse treatment based solely on genetic information (including family history)—is an important concern to patients, healthcare professionals, lawmakers, and family members at risk for carrying a deleterious gene. Data from the United States, Canada, and Australia were collected from 433 individuals at risk for Huntington disease (HD) who have tested either positive or negative for the gene that causes HD and family members of affected individuals who have a 50% risk for developing the disorder but remain untested. Across all three countries, a total of 46.2% of respondents report genetic discrimination or stigma based on either their family history of HD or genetic testing for the HD gene mutation. We report on the overall incidence of discrimination and stigma in the domains of insurance (25.9%), employment (6.5%), relationships (32.9%), and other transactions (4.6%) in the United States, Canada, and Australia combined. The incidence of self-reported discrimination is less than the overall worry about the risk of discrimination, which is more prevalent in each domain. Despite a relatively low rate of perceived genetic discrimination in the areas of health insurance and employment, compared to the perception of discrimination and stigma in personal relationships, the cumulative burden of genetic discrimination across all domains of experience represents a challenge to those at risk for HD. The effect of this cumulative burden on daily life decisions remains unknown. PMID:20468061

  5. The relations of parental warmth and positive expressiveness to children's empathy-related responding and social functioning: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Losoya, Sandra H; Fabes, Richard A; Reiser, Mark; Guthrie, Ivanna K; Murphy, Bridget C; Cumberland, Amanda J; Shepard, Stephanie A

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the concurrent and cross-time relations of parental observed warmth and positive expressivity to children's situational facial and self-reported empathic responding, social competence, and externalizing problems in a sample of 180 elementary school children. Data was collected when the children were in second to fifth grades (age: M = 112.8 months), and again 2 years later. Cross-sectional and longitudinal structural equation models supported the hypothesis that parents' (mostly mothers') positive expressivity mediated the relation between parental warmth and children's empathy, and children's empathy mediated the relation between parental positive expressivity and children's social functioning. These relations persisted after controlling for prior levels of parenting and child characteristics. Moreover, concurrent and cross-time consistencies were found on measures of parenting, children's situational empathic responding, and social functioning.

  6. Minoxidil dose response study in female pattern hair loss patients determined to be non-responders to 5% topical minoxidil.

    PubMed

    McCoy, J; Goren, A; Kovacevic, M; Shapiro, J

    2016-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the only US FDA approved drug for the treatment of female pattern hair loss (FPHL). 5% minoxidil foam is only effective at re-growing hair in a minority of women (approximately 40%). Thus, the majority of FPHL patients remain untreated. Previously, we demonstrated that nonresponders to 5% minoxidil have low metabolism of minoxidil in hair follicles. As such, we hypothesized that increasing the dosage of topical minoxidil to low metabolizers would increase the number of responders without increasing the incidence of adverse events. In this study, we recruited FPHL subjects that were identified as non-responders to 5% topical minoxidil utilizing the previously validated assay for minoxidil response. Subjects were treated for 12 weeks with a novel 15% topical minoxidil solution. At 12 weeks, 60% of subjects achieved a clinically significant response based on target area hair counts (>13.7% from baseline), as well as significant improvement in global photographic assessment. None of the subjects experienced significant hemodynamic changes or any other adverse events. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the potentially beneficial effect of a higher dosage of minoxidil in FPHL subjects who fail to respond to 5% minoxidil.

  7. Have Mischievous Responders Misidentified Sexual Minority Youth Disparities in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health?

    PubMed

    Fish, Jessica N; Russell, Stephen T

    2017-05-05

    The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) has been instrumental in identifying sexual minority youth health disparities. Recent commentary suggested that some Wave 1 youth responders, especially males, intentionally mismarked same-sex attraction and, as a result, published reports of health disparities from these data may be suspect. We use two recently developed approaches to identify "jokesters" and mischievous responding and apply them to the Add Health data. First, we show that Wave 1 same-sex attracted youth, including those who later reported completely heterosexual identities in adulthood, were no more likely than different-sex attracted youth and consistently heterosexual participants to be "jokesters." Second, after accounting for mischievous responses, we replicated six previously established disparities: depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and behaviors, alcohol use, cocaine use, parental satisfaction, and school connectedness. Accounting for mischievousness resulted in the elimination of one observed disparity between heterosexual and sexual minority youth: suicidal ideation for males who reported romantic attraction to both sexes. Results also showed that accounting for mischievous responding may underestimate disparities for sexual minority youth, particularly females. Overall, results presented here support previous studies that identified health disparities among sexual minority youth using these data.

  8. Respondent-driven sampling for an adolescent health study in vulnerable urban settings: a multi-country study.

    PubMed

    Decker, Michele R; Marshall, Beth Dail; Emerson, Mark; Kalamar, Amanda; Covarrubias, Laura; Astone, Nan; Wang, Ziliang; Gao, Ersheng; Mashimbye, Lawrence; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Acharya, Rajib; Olumide, Adesola; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Blum, Robert W; Sonenstein, Freya L

    2014-12-01

    The global adolescent population is larger than ever before and is rapidly urbanizing. Global surveillance systems to monitor youth health typically use household- and school-based recruitment methods. These systems risk not reaching the most marginalized youth made vulnerable by conditions of migration, civil conflict, and other forms of individual and structural vulnerability. We describe the methodology of the Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments survey, which used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit male and female youth aged 15-19 years and living in economically distressed urban settings in Baltimore, MD; Johannesburg, South Africa; Ibadan, Nigeria; New Delhi, India; and Shanghai, China (migrant youth only) for a cross-sectional study. We describe a shared recruitment and survey administration protocol across the five sites, present recruitment parameters, and illustrate challenges and necessary adaptations for use of RDS with youth in disadvantaged urban settings. We describe the reach of RDS into populations of youth who may be missed by traditional household- and school-based sampling. Across all sites, an estimated 9.6% were unstably housed; among those enrolled in school, absenteeism was pervasive with 29% having missed over 6 days of school in the past month. Overall findings confirm the feasibility, efficiency, and utility of RDS in quickly reaching diverse samples of youth, including those both in and out of school and those unstably housed, and provide direction for optimizing RDS methods with this population. In our rapidly urbanizing global landscape with an unprecedented youth population, RDS may serve as a valuable tool in complementing existing household- and school-based methods for health-related surveillance that can guide policy.

  9. Respondent-driven sampling for an adolescent health study in vulnerable urban settings: a multi-country study

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Marshall, Beth; Emerson, Mark; Kalamar, Amanda; Covarrubias, Laura; Astone, Nan; Wang, Ziliang; Gao, Ersheng; Mashimbye, Lawrence; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Acharya, Rajib; Olumide, Adesola; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Blum, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The global adolescent population is larger than ever before and is rapidly urbanizing. Global surveillance systems to monitor youth health typically use household- and school-based recruitment methods. These systems risk not reaching the most marginalized youth made vulnerable by conditions of migration, civil conflict and other forms of individual and structural vulnerability. We describe the methodology of the Well Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) survey, which used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit male and female youth aged 15 to 19 years and living in economically distressed urban settings in Baltimore, USA, Johannesburg, South Africa, Ibadan, Nigeria, Delhi, India and Shanghai, China (migrant youth only) for a cross-sectional study. We describe a shared recruitment and survey administration protocol across the five sites, present recruitment parameters, and illustrate challenges and necessary adaptations for use of RDS with youth in disadvantaged urban settings. We describe the reach of RDS into populations of youth who may be missed by traditional householdbased and school-based sampling. Across all sites, an estimated 9.6% were unstably housed; among those enrolled in school, absenteeism was pervasive with 29% having missed over 6 days of school in the past month. Overall findings confirm the feasibility, efficiency and utility of RDS in quickly reaching diverse samples of youth, including those both in and out of school and those unstably housed, and provide direction for optimizing RDS methods with this population. In our rapidly urbanizing global landscape with an unprecedented youth population, RDS may serve as a valuable tool in complementing existing household- and school-based methods for health-related surveillance that can guide policy. PMID:25454005

  10. How Military Families Respond Before, During and After Deployment: Findings from the RAND Deployment Life Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    deployments as the most stressful aspect of military life . How Military Families Function Before, During, and After Deployment Findings from the...RAND Deployment Life Study By the Numbers 2700 military families studied 9 surveys per family member before, during, and after deployment 5 study...preparing for deployment (developing an emergency financial plan or buying life insurance), the higher their parenting satisfaction after deployment

  11. Fish mucus as a rapidly responding tissue in diet switching studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. One aspect of our work focuses on the incorporation of marine-derived nutrients into the diet of overwintering coho salmon juveniles. These studie...

  12. Fish mucus as a rapid responding tissue in diet switching studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. One aspect of our work focuses on the incorporation of marine-derived nutrients into the diet of overwintering coho salmon juveniles. These studie...

  13. Fish mucus as a rapid responding tissue in diet switching studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. One aspect of our work focuses on the incorporation of marine-derived nutrients into the diet of overwintering coho salmon juveniles. These studie...

  14. Fish mucus as a rapidly responding tissue in diet switching studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. One aspect of our work focuses on the incorporation of marine-derived nutrients into the diet of overwintering coho salmon juveniles. These studie...

  15. Responding to the Adult ESL Writer: A Teacher-as-Researcher Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Suzanne

    A study investigated the use of specific error correction and writing instruction techniques in a composition course designed for foreign graduate students. Weekly in-class student essays on assigned topics were returned to them ungraded but containing explanations of grammar points, confusing vocabulary, content, and organization. A conscious…

  16. Traumatic Responding in Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Peter; Elliston, Ellen J.

    2001-01-01

    A study examined posttraumatic stress disorder in Mexican, Mexican American, and non-Mexican American children exposed to domestic violence. Surveys of 68 mothers with children in shelters in Mexico and Texas revealed no ethnic differences in children's overall trauma symptoms. Mothers' experience of physical and sexual abuse predicted greater…

  17. Responding to the Increased Needs of College Students: A Case Study of Case Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelesky, Kristin; Weatherford, Ryan D.; Silbert, Janelle

    2016-01-01

    The psychological needs of college students lead to overwhelming demand on college counseling centers' resources. In this article, we review models of case management in Higher Education including the administrative, behavioral intervention, and counseling center models. We also present a case study of the 3-year development of a counseling center…

  18. Minimizing Respondent Attrition in Longitudinal Research: Practical Implications from a Cohort Study of Adolescent Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boys, Annabel; Marsden, John; Stillwell, Garry; Hatchings, Kevin; Griffiths, Paul; Farrell, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the methods used to maximize retention in a longitudinal study of adolescent drinking. Strategies to minimize attrition included the collection of detailed contact information, incentives for participation, postcard and telephone reminders and telephone interviews. Ninety-six percent of the original sample completed the first follow-up…

  19. Ethical and regulatory considerations in HIV prevention studies employing respondent-driven sampling.

    PubMed

    Semaan, Salaam; Santibanez, Scott; Garfein, Richard S; Heckathorn, Douglas D; Des Jarlais, Don C

    2009-01-01

    To review the scientific, ethical, and regulatory literature because no official guidance exists on remuneration for participant-driven recruitment or on investigators' responsibilities for informing participants of their discordant partnerships. We reviewed the studies that used RDS to recruit injection-drug users (IDUs), 1995-2006, and the relevant scientific, ethical, and regulatory literature that shed light on arguments for and against practices that can be used in studies employing RDS. Concerns that payments can be used to buy drugs or can subvert altruistic motivations for study participation are not supported by the literature. Concerns about peers' coercion to barter coupons or surrender payments are offset by safeguards used in RDS. Remuneration shows respect for participants' time and effort in recruitment and judgment to use remuneration for personal needs. Tension between ensuring participants' confidentiality and protecting the health of network members highlights difference in roles between investigators and health care providers. Investigators can choose to rely on public health agencies for partner notification services, ask participants if and how they would like to be informed of their discordant partnerships, and offer training on how to disclose HIV status and adopt risk-reduction and harm-reduction behaviours. Clarifying ethical and regulatory considerations is important for research sponsors, institutional review boards (IRBs), ethics review committees (ERCs), investigators, and participants. We provide a checklist of ethics and regulatory variables to be included as feasible in future studies to enhance development of evidence-based ethics.

  20. Traumatic Responding in Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Peter; Elliston, Ellen J.

    2001-01-01

    A study examined posttraumatic stress disorder in Mexican, Mexican American, and non-Mexican American children exposed to domestic violence. Surveys of 68 mothers with children in shelters in Mexico and Texas revealed no ethnic differences in children's overall trauma symptoms. Mothers' experience of physical and sexual abuse predicted greater…

  1. Responding to the Increased Needs of College Students: A Case Study of Case Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelesky, Kristin; Weatherford, Ryan D.; Silbert, Janelle

    2016-01-01

    The psychological needs of college students lead to overwhelming demand on college counseling centers' resources. In this article, we review models of case management in Higher Education including the administrative, behavioral intervention, and counseling center models. We also present a case study of the 3-year development of a counseling center…

  2. A Case Study of Integration and Destreaming: Teachers and Students in an Ontario Secondary School Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Christine L.; Cowell, Barry; Olson, John

    1998-01-01

    Presents a case study of grade 9 curriculum reforms at a urban high school in Ontario (Canada). Explains that students were streamed according to their abilities and interests before the reform. Discusses questions related to de-streaming, especially how teachers contend with mixed-ability classes, and integration with a particular focus on…

  3. Minimizing Respondent Attrition in Longitudinal Research: Practical Implications from a Cohort Study of Adolescent Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boys, Annabel; Marsden, John; Stillwell, Garry; Hatchings, Kevin; Griffiths, Paul; Farrell, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the methods used to maximize retention in a longitudinal study of adolescent drinking. Strategies to minimize attrition included the collection of detailed contact information, incentives for participation, postcard and telephone reminders and telephone interviews. Ninety-six percent of the original sample completed the first follow-up…

  4. Responding to the Gulf War: A Case Study of Instructional Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Merry M.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on study of teacher decision making regarding instruction about Gulf War. Finds teachers were influenced by student grade level, number of students in class from another culture, and their own knowledge of Middle Eastern history and geography. Concludes that local and state curriculum officials should provide more flexibility so teachers…

  5. Speech Act of Responding to Rudeness: A Case Study of Malaysian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnia, Maryam; Sattar, Hiba Qusay Abdul; Mei, Hooi Chee

    2014-01-01

    Politeness conventions vary across cultures and so is impoliteness and rudeness. In some cases, what is considered rude in one culture or a society is not necessarily rude or impolite in another. This cannot be explained unless more studies on the use of language functions in a specific culture are conducted. The aim of this paper is to…

  6. Study on Catchment Runoff Variations and Possible Responds to Climate Change and Human Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, J.; Chen, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Under the influence of global climate change and human activities,the spatial-temporal distribution of precipitation has changed significantly which drives catchment hydrological processes changes.To better understand the characteristic and causes of runoff variations at different periods which would impacts catchment flood disaster risk, the Utaphao catchment is studied whichis a typical catchment in southern Thailand.Based on daily hydrological data from 1971 to 2014,selecting representative raingauges and stream gauging stations from the catchment as research stations. Using the methods of Mann-Kendall test and serial cluster analysis, this paper studied the characteristics and laws of historical hydrological process in Utaphao catchment, detects the impact of changing environment to watershed hydrological processes,the results show that the runoff and precipitation havesome kinds of changes.

  7. Social networking versus facebook advertising to recruit survey respondents: a quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Gilligan, Conor; Kypri, Kypros; Bourke, Jesse

    2014-09-17

    Increasingly, social contact and knowledge of other people's attitudes and behavior are mediated by online social media such as Facebook. The main research to which this recruitment study pertains investigates the influence of parents on adolescent alcohol consumption. Given the pervasiveness of online social media use, Facebook may be an effective means of recruitment and intervention delivery. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of study recruitment via social networks versus paid advertising on Facebook. We conducted a quasi-experimental sequential trial with response rate as the outcome, and estimates of cost-effectiveness. The target population was parents of 13-17 year old children attending high schools in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment occurred via: method (1) social recruitment using Facebook, email-based, social networks, and media coverage followed by method (2) Facebook advertising. Using a range of online and other social network approaches only: method (1) 74 parents were recruited to complete a survey over eight months, costing AUD58.70 per completed survey. After Facebook advertising: method (2) 204 parents completed the survey over four weeks, costing AUD5.94 per completed survey. Participants were representative of the parents recruited from the region's schools using standard mail and email. Facebook advertising is a cost-effective means of recruiting parents, a group difficult to reach by other methods.

  8. Craniofacial characteristics of successful responders to mandibular advancement splint therapy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Seehra, Jadbinder; Sherriff, Martyn; Winchester, Lindsay

    2014-04-01

    Cephalometric variables that can be used to identify patients with obstructive sleep apnoea who are suitable for mandibular advancement splints and surgical maxillomandibular advancement are lacking. The aim of this pilot study was to describe the craniofacial characteristics of patients whose symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea were successfully treated with mandibular advancement splints and who were subsequently considered for maxillomandibular advancement. We retrospectively compared the craniofacial characteristics of our patients with data from 2 previously published studies. There were significant differences between the 2 groups for ANB (p<0.000), overjet (p<0.0001), Go-Me (p<0.0002), and ANS-PNS (p<0.0009). Patients, whose symptoms improve with the use of mandibular advancement splints and are potential candidates for maxillomandibular advancement, may have unique craniofacial features consisting of bimaxillary retrusion characterised by a shorter maxilla and mandible, and a greater class II skeletal tendency. The results of this study should be viewed as a pilot. Further research is required.

  9. Social Networking Versus Facebook Advertising to Recruit Survey Respondents: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Kypri, Kypros; Bourke, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasingly, social contact and knowledge of other people’s attitudes and behavior are mediated by online social media such as Facebook. The main research to which this recruitment study pertains investigates the influence of parents on adolescent alcohol consumption. Given the pervasiveness of online social media use, Facebook may be an effective means of recruitment and intervention delivery. Objective The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of study recruitment via social networks versus paid advertising on Facebook. Methods We conducted a quasi-experimental sequential trial with response rate as the outcome, and estimates of cost-effectiveness. The target population was parents of 13-17 year old children attending high schools in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment occurred via: method (1) social recruitment using Facebook, email-based, social networks, and media coverage followed by method (2) Facebook advertising. Results Using a range of online and other social network approaches only: method (1) 74 parents were recruited to complete a survey over eight months, costing AUD58.70 per completed survey. After Facebook advertising: method (2) 204 parents completed the survey over four weeks, costing AUD5.94 per completed survey. Participants were representative of the parents recruited from the region’s schools using standard mail and email. Conclusions Facebook advertising is a cost-effective means of recruiting parents, a group difficult to reach by other methods. PMID:25230740

  10. Retrospective case study of fetal mummification in cows that did not respond to prostaglandin F2α treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Réjean C.; Saint-Hilaire, Émilie; Morin, Isabelle; Couto, Gabriel B.; Francoz, David; Babkine, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Mummification of bovine fetuses is an uncommon condition, and cows do not always respond to treatment with prostaglandin F2α. The objective of the present retrospective and descriptive case study was to determine the conception rate and survival time of nonresponsive, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α)-treated cows (n = 14), following hysterotomy or medical treatment and manual removal. Animal records from 1990 to 2005 from the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire (CHUV) of the Université de Montréal were studied. Inclusion criteria were the nonexpulsion of the mummified fetus following PF2α treatment and absence of concomitant conditions upon physical examination. Of the animals included in the study, 36% (n = 5) became pregnant after extraction of the mummified fetus by hysterotomy and 0% conceived after medical treatment and manual extraction. In this study, hysterotomy represented an effective approach for extracting mummified fetuses from cows that did not respond to PF2α treatment. PMID:19337617

  11. Retrospective case study of fetal mummification in cows that did not respond to prostaglandin F2alpha treatment.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Réjean C; Saint-Hilaire, Emilie; Morin, Isabelle; Couto, Gabriel B; Francoz, David; Babkine, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Mummification of bovine fetuses is an uncommon condition, and cows do not always respond to treatment with prostaglandin F2alpha. The objective of the present retrospective and descriptive case study was to determine the conception rate and survival time of nonresponsive, prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha)-treated cows (n = 14), following hysterotomy or medical treatment and manual removal. Animal records from 1990 to 2005 from the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire (CHUV) of the Université de Montréal were studied. Inclusion criteria were the nonexpulsion of the mummified fetus following PF2alpha treatment and absence of concomitant conditions upon physical examination. Of the animals included in the study, 36% (n = 5) became pregnant after extraction of the mummified fetus by hysterotomy and 0% conceived after medical treatment and manual extraction. In this study, hysterotomy represented an effective approach for extracting mummified fetuses from cows that did not respond to PF2alpha treatment.

  12. Impact of organizational structure on vaccination of first responders: a case study.

    PubMed

    McGuire-Wolfe, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The experience of H1N1 vaccine delivery to public safety personnel in a suburban county in Florida suggests a relationship between the degree of hierarchy of an agency and successful implementation of a vaccination program for novel 2009 H1N1 influenza virus. This case study describes the structural organization of the Sheriff's Office and Fire Rescue in County X, provides timelines for vaccine program implementation and numbers of personnel vaccinated, and illustrates the impact of autonomy on the timeliness of vaccine implementation. An "emergency approval pathway" is recommended for organizations or departments that are likely to encounter delays in disaster or pandemic response due to organizational structure.

  13. The nature and burden of occupational injury among first responder occupations: A retrospective cohort study in Australian workers.

    PubMed

    Gray, Shannon E; Collie, Alex

    2017-09-23

    Workers in first responder (FR) occupations are at heightened risk for workplace injury given their exposure to physical/psychological hazards. This study sought to (1) characterise the occupational risk of injury; (2) determine factors associated with injury; and (3) characterise the burden of injury-related disability in police, ambulance officers, fire/emergency workers, compared with other occupations. A retrospective cohort of 2,439,624 claims occurring between July 2003 and June 2012 was extracted from the Australian National Dataset for Compensation-Based Statistics. Cases aged 16-75 years working 1-100 pre-injury hours per week were included. Regression models estimated risk of making a workers' compensation (WC) claim by age, gender, occupation and injury type. Injury burden was calculated using count and time loss, and statistically compared between groups. The risk of making a WC claim among FR occupations was more than 3 times higher than other occupations. Risk of claiming was highest among female FRs and those aged 35-44 years. Ambulance officers had the greatest risk of upper-body MSK injuries and fire and emergency workers the greatest risk of lower-body MSK injuries. The risk of mental health conditions was elevated for all FR occupations but highest among police officers. The total burden of injury (expressed as working weeks lost per 1000 workers) differed significantly between groups and was highest amongst police. First responders record significantly higher rates of occupational injury claims than other occupations. Using a national population based dataset, this study demonstrates that not only are first responders exposed to significantly higher rates of occupational injury than all other occupations combined, but they experience differential injury patterns depending on their occupation. This suggests that among FR occupations injury prevention efforts should reflect these differences and be targeted to occupation-specific patterns of

  14. Are Future Doctors Taught to Respond to Intimate Partner Violence? A Study of Australian Medical Schools.

    PubMed

    Valpied, Jodie; Aprico, Karina; Clewett, Janita; Hegarty, Kelsey

    2015-07-16

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women of childbearing age. This study aimed to describe delivery of IPV education in Australian pre-vocational medical degrees, and barriers and facilitators influencing this delivery. Eighteen Australian medical schools offering pre-vocational medical degrees were identified. Two were excluded as they had not finalized new curricula. One declined to participate. At least one staff member from each of the remaining 15 schools completed a telephone survey. Main outcome measures included whether IPV education was delivered within the degree, at what stage, and whether it was compulsory; mode and number of hours of delivery; and barriers and facilitators to delivery. Twelve of the medical schools delivered IPV education (median time spent per course = 2 hr). IPV content was typically included as part of Obstetrics and Gynecology or General Practice curriculum. Barriers included time constraints and lack of faculty commitment, resources, and funding. The two schools that successfully implemented a comprehensive IPV curriculum used an integrated, advocacy-based approach, with careful forward planning. Most Australian pre-vocational medical students receive little or no IPV education. The need remains for a more consistent, comprehensive approach to IPV education in medical degrees. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Do anuran larvae respond behaviourally to chemical cues from an invasive crayfish predator? A community-wide study.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Ana L; Richter-Boix, Alex; Laurila, Anssi; Rebelo, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Antipredator behaviour is an important fitness component in most animals. A co-evolutionary history between predator and prey is important for prey to respond adaptively to predation threats. When non-native predator species invade new areas, native prey may not recognise them or may lack effective antipredator defences. However, responses to novel predators can be facilitated by chemical cues from the predators' diet. The red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii is a widespread invasive predator in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, where it preys upon native anuran tadpoles. In a laboratory experiment we studied behavioural antipredator defences (alterations in activity level and spatial avoidance of predator) of nine anurans in response to P. clarkii chemical cues, and compared them with the defences towards a native predator, the larval dragonfly Aeshna sp. To investigate how chemical cues from consumed conspecifics shape the responses, we raised tadpoles with either a tadpole-fed or starved crayfish, or dragonfly larva, or in the absence of a predator. Five species significantly altered their behaviour in the presence of crayfish, and this was largely mediated by chemical cues from consumed conspecifics. In the presence of dragonflies, most species exhibited behavioural defences and often these did not require the presence of cues from predation events. Responding to cues from consumed conspecifics seems to be a critical factor in facilitating certain behavioural responses to novel exotic predators. This finding can be useful for predicting antipredator responses to invasive predators and help directing conservation efforts to the species at highest risk.

  16. Coordinated Community Efforts to Respond to Sexual Assault: A National Study of Sexual Assault Response Team Implementation.

    PubMed

    Greeson, Megan R; Campbell, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs) bring together sexual assault responders (e.g., police, prosecutors, medical/forensic examiners, rape victim advocates) to coordinate and improve the response to sexual assault. Ultimately, SARTs seek to improve sexual assault victims' experiences of seeking help and sexual assault case outcomes in the criminal justice system. To date, there are hundreds of SARTs across the United States and yet, there has been no nationally representative study of how SARTs are implemented. Therefore, the current study used a multistep process to create the first sampling frame of SARTs and then studied how SARTs are structured and function within a random sample of SARTs. Findings reveal commonalities as well as variation across SARTs. Most SARTs rated improving legal outcomes, improving victims' help-seeking experiences, and prevention/education as important goals, yet most prioritized their time and energy toward victims' experiences. SARTs' membership varied, with an average of 12 organizations involved in the SART, and 75% of SARTs having active membership from police, prosecutors, rape victim advocates, and medical/forensic examiners. SARTs were moderately formalized and most SARTs engaged in most collaborative processes (e.g., multidisciplinary cross-training, case review, policy/protocol development, and review) on an as needed basis. Finally, results revealed that some types of cross-system coordination in responding to victims/cases were quite frequent, whereas other types of coordination were quite infrequent. Implications for future research and supporting the development and sustainability of SARTs are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Online respondent-driven sampling for studying contact patterns relevant for the spread of close-contact pathogens: a pilot study in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Stein, Mart L; van Steenbergen, Jim E; Chanyasanha, Charnchudhi; Tipayamongkholgul, Mathuros; Buskens, Vincent; van der Heijden, Peter G M; Sabaiwan, Wasamon; Bengtsson, Linus; Lu, Xin; Thorson, Anna E; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E E

    2014-01-01

    Information on social interactions is needed to understand the spread of airborne infections through a population. Previous studies mostly collected egocentric information of independent respondents with self-reported information about contacts. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a sampling technique allowing respondents to recruit contacts from their social network. We explored the feasibility of webRDS for studying contact patterns relevant for the spread of respiratory pathogens. We developed a webRDS system for facilitating and tracking recruitment by Facebook and email. One-day diary surveys were conducted by applying webRDS among a convenience sample of Thai students. Students were asked to record numbers of contacts at different settings and self-reported influenza-like-illness symptoms, and to recruit four contacts whom they had met in the previous week. Contacts were asked to do the same to create a network tree of socially connected individuals. Correlations between linked individuals were analysed to investigate assortativity within networks. We reached up to 6 waves of contacts of initial respondents, using only non-material incentives. Forty-four (23.0%) of the initially approached students recruited one or more contacts. In total 257 persons participated, of which 168 (65.4%) were recruited by others. Facebook was the most popular recruitment option (45.1%). Strong assortative mixing was seen by age, gender and education, indicating a tendency of respondents to connect to contacts with similar characteristics. Random mixing was seen by reported number of daily contacts. Despite methodological challenges (e.g. clustering among respondents and their contacts), applying RDS provides new insights in mixing patterns relevant for close-contact infections in real-world networks. Such information increases our knowledge of the transmission of respiratory infections within populations and can be used to improve existing modelling approaches. It is worthwhile

  18. Reconceptualising public acceptability: A study of the ways people respond to policies aimed to reduce alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The issue of public acceptability of health policies is key if they are to have significant and lasting impact. This study, based on focus groups conducted in England, examines the ways people responded to, and made sense of, policy ideas aimed at reducing alcohol consumption. Although effective policies were supported in the abstract, specific proposals were consistently rejected because they were not thought to map onto the fundamental causes of excessive drinking, which was not attributed to alcohol itself but instead its cultural context. Rather than being influenced by the credibility of evidence, or assessed according to likely gains set against possible losses, such responses were established dynamically as people interacted with others to make sense of the topic. This has significant implications for policy-makers, suggesting that existing beliefs and knowledge need to be taken into account as potentially productive rather than obstructive resources. PMID:25769693

  19. Sildenafil failures may be due to inadequate patient instructions and follow-up: a study on 100 non-responders.

    PubMed

    Hatzichristou, Dimitrios; Moysidis, Kyriakos; Apostolidis, Apostolos; Bekos, Athanasios; Tzortzis, Vasilios; Hatzimouratidis, Konstantinos; Ioannidis, Evangelos

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that affect efficacy response rate to sildenafil in the clinical practice. The study comprised 100 consecutive sildenafil non-responders. Mean patient age was 59+/-14.4 years and mean duration of ED 5.5+/-6.4 years. All patients underwent detailed medical and sexual history and completed the IIEF and a questionnaire regarding the previous use of sildenafil. When inadequate instructions were reported, information on the appropriate use of sildenafil was given and patients were asked to use at least 4 tablets at home. Pharmacologic efficacy was re-evaluated in a scheduled follow-up visit. Mean Erectile Function Domain (ED) of the IIEF score was 14+/-9.9. In 56 patients inappropriate use of sildenafil was recognized; 45 had never used the highest recommended dose (100 mg), 32 had taken the pill with a full stomach right after a meal, 22 had taken the pill just before the initiation of sexual activity and 12 were not aware that sexual stimulation was mandatory to achieve an erection. Furthermore, 8 patients had tried the 100mg dose, despite the presence of factors associated with sildenafil clearance reduction (renal insufficiency, cimetidine treatment). Only 34 patients reported that their physician had scheduled a follow-up visit. Following adequate dose titration and time adjustment, 31 patients responded to sildenafil; 10 patients used the 50 mg dose and 21 the 100 mg. Second and third-line treatment options were offered to the rest of the patients. ED patients may receive inadequate instructions with their prescriptions. Response rate to sildenafil may be maximized after receiving appropriate dose titration and instructions on administration. ED should be treated in the same way as other chronic conditions; follow-up is necessary to evaluate the appropriate application and pharmacologic efficacy of the proposed treatment.

  20. An empirical examination of respondent driven sampling design effects among HIV risk groups from studies conducted around the world.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lisa G; Chen, Yea-Hung; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Raymond, H Fisher

    2013-07-01

    For studies using respondent driven sampling (RDS), the current practice of collecting a sample twice as large as that used in simple random sampling (SRS) (i.e. design effect of 2.00) may not be sufficient. This paper provides empirical evidence of sample-to-sample variability in design effects using data from nine studies in six countries among injecting drug users, female sex workers, men who have sex with men and male-to-female transgender (MTF) persons. We computed the design effect as the variance under RDS divided by the variance under SRS for a broad range of demographic and behavioral variables in each study. We also estimated several measures for each variable in each study that we hypothesized might be related to design effect: the number of waves needed for equilibrium, homophily, and mean network size. Design effects for all studies ranged from 1.20 to 5.90. Mean design effects among all studies ranged from 1.50 to 3.70. A particularly high design effect was found for employment status (design effect of 5.90) of MTF in Peru. This may be explained by a "bottleneck"--defined as the occurrence of a relatively small number of recruitment ties between two groups in the population. A design effect of two for RDS studies may not be sufficient. Since the mean design effect across all studies was 2.33, an effect slightly above 2.00 may be adequate; however, an effect closer to 3.00 or 4.00 might be more appropriate.

  1. Effectiveness of Respondent-Driven Sampling for Recruiting Drug Users in New York City: Findings from a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Heckathorn, Douglas D.; McKnight, Courtney; Bramson, Heidi; Nemeth, Chris; Sabin, Keith; Gallagher, Kathleen; Des Jarlais, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    A number of sampling methods are available to recruit drug users and collect HIV risk behavior data. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a modified form of chain-referral sampling with a mathematical system for weighting the sample to compensate for its not having been drawn randomly. It is predicated on the recognition that peers are better able than outreach workers and researchers to locate and recruit other members of a “hidden” population. RDS provides a means of evaluating the reliability of the data obtained and also allows inferences about the characteristics of the population from which the sample is drawn. In this paper we present findings from a pilot study conducted to assess the effectiveness of RDS to recruit a large and diversified group of drug users in New York City. Beginning with eight seeds (i.e., initial recruits) we recruited 618 drug users (injecting and non-injecting) in 13 weeks. The data document both cross-gender and cross-race and -ethnic recruitment as well as recruitment across drug-use status. Sample characteristics are similar to the characteristics of the drug users recruited in other studies conducted in New York City. The findings indicate that RDS is an effective sampling method for recruiting diversified drug users to participate in HIV-related behavioral surveys. PMID:16739048

  2. Role of sexual transmission of HIV among young noninjection and injection opiate users: a respondent-driven sampling study.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Liu, Hongjie; Li, Jianhua; Luo, Jian; Jarlais, Don Des; Koram, Nana

    2011-12-01

    Sexual transmissibility of HIV among young drug users in China has been investigated in few studies. The objective of this study was to examine the role of sexual transmission on HIV infection among injection drug users (IDUs) and noninjection drug users (NIDUs). Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to recruit 426 young heroin/opium drug users in Yunnan, China. Logistic regression modeling was performed to examine interrelationships among risky sexual behaviors, drug-use modes, and drug-use practices. Substantial proportions of NIDUs and IDUs reported engagement in risky sexual behaviors including: (1) multiple sexual partners (42% of NIDUs vs. 37% of IDUs), (2) concurrent sexual partnerships (48% vs. 46%), (3) commercial sex partners (23% vs. 24%), and sex partners who were NIDUs (14% vs. 17%). Both NIDUs and IDUs reported low levels of condom use with nonregular partners (48% vs. 42%) and regular partner (24% vs. 27%), and having a history of recent methamphetamine use (21% vs. 18%). Compared to IDUs, NIDUs reported having had fewer sex partners who were IDUs, fewer IDU network peers, more NIDU network peers, and having lower levels of HIV knowledge and self-perceived HIV risk. Generalization of the HIV epidemic from high-risk groups to the general population may be driven by risky sexual behavior among drug users. Reducing sexual transmission of HIV among both IDUs and NIDUs is the next major challenge for HIV intervention among drug users in China.

  3. Rapid responders to frovatriptan in acute migraine treatment: results from a long-term, open-label study.

    PubMed

    Spierings, Egilius L H; Keywood, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The chronic nature of migraine and the reliance on acute treatment constitute the basis of the present long-term, open-label study. First, assessment of the tolerability and safety of frovatriptan, 2.5-7.5 mg taken orally over 24 hours, for the acute treatment of migraine, repeatedly over a 12-month period. Second, assessment of the efficacy and tolerability of a second, double-blind dose of 2.5-mg frovatriptan, compared with placebo, for nonresponse at 2 hours after treatment of moderate or severe headache with 2.5-mg frovatriptan. With regard to the first attack treated, 173 (36%) of the 486 subjects in the study did not take a second dose at 2 hours for nonresponse. At 2 hours and 4 hours, these "rapid responders" experienced a decrease in headache intensity from moderate or severe to mild or no pain in 84% and 98%, respectively ("headache response"). Six percent of them experienced recurrence of moderate or severe headache within 24 hours following a response at 4 hours and 12% took rescue medication. The response, measured in terms of median time to "complete migraine relief," was maintained over 30 subsequent migraine attacks, treated from attack 2 onwards over the course of 12 months. Frovatriptan provides a remarkably fast and high headache response in a subgroup of more than one-third of migraineurs, with a very low 24-hour headache recurrence and low rescue medication intake.

  4. Unveiling of HIV dynamics among transgender women: a respondent-driven sampling study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Jalil, Emilia M; Monteiro, Laylla; Velasque, Luciane; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Garcia, Ana Cristina F; Castro, Cristiane V; Krüger, Alícia; Luz, Paula M; Liu, Albert Y; McFarland, Willi; Buchbinder, Susan; Veloso, Valdilea G; Wilson, Erin C

    2017-04-01

    The burden of HIV in transgender women (transwomen) in Brazil remains unknown. We aimed to estimate HIV prevalence among transwomen in Rio de Janeiro and to identify predictors of newly diagnosed HIV infections. We recruited transwomen from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, by respondent-driven sampling. Eligibility criteria were self-identification as transwomen, being 18 years of age or older, living in Rio de Janeiro or its metropolitan area, and having a valid peer recruitment coupon. We recruited 12 seed participants from social movements and formative focus groups who then used peer recruitment coupons to refer subsequent peers to the study. We categorised participants as HIV negative, known HIV infected, or newly diagnosed as HIV infected. We assessed predictors of newly diagnosed HIV infections by comparing newly diagnosed with HIV-negative participants. We derived population estimates with the Respondent-Driven Sampling II estimator. Between Aug 1, 2015, and Jan 29, 2016, we enrolled 345 eligible transwomen. 29·1% (95% CI 23·2-35·4) of participants had no previous HIV testing (adjusted from 60 participants), 31·2% (18·8-43·6) had HIV infections (adjusted from 141 participants), and 7·0% (0·0-15·9) were newly diagnosed as HIV infected (adjusted from 40 participants). We diagnosed syphilis in 28·9% (18·0-39·8) of participants, rectal chlamydia in 14·6% (5·4-23·8), and gonorrhoea in 13·5% (3·2-23·8). Newly diagnosed HIV infections were associated with black race (odds ratio 22·8 [95% CI 2·9-178·9]; p=0·003), travesti (34·1 [5·8-200·2]; p=0·0001) or transsexual woman (41·3 [6·3-271·2]; p=0·0001) gender identity, history of sex work (30·7 [3·5-267·3]; p=0·002), and history of sniffing cocaine (4·4 [1·4-14·1]; p=0·01). Our results suggest that transwomen bear the largest burden of HIV among any population at risk in Brazil. The high proportion of HIV diagnosis among young participants points to the need for tailored long-term health

  5. Exceptional Responders Initial Feasibility Results

    Cancer.gov

    A pilot study evaluating identification of cancer patients who respond to treatment that is ineffective in at least 90 percent of patients found that it was indeed able to confirm a majority of proposed patients as exceptional responders based on clinical

  6. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  7. Balancing theory and practice in respondent-driven sampling: a case study of innovations developed to overcome recruitment challenges.

    PubMed

    Truong, Hong-Ha M; Grasso, Michael; Chen, Yea-Hung; Kellogg, Timothy A; Robertson, Tyler; Curotto, Alberto; Steward, Wayne T; McFarland, Willi

    2013-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) offers a recruitment strategy for hard-to-reach populations. However, RDS faces logistical and theoretical challenges that threaten efficiency and validity in settings worldwide. We present innovative adaptations to conventional RDS to overcome barriers encountered in recruiting a large, representative sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) who travel internationally. Novel methodological adaptations for the "International Travel Research to Inform Prevention" or "I-TRIP" study were offering participants a choice between electronic and paper coupons referrals for recruitment and modifying the secondary incentives structure from small cash amounts to raffle entries for periodic large cash prize raffle drawings. Staged referral limit increases from 3 to 10 referrals and progressive addition of 70 seeds were also implemented. There were 501 participants enrolled in up to 13 waves of growth. Among participants with a choice of referral methods, 81% selected electronic referrals. Of participants who were recruited electronically, 90% chose to remain with electronic referrals when it was their turn to recruit. The mean number of enrolled referrals was 0.91 for electronic referrals compared to 0.56 for paper coupons. Median referral lag time, i.e., the time interval between when recruiters were given their referrals and when a referred individual enrolled in the study, was 20 days (IQR 10-40) for electronic referrals, 20 days (IQR 8-58) for paper coupons, 20 days (IQR 10-41) for raffle entries and 33 days (IQR 16-148) for small cash incentives. The recruitment of MSM who travel internationally required maximizing known flexible tools of RDS while at the same time necessitating innovations to increase recruitment efficiency. Electronic referrals emerged as a major advantage in recruiting this hard-to-reach population who are of high socio-economic status, geographically diffuse and highly mobile. These enhancements may improve the

  8. Responding to cough presentations: an interview study with Cambodian pharmacies participating in a National Tuberculosis Referral Program.

    PubMed

    Bell, Carolyn A; Pichenda, Koeut; Ilomäki, Jenni; Duncan, Gregory J; Eang, Mao Tan; Saini, Bandana

    2016-04-01

    Asia-Pacific carries a high burden of respiratory-related mortality. Timely referral and detection of tuberculosis cases optimizes patient and public health outcomes. Registered private pharmacies in Cambodia participate in a National Tuberculosis Referral Program to refer clients with cough suggestive of tuberculosis to public sector clinics for diagnosis and care. The objective of this study was to investigate clinical intentions of pharmacy staff when presented with a hypothetical case of a client with prolonged cough suggestive of tuberculosis. A random sample of 180 pharmacies was selected. Trained interviewers administered a hypothetical case scenario to trained pharmacy staff. Participants provided 'yes'/'no' responses to five clinical actions presented in the scenario. Actions were not mutually exclusive. Data were tabulated and compared using chi-square tests or Fisher's exact tests. Overall, 156 (92%) participants would have referred the symptomatic client in the case scenario. Participants who would have referred the client were less likely to sell a cough medicine (42% vs. 100%, P < 0.001) and less likely to sell an antibiotic (19% vs. 79%, P < 0.001) than those who would not have referred the client. Involving pharmacies in a Referral Program may have introduced concepts of appropriate clinical care when responding to clients presenting with cough suggestive of tuberculosis. However, results showed enhancing clinical competence among all referral programme participants particularly among non-referring pharmacies and those making concurrent sales of cough-related products would optimize pharmacy-initiated referral. Further research into actual clinical practices at Referral Program pharmacies would be justified. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Meditation can reduce habitual responding.

    PubMed

    Wenk-Sormaz, Heidi

    2005-01-01

    Although cognitive aspects of meditation underlie much of its clinical application, very little research has examined meditation's cognitive consequences. This investigation provides experimental support for the idea that meditation leads to a reduction in habitual responding using randomly selected subjects, a secular form of meditation, and a full experimental design. To test the hypothesis that meditation leads to a reduction in habitual responding. Studies 1 and 2 each incorporated pre-test and post-test designs with a 20-minute intervening attention task (meditation, rest, or a cognitive control). Yale University in New Haven, Conn, and the University of California, Berkeley. One hundred and twenty and 90 undergraduates participated in Studies 1 and 2, respectively. Stroop and Word Production (category generation and stem-completion) tasks assessed habitual responding in Study 1. Galvanic Skin response measured arousal in Study 1. The category generation task assessed habitual responding in Study 2. Tellegen's Absorption Scale (TAS) measured attention ability. In Study 1, meditation participants showed a reduction in habitual responding on the Stroop task as compared to controls. Study 1 revealed no statistically significant effects in the word production task. Stroop task performance was not mediated by arousal reduction. In Study 2, meditation participants showed a reduction in habitual responding on the category production task. Specifically, when participants generated either typical or atypical items, on average, meditation participants produced more atypical items than controls. Category production performance was not mediated by Tellegen's Absorption Scale (TAS) scores. Overall, high TAS scores were related to atypical responding. Across cognitive tasks, when participants understood that the goal was to respond non-habitually, meditation reduced habitual responding.

  10. The Relations of Parental Warmth and Positive Expressiveness to Children's Empathy-Related Responding and Social Functioning: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Losoya, Sandra H.; Fabes, Richard A.; Reiser, Mark; Guthrie, Ivanna K.; Murphy, Bridget C.; Cumberland, Amanda J.; Shepard, Stephanie A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the concurrent and cross-time relations of parents' warmth and positive expressivity to elementary school children's situational facial and self-reported empathic responding, social competence, and externalizing problems. Found that parents' positive expressivity mediated the relation between parental warmth and children's empathy, and…

  11. Respondent-Driven Sampling with Hard-to-Reach Emerging Adults: An Introduction and Case Study with Rural African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Steven M.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Chen, Yi-fu; Brody, Gene H.; Slater, LaTrina M.

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining representative samples from populations of emerging adults who do not attend college is challenging for researchers. This article introduces respondent-driven sampling (RDS), a method for obtaining representative samples of hard-to-reach but socially interconnected populations. RDS combines a prescribed method for chain referral with a…

  12. The 1982 Youth Attitude Tracking Study (YATS): A Comparative Analysis of the ’Negative’ Male Respondents (YATS NEG).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    a. Examine the 1982 YATS male respondents. b. Task 1: Reconstruct 1982 YATS tabular data to seoarate those who replied positively into "definitely yes...lthough regress ion is not the mosc Doror iate tool Dr -ifi:s data it did prduce indications of imortant variables to Look for in the discriminant

  13. Respondent-Driven Sampling with Hard-to-Reach Emerging Adults: An Introduction and Case Study with Rural African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Steven M.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Chen, Yi-fu; Brody, Gene H.; Slater, LaTrina M.

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining representative samples from populations of emerging adults who do not attend college is challenging for researchers. This article introduces respondent-driven sampling (RDS), a method for obtaining representative samples of hard-to-reach but socially interconnected populations. RDS combines a prescribed method for chain referral with a…

  14. Respondent-driven sampling in a study of drug users in New York City: notes from the field.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Courtney; Des Jarlais, Don; Bramson, Heidi; Tower, Lisa; Abdul-Quader, Abu S; Nemeth, Chris; Heckathorn, Douglas

    2006-11-01

    Beth Israel Medical Center (BIMC), in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH), used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in a study of HIV seroprevalence among drug users in New York City in 2004. We report here on operational issues with RDS including recruitment, coupon distribution, storefront operations, police and community relations, and the overall lessons we learned. Project staff recruited eight seeds from a syringe exchange in Lower Manhattan to serve as the initial study participants. Upon completion of the interview that lasted approximately 1 h and a blood draw, each seed was given three coupons to recruit three drug users into the study. Each of the subsequent eligible participants was also given three coupons to recruit three of their drug-using acquaintances. Eligible participants had to have: injected, smoked or snorted an illicit drug in the last 6 months (other than marijuana), aged 18 or older, adequate English language knowledge to permit informed consent and complete questionnaire. From April to July 2004, 618 drug users were interviewed, including 263 (43%) current injectors, 119 (19%) former injectors, and 236 (38%) never injectors. Four hundred sixty nine (76%) participants were men, 147 (24%) were women, and two (<1%) were transgender. By race/ethnicity, 285 (46%) were black, 218 (35%) Hispanic, 88 (14%) white, 23 (4%) mixed/not specified, and four (<1%) native American. Interviews were initially done on a drop-in basis but this system changed to appointments 1 month into the study due to the large volume of subjects coming in for interviews. Data collection was originally proposed to last for 1 year with a target recruitment of 500 drug users. Utilizing RDS, we were able to recruit and interview 118 more drug users than originally proposed in one quarter of the time. RDS was efficient with respect to time and economics (we did not have to hire an outreach worker) and

  15. Evaluation of respondent-driven sampling in a study of urban young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Lisa M; Kwon, Soyang; Ryan, Daniel T; Garofalo, Robert; Phillips, Gregory; Mustanski, Brian S

    2015-02-01

    Evidence suggests that respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is an efficient approach to sampling among varied populations of adult men who have sex with men (MSM) both in the USA and abroad, although no studies have yet evaluated its performance among younger MSM, a population with a steep rise in HIV infection in recent years. Young MSM (YMSM) may differ in terms of their connectedness to other YMSM (e.g., due to evolving sexual identity, internalization of sexual minority stigma, and lack of disclosure to others) and mobility (e.g., due to parental monitoring) which may inhibit the sampling process. The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of RDS-based sampling among young urban MSM and to identify factors associated with recruitment success. We hypothesized that demographic, social, behavioral, and network factors, including racial/ethnic minority status, homelessness (i.e., as an indicator of socioeconomic marginalization), HIV-positive status, substance use problems, gay community connectedness, and network size would be positively related to recruitment productivity, while sexual minority stigmatization, environmental barriers (e.g., parental monitoring), and meeting sex partners on the internet (i.e., virtual venue) would be negatively related to recruitment productivity. Between December 2009 and February 2013, we used RDS to recruit a sample of 450 YMSM, ages 16-20. Findings suggest that the use of RDS for sampling among YMSM is challenging and may not be feasible based on the slow pace of recruitment and low recruitment productivity. A large number of seeds (38 % of the sample, n = 172) had to be added to the sample to maintain a reasonable pace of recruitment, which makes use of the sample for RDS-based population estimates questionable. In addition, the prevalence of short recruitment chains and segmentation in patterns of recruitment by race/ethnicity further hamper the network recruitment process. Thus, RDS was not

  16. Expecting the unexpected: A mixed methods study of violence to EMS responders in an urban fire department

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Brittany; Davis, Andrea L.; Wright, Jasmine; Widman, Shannon; LeVasseur, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Struck by injuries experienced by females were observed to be higher compared to males in an urban fire department. The disparity was investigated while gaining a grounded understanding of EMS responder experiences from patient‐initiated violence. Methods A convergent parallel mixed methods design was employed. Using a linked injury dataset, patient‐initiated violence estimates were calculated comparing genders. Semi‐structured interviews and a focus group were conducted with injured EMS responders. Results Paramedics had significantly higher odds for patient‐initiated violence injuries than firefighters (OR 14.4, 95%CI: 9.2–22.2, P < 0.001). Females reported increased odds of patient‐initiated violence injuries compared to males (OR = 6.25, 95%CI 3.8–10.2), but this relationship was entirely mediated through occupation (AOR = 1.64, 95%CI 0.94–2.85). Qualitative data illuminated the impact of patient‐initiated violence and highlighted important organizational opportunities for intervention. Conclusions Mixed methods greatly enhanced the assessment of EMS responder patient‐initiated violence prevention. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:150–163, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26725756

  17. Responding to Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Sharon Ruth

    2002-01-01

    Provides classroom teachers with seven guidelines for responding to readers in ways that support the use of strategies for making sense of text. Discusses traditional responses to readers and "round-robin" reading versus reading conferences. Concludes that by responding appropriately to readers, teachers provide powerful demonstrations of the…

  18. How Do the Laurentian Great Lakes Water Levels Respond to Climate Change? A Regional Climate Model Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, V.; Notaro, M.; Vavrus, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes contain twenty percent of the world's surface freshwater. Over the past century, inter-annual water levels have fluctuated in a primarily cyclic pattern with amplitudes from 0.2 m in Lake Superior to 0.7 m in Lake Erie. These changes in water levels result in more significant changes in coastlines of the Great Lakes and alter shoreline erosion, pollutant concentrations, and shoreline habitat. As climate changes, we are interested in how lake levels will respond. Global scale climate models do not depict the Great Lakes, and thus, are unlikely to accurately capture the mechanisms impacting water levels. We utilize the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model 4 at 20 km horizontal resolution with an improved, explicit lake model, a groundwater module, and a channel routing model. We simulate the past regional climate (1978-present) using NCEP Reanalysis to evaluate model performance and biases. We then simulate present and future water levels using boundary conditions from the global Community Climate System Model. Model evaluation and preliminary findings for future water levels will be presented.

  19. SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS WITH RESPONDENT-DRIVEN SAMPLING DATA: A STUDY OF RACIAL INTEGRATION ON CAMPUS1

    PubMed Central

    Wejnert, Cyprian

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) as a viable method of sampling and analyzing social networks with survey data. RDS is a network based sampling and analysis method that provides a middle ground compliment to ego-centric and saturated methods of social network analysis. The method provides survey data, similar to ego-centric approaches, on individuals who are connected by behaviorally documented ties, allowing for macro-level analysis of network structure, similar to that supported by saturated approaches. Using racial interaction of university undergraduates as an empirical example, the paper examines whether and to what extent racial diversity at the institutional level is reflected as racial integration at the interpersonal level by testing hypotheses regarding the quantity and quality of cross-race friendships. The primary goal of this article, however, is to introduce RDS to the network community and to stimulate further research toward the goal of expanding the analytical capacity of RDS. Advantages, limitations, and areas for future research to network analysis using RDS are discussed. PMID:20383316

  20. [Effectiveness of low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy on patients with Erectile Dysfunction (ED) who have failed to respond to PDE5i therapy. A pilot study].

    PubMed

    Bechara, Amado; Casabé, Adolfo; De Bonis, Walter; Nazar, Julián

    2015-03-01

    Low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy (LIESWT) of the penis has recently emerged as a promising modality in the treatment of ED. The objective of this paper is to assess the effectiveness and safety of LIESWT on patients with ED who have failed to respond to PDE5i treatment. Open label, prospective, longitudinal observational study. The study involved an uncontrolled population of 25 patients. The treatment consisted in applying 20,000 shock waves during a period of four weeks. In each session the patient received 5000 shock waves of 0.09 mJ/mm2: 1800 were applied on the penis (900 on each corpus cavernosum), and 3200 were applied on the perineum (1600 on each crus). During the active treatment and follow-up phases, all patients remained on their regular high on demand or once-a-day dose PDE5i schedules. Effectiveness was assessed by IIEF-6, SEP2, SEP3 and GAQ. Patients were considered to be responders whenever they improved on all three erection assessment parameters and respond positively to the GAQ at three months post-treatment. Adverse events were recorded. Statistical variables were applied and findings were considered to be statistically significant whenever the P value was<0.05. Eighty percent (median age 63) of the patients (20/25) completed the study. Five patients were lost to follow-up and were excluded from the analysis. Sixty percent (60%) of the patients responded to the treatment, improved the 3 efficacy evaluating parameters and responded positively to the GAQ. The increase in mean IIEF-6 score was of 9 points after the third post-treatment month. There were no patients reporting treatment-related adverse events. LIESWT for men with ED and that are PDE5i non-responders was safe and effective and restoring PDE5i response in more than 50% of patients.A large-scale multicenter study is required to determine the benefits of this treatment for ED.

  1. What Respondents Really Expect from Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolar, Tomaz; Kolar, Iztok

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of falling response rates in telephone surveys. To better understand and maintain respondent goodwill, concepts of psychological contract and respondent expectations are introduced and explored. Results of the qualitative study show that respondent expectations are not only socially contingent but also…

  2. Basic and applied research on choice responding.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, W W; Mazur, J E

    1997-01-01

    Choice responding refers to the manner in which individuals allocate their time or responding among available response options. In this article, we first review basic investigations that have identified and examined variables that influence choice responding, such as response effort and reinforcement rate, immediacy, and quality. We then describe recent bridge and applied studies that illustrate how the results of basic research on choice responding can help to account for human behavior in natural environments and improve clinical assessments and interventions. PMID:9316255

  3. The role of nucleus accumbens dopamine in responding on a continuous reinforcement operant schedule: a neurochemical and behavioral study.

    PubMed

    McCullough, L D; Cousins, M S; Salamone, J D

    1993-11-01

    Two experiments were undertaken to investigate the role of nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) in instrumental lever pressing on a continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedule. Rats trained to press a lever for food reinforcement on a CRF schedule, and food-deprived control rats, were implanted with dialysis probes in the nucleus accumbens. The day after implantation, rats were tested and dialysis samples were assayed for DA and the DA metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). Performance of the lever-pressing task resulted in significant increases in extracellular levels of DA and DOPAC relative to control rats. The increases in extracellular DA were significantly correlated (r = 0.92) with the number of lever press responses committed. In the second experiment, the neurotoxic agent 6-hydroxydopamine was infused directly into the nucleus accumbens to investigate the effects of DA depletion on lever-pressing performance. DA depletion had only a modest effect on the total number of lever presses, and there was a significant effect on total lever presses only on the first test day (third day postsurgery). Analyses also were performed on responding across the 45-min session by breaking down the session into three 15-min periods. There was a significant group x time interaction, with DA-depleted rats showing a significant reduction in the numbers of responses in the first 15-min period, but no significant effects over the second or third 15 min in the session. This initial slowing of response rate was present across all 5 test days. These results indicate that DA release and metabolism increases in rats performing on a CRF schedule, and that DA depletion produces a slowing of initial response rate.

  4. Intervenable factors associated with suicide risk in transgender persons: a respondent driven sampling study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Greta R; Scheim, Ayden I; Pyne, Jake; Travers, Robb; Hammond, Rebecca

    2015-06-02

    Across Europe, Canada, and the United States, 22-43 % of transgender (trans) people report a history of suicide attempts. We aimed to identify intervenable factors (related to social inclusion, transphobia, or sex/gender transition) associated with reduced risk of past-year suicide ideation or attempt, and to quantify the potential population health impact. The Trans PULSE respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey collected data from trans people age 16+ in Ontario, Canada, including 380 who reported on suicide outcomes. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression models were weighted using RDS II methods. Counterfactual risk ratios and population attributable risks were estimated using model-standardized risks. Among trans Ontarians, 35.1 % (95 % CI: 27.6, 42.5) seriously considered, and 11.2 % (95 % CI: 6.0, 16.4) attempted, suicide in the past year. Social support, reduced transphobia, and having any personal identification documents changed to an appropriate sex designation were associated with large relative and absolute reductions in suicide risk, as was completing a medical transition through hormones and/or surgeries (when needed). Parental support for gender identity was associated with reduced ideation. Lower self-reported transphobia (10(th) versus 90(th) percentile) was associated with a 66 % reduction in ideation (RR = 0.34, 95 % CI: 0.17, 0.67), and an additional 76 % reduction in attempts among those with ideation (RR = 0.24; 95 % CI: 0.07, 0.82). This corresponds to potential prevention of 160 ideations per 1000 trans persons, and 200 attempts per 1,000 with ideation, based on a hypothetical reduction of transphobia from current levels to the 10(th) percentile. Large effect sizes were observed for this controlled analysis of intervenable factors, suggesting that interventions to increase social inclusion and access to medical transition, and to reduce transphobia, have the potential to contribute to substantial reductions in the

  5. Responding to Tragedy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coopman, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author, a superintendent of Clark-Pleasant School Corporation in Whiteland, Indiana, relates how she and the school community responded to a car accident that killed two students. The author stresses the need to develop a comprehensive crisis plan. It is also important to be sensitive to the needs of family members who are…

  6. Responding to Misbehavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Kathryn; Forton, Mary Beth; Porter, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    As they learn to negotiate social expectations, children test limits, get carried away, forget, and make mistakes. In fact, having these experiences--and seeing how adults respond to them--is one way children learn about how to behave. Just as when they teach academics, teachers can use students' behavioral mistakes as opportunities for learning.…

  7. Responding to Tragedy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coopman, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author, a superintendent of Clark-Pleasant School Corporation in Whiteland, Indiana, relates how she and the school community responded to a car accident that killed two students. The author stresses the need to develop a comprehensive crisis plan. It is also important to be sensitive to the needs of family members who are…

  8. Sixteen Textbook Authors Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, John P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The articles on textbook publication written by Sheryl Fullerton and Franklin C. Graham were responded to by: John Hewitt, Henry Tischler, George Ritzer, Paul Baker, Erich Goode, D. Stanley Eitzen, Jon Shepard, Richard Schaefer, Caroline Persell, Beth Hess, Paul Zopf, Jr., Jeanne Ballantine, Duane Monette, Mary Ann Lamanna, John Macionis, and…

  9. The Gesell Institute Responds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young Children, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Responding to Dr. Meisels' article concerning the uses and abuses of the Gesell readiness tests, the Gesell Institute of Child development maintains that the Gesell series of assessments are used by schools to gain a fuller developmental understanding of the child and have been predictive of school success. (BB)

  10. Connected Coaching: How Three Middle School Teachers Responded to the Challenge to Integrate Social Studies and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binkley, Russell; Keiser, Megan; Strahan, David

    2011-01-01

    This study examined three teachers' responses to professional development initiatives designed to support them in integrating literacy strategies with their social studies curriculum. Data from participant observation, interviews, archival records, and email exchanges provided insights regarding participants' efforts to weave together literacy…

  11. "Cigarettes Are Priority": A Qualitative Study of How Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers Respond to Rising Cigarette Prices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Despite substantial modelling research assessing the impact of cigarette taxes on smoking rates across income groups, few studies have examined the broader financial effects and unintended consequences on very low-income smokers. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers in a high-income country manage smoking costs on…

  12. "Cigarettes Are Priority": A Qualitative Study of How Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers Respond to Rising Cigarette Prices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Despite substantial modelling research assessing the impact of cigarette taxes on smoking rates across income groups, few studies have examined the broader financial effects and unintended consequences on very low-income smokers. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers in a high-income country manage smoking costs on…

  13. A Study of Some Conditions Relating to the Retarded Adult's Stereotyped Responding in a Binary-Choice Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Siegel, Paul S.

    1977-01-01

    Examined in a longitudinal study were the effects of conditions on alternation and perseveration of eight moderately and severely mentally retarded institutionalized adults. Available from: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 355 Chestnut Street, Norwood, New Jersey 07648. (CL)

  14. Responding to Mechanical Antigravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.; Thomas, Nicholas E.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the experiences of the NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project, suggestions are offered for constructively responding to proposals that purport breakthrough propulsion using mechanical devices. Because of the relatively large number of unsolicited submissions received (about 1 per workday) and because many of these involve similar concepts, this report is offered to help the would-be submitters make genuine progress as well as to help reviewers respond to such submissions. Devices that use oscillating masses or gyroscope falsely appear to create net thrust through differential friction or by misinterpreting torques as linear forces. To cover both the possibility of an errant claim and a genuine discovery, reviews should require that submitters meet minimal thresholds of proof before engaging in further correspondence; such as achieving sustained deflection of a level-platform pendulum in the case of mechanical thrusters.

  15. Responding to Workplace Absenteeism in Tanzania: The Case Study of Public and Private Schools in Ilala Municipality and Mkuranga District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mgonja, Michael Greyson

    2017-01-01

    Workplace absenteeism has widely been reported to be a serious problem which undermines smooth service delivery both in developed and developing nations. The problem is reported to be more serious in developing nations. This paper is therefore studying the mechanisms used to mitigate workplace absenteeism, their adequacy and the effective…

  16. Head Start Evaluation and Research Center, University of Kansas. Report No. IIA, a Study of Auditory Discrimination and Verbal Responding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham, Thomas A.

    An auditory discrimination procedure was used in this study to attempt to correct the speech problem of a 4-year-old girl. The major characteristic of that speech problem was the consistent use of inappropriate first consonant sounds in some words, like "gog" for "dog." The child was given 25 training sessions and two posttraining sessions. The…

  17. Responding to the treatment challenge of patients with severe BPD: results of three pilot studies of inpatient schema therapy.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Neele; Lieb, Klaus; Arntz, Arnoud; Shaw, Ida A; Farrell, Joan

    2014-05-01

    Schema Therapy (ST), a psychotherapy model integrating cognitive, experiential and behavioural interventions, was initially developed and evaluated as an outpatient treatment for patients with severe and chronic disorders, among them Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Two randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of ST for BPD, delivered in an individual or group format, in the outpatient setting. However, the most severely impaired BPD patients are referred to inpatient treatment due to suicidality and severe self-harm. Specialized inpatient treatment programs are limited, with little evaluative research. The pilot studies are designed to be first steps in naturalistic clinical settings to evaluate the effects of an intensive inpatient ST treatment program. This report presents the results of three independent uncontrolled pilot studies with a total of 92 BPD patients. The programs combine individual and group modalities and are consistent theoretically with the ST model for BPD patients. RESULTS show that inpatient ST can significantly reduce symptoms of severe BPD and global severity of psychopathology with effect sizes ranging from Cohen's d = 2.84 to Cohen's d = .43. Differences in the effect sizes across the three pilot studies could be explained by length of treatment, number of group psychotherapists and their training. Although there are limitations to the presented pilot studies such as differences in the samples, treatment settings, variations in the treatment itself and the use of different measures, which may have influenced outcome, they are a starting point for describing and evaluating inpatient treatment for BPD in naturalistic settings.

  18. Responding to User's Expectation in the Library: Innovative Web 2.0 Applications at JUIT Library: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram, Shri; Anbu K., John Paul; Kataria, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to provide an insight into the implementation of some of the innovative Web 2.0 applications at Jaypee University of Information Technology with the aim of exploring the expectations of the users and their awareness and usage of such applications. Design/methodology/approach: The study was undertaken at the Learning…

  19. Responding to Self-Selection Bias in Assessments of Academic Support Programs: A Motivational Control Study of Supplemental Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattis, Kenneth W.

    2002-01-01

    Argues that a controlled study of Supplemental Instruction (SI) sessions in college chemistry showed that participants benefited from SI sessions to an extent that cannot be explained only by their higher levels of motivation. Reports that SI includes services such as one-on-one, drop-in, and group tutoring. (Contains 11 references.) (AUTH/NB)

  20. A Study of Pre-Service Information and Communication Teachers' Efficacy Levels for Analyzing and Responding to Cyberbullying Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavuk, Melike; Bulu, Sanser; Keser, Hafize

    2016-01-01

    This case study was conducted to investigate efficacy levels of preservice Information and Communication Teachers' to identify, prevent and intervene to cyberbullying cases. Fifty participants were interviewed and 56 cyberbullying cases, which the participants experienced or witnessed, were collected to evaluate their cyberbullying readiness.…

  1. A predictive enrichment procedure to identify potential responders to a new therapy for randomized, comparative controlled clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Junlong; Zhao, Lihui; Tian, Lu; Cai, Tianxi; Claggett, Brian; Callegaro, Andrea; Dizier, Benjamin; Spiessens, Bart; Ulloa-Montoya, Fernando; Wei, Lee-Jen

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate a new therapy versus a control via a randomized, comparative clinical study or a series of trials, due to heterogeneity of the study patient population, a pre-specified, predictive enrichment procedure may be implemented to identify an "enrichable" subpopulation. For patients in this subpopulation, the therapy is expected to have a desirable overall risk-benefit profile. To develop and validate such a "therapy-diagnostic co-development" strategy, a three-step procedure may be conducted with three independent data sets from a series of similar studies or a single trial. At the first stage, we create various candidate scoring systems based on the baseline information of the patients via, for example, parametric models using the first data set. Each individual score reflects an anticipated average treatment difference for future patients who share similar baseline profiles. A large score indicates that these patients tend to benefit from the new therapy. At the second step, a potentially promising, enrichable subgroup is identified using the totality of evidence from these scoring systems. At the final stage, we validate such a selection via two-sample inference procedures for assessing the treatment effectiveness statistically and clinically with the third data set, the so-called holdout sample. When the study size is not large, one may combine the first two steps using a "cross-training-evaluation" process. Comprehensive numerical studies are conducted to investigate the operational characteristics of the proposed method. The entire enrichment procedure is illustrated with the data from a cardiovascular trial to evaluate a beta-blocker versus a placebo for treating chronic heart failure patients. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  2. A transcriptomic study reveals differentially expressed genes and pathways respond to simulated acid rain in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting-Wu; Niu, Li; Fu, Bin; Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Chen, Juan; Wang, Wen-Hua; Hu, Wen-Jun; He, Jun-Xian; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2013-01-01

    Acid rain, as a worldwide environmental issue, can cause serious damage to plants. In this study, we provided the first case study on the systematic responses of arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) to simulated acid rain (SiAR) by transcriptome approach. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the expression of a set of genes related to primary metabolisms, including nitrogen, sulfur, amino acid, photosynthesis, and reactive oxygen species metabolism, were altered under SiAR. In addition, transport and signal transduction related pathways, especially calcium-related signaling pathways, were found to play important roles in the response of arabidopsis to SiAR stress. Further, we compared our data set with previously published data sets on arabidopsis transcriptome subjected to various stresses, including wound, salt, light, heavy metal, karrikin, temperature, osmosis, etc. The results showed that many genes were overlapped in several stresses, suggesting that plant response to SiAR is a complex process, which may require the participation of multiple defense-signaling pathways. The results of this study will help us gain further insights into the response mechanisms of plants to acid rain stress.

  3. Family-based association study of DRD4 gene in methylphenidate-responded Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Leung, Patrick Wing-Leung; Chan, Janice Ka Yan; Chen, Lu Hua; Lee, Chi Chiu; Hung, Se Fong; Ho, Ting Pong; Tang, Chun Pan; Moyzis, Robert K; Swanson, James M

    2017-01-01

    The 48-basepair (48-bp) variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in exon 3 of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) is implicated in the etiology of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In particular, ADHD in European-ancestry population is associated with an increased prevalence of the 7-repeat (7R) allele of the exon 3 VNTR. However, it is intriguing to note that the 7R allele has been found to be of very low prevalence in the Chinese general population. In a previous case-control study, our research team had found that the 7R allele was similarly absent in Chinese ADHD children in Hong Kong. Instead, there was an increased prevalence of the 2R allele in Chinese ADHD children. Interestingly, in Asian samples, the 2R allele had been found to be an evolutionary derivative of the 7R allele with equivalent biochemical functionality. So, the finding of an association between ADHD and 2R allele in Chinese population does not exactly contradict the original 7R allele finding in European-ancestry population. However, given the potential pitfall of population stratification in the previous case-control design, this current study tested the 2R allele and ADHD association using a methodologically more rigorous family-based approach on 33 Chinese ADHD probands who had favorable clinical responses to stimulant medication (methylphenidate). Haplotype Relative Risk (HRR) analysis and Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT) both showed a significant preferential transmission of the 2R allele from the biological parents to ADHD probands (pone-tailed = 0.038, OR = 2.04; pone-tailed = 0.048, OR = 2.29, respectively). A second hypothesis speculates that it is the deviation, including 7R and 2R alleles, from the conserved ancestral 4R allele which confers risk to ADHD. Thus, a preferential transmission of non-4R alleles, against the 4R allele, from biological parents to their ADHD probands is predicted. Both HRR analysis and TDT confirmed such prediction (pone

  4. Family-based association study of DRD4 gene in methylphenidate-responded Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Patrick Wing-leung; Chan, Janice Ka Yan; Chen, Lu Hua; Lee, Chi Chiu; Hung, Se Fong; Ho, Ting Pong; Tang, Chun Pan; Moyzis, Robert K.; Swanson, James M.

    2017-01-01

    The 48-basepair (48-bp) variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in exon 3 of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) is implicated in the etiology of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In particular, ADHD in European-ancestry population is associated with an increased prevalence of the 7-repeat (7R) allele of the exon 3 VNTR. However, it is intriguing to note that the 7R allele has been found to be of very low prevalence in the Chinese general population. In a previous case-control study, our research team had found that the 7R allele was similarly absent in Chinese ADHD children in Hong Kong. Instead, there was an increased prevalence of the 2R allele in Chinese ADHD children. Interestingly, in Asian samples, the 2R allele had been found to be an evolutionary derivative of the 7R allele with equivalent biochemical functionality. So, the finding of an association between ADHD and 2R allele in Chinese population does not exactly contradict the original 7R allele finding in European-ancestry population. However, given the potential pitfall of population stratification in the previous case-control design, this current study tested the 2R allele and ADHD association using a methodologically more rigorous family-based approach on 33 Chinese ADHD probands who had favorable clinical responses to stimulant medication (methylphenidate). Haplotype Relative Risk (HRR) analysis and Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT) both showed a significant preferential transmission of the 2R allele from the biological parents to ADHD probands (pone-tailed = 0.038, OR = 2.04; pone-tailed = 0.048, OR = 2.29, respectively). A second hypothesis speculates that it is the deviation, including 7R and 2R alleles, from the conserved ancestral 4R allele which confers risk to ADHD. Thus, a preferential transmission of non-4R alleles, against the 4R allele, from biological parents to their ADHD probands is predicted. Both HRR analysis and TDT confirmed such prediction (pone

  5. The Trier Social Stress Test as a paradigm to study how people respond to threat in social interactions

    PubMed Central

    Frisch, Johanna U.; Häusser, Jan A.; Mojzisch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In our lives, we face countless situations in which we are observed and evaluated by our social interaction partners. Social-evaluative threat is frequently associated with strong neurophysiological stress reactions, in particular, an increase in cortisol levels. Yet, social variables do not only cause stress, but they can also buffer the neurophysiological stress response. Furthermore, social variables can themselves be affected by the threat or the threat-induced neurophysiological stress response. In order to study this complex interplay of social-evaluative threat, social processes and neurophysiological stress responses, a paradigm is needed that (a) reliably induces high levels of social-evaluative threat and (b) is extremely adaptable to the needs of the researcher. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is a well-established paradigm in biopsychology that induces social-evaluative threat in the laboratory by subjecting participants to a mock job-interview. In this review, we aim at demonstrating the potential of the TSST for studying the complex interplay of social-evaluative threat, social processes and neurophysiological stress responses. PMID:25698987

  6. Impact of the September 11 attack on flight attendants: a study of an essential first responder group.

    PubMed

    Corey, Kristen; Galvin, Deborah; Cohen, Marcia; Bekelman, Alan; Healy, Heather; Edberg, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses a study (funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention) of the health/mental health and work-related well-being of flight attendants in the aftermath of September 11. Flight attendants, as an occupational group, had a distinctive exposure to September 11. In addition to work-related exposure in the immediate aftermath of the attacks, flight attendants have experienced major and ongoing changes in their work environment and job description and many have been exposed to potentially traumatic incidents on the job. Analysis of survey and focus group data from flight attendants in the Association of Flight Attendants showed high reported stress and related mental health and behavioral impacts among flight attendants since September 11. A significant new finding is that the effect of continued trauma in the flight attendants' work environment impacted their ability to recover from the original trauma associated with the events of that day. This study highlights the role of the after-effects of a traumatic event on trauma response and suggests that direct exposure, as traditionally defined, is not necessarily a primary mediating factor in trauma response for this occupational group.

  7. Can Medication Free, Treatment-Resistant, Depressed Patients Who Initially Respond to TMS Be Maintained Off Medications? A Prospective, 12-Month Multisite Randomized Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Philip, Noah S; Dunner, David L; Dowd, Sheila M; Aaronson, Scott T; Brock, David G; Carpenter, Linda L; Demitrack, Mark A; Hovav, Sarit; Janicak, Philip G; George, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is efficacious for acute treatment of resistant major depressive disorder (MDD), but there is little information on maintenance TMS after acute response. This pilot feasibility study investigated 12-month outcomes comparing two maintenance TMS approaches--a scheduled, single TMS session delivered monthly (SCH) vs. observation only (OBS). Antidepressant-free patients with unipolar, non-psychotic, treatment-resistant MDD participated in a randomized, open-label, multisite trial. Patients meeting protocol-defined criteria for improvement after six weeks of acute TMS were randomized to SCH or OBS regimens. TMS reintroduction was available for symptomatic worsening; all patients remained antidepressant-free during the trial. Sixty-seven patients enrolled in the acute phase, and 49 (73%) met randomization criteria. Groups were matched, although more patients in the SCH group had failed ≥ 2 antidepressants (p = .035). There were no significant group differences on any outcome measure. SCH patients had nonsignificantly longer time to first TMS reintroduction, 91 ± 66 days, vs. OBS, 77 ± 52 days; OBS patients were nonsignificantly more likely to need reintroduction (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% CI .38-3.89). Reintroduction lasted 14.3 ± 17.8 days (SCH) and 16.9 ± 18.9 days (OBS); 14/18 (78%) SCH and 17/27 (63%) OBS responded to reintroduction. Sixteen patients (32.7%) completed all 53 weeks of the study. Maintaining treatment-resistant depressed patients off medications with periodic TMS appears feasible in some cases. There was no statistical advantage of SCH vs. OBS, although SCH was associated with a nonsignificantly longer time to relapse. Those who initially respond to TMS have a strong chance of re-responding if relapse occurs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Executive attention control and emotional responding in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder--A functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Soonjo; White, Stuart F; Nolan, Zachary T; Craig Williams, W; Sinclair, Stephen; Blair, R J R

    2015-01-01

    There are suggestions that patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show impairment in executive attention control and emotion regulation. This study investigated emotion regulation as a function of the recruitment of executive attention in patients with ADHD. Thirty-five healthy children/adolescents (mean age = 13.91) and twenty-six children/adolescents with ADHD (mean age = 14.53) participated in this fMRI study. They completed the affective Stroop paradigm viewing positive, neutral and negative images under varying cognitive loads. A 3-way ANOVA (diagnosis-by-condition-by-emotion) was conducted on the BOLD response data. Following this, 2 3-way ANOVAs (diagnosis-by-condition-by-emotion) were applied to context-dependent psychophysiological interaction (gPPI) analyses generated from a dorsomedial frontal cortex and an amygdala seed (identified from the BOLD response ANOVA main effects of condition and emotion respectively). A diagnosis-by-condition interaction within dorsomedial frontal cortex revealed reduced recruitment of dorsomedial frontal cortex as a function of increased task demands in the children/adolescents with ADHD relative to healthy children/adolescents. The level of reduction in recruitment of dorsomedial frontal cortex was significantly correlated with symptom severity (total and hyperactivity) measured by Conner's Parent Report Scale in the children/adolescents with ADHD. In addition, analysis of gPPI data from a dorsomedial frontal cortex seed revealed significant diagnosis-by-condition interactions within lateral frontal cortex; connectivity between dorsomedial frontal cortex and lateral frontal cortex was reduced in the patients with ADHD relative to comparison youth during congruent and incongruent task trials relative to view trials. There were no interactions of group, or main effect of group, within the amygdala in the BOLD response ANOVA (though children/adolescents with ADHD showed increased responses to positive

  9. Stress field respond to massive injection of cold water into a geothermal reservoir study by geomechanical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanne, P.; Rutqvist, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we study the evolution and distribution of the stress tensor within the northwest part of The Geysers geothermal field during 9 years of injection (from 2003 to 2012). Based on a refined 3D structural model, developed by Calpine Corporation, where the horizon surfaces are mapped, we use the GMS™ GUI to construct a realistic three-dimensional geologic model of the Northwest Geysers geothermal field. This model includes a low permeability graywacke layer that forms the caprock for the reservoir, an isothermal steam zone (the Normal Temperature Reservoir) within metagraywacke, a hornfels zone (the High Temperature Reservoir), and a felsite layer that is assumed to extend downward to the magmatic heat source. This model is mapped into a rectangular grid for use with the TOUGH-FLAC numerical simulator. Then, we reproduce the injection history of seven active wells between 2003 and 2012. Finally, our results are compared with previous works where the stress tensor was studied from the inversion of focal plane mechanism in the same area and during the same period. As in these publications we find that: (1) changes in the orientation of principal horizontal stress are very small after one decade of injection, and (2) at injection depth significant rotations of the initially vertically oriented maximum compressive principal stress occur in response to changes in the fluid injection rates. As observed in the field, we found that σ1 tilted towards the σ2 direction by approximately 15° when injection rates were at their peak level. Such a rotation consequently results in a local change in the state stress from a normal stress regime (Sv > SHmax> > Shmin) to a strike slip regime (SHmax> Sv > > Shmin) above and below the injection zone. Our results show that thermal processes are the principal cause for the stress tensor rotation.

  10. Addition of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for poor-responder patients before and during IVF treatment improves the pregnancy rate: a randomized prospective study.

    PubMed

    Wiser, A; Gonen, O; Ghetler, Y; Shavit, T; Berkovitz, A; Shulman, A

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation on in vitro fertilization (IVF) data and outcomes among poor-responder patients. A randomized, prospective, controlled study was conducted. All patients received the long-protocol IVF. Those in the study group received 75 mg of DHEA once a day before starting the next IVF cycle and during treatment. Thirty-three women with significantly diminished ovarian reserves were enrolled, 17 in the DHEA group and 16 in the control group. The 33 patients underwent 51 IVF cycles. The DHEA group demonstrated a non-significant improvement in estradiol levels on day of hCG (P = 0.09) and improved embryo quality during treatment (P = 0.04) between first and second cycles. Patients in the DHEA group also had a significantly higher live birth rate compared with controls (23.1% versus 4.0%; P = 0.05), respectively. Six of seven deliveries were among patients with secondary infertility (P = 0.006). Dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation can have a beneficial effect on ovarian reserves for poor-responder patients on IVF treatment. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01145144.

  11. Factors that influence the way local communities respond to consultation processes about major service change: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Barratt, Helen; Harrison, David A; Raine, Rosalind; Fulop, Naomi J

    2015-09-01

    In England, proposed service changes such as Emergency Department closures typically face local opposition. Consequently, public consultation exercises often involve protracted, hostile debates. This study examined a process aimed at engaging a community in decision-making about service reconfiguration, and the public response to this process. A documentary analysis was conducted to map consultation methods used in an urban area of England where plans to consolidate hospital services on fewer sites were under discussion. In-depth interviews (n=20) were conducted with parents, older people, and patient representatives. The analysis combined inductive and deductive approaches, informed by risk communication theories. The commissioners provided a large volume of information about the changes, alongside a programme of public events. However, the complexity of the process, together with what members of the public perceived to be the commissioners' dismissal of their concerns, led the community to question their motivation. This was compounded by a widespread perception that the proposals were financially driven. Government policy emphasises the importance of clinical leadership and 'evidence' in public consultation. However, an engagement process based on this approach fuelled hostility to the proposals. Policymakers should not assume communities can be persuaded to accommodate service change which may result in reduced access to care. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigating How Streptococcus Responds to Their Environment: Bringing Together Current Research, a Case Study and Laboratory Investigation †

    PubMed Central

    Quimby, B. Boots; McIver, Kevin S.; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Smith, Ann C.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the link between course work and unanswered authentic research questions being explored in the research lab is an important goal in undergraduate science teaching. The activity presented here focuses on current research regarding the virulence characteristics of Streptococcus pyogenes particularly targeting the control of sugar uptake regulated via catabolite repression. Students were challenged to formulate a research question and use higher-order thinking skills to analyze data, work collaboratively to solve problems, and pose and test a hypothesis in the laboratory setting. The activity employed an interrupted case study approach using both online and face-to-face settings. The case story and problems were distributed online and were followed by in-class discussions and lab work. Aspects of the activity required independent thinking, as well as collaborative work. Student learning gains were demonstrated via comparison of pre- and postscores on the Host Pathogen Interactions (HPI) concept inventory, results from an end of semester Student Perception Survey, and from analysis of students’ work. PMID:23653762

  13. Empowering students to respond to alcohol advertisements: results from a pilot study of an Australian media literacy intervention.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Chloe S; Jones, Sandra C; Kervin, Lisa; Lee, Jeong Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol media literacy programs in the United States have increased students' media literacy skills and lowered pre-drinking behaviour. In Australia, no such programs have yet been implemented or evaluated. This pilot study aimed to examine the feasibility and potential impact of an alcohol media literacy program for Australian upper-primary school children. Thirty-seven Year 5 and 6 students (aged 10-12) from one school in the Sydney region participated in 10 one-hour media lessons. Teacher interviews, student exit slips, teacher observations and a researcher reflective journal were analysed to examine the implementation process, while a pre- and post-questionnaire was analysed to measure outcome. Key factors in implementation were the importance of school context; attainment of English and PDHPE learning outcomes to differing extents; program's useability provided flexibility; perceived complexity and achievability of the lessons and program's engagement and relevance for the students. The program significantly increased media literacy skills and understanding of persuasive intent; decreased interest in alcohol branded merchandise; and lowered perception of drinking norms. An Australian alcohol media literacy program for upper-primary school children appears feasible, and has potential to lead to measurable outcomes. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. Vicarious trauma and first responders: a case study utilizing eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) as the primary treatment modality.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Paul; Royle, Liz

    2007-01-01

    Traumatic events can occur and adversely affect people during their lifetime. Natural disasters such as the earthquake in Pakistan in 2005 or the Tsunami in Asia in 2004, terrorist atrocities around the world, or personal events such as physical or sexual assault, can result in psychological difficulties for those people directly affected by these events. The diagnostic term Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, DSM IV 1994) is generally used to explain the often-severe psychological sequalae (van der Kolk, 1996; Servan-Schreiber 2004; Shapiro, 1995) that people may exhibit when directly affected by trauma. However, what of those people not directly involved in the trauma, but those who have borne witness to it, either by listening to the stories of survivors, or in the case of the helping professionals (such as police officers, nurses, doctors, psychotherapists, fire-fighters), actively working with survivors in psychological distress? This paper examines the potential psychological consequences for those in helping professions who are working with traumatized clients. This paper then focuses on a specific treatment intervention, EMDR, utilizing a case study by way of explanation.

  15. The marriage of surgical simulation and telementoring for damage-control surgical training of operational first responders: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Tien, Homer; LaPorta, Anthony T.; Lavell, Kit; Keillor, Jocelyn; Wright Beatty, Heather E.; McKee, Jessica Lynn; Brien, Susan; Roberts, Derek J.; Wong, Jonathan; Ball, Chad G.; Beckett, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable posttraumatic death. Many such deaths may be potentially salvageable with remote damage-control surgical interventions. As recent innovations in information technology enable remote specialist support to point-of-care providers, advanced interventions, such as remote damage-control surgery, may be possible in remote settings. METHODS An anatomically realistic perfused surgical training mannequin with intrinsic fluid loss measurements (the “Cut Suit”) was used to study perihepatic packing with massive liver hemorrhage. The primary outcome was loss of simulated blood (water) during six stages, namely, incision, retraction, direction, identification, packing, and postpacking. Six fully credentialed surgeons performed the same task as 12 military medical technicians who were randomized to remotely telementored (RTM) (n = 7) or unmentored (UTM) (n=5) real-time guidance by a trauma surgeon. RESULTS There were no significant differences in fluid loss between the surgeons and the UTM group or between the UTM and RTM groups. However, when comparing the RTM group with the surgeons, there was significantly more total fluid loss (p = 0.001) and greater loss during the identification (p = 0.002), retraction (p = 0.035), direction (p = 0.014), and packing(p = 0.022) stages. There were no significant differences in fluid loss after packing between the groups despite differences in the number of sponges used; RTM group used more sponges than the surgeons and significantly more than the UTM group (p = 0.048). However, mentoring significantly increased self-assessed nonsurgeon procedural confidence (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION Perihepatic packing of an exsanguinating liver hemorrhage model was readily performed by military medical technicians after a focused briefing. While real-time telementoring did not improve fluid loss, it significantly increased nonsurgeon procedural confidence, which may augment the feasibility of the

  16. Responding to the financial abuse of people with dementia: a qualitative study of safeguarding experiences in England.

    PubMed

    Manthorpe, Jill; Samsi, Kritika; Rapaport, Joan

    2012-09-01

    The risks of financial exploitation and abuse of people with dementia remain under-researched. Little is known of the views of those responsible for local adult safeguarding systems about prevention and redress. We explore current repertoires of responses of such persons and consider barriers and facilitators to minimizing risks of financial abuse for people with dementia. Fifteen qualitative interviews were undertaken with a purposively sampled group of Adult Safeguarding Co-ordinators in England in 2011. Framework analysis delineated themes in the transcripts; these were included in an iteratively developed coding framework. Five themes were explored: (1) incidence of financial abuse; (2) impact of dementia on safeguarding responses; (3) warning signs of financial abuse, including neglect, unpaid bills, limited money for provisions; (4) encouraging preventive measures like direct debit to pay for bills, advance care plans, appointing Lasting Power of Attorney; and (5) barriers and facilitators in safeguarding, including the practice of financial agencies, cultural barriers, other systemic failures and facilitators. Not all systems of financial proxies are viewed as optimally effective but provisions of the Mental Capacity Act 2005 were welcomed and seen as workable. Healthcare professionals may need to be more alert to the signs and risks of financial abuse in patients with dementia both at early and later stages. Engaging with safeguarding practitioners may facilitate prevention of abuse and effective response to those with substantial assets, but the monitoring of people with dementia needs to be sustained. In addition, professionals need to be alert to new risks from electronic crime. Researchers should consider including financial abuse in studies of elder abuse and neglect.

  17. Skill acquisition and retention in automated external defibrillator (AED) use and CPR by lay responders: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Woollard, Malcolm; Whitfeild, Richard; Smith, Anna; Colquhoun, Michael; Newcombe, Robert G; Vetteer, Norman; Chamberlain, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    This prospective study evaluated the acquisition and retention of skills in cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the use of the automated external defibrillator (AED) by lay volunteers involved in the Department of Health, England National Defibrillator Programme. One hundred and twelve trainees were tested immediately before and after and initial 4-h class; 76 were similarly reassessed at refresher training 6 months later. A standardised test scenario that required assessment of the casualty, CPR and the use of on AED was evaluated using recording manikin data and video recordings. Before training only 44% of subjects delivered a shock. Afterwards, all did so and the average delay to first shock was reduced by 57 s. All trainees placed the defibrillator electrodes in an "acceptable" position after training, but very few did so in the recommended "ideal" position. After refresher training 80% of subjects used the correct sequence for CPR and shock delivery, yet a third failed to perform adequate safety checks before all shocks. The trainees self-assessed AED competence score was 86 (scale 0-100) after the initial class and their confidence that they would act in a real emergency was rated at a similar level. Initial training improved performance of all CPR skills, although all except compression rate had deteriorated after 6 months. The proportion of subjects able to correctly perform most CPR skill was higher following refresher training that after the initial class. Although this course was judged to be effective in teaching delivery of counter-shocks, the need was identified for more emphasis on positioning of electrodes, pre-shock safety checks, airway opening, ventilation volume, checking for signs of a circulation, hand positioning, and depth and rate of chest compressions.

  18. Coordinating Care for Falls via Emergency Responders: A Feasibility Study of a Brief At-Scene Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Elizabeth A.; Herbert, Julia; Fahrenbruch, Carol; Stubbs, Benjamin A.; Meischke, Hendrika

    2016-01-01

    Falls account for a substantial portion of 9-1-1 calls, but few studies have examined the potential for an emergency medical system role in fall prevention. We tested the feasibility and effectiveness of an emergency medical technician (EMT)-delivered, at-scene intervention to link elders calling 9-1-1 for a fall with a multifactorial fall prevention program in their community. The intervention was conducted in a single fire department in King County, Washington and consisted of a brief public health message about the preventability of falls and written fall prevention program information left at scene. Data sources included 9-1-1 reports, telephone interviews with intervention department fallers and sociodemographically comparable fallers from three other fire departments in the same county, and in-person discussions with intervention department EMTs. Interviews elicited faller recall and perceptions of the intervention, EMT perceptions of intervention feasibility, and resultant referrals. Sixteen percent of all 9-1-1 calls during the intervention period were for falls. The intervention was delivered to 49% of fallers, the majority of whom (75%) were left at scene. Their mean age (N = 92) was 80 ± 8 years; 78% were women, 39% had annual incomes under $20K, and 34% lived alone. Thirty-five percent reported that an EMT had discussed falls and fall prevention (vs. 8% of comparison group, P < 0.01); 84% reported that the information was useful. Six percent reported having made an appointment with a fall prevention program (vs. 3% of comparison group). EMTs reported that the intervention was worthwhile and did not add substantially to their workload. A brief, at-scene intervention is feasible and acceptable to fallers and EMTs. Although it activates only a small percent to seek out fall prevention programs, the public health impact of this low-cost strategy may be substantial. PMID:27990416

  19. Reducing the trigger dose of recombinant hCG in high-responder patients attending an assisted reproductive technology program: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Tiboni, Gian Mario; Colangelo, Enrica Concetta; Ponzano, Adalisa

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the dose of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) used to trigger final oocyte maturation in assisted reproductive technology programs is regarded as a useful intervention in the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, but the minimal effective dose has not been yet identified. In this study, the capacity of a reduced dose of recombinant hCG (r-hCG) to provide adequate oocyte maturation was tested for the first time. Thirty-five high-responder patients received a dose of 125 µg (half of the standard dose) of r-hCG for triggering final oocyte maturation. The number of oocytes retrieved per patient and the proportion of mature oocytes were evaluated. As a result, a mean number of 14 oocytes were retrieved, of which 85% were found to be mature (MII). There was only one patient developing a moderate form of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and not requiring hospitalization. It is suggested that r-hCG at 125 µg can be effective in triggering final oocyte maturation in high-responder patients. Additional properly powered and controlled studies are needed to support this contention.

  20. Reboxetine for ADHD in children non-responders or with poor tolerance to methylphenidate: a prospective long-term open-label study.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Javier; López-Muñoz, Francisco; Alamo, Cecilio; Loro, Mercedes; García-Campos, Natalia

    2010-11-01

    Up to 30% of patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with psychostimulants discontinue the treatment because of intolerance or lack of therapeutic response. Therapeutic alternatives are needed for such patients. In the present case series, we study the effectiveness of reboxetine over a period of 6 months in a sample of 14 children diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV-TR criteria, who had responded only partially or had presented poor tolerance to conventional treatment with methylphenidate. Clinical efficacy was evaluated through the application of the 18-item Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD-RS-IV) and the Clinical Global Impressions-Global Improvement Scale (CGI-I). Percentages of responders (ADHD-RS ≥ 25%) and improvers (CGI-I absolute value < 4) were 90.9 and 72.7%, respectively. No serious side-effects were observed during treatment, the most frequent effects being headaches and insomnia. The initial findings of our study show that reboxetine may constitute an effective tool for long-term treatment of children with ADHD who present poor response or poor tolerance to initial treatment with methylphenidate.

  1. In their own words: reports of stigma and genetic discrimination by people at risk for Huntington disease in the International RESPOND-HD study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet K; Erwin, Cheryl; Juhl, Andrew R; Mengeling, Michelle; Bombard, Yvonne; Hayden, Michael R; Quaid, Kimberly; Shoulson, Ira; Taylor, Sandra; Paulsen, Jane S

    2010-09-01

    Genetic discrimination may be experienced in the day-to-day lives of people at risk for Huntington disease (HD), encompassing occurrences in the workplace, when seeking insurance, within social relationships, and during other daily encounters. At-risk individuals who have tested either positive or negative for the genetic expansion that causes HD, as well as at-risk persons with a 50% chance for developing the disorder but have not had DNA testing completed the International RESPOND-HD (I-RESPOND-HD) survey. One of the study's purposes was to examine perceptions of genetic stigmatization and discrimination. A total of 412 out of 433 participants provided narrative comments, and 191 provided related codable narrative data. The core theme, Information Control, refers to organizational policies and interpersonal actions. This theme was found in narrative comments describing genetic discrimination perceptions across employment, insurance, social, and other situations. These reports were elaborated with five themes: What They Encountered, What They Felt, What Others Did, What They Did, and What Happened. Although many perceptions were coded as hurtful, this was not true in all instances. Findings document that reports of genetic discrimination are highly individual, and both policy as well as interpersonal factors contribute to the outcome of potentially discriminating events. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Estimating design effect and calculating sample size for respondent-driven sampling studies of injection drug users in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wejnert, Cyprian; Pham, Huong; Krishna, Nevin; Le, Binh; DiNenno, Elizabeth

    2012-05-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) has become increasingly popular for sampling hidden populations, including injecting drug users (IDU). However, RDS data are unique and require specialized analysis techniques, many of which remain underdeveloped. RDS sample size estimation requires knowing design effect (DE), which can only be calculated post hoc. Few studies have analyzed RDS DE using real world empirical data. We analyze estimated DE from 43 samples of IDU collected using a standardized protocol. We find the previous recommendation that sample size be at least doubled, consistent with DE = 2, underestimates true DE and recommend researchers use DE = 4 as an alternate estimate when calculating sample size. A formula for calculating sample size for RDS studies among IDU is presented. Researchers faced with limited resources may wish to accept slightly higher standard errors to keep sample size requirements low. Our results highlight dangers of ignoring sampling design in analysis.

  3. Social networks of men who have sex with men: a study of recruitment chains using Respondent Driven Sampling in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brignol, Sandra Mara Silva; Dourado, Inês; Amorim, Leila Denise; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas; Kerr, Lígia R F S

    2015-11-01

    Social and sexual contact networks between men who have sex with men (MSM) play an important role in understanding the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In Salvador (Bahia State, Brazil), one of the cities in the survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices, and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in 10 Brazilian Cities, data were collected in 2008/2009 from a sample of 383 MSM using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Network analysis was used to study friendship networks and sexual partner networks. The study also focused on the association between the number of links (degree) and the number of sexual partners, in addition to socio-demographic characteristics. The networks' structure potentially facilitates HIV transmission. However, the same networks can also be used to spread messages on STI/HIV prevention, since the proximity and similarity of MSM in these networks can encourage behavior change and positive attitudes towards prevention.

  4. Understanding the HIV/AIDS epidemic in transgender women of Lima, Peru: results from a sero-epidemiologic study using respondent driven sampling.

    PubMed

    Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Raymond, H Fisher; Salazar, Ximena; Villayzan, Jana; Leon, Segundo; McFarland, Willi; Caceres, Carlos F

    2012-05-01

    In Latin America, transgender women (transwomen or male to female transgenders) have been included in MSM research but without addressing their specific needs in terms of the HIV/AIDS. We present results of the first seroepidemiologic study designed for transwomen in Peru. We conducted a study using respondent driven sampling to recruit transwomen from Lima. Our survey explored sociodemographic characteristics, gender enhancement procedures and sexual behavior. In addition, we conducted laboratory based HIV, genital herpes (HSV2) and syphilis testing. A total of 450 transwomen were recruited between April and July 2009. HIV prevalence was 30%, HSV2: 79% and syphilis: 23%. Sex-work was the main economic activity (64%). Gender enhancement procedures were reported by 70% of the population. Multivariable analysis showed HIV infection to be associated with being older than 35 recent, syphilis infection and HSV2 infection. Transwomen are the group most vulnerable to HIV/AIDS in Peru.

  5. Combined administration of FVIII and rFVIIa improves haemostasis in haemophilia A patients with high-responding inhibitors--a thrombin generation-guided pilot study.

    PubMed

    Livnat, T; Martinowitz, U; Azar-Avivi, S; Zivelin, A; Brutman-Barazani, T; Lubetsky, A; Kenet, G

    2013-09-01

    Treatment of haemophilia A patients with inhibitors is challenging, and may require individually tailored regimens. Whereas low titre inhibitor patients may respond to high doses of factor VIII (FVIII), high-responding inhibitor patients render replacement therapy ineffective and often require application of bypassing agents. Thrombin generation (TG) assays may be used to monitor haemostasis and/or predict patients' response to bypass agents. In this study we defined by TG, the potential contribution of FVIII to recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa)-induced haemostasis in inhibitor plasma. Based upon results, prospectively designed individual regimens of coadministration of rFVIIa and FVIII were applied. Plasma samples from 14 haemophilia patients with inhibitors (including high titre inhibitors) were tested. The response to increasing concentrations of FVIII, rFVIIa or both was assayed by TG. Eight patients, chosen following consent and at physician's discretion, comprised the combined FVIII-rFVIIa therapy clinical study cohort. Combined spiking with FVIII/rFVIIa improved TG induced by rFVIIa alone in all inhibitor plasmas. Combined rFVIIa and FVIII therapy was applied during bleeding or immune tolerance to eight patients, for a total of 393 episodes. Following a single combined dose, 90% haemostasis was documented and neither thrombosis nor any complications evolved. During study period decline of inhibitor levels and bleeding frequency were noted. Pre-analytical studies enabled us to prospectively tailor individual therapy regimens. We confirmed for the first time that the in vitro advantage of combining FVIII and rFVIIa, indeed accounts for improved haemostasis and may safely be applied to inhibitor patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Primary healthcare system capacities for responding to storm and flood-related health problems: a case study from a rural district in central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Tuan Anh, Tran; Rocklöv, Joacim; Bao Giang, Kim; Trang, Le Quynh; Sahlen, Klas-Göran; Nilsson, Maria; Weinehall, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Background As a tropical depression in the East Sea, Vietnam is greatly affected by climate change and natural disasters. Knowledge of the current capacity of the primary healthcare system in Vietnam to respond to health issues associated with storms and floods is very important for policy making in the country. However, there has been little scientific research in this area. Objective This research was to assess primary healthcare system capacities in a rural district in central Vietnam to respond to such health issues. Design This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods used self-administered questionnaires. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and focus groups discussions) were used to broaden understanding of the quantitative material and to get additional information on actions taken. Results 1) Service delivery: Medical emergency services, especially surgical operations and referral systems, were not always available during the storm and flood seasons. 2) Governance: District emergency plans focus largely on disaster response rather than prevention. The plans did not clearly define the role of primary healthcare and had no clear information on the coordination mechanism among different sectors and organizations. 3) Financing: The budget for prevention and control of flood and storm activities was limited and had no specific items for healthcare activities. Only a little additional funding was available, but the procedures to get this funding were usually time-consuming. 4) Human resources: Medical rescue teams were established, but there were no epidemiologists or environmental health specialists to take care of epidemiological issues. Training on prevention and control of climate change and disaster-related health issues did not meet actual needs. 5) Information and research: Data that can be used for planning and management (including population and epidemiological data) were largely

  7. Primary healthcare system capacities for responding to storm and flood-related health problems: a case study from a rural district in central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Minh, Hoang; Tuan Anh, Tran; Rocklöv, Joacim; Bao Giang, Kim; Trang, Le Quynh; Sahlen, Klas-Göran; Nilsson, Maria; Weinehall, Lars

    2014-01-01

    As a tropical depression in the East Sea, Vietnam is greatly affected by climate change and natural disasters. Knowledge of the current capacity of the primary healthcare system in Vietnam to respond to health issues associated with storms and floods is very important for policy making in the country. However, there has been little scientific research in this area. This research was to assess primary healthcare system capacities in a rural district in central Vietnam to respond to such health issues. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods used self-administered questionnaires. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and focus groups discussions) were used to broaden understanding of the quantitative material and to get additional information on actions taken. 1) Service delivery: Medical emergency services, especially surgical operations and referral systems, were not always available during the storm and flood seasons. 2) Governance: District emergency plans focus largely on disaster response rather than prevention. The plans did not clearly define the role of primary healthcare and had no clear information on the coordination mechanism among different sectors and organizations. 3) Financing: The budget for prevention and control of flood and storm activities was limited and had no specific items for healthcare activities. Only a little additional funding was available, but the procedures to get this funding were usually time-consuming. 4) Human resources: Medical rescue teams were established, but there were no epidemiologists or environmental health specialists to take care of epidemiological issues. Training on prevention and control of climate change and disaster-related health issues did not meet actual needs. 5) Information and research: Data that can be used for planning and management (including population and epidemiological data) were largely lacking. The district lacked a disease

  8. Money boys, HIV risks, and the associations between norms and safer sex: a respondent-driven sampling study in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjie; Liu, Hui; Cai, Yumao; Rhodes, Anne G; Hong, Fuchang

    2009-08-01

    Money boys (MBs) are male sex workers who sell sex to men who have sex with men (MSM). This study estimates the proportion of MBs in the Chinese MSM, compares HIV risks between MBs and non-MB MSM, and examines the associations between practicing safer sex and peer norms of condom use. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to sample 351 MSM in the city of Shenzhen in 2007. The RDS-adjusted proportion of MBs among MSM was 9%. Compared to non-MB MSM, more MBs reported having had multiple male and female sexual partners. Half of MBs and non-MB MSM had consistently used condoms. Both descriptive and subjective norms were positively associated with condom use. The MB proportion of 9% in MSM implies a relatively large population of MBs in China. The association between peer norms and consistent condom use can assist with the development of culturally competent HIV interventions that promote safer sex.

  9. Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH): Scientific Understanding of Arctic Environmental Change to Help Society Understand and Respond to a Rapidly Changing Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Myers, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) is a U.S. program with a mission to provide a foundation of Arctic change science through collaboration with the research community, funding agencies, and other stakeholders. To achieve this mission, SEARCH: Generates and synthesizes research findings and promotes Arctic science and scientific discovery across disciplines and among agencies. Identifies emerging issues in Arctic environmental change. Provides scientific information to Arctic stakeholders, policy-makers, and the public to help them understand and respond to arctic environmental change. Facilitates research activities across local-to-global scales, with an emphasis on addressing needs of decision-makers. Collaborates with national and international science programs integral to SEARCH goals. This poster presentation will present SEARCH activities and plans, highlighting those focused on providing information for decision-makers. http://www.arcus.org/search

  10. Mining the genomes of exceptional responders.

    PubMed

    Chang, David K; Grimmond, Sean M; Evans, T R Jeffry; Biankin, Andrew V

    2014-05-01

    The National Cancer Institute of the United States recently announced a major new initiative in understanding the genomes or, more broadly, the molecular phenotypes of exceptional responders. What can we expect to learn from exceptional responders? What are the potential benefits, and how do we approach studying them?

  11. Responding to unprofessional behaviours.

    PubMed

    Worthington, Roger; Hays, Richard

    2012-04-01

    Medical educators sometimes have to respond to inappropriate behaviours from doctors in training that have the potential to endanger their future careers and affect the safety and well-being of their patients. The authors led workshops at international meetings using case-based discussion and plenary wrap-ups to reinforce and share the learning outcomes. This paper summarises key points of difference and common themes about how to manage challenging professional behaviours presented by doctors in training that may be of value to tutors and clinical educators. Although the problems encountered had elements in common, experiences varied between countries, schools and programmes as regards processes, procedures and thresholds for launching an investigation. Whereas variations are not unexpected it is important to consider the context and background against which decisions are made. Appropriate responses must take account of professional, legal and ethical guidelines, where they exist. Major inconsistencies in hearings and investigations may not be in anyone's best interests: fairness is core to most notions of justice, whether from the perspective of a doctor in training, clinical educator or member of the public. Therefore, schools and programmes need to take this into account when reviewing processes and procedures. Although the career of a doctor in training is important, it is not the only consideration. If systems fail the public has a right to be concerned, and striving to ensure that medical students graduate to become safe, professional doctors is something of concern to all clinical educators. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  12. Psychosocial care for persons affected by emergencies and major incidents: a Delphi study to determine the needs of professional first responders for education, training and support.

    PubMed

    Drury, John; Kemp, Verity; Newman, Jonathan; Novelli, David; Doyle, Christopher; Walter, Darren; Williams, Richard

    2013-10-01

    The role of ambulance clinicians in providing psychosocial care in major incidents and emergencies is recognised in recent Department of Health guidance. The study described in this paper identified NHS professional first responders' needs for education about survivors' psychosocial responses, training in psychosocial skills, and continuing support. Ambulance staff participated in an online Delphi questionnaire, comprising 74 items (Round 1) on 7-point Likert scales. Second-round and third-round participants each received feedback based on the previous round, and responded to modified versions of the original items and to new items for clarification. One hundred and two participants took part in Round 1; 47 statements (64%) achieved consensus. In Round 2, 72 people from Round 1 participated; 15 out of 39 statements (38%) achieved consensus. In Round 3, 49 people from Round 2 participated; 15 out of 27 statements (59%) achieved consensus. Overall, there was consensus in the following areas: 'psychosocial needs of patients' (consensus in 34/37 items); 'possible sources of stress in your work' (8/9); 'impacts of distress in your work' (7/10); 'meeting your own emotional needs' (4/5); 'support within your organisation' (2/5); 'needs for training in psychosocial skills for patients' (15/15); 'my needs for psychosocial training and support' (5/6). Ambulance clinicians recognise their own education needs and the importance of their being offered psychosocial training and support. The authors recommend that, in order to meet patients' psychosocial needs effectively, ambulance clinicians are provided with education and training in a number of skills and their own psychosocial support should be enhanced.

  13. Exposure and posttraumatic stress symptoms among first responders working in proximity to the terror sites in Norway on July 22, 2011 - a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Skogstad, Laila; Fjetland, Anja M; Ekeberg, Øivind

    2015-02-24

    Norway experienced two terror attacks on July 22, 2011. A car bomb exploded in the Oslo government district killing eight people. Shortly after, 69 adolescents gathered at a political youth camp were shot and killed at Utøya Island. First responders were exposed to multiple risk factors for the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). This cross-sectional study investigated the degree of perceived peritraumatic strain among police officers, fire-fighters, and ambulance personnel, as well as the prevalence and predictors of PTSS. A questionnaire was completed by 89 ambulance personnel, 73 fire-fighters, and 76 police officers working close to the terror sites, 8-11 months after the event. PTSS were assessed using the PTSD Check List (PCL-S). Merging all groups, 68% reported to have witnessed injured/dead people, but only 5.7% reported this as very/extremely strainful. The PCL-S scores were low and not significantly different among the three professions (Median = 19-20, range 17-64). The prevalence of possible PTSD (cut-off > 50) was 1.3 %, and 2 % had scores indicating sub-threshold PTSD. Dissociation predicted higher PTSS-level in all groups (β 1.6-5.1), witnessing injured/dead among ambulance personnel (β 2.5) and feeling overwhelmed among police officers (β 1.2). First responders were exposed to deaths, injuries, and destruction, but few reported this as highly stressful. The prevalence of possible PTSD was low in all occupational groups, and symptoms of dissociation were found to be the most important predictor.

  14. Examining non-response bias in substance use research--are late respondents proxies for non-respondents?

    PubMed

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Dermota, Petra; Gaume, Jacques; Bertholet, Nicolas; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2013-09-01

    Non-response is a major concern among substance use epidemiologists. When differences exist between respondents and non-respondents, survey estimates may be biased. Therefore, researchers have developed time-consuming strategies to convert non-respondents to respondents. The present study examines whether late respondents (converted former non-participants) differ from early respondents, non-consenters or silent refusers (consent givers but non-participants) in a cohort study, and whether non-response bias can be reduced by converting former non-respondents. 6099 French- and 5720 German-speaking Swiss 20-year-old males (more than 94% of the source population) completed a short questionnaire on substance use outcomes and socio-demographics, independent of any further participation in a cohort study. Early respondents were those participating in the cohort study after standard recruitment procedures. Late respondents were non-respondents that were converted through individual encouraging telephone contact. Early respondents, non-consenters and silent refusers were compared to late respondents using logistic regressions. Relative non-response biases for early respondents only, for respondents only (early and late) and for consenters (respondents and silent refusers) were also computed. Late respondents showed generally higher patterns of substance use than did early respondents, but lower patterns than did non-consenters and silent refusers. Converting initial non-respondents to respondents reduced the non-response bias, which might be further reduced if silent refusers were converted to respondents. Efforts to convert refusers are effective in reducing non-response bias. However, converted late respondents cannot be seen as proxies of non-respondents, and are at best only indicative of existing response bias due to persistent non-respondents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Formative research to optimize respondent-driven sampling surveys among hard-to-reach populations in HIV behavioral and biological surveillance: lessons learned from four case studies.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lisa Grazina; Whitehead, Sara; Simic-Lawson, Milena; Kendall, Carl

    2010-06-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is widely adopted as a method to assess HIV and other sexually transmitted infection prevalence and risk factors among hard-to-reach populations. Failures to properly implement RDS in several settings could potentially have been avoided, had formative research been conducted. However, to date there is no published literature addressing the use of formative research in preparing for RDS studies. This paper uses examples from Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bangkok, Thailand; Podgorica, Montenegro; and St Vincent's and Grenadine Islands, Eastern Caribbean; among populations of men who have sex with men, female sex workers, and injecting drug users to describe how formative research was used to plan, implement, and predict outcomes of RDS surveys and to provide a template of RDS-specific questions for conducting formative research in preparation for RDS surveys. We outline case studies to illustrate how formative research may help researchers to determine whether RDS methodology is appropriate for a particular population and sociocultural context, and to decide on implementation details that lead to successful study outcomes.

  16. Disaster-related exposures and health effects among US Coast Guard responders to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Rusiecki, Jennifer A; Thomas, Dana L; Chen, Ligong; Funk, Renée; McKibben, Jodi; Dayton, Melburn R

    2014-08-01

    Disaster responders work among poorly characterized physical and psychological hazards with little understood regarding health consequences of their work. A survey administered to 2834 US Coast Guard responders to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita provided data on exposures and health effects. Prevalence odds ratios (PORs) evaluated associations between baseline characteristics, missions, exposures, and health effects. Most frequent exposures were animal/insect vector (n = 1309; 46%) and floodwater (n = 817; 29%). Most frequent health effects were sunburn (n = 1119; 39%) and heat stress (n = 810; 30%). Significant positive associations were for mold exposure and sinus infection (POR = 10.39); carbon monoxide and confusion (POR = 6.27); lack of sleep and slips, trips, falls (POR = 3.34) and depression (POR = 3.01); being a Gulf-state responder and depression (POR = 3.22). Increasing protection for disaster responders requires provisions for adequate sleep, personal protective equipment, and access to medical and psychological support.

  17. How do Midlatitude Blocks and Wave Amplitude Respond to Changes in the Midlatitude-to-Pole Near-Surface Temperature Gradient? A Study with an Idealized Dry GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, P.; Kuang, Z.; Farrell, B.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric blocks and amplified midlatitude planetary waves can lead to weather extremes such as heat waves, cold spells, droughts and heavy precipitation events. While assessing the influence of climate change on extreme weather events is of significant scientific and societal importance, how blocks and wave amplitude respond to changes in the large-scale atmospheric circulation is not well-understood. For example, whether the weakened midlatitude westerlies and Z500 meridional gradient, caused by a reduced midlatitude-to-pole near-surface temperature difference in the Northern Hemisphere (associated with Arctic Amplification), lead to an increase in atmospheric blocking events and wavier jet streams remains unclear, despite a number of recent studies addressing this issue using observation and comprehensive GCMs. Here we address the question of how blocks and wave amplitude respond to changes in the midlatitude-to-pole near-surface temperature difference using an idealized dry GCM with a simple setup as described in Held and Suarez (1994). Quasi-stationary long-lived blocks that split or substantially displace the jet are common in simulations made with this model, which is free of topography and zonally asymmetric forcing. Reducing the pole-to-equator surface temperature difference in the forcing of this model leads to a mean-state with smaller midlatitude-to-pole near-surface temperature difference and Z500 meridional gradient, smaller variances of temperature and Z500, and slower jet streams, which are consistent with changes expected from Arctic Amplification. Using long high-resolution simulations, we find a robust decline in blocked area and wave amplitude as the pole-to-equator surface temperature difference in the forcing is reduced. These findings are insensitive to numerical resolution, strength of hyperdiffusion, and parameters used in the blocking and wave amplitude indices. Statistical and dynamical diagnoses are used to investigate the underlying

  18. Photodynamic therapy in VEGF inhibition non-responders-Pharmacogenetic study in age-related macular degeneration assessed with swept-source optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Teper, Slawomir J; Nowinska, Anna; Pilat, Jaroslaw; Wylegala, Edward

    2016-03-01

    Treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) remains a major challenge in ophthalmology. It is essential to determine which of VEGF inhibition non-responders can benefit from photodynamic therapy (PDT). As AMD is strongly related to gene polymorphisms, genetic factors can modify efficacy of treatment. Swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) gives exceptional insight into the retina and choroid. SS-OCT usefulness needs to be evaluated in nAMD patients. Prospective 6-month study included consecutive 110 patients (110 eyes) with predominantly classic neovascular AMD treated with photodynamic therapy. Only non-responders to anti-VEGF were included in the study. Greatest linear dimension (GLD) of the lesion, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central subfield macular thickness (CSMT) and central choroidal thickness were assessed and compared between CFH and ARMS2 genotype groups. Success rate was the main endpoint. It was defined as not active CNV in the center of the fovea and no worsening in BCVA. Multiple regression was used to assess gene polymorphisms influence on PDT results. Wilcoxon tests were performed to determine significance of changes from baseline values. Following genotype frequencies were obtained-CFH CC 35 patients (31.8%), CT 52 (47.3%), TT 23 (20.9%); ARMS2 TT 28 patients (25.4%), GT 43 (39.1%), GG 39 (35.4%) success rate in CC/CT/TT CFH and TT/GT/GG ARMS2 groups were as follows respectively: 22.9%, 28.8%, 30.4% and 28.6%, 25.6%, 28.2%. The differences were not significant with highest odds ratio TT vs. CC CFH 1.57 (95% CI 0.48-5.2, p=0.4). Significant increase in GLD was observed only in CC CFH group. Overall mean following measured parameters were obtained at baseline/day 7/month 3/month 6 (significant changes from baseline are marked with asterisk): GLD-3825±1301μm/3901±1579μm/3861±1463μm/3925±1523μm; CSMT-405±203μm/434±257μm*/321±163μm*/295±157*μm; CCT-235±103μm/278±157*μm/211±113μm*/201±107

  19. Responders to Wide-Pulse, High-Frequency Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Show Reduced Metabolic Demand: A 31P-MRS Study in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Wegrzyk, Jennifer; Fouré, Alexandre; Le Fur, Yann; Maffiuletti, Nicola A.; Vilmen, Christophe; Guye, Maxime; Mattei, Jean-Pierre; Place, Nicolas; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Conventional (CONV) neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) (i.e., short pulse duration, low frequencies) induces a higher energetic response as compared to voluntary contractions (VOL). In contrast, wide-pulse, high-frequency (WPHF) NMES might elicit–at least in some subjects (i.e., responders)–a different motor unit recruitment compared to CONV that resembles the physiological muscle activation pattern of VOL. We therefore hypothesized that for these responder subjects, the metabolic demand of WPHF would be lower than CONV and comparable to VOL. 18 healthy subjects performed isometric plantar flexions at 10% of their maximal voluntary contraction force for CONV (25 Hz, 0.05 ms), WPHF (100 Hz, 1 ms) and VOL protocols. For each protocol, force time integral (FTI) was quantified and subjects were classified as responders and non-responders to WPHF based on k-means clustering analysis. Furthermore, a fatigue index based on FTI loss at the end of each protocol compared with the beginning of the protocol was calculated. Phosphocreatine depletion (ΔPCr) was assessed using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Responders developed four times higher FTI’s during WPHF (99 ± 37 ×103 N.s) than non-responders (26 ± 12 ×103 N.s). For both responders and non-responders, CONV was metabolically more demanding than VOL when ΔPCr was expressed relative to the FTI. Only for the responder group, the ∆PCr/FTI ratio of WPHF (0.74 ± 0.19 M/N.s) was significantly lower compared to CONV (1.48 ± 0.46 M/N.s) but similar to VOL (0.65 ± 0.21 M/N.s). Moreover, the fatigue index was not different between WPHF (-16%) and CONV (-25%) for the responders. WPHF could therefore be considered as the less demanding NMES modality–at least in this subgroup of subjects–by possibly exhibiting a muscle activation pattern similar to VOL contractions. PMID:26619330

  20. Investigation of alcohol-related social norms among youth aged 14–17 years in Perth, Western Australia: protocol for a respondent-driven sampling study

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Janina; Maycock, Bruce; Howat, Peter; Burns, Sharyn; Allsop, Steve; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Lobo, Roanna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use among young people is a major public health concern in Australia and internationally. Research elucidating social norms influencing alcohol use supports the desire to conform to peers. However, there is a lack of evidence on how social norms are transmitted from the community to young people and between family members and peers, as previous studies are limited to mainly school and university environments. This article describes the proposed process to investigate common alcohol-related norms held by 14-year-olds to 17-year-olds in Perth, Western Australia, and to clarify the process and pathways through which proalcohol norms are transmitted to adolescents. Methods and analysis This cross-sectional quantitative study will use respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit a sample of 672 adolescents from sporting groups, youth programmes and the community in Perth. Data will be collected with a previously developed and validated multidimensional online survey instrument. A variety of strategies will be explored to aid participation including face-to-face recruitment and survey administration, web-based RDS and a ‘mature minor’ consent assessment protocol. Data analysis will include descriptive statistics of demographic characteristics, as well as social network and dyadic analyses, to explore the connections between shared understanding of norms and behaviours among individuals and how these translate into reported practices. Ethics and dissemination This research is expected to extend our understanding of normative development pathways to inform future interventions, and will be widely disseminated through conference presentations, peer-reviewed papers, media channels and community seminars. A study reference group of key health industry stakeholders will be established to encourage integration of study findings into policy and practice, and results will guide the development of community interventions. The Curtin University Human

  1. Criticality Safety Basics for INL Emergency Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Valerie L. Putman

    2012-08-01

    This document is a modular self-study guide about criticality safety principles for Idaho National Laboratory emergency responders. This guide provides basic criticality safety information for people who, in response to an emergency, might enter an area that contains much fissionable (or fissile) material. The information should help responders understand unique factors that might be important in responding to a criticality accident or in preventing a criticality accident while responding to a different emergency.

    This study guide specifically supplements web-based training for firefighters (0INL1226) and includes information for other Idaho National Laboratory first responders. However, the guide audience also includes other first responders such as radiological control personnel.

    For interested readers, this guide includes clearly marked additional information that will not be included on tests. The additional information includes historical examples (Been there. Done that.), as well as facts and more in-depth information (Did you know …).

    INL criticality safety personnel revise this guide as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Revision 0, issued May 2007, established the basic text. Revision 1 incorporates operation, program, and training changes implemented since 2007. Revision 1 increases focus on first responders because later responders are more likely to have more assistance and guidance from facility personnel and subject matter experts. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that help keep emergency responders safe. The changes are based on and consistent with changes made to course 0INL1226.

  2. Preliminary clinical prediction rule for identifying patients with ankylosing spondylitis who are likely to respond to an exercise program: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Cleland, Joshua A

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a preliminary clinical prediction rule to identify the potential predictors for identifying patients presenting with ankylosing spondylitis who are likely to respond to a specific exercise program. Consecutive patients with ankylosing spondylitis underwent a standardized examination and then received eight physical therapy sessions during a 2-mo period, which included an exercise program based on the treatment of the shortened muscle chains, following the guideline described by the global posture re-education method. Patients were classified as having experienced a successful outcome at 1 mo after discharge based on a 20% reduction on Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index and self-report perceived recovery. Potential predictor variables were entered into a stepwise logistic regression model to determine the most accurate set of variables for identifying treatment success. Data from 35 patients were included, of which 16 (46%) experienced a successful outcome. A clinical prediction rule with three variables (physical role >37, bodily pain >27, and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index >31) was identified. The most accurate predictor of success was if the patient exhibited two of the three variables, and the positive likelihood ratio was 11.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.7-76.0) and the posttest probability of success increased to 91%. The accuracy of prediction declined if either 1/3 (+likelihood ratio = 7.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-113.5) or 3/3 (+likelihood ratio = 2.6, 95% confidence interval, 1.6-4.0) variables were present. The present preliminary clinical prediction rule provides the potential to identify patients with ankylosing spondylitis who are likely to experience short-term follow-up success with a specific exercise program. Future studies are necessary to validate the clinical prediction rule.

  3. Relational Responding in Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell, Amy R.; Wilson, Kelly G.; LaBorde, Cicely T.; Drake, Chad E.; Rogers, Leslie J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parenting stress and relational conditioning. Fourteen students who were not mothers, 14 mothers who reported high parenting stress and 14 mothers with low parenting stress completed two matching-to-sample (MTS) computer tasks, each requiring formation of three 3-member classes. The first MTS task…

  4. Maintenance treatment of Uracil and Tegafur (UFT) in responders following first-line fluorouracil-based chemotherapy in metastatic gastric cancer: a randomized phase II study.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhua; Zhao, Xiaoying; Wang, Huijie; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Xinmin; Huang, Mingzhu; Qiu, Lixin; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Zhiyu; Guo, Weijian; Li, Jin; Zhu, Xiaodong

    2017-06-06

    Maintenance therapy proves to be effective in advanced lung and breast cancer after initial chemotherapy. The purpose of this phase II study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Uracil and Tegafur (UFT) maintenance in metastatic gastric cancer patients following the first-line fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Metastatic gastric cancer patients with stable disease or a better response after the completion of first-line chemotherapy were randomized to oral UFT (360mg/m2 × 2 weeks) every 3 weeks until disease progression/intolerable toxicity or to observation (OBS). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS); the secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and safety. The trial was closed after the interim analysis of the 58 enrolled (120 planned) patients. Median PFS was not improved in the UFT group compared with the OBS group (3.2 months versus 3.6 months, P = 0.752), as well as the median OS (14.2 months for both, P = 0.983). However, subgroup analysis showed that low baseline hemoglobin (< 120 g/L) was associated with poorer PFS with maintenance therapy (P = 0.032), while the normal hemoglobin patients benefit from the UFT treatment (P = 0.008). Grade 3 to 4 toxicities in the UFT group were anemia (3.4%), thrombocytopenia (3.4%) and diarrhea (6.9%). This trial did not show superiority of UFT maintenance in non-selected patients responding to fluorouracil-based first-line chemotherapy. The normal hemoglobin level at baseline is a predictive biomarker for favorable patient subsets from the maintenance treatment.

  5. Thinking It Through: A Study of How Pre-Service Teachers Respond to Children Who Present with Possible Mental Health Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, David; Price, Deborah; Crowley, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Teachers are key professionals in responding to children and adolescents with possible mental health difficulties and who exhibit social, emotional or behavioural difficulties in the classroom. Health and education policy increasingly positions teachers as vital agents in connecting mental health services with affected young people. A growing…

  6. Thinking It Through: A Study of How Pre-Service Teachers Respond to Children Who Present with Possible Mental Health Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, David; Price, Deborah; Crowley, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Teachers are key professionals in responding to children and adolescents with possible mental health difficulties and who exhibit social, emotional or behavioural difficulties in the classroom. Health and education policy increasingly positions teachers as vital agents in connecting mental health services with affected young people. A growing…

  7. Using postal questionnaires to evaluate physical activity and diet behaviour change: case study exploring implications of valid responder characteristics in interpreting intervention outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cole, Judith A; Gillespie, Paddy; Smith, Susan M; Byrne, Molly; Murphy, Andrew W; Cupples, Margaret E

    2014-10-15

    .047), and cholesterol (fat: p = 0.039). Our findings illustrate the importance of detailed reporting of research methods, with clear information about response rates, respondents and valid outcome data. Outcome measures which are relevant to a study population should be chosen carefully. The impact of methods of outcome measurement and valid response rates in evaluating healthcare requires further study.

  8. Genome-Wide Association Studies Reveal that Diverse Heading Date Genes Respond to Short and Long Day Lengths between Indica and Japonica Rice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhongmin; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Hu; Ayaad, Mohammed; Xing, Yongzhong

    2016-01-01

    Rice is a short-day plant. Short-day length promotes heading, and long-day length suppresses heading. Many studies have evaluated rice heading in field conditions in which some individuals in the population were exposed to various day lengths, including short and long days, prior to a growth phase transition. In this study, we investigated heading date under natural short-day conditions (SD) and long-day conditions (LD) for 100s of accessions and separately conducted genome-wide association studies within indica and japonica subpopulations. Under LD, three and four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified in indica and japonica subpopulations, respectively, two of which were less than 80 kb from the known genes Hd17 and Ghd7. But no common QTLs were detected in both subpopulations. Under SD, six QTLs were detected in indica, three of which were less than 80 kb from the known heading date genes Ghd7, Ehd1, and RCN1. But no QTLs were detected in japonica subpopulation. qHd3 under SD and qHd4 under LD were two novel major QTLs, which deserve isolation in the future. Eleven known heading date genes were used to test the power of association mapping at the haplotype level. Hd17, Ghd7, Ehd1, and RCN1 were again detected at more significant level and three additional genes, Hd3a, OsMADS56, and Ghd7.1, were detected. However, of the detected seven genes, only one gene, Hd17, was commonly detected in both subpopulations and two genes, Ghd7 and Ghd7.1, were commonly detected in indica subpopulation under both conditions. Moreover, haplotype analysis identified favorable haplotypes of Ghd7 and OsMADS56 for breeding design. In conclusion, diverse heading date genes/QTLs between indica and japonica subpopulations responded to SD and LD, and haplotype-level association mapping was more powerful than SNP-level association in rice. PMID:27621738

  9. A comparison of CPAP and CPAPFLEX in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in World Trade Center responders: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ayappa, Indu; Sunderram, Jag; Black, Kathleen; Twumasi, Akosua; Udasin, Iris; Harrison, Denise; Carson, Jeffrey L; Lu, Shou-En; Rapoport, David M

    2015-09-10

    Following the World Trade Center disaster, a large number of individuals involved in rescue and recovery activity were exposed to significant amounts of dust, and reported symptoms of chronic nasal and sinus inflammation. An unusually high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has also been observed in this World Trade Center Responder population. This project aims to examine the relationship between nasal pathology and OSA. Our hypothesis is that increased nasal resistance due to nasal inflammation predisposes to OSA in this population. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) is the standard therapy for OSA but despite its efficacy has poor adherence. Subjects with high nasal resistance may have greater difficulty in tolerating this therapy than those who do not have high nasal resistance. Reduction of excess expiratory positive pressure by the modality known as Cflex(™) during Continuous Positive Airway Pressure therapy (CPAP(Flex)) has been suggested to improve comfort without compromising efficacy. We will compare CPAP to CPAP(Flex) in subjects with OSA. Subjects with new onset habitual snoring will be screened for OSA using home sleep studies and rhinomanometry will be used to determine nasal resistance. In 400 subjects with OSA we will perform a randomized double blind cross-over study comparing CPAP to CPAP(flex), and relate nasal resistance to adherence to CPAP therapy. This is the first multicenter trial designed to test the hypothesis that adherence to CPAP therapy relates to nasal resistance and CPAP(Flex) will improve adherence to CPAP in those subjects with high nasal resistance. We anticipate the following results from this trial: 1. Increased nasal resistance is associated with decreased adherence to CPAP therapy. 2. Use of CPAP(Flex) improves adherence with CPAP therapy in subjects with high nasal resistance, but not in those with low nasal resistance. 3. The benefit of CPAP(Flex) on adherence is greatest when offered at CPAP therapy

  10. Evaluating Respondent-Driven Sampling as an Implementation Tool For Universal Coverage of Antiretroviral Studies among Men who have Sex with Men Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Baral, Stefan D.; Ketende, Sosthenes; Schwartz, Sheree; Orazulike, Ifeanyi; Ugoh, Kelechi; Peel, Sheila; Ake, Julie; Blattner, William; Charurat, Manhattan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The TRUST model based on experimental and observational data posits that integration of HIV prevention and universal coverage of antiretroviral treatment (UCT) at a trusted community venue provides a framework for achieving effective reduction in HIV-related morbidity and mortality among men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV as well as reducing HIV incidence. The analyses presented here evaluate the utility of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) as an implementation tool for engaging MSM in the TRUST intervention. Methods The TRUST integrated prevention and treatment model was established at a trusted community center serving MSM in Abuja Nigeria. Five seeds have resulted in 3–26 waves of accrual between March, 2013 and August, 2014 with results presented here characterizing HIV burden and engagement in HIV care for 722 men across study recruitment waves. For analytic purposes, the waves were collapsed into five groups; four equally spaced (0–4, 5–9, 10–14, 15–19) and one ranging from the 20 to the 26th wave with significance assessed using Pearson’s chi-squared test. Results In earlier waves, MSM were more likely to have reported testing for HIV (82.9% in waves 0–4, 47.7% in waves 20–26, p<0.01). In addition, biologically-confirmed HIV prevalence decreased from an average of 59.1 to 42.9% (p<0.05) in later waves. In earlier waves, about 80% of participants correctly reported their HIV status as compared to less than 25% in the later waves (p<0.01). Lastly, participants reporting being on ART decreased from 50% to 22.2 % in later waves (p<0.01). Conclusions Implementation science studies focused on demonstrating impact of universal HIV-treatment programs among people living with HIV necessitate different accrual methods than those focused on preventing HIV acquisition. Here, RDS was shown to be an efficient method for reaching marginalized populations of MSM living with HIV in Nigeria and engaging them in universal HIV treatment

  11. Clinical characteristics of elderly patients with proton pump inhibitor-refractory non-erosive reflux disease from the G-PRIDE study who responded to rikkunshito

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence and severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Japan tends to increase in elderly women. Rikkunshito (RKT), a traditional Japanese medicine, acts as a prokinetic agent and improves gastric emptying and gastric accommodation. Our previous prospective randomized placebo-controlled study showed that RKT combined with a standard-dose of rabeprazole (RPZ) significantly improved the acid-related dysmotility symptoms (ARD) in elderly patients with proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-refractory non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). This study aimed to evaluate clinical characteristics of elderly PPI-refractory NERD patients with ARD symptoms who responded to RKT. Methods Two hundred forty-two patients with PPI-refractory NERD were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of either RPZ (10 mg/q.d.) + RKT (7.5 g/t.i.d.) (RKT group) or RPZ + placebo (PL group). Among them, 95 were elderly (≥65 years) with ARD (RKT group: n = 52; PL group: n = 43). We analyzed the changes using the 12 subscale score of frequency scale for the symptoms of GERD (FSSG) and 15 items of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale at 4 and 8 weeks and compared the therapeutic efficacy between the 2 groups. Results There were no marked differences in baseline demographic or clinical characteristics in the 2 groups except for rate of current smoking. The FSSG score (mean ± SD at 0, 4, and 8 weeks) in both the RKT (16.0 ± 7.0; 9.9 ± 8.4; 7.0 ± 6.4) and PL (15.1 ± 6.4; 10.9 ± 6.7, 11.1 ± 8.5) groups significantly decreased after treatment. However, the degree of improvement of total and ARD scores of FSSG after the 8-week treatment was significantly greater in the RKT group than in the PL group. Combination therapy with RKT for 8 weeks showed significant improvement in 3 subscale scores (abdominal bloating, heavy feeling in stomach and sick feeling after meals) of the ARD domain and 1 subscale score (heartburn after meals) of the reflux symptom domain

  12. Neonatal Early Warning Tools for recognising and responding to clinical deterioration in neonates cared for in the maternity setting: A retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Paliwoda, Michelle; New, Karen; Bogossian, Fiona

    2016-09-01

    All newborns are at risk of deterioration as a result of failing to make the transition to extra uterine life. Signs of deterioration can be subtle and easily missed. It has been postulated that the use of an Early Warning Tool may assist clinicians in recognising and responding to signs of deterioration earlier in neonates, thereby preventing a serious adverse event. To examine whether observations from a Standard Observation Tool, applied to three neonatal Early Warning Tools, would hypothetically trigger an escalation of care more frequently than actual escalation of care using the Standard Observation Tool. A retrospective case-control study. A maternity unit in a tertiary public hospital in Australia. Neonates born in 2013 of greater than or equal to 34(+0) weeks gestation, admitted directly to the maternity ward from their birthing location and whose subsequent deterioration required admission to the neonatal unit, were identified as cases from databases of the study hospital. Each case was matched with three controls, inborn during the same period and who did not experience deterioration and neonatal unit admission. Clinical and physiological data recorded on a Standard Observation Tool, from time of admission to the maternity ward, for cases and controls were charted onto each of three Early Warning Tools. The primary outcome was whether the tool 'triggered an escalation of care'. Descriptive statistics (n, %, Mean and SD) were employed. Cases (n=26) comprised late preterm, early term and post-term neonates and matched by gestational age group with 3 controls (n=78). Overall, the Standard Observation Tool triggered an escalation of care for 92.3% of cases compared to the Early Warning Tools; New South Wales Health 80.8%, United Kingdom Newborn Early Warning Chart 57.7% and The Australian Capital Territory Neonatal Early Warning Score 11.5%. Subgroup analysis by gestational age found differences between the tools in hypothetically triggering an escalation of

  13. Emergency responders' critical infrared (ERCI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konsin, Larry S.

    2004-08-01

    Emergency Responders (Fire, Police, Medical, and Emergency Management) face a high risk of injury or death. Even before September 11, 2001, public and private organizations have been driven to better protect Emergency Responders through education, training and improved technology. Recent research on Emergency Responder safety, health risks, and personal protective requirements, shows infrared (IR) imaging as a critical need. Today"s Emergency Responders are increasingly challenged to do more, facing demands requiring technological assistance and/or solutions. Since the introduction of Fire Service IR imaging in the mid 1990s, applications have increased. Emergency response IR is no longer just seeing through smoke to find victims or the seat of a fire. Many more mission critical needs now exist across the broad spectrum of emergency response. At the same time, Emergency Responder injuries and deaths are increasing. The Office of Domestic Preparedness (ODP) has also recognized IR imaging as critical in protecting our communities -- and in preventing many of the injuries and deaths of Emergency Responders. Currently, only 25% of all fire departments (or less than 7% of individual firefighters) have IR imaging. Availability to Police, EMS and Emergency Management is even lower. Without ERCI, Emergency Responders and our communities are at risk.

  14. Responder Technology Alert (February 2015)

    SciTech Connect

    Upton, Jaki F.; Stein, Steven L.

    2015-04-10

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  15. School Principals and Racism: Responding to Aveling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Claire; Mahoney, Caroline; Fox, Brandi; Halse, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This study responds to Nado Aveling's call in "Anti-racism in Schools: A question of leadership?" ("Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education," 2007, 28(1), 69-85) for further investigation into racism in Australian schools. Aveling's interview study concluded that an overwhelming number of school principals…

  16. School Principals and Racism: Responding to Aveling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Claire; Mahoney, Caroline; Fox, Brandi; Halse, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This study responds to Nado Aveling's call in "Anti-racism in Schools: A question of leadership?" ("Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education," 2007, 28(1), 69-85) for further investigation into racism in Australian schools. Aveling's interview study concluded that an overwhelming number of school principals…

  17. Responding to a Suicide Emergency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this! Home » Health Tips Responding To A Suicide Emergency Suicide takes the lives of nearly 40,000 Americans ... year saving those who try to kill themselves. "Suicide can be prevented if people learn to recognize ...

  18. Pilot study using 3D-longitudinal strain computation in a multi-parametric approach for best selecting responders to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Fournet, Maxime; Bernard, Anne; Marechaux, Sylvestre; Galli, Elena; Martins, Raphael; Mabo, Philippe; Daubert, J Claude; Leclercq, Christophe; Hernandez, Alfredo; Donal, Erwan

    2017-06-17

    Almost all attempts to improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) using echo-derived indices have failed so far. We sought to assess: the performance of homemade software for the automatic quantification of integral 3D regional longitudinal strain curves exploring left ventricular (LV) mechanics and the potential value of this tool to predict CRT response. Forty-eight heart failure patients in sinus rhythm, referred for CRT-implantation (mean age: 65 years; LV-ejection fraction: 26%; QRS-duration: 160 milliseconds) were prospectively explored. Thirty-four patients (71%) had positive responses, defined as an LV end-systolic volume decrease ≥15% at 6-months. 3D-longitudinal strain curves were exported for analysis using custom-made algorithms. The integrals of the longitudinal strain signals (I L,peak) were automatically measured and calculated for all 17 LV-segments. The standard deviation of longitudinal strain peak (SDI L,peak ) for all 17 LV-segments was greater in CRT responders than non-responders (1.18% s(-1) [0.96; 1.35] versus 0.83% s(-1) [0.55; 0.99], p = 0.007). The optimal cut-off value of SDI L,peak to predict response was 1.037%.s(-1). In the 18-patients without septal flash, SDI L,peak was significantly higher in the CRT-responders. This new automatic software for analyzing 3D longitudinal strain curves is avoiding previous limitations of imaging techniques for assessing dyssynchrony and then its value will have to be tested in a large group of patients.

  19. How Teachers Respond to Children's Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Susan; Randall, Kellie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how teachers respond when children engage in inquiry-based deviations from a planned task. Thirty-one teachers each completed a brief science activity and accompanying worksheet with a student confederate. Teachers were given one of two goals for the study: help the students complete a worksheet or help the students learn more…

  20. Mischievous responding in Internet Gaming Disorder research.

    PubMed

    Przybylski, Andrew K

    2016-01-01

    The most recent update to the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) included Internet Gaming Disorder as a new potential psychiatric condition that merited further scientific study. The present research was conducted in response to the APA Substance-Related Disorders Working Group's research call to estimate the extent to which mischievous responding-a known problematic pattern of participant self-report responding in questionnaires-is relevant to Internet Gaming Disorder research. In line with a registered sampling and analysis plan, findings from two studies (n tot = 11,908) provide clear evidence that mischievous responding is positively associated with the number of Internet Gaming Disorder indicators participants report. Results are discussed in the context of ongoing problem gaming research and the discussion provides recommendations for improving the quality of scientific practice in this area.

  1. Risky sexual networks and concentrated HIV epidemics among men who have sex with men in Wenzhou, China: a respondent-driven sampling study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiaoqin; Zeng, Shidian; Xia, Shichang; Pan, Xiaohong; Wang, Dayong; Zhu, Haishen; Wang, Hui; Jiang, Tingting; He, Lin; Zhao, Dongshe; Peng, Zhihang

    2015-12-16

    The high and continually increasing prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China underscores the critical importance of examining the exact sexual networks that result in HIV transmission, as well as HIV infection, using powerful sampling methods, such as respondent-driven sampling (RDS), to improve the sexual health of this population. Using RDS, a cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in Wenzhou, Zhejiang province, China from December 2013 to June 2014. The type of sex, numbers of anal sex partners, male oral sex partners and vaginal sex partners, condom use during each type of sex over the previous 6 months, prevention behaviors, risk perception, and the burdens of HIV and syphilis were investigated and analyzed. Of 424 MSM, a great number of them did anal sex, male oral sex, and vaginal sex during the previous 6 months, and weighted estimates for the prevalence that MSM did not conduct these sexual behaviors were 11.2 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] =6.7-16.50 %), 20.3 % (95 % CI = 15.2-27.1 %), and 58.9 % (95 % CI = 52.1-65.8 %), respectively. Multiple sexual partners, engaging in regular, casual and commercial sex, and lack of condom use during all types of sex were common among MSM. The estimated HIV and syphilis prevalences were 22.8 % (95 % CI = 16.9-28.5 %) and 9.7 % (95 % CI = 6.4-13.6 %), respectively. Of the participants, 53.5 % (95 % CI = 45.3-60.2 %) received HIV-related interventions during the previous year, 48.1 % (95 % CI = 39.7-55.1 %) had never been tested for HIV, and only 14.1 % (95 % CI =10.1-19.2 %) perceived a risk of contracting HIV. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age over 44 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.60, 95 % CI = 1.34-9.64), a monthly income of 3001-4000 yuan (approximately 470-630 US$) (AOR = 1.96, 95 % CI = 1.67-3.60), multiple anal sex partners (AOR = 1.93, 95

  2. Alterations of GABAA receptor subunit mRNA levels associated with increases in punished responding induced by acute alprazolam administration: an in situ hybridization study.

    PubMed

    Liu, M; Glowa, J R

    1999-03-20

    Changes in the mRNA encoding alpha1, alpha2, beta2 and gamma2 subunits of the GABAA receptor associated with the anxiolytic effects of alprazolam were measured in 20 brain regions using in situ hybridization techniques. Compared to non-punished controls, punishment decreased alpha1 mRNA levels in two nuclei of the amygdala, the cerebral cortex, and the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus and decreased alpha2 mRNA levels in the hippocampus. Punishment increased beta2 mRNA levels in ventroposterior thalamic nucleus and gamma2 mRNA levels in the CA2 area of the hippocampus. All of these effects were reversed when alprazolam increased punished responding, while alprazolam alone had no effect on either non-punished responding or GABAA receptor subunit regulation in these brain regions. Some brain regions that were unaffected by punishment were altered by alprazolam plus punishment. These results demonstrate that punishment and alprazolam can produce reciprocal changes in the mRNA levels for some subunits of the GABAA receptor. These changes may alter GABAergic synaptic inhibition by altering the density of GABAA receptors or their efficacy to bind drugs. They suggest that the underlying mechanisms by which drugs affect behavior can depend upon the conditions under which behavior is assessed. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  3. Comparison of the ultrashort gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist-antagonist protocol with microdose flare -up protocol in poor responders: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Berker, Bülent; Duvan, Candan İltemir; Kaya, Cemil; Aytaç, Ruşen; Şatıroğlu, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the potential effect of the ultrashort gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist/GnRH antagonist protocol versus the microdose GnRH agonist protocol in poor responders undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Material and Methods The patients in the Agonist-Antagonist Group (n=41) were administered the ultrashort GnRH-agonist/ antagonist protocol, while the patients in the Microdose Group (n=41) were stimulated according to the microdose flare-up protocol. The mean number of mature oocytes retrieved was the primary outcome measure. Fertilization rate, implantation rate per embryo and clinical pregnancy rates were secondary outcome measures. Results There was no differenc between the mean number of mature oocytes retrieved in the two groups. There were also no statistical differences between the two groups in terms of peak serum E2 level, canceled cycles, endometrial thickness on hCG day, number of 2 pronucleus and number of embryos transferred. However, the total gonadotropin consumption and duration of stimulation were significantly higher with the Agonist-Antagonist Group compared with the Microdose Group. The implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were similar between the two groups. Conclusion Despite the high dose of gonadotropin consumption and longer duration of stimulation with the ultrashort GnRH agonist/ antagonist protocol, it seems that the Agonist-Antagonist Protocol is not inferior to the microdose protocol in poor responders undergoing ICSI. PMID:24591934

  4. Differential DNA methylation patterns between high and low responders to a weight loss intervention in overweight or obese adolescents: the EVASYON study.

    PubMed

    Moleres, Adriana; Campión, Javier; Milagro, Fermín I; Marcos, Ascensión; Campoy, Cristina; Garagorri, Jesús M; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Martínez, J Alfredo; Azcona-Sanjulián, M Cristina; Martí, Amelia

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, epigenetic markers emerged as a new tool to understand the influence of lifestyle factors on obesity phenotypes. Adolescence is considered an important epigenetic window over a human's lifetime. The objective of this work was to explore baseline changes in DNA methylation that could be associated with a better weight loss response after a multidisciplinary intervention program in Spanish obese or overweight adolescents. Overweight or obese adolescents (n=107) undergoing 10 wk of a multidisciplinary intervention for weight loss were assigned as high or low responders to the treatment. A methylation microarray was performed to search for baseline epigenetic differences between the 2 groups (12 subjects/group), and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was used to validate (n=107) relevant CpG sites and surrounding regions. After validation, 5 regions located in or near AQP9, DUSP22, HIPK3, TNNT1, and TNNI3 genes showed differential methylation levels between high and low responders to the multidisciplinary weight loss intervention. Moreover, a calculated methylation score was significantly associated with changes in weight, BMI-SDS, and body fat mass loss after the treatment. In summary, we have identified 5 DNA regions that are differentially methylated depending on weight loss response. These methylation changes may help to better understand the weight loss response in obese adolescents.

  5. Changes in glucose disposal after a caloric restriction-induced weight loss program in obese postmenopausal women: characteristics of positive and negative responders in a Montreal-Ottawa New Emerging Team study.

    PubMed

    Myette-Côté, Étienne; Doucet, Éric; Prud'homme, Denis; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Brochu, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate individual characteristics that explain interindividual variations in glucose disposal in response to a 6-month weight loss program in obese postmenopausal women. The cohort was divided into tertiles based on changes in glucose disposal after weight loss. Only women in the upper tertile (positive responders: Δ glucose disposal ≥ 0.92 mg/kg/min; n = 19) and lower tertile (negative responders: Δ glucose disposal ≤ -0.23 mg/kg/min; n = 19) were considered for analyses. Outcome measures included body weight, lean body mass (LBM), LBM index (= LBM / height [m]), fat mass (FM), FM index (= FM / height [m]), visceral fat, subcutaneous abdominal fat, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels, interleukin-6, lipid profile, physical activity levels, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, glucose disposal by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique, and resting blood pressure. At baseline, positive responders had higher triglycerides and hsCRP levels and lower glucose disposal (0.01 < P < 0.05) than negative responders. Except for visceral fat, the entire cohort showed significant decreases in all measures of body composition (P < 0.005) after weight loss, with greater decreases in body weight, body mass index, and FM index in positive responders (P < 0.005). Finally, data revealed that only positive responders showed decreases in LBM, LBM index, and hsCRP levels after weight loss (P between 0.01 and 0.001). An important interindividual variability in changes in glucose disposal after weight loss is observed. Interestingly, participants who display improvements in glucose disposal also show significant decreases in LBM, LBM index, and hsCRP after weight loss.

  6. Preschool Needle Pain Responding: Establishing 'Normal'.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Jordana A; DiLorenzo, Miranda G; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca R; Flora, David B; Greenberg, Saul; Garfield, Hartley

    2017-02-11

    The current study sets forth to provide both descriptive data for preschool vaccination pain responding and examine longitudinal relationships over early childhood. Growth mixture modeling (GMM) was first used to describe stable subgroups of preschoolers based on their pain response patterns over 2-minutes post-needle. Secondly, a parallel-process growth curve model was used to assess the stability of acute pain responding from 12-months of age to preschool age. Specifically, we examined whether preschool pain-related distress or regulation could be predicted from 12-month acute pain responding. Preschool participants were part of a Canadian longitudinal cohort (The OUCH Cohort; N = 302). GMM analyses discerned 3 distinct groups of preschoolers, with an important minority not regulating to low-no pain by 2 minutes post-needle. There were no significant associations between 12-month and preschool pain responding. These results highlight the steep trajectory of development between these different stages of early childhood and the variability of pain responding at the preschool vaccination.

  7. Immunoglobulin treatment in post-polio syndrome: Identification of responders and non-responders.

    PubMed

    Östlund, Gunilla; Broman, Lisbet; Werhagen, Lars; Borg, Kristian

    2015-09-01

    To define and characterize responders and non-responders in a group of 124 patients with post-polio syndrome who received a single treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. Open trial, prospective follow-up study. Clinical examination and data from medical records. Short Form 36 (SF-36), Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and visual analogue scale (VAS) measured quality of life, physical activity and intensity of pain, respectively. Data were obtained before treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Two responder groups were identified with the outcome SF-36 Vitality and 3 with Bodily pain, respectively. Forty-five percent were positive-responders, identified before treatment by reduced physical function, muscle atrophy in the lower extremities, higher levels of fatigue and pain, and a VAS pain score above 20. Negative-responders were identified by good physical function and mental health, lesser muscle atrophy in the lower extremities, and low levels of fatigue and pain. Intravenous immunoglobulin is a biological intervention, and therefore it is important to be able to identify responders and non-responders. In order to maximize a positive outcome it is suggested that patients with a high level of fatigue and/or pain and reduced physical function are selected.

  8. In situ studies of the primary immune response to (4-hydroxy-3- nitrophenyl)acetyl. I. The architecture and dynamics of responding cell populations

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    After primary immunization with an immunogenic conjugate of (4-hydroxy- 3-nitrophenyl)acetyl, two anatomically and phenotypically distinct populations of antibody-forming cells arise in the spleen. As early as 2 d after immunization, foci of antigen-binding B cells are observed along the periphery of the periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths. These foci expand, occupying as much as 1% of the splenic volume by day 8 of the response. Later, foci grow smaller and are virtually absent from the spleen by day 14. A second responding population, germinal center B cells, appear on day 8-10 and persist at least until day 16 post- immunization. Individual foci and germinal centers represent discrete pauciclonal populations that apparently undergo somatic evolution in the course of the primary response. We suggest that foci may represent regions of predominantly interclonal competition for antigen among unmutated B cells, while germinal centers are sites of intraclonal clonal competition between mutated sister lymphocytes. PMID:1902502

  9. 42 CFR 93.225 - Respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respondent. 93.225 Section 93.225 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON...

  10. How Students Explain and Teachers Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drageset, Ove Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    This article develops three different types of student explanations and studies how teachers respond to these. The data come from five classrooms at upper grade 5-7 (ages from eleven to thirteen) where all mathematics teaching for one week was filmed. These films were transcribed and student explanations identified. Through a close inspection of…

  11. Responding to Complaints of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakeshaft, Charol

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes a study of 225 cases between 1990 and 1994 involving sexual abuse or harassment complaints against teachers. Interviews revealed how districts respond to complaints and the most effective preventive policies and procedures. School districts with rare occurrences screen prospective employees, have strong and clear policies, educate staff…

  12. Variations in Survey Respondent Selection by Telephone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaziano, Cecilie

    This paper describes seven studies (all that could be found on the subject) comparing nine respondent selection procedures with regard to their potential to reduce refusal rates and to increase representativeness of samples; particular concerns are underrepresentation of men and multiple-adult households. The paper states that (1) the seven…

  13. Responding to Misinformation about Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Eva K.; Estow, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This study examined responses to climate change misinformation and messages designed to counter misinformation. Participants (N = 406) first responded to a social media post denying the existence of global warming and then were randomly assigned to read one of three responses to the original post (correction, collaboration, control). Participants…

  14. 42 CFR 93.225 - Respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Respondent. 93.225 Section 93.225 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  15. 42 CFR 93.225 - Respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Respondent. 93.225 Section 93.225 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  16. 42 CFR 93.225 - Respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Respondent. 93.225 Section 93.225 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  17. 42 CFR 93.225 - Respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Respondent. 93.225 Section 93.225 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  18. Responding to a Choking Emergency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & ... Find a Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Sports Injuries Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Health Issues > Injuries & Emergencies > Responding to a Choking Emergency ...

  19. Learning as Calling and Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jons, Lotta

    2014-01-01

    According to Martin Buber's philosophy of dialogue, our being-in-the-world is to be conceived of as an existential dialogue. Elsewhere, I have conceptualized the teacher-student-relation accordingly (see Jons 2008), as a matter of calling and responding. The conceptualization rests on a secularised notion of vocation, paving way for…

  20. Responding to Hate at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Tolerance, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Describes a publication from Teaching Tolerance that is designed to help schools prepare for and respond effectively to bias incidents so that they can become catalysts for positive change. Presents two of the guidelines: (1) create an unwelcome environment for hate speech and symbols; and (2) put the lid on graffiti and other vandalism. (SLD)

  1. Responding to the Invisible Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Investigates what constitutes good reflection. Describes how one instructor used the Myers-Briggs type indicator (MBTI) to explore her responses to the reflective writing produced by preservice English teachers. Concludes that the MBTI can provide insight into and improve how instructors assign, respond to, and evaluate student reflection.…

  2. Finding Respondents from Minority Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mier, Nelda; Medina, Alvaro A.; Bocanegra-Alonso, Anabel; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Acosta-Gonzalez, Rosa I.; Ramirez, Jose A.

    2006-01-01

    The recruitment of respondents belonging to ethnic minorities poses important challenges in social and health research. This paper reflects on the enablers and barriers to recruitment that we encountered in our research work with persons belonging to ethnic minorities. Additionally, we applied the Matching Model of Recruitment, a theoretical…

  3. Babies: Responding Appropriately to Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleer, Marilyn; Linke, Pam

    1999-01-01

    This issue of the Australian Early Childhood Association Research in Practice Series discusses how educators can observe and respond appropriately to the infants in their care. The booklet examines the two major opportunities for early childhood educators that have been shown to influence outcomes for infants: (1) the opportunity to help infants…

  4. Responding to Hate at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Tolerance, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Describes a publication from Teaching Tolerance that is designed to help schools prepare for and respond effectively to bias incidents so that they can become catalysts for positive change. Presents two of the guidelines: (1) create an unwelcome environment for hate speech and symbols; and (2) put the lid on graffiti and other vandalism. (SLD)

  5. Short dialyzed children respond less to growth hormone than patients prior to dialysis. German Study Group for Growth Hormone Treatment in Chronic Renal Failure.

    PubMed

    Wühl, E; Haffner, D; Nissel, R; Schaefer, F; Mehls, O

    1996-06-01

    Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is a new treatment modality for short children with chronic renal failure (CRF) prior to and during dialysis. It is difficult to analyze whether dialysis patients respond less to rhGH than children with CRF on conservative treatment because they are older and often in a pubertal age range. One hundred and eight patients were treated with 28-30 IU rhGH/kg per week for at least 1 year. We analyzed the growth response to rhGH in 56 prepubertal patients aged less than 10 years at the start of rhGH treatment; 38 children with a mean age of 6.5 +/- 2.4 years were on conservative treatment (CT) and 18 patients with a mean age of 6.5 +/- 2 years on dialysis treatment (D). Mean height velocity was 4.9 +/- 2.3 cm/year in children on CT and 4.6 +/- 1.8 cm/year in children on D. During the 1st treatment year, height velocity was 9.5 +/- 3.8 cm/year in CT patients and 7.3 +/- 1.3 cm/year in D patients (P < 0.05). The change in height was +1.1 +/- 0.8 standard deviation (SD) in CT patients and +0.5 +/- 0.4 SD in D patients (P < 0.005). During the 2nd treatment year, the change in height was again greater in CT patients (0.5 +/- 0.4 SD vs. 0.2 +/- 0.4 SD; P < 0.05). The difference in height velocity and change in height standard deviation score was also significant when a subgroup of patients was matched for sex, age, height. Height velocity and the change in height velocity during rhGH treatment were not correlated with residual renal function, the degree of anemia, or metabolic acidosis. We conclude that short children on D respond less to rhGH than short children on CT, indicating a greater insensitivity to rhGH during D treatment.

  6. [Anti-HBs persistence following primary vaccination with three doses of hepatitis B vaccine among normal and high-responder adults: a 3-year follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Lyu, J J; Zhang, L; Yan, B Y; Liu, J Y; Feng, Y; Song, L Z; Chen, S Y; Zhou, L B; Liang, X F; Cui, F Q; Wang, F Z; Xu, A Q

    2016-06-01

    To assess the 3-year anti-HBs persistence after primary vaccination with three-dose of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) among normal and high-responder adults. A total of 24 237 healthy adults who had no histories of hepatitis B infection and hepatitis B vaccination, resided in local areas for more than six months and were aged 18-49 years were selected from 79 villages of Zhangqiu county, Shandong province, China in 2009. Blood samples were obtained and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) and antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) were detected using ELISA method. A total of 11 590 persons who were negative for all of these indicators were divided into four groups by cluster sampling method. Each group was vaccinated with one of the following four types of HepB at 0-1-6 months schedule: 20 μg HepB derived in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (HepB-SC), 20 μg HepB derived in Chinese hamster ovary cell (HepB-CHO), 10 μg HepB-SC and 10 μg HepB derived in Hansenula polymorpha (HepB-HP). Blood samples were collected one month after the third dose of primary immunization and tested for anti-HBs using chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). During the follow-up to normal and high-responders, the following information was collected: the demographic characteristic (including age and gender), histories of hepatitis B infection, hepatitis B vaccination, smoking, drinking and chronic diseases. Blood samples were collected one month (T1) and three years after primary vaccination (T2) and anti-HBs, anti-HBc and HBsAg (if anti-HBs<10 mU/ml) were detected by CMIA. The risk factors associated with positive rate of anti-HBs and GMC of anti-HBs were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis and multifactor linear regression model analysis, respectively. A total of 4 677 normal and high-responders were identified. Among 4 677 participants, 2 014 (43.06%) were males and 2 663 (56.94%) were females. The

  7. Impact of persistent, frequent regurgitation on quality of life in heartburn responders treated with acid suppression: a multinational primary care study.

    PubMed

    Kahrilas, P J; Howden, C W; Wernersson, B; Denison, H; Nuevo, J; Gisbert, J P

    2013-05-01

    In gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), heartburn responds well to acid suppression, but regurgitation is a common cause of incomplete treatment response. To assess the prevalence and burden of persistent, frequent regurgitation in primary care patients with GERD treated with acid suppression. We analysed observational data from 134 sites across six European countries in patients diagnosed with GERD. Within 3 months of the index visit, symptoms were assessed using the Reflux Disease Questionnaire, and their impact on sleep and work productivity with the Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia questionnaire and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire, respectively. Patients provided information on concomitant over-the-counter (OTC) GERD medication use. Persistent, frequent (3-7 days/week) regurgitation was reported by 13.2% (153/1156) of GERD patients with no heartburn on acid suppression; the prevalence was very similar for patients with up to 2 days/week of ongoing mild heartburn. Among patients without heartburn, sleep disturbance of any type was reported by 50.7-60.1% with persistent, frequent regurgitation, compared with 38.1-51.1% and 14.4-19.2% of those with less frequent or no regurgitation respectively. Persistent, frequent regurgitation was associated with increased use of OTC medication and more hours of work missed, whether mild, infrequent heartburn was present or not. Frequent regurgitation, which persisted in 12-13% of patients with no or infrequent, mild heartburn on acid suppression, negatively affected sleep and work productivity, and increased use of OTC medication. Persistent, frequent regurgitation is problematic for primary care patients with GERD. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and risk behaviours among female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya: results of a respondent driven sampling study.

    PubMed

    Musyoki, Helgar; Kellogg, Timothy A; Geibel, Scott; Muraguri, Nicholas; Okal, Jerry; Tun, Waimar; Fisher Raymond, H; Dadabhai, Sufia; Sheehy, Meredith; Kim, Andrea A

    2015-02-01

    We conducted a respondent driven sampling survey to estimate HIV prevalence and risk behavior among female sex workers (FSWs) in Nairobi, Kenya. Women aged 18 years and older who reported selling sex to a man at least once in the past 3 months were eligible to participate. Consenting FSWs completed a behavioral questionnaire and were tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Adjusted population-based prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using RDS analysis tool. Factors significantly associated with HIV infection were assessed using log-binomial regression analysis. A total of 596 eligible participants were included in the analysis. Overall HIV prevalence was 29.5 % (95 % CI 24.7-34.9). Median age was 30 years (IQR 25-38 years); median duration of sex work was 12 years (IQR 8-17 years). The most frequent client-seeking venues were bars (76.6 %) and roadsides (29.3 %). The median number of clients per week was seven (IQR 4-18 clients). HIV testing was high with 86.6 % reported ever been tested for HIV and, of these, 63.1 % testing within the past 12 months. Of all women, 59.7 % perceived themselves at 'great risk' for HIV infection. Of HIV-positive women, 51.0 % were aware of their infection. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, inconsistent condom use with paying clients, and use of a male condom as a method of contraception were independently associated with unrecognized HIV infection. Prevalence among STIs was low, ranging from 0.9 % for syphilis, 1.1 % for gonorrhea, and 3.1 % for Chlamydia. The data suggest high prevalence of HIV among FSWs in Nairobi. Targeted and routine HIV and STI combination prevention strategies need to be scaled up or established to meet the needs of this population.

  9. [Antibody persistence following primary vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine among normal and high-responder adults: a 5-year follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Wu, W L; Yan, B Y; Lyu, J J; Liu, J Y; Feng, Y; Chen, S Y; Zhou, L B; Liang, X F; Cui, F Q; Wang, F Z; Zhang, G M; Zhang, L; Xu, A Q

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the 5-year antibody persistence and the risk factors associated with the persistence after primary vaccination of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) among normal or high-response adults. A total of 24 237 healthy adults who had no histories of hepatitis B infection and hepatitis B vaccination, resided in the local area for more than six months and were aged 18-49 years were selected from 79 villages in north of Zhangqiu county, Shandong province, China in 2009. Blood samples were obtained and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) and antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) were detected using ELISA method. A total of 11 590 persons who were negative for all of these indicators were divided into four groups by cluster sampling methods. Each group was vaccinated with one of the following four types of HepB at 0-1-6 months schedule: 20 μg HepB derived in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (HepB-SC), 20 μg HepB derived in Chinese hamster ovary cell (HepB-CHO), 10 μg HepB-SC and 10 μg HepB derived in Hansenula polymorpha (HepB-HP). The normal and high-responder was followed up and their demographic characteristic (including age, gender), histories of hepatitis B infection, hepatitis B vaccination, smoking, drinking and chronic diseases were investigated. Blood samples were collected one month (T1) and five years (T2) and anti-HBs, anti-HBc and HBsAg (if anti-HBs<10 mU/ml) were detected by CMIA. A total of 1 902 participants were followed up and the risk factors associated with positive rate of anti-HBs and GMC of anti-HBs were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis and multifactor linear regression model analysis, respectively. Among 1 902 adults, 824 (43.32%) were male and 1 078 (56.68%) were female. The anti-HBs positive rate was 100% at T1 and it decreased to 73.29% (1 394 cases) at T2. The corresponding GMC was decreased from 1 527.15 (95%CI: 1 437.84-1 622.01) mU/ml at T1 to 35.07 (95%CI

  10. Biodetection Technologies for First Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, Cheryl L.; Seiner, Derrick R.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Colburn, Heather A.; Straub, Tim M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2012-10-24

    In a white powder scenario, there are a large number of field-deployable assays that can be used to determine if the suspicious substance contains biological material and warrants further investigation. This report summarizes commercially available technologies that are considered hand portable and can be used by first responders in the field. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, nor do the authors endorse any of the technologies described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about available technologies to help end-users make informed decisions about biodetection technology procurement and use.

  11. Paroxysmal hemicrania responding to topiramate.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A S; Goadsby, P J

    2009-01-01

    Chronic paroxysmal hemicrania (CPH) is a rare primary headache syndrome, which is classified along with cluster headache and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT) as a trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia. CPH is exquisitely responsive to indomethacin, so much so that the response is one of the current diagnostic criteria. The case of a patient with CPH, who had marked epigastric symptoms with indomethacin treatment and responded well to topiramate 150 mg daily, is reported. Cessation of topiramate caused return of episodes, and the response has persisted for 2 years. Topiramate may be a treatment option in CPH.

  12. Paroxysmal hemicrania responding to topiramate.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A S; Goadsby, P J

    2007-01-01

    Chronic paroxysmal hemicrania (CPH) is a rare primary headache syndrome, which is classified along with cluster headache and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT) as a trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia. CPH is exquisitely responsive to indomethacin so much so that the response is one of the current diagnostic criteria. The case of a patient with CPH, who had marked epigastric symptoms with indomethacin treatment and responded well to topiramate 150 mg daily, is reported. Cessation of topiramate caused return of episodes, and the response has persisted for 2 years. Topiramate may be a treatment option in CPH.

  13. Mischievous responding in Internet Gaming Disorder research

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The most recent update to the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) included Internet Gaming Disorder as a new potential psychiatric condition that merited further scientific study. The present research was conducted in response to the APA Substance-Related Disorders Working Group’s research call to estimate the extent to which mischievous responding—a known problematic pattern of participant self-report responding in questionnaires—is relevant to Internet Gaming Disorder research. In line with a registered sampling and analysis plan, findings from two studies (ntot = 11,908) provide clear evidence that mischievous responding is positively associated with the number of Internet Gaming Disorder indicators participants report. Results are discussed in the context of ongoing problem gaming research and the discussion provides recommendations for improving the quality of scientific practice in this area. PMID:27672496

  14. Brain Changes in Responders vs. Non-Responders in Chronic Migraine: Markers of Disease Reversal

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Catherine S.; Becerra, Lino; Smith, Jonathan H.; DeLange, Justin M.; Smith, Ryan M.; Black, David F.; Welker, Kirk M.; Burstein, Rami; Cutrer, Fred M.; Borsook, David

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify structural and functional brain changes that accompanied the transition from chronic (CM; ≥15 headache days/month) to episodic (EM; <15 headache days/month) migraine following prophylactic treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A). Specifically, we examined whether CM patients responsive to prophylaxis (responders; n = 11), as evidenced by a reversal in disease status (defined by at least a 50% reduction in migraine frequency and <15 headache days/month), compared to CM patients whose migraine frequency remained unchanged (non-responders; n = 12), showed differences in cortical thickness using surface-based morphometry. We also investigated whether areas showing group differences in cortical thickness displayed altered resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) using seed-to-voxel analyses. Migraine characteristics measured across groups included disease duration, pain intensity and headache frequency. Patient reports of headache frequency over the 4 weeks prior to (pre-treatment) and following (post-treatment) prophylaxis were compared (post minus pre) and this measure served as the clinical endpoint that determined group assignment. All patients were scanned within 2 weeks of the post-treatment visit. Results revealed that responders showed significant cortical thickening in the right primary somatosensory cortex (SI) and anterior insula (aINS), and left superior temporal gyrus (STG) and pars opercularis (ParsOp) compared to non-responders. In addition, disease duration was negatively correlated with cortical thickness in fronto-parietal and temporo-occipital regions in responders but not non-responders, with the exception of the primary motor cortex (MI) that showed the opposite pattern; disease duration was positively associated with MI cortical thickness in responders versus non-responders. Our seed-based RS-FC analyses revealed anti-correlations between the SI seed and lateral occipital (LOC) and dorsomedial

  15. Emotional Risks to Respondents in Survey Research: Some Empirical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Labott, Susan M.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Fendrich, Michael; Feeny, Norah C.

    2014-01-01

    Some survey research has documented distress in respondents with pre-existing emotional vulnerabilities, suggesting the possibility of harm. In this study, respondents were interviewed about a personally distressing event; mood, stress, and emotional reactions were assessed. Two days later, respondents participated in interventions to either enhance or alleviate the effects of the initial interview. Results indicated that distressing interviews increased stress and negative mood, although no adverse events occurred. Between the interviews, moods returned to baseline. Respondents who again discussed a distressing event reported moods more negative than those who discussed a neutral or a positive event. This study provides evidence that, among nonvulnerable survey respondents, interviews on distressing topics can result in negative moods and stress, but they do not harm respondents. PMID:24169422

  16. Protecting Respondent Confidentiality in Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Karen

    2009-01-01

    For qualitative researchers, maintaining respondent confidentiality while presenting rich, detailed accounts of social life presents unique challenges. These challenges are not adequately addressed in the literature on research ethics and research methods. Using an example from a study of breast cancer survivors, I argue that by carefully considering the audience for one’s research and by re-envisioning the informed consent process, qualitative researchers can avoid confidentiality dilemmas that might otherwise lead them not to report rich, detailed data. PMID:19843971

  17. Responder and health-related quality of life analyses in men with lower urinary tract symptoms treated with a fixed-dose combination of solifenacin and tamsulosin oral-controlled absorption system: results from the NEPTUNE study.

    PubMed

    Drake, Marcus J; Sokol, Roman; Coyne, Karin; Hakimi, Zalmai; Nazir, Jameel; Dorey, Julie; Klaver, Monique; Traudtner, Klaudia; Odeyemi, Isaac A; Oelke, Matthias; van Kerrebroeck, Philip

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of a fixed-dose combination (FDC) of solifenacin and an oral-controlled absorption system (OCAS™) formulation of tamsulosin (TOCAS) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in men with lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH). Men with moderate-to-severe storage symptoms and voiding symptoms were treated for 12 weeks with a FDC of solifenacin 6 or 9 mg plus TOCAS (0.4 mg), TOCAS monotherapy (0.4 mg) or placebo in a randomised, double-blind study (NEPTUNE). The co-primary endpoints were Total Urgency Frequency Score (TUFS) and total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). HRQoL was assessed by several secondary endpoints: IPSS QoL index, overactive bladder questionnaire (OAB-q), and Patient Global Impression (PGI) scale. The correlation between symptom improvement (TUFS) and HRQoL was assessed by Spearman rank correlation coefficients. Single and double responder analyses, using subjective and objective measures, were also performed. In the responder analyses, men treated with a FDC of solifenacin 6 mg plus TOCAS consistently had significantly improved outcomes compared with placebo (8/8 responder analyses performed) and TOCAS (6/8 responder analyses performed). There was a significant correlation (P < 0.001) between the reduction in TUFS and the improvement in HRQoL defined by IPSS QoL score, OAB-q symptom bother score, PGI overall bladder symptoms and PGI general health. In men with LUTS/BPH who have moderate-to-severe storage symptoms and voiding symptoms, the reduction in symptoms with a once-daily FDC of solifenacin and TOCAS was associated with consistent patient-relevant improvements in HRQoL compared with placebo and TOCAS monotherapy. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The microanalysis of fixed-interval responding

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, G. David; Weiss, Bernard; Laties, Victor G.

    1983-01-01

    The fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one of the more widely studied schedules in the experimental analysis of behavior and is also a common baseline for behavior pharmacology. Despite many intensive studies, the controlling variables and the pattern of behavior engendered are not well understood. The present study examined the microstructure and superstructure of the behavior engendered by a fixed-interval 5- and a fixed-interval 15-minute schedule of food reinforcement in the pigeon. Analysis of performance typical of fixed-interval responding indicated that the scalloped pattern does not result from smooth acceleration in responding, but, rather, from renewed pausing early in the interval. Individual interresponse-time (IRT) analyses provided no evidence of acceleration. There was a strong indication of alternation in shorter-longer IRTs, but these shorter-longer IRTs did not occur at random, reflecting instead a sequential dependency in successive IRTs. Furthermore, early in the interval there was a high relative frequency of short IRTs. Such a pattern of early pauses and short IRTs does not suggest behavior typical of reinforced responding as exemplified by the pattern found near the end of the interval. Thus, behavior from clearly scalloped performance can be classified into three states: postreinforcement pause, interim behavior, and terminal behavior. PMID:16812324

  19. Microanalysis of fixed-interval responding

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, G.D.; Weiss, B.; Laties, V.G.

    1983-03-01

    The fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one of the more widely studied schedules in the experimental analysis of behavior and is also a common baseline for behavior pharmacology. Despite many intensive studies, the controlling variables and the pattern of behavior engendered are not well understood. The present study examined the microstructure and superstructure of the behavior engendered by a fixed-interval 5- and a fixed-interval 15-minute schedule of food reinforcement in the pigeon. Analysis of performance typical of fixed-interval responding indicated that the scalloped pattern does not result from smooth acceleration in responding, but, rather, from renewed pausing early in the interval. Individual interresponse-time (IRT) analyses provided no evidence of acceleration. There was a strong indication of alternation is shorter-longer IRTs, but these shorter-longer IRTs did not occur at random, reflecting instead a sequential dependency in successive IRTs. Furthermore, early in the interval there was a high relative frequency of short IRTs. Such a pattern of early pauses and short IRTs does not suggest behavior typical of reinforced responding as exemplified by the pattern found near the end of the interval. Thus, behavior from clearly scalloped performance can be classified into three states: postreinforcement pause, interim behavior, and terminal behavior. 31 references, 11 figures, 4 tables.

  20. High-risk human papillomavirus detection in self-sampling compared to physician-taken smear in a responder population of the Dutch cervical screening: Results of the VERA study.

    PubMed

    Ketelaars, P J W; Bosgraaf, R P; Siebers, A G; Massuger, L F A G; van der Linden, J C; Wauters, C A P; Rahamat-Langendoen, J C; van den Brule, A J C; IntHout, J; Melchers, W J G; Bekkers, R L M

    2017-08-01

    In 2017 the cervical cancer screening program in The Netherlands will be revised. Cervical smears will primarily be tested for the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) instead of cytology, and vaginal self-sampling will be offered to non-responders. This includes a potential risk that part of the women who would otherwise opt for a cervical smear will wait for self-sampling. However, self-sampling for hrHPV in a responder population has never been studied yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability and accuracy of self-sampling in detecting hrHPV in a screening responder population. A total of 2049 women, aged 30-60years, participating in the screening program in The Netherlands were included from April 2013 to May 2015. After they had their cervical smear taken, women self-collected a cervicovaginal sample with a brush-based device, the Evalyn Brush. Both the cervical smear and self-sample specimen were tested with the COBAS 4800 HPV platform. The hrHPV prevalence was 8.0% (95% CI 6.9-9.2) among the physician-taken samples, and 10.0% (95% CI 8.7-11.3) among the self-samples. There was 96.8% (95% CI 96.0-97.5) concordance of hrHPV prevalence between self-samples and physician-taken samples. Women in our study evaluated self-sampling as convenient (97.1%), user-friendly (98.5%), and 62.8% preferred self-sampling over a physician-taken sampling for the next screening round. In conclusion, self-sampling showed high concordance with physician-taken sampling for hrHPV detection in a responder screening population and highly acceptable to women. Implementation of HPV-self-sampling for the responder population as a primary screening tool may be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 37 CFR 41.68 - Respondent's brief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respondent's brief. 41.68... Respondent's brief. (a)(1) Respondent(s) in an appeal may once, within the time limit for filing set forth in... title. (2) The brief must be signed by the party, or the party's duly authorized attorney or agent, and...

  2. 37 CFR 41.68 - Respondent's brief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... respondent does not file an amended respondent brief within the set time period, or files an amended.... (a)(1) Respondent(s) in an appeal may once, within the time limit for filing set forth in § 41.66... must be specified with particularity. (v) Summary of claimed subject matter. A statement accepting...

  3. Responding to Climate Change Interactive Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Matter, J. M.; Callahan, P.; Schlosser, P.

    2011-12-01

    While many institutions now have courses that teach climate from an earth or biological systems perspective, it is more challenging to address how to respond to climate change. Implementing adaptation and mitigation measures requires an interdisciplinary approach of involving stakeholders, identifying needs, resolving conflicts and taking action at levels ranging from local, to national and global. Through the upper level undergraduate course "Responding to Climate Change" taught at Barnard College and Columbia University, students engage in a variety of hands-on activities that help them navigate potential options. Activities include games, role play, case studies, scenario development, spatial planning, exploration of analogies, and conflict resolution exercises. Evaluation indicates that this interactive approach empowers students with scientific and technical knowledge, an understanding of how to deal with complexity, and optimism in their capacity to problem solve.

  4. An Observational Case Study of Four Second Grade General Education Students' Academic Responding and Inappropriate Behavior in the Presence of a Disruptive Student with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Steven F.; Jain, Sachin; Boone, Denise

    2010-01-01

    The current observational case study involves four second grade students without disabilities in a classroom in which a disruptive student with disabilities was included. The purpose of the study was to record and analyze the academic responses (AR) and inappropriate behaviors (IB) that were exhibited by students without disabilities in three…

  5. Responding to the Ideals of Lassallian Education in the 21st Century: A Case Study of St. Paul's Secondary School in Marsabit, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marius, Boya Francois; Teklemariam, Amanuel Abraha; Akala, Winston Jumba

    2011-01-01

    De La Salle Brothers are Christian educators operating in more than 80 countries, including Kenya. The purpose of this study was to find if the ideals of Lasallian education are being realized in the 21st century in Kenya and to establish whether the findings concur with the Lasallian philosophy of education. The study was conducted at St. Paul's…

  6. Responding to the Ideals of Lassallian Education in the 21st Century: A Case Study of St. Paul's Secondary School in Marsabit, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marius, Boya Francois; Teklemariam, Amanuel Abraha; Akala, Winston Jumba

    2011-01-01

    De La Salle Brothers are Christian educators operating in more than 80 countries, including Kenya. The purpose of this study was to find if the ideals of Lasallian education are being realized in the 21st century in Kenya and to establish whether the findings concur with the Lasallian philosophy of education. The study was conducted at St. Paul's…

  7. Chicana/o Students Respond to Arizona's Anti-Ethnic Studies Bill, SB 1108: Civic Engagement, Ethnic Identity, and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Anna Ochoa; Romero, Andrea J.

    2011-01-01

    Arizona Senate Bill 1108, the "anti-ethnic studies bill," proposed to eliminate ethnic studies programs and ethnic-based organizations from state-funded education. Along with other anti-immigrant legislation, this bill is creating an oppressive climate of discrimination against individuals of Mexican descent in Arizona. This study…

  8. Bubbles Responding to Ultrasound Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Bubble and Drop Nonlinear Dynamics (BDND) experiment was designed to improve understanding of how the shape and behavior of bubbles respond to ultrasound pressure. By understanding this behavior, it may be possible to counteract complications bubbles cause during materials processing on the ground. This 12-second sequence came from video downlinked from STS-94, July 5 1997, MET:3/19:15 (approximate). The BDND guest investigator was Gary Leal of the University of California, Santa Barbara. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced fluid dynamics experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (435KB, 13-second MPEG, screen 160 x 120 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300162.html.

  9. Bubbles Responding to Ultrasound Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Bubble and Drop Nonlinear Dynamics (BDND) experiment was designed to improve understanding of how the shape and behavior of bubbles respond to ultrasound pressure. By understanding this behavior, it may be possible to counteract complications bubbles cause during materials processing on the ground. This 12-second sequence came from video downlinked from STS-94, July 5 1997, MET:3/19:15 (approximate). The BDND guest investigator was Gary Leal of the University of California, Santa Barbara. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced fluid dynamics experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (435KB, 13-second MPEG, screen 160 x 120 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300162.html.

  10. Agriculture Emergencies: A Primer for First Responders

    PubMed Central

    Carabin, Hélène; Regens, James L.; Burden, Ray W.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past several years, the primary focus of emergency preparedness has been on terrorism, and how a CBRNE event would directly affect human health. Limited emphasis has been placed on the direct (eg, zoonotic infections) and indirect (eg, mental health, financial loss) effects that an agricultural emergency event can have on human health outcomes, and how they relate to emergency preparedness. We critically reviewed the resources and information readily accessible to our target audience, emergency responders; the resources included military and civilian books, personal communications, internet sites, GAO reports, and peer-reviewed journals. Among more than 2,000 bioterrorism-related articles, we found 51 that addressed either agroterrorism and/or veterinary public health: 2 cross-sectional studies, 28 review papers, and 21 commentary papers. In order to properly respond to future agriculture emergencies, emergency response professionals need to understand the nature and implications of the event as well as their roles and responsibilities, but the availability of educational and training opportunities is limited. The results of our review are consistent with the hypothesis that more resources, education, and training opportunities should be available to responders as well as to producers, importers and shippers, international travelers, and the general public. Increased education and training will raise awareness among these groups of the relationship between animal and human health. PMID:19635003

  11. The Child's Eye View of Family Life: A Report to Respondents in a Study Conducted in Victoria in Late 1982 and Early 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochiltree, Gay; Amato, Paul

    Marriage and the family traditionally have been structured around the key functions of the nurturing and socialization of children. This report looks closely at how effectively and competently various family types manage these tasks. Containing a brief overview of the "Australian Children in Families Study," this report concentrates on…

  12. Implementing an Audience-Specific Small-Group Gatekeeper Training Program to Respond to Suicide Risk among College Students: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimini, M. Dolores; Rivero, Estela M.; Bernier, Joseph E.; Stanley, Judith A.; Murray, Andrea D.; Anderson, Drew A.; Wright, Heidi R.; Bapat, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This case study evaluated the effectiveness of an audience-specific, single-session, small-group interactive gatekeeper training program conducted at a large northeastern public university. Participants: Participants were 335 faculty, staff, and students completing gatekeeper training programs tailored to their group needs. Methods:…

  13. Implementing an Audience-Specific Small-Group Gatekeeper Training Program to Respond to Suicide Risk among College Students: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimini, M. Dolores; Rivero, Estela M.; Bernier, Joseph E.; Stanley, Judith A.; Murray, Andrea D.; Anderson, Drew A.; Wright, Heidi R.; Bapat, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This case study evaluated the effectiveness of an audience-specific, single-session, small-group interactive gatekeeper training program conducted at a large northeastern public university. Participants: Participants were 335 faculty, staff, and students completing gatekeeper training programs tailored to their group needs. Methods:…

  14. Using Multiple Imputation to Assign Pesticide Use for Non-Responders in the Follow-Up Questionnaire in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a large prospective cohort, was designed to elucidate associations between pesticide use and other agricultural exposures and health outcomes. The cohort includes 57,310 pesticide applicators who were enrolled between 1993 and 1997 in Iowa and...

  15. Factor structure of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS) across English and Spanish language responders in the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    PubMed

    Perera, Marisa J; Brintz, Carrie E; Birnbaum-Weitzman, Orit; Penedo, Frank J; Gallo, Linda C; Gonzalez, Patricia; Gouskova, Natalia; Isasi, Carmen R; Navas-Nacher, Elena L; Perreira, Krista M; Roesch, Scott C; Schneiderman, Neil; Llabre, Maria M

    2017-03-01

    Despite widespread use, psychometric investigation of the original English and translated Spanish versions of the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS; Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) has been limited among the U.S. Hispanic/Latino population. The present study examined the factor structure, factorial invariance, and reliability and validity of PSS scores from English and Spanish versions using data from 5,176 Hispanics/Latinos who participated in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study. The total sample and language multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported a bifactor model with all 10 PSS items loading on a general perceived stress factor, and the 4 reverse-worded items also loading on a reverse-worded factor. Internal consistency ranged from .68 to .78, and it was indicated that reliable variance exists beyond the general perceived stress factor. The model displayed configural, metric, scalar, and residual invariance across language groups. Convergent validity analyses indicated that both the general perceived stress factor and the reverse-worded factor were related to scores of depression, anxiety, and anger in the expected directions. The reverse-worded factor added to the validity of the PSS beyond the general perceived stress factor. The total computed score of the PSS can be recommended for use with Hispanics/Latinos in the United States that complete the measure in English or Spanish and the reverse-worded factor can enhance prediction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Using Multiple Imputation to Assign Pesticide Use for Non-Responders in the Follow-Up Questionnaire in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a large prospective cohort, was designed to elucidate associations between pesticide use and other agricultural exposures and health outcomes. The cohort includes 57,310 pesticide applicators who were enrolled between 1993 and 1997 in Iowa and...

  17. Influence of self-measurement of blood pressure on the responder rate in hypertensive patients treated with losartan: results of the SVATCH Study. Standard vs Automatic Treatment Control of COSAAR in Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Vetter, W; Hess, L; Brignoli, R

    2000-04-01

    Home measurement of blood pressure (BP) can improve compliance. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the efficacy of losartan in hypertension could be enhanced by providing patients with a device for home BP measurement. In this open, randomised, prospective, multi-centre study in 244 Swiss practices, patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension were randomised to a group receiving a home BP measuring device (OMRON) (group 2), or to a group where this device was not provided (group 1). After 8 weeks of treatment with losartan, the responder rates between subjects performing home measurement of BP were compared with those without self-measurement, whereby exclusively sphygmomanometric office BP values were considered. A total of 622 subjects completed the study. Treatment with losartan significantly reduced diastolic (DBP) and systolic BP (SBP) (P < 0.0001). Overall, the group with home BP measurement showed an increased responder rate (DBP < or =90 mm Hg) by 6.4% (59.8% vs 66.2%; 0.05 < P < 0.1). This difference was mainly due to female patients (64.1% vs 73.2%), where it reached statistical significance (P < 0.01). Pretreated patients showed a 9.0% improvement of response in the home measurement group as well (0.05 < P < 0.1). The responder rate in newly treated subjects was relatively high, reaching 79.5% (DBP < or =90 mm Hg or reduction > or =10 mm Hg DBP from baseline). However, home measurement did not significantly improve BP control in these new patients (81.4% vs 77.7%). Overall, home measurement can lead to a slight improvement of BP control. This improvement was most evident in females, reaching significance.

  18. An EHR Prototype Using Structured ISO/EN 13606 Documents to Respond to Identified Clinical Information Needs of Diabetes Specialists: A Controlled Study on Feasibility and Impact

    PubMed Central

    Huebner-Bloder, Gudrun; Duftschmid, Georg; Kohler, Michael; Rinner, Christoph; Saboor, Samrend; Ammenwerth, Elske

    2012-01-01

    Cross-institutional longitudinal Electronic Health Records (EHR), as introduced in Austria at the moment, increase the challenge of information overload of healthcare professionals. We developed an innovative cross-institutional EHR query prototype that offers extended query options, including searching for specific information items or sets of information items. The available query options were derived from a systematic analysis of information needs of diabetes specialists during patient encounters. The prototype operates in an IHE-XDS-based environment where ISO/EN 13606-structured documents are available. We conducted a controlled study with seven diabetes specialists to assess the feasibility and impact of this EHR query prototype on efficient retrieving of patient information to answer typical clinical questions. The controlled study showed that the specialists were quicker and more successful (measured in percentage of expected information items found) in finding patient information compared to the standard full-document search options. The participants also appreciated the extended query options. PMID:23304308

  19. Gaze Behavior of Older Adults in Responding to Unexpected Loss of Balance while Walking in an Unfamiliar Environment: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    King, Emily C.; McKay, Sandra M.; Lee, Tracy A.; Scovil, Carol Y.; Peters, Amy L.; Maki, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Rapid reach-to-grasp balance-recovery reactions play a critical role in preventing falls. Recent young-adult studies suggest these reactions may be guided using stored visuo-spatial information from the central field, and that peripheral vision may also play an important role. This study used gaze recordings to examine the visual control of reach-to-grasp reactions in older adults. Methods A motion platform was configured to simulate a “real-life” environment that included a handrail. Subjects performed an activity that required walking to the end of the platform, which was triggered to move suddenly and unexpectedly as they approached the handrail. Twelve healthy older adults (64-79 years old) were tested and compared to 12 healthy young adults (22-30 years old) tested as part of another study. Results Older adults were more than twice as likely as young adults to react to the platform perturbation by grasping the handrail (10/12 versus 4/12), despite being much less likely to visually fixate the handrail after entering the new environment. Grasping errors were remarkably common (5/10 older, 2/4 young), but there was no consistent relationship to the preceding gaze behavior. Conclusion Older adults were highly dependent on using a handrail to recover balance, but commonly failed to direct overt visual attention to the rail after entering the unfamiliar environment. The failure to fixate the rail required the reaching movement to be guided using peripheral vision. Further research is needed to determine whether grasping errors can be prevented via interventions that either attract overt attention to the handrail or improve processing of peripheral-field information.

  20. Habituation of salivation and motivated responding for food in children.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Saad, Frances G; Handley, Elizabeth A; Roemmich, James N; Hawk, Larry W; McSweeney, Frances K

    2003-12-01

    Repeated presentation of food cues results in habituation in adults, as demonstrated by a decrement in salivary responding that is reversed by presenting a new food cue in adults. Food reinforced behavior in animals shows the same pattern of responding, with a decrease in responding to obtain the food, followed by a recovery of responding when a new food is presented. The present study assessed whether children would show the same pattern of a decrement of food reinforced responding followed by recovery of responding when a new food is presented for both salivation and food reinforcement tasks. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups that differed in the trial that the new food stimulus was presented to ensure recovery was specific to the introduction of the new food stimulus. In the salivation task, subjects were provided repeated olfactory presentations of a cheeseburger with apple pie as the new food stimulus, while in the food reinforcement task subjects worked for the opportunity to consume a cheeseburger, followed by the opportunity to work for consumption of apple pie. Subjects in both groups showed a decrement in salivary and food reinforced responding to repeated food cues followed by immediate recovery of responding on the trial when a new food was presented. Subjects increased their energy intake by over 30% in the food reinforcement task when a new food was presented. These results are consistent with the general process theory of motivation that suggests that changes in food reinforced responding may be due in part to habituation.

  1. How does the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, responds to long-term heavy metal contamination? -- A case study.

    PubMed

    Marques, Carla Cristina; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; Gabriel, Sofia Isabel; Nadal, Jacint; Viegas-Crespo, Ana Maria; da Luz Mathias, Maria

    2007-04-15

    Heavy metals accumulation in parallel with the evaluation of physiological and biochemical effects resulting from continued metal exposure were considered here using for the first time the great white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula as an in vivo model. Shrews were originated from an abandoned lead/zinc mining area and from a reference area, both in Alentejo, southern Portugal. Hepatic contents of nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, mercury and lead were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). Haematological parameters (white blood cells, red blood cells, haemoglobin and haematocrit) were obtained in a Coulter Counter Analyser and biochemical markers of the redox balance (glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) activities were measured spectrophotometrically using a Duo-50 spectrophotometer. Compared with control animals, significantly higher concentration of hepatic cadmium (9.29 vs. 1.18 micorg/g dry weight) and nickel (1.56 vs. 0.343 microg/g dry weight) were detected in the shrews collected in the mining area. However, no significant changes were observed on haematological or enzymatic parameters in animals exposed to metal pollution. The obtained results show that shrews are good bioaccumulators of toxic heavy metals, but very tolerant to their effects, revealing an interesting long-term adaptation to polluted environments. In addition, this study provides reference values for haematological parameters and antioxidant enzymes levels in C. russula, which may be relevant for comparative purposes in further studies.

  2. Use of a 12 months' self-referral reminder to facilitate uptake of bowel scope (flexible sigmoidoscopy) screening in previous non-responders: a London-based feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kerrison, Robert S; McGregor, Lesley M; Marshall, Sarah; Isitt, John; Counsell, Nicholas; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian

    2016-03-29

    In March 2013, NHS England extended its national Bowel Cancer Screening Programme to include 'one-off' Flexible Sigmoidoscopy screening (NHS Bowel Scope Screening, BSS) for men and women aged 55. With less than one in two people currently taking up the screening test offer, there is a strong public health mandate to develop system-friendly interventions to increase uptake while the programme is rolling out. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of sending a reminder to previous BSS non-responders, 12 months after the initial invitation, with consideration for its potential impact on uptake. This study was conducted in the ethnically diverse London Boroughs of Brent and Harrow, where uptake is below the national average. Between September and November 2014, 160 previous non-responders were randomly selected to receive a reminder of the opportunity to self-refer 12 months after their initial invitation. The reminder included instructions on how to book an appointment, and provided options for the time and day of the appointment and the gender of the endoscopist performing the test. To address barriers to screening, the reminder was sent with a brief locally tailored information leaflet designed specifically for this study. Participants not responding within 4 weeks were sent a follow-up reminder, after which there was no further intervention. Self-referral rates were measured 8 weeks after the delivery of the follow-up reminder and accepted as final. Of the 155 participants who received the 12 months' reminder (returned to sender, n=5), 30 (19.4%) self-referred for an appointment, of which 24 (15.5%) attended and were successfully screened. Attendance rates differed by gender, with significantly more women attending an appointment than men (20.7% vs 8.8%, respectively; OR=2.73, 95% CI=1.02-7.35, P=0.05), but not by area (Brent vs Harrow) or area-level deprivation. Of the 30 people who self-referred for an appointment, 27 (90%) indicated a preference for a same

  3. Efficacy and safety of adjunctive cariprazine in inadequate responders to antidepressants: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in adult patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Durgam, Suresh; Earley, Willie; Guo, Hua; Li, Dayong; Németh, György; Laszlovszky, István; Fava, Maurizio; Montgomery, Stuart A

    2016-03-01

    Cariprazine is an atypical antipsychotic currently under investigation as adjunctive therapy in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who have inadequate response to standard antidepressant therapy. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose study was conducted from December 2011 to December 2013 in adults who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for MDD and had an inadequate antidepressant response. Eligible patients were randomized to 8-week adjunctive treatment with placebo (n = 269), cariprazine 1-2 mg/d (n = 274), or cariprazine 2-4.5 mg/d (n = 276). The primary efficacy parameter was change from baseline to week 8 in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score; P values were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Safety assessments included adverse events, clinical laboratory tests, vital signs, electrocardiograms (ECGs), and suicidality. Compared with placebo, reduction in MADRS total score at week 8 was significantly greater with adjunctive cariprazine 2-4.5 mg/d (least squares mean difference [LSMD] = -2.2; adjusted P = .0114), but not with cariprazine 1-2 mg/d (LSMD = -0.9; adjusted P = .2404). Significant LSMDs for MADRS total score change were detected at all earlier study visits (weeks 2, 4, 6) in the 2- to 4.5-mg/d group and at weeks 2 and 4 in the 1- to 2-mg/d group (all P values < .05). Treatment-emergent adverse events reported in ≥ 10% of patients in either cariprazine dosage group were akathisia (22.3%), insomnia (13.6%), and nausea (12.8%) (all in 2- to 4.5-mg/d group). Mean changes in metabolic parameters, vital signs, and ECG parameters were generally similar between groups. No suicide-related adverse events were reported. These results show that adjunctive cariprazine 2-4.5 mg/d was effective and generally well tolerated in adults with MDD who had inadequate responses to standard antidepressants. Further clinical studies to confirm these results are warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01469377.

  4. A safety app to respond to dating violence for college women and their friends: the MyPlan study randomized controlled trial protocol.

    PubMed

    Glass, Nancy; Clough, Amber; Case, James; Hanson, Ginger; Barnes-Hoyt, Jamie; Waterbury, Amy; Alhusen, Jeanne; Ehrensaft, Miriam; Grace, Karen Trister; Perrin, Nancy

    2015-09-08

    Research demonstrates high rates of physical and sexual victimization of women by intimate partners on college campuses (Black et al. 2001). College women in abusive relationships must weigh complex factors (health, academics, economics, and social stigma) during critical decision-making regarding the relationship. Rather than access formal support systems (e.g., campus security, administrators, counselors), research indicates abused college women most often turn to informal networks; specifically friends (Perspect Psychiatr Care 41:162-171, 2005), who often lack the knowledge or resources to provide effective support (Nurs Res 54(4):235-242, 2005). Decision aids have been shown to assist with health-related decisions by improving knowledge, creating realistic expectations, and resolving decisional conflict (Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1:1-332, 2014). This study is a randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of an interactive safety decision aid web-based and smartphone application (App) for abused college women and their friends. Three hundred female college students experiencing abuse and three hundred friends of female college students experiencing abuse will be recruited in Maryland and Oregon and randomized to either the intervention safety decision aid, accessible by website or smartphone App, or a usual safety planning control website/App. The intervention App allows users to enter information on: a) relationship health; b) safety priorities; and c) severity of violence/danger in relationship. The App uses this information to provide personalized safety planning information and resources. Self-reported outcome measures for abused college women on safety seeking behaviors, decisional conflict, IPV exposure and mental health will be collected at baseline, six, and 12-months post-baseline via the study App/website. Outcomes measured for friends are IPV awareness, confidence to intervene, supportive behaviors and decisional conflict. Protocols for

  5. HIV Testing Experience and Risk Behavior Among Sexually Active Black Young Adults: A CBPR-Based Study Using Respondent-Driven Sampling in Durham, North Carolina.

    PubMed

    MacQueen, Kathleen M; Chen, Mario; Jolly, David; Mueller, Monique P; Okumu, Eunice; Eley, Natalie T; Laws, Michelle; Isler, Malika Roman; Kalloo, Allison; Rogers, Randy C

    2015-06-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic inclusive of men who have sex with men, heterosexual men, and women. As part of a community-based participatory research study we assessed HIV testing experience among sexually active 18-30 year old Black men and women in Durham, NC. Of 508 participants, 173 (74 %) men and 236 (86 %; p = 0.0008) women reported ever being tested. Barriers to testing (e.g., perceived risk and stigma) were the same for men and women, but men fell behind mainly because a primary facilitator of testing-routine screening in clinical settings-was more effective at reaching women. Structural and behavioral risk factors associated with HIV infection were prevalent but did not predict HIV testing experience. Reduced access to health care services for low income Black young adults may exacerbate HIV testing barriers that already exist for men and undermine previous success rates in reaching women.

  6. Factor Associated with Neutral Sphingomyelinase Activity Mediates Navigational Capacity of Leukocytes Responding to Wounds and Infection: Live Imaging Studies in Zebrafish Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Boecke, Alexandra; Sieger, Dirk; Neacsu, Cristian Dan; Kashkar, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Factor associated with neutral sphingomyelinase activity (FAN) is an adaptor protein that specifically binds to the p55 receptor for TNF (TNF-RI). Our previous investigations demonstrated that FAN plays a role in TNF-induced actin reorganization by connecting the plasma membrane with actin cytoskeleton, suggesting that FAN may impact on cellular motility in response to TNF and in the context of immune inflammatory conditions. In this study, we used the translucent zebrafish larvae for in vivo analysis of leukocyte migration after morpholino knockdown of FAN. FAN-deficient zebrafish leukocytes were impaired in their migration toward tail fin wounds, leading to a reduced number of cells reaching the wound. Furthermore, FAN-deficient leukocytes show an impaired response to bacterial infections, suggesting that FAN is generally required for the directed chemotactic response of immune cells independent of the nature of the stimulus. Cell-tracking analysis up to 3 h after injury revealed that the reduced number of leukocytes is not due to a reduction in random motility or speed of movement. Leukocytes from FAN-deficient embryos protrude pseudopodia in all directions instead of having one clear leading edge. Our results suggest that FAN-deficient leukocytes exhibit an impaired navigational capacity, leading to a disrupted chemotactic response. PMID:22802420

  7. How do stream organisms respond to, and influence, the concentration of titanium dioxide nanoparticles? A mesocosm study with algae and herbivores.

    PubMed

    Kulacki, Konrad J; Cardinale, Bradley J; Keller, Arturo A; Bier, Raven; Dickson, Helen

    2012-10-01

    The biologically active properties of many nanomaterials, coupled with their rapidly expanding production and use, has generated concern that certain types of nanoparticles could have unintended impacts when released into natural ecosystems. In the present study, the authors report the results of an experiment in which they grew three common species of stream algae as monocultures and together as polycultures in the biofilms of stream mesocosms that were exposed to 0, 0.1, or 1.0 ppm nanoparticle titanium dioxide (nTiO(2) ). The nTiO(2) did not alter the growth trajectory of any algal biofilm over 10+ generations. However, Ti accrual in biofilms not only differed among the algal species but was also higher in polycultures than in the average monoculture. Variation in accrual among species compositions was readily predicted by differences in the total biomass achieved by the different biofilms. When biofilms were fed to the herbivorous snail Physa acuta at the end of the experiment, initial concentrations of nTiO(2) did not alter short-term rates of herbivory. However, because of differences in palatability among the algae, biofilm composition influenced the amount of nTiO(2) that accumulated in the herbivore tissue. The results have important implications for understanding how efficiently nTiO(2) is removed from surface waters and the potential transfer of nanomaterials to higher trophic levels.

  8. An open-label pilot study of aripiprazole for male and female veterans with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder who respond suboptimally to antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Nagy A; Marx, Christine E; Bradford, Daniel W; Zinn, Sandra; Hertzberg, Michael A; Kilts, Jason D; Naylor, Jennifer C; Butterfield, Marian I; Strauss, Jennifer L

    2012-07-01

    Emerging data suggest that second-generation antipsychotics such as aripiprazole may be effective in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, few clinical trials have used aripiprazole in PTSD, and data are limited on its use in Veterans with PTSD. The objective of this pilot trial was to investigate the safety and efficacy of aripiprazole in Veterans with PTSD. Ten individuals (five men and five women) meeting the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed., PTSD criteria participated in this 12-week, open-label, flexibly dosed monotherapy trial. The dose range of aripiprazole was 5-30 mg/day, titrated to tolerability and clinical response. The primary outcome measure was the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Additional outcomes included the Short PTSD Rating Interview, the Treatment Outcome PTSD Scale (Top-8), the Davidson Trauma Scale, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen, and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement. Eight participants completed the study, and aripiprazole was generally well tolerated and associated with a significant improvement in PTSD symptoms, as measured by the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (primary outcome measure) and by the Short PTSD Rating Interview, the Treatment Outcome PTSD Scale, and the Davidson Trauma Scale. An improvement was also observed on all three Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale subscales and the Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen, and the average Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement ratings indicated that patients were 'much improved'. These promising initial results merit further investigation in a larger, randomized-controlled trial.

  9. Medical student, nursing student, and non-health care respondents' implicit attitudes toward doctors and patients: Development and a pilot study of a new implicit attitudes test (IAT)

    PubMed Central

    Mazouni, Abdelhamid

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Medical educators have been concerned that medical students may decline in empathy for patients during the course of their training, based on studies measuring clinical empathy using psychometrically strong self-report measures. Clinical empathy is a complex construct, incorporating attitudes toward patients but also other components, such as professional detachment. Triangulation of extant measures with instruments based on nonreactive methods could provide a better understanding of whether and how physician attitudes toward patients may be changing during training. We sought to develop and pilot-test such a nonreactive method. Methods We develop variations of an implicit association test (IAT) designed to measure attitudes toward physicians and patients based on speed of reaction to images of actors and positive and negative words. In the IATs, the same actors are photographed as doctors, clinic outpatients, hospitalized inpatients, and as a “general public” control. We examine preliminary evidence for their validity by collecting pilot data from internet participants (not involved in the health professions), medical students, and nursing students. Results Internet participants (n = 314) and nursing students (n = 31) had more negative associations (IAT scores) with doctors than did medical students (n = 89); nursing students and female internet participants had more positive associations with hospitalized patients than did medical students and male internet participants. Medical students’ associations with hospitalized patients varied by year of training. Discussion This IAT may provide insight into implicit attitudes among those who enter training for the health profession and changes in those attitudes that may be inculcated during that training. PMID:28813524

  10. A multi-professional educational intervention to improve and sustain respondents' confidence to deliver palliative care: A mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Reed, Elizabeth; Todd, Jennifer; Lawton, Sally; Grant, Robert; Sadler, Clair; Berg, Jane; Lucas, Caroline; Watson, Max

    2017-06-01

    Education has been highlighted as fundamental in equipping healthcare professionals with essential knowledge and skills to provide good end-of-life care. Multiprofessional educational programmes have a positive influence on knowledge, attitude and confidence but few have sought to understand the longer term impact on care delivery. The European Certificate in Essential Palliative Care is an 8-week home-study-based programme for healthcare professionals and is currently run in nine centres. Successful candidates have undertaken the course from their own countries around the world. This article describes the evaluation of the European Certificate in Essential Palliative Care which has been evolving over 15 years. To evaluate the impact an educational intervention has on participants' confidence in palliative care, to determine whether this is sustained over time and explore participants' perception of the influence of the course on confidence. A mixed-method longitudinal approach. A survey using a self-efficacy scale was emailed to 342 candidates who received an educational intervention and semi-structured interviews to a sub-sample of 15 candidates at baseline, 3 and 6 months. At 3 months, candidates had almost 20 times higher odds of being above any given level of confidence than at baseline which was sustained at 6 months. Qualitative analysis identified examples of increased competence and confidence improving palliative care delivery. Findings suggest that the European Certificate in Essential Palliative Care improves confidence in palliative care and that this is sustained over time with evidence of confidence in symptom control, communication and a holistic approach in clinical practice.

  11. Immune response to a new hepatitis B vaccine in healthcare workers who had not responded to standard vaccine: randomised double blind dose-response study.

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, J. N.; Sabin, C.; Craig, F. M.; Williams, A.; Zuckerman, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a new triple S recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in a cohort of healthy people in whom currently licensed hepatitis B vaccines had persistently not induced an immune response. DESIGN: Single centre, randomised, double blind, dose-response study. SETTING: Research vaccine evaluation centre at a teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: 100 healthcare workers aged 18-70 years with a history of failure to seroconvert after at least four doses of a licensed hepatitis B vaccine containing the S component. INTERVENTION: Each subject was randomly allocated two doses of 5, 10, 20, or 40 micrograms of a new hepatitis B vaccine two months apart. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Immunogenicity of the four doses. Seroconversion and seroprotection were defined as an antibody tire > 10 IU/l and > 100 IU/l respectively against an international antibody standard. RESULTS: 69 subjects seroconverted after a single dose of the vaccine. After the booster vaccination one other subject seroconverted, bringing the overall seroconversion rate to 70%. Fifteen subjects given 5 micrograms of vaccine, 19 given 10 micrograms, 16 given 20 micrograms, and 20 given 40 micrograms seroconverted. Seroconversion rates in the four antigen dose groups were 60% (15/25), 76% (19/25), 64% (16/25), and 80% (20/25). After the booster dose there was no significant dose-response effect on the overall seroconversion rate, although the small sample size meant that a clinically important dose-response could not be ruled out. CONCLUSION: A single dose of 20 micrograms of the vaccine was as effective as two doses of either 40 micrograms or 20 micrograms of this vaccine formulation in terms of seroconversion, seroprotection, and geometric mean titres. PMID:9040320

  12. Penile Low Intensity Shock Wave Treatment is Able to Shift PDE5i Nonresponders to Responders: A Double-Blind, Sham Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Kitrey, Noam D; Gruenwald, Ilan; Appel, Boaz; Shechter, Arik; Massarwa, Omar; Vardi, Yoram

    2016-05-01

    We performed sham controlled evaluation of penile low intensity shock wave treatment effect in patients unable to achieve sexual intercourse using PDE5i (phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor). This prospective, randomized, double-blind, sham controlled study was done in patients with vasculogenic erectile dysfunction who stopped using PDE5i due to no efficacy. All patients had an erection hardness score of 2 or less with PDE5i. A total of 58 patients were randomized, including 37 treated with low intensity shock waves (12 sessions of 1,500 pulses of 0.09 mJ/mm(2) at 120 shock waves per minute) and 18 treated with a sham probe. In the sham group 16 patients underwent low intensity shock wave treatment 1 month after sham treatment. All patients were evaluated at baseline and 1 month after the end of treatment using validated erectile dysfunction questionnaires and the flow mediated dilatation technique for penile endothelial function. Erectile function was evaluated while patients were receiving PDE5i. In the low intensity shock wave treatment group and the sham group 54.1% and 0% of patients, respectively, achieved erection hard enough for vaginal penetration, that is an EHS (Erection Hardness Score) of 3 (p <0.0001). According to changes in the IIEF-EF (International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function) score treatment was effective in 40.5% of men who received low intensity shock wave treatment but in none in the sham group (p = 0.001). Of patients treated with shock waves after sham treatment 56.3% achieved erection hard enough for penetration (p <0.005). Low intensity shock wave treatment is effective even in patients with severe erectile dysfunction who are PDE5i nonresponders. After treatment about half of them were able to achieve erection hard enough for penetration with PDE5i. Longer followup is needed to establish the place of low intensity shock wave treatment in these challenging cases. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education

  13. Self-Rated and Caregiver-Rated Quality of Life in Alzheimer Disease with a Focus on Evolving Patient Ability to Respond to Questionnaires: 5-Year Prospective ALSOVA Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hongisto, Kristiina; Väätäinen, Saku; Martikainen, Janne; Hallikainen, Ilona; Välimäki, Tarja; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Suhonen, Jaana; Koivisto, Anne M

    2015-12-01

    To examine and compare self-rated and caregiver-rated measures of quality of life (QoL) in relation to disease progression in patients with very mild or mild Alzheimer disease (AD) and at what disease stage patient's ability to respond to QoL questionnaires with or without assistance begins to diminish. 236 patients with very mild or mild AD and their family caregivers from three Finnish hospital districts participated in this prospective, longitudinal study with 5 years of follow-up. Three patient-reported instruments were used to assess QoL (the generic 15D, the Quality of Life in Alzheimer Disease [QoL-AD] questionnaire, and a visual analogue scale) as well as one caregiver-rated assessment of patient QoL (QoL-AD). AD severity was evaluated with the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale - Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB). All self- and caregiver-rated QoL estimates correlated with AD severity. The self- and caregiver-rated QoL scores began to diverge even with very mild cognitive impairment after CDR-SOB reached 4, the value that corresponds with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 25-30. Patients also began to need assistance in responding to questionnaires at very early stages of AD (CDR-SOB score: 4-6). Furthermore, their ability to respond to QoL questionnaires with or without assistance declined after CDR-SOB reached 11 points, a value that correlates with an early moderate stage of AD and MMSE score of 11-20. AD patients' self-rated QoL ratings are much more insensitive to disease progression than caregiver ratings. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Combination treatment with mirabegron and solifenacin in patients with overactive bladder: exploratory responder analyses of efficacy and evaluation of patient-reported outcomes from a randomized, double-blind, factorial, dose-ranging, Phase II study (SYMPHONY).

    PubMed

    Abrams, P; Kelleher, C; Staskin, D; Kay, R; Martan, A; Mincik, I; Newgreen, D; Ridder, A; Paireddy, A; van Maanen, R

    2017-05-01

    This large dose-ranging study explored the benefits of different combinations of mirabegron and solifenacin on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), based on patient-reported outcomes (PROs), and patients ('responders') achieving clinically meaningful improvements in efficacy and HRQoL. SYMPHONY (NCT01340027) was a Phase II, placebo- and monotherapy-controlled, dose-ranging, 12-week trial. Adult patients with overactive bladder (OAB) for ≥3 months were randomized to 1 of 12 groups: 6 combination (solifenacin 2.5/5/10 mg + mirabegron 25/50 mg), 5 monotherapy (solifenacin 2.5/5/10 mg, or mirabegron 25/50 mg), or placebo. Change from baseline to end of treatment was assessed, versus placebo and solifenacin 5 mg in: PROs (OAB-q [Symptom Bother/total HRQoL] and Patient Perception of Bladder Condition score), and responders achieving minimally important differences (MIDs) in PROs and predetermined clinically meaningful improvements in efficacy (e.g. <8 micturitions/24 h). Changes in PROs and responders were analysed using an ANCOVA model and logistic regression, respectively. The Full Analysis Set included 1278 patients. Combination therapy of solifenacin 5/10 mg + mirabegron 25/50 mg significantly improved PROs versus solifenacin 5 mg and placebo, and significantly more responders achieved MIDs in PROs and efficacy. Micturition frequency normalization was approximately twofold greater with 10 + 25 mg (OR 2.06 [95 % CI 1.11, 3.84; p = 0.023]) and 5 + 50 mg (OR 1.91 [95 % CI 1.14, 3.21; p = 0.015]) versus solifenacin 5 mg. Combining mirabegron 25/50 mg and solifenacin 5/10 mg improves objective and subjective efficacy outcomes compared with placebo or solifenacin 5 mg.

  15. 21 CFR 1404.1000 - Respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Respondent. 1404.1000 Section 1404.1000 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.1000 Respondent. Respondent means a person against whom an agency has initiated a...

  16. 41 CFR 105-68.1000 - Respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Respondent. 105-68.1000 Section 105-68.1000 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations...-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.1000 Respondent. Respondent means a...

  17. 41 CFR 105-68.1000 - Respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respondent. 105-68.1000 Section 105-68.1000 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations...-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.1000 Respondent. Respondent means a...

  18. 5 CFR 919.1000 - Respondent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Respondent. 919.1000 Section 919.1000 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.1000 Respondent. Respondent means...

  19. Let's Get Personal: Responding to Creative Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Suzanne

    In hopes of discovering how to respond to her students' work in a way that heads them toward meaningful revision, a creative writing teacher singles out several categories of student fiction she has trouble responding to and pinpoints common shortcomings of students' early drafts, the way students respond to comments regarding revisions, and genre…

  20. How primates (including us!) respond to inequity.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Sarah F

    2008-01-01

    Responding negatively to inequity is not a uniquely human trait. Some of our closest evolutionary ancestors respond negatively when treated less well than a conspecific. Comparative work between humans and other primates can help elucidate the evolutionary underpinnings of humans' social preferences. Results from studies of nonhuman primates, in particular chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys, are presented in comparison to human results that have been collected during economic game studies in humans, such as in the Ultimatum Game or Impunity Game. Among nonhuman primates, a frequent behavioral reaction to inequity is to refuse to continue the interaction. While in some cases this response appears to be caused by the inequitable distribution, in others, it seems to be caused by another individual's inequitable behavior. While these reactions are similar to those of humans, this reaction does not appear to be a sense of fairness in the way that we think of it in humans. Neither nonhuman primate species alters their behavior when they are the benefited individual, and in an experimental situation, chimpanzees do not alter their behavior to obtain food for their partner as well as for themselves. Although there are differences between human and nonhuman primate responses, such studies allow us to better understand the evolution of our own responses to inequity. Given the strong behavioral reactions that even monkeys show to inequitable treatment, it is not surprising that humans are concerned with equity. Such comparisons increase understanding of issues such as healthcare disparities in humans.

  1. Hydrogen Safety Training for First Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, Linda L.

    2011-01-01

    The use of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies is emerging in the U.S. through vehicle demonstration programs and early deployments of fuel cells for onsite power generation, materials handling, and other applications. To help first responders prepare for hydrogen and fuel cell use in their communities, the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program has developed hydrogen safety training for first responders. A web-based awareness-level course, 'Introduction to Hydrogen Safety for First Responders,' launched in 2007, is available at http://hydrogen.pnl.gov/FirstResponders/. Approximately 17,000 first responders have accessed the online training.

  2. "Responding to Climate Change" Course: Research Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bowman, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The "Responding to Climate Change" Barnard/Columbia course integrates current research as well as hands-on research-based activities modified for a classroom environment. The course covers the major response themes of adaptation, mitigation and communication. In the spring of 2015 the course was oriented around Arctic and Antarctic case studies. Each week a different theme is addressed, such as the physical setting, changing ecosystems, governance issues, perspectives of residents and indigenous peoples, geoengineering, commercial interests, security, and health and developmental issues. Frequent guest lectures from thematic experts keep the course grounded in realities and present the students with cutting edge issues. Activities match the weekly theme, for example during the week on Arctic development, students engage with the marine spatial planning simulation Arctic SMARTIC (Strategic Management of Resources in Times of Change) based on research on Arctic sea ice trends and projections coupled with current and projected developmental interests of stakeholders. Created under the Polar Learning and Responding: PoLAR Climate Change Education Partnership (thepolarhub.org), a complete set of SMARTIC resources is available on line for use by others (http://www.camelclimatechange.org/view/article/175297/). The Responding to Climate Change course is designed to be current and respond to events. For the Arctic case study, students developed proposals for the US State Department as the upcoming Chair of the Arctic Council. Student evaluations indicated that they appreciated the opportunity to connect science with policy and presentation of preliminary proposals in a workshop format was valued as a way to develop and hone their ideas. An additional finding was that students were surprisingly tolerant of technical issues when guest lecturers were linked in via Skype, allowing interaction with thematic experts across the US. Students commented positively on this exposure to

  3. Teaching neurons to respond to placebos.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Fabrizio; Frisaldi, Elisa; Carlino, Elisa; Giudetti, Lucia; Pampallona, Alan; Zibetti, Maurizio; Lanotte, Michele; Lopiano, Leonardo

    2016-10-01

    We analysed the placebo response at the single-neuron level in the thalamus of Parkinson patients to see the differences between first-time administration of placebo and administration after pharmacological pre-conditioning. When the placebo was given for the first time, it induced neither clinical improvement, as assessed through muscle rigidity reduction at the wrist, nor neuronal changes in thalamic neurons. However, if placebo was given after two, three or four prior administrations of an anti-Parkinson drug, apomorphine, it produced both clinical and neuronal responses. Both the magnitude and the duration of these placebo responses depended on the number of prior exposures to apomorphine, according to the rule: the greater the number of previous apomorphine administrations, the larger the magnitude and the longer the duration of the clinical and neuronal placebo responses. These findings show that learning plays a crucial role in the placebo response and suggest that placebo non-responders can be turned into placebo responders, with important clinical implications. Placebos have been found to affect the patient's brain in several conditions, such as pain and motor disorders. For example, in Parkinson's disease, a placebo treatment induces a release of dopamine in the striatum and changes the activity of neurons in both thalamic and subthalamic nuclei. The present study shows that placebo administration for the first time induces neither clinical nor neuronal improvement in Parkinson patients who undergo implantation of electrodes for deep brain stimulation. However, this lack of placebo responsiveness can be turned into substantial placebo responses following previous exposure to repeated administrations of the anti-Parkinson agent apomorphine. As the number of apomorphine administrations increased from one to four, both the clinical response and the neuronal activity in the ventral anterior and anterior ventrolateral thalamus increased. In fact, after four

  4. High Cure Rate With 24 Weeks of Daclatasvir-Based Quadruple Therapy in Treatment-Experienced, Null-Responder Patients With HIV/Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1/4 Coinfection: The ANRS HC30 QUADRIH Study.

    PubMed

    Piroth, Lionel; Paniez, Hubert; Taburet, Anne Marie; Vincent, Corine; Rosenthal, Eric; Lacombe, Karine; Billaud, Eric; Rey, David; Zucman, David; Bailly, François; Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre; Simony, Mélanie; Diallo, Alpha; Izopet, Jacques; Aboulker, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Laurence; Molina, Jean-Michel

    2015-09-01

    Few direct anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) agents have been studied in difficult-to-treat null responder and cirrhotic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-coinfected patients. Daclatasvir and asunaprevir combined with pegylated interferon/ribavirin (peg-IFN/RBV) have shown promising results in HCV-monoinfected patients. An open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study was conducted in HIV/HCV genotype 1/4-coinfected patients who were null responders to prior peg-IFN/RBV standard therapy and on a raltegravir-based regimen with HIV RNA <400 copies/mL. They received a 4-week lead-in phase with peg-IFN/RBV, followed by 24 weeks of asunaprevir (100 mg twice daily), daclatasvir (60 mg once daily), and peg-IFN/RBV. The primary endpoint was sustained virologic response 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12) using intent-to-treat analysis. Seventy-five patients were included, of whom 27 (36%) had cirrhosis. The median baseline CD4 count was 748 (interquartile range, 481-930) cells/µL. The global SVR12 rate was 96.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 88.8%-99.2%; n = 72/75), 92.6% (95% CI, 75.7%-99.1%; n = 25/27) in cirrhotic patients, 94.6% (95% CI, 81.8%-99.3%; n = 35/37) in genotype 1 patients, and 97.4% (95% CI, 86.2%-99.9%; n = 37/38) in genotype 4 patients. Six patients (8%) stopped HCV therapy prematurely: 2 due to HCV breakthrough, 4 to adverse events (1 lung cancer, 3 infections). One patient with cirrhosis (with baseline platelet count <150 000 platelets/µL and albuminemia <35 g/L) died from multiorgan failure. Overall, 36 serious adverse events occurred in 21 (28%) patients. No HIV breakthrough was observed. In HIV/HCV genotype 1/4-coinfected null responders, a 24-week regimen combining daclatasvir, asunaprevir, and peg-IFN/RBV was associated with a very high cure rate. The safety profile was acceptable, even though cirrhotic patients with low albuminemia and platelets should be monitored closely. This combination is a new option in this difficult-to-treat population. NCT

  5. Could the Addition of Cetuximab to Conventional Radiation Therapy Improve Organ Preservation in Those Patients With Locally Advanced Larynx Cancer Who Respond to Induction Chemotherapy? An Organ Preservation Spanish Head and Neck Cancer Cooperative Group Phase 2 Study.

    PubMed

    Mesía, Ricard; Garcia-Saenz, Jose A; Lozano, Alicia; Pastor, Miguel; Grau, Juan J; Martínez-Trufero, Javier; Lambeaz, Julio; Martínez-Galán, Joaquina; Mel, Jose R; González, Belen; Vázquez, Silvia; Mañós, Manel; Taberna, Miren; Cirauqui, Beatriz; Del Barco, Elvira; Casado, Esther; Rubió-Casadevall, Jordi; Rodríguez-Jaráiz, Angles; Cruz, Juan J

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of induction chemotherapy (IC) followed by bioradiotherapy (BRT) to achieve functional larynx preservation in the setting of locally advanced head and neck tumors. This was a phase 2, open-label, multicenter study of patients with stage III and IVA laryngeal carcinoma who were candidates for total laryngectomy. The primary endpoint was the rate of survival with functional larynx (SFL) at 3 years, with a critical value to consider the study positive of SFL >59%. Patients received 3 cycles of IC with TPF (docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil), and those who responded received conventional BRT with cetuximab. In patients with residual nodal disease after BRT, neck dissection was planned 2 months after BRT. Patients who did not respond to IC underwent total laryngectomy plus neck dissection and radiation therapy. A total of 93 patients started TPF. Responses to IC on larynx target lesion were as follows: 37 patients (40%) showed a complete response; 38 patients (41%) showed a partial response; 8 patients (9%) showed stabilization; 2 patients (2%) showed progressive disease, and 8 patients (9%) were not evaluated (2 deaths, 5 adverse events, and 1 lost to follow-up). Seventy-three patients (78%) received BRT: 72 as per protocol, but 1 with only stable disease. Median follow-up was 53.7 months. Three-year actuarial rates were as follows: SFL: 70% (95% confidence interval [CI] 60%-79%); laryngectomy-free survival: 72% (95% CI 61%-81%); overall survival: 78% (95% CI: 63%-82%). The acute toxicity observed during both IC and BRT was as expected, with only 1 toxicity-related death (local bleeding) during BRT. According to this protocol, the SFL rate was clearly higher than the critical value, with acceptable levels of toxicity. The use of cetuximab added to radiation therapy in patients with stage III and IVA laryngeal cancer who respond to TPF could improve functional larynx preservation. A phase 3 trial is warranted. Copyright

  6. Bats respond to very weak magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth's magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years.

  7. Relating and Responding: The Adult

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Karl W.

    1972-01-01

    This analysis was adapted by the author from his keynote address at the Annual Study Conference of the Association for Childhood Education International at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, April 12, 1971. (Editor/RY)

  8. Increased rates of asthma among World Trade Center disaster responders.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun; Herbert, Robin; Landrigan, Philip; Markowitz, Steven B; Moline, Jacqueline M; Savitz, David A; Todd, Andrew C; Udasin, Iris G; Wisnivesky, Juan P

    2012-01-01

    Studies have documented high rates of asthma symptoms among responders to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster. However, whether there are increased rates of asthma among responders compared to the general population is unknown. The study population consisted of a prospective cohort of 20,834 responders participating in the WTC Medical Monitoring and Treatment Program between July 2002 and December 2007. We calculated prevalence and standardized morbidity ratios (SMRs) of lifetime asthma and 12-month asthma (defined as ≥1 attacks in the prior 12 months) among WTC responders. The comparison population consisted of >200,000 adults who completed the National Health Interview Survey in 2000 (for pre-9/11 comparisons) and between 2002 and 2007 (for post-9/11 comparisons). WTC responders were on average 43 ± 9 years old, 86% male, 59% white, and 42% had an occupation in protective services. The lifetime prevalence of asthma in the general population was relatively constant at about 10% from 2000 to 2007. However, among WTC responders, lifetime prevalence increased from 3% in 2000, to 13% in 2002, and 19% in 2007. The age-adjusted overall SMR for lifetime asthma among WTC responders was 1.8 (95% CI: 1.8-1.9) for men and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.9-2.1) for women. Twelve-month asthma was also more frequent among WTC responders compared to the general population (SMR 2.4, 95% CI: 2.2-2.5) for men and 2.2 (95% CI: 2.0-2.5) for women. WTC responders are at an increased risk of asthma as measured by lifetime prevalence or active disease. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Responding to Claims of Misrepresentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelices, Maria Veronica; Wilson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In their paper "Unfair Treatment? The Case of Freedle, the SAT, and the Standardization Approach to Differential Item Functioning" (Santelices & Wilson, 2010), the authors studied claims of differential effects of the SAT on Latinos and African Americans through the methodology of differential item functioning (DIF). Previous…

  10. Journeying: Children Responding to Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Kathleen E., Ed.; And Others

    Based on Louise Rosenblatt's transactional theory of reader response, the studies collected in this book present findings and recommendations that contribute to the understanding of how children create meaning from stories, how they acquire literacy skills to express that meaning, and what role educators play in these literary processes. The book…

  11. Vindicating Stalin: Responding to Lefebvre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Curry

    2017-01-01

    No significant scholarship in educational studies has focused on Lefebvre's engagement with socialist state theory and his position against Stalin. As a result, when Lefebvre's thoughts on the state and on actually existing socialism are mentioned, they are engaged completely uncritically. This essay addresses this crucial gap. Toward these ends,…

  12. Hazard perception in emergency medical service responders.

    PubMed

    Johnston, K A; Scialfa, C T

    2016-10-01

    The perception of on-road hazards is critically important to emergency medical services (EMS) professionals, the patients they transport and the general public. This study compared hazard perception in EMS and civilian drivers of similar age and personal driving experience. Twenty-nine EMS professionals and 24 non-professional drivers were given a dynamic hazard perception test (HPT). The EMS group demonstrated an advantage in HPT that was independent of simple reaction time, another indication of the validity of the test. These results are also consistent with the view that professional driving experience results in changes in the ability to identify and respond to on-road hazards. Directions for future research include the development of a profession-specific hazard perception tool for both assessment and training purposes.

  13. Characterizing hospital workers' willingness to respond to a radiological event.

    PubMed

    Balicer, Ran D; Catlett, Christina L; Barnett, Daniel J; Thompson, Carol B; Hsu, Edbert B; Morton, Melinda J; Semon, Natalie L; Watson, Christopher M; Gwon, Howard S; Links, Jonathan M

    2011-01-01

    Terrorist use of a radiological dispersal device (RDD, or "dirty bomb"), which combines a conventional explosive device with radiological materials, is among the National Planning Scenarios of the United States government. Understanding employee willingness to respond is critical for planning experts. Previous research has demonstrated that perception of threat and efficacy is key in the assessing willingness to respond to a RDD event. An anonymous online survey was used to evaluate the willingness of hospital employees to respond to a RDD event. Agreement with a series of belief statements was assessed, following a methodology validated in previous work. The survey was available online to all 18,612 employees of the Johns Hopkins Hospital from January to March 2009. Surveys were completed by 3426 employees (18.4%), whose demographic distribution was similar to overall hospital staff. 39% of hospital workers were not willing to respond to a RDD scenario if asked but not required to do so. Only 11% more were willing if required. Workers who were hesitant to agree to work additional hours when required were 20 times less likely to report during a RDD emergency. Respondents who perceived their peers as likely to report to work in a RDD emergency were 17 times more likely to respond during a RDD event if asked. Only 27.9% of the hospital employees with a perception of low efficacy declared willingness to respond to a severe RDD event. Perception of threat had little impact on willingness to respond among hospital workers. Radiological scenarios such as RDDs are among the most dreaded emergency events yet studied. Several attitudinal indicators can help to identify hospital employees unlikely to respond. These risk-perception modifiers must then be addressed through training to enable effective hospital response to a RDD event.

  14. Characterizing Hospital Workers' Willingness to Respond to a Radiological Event

    PubMed Central

    Balicer, Ran D.; Catlett, Christina L.; Barnett, Daniel J.; Thompson, Carol B.; Hsu, Edbert B.; Morton, Melinda J.; Semon, Natalie L.; Watson, Christopher M.; Gwon, Howard S.; Links, Jonathan M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Terrorist use of a radiological dispersal device (RDD, or “dirty bomb”), which combines a conventional explosive device with radiological materials, is among the National Planning Scenarios of the United States government. Understanding employee willingness to respond is critical for planning experts. Previous research has demonstrated that perception of threat and efficacy is key in the assessing willingness to respond to a RDD event. Methods An anonymous online survey was used to evaluate the willingness of hospital employees to respond to a RDD event. Agreement with a series of belief statements was assessed, following a methodology validated in previous work. The survey was available online to all 18,612 employees of the Johns Hopkins Hospital from January to March 2009. Results Surveys were completed by 3426 employees (18.4%), whose demographic distribution was similar to overall hospital staff. 39% of hospital workers were not willing to respond to a RDD scenario if asked but not required to do so. Only 11% more were willing if required. Workers who were hesitant to agree to work additional hours when required were 20 times less likely to report during a RDD emergency. Respondents who perceived their peers as likely to report to work in a RDD emergency were 17 times more likely to respond during a RDD event if asked. Only 27.9% of the hospital employees with a perception of low efficacy declared willingness to respond to a severe RDD event. Perception of threat had little impact on willingness to respond among hospital workers. Conclusions Radiological scenarios such as RDDs are among the most dreaded emergency events yet studied. Several attitudinal indicators can help to identify hospital employees unlikely to respond. These risk-perception modifiers must then be addressed through training to enable effective hospital response to a RDD event. PMID:22046238

  15. Pretreatment cognitive and neural differences between sapropterin dihydrochloride responders and non-responders with phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Hawks, Zoë; Shimony, Joshua; Rutlin, Jerrel; Grange, Dorothy K; Christ, Shawn E; White, Desirée A

    2017-09-01

    Sapropterin dihydrochloride (BH4) reduces phenylalanine (Phe) levels and improves white matter integrity in a subset of individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) known as "responders." Although prior research has identified biochemical and genotypic differences between BH4 responders and non-responders, cognitive and neural differences remain largely unexplored. To this end, we compared intelligence and white matter integrity prior to treatment with BH4 in 13 subsequent BH4 responders with PKU, 16 subsequent BH4 non-responders with PKU, and 12 healthy controls. Results indicated poorer intelligence and white matter integrity in non-responders compared to responders prior to treatment. In addition, poorer white matter integrity was associated with greater variability in Phe across the lifetime in non-responders but not in responders. These results underscore the importance of considering PKU as a multi-faceted, multi-dimensional disorder and point to the need for additional research to delineate characteristics that predict response to treatment with BH4.

  16. 24 CFR 26.7 - Respondent's representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Respondent's representative. 26.7 Section 26.7 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Respondent's representative. The party against whom the administrative action is taken may be represented at...

  17. Pretreatment with oral contraceptive pills to identify poor responders that may benefit from rLH supplementation during GnRH-antagonist treatment for IVF: A pilot perspective study proposal.

    PubMed

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Andrisani, Alessandra; Noventa, Marco; Gangemi, Michele; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista; Ambrosini, Guido

    2015-11-01

    Controlled ovarian stimulation, using a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol, is a potential treatment option for women with a low response to other fertility treatments as it appears to be at least as effective as GnRH agonists (long protocol). However, previous studies have indicated that the administration of GnRH antagonist may cause an excessive reduction in endogenous luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. The use of recombinant LH (rLH) supplementation during ovarian stimulation is controversial. The present article proposes a future study focused on women aged ≥40 years old, with the aim of identifying patients who are poor responders to GnRH-antagonist treatment that may benefit from rLH supplementation. We hypothesize that patients with suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activity may benefit from rLH supplementation, as GnRH-antagonist administration has the potential to induce a marked reduction in LH levels in such patients compared with that in patients that exhibit a regular recovery following the administration of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). Furthermore, patients with hyper-responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activity may be affected by 'low-gonadotropin-responsiveness', similar to that observed in patients with any mutation in the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor, who are known to benefit from rLH supplementation. The proposed pilot study would include 120 women who are predicted to be poor responders to GnRH-antagonist treatment. All subjects will be allocated at random (using 2:1 computerized randomization) into two study groups: Group A (OCP-treated) and group B (control). For all patients, the serum values of FSH, LH and 17β estradiol (E2) will be detected on day 3 of the menstrual cycle preceding OCP treatment (baseline) and at day 4 following OCP treatment. The Δ-variation from baseline levels for all markers, the FSH/LH ratio and the E2/FSH ratio will be determined. Δ-variation from the baseline of

  18. Pretreatment with oral contraceptive pills to identify poor responders that may benefit from rLH supplementation during GnRH-antagonist treatment for IVF: A pilot perspective study proposal

    PubMed Central

    GIZZO, SALVATORE; ANDRISANI, ALESSANDRA; NOVENTA, MARCO; GANGEMI, MICHELE; NARDELLI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA; AMBROSINI, GUIDO

    2015-01-01

    Controlled ovarian stimulation, using a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol, is a potential treatment option for women with a low response to other fertility treatments as it appears to be at least as effective as GnRH agonists (long protocol). However, previous studies have indicated that the administration of GnRH antagonist may cause an excessive reduction in endogenous luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. The use of recombinant LH (rLH) supplementation during ovarian stimulation is controversial. The present article proposes a future study focused on women aged ≥40 years old, with the aim of identifying patients who are poor responders to GnRH-antagonist treatment that may benefit from rLH supplementation. We hypothesize that patients with suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activity may benefit from rLH supplementation, as GnRH-antagonist administration has the potential to induce a marked reduction in LH levels in such patients compared with that in patients that exhibit a regular recovery following the administration of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). Furthermore, patients with hyper-responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activity may be affected by ‘low-gonadotropin-responsiveness’, similar to that observed in patients with any mutation in the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor, who are known to benefit from rLH supplementation. The proposed pilot study would include 120 women who are predicted to be poor responders to GnRH-antagonist treatment. All subjects will be allocated at random (using 2:1 computerized randomization) into two study groups: Group A (OCP-treated) and group B (control). For all patients, the serum values of FSH, LH and 17β estradiol (E2) will be detected on day 3 of the menstrual cycle preceding OCP treatment (baseline) and at day 4 following OCP treatment. The Δ-variation from baseline levels for all markers, the FSH/LH ratio and the E2/FSH ratio will be determined. Δ-variation from the baseline

  19. Who cares and who is careless? Insufficient effort responding as a reflection of respondent personality.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Nathan A; Huang, Jason L; Bragg, Caleb B; Khazon, Steve; Liu, Mengqiao; Blackmore, Caitlin E

    2016-08-01

    Insufficient effort responding (IER) to surveys, which occurs when respondents fail to carefully read questionnaire instructions or item content, has recently gained attention as a source of inaccuracy in self-report data (Huang, Curran, Keeney, Poposki, & DeShon, 2012; Johnson, 2005; Maniaci & Rogge, 2014; Meade & Craig, 2012). Whereas previous studies have focused on IER as a methodological nuisance, the current studies examined IER as a substantive variable. Specifically, we hypothesized that IER is a reflection of enduring individual differences. In Study 1, we found that IER displayed rank-order consistency over the course of 13 months; in Studies 2 and 3, we found that IER displayed rank-order consistency across multiple research situations; in Study 4, we found that acquaintance-reported conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion, and emotional stability were each negatively related to IER; and in Study 5, we found that IER was related to college grade point average and class absences. Together, these 5 studies suggest that IER is in part a manifestation of enduring individual differences. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. The staffing shortage: AHRA responds.

    PubMed

    Olivi, Penny M

    2002-01-01

    The AHRA Board of Directors formed a Long-Term Staffing Task Force to study the question, "Should AHRA become involved in the resolution(s) of the current staffing crisis, and if so how?" Because the background information that could be gathered was extensive, the Task Force used the following four questions to guide its activity: SENSITIVITY TO MEMBERS' VIEWS: What do we know about the needs, wants and preferences of our members, prospective members and customers relevant to a decision to become involved in activities to resolve the staffing crisis? FORESIGHT ABOUT FUTURE ENVIRONMENT: What do we know about the current and evolving dynamics of our profession relevant to a decision to become involved in activities to resolve the staffing crisis? INSIGHT INTO THE ORGANIZATION: What do we know about the strategic position and internal capacity of our organization relevant to a decision to become involved in activities to resolve the staffing crisis? CONSIDERATION OF OUR CHOICES: What are the ethical implications of our choices relevant to a decision to become involved in activities to resolve the staffing crisis? After considerable investigation and discussion, the Task Force made the following recommendations to the Board: RAISE AWARENESS OF OUR PROFESSION: Expand the number of radiologic technologists in the workforce by increasing the diversity of our students and by changing the traditional method in which we educate students (i.e., full-time, day clinical education). Create a quality monitor useful to the majority of radiology leaders to begin to systematically document the shortage. Support limited licensure and/or create a defined position of "staff extender" for radiologic technology.

  1. Evaluation of Respondent-Driven Sampling

    PubMed Central

    McCreesh, Nicky; Frost, Simon; Seeley, Janet; Katongole, Joseph; Tarsh, Matilda Ndagire; Ndunguse, Richard; Jichi, Fatima; Lunel, Natasha L; Maher, Dermot; Johnston, Lisa G; Sonnenberg, Pam; Copas, Andrew J; Hayes, Richard J; White, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    Background Respondent-driven sampling is a novel variant of link-tracing sampling for estimating the characteristics of hard-to-reach groups, such as HIV prevalence in sex-workers. Despite its use by leading health organizations, the performance of this method in realistic situations is still largely unknown. We evaluated respondent-driven sampling by comparing estimates from a respondent-driven sampling survey with total-population data. Methods Total-population data on age, tribe, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual activity and HIV status were available on a population of 2402 male household-heads from an open cohort in rural Uganda. A respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey was carried out in this population, employing current methods of sampling (RDS sample) and statistical inference (RDS estimates). Analyses were carried out for the full RDS sample and then repeated for the first 250 recruits (small sample). Results We recruited 927 household-heads. Full and small RDS samples were largely representative of the total population, but both samples under-represented men who were younger, of higher socioeconomic status, and with unknown sexual activity and HIV status. Respondent-driven-sampling statistical-inference methods failed to reduce these biases. Only 31%-37% (depending on method and sample size) of RDS estimates were closer to the true population proportions than the RDS sample proportions. Only 50%-74% of respondent-driven-sampling bootstrap 95% confidence intervals included the population proportion. Conclusions Respondent-driven sampling produced a generally representative sample of this well-connected non-hidden population. However, current respondent-driven-sampling inference methods failed to reduce bias when it occurred. Whether the data required to remove bias and measure precision can be collected in a respondent-driven sampling survey is unresolved. Respondent-driven sampling should be regarded as a (potentially superior) form of convenience

  2. Evaluation of respondent-driven sampling.

    PubMed

    McCreesh, Nicky; Frost, Simon D W; Seeley, Janet; Katongole, Joseph; Tarsh, Matilda N; Ndunguse, Richard; Jichi, Fatima; Lunel, Natasha L; Maher, Dermot; Johnston, Lisa G; Sonnenberg, Pam; Copas, Andrew J; Hayes, Richard J; White, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling is a novel variant of link-tracing sampling for estimating the characteristics of hard-to-reach groups, such as HIV prevalence in sex workers. Despite its use by leading health organizations, the performance of this method in realistic situations is still largely unknown. We evaluated respondent-driven sampling by comparing estimates from a respondent-driven sampling survey with total population data. Total population data on age, tribe, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual activity, and HIV status were available on a population of 2402 male household heads from an open cohort in rural Uganda. A respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey was carried out in this population, using current methods of sampling (RDS sample) and statistical inference (RDS estimates). Analyses were carried out for the full RDS sample and then repeated for the first 250 recruits (small sample). We recruited 927 household heads. Full and small RDS samples were largely representative of the total population, but both samples underrepresented men who were younger, of higher socioeconomic status, and with unknown sexual activity and HIV status. Respondent-driven sampling statistical inference methods failed to reduce these biases. Only 31%-37% (depending on method and sample size) of RDS estimates were closer to the true population proportions than the RDS sample proportions. Only 50%-74% of respondent-driven sampling bootstrap 95% confidence intervals included the population proportion. Respondent-driven sampling produced a generally representative sample of this well-connected nonhidden population. However, current respondent-driven sampling inference methods failed to reduce bias when it occurred. Whether the data required to remove bias and measure precision can be collected in a respondent-driven sampling survey is unresolved. Respondent-driven sampling should be regarded as a (potentially superior) form of convenience sampling method, and caution is required

  3. Bats Respond to Very Weak Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth’s magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944

  4. The effect and safety of highly standardized Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia) extract supplementation on inflammation and chronic pain in NSAIDs poor responders. A pilot study in subjects with knee arthrosis.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Allegrini, Pietro; Faliva, Milena Anna; Naso, Maurizio; Miccono, Alessandra; Peroni, Gabriella; Degli Agosti, Irene; Perna, Simone

    2017-06-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zingiber officinale and Echinacea angustifolia extract supplementation (25 mg of ginger and 5 mg of Echinacea) for 30 days on inflammation and chronic pain in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Consecutive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory-drugs (NSAIDs) poor responders with chronic inflammation and pain due to knee arthrosis were assessed (15 subjects, age: 67.2 ± 7.9, body mass index: 30.6 ± 7.1, men/women:2/13). The primary endpoint was to determine pain improvement from baseline to Day 30 by Tegner Lysholm Knee Scoring. The secondary endpoints were the assessment of Visual Analog Scale for Pain, health-related quality of life, by the ShortForm36 (SF-36), anthropometric parameters, hydration. After supplementation, a significant improvement of 12.27 points was observed for Lysholm scale score (p < 0.05), SF-36 (p < 0.05), and a decrease in -0.52 cm in knee circumference (left) (p < 0.01). This pilot study provides feasibility and safety data for the use of highly standardised ginger and Echinacea extract supplementation in people with knee OA.

  5. A recombinant CHSE-214 cell line expressing an Mx1 promoter-reporter system responds to both interferon type I and type II from salmonids and represents a versatile tool to study the IFN-system in teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Jorunn B; Johansen, Audny; Hegseth, Marit N; Zou, Jun; Robertsen, Børre; Collet, Bertrand; Secombes, Christopher J

    2007-12-01

    A transgenic cell line for the detection of salmon interferons (IFNs) has been established. It is based on a CHSE-214 cell line containing a reporter construct expressing firefly luciferase under the control of the rainbow trout promoter for the IFN-induced Mx1 gene. This cell line, named CHSE-Mx10, showed IFN-induced luciferase expression after more than 80 passages, confirming the stability of this cell line. Interestingly, the Mx promoter was shown to respond to both salmon IFN-alpha/beta and trout IFN-gamma in a dose-dependent manner, while there was no response to TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. IFN-alpha/beta activity could be measured at a range of 9-150 U/ml, and IFN-gamma showed activity between 10 and 100 ng/ml. The reproducibility of both responses was good. The CHSE-Mx10 reporter system constitutes a versatile tool to study the induction and regulation of IFN signaling in teleost fish. A preliminary study presented herein suggests that both infectious pancreas necrosis virus (IPNV) and salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV) may block activation of the Mx promoter in CHSE-Mx10 stimulated with IFN-alpha/beta.

  6. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (December 2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Upton, Jaki F.; Stein, Steven L.

    2015-02-13

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  7. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (January 2015)

    SciTech Connect

    Upton, Jaki F.; Stein, Steven L.

    2015-02-01

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  8. Relational Responding and Conditional Discrimination Procedures: An Apparent Inconsistency and Clarification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ian; McElwee, John

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses theoretical issues relating to an apparent terminological inconsistency between two recent studies involving relational responding. These studies employed a functionally similar protocol to establish contextual cues for arbitrarily applicable relational responding by using a nonarbitrary relational responding procedure;…

  9. Relational Responding and Conditional Discrimination Procedures: An Apparent Inconsistency and Clarification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ian; McElwee, John

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses theoretical issues relating to an apparent terminological inconsistency between two recent studies involving relational responding. These studies employed a functionally similar protocol to establish contextual cues for arbitrarily applicable relational responding by using a nonarbitrary relational responding procedure;…

  10. Enhancing Academic Engagement: Providing Opportunities for Responding and Influencing Students to Choose to Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Christopher H.; Pappas, Danielle N.; Davis, Kai A.

    2005-01-01

    Although educators often provide opportunities for students to engage in active academic responding, in many situations, students either cannot or will not respond. In the current article, we analyze the reasons students fail to respond. Practical procedures educators can use to prevent "can't do" problems are provided. "Won't do" problems are…

  11. Enhancing Academic Engagement: Providing Opportunities for Responding and Influencing Students to Choose to Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Christopher H.; Pappas, Danielle N.; Davis, Kai A.

    2005-01-01

    Although educators often provide opportunities for students to engage in active academic responding, in many situations, students either cannot or will not respond. In the current article, we analyze the reasons students fail to respond. Practical procedures educators can use to prevent "can't do" problems are provided. "Won't do" problems are…

  12. Letter on Decontamination and First Responder Liability

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Addresses liability of hazardous materials incident responders for spreading contamination while attempting to save lives, and the acceptable level of contamination that could enter the Chesapeake Bay without being considered a threat to the ecosystem.

  13. A Comparison of Gene Expression Profiles between Glucocorticoid Responder and Non-Responder Bovine Trabecular Meshwork Cells Using RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez, Jaclyn Y.; Webber, Hannah C.; Brown, Bartley; Braun, Terry A.; Clark, Abbot F.; Mao, Weiming

    2017-01-01

    The most common ocular side effect of glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is GC-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) and GC-induced glaucoma (GIG). GC-induced OHT occurs in about 40% of the general population, while the other 60% are resistant. This study aims to determine the genes and pathways involved in differential GC responsiveness in the trabecular meshwork (TM). Using paired bovine eyes, one eye was perfusion-cultured with 100nM dexamethasone (DEX), while the fellow eye was used to establish a bovine TM (BTM) cell strain. Based on maximum IOP change in the perfused eye, the BTM cell strain was identified as a DEX-responder or non-responder strain. Three responder and three non-responder BTM cell strains were cultured, treated with 0.1% ethanol or 100nM DEX for 7 days. RNA and proteins were extracted for RNA sequencing (RNAseq), qPCR, and Western immunoblotting (WB), respectively. Data were analyzed using the human and bovine genome databases as well as Tophat2 software. Genes were grouped and compared using Student’s t-test. We found that DEX induced fibronectin expression in responder BTM cells but not in non-responder cells using WB. RNAseq showed between 93 and 606 differentially expressed genes in different expression groups between responder and non-responder BTM cells. The data generated by RNAseq were validated using qPCR. Pathway analyses showed 35 pathways associated with differentially expressed genes. These genes and pathways may play important roles in GC-induced OHT and will help us to better understand differential ocular responsiveness to GCs. PMID:28068412

  14. Chromatin Proteins: Key Responders to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Karen T.; Workman, Jerry L.

    2012-01-01

    Environments can be ever-changing and stresses are commonplace. In order for organisms to survive, they need to be able to respond to change and adapt to new conditions. Fortunately, many organisms have systems in place that enable dynamic adaptation to immediate stresses and changes within the environment. Much of this cellular response is coordinated by modulating the structure and accessibility of the genome. In eukaryotic cells, the genome is packaged and rolled up by histone proteins to create a series of DNA/histone core structures known as nucleosomes; these are further condensed into chromatin. The degree and nature of the condensation can in turn determine which genes are transcribed. Histones can be modified chemically by a large number of proteins that are thereby responsible for dynamic changes in gene expression. In this Primer we discuss findings from a study published in this issue of PLoS Biology by Weiner et al. that highlight how chromatin structure and chromatin binding proteins alter transcription in response to environmental changes and stresses. Their study reveals the importance of chromatin in mediating the speed and amplitude of stress responses in cells and suggests that chromatin is a critically important component of the cellular response to stress. PMID:22859908

  15. The Auditory P3 in Antidepressant Pharmacotherapy Treatment Responders, Non-Responders and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Jaworska, Natalia; De Somma, Elisea; Blondeau, Claude; Tessier, Pierre; Norris, Sandhaya; Fusee, Wendy; Smith, Dylan; Blier, Pierre; Knott, Verner

    2013-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs), derived from electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, can index electrocortical activity related to cognitive operations. The fronto-central P3a ERP is involved in involuntary processing of novel auditory information, whereas the parietal P3b indexes controlled attention processing. The amplitude of the auditory P3b has been found to be decreased in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, few studies have examined the relationship between the P3b, the related P3a, and antidepressant treatment response. We tested 53 unmedicated individuals (25 females) with MDD as well as 43 non-depressed controls (23 females) on the novelty oddball task, wherein infrequent deviant (target) and frequent standard (non-target) tones were presented, along with infrequent novel (non-target/distractor) sounds. The P3a and P3b ERPs were assessed to the novel and target sounds, respectively, as were accompanying behavioural performance measures. Depression ratings and antidepressant response status were assessed following 12 weeks of pharmacotherapy with three different regimens. Antidepressant treatment non-responders had smaller baseline P3a/b amplitudes than responders and healthy controls. Baseline P3b amplitude also weakly predicted the extent of depression rating changes by week 12. Females exhibited larger P3a/b amplitudes than males. With respect to task performance, controls had more target hits than treatment non-responders. ERP measures correlated with clinical changes in males and with behavioural measures in females. These results suggest that greater (or control-like) baseline P3a/b amplitudes are associated with a positive antidepressant response, and that gender differences characterize the P3 and, hence, basic attentive processes. PMID:23664712

  16. Social networks of men who have sex with men and their implications for HIV/STI interventions: results from a cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling in a large and a small city in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Michael W; Larsson, Markus; Jacobson, Jerry; Nyoni, Joyce; Agardh, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Objective Men who have sex with men (MSM) in sub-Saharan Africa remain hidden and hard to reach for involvement in HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) services. The aim of the current study was to describe MSM social networks in a large and a small Tanzanian city in order to explore their utility for peer-based healthcare interventions. Methods Data were collected through respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in Dar es Salaam (n=197) and in Tanga (n=99) in 2012 and 2013, using 5 and 4 seeds, respectively. All results were adjusted for RDS sampling design. Results Mean personal network size based on the number of MSM who were reported by the participants, as known to them was 12.0±15.5 in Dar es Salaam and 7.6±8.1 in Tanga. Mean actual RDS network size was 39.4±31.4 in Dar es Salaam and 25.3±9.7 in Tanga. A majority (97%) reported that the person from whom they received the recruitment coupon was a sexual partner, close friend or acquaintance. Homophile in recruitment patterns (selective affiliation) was present for age, gay openness, and HIV status in Dar es Salaam, and for sexual identification in Tanga. Conclusions The personal network sizes and existence of contacts between recruiter and referral indicate that it is possible to use peer-driven interventions to reach MSM for HIV/STI interventions in larger and smaller sub-Saharan African cities. The study was reviewed and approved by the University of Texas Health Science Center's Institutional Review Board (HSC-SPH-10-0033) and the Tanzanian National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR/HQ/R.8a/Vol. IX/1088). PMID:27864245

  17. Using Video Modeling to Teach Children with PDD-NOS to Respond to Facial Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axe, Judah B.; Evans, Christine J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders often exhibit delays in responding to facial expressions, and few studies have examined teaching responding to subtle facial expressions to this population. We used video modeling to train 3 participants with PDD-NOS (age 5) to respond to eight facial expressions: approval, bored, calming, disapproval,…

  18. Using Video Modeling to Teach Children with PDD-NOS to Respond to Facial Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axe, Judah B.; Evans, Christine J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders often exhibit delays in responding to facial expressions, and few studies have examined teaching responding to subtle facial expressions to this population. We used video modeling to train 3 participants with PDD-NOS (age 5) to respond to eight facial expressions: approval, bored, calming, disapproval,…

  19. Posttraumatic stress in children with first responders in their families.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Cristiane S; Hoven, Christina W; Wu, Ping; Bin, Fan; Cotel, Sivan; Mandell, Donald J; Nagasawa, Megumi; Balaban, Victor; Wernikoff, Linda; Markenson, David

    2006-04-01

    High levels of exposure and occupational stress of first responders may have caused children in first-responder families to become traumatized following the September 11th, 2001 terrorist attacks. New York City public school children (N = 8,236) participated in a study examining mental health problems 6 months after the World Trade Center attack. Results revealed that children with emergency medical technician (EMT) family members had a high prevalence of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; 18.9%). Differences in rates of probable PTSD among EMTs' and firefighters' children were explained by demographic characteristics. Where EMTs are drawn from disadvantaged groups, one implication of this study is to target EMT families in any mental health interventions for children of first responders.

  20. Results and their implications from comparing respondents and proxy responses for non-respondents with cognitive difficulties on a telephone survey.

    PubMed

    Adams, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Limited study has been done on proxy responses for non-respondents with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) on the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). To directly compare results for survey respondents with SCD with those for proxies provided for non-respondents with SCD. Publicly available 2011 BRFSS data from 120,485 households in 21 states were analyzed using Stata. Respondents ages 40 and older with SCD (n = 10,831) were compared with proxy responses for non-respondents ages 40 and older with SCD (n = 4296) living in households where the respondent did not have SCD. Outcome measures included functional difficulties associated with their SCD, needing help, receiving informal care, talking with a healthcare provider about their SCD, getting treatment, and having a dementia diagnosis. Logistic regression for each outcome controlled for age, household income, state of residence, and number of household adults. Non-respondents were significantly more likely than respondents by Pearson chi square tests with alpha = 0.05 to report all 6 outcomes. Adjusted odds ratios comparing non-respondents with respondents ranged from 2.61 (95% confidence interval: 2.22-3.07) for needing help, to 8.99 (6.60-12.24) for a dementia diagnosis and confirmed unadjusted results. Respondent results only represent adults capable of answering a telephone survey. To represent all household adults and avoid nonresponse bias that may under-represent the true population parameters by as much as 70%, results must include both respondents and non-respondents. Other measures may be similarly affected if they inhibit one's ability to respond to a telephone survey (e.g. disability, stroke). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nonresponders, partial responders, and complete responders to PDE5 inhibitors therapy according to IIEF criteria: validation of an anchor-based treatment responder classification.

    PubMed

    Yang, May; Ni, Xiao; Sontag, Angelina; Litman, Heather J; Rosen, Raymond C

    2013-12-01

    Despite widespread use of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) in erectile dysfunction (ED) research, there are no published criteria for classifying ED treatment responders in clinical trials or patient management settings. A new classification for treatment response in men with ED has been developed and validated in a large clinical trial database. The study aims to test discriminant and convergent validity of the responder classification and examine the role of covariates. Treatment assignment was used to test discriminant validity. The diary-based Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) question ("Did your erection last long enough for you to have successful intercourse?") and Global Assessment Question (GAQ) ("Has the treatment you have been taking over the past study interval improved your erections?") were used to evaluate convergent validity. Chi-square and Cochran-Armitage trend tests were used to examine outcome associations. Logistic regression was used to further assess the relationship of outcomes controlling for covariates. The classification measure was developed and validated in a database from 17 clinical trials in 3,252 men with ED randomized to placebo or tadalafil. The treatment responder is defined as complete (erectile function [EF] ≥ 26); partial (EF < 26; met minimal clinically important difference [MCID] criteria); or nonresponder following treatment (EF < 26; did not meet MCID). The new responder definition performed consistently well in all prespecified tests of validity. Eighty-nine percent of subjects classified as complete responders were in the treatment group, and the responder definition was associated with changes on the SEP and GAQ measures, respectively (SEP odds ratio [OR] = 14, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 11-17; GAQ OR = 50, 95% CI 39-88; complete vs. nonresponders). We developed and validated a novel method of defining an ED treatment responder based on multiple IIEF criteria and using other measures (SEP, GAQ) for

  2. Effects of response requirement and alcohol on human aggressive responding.

    PubMed Central

    Cherek, D R; Spiga, R; Egli, M

    1992-01-01

    Nine men participated in two experiments to determine the effects of increased response requirement and alcohol administration on free-operant aggressive responding. Two response buttons (A and B) were available. Pressing Button A was maintained by a fixed-ratio 100 schedule of point presentation. Subjects were instructed that completion of each fixed-ratio 10 on Button B resulted in the subtraction of a point from a fictitious second subject. Button B presses were defined as aggressive because they ostensibly resulted in the presentation of an aversive stimulus to another person. Aggressive responses were engendered by a random-time schedule of point loss and were maintained by initiation of intervals free of point loss. Instructions attributed these point losses to Button B presses of the fictitious other subject. In Experiment 1, increasing the ratio requirement on Button B decreased the number of ratios completed in 4 of 5 subjects. In Experiment 2, the effects of placebo and three alcohol doses (0.125, 0.25, and 0.375 g/kg) were determined when Button B presses were maintained at ratio values of 20, 40 and 80. Three subjects who reduced aggressive responding with increasing fixed-ratio values reduced aggressive responding further at higher alcohol doses. One subject who did not reduce aggressive responding with increasing fixed-ratio values increased aggressive responding at the highest alcohol dose. The results of this study support suggestions that alcohol alters aggressive behavior by reducing the control of competing contingencies. PMID:1447545

  3. Responding to Students' Learning Preferences in Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewthwaite, Brian; Wiebe, Rick

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports on a teacher's and his students' responsiveness to a new tetrahedral-oriented (Mahaffy in J Chem Educ 83(1):49-55, 2006) curriculum requiring more discursive classroom practices in the teaching of chemistry. In this instrumental case study, we identify the intentions of this learner-centered curriculum and a teacher's development in response to this curriculum. We also explore the tensions this teacher experiences as students subsequently respond to his adjusted teaching. We use a Chemistry Teacher Inventory (Lewthwaite and Wiebe in Res Sci Educ 40(11):667-689, 2011; Lewthwaite and Wiebe in Can J Math Sci Technol Educ 12(1):36-61, 2012; Lewthwaite in Chem Educ Res Pract. doi:10.1039/C3RP00122A, 2014) to assist the teacher in monitoring how he teaches and how he would like to improve his teaching. We also use a student form of the instrument, the Chemistry Classroom Inventory and Classroom Observation Protocol (Lewthwaite and Wiebe 2011) to verify the teacher's teaching and perception of student preferences for his teaching especially in terms of the discursive processes the curriculum encourages. By so doing, the teacher is able to use both sets of data as a foundation for critical reflection and work towards resolution of the incongruence in data arising from students' preferred learning orientations and his teaching aspirations. Implications of this study in regards to the authority of students' voice in triggering teachers' pedagogical change and the adjustments in `teachering' and `studenting' required by such curricula are considered.

  4. Experimental control of superstitious responding inhumans.

    PubMed

    CATANIA, A C; CUTTS, D

    1963-04-01

    Superstitions were demonstrated with human subjects when presses on one button were reinforced on a VI 30-sec schedule while presses on a second were never reinforced. Superstitious responding, on the second button, was often maintained because presses on that button were frequently followed by reinforcement for a subsequent press on the first button. The introduction of a changeover delay (COD), which separated in time presses on the second button and subsequent reinforced presses on the first button, reduced or eliminated the superstitious responding of these subjects. Some complex superstitions were also demonstrated with other subjects for which the COD was in effect from the beginning of the session.

  5. Poor responders: does the protocol make a difference?

    PubMed

    Mahutte, Neal G; Arici, Aydin

    2002-06-01

    An inadequate response to gonadotropins during in-vitro fertilization treatment may result in cycle cancellation, fewer embryos available for transfer and decreased pregnancy rates. For these reasons, numerous strategies to improve ovarian stimulation in poor responders have been proposed. These include variations in the type, dose and timing of gonadotropins, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists and gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists. Unfortunately, despite optimism generated by studies using retrospective controls, epidemiologically sound trials have been scarce. Indeed, of the three prospective randomized trials performed in poor responders to date no compelling advantage for one stimulation protocol over another has been established. Although this lack of improvement may reflect inadequate sample sizes, an alternative explanation is simply that the protocol, after a certain point, does not make a difference. Aside from oocyte donation, greater hope for poor responders may rest in aneuploidy screening, in-vitro oocyte maturation and cytoplasm/nuclear transfer.

  6. RESPONDENT-DRIVEN SAMPLING AS MARKOV CHAIN MONTE CARLO

    PubMed Central

    GOEL, SHARAD; SALGANIK, MATTHEW J.

    2013-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a recently introduced, and now widely used, technique for estimating disease prevalence in hidden populations. RDS data are collected through a snowball mechanism, in which current sample members recruit future sample members. In this paper we present respondent-driven sampling as Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) importance sampling, and we examine the effects of community structure and the recruitment procedure on the variance of RDS estimates. Past work has assumed that the variance of RDS estimates is primarily affected by segregation between healthy and infected individuals. We examine an illustrative model to show that this is not necessarily the case, and that bottlenecks anywhere in the networks can substantially affect estimates. We also show that variance is inflated by a common design feature in which sample members are encouraged to recruit multiple future sample members. The paper concludes with suggestions for implementing and evaluating respondent-driven sampling studies. PMID:19572381

  7. Stimulus specificity and dishabituation of operant responding in humans.

    PubMed

    Kenzer, Amy L; Ghezzi, Patrick M; Fuller, Timothy

    2013-07-01

    Habituation has recently been addressed within the operant conditioning paradigm. While the literature on this topic is growing, the examination of dishabituation, a fundamental characteristic of habituation, remains limited. This study expanded research on habituation of operant responding in non-human animals to research involving humans. Specifically, dishabituation and stimulus specificity were examined under a variety of conditions involving changes in the reinforcer type, reinforcement schedule, reinforcer amount, and selected properties of the antecedent stimuli for a computerized task with 46 undergraduate students. An additional 3 participants were exposed to a control condition. Evaluation of within session patterns of responding indicates that the introduction of stimulus changes into the operant context reliably produced dishabituation of operant responding in humans. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  8. Feeling good: autonomic nervous system responding in five positive emotions.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Michelle N; Neufeld, Samantha L; Yeung, Wan H; Moser, Stephanie E; Perea, Elaine F

    2011-12-01

    Although dozens of studies have examined the autonomic nervous system (ANS) aspects of negative emotions, less is known about ANS responding in positive emotion. An evolutionary framework was used to define five positive emotions in terms of fitness-enhancing function, and to guide hypotheses regarding autonomic responding. In a repeated measures design, participants viewed sets of visual images eliciting these positive emotions (anticipatory enthusiasm, attachment love, nurturant love, amusement, and awe) plus an emotionally neutral state. Peripheral measures of sympathetic and vagal parasympathetic activation were assessed. Results indicated that the emotion conditions were characterized by qualitatively distinct profiles of autonomic activation, suggesting the existence of multiple, physiologically distinct positive emotions.

  9. HIV-coinfected patients respond worse to direct-acting antiviral-based therapy against chronic hepatitis C in real life than HCV-monoinfected individuals: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Neukam, Karin; Morano-Amado, Luis E; Rivero-Juárez, Antonio; Mancebo, María; Granados, Rafael; Téllez, Francisco; Collado, Antonio; Ríos, María J; de Los Santos-Gil, Ignacio; Reus-Bañuls, Sergio; Vera-Méndez, Francisco; Geijo-Martínez, Paloma; Montero-Alonso, Marta; Suárez-Santamaría, Marta; Pineda, Juan A

    2017-05-01

    HIV/HCV-coinfected patients and hepatitis C virus (HCV) monoinfected subjects are thought to respond equally to direct-acting antiviral (DAA)-based therapy despite the lack of data derived from clinical trials. This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of HIV coinfection on the response to DAA-based treatment against HCV infection in the clinical practice. In a prospective multicohort study, patients who initiated DAA-based therapy at the Infectious Disease Units of 33 hospitals throughout Spain were included. The primary efficacy outcome variables were the achievement of sustained virologic response 12 weeks after the scheduled end of therapy date (SVR12). A total of 908 individuals had reached the SVR12 evaluation time-point, 426 (46.9%) were HIV/HCV-coinfected, and 472 (52%) received interferon (IFN)-free therapy. In an intention-to-treat analysis, SVR12 rates in subjects with and without HIV-coinfection were 55.3% (94/170 patients) versus 67.3% (179/266 subjects; p = 0.012) for IFN-based treatment and 86.3% (221/256 subjects) versus 94.9% (205/216 patients, p = 0.002) for IFN-free regimens. Relapse after end-of-treatment response to IFN-free therapy was observed in 3/208 (1.4%) HCV-monoinfected subjects and 10/231 (4.4%) HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals (p = 0.075). In a multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, transmission route, body-mass index, HCV genotype, and cirrhosis, the absence of HIV-coinfection (adjusted odds ratio: 3.367; 95% confidence interval: 1.15-9.854; p = 0.027) was independently associated with SVR12 to IFN-free therapy. HIV-coinfection is associated with worse response to DAA-based therapy against HCV infection. In patients receiving IFN-free therapy, this fact seems to be mainly driven by a higher rate of relapses among HIV-coinfected subjects.

  10. Chondrogenic Progenitor Cells Respond to Cartilage Injury

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Hyeonghun; Zheng, Hongjun; Yu, Yin; Jang, Keewoong; Walter, Morgan W.; Lehman, Abigail D.; Ding, Lei; Buckwalter, Joseph A.; Martin, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Hypocellularity resulting from chondrocyte death in the aftermath of mechanical injury is thought to contribute to posttraumatic osteoarthritis. However, we observed that nonviable areas in cartilage injured by blunt impact were repopulated within 7–14 days by cells that appeared to migrate from the surrounding matrix. The aim of this study was to assess our hypothesis that the migrating cell population included chondrogenic progenitor cells that were drawn to injured cartilage by alarmins. Methods Osteochondral explants obtained from mature cattle were injured by blunt impact or scratching, resulting in localized chondrocyte death. Injured sites were serially imaged by confocal microscopy, and migrating cells were evaluated for chondrogenic progenitor characteristics. Chemotaxis assays were used to measure the responses to chemokines, injury-conditioned medium, dead cell debris, and high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB-1). Results Migrating cells were highly clonogenic and multipotent and expressed markers associated with chondrogenic progenitor cells. Compared with chondrocytes, these cells overexpressed genes involved in proliferation and migration and underexpressed cartilage matrix genes. They were more active than chondrocytes in chemotaxis assays and responded to cell lysates, conditioned medium, and HMGB-1. Glycyrrhizin, a chelator of HMGB-1 and a blocking antibody to receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), inhibited responses to cell debris and conditioned medium and reduced the numbers of migrating cells on injured explants. Conclusion Injuries that caused chondrocyte death stimulated the emergence and homing of chondrogenic progenitor cells, in part via HMGB-1 release and RAGE-mediated chemotaxis. Their repopulation of the matrix could promote the repair of chondral damage that might otherwise contribute to progressive cartilage loss. PMID:22777600

  11. Supporting Children's Counterfactual Thinking with Alternative Modes of Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Sarah R.; Carroll, Daniel J.; Brunsdon, Victoria E. A.; Gryg, Charlotte K.

    2011-01-01

    To speculate about counterfactual worlds, children need to ignore what they know to be true about the real world. Prior studies yielding individual differences data suggested that counterfactual thinking may be related to overcoming prepotent responses. In two experiments, we manipulated how 3- to 5-year-olds responded to counterfactual…

  12. Global warming: fly populations are responding rapidly to climate change.

    PubMed

    van Heerwaarden, Belinda; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2007-01-09

    New studies on chromosome inversion polymorphisms in Drosophila species show that the genetic constitution of populations is responding to recent climate change and that widespread species may have the potential to undergo adaptive shifts. Genetic markers in widespread species can act as indicators of climate change on natural populations.

  13. Responding Effectively to Pupils' Writing. Writing Research Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Anne; Philips, David

    A study (part of the New Zealand Writing Project) investigated how teachers respond effectively to their students' writing. Several related issues were investigated, including whether "good" teachers of writing at various levels differ in approach and techniques used, and which practices bring about improvement at different ages.…

  14. Calibration of Observational Measurement of Rate of Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudford, Oliver C.; Zeleny, Jason R.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Klum, Molly E.; Owen, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of measurement systems used in almost all natural sciences other than behavior analysis is usually evaluated through calibration study rather than relying on interobserver agreement. We demonstrated some of the basic features of calibration using observer-measured rates of free-operant responding from 10 scripted 10-min calibration…

  15. Questionnaire Response Scales: Design Factors That Influence Respondent Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Eric S.; Rife, Frank N.

    The goal of this study was to assess the relative merit of various ranges and types of response scales in terms of respondent satisfaction and comfort and the nature of the elicited information in a population of seventh grade students. Three versions of an attitudinal questionnaire, each containing the same items but employing a different…

  16. Supporting Children's Counterfactual Thinking with Alternative Modes of Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Sarah R.; Carroll, Daniel J.; Brunsdon, Victoria E. A.; Gryg, Charlotte K.

    2011-01-01

    To speculate about counterfactual worlds, children need to ignore what they know to be true about the real world. Prior studies yielding individual differences data suggested that counterfactual thinking may be related to overcoming prepotent responses. In two experiments, we manipulated how 3- to 5-year-olds responded to counterfactual…

  17. Meta-Analysis and Inadequate Responders to Intervention: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Hughes, Lisa C.

    2012-01-01

    In a recently published meta-analysis, Tran, Sanchez, Arellano, and Swanson (2011) synthesized 13 studies that permitted assessment of characteristics of children who were adequate and inadequate responders to instruction. The authors indicated that "[t]he central question addressed in this review is whether individual differences in…

  18. Variational Pragmatics and "Responding to Thanks"--Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieswanger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, Klaus P. Schneider published a fascinating article with the title "'No problem, you're welcome, anytime': Responding to thanks in Ireland, England, and the U.S.A." Adopting the then emerging and now established framework of variational pragmatics, Schneider's pioneering paper presents the results of a study on differences…

  19. Meta-Analysis and Inadequate Responders to Intervention: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Hughes, Lisa C.

    2012-01-01

    In a recently published meta-analysis, Tran, Sanchez, Arellano, and Swanson (2011) synthesized 13 studies that permitted assessment of characteristics of children who were adequate and inadequate responders to instruction. The authors indicated that "[t]he central question addressed in this review is whether individual differences in…

  20. Transfer of Aversive Respondent Elicitation in Accordance with Equivalence Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valverde, Miguel Rodriguez; Luciano, Carmen; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the transfer of aversively conditioned respondent elicitation through equivalence classes, using skin conductance as the measure of conditioning. The first experiment is an attempt to replicate Experiment 1 in Dougher, Augustson, Markham, Greenway, and Wulfert (1994), with different temporal parameters in the…

  1. Responding to Literature; Guide to the Film Series. Protokollon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lid, R. W.; Handler, Philip

    The Protocol Materials in English (PME) project was set up to study literature and the teaching of literature in an effort to determine whether it is possible to discover hierarchies of concepts and to create materials to illustrate those concepts. In the film series "Responding to Literature," the category system presented has as its…

  2. Calibration of Observational Measurement of Rate of Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudford, Oliver C.; Zeleny, Jason R.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Klum, Molly E.; Owen, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of measurement systems used in almost all natural sciences other than behavior analysis is usually evaluated through calibration study rather than relying on interobserver agreement. We demonstrated some of the basic features of calibration using observer-measured rates of free-operant responding from 10 scripted 10-min calibration…

  3. African Americans Respond Poorly to Hepatitis C Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    African Americans have a significantly lower response rate to treatment for chronic hepatitis C than non-Hispanic Whites, according to a new study led by Duke University Medical Center researchers. Some African Americans--19 percent--did respond to the drug combination of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. But in non-Hispanic Whites with the…

  4. Emergence of Intraverbal Responding Following Tact Instruction with Compound Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Bailey; Carp, Charlotte L.; Hiett, Kiley A.; Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    Effective intraverbal responding often requires control by multiple elements of a verbal stimulus. The purpose of this study was to examine the emergence of such intraverbal relations following tact instruction with compound stimuli and to analyze any resulting error patterns. Participants were seven typically developing children between 3 and…

  5. Transfer of Aversive Respondent Elicitation in Accordance with Equivalence Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valverde, Miguel Rodriguez; Luciano, Carmen; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the transfer of aversively conditioned respondent elicitation through equivalence classes, using skin conductance as the measure of conditioning. The first experiment is an attempt to replicate Experiment 1 in Dougher, Augustson, Markham, Greenway, and Wulfert (1994), with different temporal parameters in the…

  6. African Americans Respond Poorly to Hepatitis C Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    African Americans have a significantly lower response rate to treatment for chronic hepatitis C than non-Hispanic Whites, according to a new study led by Duke University Medical Center researchers. Some African Americans--19 percent--did respond to the drug combination of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. But in non-Hispanic Whites with the…

  7. Emergence of Intraverbal Responding Following Tact Instruction with Compound Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Bailey; Carp, Charlotte L.; Hiett, Kiley A.; Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    Effective intraverbal responding often requires control by multiple elements of a verbal stimulus. The purpose of this study was to examine the emergence of such intraverbal relations following tact instruction with compound stimuli and to analyze any resulting error patterns. Participants were seven typically developing children between 3 and…

  8. The recurrence of negatively reinforced responding of humans.

    PubMed

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Lattal, Kennon A; Cançado, Carlos R X

    2015-11-01

    The recurrence of negatively reinforced responding of humans was studied in three experiments. In each experiment during Baseline, key-pressing produced 3-s timeouts from a requirement to exert finger pressure on a force cell according to variable- or fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement. In Experiment 1, resurgence was studied by arranging a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule in the second phase, and extinction in the Test phase. In Experiment 2, ABA renewal was studied by extinguishing responding in the second phase in a different context and, in the Test phase, by presenting the Baseline-phase context when extinction still was in effect. In Experiment 3, reinstatement was studied by arranging extinction in the second phase, followed by the delivery of response-independent timeouts in the Test phase. Resurgence and renewal occurred consistently for each participant in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In Experiment 3, reinstatement was observed less consistently in four participants. The results of these experiments replicate and extend to negatively reinforced responding previous findings of the resurgence and renewal of positively reinforced responding obtained mainly with nonhuman animals.

  9. Lupus vulgaris responding to double antituberculous therapy.

    PubMed

    Heller, G L; Pavlidakey, G P; Hashimoto, K; Greenberg, M; Rosenberg, M

    1984-11-01

    A patient with a 3 by 4 cm ulcerated lesion on the nose and upper lip in whom previous antibiotics and antifungal treatments for a "mixed infection" were of no avail is presented. Her history revealed that she has had pulmonary and pharyngeal tuberculosis and subsequently scrofuloderma of cervical lymph nodes. She eventually responded well to isoniazid, rifampin, and pyridoxine therapy.

  10. A PROBABILISTIC MODEL FOR FREE-RESPONDING.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    positive ) reinforcement ’ - a small amount of food, for instance) occasionally after the action is performed. B. F. Skinner (’Behavior of Organisms.’ New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.) discovered that various reward regimes (or ’schedules of reinforcement’) generate distinctive behavior patterns in free-responding situations. Interest is centered around this

  11. Literacy Learning and Scientific Inquiry: Children Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Patricia Ruggiano; Gillen, Susan; Zollo, Teresa Colabufo; Stone, Rhaenel

    2002-01-01

    Tells a story of children with learning problems responding to scientific inquiry while practicing their literacy learning in ways their teachers never anticipated. Notes the students exhibited greater focus, more positive interactions, and a sustained interest. Suggests that the children not only learned scientific concepts, but also had many…

  12. 8 CFR 1240.4 - Incompetent respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Incompetent respondents. 1240.4 Section 1240.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES...

  13. 8 CFR 1240.4 - Incompetent respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Incompetent respondents. 1240.4 Section 1240.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES...

  14. 8 CFR 1240.4 - Incompetent respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Incompetent respondents. 1240.4 Section 1240.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES...

  15. 8 CFR 1240.4 - Incompetent respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incompetent respondents. 1240.4 Section 1240.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES...

  16. 8 CFR 1240.4 - Incompetent respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Incompetent respondents. 1240.4 Section 1240.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES...

  17. Cleartalk: Police Responding to Intellectual Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Mark; Brennan, Roslin

    The Cleartalk project was developed in New South Wales (Australia) to help police respond to the communication needs of people with intellectual disabilities. Section 1 presents "The View from the Street: A Working Knowledge of Intellectual Disability," which discusses how individuals with intellectual disabilities are denied their right…

  18. Modeling Socially Desirable Responding and Its Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Matthias; Buehner, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The impact of socially desirable responding or faking on noncognitive assessments remains an issue of strong debate. One of the main reasons for the controversy is the lack of a statistical method to model such response sets. This article introduces a new way to model faking based on the assumption that faking occurs due to an interaction between…

  19. Modeling Socially Desirable Responding and Its Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Matthias; Buehner, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The impact of socially desirable responding or faking on noncognitive assessments remains an issue of strong debate. One of the main reasons for the controversy is the lack of a statistical method to model such response sets. This article introduces a new way to model faking based on the assumption that faking occurs due to an interaction between…

  20. Hemicrania continua: who responds to indomethacin?

    PubMed

    Marmura, M J; Silberstein, S D; Gupta, M

    2009-03-01

    Hemicrania continua (HC) is a primary headache disorder characterized by a continuous, moderate to severe, unilateral headache and defined by its absolute responsiveness to indomethacin. However, some patients with the clinical phenotype of HC do not respond to indomethacin. We reviewed the records of 192 patients with the putative diagnosis of HC and divided them into groups based on their headaches' response to indomethacin. They were compared for age, gender, presence or absence of specific autonomic symptoms, medication overuse, rapidity of headache onset, and whether or not the headaches met criteria for migraine when severe. Forty-three patients had an absolute response and 122 patients did not respond to adequate doses of indomethacin. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of age, sex, presence of rapid-onset headache, or medication overuse. Autonomic symptoms, based on a questionnaire, did not predict response. Eighteen patients could not complete a trial of indomethacin due to adverse events. Nine patients could not be included in the HC group despite improvement with indomethacin: one patient probably had primary cough headache, another paroxysmal hemicrania; three patients improved but it was uncertain if they were absolutely pain free, and four patients dramatically improved but still had a baseline headache. We found no statistically significant differences between patients who did and did not respond to indomethacin. All patients with continuous, unilateral headache should receive an adequate trial of indomethacin. Most patients with unilateral headache suggestive of HC did not respond to indomethacin.

  1. [Bullous scabies responding to ivermectin therapy].

    PubMed

    Galvany Rossell, L; Salleras Redonnet, M; Umbert Millet, P

    2010-01-01

    Bullous scabies is a rare disease that is usually diagnosed in elderly patients. The clinical, histological, and immunological findings are identical to bullous pemphigoid. In a review of the literature, we found reports of 24 cases. We present a new case of bullous scabies in a 72-year-old man. The lesions responded to treatment with oral ivermectin.

  2. Methods for Handling Missing Secondary Respondent Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Rebekah; Johnson, David

    2013-01-01

    Secondary respondent data are underutilized because researchers avoid using these data in the presence of substantial missing data. The authors reviewed, evaluated, and tested solutions to this problem. Five strategies of dealing with missing partner data were reviewed: (a) complete case analysis, (b) inverse probability weighting, (c) correction…

  3. From Recommendations to Reality: Educators Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedesco, Lisa A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper responds to the 1995 report of the Institute of Medicine concerning the present status and future needs of dental education in the United States. It describes the effort of the American Association of Dental Schools to systematically survey professional responses the IOM Report's recommendations. Among nine themes identified are…

  4. Methods for Handling Missing Secondary Respondent Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Rebekah; Johnson, David

    2013-01-01

    Secondary respondent data are underutilized because researchers avoid using these data in the presence of substantial missing data. The authors reviewed, evaluated, and tested solutions to this problem. Five strategies of dealing with missing partner data were reviewed: (a) complete case analysis, (b) inverse probability weighting, (c) correction…

  5. Resurgence of Temporal Patterns of Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cancado, Carlos R. X.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2011-01-01

    The resurgence of temporal patterns of key pecking by pigeons was investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, positively accelerated and linear patterns of responding were established on one key under a discrete-trial multiple fixed-interval variable-interval schedule. Subsequently, only responses on a second key produced reinforcers…

  6. A comparison of physical and psychological features of responders and non-responders to cervical facet blocks in chronic whiplash

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical facet block (FB) procedures are often used as a diagnostic precursor to radiofrequency neurotomies (RFN) in the management of chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Some individuals will respond to the FB procedures and others will not respond. Such responders and non-responders provided a sample of convenience to question whether there were differences in their physical and psychological features. This information may inform future predictive studies and ultimately the clinical selection of patients for FB procedures. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 58 individuals with chronic WAD who responded to cervical FB procedures (WAD_R); 32 who did not respond (WAD_NR) and 30 Healthy Controls (HC)s. Measures included: quantitative sensory tests (pressure; thermal pain thresholds; brachial plexus provocation test); nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR); motor function (cervical range of movement (ROM); activity of the superficial neck flexors during the cranio-cervical flexion test (CCFT). Self-reported measures were gained from the following questionnaires: neuropathic pain (s-LANSS); psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire-28), post-traumatic stress (PDS) and pain catastrophization (PCS). Individuals with chronic whiplash attended the laboratory once the effects of the blocks had abated and symptoms had returned. Results Following FB procedures, both WAD groups demonstrated generalized hypersensitivity to all sensory tests, decreased neck ROM and increased superficial muscle activity with the CCFT compared to controls (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between WAD groups (all p > 0.05). Both WAD groups demonstrated psychological distress (GHQ-28; p < 0.05), moderate post-traumatic stress symptoms and pain catastrophization. The WAD_NR group also demonstrated increased medication intake and elevated PCS scores compared to the WAD_R group (p < 0.05). Conclusions Chronic WAD responders and non-responders to FB

  7. RECOGNISING AND RESPONDING TO THE DETERIORATING PATIENT.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Kim

    2015-06-01

    The timely and appropriate identification of, and response to, a patient's deteriorating condition by health professionals is essential for optimal patient outcomes and the avoidance of preventable harm. National regulatory authorities, the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, State, Territory and federal health departments, health care facilities and institutions have all recognised the importance of implementing frameworks, standards and processes to facilitate the prompt recognition of the deteriorating patient and appropriate mechanisms for responding to and escalating such matters. Factors that may affect identification and response include the level of knowledge and skill of the health professionals, the culture of the organisation and the parameters of the assessment and audit tools. The 2014 findings of the Coroner in the inquest into the death of Graeme Barry Gulliver highlights the significance to nursing practice of recognising and responding to the deteriorating patient in an appropriate and timely manner.

  8. America under attack: ACHE affiliates respond.

    PubMed

    Lanser, Ellen G

    2002-01-01

    In the midst of the horror and uncertainty that swept over America on September 11, the healthcare sector helped to keep our nation firmly anchored. Within moments of the terrorist attacks, healthcare organizations in New York, Washington, D.C., and the surrounding areas responded swiftly, calmly, and effectively. Many of these hospitals are led by ACHE affiliates. Following are their accounts of that day, lessons they learned, and plans for the future.

  9. Preventing and responding to medical identity theft.

    PubMed

    Amori, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    Medical identity theft is a crime with two victims: patients and providers. It is easy to commit and lucrative because healthcare record keeping and business interactions are complex and mainly electronic. Patients whose identity has been stolen are vulnerable to both medical error and financial loss. Providers may suffer both reputation loss and financial loss. There are steps to help prevent and to respond appropriately to medical identity theft.

  10. Challenges to Leadership: Responding to Biological Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    National Defense University October 2011 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the...Information Operations and Reports , 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that...currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE OCT 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE

  11. Sustained Blood Pressure Responding during Synthetic Work.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-15

    split-half reliabilities of both heart rate and mean * blood pressure were high during task performance. Significant correlations were observed between... blood pressure responses elicited by :1 16 an anagram task showed a high test-retest reliability, even over an interval of 13 months. Examination of the...8217AD-AI5 733 JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV BALTIMORE MO DEPT OF PSYCHIATRY F/6 6/5 SUSTAINED BLOOD PRESSURE RESPONDING DURING SYNTHETIC WORK.(U) JUN A2 R L RAY

  12. 77 GHz radar for first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosowsky, L. H.; Aronoff, A. D.; Ferraro, R.; Alland, S.; Fleischman, E.

    2017-02-01

    First responders have the dangerous task of responding to emergency situations in firefighting scenarios involving homes and offices. The importance of this radar is its ability to see through walls and into adjacent areas to provide the first responder with information to assess the status of a building fire, its occupants, and to supplement his thermal camera which is obstructed by the wall. For the firefighter looking into an adjacent room containing unknown objects including humans, the challenge is to recognize what is in that room, the configuration of the room, and potential escape routes. We have just concluded a series of experiments to illustrate the performance of 77GHz radar in buildings. The experiments utilized the Delphi Automotive radar as the mm wave sensor and included display software developed by L. H. Kosowsky and Associates. The system has demonstrated the capability of seeing through walls consisting of sheetrock separated by two by four pieces of wood. It has demonstrated the ability to see into the adjacent room and to display the existence of persons and furniture Based on published data, the radar will perform well in a smoke, haze, and/or fog environment.

  13. Drugs and punished responding I: rate-dependent effects under multiple schedules1

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of drugs were studied in pigeons whose responses were punished with electric shock during one component of a multiple fixed-interval 5-min fixed-interval 5-min schedule of food presentation. Most of the drugs analyzed for rate-dependent effects increased low rates of both punished and unpunished responding, while increasing higher rates less, or decreasing them; however, low rates of punished responding sometimes were increased more by pentobarbital, diazepam, and chlordiazepoxide than were matched rates of unpunished responding. In contrast, d-amphetamine and chlorpromazine usually increased low rates of unpunished responding more than matched rates of punished responding. These two drugs also decreased high rates of unpunished responding less than they decreased high rates of punished responding. Thus, the effects of drugs on punished responding depend on the control rate of punished responding; however, the rate-dependent effects of drugs on punished responding are not always the same as they are for unpunished responding. PMID:4706233

  14. Visual Motor Integration as a Screener for Responders and Non-Responders in Preschool and Early School Years: Implications for Inclusive Assessment in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed; Kazem, Ali Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Visual motor integration (VMI) is the ability of the eyes and hands to work together in smooth, efficient patterns. In Oman, there are few effective methods to assess VMI skills in children in inclusive settings. The current study investigated the performance of preschool and early school years responders and non-responders on a VMI test. The full…

  15. Visual Motor Integration as a Screener for Responders and Non-Responders in Preschool and Early School Years: Implications for Inclusive Assessment in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed; Kazem, Ali Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Visual motor integration (VMI) is the ability of the eyes and hands to work together in smooth, efficient patterns. In Oman, there are few effective methods to assess VMI skills in children in inclusive settings. The current study investigated the performance of preschool and early school years responders and non-responders on a VMI test. The full…

  16. Adhesion and migration of cells responding to microtopography.

    PubMed

    Estévez, Maruxa; Martínez, Elena; Yarwood, Stephen J; Dalby, Matthew J; Samitier, Josep

    2015-05-01

    It is known that cells respond strongly to microtopography. However, cellular mechanisms of response are unclear. Here, we study wild-type fibroblasts responding to 25 µm(2) posts and compare their response to that of FAK(-/-) fibroblasts and fibroblasts with PMA treatment to stimulate protein kinase C (PKC) and the small g-protein Rac. FAK knockout cells modulated adhesion number and size in a similar way to cells on topography; that is, they used more, smaller adhesions, but migration was almost completely stalled demonstrating the importance of FAK signaling in contact guidance and adhesion turnover. Little similarity, however, was observed to PKC stimulated cells and cells on the topography. Interestingly, with PKC stimulation the cell nuclei became highly deformable bringing focus on these surfaces to the study of metastasis. Surfaces that aid the study of cellular migration are important in developing understanding of mechanisms of wound healing and repair in aligned tissues such as ligament and tendon.

  17. Identifying Careless Responding With the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised Validity Scales.

    PubMed

    Marcus, David K; Church, Abere Sawaqdeh; O'Connell, Debra; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2016-03-30

    The Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R) includes validity scales that assess Deviant Responding (DR), Virtuous Responding, and Inconsistent Responding. We examined the utility of these scales for identifying careless responding using data from two online studies that examined correlates of psychopathy in college students (Sample 1:N= 583; Sample 2:N= 454). Compared with those below the cut scores, those above the cut on the DR scale yielded consistently lower validity coefficients when PPI-R scores were correlated with corresponding scales from the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure. The other three PPI-R validity scales yielded weaker and less consistent results. Participants who completed the studies in an inordinately brief amount of time scored significantly higher on the DR and Virtuous Responding scales than other participants. Based on the findings from the current studies, researchers collecting PPI-R data online should consider identifying and perhaps screening out respondents with elevated scores on the DR scale.

  18. Characteristics of clinical measurements between biomechanical responders and non-responders to a shoe designed for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yongwook; Richards, Jim; Lidtke, Roy H; Trede, Renato

    2017-09-29

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of biomechanical and clinical measurements in relation to the knee adduction moment when wearing a standard shoe and a shoe design for individuals with knee osteoarthritis (Flex-OA). Kinematic and kinetic data were collected from thirty-two healthy individuals (64 knees) using a ten camera motion analysis system and four force plates. Subjects performed 5 walking trials under the two conditions and the magnitude of individuals' biomechanical responses where explored in relation to the clinical assessment of the Foot Posture Index, hip rotation range, strength of hip rotators, and active ankle-foot motion, all of which have been described as possible compensation mechanisms in knee osteoarthritis. Significant reductions in the first peak of the knee adduction moment (KAM) during stance phase (9.3%) were recorded (p<0.0001). However, despite this difference, 22 of 64 knees showed either no change or an increased KAM, indicating a non-response or negative-response to the Flex-OA shoe. Significant differences were observed between the responder and non-responder subgroups in the hip rotation range ratio (p=0.044) and the hip rotators strength ratio (p=0.028). Significant differences were seen in clinical assessments of hip rotation range and hip rotator strength between responders and non-responders using a cut-off of 0.02Nm/kg change in the KAM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnostics for Respondent-driven Sampling

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a widely used method for sampling from hard-to-reach human populations, especially populations at higher risk for HIV. Data are collected through peer-referral over social networks. RDS has proven practical for data collection in many difficult settings and is widely used. Inference from RDS data requires many strong assumptions because the sampling design is partially beyond the control of the researcher and partially unobserved. We introduce diagnostic tools for most of these assumptions and apply them in 12 high risk populations. These diagnostics empower researchers to better understand their data and encourage future statistical research on RDS. PMID:27226702

  20. Recognizing and responding to medical neglect.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Carole

    2007-12-01

    A caregiver may fail to recognize or respond to a child's medical needs for a variety of reasons. An effective response by a health care professional to medical neglect requires a comprehensive assessment of the child's needs, the parents' resources, the parents' efforts to provide for the needs of the child, and options for ensuring optimal health for the child. Such an assessment requires clear, 2-way communication between the family and the health care professional. Physicians should consider the least intrusive options for managing cases of medical neglect that ensure the health and safety of the child.

  1. An operant analysis of human altruistic responding1

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Harold

    1977-01-01

    Human altruistic responding (called give responding), which delivered a reinforcer to someone other than the responder, was compared to responding where the responder was the recipient of the reinforcer (called earn responding). The same type of response (button pressing), the same reinforcer (a point representing a penny), and the same reinforcer contingency (a 40-response fixed-ratio schedule) were used for both give and earn responding. Since points representing pennies were used to reinforce give and earn responding, responding for points not worth money was also assessed. Give, earn, and point responding were arranged as concurrent incompatible operants. Lowest rates were obtained for point responding. Compared to earn responding, give responding occurred at lower rates, was more susceptible to cessation when point responding was possible, extinguished more rapidly in the absence of money, and produced less responding during reconditioning compared to conditioning when reconditioning followed a period of nonreinforcement. Give responding was less when it reduced the giver's opportunity to earn. Finally, histories of getting reinforcement from others were shown to determine give responding. PMID:16812010

  2. Manual unloading of the lumbar spine: can it identify immediate responders to mechanical traction in a low back pain population? A study of reliability and criterion referenced predictive validity

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Brian T.; Riley, Sean P.; Cote, Mark P.; Leger, Robin R.; Moss, Isaac L.; Carlos,, John

    2016-01-01

    Background To date, no research has examined the reliability or predictive validity of manual unloading tests of the lumbar spine to identify potential responders to lumbar mechanical traction. Purpose To determine: (1) the intra and inter-rater reliability of a manual unloading test of the lumbar spine and (2) the criterion referenced predictive validity for the manual unloading test. Methods Ten volunteers with low back pain (LBP) underwent a manual unloading test to establish reliability. In a separate procedure, 30 consecutive patients with LBP (age 50·86±11·51) were assessed for pain in their most provocative standing position (visual analog scale (VAS) 49·53±25·52 mm). Patients were assessed with a manual unloading test in their most provocative position followed by a single application of intermittent mechanical traction. Post traction, pain in the provocative position was reassessed and utilized as the outcome criterion. Results The test of unloading demonstrated substantial intra and inter-rater reliability K = 1·00, P = 0·002, K = 0·737, P = 0·001, respectively. There were statistically significant within group differences for pain response following traction for patients with a positive manual unloading test (P<0·001), while patients with a negative manual unloading test did not demonstrate a statistically significant change (P>0·05). There were significant between group differences for proportion of responders to traction based on manual unloading response (P = 0·031), and manual unloading response demonstrated a moderate to strong relationship with traction response Phi = 0·443, P = 0·015. Discussion and conclusion The manual unloading test appears to be a reliable test and has a moderate to strong correlation with pain relief that exceeds minimal clinically important difference (MCID) following traction supporting the validity of this test. PMID:27559274

  3. How and why does the proteome respond to microgravity?

    PubMed

    Grimm, Daniela; Wise, Petra; Lebert, Michael; Richter, Peter; Baatout, Sarah

    2011-02-01

    For medical and biotechnological reasons, it is important to study mammalian cells, animals, bacteria and plants exposed to simulated and real microgravity. It is necessary to detect the cellular changes that cause the medical problems often observed in astronauts, cosmonauts or animals returning from prolonged space missions. In order for in vitro tissue engineering under microgravity conditions to succeed, the features of the cell that change need to be known. In this article, we summarize current knowledge about the effects of microgravity on the proteome in different cell types. Many studies suggest that the effects of microgravity on major cell functions depend on the responding cell type. Here, we discuss and speculate how and why the proteome responds to microgravity, focusing on proteomic discoveries and their future potential.

  4. How tree roots respond to drought

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Ivano; Herzog, Claude; Dawes, Melissa A.; Arend, Matthias; Sperisen, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing climate change is characterized by increased temperatures and altered precipitation patterns. In addition, there has been an increase in both the frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events such as drought. Episodes of drought induce a series of interconnected effects, all of which have the potential to alter the carbon balance of forest ecosystems profoundly at different scales of plant organization and ecosystem functioning. During recent years, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of how aboveground parts of trees respond to drought and how these responses affect carbon assimilation. In contrast, processes of belowground parts are relatively underrepresented in research on climate change. In this review, we describe current knowledge about responses of tree roots to drought. Tree roots are capable of responding to drought through a variety of strategies that enable them to avoid and tolerate stress. Responses include root biomass adjustments, anatomical alterations, and physiological acclimations. The molecular mechanisms underlying these responses are characterized to some extent, and involve stress signaling and the induction of numerous genes, leading to the activation of tolerance pathways. In addition, mycorrhizas seem to play important protective roles. The current knowledge compiled in this review supports the view that tree roots are well equipped to withstand drought situations and maintain morphological and physiological functions as long as possible. Further, the reviewed literature demonstrates the important role of tree roots in the functioning of forest ecosystems and highlights the need for more research in this emerging field. PMID:26284083

  5. Smart physiological monitoring of first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, Anurag; Kaiser, William; Tamminedi, Tejaswi; Yadegar, Jacob

    2009-05-01

    Today's state-of-the-art medical vests and shirts for health status monitoring are inflexible and expensive. The high cost and the lack of flexibility and integral-unity of the current vests are prohibiting factors for their use in first responder applications. The vests also lack an in-built intelligence to accurately determine the health status of the person wearing the vest. We present a hardware plus software solution for monitoring the health status of first responders in pressurized and adversarial missions. The technology consists of two main components. The first component is a physiological vest consisting of a suite of physiological sensors interfaced with energy management units designed to prolong the life of the sensors. The sensors communicate wirelessly with a personal server consisting of a Decision Support Software (DSS), which forms the second major component of our technology. The DSS (1) integrates the physiologic sensors readings for global assessment of the individual's health status; (2) recommends medical Alerts and Actions based on the fusion of the sensor readings; and (3) applies cognitive computation to personalize the medical vest to the specific physiologic and motion characteristics of the individual wearing the vest, in the theater of the operation or during exercise.

  6. 15 CFR 904.107 - Joint and several respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint and several respondents. 904.107... PROCEDURES Civil Penalties § 904.107 Joint and several respondents. (a) A NOVA may assess a civil penalty against two or more respondents jointly and severally. Each joint and several respondent is liable for...

  7. 15 CFR 904.107 - Joint and several respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Joint and several respondents. 904.107... PROCEDURES Civil Penalties § 904.107 Joint and several respondents. (a) A NOVA may assess a civil penalty against two or more respondents jointly and severally. Each joint and several respondent is liable for...

  8. 15 CFR 904.107 - Joint and several respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Joint and several respondents. 904.107... PROCEDURES Civil Penalties § 904.107 Joint and several respondents. (a) A NOVA may assess a civil penalty against two or more respondents jointly and severally. Each joint and several respondent is liable for...

  9. 15 CFR 904.107 - Joint and several respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint and several respondents. 904.107... PROCEDURES Civil Penalties § 904.107 Joint and several respondents. (a) A NOVA may assess a civil penalty against two or more respondents jointly and severally. Each joint and several respondent is liable for the...

  10. 15 CFR 904.107 - Joint and several respondents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint and several respondents. 904.107... PROCEDURES Civil Penalties § 904.107 Joint and several respondents. (a) A NOVA may assess a civil penalty against two or more respondents jointly and severally. Each joint and several respondent is liable for the...

  11. Turning (Ir gene) low responders into high responders by antibody manipulation of the developing immune system.

    PubMed Central

    Martinz, C; Marcos, M A; Pereira, P; Marquez, C; Toribio, M; de la Hera, A; Cazenave, P A; Coutinho, A

    1987-01-01

    The ability of helper T cells directed against trinitrophenyl-modified syngeneic spleen cells to recognize low-hapten densities on target cells is under major histocompatibility complex-linked Ir gene control. Thus, BALB/c (H-2d) mice are low responders while H-2 congenic BALB.C3H (H-2k) mice are high responders. Immunization of adult BALB/c mice with the monoclonal antibody F6(51), directed to shared idiotopes by anti-trinitrophenyl antibodies and clonal receptors on anti-trinitrophenyl-self helper T cells, leads to the production of high titers of circulating idiotype, has no influence on helper T cell idiotypic profiles, but shifts to a high-responder phenotype the ability of helper T cells to recognize low-hapten densities. These effects on Ir gene phenotype are even more striking in untreated progenies from F6(51)-immunized BALB/c females, which are better responders than genetically high-responder BALB.C3H mice, although completely different in the expression of the F6(51)-defined clonotype. The general significance of these findings on Ir gene-directed T-cell repertoire selection is discussed, for they constitute formal evidence against antigen-presentation as a mechanism of Ir gene effects and strong support for the importance of maternal influences on the development of T-cell repertoires. PMID:2954161

  12. Evidence of More Immanent Justice Responding in Adults than Children: A Challenge to Traditional Developmental Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Lakshmi; Winer, Gerald A.

    2004-01-01

    Three studies investigated developmental changes in immanent justice responding by asking participants to respond to vignettes in which a person's bad behaviour was followed by a negative consequence. Study 1 consisted of 152 sixth graders and 128 college students and presented participants with a vignette that examined the notion of bad people…

  13. Evidence of More Immanent Justice Responding in Adults than Children: A Challenge to Traditional Developmental Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Lakshmi; Winer, Gerald A.

    2004-01-01

    Three studies investigated developmental changes in immanent justice responding by asking participants to respond to vignettes in which a person's bad behaviour was followed by a negative consequence. Study 1 consisted of 152 sixth graders and 128 college students and presented participants with a vignette that examined the notion of bad people…

  14. A Descriptive Analysis of Focus Group Respondents in the 1992 Presidential Debates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudczak, Craig A.; Altenbernd, Lisa M.

    A study assessed the selection techniques used to secure focus group respondents at one site as part of a larger study to determine what viewers learned from the 1992 Presidential Debates. A two-stage random sampling technique was developed to select focus group respondents from the 224,041 registered voters in Syracuse, New York. The random…

  15. Teaching children with autism to respond to conversation partners' interest.

    PubMed

    Peters, Lindsay C; Thompson, Rachel H

    2015-09-01

    Successful conversation requires that the speaker's behavior is sensitive to nonvocal listener responses. We observed children with autism spectrum disorder during conversation probes in which a listener periodically displayed nonvocal cues that she was uninterested in the conversation. We used behavioral skills training to teach conversation skills. First, we taught participants to tact nonvocal listener behavior (interested or uninterested), but this was insufficient to improve responding aimed at regaining listener interest. Participants were then taught to ask a question (Experiments 1 and 2) or change the topic (Experiment 2) when the listener was uninterested. Responding persisted over time and with changes in the stimulus conditions. The behavior change was also deemed socially valid by blind observers. In Experiment 3, participants learned to shift to the other trained response when exposed to extinction. This study illustrates a set of procedures for bringing speaker behavior under control of nonvocal listener cues.

  16. Responding during reinforcement delay in a self-control paradigm.

    PubMed Central

    Logue, A W; Peña-Correal, T E

    1984-01-01

    Eight pigeons chose between a small, immediate reinforcer and a large, increasingly delayed reinforcer. Responding during the large-reinforcer delays was examined. During large-reinforcer delays, pecks on one key produced the small, immediate reinforcer; pecks on the other key had no effect. Thus, a pigeon could reverse its initial choice of the large, delayed reinforcer, or it could maintain its original choice. Pigeons that made a relatively high number of initial large-reinforcer choices tended to maintain these choices, and those pigeons that actually received a relatively high number of large reinforcers, tended to respond more frequently on the ineffective key during the delay periods. The findings suggest that some previous studies of self-control training in pigeons may have resulted in increased self-control partially due to a lack of opportunity for the pigeons to change their choices. PMID:6736857

  17. Classifying individuals as physiological responders using hierarchical modeling.

    PubMed

    Barker, Richard J; Schofield, Matthew R

    2008-08-01

    We outline the use of hierarchical modeling for inference about the categorization of subjects into "responder" and "nonresponder" classes when the true status of the subject is latent (hidden). If uncertainty of classification is ignored during analysis, then statistical inference may be unreliable. An important advantage of hierarchical modeling is that it facilitates the correct modeling of the hidden variable in terms of predictor variables and hypothesized biological relationships. This allows researchers to formalize inference that can address questions about why some subjects respond and others do not. We illustrate our approach using a recent study of hepcidin excretion in female marathon runners (Roecker L, Meier-Buttermilch R, Brechte L, Nemeth E, Ganz T. Eur J Appl Physiol 95: 569-571, 2005).

  18. Agreement in functional assessment: graphic approaches to displaying respondent effects.

    PubMed

    Haley, Stephen M; Ni, Pengsheng; Coster, Wendy J; Black-Schaffer, Randie; Siebens, Hilary; Tao, Wei

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the agreement between respondents of summary scores from items representing three functional content areas (physical and mobility, personal care and instrumental, applied cognition) within the Activity Measure for Postacute Care (AM-PAC). We compare proxy vs. patient report in both hospital and community settings as represented by intraclass correlation coefficients and two graphic approaches. The authors conducted a prospective, cohort study of a convenience sample of adults (n = 47) receiving rehabilitation services either in hospital (n = 31) or community (n = 16) settings. In addition to using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) as indices of agreement, we applied two graphic approaches to serve as complements to help interpret the direction and magnitude of respondent disagreements. We created a "mountain plot" based on a cumulative distribution curve and a "survival-agreement plot" with step functions used in the analysis of survival data. ICCs on summary scores between patient and proxy report were physical and mobility ICC = 0.92, personal care and instrumental ICC = 0.93, and applied cognition ICC = 0.77. Although combined respondent agreement was acceptable, graphic approaches helped interpret differences in separate analyses of clinician and family agreement. Graphic analyses allow for a simple interpretation of agreement data and may be useful in determining the meaningfulness of the amount and direction of interrespondent variation.

  19. Functional Properties of Tooth Pulp Neurons Responding to Thermal Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, D.K.; Doutova, E.A.; McNaughton, K.; Light, A.R.; Närhi, M.; Maixner, W.

    2012-01-01

    The response properties of tooth pulp neurons that respond to noxious thermal stimulation of the dental pulp have been not well-studied. The present study was designed to characterize the response properties of tooth pulp neurons to noxious thermal stimulation of the dental pulp. Experiments were conducted on 25 male ferrets, and heat stimulation was applied by a computer-controlled thermode. Only 15% of tooth pulp neurons (n = 39) responded to noxious thermal stimulation of the teeth. Tooth pulp neurons were found in both the superficial and deep nuclear regions of the subnucleus caudalis (Vc) and in the interface between the nucleus caudalis and interpolaris (Vc/Vi). Thirty-seven neurons had cutaneous receptive fields and were classified as either NS (16) or WDR (21) neurons. Repeated heat stimulation of the dental pulp sensitized and increased the number of electrically evoked potentials of tooth pulp neurons. These results provide evidence that both the Vc and Vc/Vi regions contain neurons that respond to noxious thermal stimulation of the dental pulp, and that these cells may contribute to the sensitization process associated with symptomatic pulpitis. PMID:22257665

  20. Biodetection Technologies for First Responders: 2014 Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Ozanich, Richard M.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Colburn, Heather A.; Straub, Tim M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2014-03-28

    This report summarizes commercially-available, hand-portable technologies that can be used by first responders in the field. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, this report is meant to provide useful information about available technologies to help end-users make informed decisions about biodetection technology procurement and use. Information listed in this report is primarily vendor-provided; however, where possible it has been supplemented with additional information obtained from publications, reports, and websites. Manufacturers were given the chance to review summaries of their technologies from August through November 2013 to verify the accuracy of technical specifications, available references, and pricing.

  1. Space-Dynamically Responding Ultrasonic Matrix System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guigne, Jacques; Yi, Hu Chun

    2008-01-01

    Space-Dynamically Responding Ultrasonic Matrix System (SpaceDRUMS) comprises a suite of hardware that enables containerless processing (samples of experimental materials can be processed without ever touching a container wall). Using a collection of 20 acoustic beam emitters, SpaceDRUMS can completely suspend a baseball-sized solid or liquid sample during combustion or heat-based synthesis. Because the samples never contact the container walls, materials can be produced in microgravity with an unparalleled quality of shape and composition. The ultimate goal of the SpaceDRUMS hardware is to assist with the development of advanced materials of a commercial quantity and quality, using the space-based experiments to guide development of manufacturing processes on Earth. T

  2. Methods of responding to healthcare security incidents.

    PubMed

    Furnell, S; Gritzalis, D; Katsikas, S; Mavroudakis, K; Sanders, P; Warren, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers the increasing requirement for security in healthcare IT systems and, in particular, identifies the need for appropriate means by which healthcare establishments (HCEs) may respond to incidents. The main discussion focuses upon two significant initiatives that have been established in order to improve understanding and awareness of healthcare security issues. The first is the establishment of a dedicated Incident Reporting Scheme (IRS) for HCEs, enabling the level and types of security incidents faced within the healthcare community to be monitored and advice appropriately targeted. The second aspect presents a description of healthcare security World Wide Web service, which provides a comprehensive source of advice and guidance for establishments when trying to address and prevent IT security breaches. The discussion is based upon work that is currently being undertaken with the ISHTAR (Implementing Secure Healthcare Telematics Applications in Europe) project, as part of the Telematics Applications for Health programme of the European Commission.

  3. Responding to chemical attack. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bagley, R.W.

    1991-02-11

    In view of Iraq's stated intention of using chemical weapons in the Persian Gulf War, the Coalition forces must be prepared to respond. Iraq is capable of conducting such an attack. While the use of chemical weapons may not be militarily significant, the political effect of the use and the response to it may be very significant. Responses including the use of chemical and nuclear weapons are assessed in terms of their legality, political cost, and military effectiveness and found unacceptable. Reliance on diplomatic protests and on post-war criminal sanctions are judged ineffective. A response in the form of increased conventional attack on the Iraqi chemical infrastructure is recommended because that response will preserve the present Coalition, effectively counter the chemical attack, contribute to regional stability, and enhance the reputation of the United States for lawfulness and dependability.

  4. How to define responders in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Cyrus; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Bardin, Thomas; Berenbaum, Francis; Flamion, Bruno; Jonsson, Helgi; Kanis, John A.; Pelousse, Franz; Lems, Willem F.; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Reiter, Susanne; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Rizzoli, René; Bruyère, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis is a clinical syndrome of failure of the joint accompanied by varying degrees of joint pain, functional limitation, and reduced quality of life due to deterioration of articular cartilage and involvement of other joint structures. Scope Regulatory agencies require relevant clinical benefit on symptoms and structure modification for registration of a new therapy as a disease-modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD). An international Working Group of the European Society on Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) and International Osteoporosis Foundation was convened to explore the current burden of osteoarthritis, review current regulatory guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials, and examine the concept of responder analyses for improving drug evaluation in osteoarthritis. Findings The ESCEO considers that the major challenges in DMOAD development are the absence of a precise definition of the disease, particularly in the early stages, and the lack of consensus on how to detect structural changes and link them to clinically meaningful endpoints. Responder criteria should help identify progression of disease and be clinically meaningful. The ideal criterion should be sensitive to change over time and should predict disease progression and outcomes such as joint replacement. Conclusion The ESCEO considers that, for knee osteoarthritis, clinical trial data indicate that radiographic joint space narrowing >0.5 mm over 2 or 3 years might be a reliable surrogate measure for total joint replacement. On-going research using techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and biochemical markers may allow the identification of these patients earlier in the disease process. PMID:23557069

  5. Responding with Restraint: What Are the Neurocognitive Mechanisms?

    PubMed Central

    Jahfari, Sara; Stinear, Cathy M.; Claffey, Mike; Verbruggen, Frederick; Aron, Adam R.

    2010-01-01

    ■ An important aspect of cognitive control is the ability to respond with restraint. Here, we modeled this experimentally by measuring the degree of response slowing that occurs when people respond to an imperative stimulus in a context where they might suddenly need to stop the initiated response compared with a context in which they do not need to stop. We refer to the RT slowing that occurs as the “response delay effect.” We conjectured that this response delay effect could relate to one or more neurocognitive mechanism(s): partial response suppression (i.e., “active braking”), prolonged decision time, and slower response facilitation. These accounts make different predictions about motor system excitability and brain activation. To test which neurocognitive mechanisms underlie the response delay effect, we performed two studies with TMS and we reanalyzed fMRI data. The results suggest that the response delay effect is at least partly explained by active braking, possibly involving a mechanism that is similar to that used to stop responses completely. These results further our understanding of how people respond with restraint by pointing to proactive recruitment of a neurocognitive mechanism heretofore associated with outright stopping. ■ PMID:19583473

  6. Emotional responding following experimental manipulation of facial electromyographic activity.

    PubMed

    McCanne, T R; Anderson, J A

    1987-04-01

    Increases in zygomatic electromyographic (EMG) responding have been reported during the imagination of positive affective scenes, and increases in corrugator EMG have been reported during negative affective scenes. Thirty female subjects were instructed to imagine three positive affective scenes and three negative affective scenes. During the initial imagination of each scene, the subject was told simply to imagine the situation. The subject then imagined the situation again and was instructed to enhance the muscle tension in one of two muscle groups (the zygomatic muscles for positive scenes and the corrugator muscle for negative scenes). The subject then imagined the scence a third time and was instructed to suppress the muscle tension in the same muscle group. The order of administration of enhancement and suppression trials was randomized for each scene. Subjects were given several trials to practice controlling both zygomatic and corrugator EMG. Feedback was available during the practice trials and during the enhancement and suppression trials of the experiment. Continuous monitoring of both zygomatic and corrugator EMG during the study indicated that subjects were successful in altering muscle tension in accord with the experimental instructions, and videotapes of subjects' faces indicated no overt changes in facial responding during imagination of the scenes. Subjects' ratings of emotional responding during each scene indicated that subjects experienced less enjoyment and more distress during positive affective trials in which they suppressed zygomatic EMG activity. The results are discussed in terms of the facial feedback hypothesis.

  7. Willingness, ability, and intentions of health care workers to respond.

    PubMed

    Couig, Mary Pat

    2012-01-01

    Health care workers (HCWs) are a critical component of the emergency management cycle (prevention, mitigation, preparation, response, and recovery). The potential for large numbers of injured from either a man-made or natural disaster has resulted in the development of surge capacity plans and attempts to predict how many HCWs will be available to respond. Since 1991 (with the majority of the research published in 2002 and later), researchers have been conducting studies to learn about the willingness, ability, and intentions of HCWs to respond to disasters. Potential and real barriers to disaster response are being explored as well. This chapter focuses on research authored or coauthored by nurses. Nurse-authored research is just a portion of the growing body of knowledge in this area; however, the findings are consistent with other published works. HCWs are more likely to be willing and able to respond to natural disasters and less likely to be willing and able during infectious outbreaks or incidents with potential exposure to harmful agents (biological, chemical, nuclear, or radiological). HCW concerns include safety of self and family, availability of protective equipment, medicines and vaccines, and caretaking responsibilities (children, elders, and pets).

  8. Ecosystem Greenhouse Gas Fluxes Respond Directly to Weather Not Climate: A Case Study on the Relationship of Global Atmospheric Circulation, Foehn Frequency, and Winter Weather to Northern Alps Regional Grassland Phenology and Carbon Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, A. R.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Zeeman, M. J.; Katata, G.; Mauder, M.; Schmid, H. P. E.

    2014-12-01

    The impact of climate change on regional ecosystem structure and biogeochemical cycling has two important aspects that require better elaboration to improve projections of these effects. The first is that ecosystems don't respond directly to climate, but indirectly via frequency and occurrence of weather systems, which are driven by climatic shifts in global circulation and radiative processes. The second is that many responses of ecosystems to these weather patterns and extremes are lagged in time. Here, we examine these aspects for northern Alpine grasslands. Long-term eddy covariance flux tower and phenology observations in Austria and Germany and biophysical models reveal a strong influence of winter air temperature, snowfall, and snowmelt frequency on winter grass mortality and spring grassland carbon uptake. Further, the mode of climate variability that drives winter air temperature and snow depth patterns is primarily the frequency of strong regional southerly Foehn flow that promotes warm, dry conditions in winter. Finally, we demonstrate that much of the interannual variance in Foehn frequency and southerly flow is driven by statistics and climatic trends of 500 hPa pressure patterns in Greenland, part of the Arctic Oscillation. However, a few years, including the unusually warm and dry winter of 2013-2014 appear to have secondary, possibly local thermotopographic circulation factors that promoted its weather conditions regionally, which also included primarily cool and wet conditions in northern Europe and the southern Alps. These findings demonstrate that the regional response of ecosystems to climate change is modulated by how large-scale circulation patterns influence local meteorology and topographic flows both during and outside the growing season and provides a framework for future assessment and climate model improvements of linkages of climate change, weather patterns, and ecosystem responses.

  9. "Visual" Cortex of Congenitally Blind Adults Responds to Syntactic Movement.

    PubMed

    Lane, Connor; Kanjlia, Shipra; Omaki, Akira; Bedny, Marina

    2015-09-16

    Human cortex is comprised of specialized networks that support functions, such as visual motion perception and language processing. How do genes and experience contribute to this specialization? Studies of plasticity offer unique insights into this question. In congenitally blind individuals, "visual" cortex responds to auditory and tactile stimuli. Remarkably, recent evidence suggests that occipital areas participate in language processing. We asked whether in blindness, occipital cortices: (1) develop domain-specific responses to language and (2) respond to a highly specialized aspect of language-syntactic movement. Nineteen congenitally blind and 18 sighted participants took part in two fMRI experiments. We report that in congenitally blind individuals, but not in sighted controls, "visual" cortex is more active during sentence comprehension than during a sequence memory task with nonwords, or a symbolic math task. This suggests that areas of occipital cortex become selective for language, relative to other similar higher-cognitive tasks. Crucially, we find that these occipital areas respond more to sentences with syntactic movement but do not respond to the difficulty of math equations. We conclude that regions within the visual cortex of blind adults are involved in syntactic processing. Our findings suggest that the cognitive function of human cortical areas is largely determined by input during development. Human cortex is made up of specialized regions that perform different functions, such as visual motion perception and language processing. How do genes and experience contribute to this specialization? Studies of plasticity show that cortical areas can change function from one sensory modality to another. Here we demonstrate that input during development can alter cortical function even more dramatically. In blindness a subset of "visual" areas becomes specialized for language processing. Crucially, we find that the same "visual" areas respond to a highly

  10. Predictive factors for responding to sertraline treatment: views from plasma catecholamine metabolites and serotonin transporter polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Yoshimura, Reiji; Ueda, Nobuhisa; Suzuki, Akihito; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Hori, Hikaru; Otani, Koichi; Nakamura, Jun

    2010-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of sertraline on plasma levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), homovanillic acid (HVA), and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in 59 depressed patients treated with sertraline. We also examined the relationship between the dynamics of the catecholamine metabolites, BDNF, serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) gene polymorphism (long and short alleles), and the clinical response to sertraline. The extent of clinical improvement was evaluated using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Ham-D) before and 8 weeks after treatment with sertraline. Responders were defined as showing at least a 50% decrease in the Ham-D score. Baseline plasma HVA levels of responders to sertraline treatment were significantly lower than those of non-responders (p = 0.02). In addition, a positive correlation was identified between changes in plasma HVA levels and the rate of response to sertraline treatment (p = 0.001). A trend toward higher baseline serum BDNF levels was found in responders compared with non-responders (p = 0.095). In addition, serum BDNF levels were slightly increased (not significant) in responders (p = 0.058), but not in non-responders. Responders had a higher short-allele genotype frequency in the 5-HTTLPR for the promoter region than did non-responders (p = 0.037). These results suggest that pre-treatment plasma HVA levels and the 5-HTTLPR genotype for the promoter might be associated with a response to sertraline.

  11. Affective and Cardiovascular Responding to Unpleasant Events from Adolescence to Old Age: Complexity of Events Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Muller, Viktor; Wagner, Gert G.; Lindenberger, Ulman; Riediger, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigated the "overpowering hypothesis" as a possible explanation for the currently inconclusive empirical picture on age differences in affective responding to unpleasant events. The overpowering hypothesis predicts that age differences in affective responding are particularly evident in highly resource-demanding situations that…

  12. Cortisol Reactivity and Regulation Associated with Shame Responding in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Imm, Gorette P.; Walling, Bobbi R.; Weiler, Hope A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize cortisol response and regulation associated with shame responding in early childhood and to examine how general the relation between shame and cortisol is. It was predicted that children responding to task failure with shame would show a larger and more prolonged cortisol response than other children.…

  13. Cortisol Reactivity and Regulation Associated with Shame Responding in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Imm, Gorette P.; Walling, Bobbi R.; Weiler, Hope A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize cortisol response and regulation associated with shame responding in early childhood and to examine how general the relation between shame and cortisol is. It was predicted that children responding to task failure with shame would show a larger and more prolonged cortisol response than other children.…

  14. Social Desirability Responding on World Wide Web and Paper-Administered Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dawson R.; Flowers, Claudia P.

    Social desirability responding (SDR) on surveys administered on the World Wide Web and on paper was examined, with 178 graduate and undergraduate students as participants. To assess the extent to which participants would demonstrate SDR, this study used the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) (Paulhus, 1993). The BIDR consists of 40…

  15. Changes in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate during Fixed-Interval Responding in Squirrel Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWeese, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Episodic and sustained increases in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure can occur with recurring patterns of schedule-controlled behavior. Most previous studies were conducted under fixed-ratio schedules, which maintained a consistent high rate of responding that alternated with periods of no responding during times when the schedule was…

  16. Responding to Literature through Storytelling, Artifacts and Multigenre Writing Practices: Explorations of Cultures and Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varga-Dobai, Kinga

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes how innovative literacy practices such as multigenre writing and artifactual critical literacy have been used to tap into pre-service teachers' cultural identities while responding to literature. In the process of responding to literature, personal experience is crucial; therefore, in this study, I focused on the…

  17. Responding to Literature through Storytelling, Artifacts and Multigenre Writing Practices: Explorations of Cultures and Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varga-Dobai, Kinga

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes how innovative literacy practices such as multigenre writing and artifactual critical literacy have been used to tap into pre-service teachers' cultural identities while responding to literature. In the process of responding to literature, personal experience is crucial; therefore, in this study, I focused on the…

  18. An Investigation into How Students Respond to Being Victimized by Peer Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulkowski, Michael L.; Bauman, Sheri A.; Dinner, Stephanie; Nixon, Charisse; Davis, Stan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how students respond to peer aggression. Results indicate that boys tend to use more retaliatory responses to peer aggression compared with girls, who are more likely to confide in their friends. The use of humor in response to being victimized also was found to be a promising way to respond to being victimized, especially…

  19. Using respondent uncertainty to mitigate hypothetical bias in a stated choice experiment

    Treesearch

    Richard C. Ready; Patricia A. Champ; Jennifer L. Lawton

    2010-01-01

    In a choice experiment study, willingness to pay for a public good estimated from hypothetical choices was three times as large as willingness to pay estimated from choices requiring actual payment. This hypothetical bias was related to the stated level of certainty of respondents. We develop protocols to measure respondent certainty in the context of a choice...

  20. Academic Responding during Instruction and Reading Outcomes for Kindergarten Students At-Risk for Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the academic responding of students at-risk for reading difficulties in beginning reading instruction. Opportunities for kindergarten students at-risk for reading difficulties to respond academically during teacher-facilitated reading instruction in the general education classroom were examined in…

  1. Software Assists in Responding to Anomalous Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark; Kronbert, F.; Weiner, A.; Morgan, T.; Stroozas, B.; Girouard, F.; Hopkins, A.; Wong, L.; Kneubuhl, J.; Malina, R.

    2004-01-01

    Fault Induced Document Retrieval Officer (FIDO) is a computer program that reduces the need for a large and costly team of engineers and/or technicians to monitor the state of a spacecraft and associated ground systems and respond to anomalies. FIDO includes artificial-intelligence components that imitate the reasoning of human experts with reference to a knowledge base of rules that represent failure modes and to a database of engineering documentation. These components act together to give an unskilled operator instantaneous expert assistance and access to information that can enable resolution of most anomalies, without the need for highly paid experts. FIDO provides a system state summary (a configurable engineering summary) and documentation for diagnosis of a potentially failing component that might have caused a given error message or anomaly. FIDO also enables high-level browsing of documentation by use of an interface indexed to the particular error message. The collection of available documents includes information on operations and associated procedures, engineering problem reports, documentation of components, and engineering drawings. FIDO also affords a capability for combining information on the state of ground systems with detailed, hierarchically-organized, hypertext- enabled documentation.

  2. Physical and environmental considerations for first responders.

    PubMed

    Migl, Karen S; Powell, Rose M

    2010-12-01

    To prioritize the most common effects of a disaster, HCPs must decide in advance what is needed and how, when, and whom to provide the necessary support to deal with the posteffects of a disaster. During the rescue mission, the primary public health concern is clean drinking water, food, shelter, and medical care. Medical care is critical especially in areas where little or no medical care exists. Natural disasters do not necessarily cause an increase in infectious disease outbreaks. However, contaminated water and food supplies as well as the lack of shelter and medical care may have a secondary effect of worsening illnesses that already exists in the affected region. Appropriate preparation in the form of preplanning for immunizations as well as education about other forms of protection, such as appropriate apparel and water decontamination, promotes a safer environment for first responders and survivors. The continued need for postdisaster health monitoring for HCPs is imperative. The effects of a disaster last a long time; therefore there is an ongoing need to focus on the physical and environmental effects, including surveying and monitoring for infectious water or insect-transmitted diseases; restoring normal primary health services, water systems, transportation, housing, and employment; and continuing to assist the community’s recovery after the immediate crisis has subsided.

  3. Responding to safety issues in frontotemporal dementias.

    PubMed

    Talerico, K A; Evans, L K

    2001-06-01

    As frontotemporal dementia progresses in individuals, safety issues related to behaviors and injury become a paramount concern. In addition to self-care deficits, frontotemporal dementias are often characterized by behavioral manifestations that include aggression and disinhibition. These behaviors may place the patient and caregivers at risk of injury, stress, and social embarrassment, and frequently lead to institutionalization. Additionally, motor disturbances associated with frontotemporal dementias may contribute to risk of injury from falls. The authors present an integrated biopsychosocial model to guide assessment of needs that may be expressed through behavior. Environmental, behavioral, and psychosocial strategies to assist caregivers in preventing and responding to behaviors and risks are discussed, with the goal of promoting maximum function and quality of life and minimizing caregiver strain. The authors discuss the dangers of physical restraints, which are commonly suggested as a response to fall risk and behavioral symptoms without an awareness of research-based data regarding their lack of efficacy. Benefits and risks of a variety of need-based interventions are presented in a practical, clinically relevant manner. The discussion of diverse safety-enhancing interventions is intended to enable clinicians and caregivers to identify individualized care strategies for patients with frontotemporal dementia.

  4. Harbour porpoises respond to climate change.

    PubMed

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Iversen, Maria; Nielsen, Nynne Hjort; Lockyer, Christina; Stern, Harry; Ribergaard, Mads Hvid

    2011-12-01

    The effects of climate change on marine ecosystems and in particular on marine top predators are difficult to assess due to, among other things, spatial variability, and lack of clear delineation of marine habitats. The banks of West Greenland are located in a climate sensitive area and are likely to elicit pronounced responses to oceanographic changes in the North Atlantic. The recent increase in sea temperatures on the banks of West Greenland has had cascading effects on sea ice coverage, residency of top predators, and abundance of important prey species like Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Here, we report on the response of one of the top predators in West Greenland; the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). The porpoises depend on locating high densities of prey species with high nutritive value and they have apparently responded to the general warming on the banks of West Greenland by longer residence times, increased consumption of Atlantic cod resulting in improved body condition in the form of larger fat deposits in blubber, compared to the situation during a cold period in the 1990s. This is one of the few examples of a measurable effect of climate change on a marine mammal population.

  5. Harbour porpoises respond to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Iversen, Maria; Nielsen, Nynne Hjort; Lockyer, Christina; Stern, Harry; Ribergaard, Mads Hvid

    2011-01-01

    The effects of climate change on marine ecosystems and in particular on marine top predators are difficult to assess due to, among other things, spatial variability, and lack of clear delineation of marine habitats. The banks of West Greenland are located in a climate sensitive area and are likely to elicit pronounced responses to oceanographic changes in the North Atlantic. The recent increase in sea temperatures on the banks of West Greenland has had cascading effects on sea ice coverage, residency of top predators, and abundance of important prey species like Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Here, we report on the response of one of the top predators in West Greenland; the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). The porpoises depend on locating high densities of prey species with high nutritive value and they have apparently responded to the general warming on the banks of West Greenland by longer residence times, increased consumption of Atlantic cod resulting in improved body condition in the form of larger fat deposits in blubber, compared to the situation during a cold period in the 1990s. This is one of the few examples of a measurable effect of climate change on a marine mammal population. PMID:22393524

  6. Cerebral blood flow in obsessive-compulsive patients with major depression: effect of treatment with sertraline or desipramine on treatment responders and non-responders.

    PubMed

    Hoehn-Saric, R; Schlaepfer, T E; Greenberg, B D; McLeod, D R; Pearlson, G D; Wong, S H

    2001-11-30

    We examined the effects of sertraline and of desipramine on patients with OCD and comorbid major depressive episodes at study entry. Sixteen patients, 9 receiving sertraline and 7 desipramine, received HMPAO SPECT scans while free of medication and after 12 weeks of treatment. Patients on sertraline showed significantly reduced regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the right prefrontal and temporal regions. Patients on desipramine showed more diffuse rCBF reductions in frontal and temporal regions, more so in the left side. In a second analysis, patients who had a symptom reduction on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), irrespective of the type of medication, were retrospectively classified as 'responders' to treatment. Eleven patients were 'responders' and 5 'non-responders'. Before being medicated, responders differed from non-responders through higher rCBF in prefrontal regions, mostly on the left, and higher rCBF in the cingulate and basal ganglia bilaterally. After 12 weeks of treatment, responders showed a diffuse reduction of rCBF in prefrontal regions while non-responders showed only a few scattered low-frequency responses. Thus, higher prefrontal and subcortical activity was associated with better response to drug treatment. In addition, clinical change, but not the administration of medication as such, was associated with a decrease of prefrontal rCBF.

  7. Relational Responding and Conditional Discrimination Procedures: An Apparent Inconsistency and Clarification

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ian; McElwee, John

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses theoretical issues relating to an apparent terminological inconsistency between two recent studies involving relational responding. These studies employed a functionally similar protocol to establish contextual cues for arbitrarily applicable relational responding by using a nonarbitrary relational responding procedure; however, one employed the term nonarbitrary regarding this procedure, and the other used arbitrary. Both can be legitimately described as correct, but they use apparently contradictory descriptions because they focus on different aspects of the protocol; in one, the label is based on traditional conditional discrimination task nomenclature, whereas in the other, it is based on the type of relational responding being performed. The current article describes and then explains the issue. In doing so, it touches on an important topic concerning the relation between relational responding and the conditional discrimination procedure. PMID:22478530

  8. Tips for Disaster Responders: Preventing and Managing Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... samhsa.gov TIPS FOR DISASTER RESPONDERS: PREVENTING AND MANAGING STRESS Verify your response duties and reporting lines ... gov 3 TIPS FOR DISASTER RESPONDERS: PREVENTING AND MANAGING STRESS Signs of Stress What are common signs ...

  9. Improving Situational Awareness for First Responders via Mobile Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Bradley J.; Mah, Robert W.; Papasin, Richard; Del Mundo, Rommel; McIntosh, Dawn M.; Jorgensen, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This project looks to improve first responder situational awareness using tools and techniques of mobile computing. The prototype system combines wireless communication, real-time location determination, digital imaging, and three-dimensional graphics. Responder locations are tracked in an outdoor environment via GPS and uploaded to a central server via GPRS or an 802.11 network. Responders can also wirelessly share digital images and text reports, both with other responders and with the incident commander. A pre-built three dimensional graphics model of a particular emergency scene is used to visualize responder and report locations. Responders have a choice of information end points, ranging from programmable cellular phones to tablet computers. The system also employs location-aware computing to make responders aware of particular hazards as they approach them. The prototype was developed in conjunction with the NASA Ames Disaster Assistance and Rescue Team and has undergone field testing during responder exercise at NASA Ames.

  10. Improving Situational Awareness for First Responders via Mobile Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Bradley J.; Mah, Robert W.; Papasin, Richard; Del Mundo, Rommel; McIntosh, Dawn M.; Jorgensen, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This project looks to improve first responder incident command, and an appropriately managed flow of situational awareness using mobile computing techniques. The prototype system combines wireless communication, real-time location determination, digital imaging, and three-dimensional graphics. Responder locations are tracked in an outdoor environment via GPS and uploaded to a central server via GPRS or an 802. II network. Responders can also wireless share digital images and text reports, both with other responders and with the incident commander. A pre-built three dimensional graphics model of the emergency scene is used to visualize responder and report locations. Responders have a choice of information end points, ranging from programmable cellular phones to tablet computers. The system also employs location-aware computing to make responders aware of particular hazards as they approach them. The prototype was developed in conjunction with the NASA Ames Disaster Assistance and Rescue Team and has undergone field testing during responder exercises at NASA Ames.

  11. "Visual" Cortex Responds to Spoken Language in Blind Children.

    PubMed

    Bedny, Marina; Richardson, Hilary; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-08-19

    Plasticity in the visual cortex of blind individuals provides a rare window into the mechanisms of cortical specialization. In the absence of visual input, occipital ("visual") brain regions respond to sound and spoken language. Here, we examined the time course and developmental mechanism of this plasticity in blind children. Nineteen blind and 40 sighted children and adolescents (4-17 years old) listened to stories and two auditory control conditions (unfamiliar foreign speech, and music). We find that "visual" cortices of young blind (but not sighted) children respond to sound. Responses to nonlanguage sounds increased between the ages of 4 and 17. By contrast, occipital responses to spoken language were maximal by age 4 and were not related to Braille learning. These findings suggest that occipital plasticity for spoken language is independent of plasticity for Braille and for sound. We conclude that in the absence of visual input, spoken language colonizes the visual system during brain development. Our findings suggest that early in life, human cortex has a remarkably broad computational capacity. The same cortical tissue can take on visual perception and language functions. Studies of plasticity provide key insights into how experience shapes the human brain. The "visual" cortex of adults who are blind from birth responds to touch, sound, and spoken language. To date, all existing studies have been conducted with adults, so little is known about the developmental trajectory of plasticity. We used fMRI to study the emergence of "visual" cortex responses to sound and spoken language in blind children and adolescents. We find that "visual" cortex responses to sound increase between 4 and 17 years of age. By contrast, responses to spoken language are present by 4 years of age and are not related to Braille-learning. These findings suggest that, early in development, human cortex can take on a strikingly wide range of functions. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3511674-08$15.00/0.

  12. Effects of acute administration of diazepam and d-amphetamine on aggressive and escape responding of normal male subjects.

    PubMed

    Cherek, D R; Steinberg, J L; Kelly, T H; Robinson, D E; Spiga, R

    1990-01-01

    Normal males participated in sessions providing two operant response options and were administered either diazepam (study I and II) or d-amphetamine (study II). The acute effects of diazepam on human aggressive responding, which ostensibly subtracted points from another person, were determined in study I. Study II was conducted to determine the extent to which social context and response consequence influenced diazepam (study I) and d-amphetamine (previous research) effects on aggressive responding. In study II, the other response option was escape responding which protected the subject's counter from point losses. Aggressive and escape responding were engendered by subtracting points from the subject's counter, and maintained by initiation of intervals free of point loss. Point subtractions were attributed to the other person (study I) or to a machine (study II). Responding to accumulate points exchangeable for money was available in both studies. Acute diazepam administration decreased aggressive responding in most subjects (study I), slightly increased escape responding (study II), and decreased responding to accumulate points. In study II, d-amphetamine increased both escape responding and responding to accumulate points. The effects of d-amphetamine and diazepam were altered by the instructed source of point loss.

  13. Smart radio: spectrum access for first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvius, Mark D.; Ge, Feng; Young, Alex; MacKenzie, Allen B.; Bostian, Charles W.

    2008-04-01

    This paper details the Wireless at Virginia Tech Center for Wireless Telecommunications' (CWT) design and implementation of its Smart Radio (SR) communication platform. The CWT SR can identify available spectrum within a pre-defined band, rendezvous with an intended receiver, and transmit voice and data using a selected quality of service (QoS). This system builds upon previous cognitive technologies developed by CWT for the public safety community, with the goal of providing a prototype mobile communications package for military and public safety First Responders. A master control (MC) enables spectrum awareness by characterizing the radio environment with a power spectrum sensor and an innovative signal detection and classification module. The MC also enables spectrum and signal memory by storing sensor results in a knowledge database. By utilizing a family radio service (FRS) waveform database, the CWT SR can create a new communication link on any designated FRS channel frequency using FM, BPSK, QPSK, or 8PSK modulations. With FM, it supports analog voice communications with legacy hand-held FRS radios. With digital modulations, it supports IP data services, including a CWT developed CVSD-based VoIP protocol. The CWT SR coordinates spectrum sharing between analog primary users and digital secondary users by applying a simple but effective channel-change protocol. It also demonstrates a novel rendezvous protocol to facilitate the detection and initialization of communications links with neighboring SR nodes through the transmission of frequency-hopped rendezvous beacons. By leveraging the GNU Radio toolkit, writing key modules entirely in Python, and utilizing the USRP hardware front-end, the CWT SR provides a dynamic spectrum test bed for future smart and cognitive radio research.

  14. Neuropathic Symptoms in World Trade Center Disaster Survivors and Responders.

    PubMed

    Wilkenfeld, Marc; Fazzari, Melissa; Segelnick, Jacqueline; Stecker, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to determine whether responders and survivors of the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster experience symptoms of neuropathy at a rate higher than those not exposed. A survey of neuropathic symptoms in patients who were and were not exposed at the WTC based upon the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). Even after correction for medical comorbidities, age, and depression, neuropathic symptoms are much more common in those exposed to WTC dust and increase with increasing exposure. This study provides evidence that exposure to WTC dust is associated with neuropathic symptoms.

  15. Socially desirable responding in Chinese university students: denial and enhancement?

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Li, Yongjuan; Wang, Yong

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) with one-, two-, three-, and four-dimensional models and tested the BIDR's discriminant validity with personality variables. A confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis of responses from 600 Chinese university students (314 men, 282 women, 4 missing; M age=20.0 yr.) provided results indicating that the four-factor model fit the data best; i.e., self-deception and impression management split into denial and enhancement. The Denial and Enhancement subscales with personality variables show significant differences, confirming the four-factor model. The cultural differences as a possible reason for the split were discussed.

  16. Please respond ASAP: workplace telepressure and employee recovery.

    PubMed

    Barber, Larissa K; Santuzzi, Alecia M

    2015-04-01

    Organizations rely heavily on asynchronous message-based technologies (e.g., e-mail) for the purposes of work-related communications. These technologies are primary means of knowledge transfer and building social networks. As a by-product, workers might feel varying levels of preoccupations with and urges for responding quickly to messages from clients, coworkers, or supervisors--an experience we label as workplace telepressure. This experience can lead to fast response times and thus faster decisions and other outcomes initially. However, research from the stress and recovery literature suggests that the defining features of workplace telepressure interfere with needed work recovery time and stress-related outcomes. The present set of studies defined and validated a new scale to measure telepressure. Study 1 tested an initial pool of items and found some support for a single-factor structure after problematic items were removed. As expected, public self-consciousness, techno-overload, and response expectations were moderately associated with telepressure in Study 1. Study 2 demonstrated that workplace telepressure was distinct from other personal (job involvement, affective commitment) and work environment (general and ICT work demands) factors and also predicted burnout (physical and cognitive), absenteeism, sleep quality, and e-mail responding beyond those factors. Implications for future research and workplace practices are discussed.

  17. LH Pretreatment as a Novel Strategy for Poor Responders

    PubMed Central

    Ferraretti, Anna Pia; Gianaroli, Luca; Motrenko, Tatiana; Feliciani, Elisabetta; Tabanelli, Carla; Magli, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Poor response to ovarian stimulation is still a major problem in IVF. The study presents a new stimulation protocol evaluated in a suppopulation of very difficult young poor ovarian responders. Material and Methods. The study consists in two sections. The first includes data from a randomized controlled study involving forty-three young patients with a poor ovarian response in at least two previous cycles (intended as cycle cancellation or with ≤3 collected oocytes). Patients were randomized in two groups: group A (control) received FSH (400 IU/day), while group B received the new stimulation protocol consisting in a sequential association of 150 IU r-LH for 4 days followed by 400 IU r-FSH/after downregulation with daily GnRh agonist. The second includes data from the overall results in 65 patients treated with the new protocol compared to their previous performance with conventional cycles (historical control). Results. Both in the RCT and in the historical control study, LH pretreatment was able to decrease the cancellation rate, to improve the in vitro performance, and to significantly increase the live birth rates. Conclusions. LH pretreatment improved oocyte quantity and quality in young repeated poor responders selected in accordance with the Bologna criteria. PMID:25197669

  18. 78 FR 5422 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting... public meeting of the Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) to be held on February 12... discuss personnel matters, or to discuss legal matters affecting the First Responder Network Authority...

  19. 78 FR 57843 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting... (NTIA) will convene an open public meeting of the Board of the First Responder Network Authority (First... Washington, DC See First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting, Notice of Open Public Meetings, 77 FR...

  20. 77 FR 56622 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and... notice announces an open public meeting of the Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet... Law 112-96, 126 Stat. 156 (2012), created the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) as an...

  1. 78 FR 26323 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Special.... ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone conference...

  2. 78 FR 72667 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting...: Notice of Open Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will convene an open public meeting on December 17, 2013. DATES: The...

  3. 78 FR 15357 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Special.... ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone conference...

  4. 78 FR 54241 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Special.... ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone conference...

  5. 78 FR 57621 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting...: Notice of special meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Board meeting via teleconference on September 23...

  6. 78 FR 72666 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting...: Notice of Open Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will convene open public meetings of the Board Committees on December...

  7. 78 FR 53124 - First Responder Network Authority Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ...-1775] First Responder Network Authority Filing AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) on August 2, 2013, in PS Docket 12-94. The filing... by the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) in its August 2, 2013, filing in PS Docket 12- 94...

  8. 78 FR 63168 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Special.... ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone conference...

  9. 31 CFR 560.704 - Presentation responding to prepenalty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Presentation responding to prepenalty... Penalties § 560.704 Presentation responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within which to respond. The... presentation to the Director. (b) Form and contents of the written presentation. The written presentation...

  10. 31 CFR 595.703 - Presentation responding to prepenalty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Presentation responding to prepenalty... Penalties § 595.703 Presentation responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within which to respond. The... presentation to the Director of the Office of Foreign Assets Control. (b) Form and contents of...

  11. 31 CFR 535.703 - Presentation responding to prepenalty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Presentation responding to prepenalty... Penalties § 535.703 Presentation responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within which to respond. The... presentation to the Director. (b) Form and contents of written presentation. The written presentation need...

  12. 31 CFR 575.703 - Presentation responding to prepenalty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Presentation responding to prepenalty... Penalties § 575.703 Presentation responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within which to respond. The... presentation to the Director. (b) Form and contents of written presentation. The written presentation need...

  13. Fast-responder: Rapid mobile-phone access to recent remote sensing imagery for first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, L. M.; Talbot, B. G.

    We introduce Fast-Responder, a novel prototype data-dissemination application and architecture concept to rapidly deliver remote sensing imagery to smartphones to enable situational awareness. The architecture implements a Fast-Earth image caching system on the phone and interacts with a Fast-Earth server. Prototype evaluation successfully demonstrated that National Guard users could select a location, download multiple remote sensing images, and flicker between images, all in less than a minute on a 3G mobile commercial link. The Fast-Responder architecture is a significant advance that is designed to meet the needs of mobile users, such as National Guard response units, to rapidly access information during a crisis, such as a natural or man-made disaster. This paper focuses on the architecture design and advanced user interface concepts for small-screens for highly active mobile users. Novel Fast-Responder concepts can also enable rapid dissemination and evaluation of imagery on the desktop, opening new technology horizons for both desktop and mobile users.

  14. Changes in lumbar multifidus muscle function and nociceptive sensitivity in low back pain patient responders versus non-responders after dry needling treatment.

    PubMed

    Koppenhaver, Shane L; Walker, Michael J; Su, Jonathan; McGowen, Jared M; Umlauf, Lindsey; Harris, Kevin D; Ross, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the physiologic mechanism of dry needling. While some evidence suggests that dry needling may decrease nocioceptive sensitivity and facilitate muscle function, no studies to date have examined these physiologic changes compared to clinical outcomes. To examine changes in lumbar multifidus (LM) muscle function and nociceptive sensitivity after dry needling in patients with LBP and to determine if such changes differ in patients that exhibit improved disability (responders) and those that do not (non-responders). Quasi-experimental study. Sixty-six volunteers with mechanical LBP (38 men, age = 41.3 ± 9.2 years) completed the study. Ultrasound measurements and pain algometry of the LM were taken at baseline and repeated immediately following dry needling treatment to the LM muscles and after one week. The percent change in muscle thickness from rest to contraction was calculated for each time point to represent muscle function. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) was used to measure nociceptive sensitivity. Participants were dichotomized as responders and non-responders based on whether or not they experienced clinical improvement using the modified Oswestry Disability Index after one week. 2 × 3 mixed-model ANOVA were conducted for group (responders vs. non-responders) by time. Patient responders exhibited larger improvements in LM muscle contraction and nociceptive sensitivity 1 week, but not immediately, after dry needling than non-responders. Our results suggest that there may be lasting and clinically relevant sensorimotor changes that occur in LBP patients that improve with dry needling treatment that partially explain the physiologic mechanism of action. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Differentiation between Good and Low-Responders to Intravitreal Ranibizumab for Macular Edema Secondary to Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Ebneter, Andreas; Zinkernagel, Martin S.; Wolf, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ranibizumab is approved for treatment of macular edema in eyes with retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Some eyes show low-response to treatment with regard to visual acuity gain (VA) and OCT central retinal thickness (CRT) reduction. The goal of this study was to quantify the percentage of low-responders. Methods. Treatment of naïve eyes with macular edema secondary to RVO was included and monthly VA and CRT were analyzed. Four weeks after the loading phase, and at the end of the study, eyes were grouped into low- and good responders based on predefined criteria. The responder and low-responder groups were then compared at various time points. Results. Forty-three eyes were included. Regarding VA, 27.9% were low-responders after the loading phase and 30.2% at the end of the study. For CRT, 34.9% were low-responders after the loading phase versus 27.9% at the end of the study. 75% of patients that were VA low-responders and 73.3% of CRT low-responders after loading phase remained low-responders at the end of the study. Conclusion. Approximately 30% of patients showed low response to ranibizumab after the loading phase and after 1 year of treatment. Two-thirds of patients that were low-responders after the loading phase remained low-responders after 1 year. PMID:28044102

  16. The relational responding task: toward a new implicit measure of beliefs

    PubMed Central

    De Houwer, Jan; Heider, Niclas; Spruyt, Adriaan; Roets, Arne; Hughes, Sean

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the Relational Responding Task (RRT) as a tool for capturing beliefs at the implicit level. Flemish participants were asked to respond as if they believed that Flemish people are more intelligent than immigrants (e.g., respond “true” to the statement “Flemish people are wiser than immigrants”) or to respond as if they believed that immigrants are more intelligent than Flemish people (e.g., respond “true” to the statement “Flemish people are dumber than immigrants”). The difference in performance between these two tasks correlated with ratings of the extent to which participants explicitly endorsed the belief that Flemish people are more intelligent than immigrants and with questionnaire measures of subtle and blatant racism. The current study provides a first step toward validating RRT effects as a viable measure of implicit beliefs. PMID:25852624

  17. Academic Responding During Instruction and Reading Outcomes for Kindergarten Students At-risk for Reading Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the academic responding of students at-risk for reading difficulties in beginning reading instruction. Opportunities for kindergarten students at-risk for reading difficulties to respond academically during teacher-facilitated reading instruction in the general education classroom were examined in relation to student reading achievement as well as social behaviors. Student academic responding during teacher-facilitated instruction significantly predicted end of year reading achievement. Teacher perceptions of students’ social skills (positive correlation) and problem behaviors (negative correlation) were significantly correlated with academic responding. When academic responding and teacher perceptions of social behaviors were examined together, only teacher perceptions of academic competence and problem behaviors predicted spring outcomes. PMID:24665162

  18. Unique Features of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in World Trade Center Responders With Aerodigestive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sunderram, Jag; Udasin, Iris; Kelly-McNeil, Kathie; Ko, Susan; Cepeda, Clarimel; Marroccoli, Barbara; Perret, Carol; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Scardella, Anthony; Kipen, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in World Trade Center (WTC) responders with aerodigestive disorders and snoring with non-WTC habitual snorers, and to distinguish features of OSA in a subset of responders with worsening of snoring after 9/11 from responders with previous habitual snoring. Methods Cross-sectional comparative study of 50 WTC Medical Monitoring and Treatment Program responders with aerodigestive disorders and snoring and 50 nonresponders with snoring. Responders with worsening of snoring after 9/11 were compared with previous habitual snorers. Results While there was a strong correlation between body mass index (BMI), weight, and Apnea + Hypopnea Index (r = 0.36, P = 0.001; r = 0.29, P = 0.044) in the nonresponders, no correlation between either BMI or weight and Apnea + Hypopnea Index was found in the responders. Responders with worsening of snoring after 9/11 had a significantly lower BMI than previous habitual snorers. Conclusion Mechanisms other than obesity are important in the pathogenesis of OSA in WTC responders with aerodigestive disorders. PMID:21866046

  19. The Influence of Clinical and Biological Factors on Transfusion-Associated Non-ABO Antigen Alloimmunization: Responders, Hyper-Responders, and Non-Responders.

    PubMed

    Gehrie, Eric A; Tormey, Christopher A

    2014-11-01

    In the context of transfusion medicine, alloimmunization most often refers to the development of antibodies to non-ABO red blood cell (RBC) antigens following pregnancy, transfusion, or transplantation. The development of RBC alloantibodies can have important clinical consequences, particularly in patients who require chronic transfusions. It has been suggested that alloimmunization is more common in some clinical circumstances and patient populations than in others. As such, individuals that develop alloantibodies are frequently referred to as 'responders' in the medical literature. In contrast, individuals that do not develop alloantibodies despite repeated exposures to non-self blood group antigens have been referred to as 'non-responders'. The purpose of this article is to review the phenomenon of RBC alloimmunization in the context of responders and non-responders to: i) establish a basic framework for alloimmunization as reported across several diverse patient populations; ii) more fully explore literature reports which support the concept of responders/non-responders regarding blood group antigen alloimmunization; iii) summarize the mechanisms that have been shown to predispose an individual to alloimmunization to determine how these factors may differentiate 'responders' from 'non-responders'; and iv) briefly discuss some practical approaches to prevent alloimmunization in patients who may be prone to alloantibody development.

  20. Sunlight upon a Dark Sky Haiti's Urban Poor Responds to Socio-Political and Socio-Cultural Conflicts: A Case Study of the Grande Ravine Community Human Rights Council

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmett, Deborah Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This case study investigates the organizational characteristics of a Haitian grassroots community human rights council (CHRC) that emerged as a response to three politically motivated massacres. The impromptu grassroots response of this poor urban community is at the core of the following research question investigated in this study: "What…

  1. Sunlight upon a Dark Sky Haiti's Urban Poor Responds to Socio-Political and Socio-Cultural Conflicts: A Case Study of the Grande Ravine Community Human Rights Council

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmett, Deborah Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This case study investigates the organizational characteristics of a Haitian grassroots community human rights council (CHRC) that emerged as a response to three politically motivated massacres. The impromptu grassroots response of this poor urban community is at the core of the following research question investigated in this study: "What…

  2. Per cent of patients with chronic migraine who responded per onabotulinumtoxinA treatment cycle: PREEMPT

    PubMed Central

    Silberstein, Stephen D; Dodick, David W; Aurora, Sheena K; Diener, Hans-Christoph; DeGryse, Ronald E; Lipton, Richard B; Turkel, Catherine C

    2015-01-01

    Objective The approved use of onabotulinumtoxinA for prophylaxis of headaches in patients with chronic migraine (CM) involves treatment every 12 weeks. It is currently unknown whether patients who fail to respond to the first onabotulinumtoxinA treatment cycle will respond to subsequent treatment cycles. To help inform decisions about treating non-responders, we examined the probability of treatment cycle 1 non-responders responding in cycle 2, and cycle 1 and 2 non-responders responding in cycle 3. Methods Pooled PREEMPT data (two studies: a 24-week, 2-cycle, double-blind, randomised (1:1), placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase, followed by a 32-week, 3-cycle, open-label phase) evaluated onabotulinumtoxinA (155–195 U) for prophylaxis of headaches in persons with CM (≥15 days/month with headache ≥4 h/day). End points of interest included the proportion of study patients who first achieved a ≥50% reduction in headache days, moderate/severe headache days, total cumulative hours of headache on headache days, or a ≥5-point improvement in Headache Impact Test (HIT)-6. For treatment cycle 1, all eligible participants were included. For subsequent cycles, responders in a previous cycle were no longer considered first responders. Results Among onabotulinumtoxinA-treated patients (n=688) 49.3% had a ≥50% reduction in headache-day frequency during treatment cycle 1, with 11.3% and 10.3% of patients first responding during cycles 2 and 3, respectively. 54.2%, 11.6% and 7.4% of patients first responded with a ≥50% reduction in cumulative hours of headache, and 56.3%, 14.5% and 7.7% of patients first responded with a ≥5-point improvement in total HIT-6 during treatment cycles 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Conclusions A meaningful proportion of patients with CM treated with onabotulinumtoxinA who did not respond to the first treatment cycle responded in the second and third cycles of treatment. Trial registration number NCT00156910, NCT00168428. PMID

  3. Respondent driven sampling of wheelchair users: A lack of traction?

    PubMed

    Bourke, John A; Schluter, Philip J; Hay-Smith, E Jean C; Snell, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Internationally, wheelchair users are an emerging demographic phenomenon, due to their increased prevalence and rapidly increasing life-span. While having significant healthcare implications, basic robust epidemiological information about wheelchair users is often lacking due, in part, to this population's 'hidden' nature. Increasingly popular in epidemiological research, Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) provides a mechanism for generating unbiased population-based estimates for hard-to-reach populations, overcoming biases inherent within other sampling methods. This paper reports the first published study to employ RDS amongst wheelchair users. Between October 2015 and January 2016, a short, successfully piloted, internet-based national survey was initiated. Twenty seeds from diverse organisations were invited to complete the survey then circulate it to peers within their networks following a well-defined protocol. A predetermined reminder protocol was triggered when seeds or their peers failed to respond. All participants were entered into a draw for an iPad. Overall, 19 people participated (nine women); 12 initial seeds, followed by seven second-wave participants arising from four seeds . Completion time for the survey ranged between 7 and 36 minutes. Despite repeated reminders, no further people were recruited. While New Zealand wheelchair user numbers are unknown, an estimated 14% of people have physical impairments that limited mobility. The 19 respondents generated from adopting the RDS methodology here thus represents a negligible fraction of wheelchair users in New Zealand, and an insufficient number to ensure equilibrium required for unbiased analyses. While successful in other hard-to-reach populations, applying RDS methodology to wheelchair users requires further consideration. Formative research exploring areas of network characteristics, acceptability of RDS, appropriate incentive options, and seed selection amongst wheelchair users is needed.

  4. Respondent driven sampling of wheelchair users: A lack of traction?

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, John A.; Schluter, Philip J.; Hay-Smith, E. Jean C.; Snell, Deborah L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Internationally, wheelchair users are an emerging demographic phenomenon, due to their increased prevalence and rapidly increasing life-span. While having significant healthcare implications, basic robust epidemiological information about wheelchair users is often lacking due, in part, to this population’s ‘hidden’ nature. Increasingly popular in epidemiological research, Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) provides a mechanism for generating unbiased population-based estimates for hard-to-reach populations, overcoming biases inherent within other sampling methods. This paper reports the first published study to employ RDS amongst wheelchair users. Methods: Between October 2015 and January 2016, a short, successfully piloted, internet-based national survey was initiated. Twenty seeds from diverse organisations were invited to complete the survey then circulate it to peers within their networks following a well-defined protocol. A predetermined reminder protocol was triggered when seeds or their peers failed to respond. All participants were entered into a draw for an iPad. Results: Overall, 19 people participated (nine women); 12 initial seeds, followed by seven second-wave participants arising from four seeds . Completion time for the survey ranged between 7 and 36 minutes. Despite repeated reminders, no further people were recruited. Discussion: While New Zealand wheelchair user numbers are unknown, an estimated 14% of people have physical impairments that limited mobility. The 19 respondents generated from adopting the RDS methodology here thus represents a negligible fraction of wheelchair users in New Zealand, and an insufficient number to ensure equilibrium required for unbiased analyses. While successful in other hard-to-reach populations, applying RDS methodology to wheelchair users requires further consideration. Formative research exploring areas of network characteristics, acceptability of RDS, appropriate incentive options, and seed

  5. Prehospital trauma care education for first responders in India.

    PubMed

    Aekka, Apoorva; Abraham, Rohit; Hollis, Michael; Boudiab, Elizabeth; Laput, Gieric; Purohit, Harshadha; Kumar, Richa; Vyas, Arpita; Basson, Marc; Vyas, Dinesh

    2015-08-01

    A major factor contributing to global trauma mortality and morbidity is the lack of effective prehospital trauma services in developing settings. We developed a 2-d training course for nondoctor first responders featuring high-fidelity simulation and video-assisted debriefing, self-directed learning videos, and native language instruction. A pilot session was conducted in Jodhpur, Rajasthan. Eighteen local instructors were recruited to train 48 layperson first responders in 10 essential subjects. Didactic sessions of 15-20 min consisting of self-directed learning videos were followed by 30-40 min skill sessions featuring high-fidelity simulation, and concluded with 15-20 min video-debriefing periods. Changes in competence were evaluated using pretraining and posttraining surveys. Results demonstrated that statistically significant competence increases in all areas of trauma management assessed: airway (t[46] = 7.30, P < 0.000), hemorrhage (t[46] = 9.96, P < 0.000), fractures (t[46] = 9.22, P < 0.000), cervical spine injury (t[46] = 12.12, P = 0.000), chest injury (t[46] = 7.84, P < 0.000), IV line placement (t[46] = 4.36, P < 0.000), extrication (t[46] = 2.81, P < 0.005), scene assessment (t[46] = 7.06, P < 0.000), triage (t[46] = 5.92, P < 0.000), and communication (t[46] = 5.56, P < 0.000). Highest increases in competence were observed in cervical spine injury and hemorrhage management, with lowest increases in IV line placement and extrication. Results suggest this approach may be effective in imparting prehospital trauma management concepts to layperson first responders. This study highlights an innovative educational avenue through which trauma management capacity can be enhanced in developing settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lower implantation rates in high responders: evidence for an altered endocrine milieu during the preimplantation period.

    PubMed

    Pellicer, A; Valbuena, D; Cano, F; Remohí, J; Simón, C

    1996-06-01

    To determine serum E2 and P levels around the time of implantation in normal and high IVF responders. In Vitro Fertilization program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. Twenty-nine women undergoing IVF, who accepted to be studied daily, were classified according to the number of oocytes retrieved in normal (n = 16) and high responders (n = 13). Prospective study in which blood was drawn daily from the day of hCG administration (day 0) up to 7 days later (day 6). In vitro fertilization parameters (number of ampules, FSH-hMG, number of oocytes, fertilization rates, number of transferred embryos, implantation rates, and pregnancy rates); serum E2 and P levels during the 7 days of the study. Implantation rate was significantly higher in normal (18.5%) as compared with high (0%) responders. Estradiol and P levels were elevated significantly in high responders. The E2:P ratio was significantly different between normal and high responders during the preimplantation period. Pregnancy and implantation rates decreased as serum E2 levels increased on days 4 to 6 of the study. A different endocrine milieu between normal and high responders is detected by daily steroid measurements up to the preimplantation period, suggesting that this difference could be responsible for an impaired implantation in high responder patients undergoing IVF. An increase in serum E2 levels seems to be the cause of this difference.

  7. IVIG treatment in post-polio patients: evaluation of responders.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Gunilla; Broman, Lisbet; Werhagen, Lars; Borg, Kristian

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the outcome of IVIG treatment in patients with post-polio syndrome (PPS) and to identify responders. The study included 113 PPS patients who had received one IVIG treatment in an open trial, prospective follow-up study. Clinical examination was performed and clinical data were retrieved from medical records. The short form 36 (SF-36), physical activity scale for the elderly (PASE), and the visual analogue scale (VAS) were used as measurements of quality of life, physical activity, and the intensity of pain. Data before treatment and at 6-month follow-up were collected. Analysis was performed in subgroups based on demographic and medical parameters. A statistically significant increase of the SF-36 sub domains bodily pain, vitality, social function, role emotional, and the mental compound score (MCS) was found at the 6-month follow-up. A significant decrease of pain was found in patients who reported pain intensity over VAS of 20 mm, in patients younger than 65 years of age and in patients who had paresis in the lower extremities. A trend was found in patients with PPS as the only diagnosis. IVIG leads to increase of quality of life at 6-month follow-up for SF-36 regarding sub domains of bodily pain, vitality, social function, role emotional, as well as for pain. Age below 65 years, paresis in the lower extremities, and lack of concomitant disorders may be the main indicators for a future identification of responders.

  8. TRANSFER OF AVERSIVE RESPONDENT ELICITATION IN ACCORDANCE WITH EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, Miguel RodrÍguez; Luciano, Carmen; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the transfer of aversively conditioned respondent elicitation through equivalence classes, using skin conductance as the measure of conditioning. The first experiment is an attempt to replicate Experiment 1 in Dougher, Augustson, Markham, Greenway, and Wulfert (1994), with different temporal parameters in the aversive conditioning procedure employed. Match-to-sample procedures were used to teach 17 participants two 4-member equivalence classes. Then, one member of one class was paired with electric shock and one member of the other class was presented without shock. The remaining stimuli from each class were presented in transfer tests. Unlike the findings in the original study, transfer of conditioning was not achieved. In Experiment 2, similar procedures were used with 30 participants, although several modifications were introduced (formation of five-member classes, direct conditioning with several elements of each class, random sequences of stimulus presentation in transfer tests, reversal in aversive conditioning contingencies). More than 80% of participants who had shown differential conditioning also showed the transfer of function effect. Moreover, this effect was replicated within subjects for 3 participants. This is the first demonstration of the transfer of aversive respondent elicitation through stimulus equivalence classes with the presentation of transfer test trials in random order. The latter prevents the possibility that transfer effects are an artefact of transfer test presentation order. PMID:20119523

  9. CIRUN: Climate Information Responding to User Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busalacchi, A. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth System will experience real climate change over the next 50 years, exceeding the scope of natural climate variability. A paramount question facing society is how to adapt to this certainty of climate variability and change. In response, OSTP and NOAA are considering how comprehensive climate services would best inform decisions about adaptation. Similarly, NASA is considering the optimal configuration of the next generation of Earth, environmental, and climate observations to be deployed over the coming 10-20 years. Moreover, much of the added-value information for specific climate-related decisions will be provided by private, academic and non-governmental organizations. In this context, over the past several years the University of Maryland has established the CIRUN (Climate Information: Responding to User Needs) initiative to identify the nature of national needs for climate information and services from a decision support perspective. To date, CIRUN has brought together decisionmakers in a number of sectors to help understand their perspectives on climate with the goal of improving the usefulness of climate information, observations and prediction products to specific user communities. CIRUN began with a major workshop in October 2007 that convened 430 participants in agriculture, parks and recreation, terrestrial ecosystems, insurance/investment, energy, national security, state/local/municipal, water, human health, commerce and manufacturing, transportation, and coastal/marine sectors. Plenary speakers such as Norman Augustine, R. James Woolsey, James Mahoney, and former Senator Joseph Tydings, breakout panel sessions, and participants provided input based on the following: - How would you characterize the exposure or vulnerability to climate variability or change impacting your organization? - Does climate variability and/or change currently factor into your organization's objectives or operations? - Are any of your existing plans being affected by

  10. Development of responder criteria for multicomponent non-pharmacological treatment in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Vervoort, Vera M; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; van den Ende, Cornelia H

    2017-01-01

    There is a need to identify individual treatment success in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) who received non-pharmacological treatment. The present study described responder criteria for multicomponent non-pharmacological treatment in FM, and estimated and compared their sensitivity and specificity. Candidate responder sets were 1) identified in literature; and 2) formulated by expert group consensus. All candidate responder sets were tested in a cohort of 129 patients with FM receiving multicomponent non-pharmacological treatment. We used two gold standards (both therapist's and patient's perspective), assessed at six months after the start of treatment. Seven responder sets were defined (three identified in literature and four formulated by expert group consensus), and comprised combinations of domains of 1) pain; 2) fatigue; 3) patient global assessment (PGA); 4) illness perceptions; 5) limitations in activities of daily living (ADL); and 6) sleep. The sensitivity and specificity of literature-based responder sets (n=3) ranged between 17%-99% and 15%-95% respectively, whereas the expert-based responder sets (n=4) performed slightly better with regard to sensitivity (range 41%-81%) and specificity (range 50%-96%). Of the literature-based responder sets the OMERACT-OARSI responder set with patient's gold standard performed best (sensitivity 63%, specificity 75% and ROC area = 0.69). Overall, the expert-based responder set comprising the domains illness perceptions and limitations in ADL with patient's gold standard performed best (sensitivity 47%, specificity 96% and ROC area = 0.71). We defined sets of responder criteria for multicomponent non-pharmacological treatment in fibromyalgia. Further research should focus on the validation of those sets with acceptable performance.

  11. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of edivoxetine as an adjunctive treatment for patients with major depressive disorder who are partial responders to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment.

    PubMed

    Ball, Susan; Dellva, Mary Anne; D'Souza, Deborah N; Marangell, Lauren B; Russell, James M; Goldberger, Celine

    2014-01-01

    This phase 2 study examined the efficacy and tolerability of edivoxetine, a highly selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, as an adjunctive treatment for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who have a partial response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. Study design consisted of double-blind, 10-week therapy of adjunctive edivoxetine (6-18 mg once daily) or adjunctive placebo with SSRI. Inclusion/entry criteria included partial response to current SSRI by investigator opinion and a GRID 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD17) total score ≥16. The primary efficacy measure was the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Safety measures included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAE) and vital signs. For the primary evaluable population (n=63 for adjunctive edivoxetine and n=68 for adjunctive placebo), the treatment groups did not differ significantly on the primary outcome of change from baseline to week 8 in the MADRS total score; the effect size of edivoxetine treatment was 0.26. Significant treatment differences, favoring adjunctive edivoxetine (p≤.05), were shown for improvements in role functioning and the functional impact of fatigue. For the adjunctive edivoxetine randomized group (N=111), the most frequent TEAEs were hyperhidrosis (7.2%), nausea (7.2%), erectile dysfunction (6.3%) and testicular pain (6.3%). Hemodynamic changes were observed in blood pressure and pulse rate between treatment groups. Study was underpowered for an alpha 2-sided 0.05 significance level for the primary outcome. For patients with MDD who had a partial response to SSRIs, adjunctive edivoxetine treatment was not statistically superior to adjunctive placebo on the primary outcome measure. However, pending further study, improved functioning and remission rate suggest a potential role for edivoxetine for patients with depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Blood pressure responder rates versus goal rates: which metric matters?

    PubMed

    Basile, Jan

    2009-04-01

    Reducing blood pressure (BP) to guideline-recommended goals associated with reductions in cardiovascular risk is central to effective hypertension management. In addition to measuring BP reduction, clinical trials of antihypertensive agents should assess the percentage of patients responding to treatment. The Food and Drug Administration's defined rate of response required for drug approval is a reduction in diastolic BP (DBP) to <90 mmHg and/or a DBP reduction of > or = 10 mmHg. Consequently, some patients may be counted as responders even if they have not reached DBP <90 mmHg. An antihypertensive agent's effectiveness may be better assessed by the proportion of patients who achieve recommended BP goals. This article analyzes the frequency of response rates versus goal rates as endpoints in randomized trials since January 2001. Data showed that goal rates, especially combined systolic BP (SBP)/DBP goal rates, are consistently lower than response rates in studies evaluating both endpoints. Goal rates incorporating both SBP and DBP, or having a focus on SBP for individuals >50 years of age, provide the most clinically relevant information and are a more clinically relevant metric of an agent's ability to reduce BP than DBP alone.

  13. Lysosomal adaptation: How cells respond to lysosomotropic compounds.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shuyan; Sung, Tae; Lin, Nianwei; Abraham, Robert T; Jessen, Bart A

    2017-01-01

    Lysosomes are acidic organelles essential for degradation and cellular homoeostasis and recently lysosomes have been shown as signaling hub to respond to the intra and extracellular changes (e.g. amino acid availability). Compounds including pharmaceutical drugs that are basic and lipophilic will become sequestered inside lysosomes (lysosomotropic). How cells respond to the lysosomal stress associated with lysosomotropism is not well characterized. Our goal is to assess the lysosomal changes and identify the signaling pathways that involve in the lysosomal changes. Eight chemically diverse lysosomotropic drugs from different therapeutic areas were subjected to the evaluation using the human adult retinal pigmented epithelium cell line, ARPE-19. All lysosomotropic drugs tested triggered lysosomal activation demonstrated by increased lysosotracker red (LTR) and lysosensor green staining, increased cathepsin activity, and increased LAMP2 staining. However, tested lysosomotropic drugs also prompted lysosomal dysfunction exemplified by intracellular and extracellular substrate accumulation including phospholipid, SQSTM1/p62, GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and opsin. Lysosomal activation observed was likely attributed to lysosomal dysfunction, leading to compensatory responses including nuclear translocation of transcriptional factors TFEB, TFE3 and MITF. The adaptive changes are protective to the cells under lysosomal stress. Mechanistic studies implicate calcium and mTORC1 modulation involvement in the adaptive changes. These results indicate that lysosomotropic compounds could evoke a compensatory lysosomal biogenic response but with the ultimate consequence of lysosomal functional impairment. This work also highlights a pathway of response to lysosomal stress and evidences the role of TFEB, TFE3 and MITF in the stress response.

  14. Language Generativity, Response Generalization, and Derived Relational Responding

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ian; McElwee, John; Ming, Siri

    2013-01-01

    Language generativity can be described as the ability to produce sentences never before said, and to understand sentences never before heard. One process often cited as underlying language generativity is response generalization. However, though the latter seems to promise a technical understanding of the former at a process level, an investigation of definitions and approaches to the term “response generalization” that appear in the literature suggests that it does not do so. We argue that a more promising candidate for the role of key process underlying language generativity is derived relational responding. We introduce the latter concept and describe empirical research showing its connection with language. We subsequently present a relational frame theory (RFT) conceptualization of derived relations as contextually controlled generalized relational responding. We then review a series of recent studies on derived manding in developmentally delayed children and adults that arguably demonstrate the applied utility of a derived relations-based approach with respect to the phenomenon of generative language. PMID:23814374

  15. Effects of oxytocin on aggressive responding in healthy adult males

    PubMed Central

    Alcorn, Joseph L.; Green, Charles E.; Schmitz, Joy; Lane, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of oxytocin (OT) on human aggression using a well-established laboratory measure of state (reactive) aggression to test the hypothesis that OT would decrease the frequency of aggressive responding. In a within-subject design, 17 healthy male volunteers received placebo or 24 international units of intranasal OT. Aggression was measured via the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm at 30 min prior and 30, 60 and 90 min post-dose. Acute OT did not produce a significant main effect on aggressive behavior. OT attenuated the expected rise in diastolic blood pressure from morning to early afternoon observed under placebo, providing a possible indicator of biological activity. Examination of individual differences showed that aggressive responding following OT dosing (but not placebo) was positively correlated with psychometric measures of interpersonal manipulation and anger (Pearson’s r = 0.57), indicating that higher scores on these antisocial personality traits were related to increased aggressive behavior following OT administration. These preliminary results stand in contrast to previous work on the prosocial effects of OT and highlight the need for further understanding of individual differences in aggression following OT administration. Such individual differences may have implications for the therapeutic use of OT in individuals with psychiatric disorders and dysfunctional social behavior. PMID:26241153

  16. First aid skill retention of first responders within the workplace

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent literature states that many necessary skills of CPR and first aid are forgotten shortly after certification. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill and knowledge decay in first aid in those who are paid to respond to emergency situations within a workplace. Methods Using a choking victim scenario, the sequence and accuracy of events were observed and recorded in 257 participants paid to act as first responders in large industrial or service industry settings. A multiple choice exam was also written to determine knowledge retention. Results First aid knowledge was higher in those who were trained at a higher level, and did not significantly decline over time. Those who had renewed their certificate one or more times performed better than those who had learned the information only once. During the choking scenario many skills were performed poorly, regardless of days since last training, such as hand placement and abdominal thrusts. Compressions following the victim becoming unconscious also showed classic signs of skill deterioration after 30 days. Conclusions As many skills deteriorate rapidly over the course of the first 90 days, changing frequency of certification is not necessarily the most obvious choice to increase retention of skill and knowledge. Alternatively, methods of regularly "refreshing" a skill should be explored that could be delivered at a high frequency - such as every 90 days. PMID:21303536

  17. Identification of random responding on the MMPI-A.

    PubMed

    Archer, R P; Elkins, D E

    1999-12-01

    Although substantial research literature on the effects of random responding on the MMPI-2 exists, there is very limited data available on this issue with the MMPI-A. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of selected MMPI-A validity scales in detecting differences in response patterns between protocols produced by 354 adolescents assessed in clinical settings and a group of 354 randomly produced MMPI-A protocols. Results indicate that MMPI-A validity and basic clinical scales differ significantly between random and clinical groups and that MMPI-A validity Scales F, F1, F2, and VRIN appear to be most useful in correctly identifying protocols from actual clinical participants versus randomly generated response patterns. Findings are discussed in terms of the dramatic effects of the sample base rate for random responding on overall classification accuracy results. Furthermore, it was noted that the optimal cutting scores for MMPI-A Scales F, F1, F2, and VRIN were largely consistent with interpretive recommendations found in the test manual (Butcher et al., 1992) when the relative frequency of random response protocols to clinical protocols was evaluated at a ratio of 1:10. Finally, future recommendations for evaluation of the F1-F2 difference score and the TRIN scale are offered in terms of the most relevant research designs to evaluate these measures.

  18. First aid skill retention of first responders within the workplace.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gregory S; Gaetz, Michael; Masse, Jeff

    2011-02-08

    Recent literature states that many necessary skills of CPR and first aid are forgotten shortly after certification. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill and knowledge decay in first aid in those who are paid to respond to emergency situations within a workplace. Using a choking victim scenario, the sequence and accuracy of events were observed and recorded in 257 participants paid to act as first responders in large industrial or service industry settings. A multiple choice exam was also written to determine knowledge retention. First aid knowledge was higher in those who were trained at a higher level, and did not significantly decline over time. Those who had renewed their certificate one or more times performed better than those who had learned the information only once. During the choking scenario many skills were performed poorly, regardless of days since last training, such as hand placement and abdominal thrusts. Compressions following the victim becoming unconscious also showed classic signs of skill deterioration after 30 days. As many skills deteriorate rapidly over the course of the first 90 days, changing frequency of certification is not necessarily the most obvious choice to increase retention of skill and knowledge. Alternatively, methods of regularly "refreshing" a skill should be explored that could be delivered at a high frequency - such as every 90 days.

  19. A Simple Evacuation Modeling and Simulation Tool for First Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Daniel B; Payne, Patricia W

    2015-01-01

    Although modeling and simulation of mass evacuations during a natural or man-made disaster is an on-going and vigorous area of study, tool adoption by front-line first responders is uneven. Some of the factors that account for this situation include cost and complexity of the software. For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been actively developing the free Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit (IMPACT) to address these issues. One of the components of IMPACT is a multi-agent simulation module for area-based and path-based evacuations. The user interface is designed so that anyone familiar with typical computer drawing tools can quickly author a geospatially-correct evacuation visualization suitable for table-top exercises. Since IMPACT is designed for use in the field where network communications may not be available, quick on-site evacuation alternatives can be evaluated to keep pace with a fluid threat situation. Realism is enhanced by incorporating collision avoidance into the simulation. Statistics are gathered as the simulation unfolds, including most importantly time-to-evacuate, to help first responders choose the best course of action.

  20. Long-Term, Open-Label, Safety Study of Edivoxetine 12 to 18 mg Once Daily as Adjunctive Treatment for Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Who Are Partial Responders to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ball, Susan G; Atkinson, Sarah; Sparks, JonDavid; Bangs, Mark; Goldberger, Celine; Dubé, Sanjay

    2015-06-01

    Long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of adjunctive edivoxetine hydrochloride (hereafter edivoxetine), a highly selective and potent norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, was assessed in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) experiencing partial response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment. Data are from a multicenter, 54-week, open-label trial of adjunctive edivoxetine 12 to 18 mg once daily in patients with MDD who had experienced partial response by history to 6 or more weeks of current selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor therapy and who had a 17-item GRID Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression total score 16 or higher at study entry. Safety measures included discontinuation rate, treatment-emergent adverse events, serious adverse events, and vital signs. Efficacy measures included the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. Of 608 patients, 328 (54%) completed the open-label adjunctive treatment. Study discontinuation due to adverse events occurred in 17.0%, and there were 13 serious adverse events (1 death). Treatment-emergent adverse events 5% or higher were nausea, hyperhidrosis, constipation, headache, dry mouth, dizziness, vomiting, insomnia, and upper respiratory tract infection. Mean increases were observed in systolic blood pressure (range, 0.0-2.3 mm Hg), diastolic blood pressure (range, 1.9-3.3 mm Hg), and pulse (range, 5.9-8.4 beats per minute). Mean improvements on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (-17.0) were observed from baseline to week 54. The safety profile from this study provides an overview of outcomes associated with edivoxetine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition as an adjunctive treatment in patients with MDD who were treated up to 1 year.

  1. Online Student Ratings: Will Students Respond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Trav

    This study focused on response rates to online student ratings of faculty at Brigham Young University, Utah, where concerns about response rates have contributed to a long period for testing and implementation of the online system (more than 5 years). The first pilot study, in 1997, included 36 courses and yielded a response rate of about 40%. The…

  2. Rate and Uniqueness in Children's Creative Responding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, William C.

    Based on previous studies with college students, this study investigated the hierarchy and creativity of responses in young children. According to the theory of hierarchies, the uncreative person initially produces stereotyped responses and soon runs out of alternatives, while the creative person initially has common ideas but subsequent ideas are…

  3. Basic and translational evaluation of renewal of operant responding.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michael E; Liddon, Clare J; Ribeiro, Aurelia; Greif, Abigail E; Podlesnik, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Treatment relapse, defined as the reemergence of problem behavior after treatment, is a serious difficulty faced by clinicians. Failures of treatment integrity (i.e., failure to implement interventions as intended) are often invoked to explain the reemergence of problem behavior. Basic studies suggest that the prevailing stimulus context might also contribute. We conducted 2 experiments in which reinforcement for a target response was followed by 2 phases of extinction with different or identical stimulus contexts relative to baseline (ABA renewal). In Experiment 1, pigeons served as subjects using procedures typical of those used in basic behavioral research. Experiment 2 was designed as a translational replication of Experiment 1, and children who had been diagnosed with autism served as participants. Returning to the previously reinforced stimulus context in both species produced a clear and immediate increase of extinguished responding. These findings are consistent with previous studies that have suggested that both reinforcement contingencies and stimulus context influence the reemergence of extinguished behavior.

  4. Harmless error analysis: How do judges respond to confession errors?

    PubMed

    Wallace, D Brian; Kassin, Saul M

    2012-04-01

    In Arizona v. Fulminante (1991), the U.S. Supreme Court opened the door for appellate judges to conduct a harmless error analysis of erroneously admitted, coerced confessions. In this study, 132 judges from three states read a murder case summary, evaluated the defendant's guilt, assessed the voluntariness of his confession, and responded to implicit and explicit measures of harmless error. Results indicated that judges found a high-pressure confession to be coerced and hence improperly admitted into evidence. As in studies with mock jurors, however, the improper confession significantly increased their conviction rate in the absence of other evidence. On the harmless error measures, judges successfully overruled the confession when required to do so, indicating that they are capable of this analysis.

  5. Primate dental ecology: How teeth respond to the environment.

    PubMed

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Ungar, Peter S; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth are central for the study of ecology, as teeth are at the direct interface between an organism and its environment. Recent years have witnessed a rapid growth in the use of teeth to understand a broad range of topics in living and fossil primate biology. This in part reflects new techniques for assessing ways in which teeth respond to, and interact with, an organism's environment. Long-term studies of wild primate populations that integrate dental analyses have also provided a new context for understanding primate interactions with their environments. These new techniques and long-term field studies have allowed the development of a new perspective-dental ecology. We define dental ecology as the broad study of how teeth respond to, or interact with, the environment. This includes identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, as they reflect feeding ecology, behavior, and habitat variation, including areas impacted by anthropogenic disturbance, and how dental development can reflect environmental change and/or stress. The dental ecology approach, built on collaboration between dental experts and ecologists, holds the potential to provide an important theoretical and practical framework for inferring ecology and behavior of fossil forms, for assessing environmental change in living populations, and for understanding ways in which habitat impacts primate growth and development. This symposium issue brings together experts on dental morphology, growth and development, tooth wear and health, primate ecology, and paleontology, to explore the broad application of dental ecology to questions of how living and fossil primates interact with their environments. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. GnRH agonist trigger with intensive luteal phase support vs. human chorionic gonadotropin trigger in high responders: an observational study reporting pregnancy outcomes and incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Georgios; Vlismas, Antonios; Carby, Anna; Lavery, Stuart; Trew, Geoffrey

    2016-09-01

    A retrospective, cohort study of high-risk patients undergoing IVF treatment was performed to assess if there is a difference in clinical pregnancy rate, live birth rate and the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, when a GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger with intensive luteal support is compared to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) with standard luteal support. The control group consisted of 382 high-risk patients having a GnRH antagonist protocol with 194 receiving an hCG trigger. All patients had ≥18 follicles ≥11mm or serum oestradiol >18,000pmol/l on the day of trigger. Patients had a single or double embryo transfer at cleavage or blastocyst stage. Logistic regression was used to adjust for differences between the groups. An intention-to-treat analysis of all cycles was performed. No statistically significant differences were observed in terms of positive pregnancy test, clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate. Only one patient (0.3%) was hospitalized with severe OHSS in the GnRHa group, compared to 26 patients (13%) in the hCG group. In conclusion, GnRHa trigger is associated with similar pregnancy rates with hCG trigger and a significant reduction in hospitalization for severe OHSS after an intention to treat analysis was performed.

  7. The Exceptional Responders Initiative: Welcoming More Cases

    Cancer.gov

    The initiative is studying tissue, clinical, and genomic data from patients with cancer who have had dramatic and long-lasting responses to standard and experimental treatments that were not seen in similar patients who received the same treatment.

  8. Factors influencing healthcare provider respondent fatigue answering a globally administered in-app survey

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Respondent fatigue, also known as survey fatigue, is a common problem in the collection of survey data. Factors that are known to influence respondent fatigue include survey length, survey topic, question complexity, and open-ended question type. There is a great deal of interest in understanding the drivers of physician survey responsiveness due to the value of information received from these practitioners. With the recent explosion of mobile smartphone technology, it has been possible to obtain survey data from users of mobile applications (apps) on a question-by-question basis. The author obtained basic demographic survey data as well as survey data related to an anesthesiology-specific drug called sugammadex and leveraged nonresponse rates to examine factors that influenced respondent fatigue. Methods Primary data were collected between December 2015 and February 2017. Surveys and in-app analytics were collected from global users of a mobile anesthesia calculator app. Key independent variables were user country, healthcare provider role, rating of importance of the app to personal practice, length of time in practice, and frequency of app use. Key dependent variable was the metric of respondent fatigue. Results Provider role and World Bank country income level were predictive of the rate of respondent fatigue for this in-app survey. Importance of the app to the provider and length of time in practice were moderately associated with fatigue. Frequency of app use was not associated. This study focused on a survey with a topic closely related to the subject area of the app. Respondent fatigue rates will likely change dramatically if the topic does not align closely. Discussion Although apps may serve as powerful platforms for data collection, responses rates to in-app surveys may differ on the basis of important respondent characteristics. Studies should be carefully designed to mitigate fatigue as well as powered with the understanding of the

  9. Factors influencing healthcare provider respondent fatigue answering a globally administered in-app survey.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly-Shah, Vikas N

    2017-01-01

    Respondent fatigue, also known as survey fatigue, is a common problem in the collection of survey data. Factors that are known to influence respondent fatigue include survey length, survey topic, question complexity, and open-ended question type. There is a great deal of interest in understanding the drivers of physician survey responsiveness due to the value of information received from these practitioners. With the recent explosion of mobile smartphone technology, it has been possible to obtain survey data from users of mobile applications (apps) on a question-by-question basis. The author obtained basic demographic survey data as well as survey data related to an anesthesiology-specific drug called sugammadex and leveraged nonresponse rates to examine factors that influenced respondent fatigue. Primary data were collected between December 2015 and February 2017. Surveys and in-app analytics were collected from global users of a mobile anesthesia calculator app. Key independent variables were user country, healthcare provider role, rating of importance of the app to personal practice, length of time in practice, and frequency of app use. Key dependent variable was the metric of respondent fatigue. Provider role and World Bank country income level were predictive of the rate of respondent fatigue for this in-app survey. Importance of the app to the provider and length of time in practice were moderately associated with fatigue. Frequency of app use was not associated. This study focused on a survey with a topic closely related to the subject area of the app. Respondent fatigue rates will likely change dramatically if the topic does not align closely. Although apps may serve as powerful platforms for data collection, responses rates to in-app surveys may differ on the basis of important respondent characteristics. Studies should be carefully designed to mitigate fatigue as well as powered with the understanding of the respondent characteristics that may have higher

  10. An integrated command control and communications center for first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messner, Richard A.; Hludik, Frank; Vidacic, Dragan; Melnyk, Pavlo

    2005-05-01

    First responders to a major incident include many different agencies. These may include law enforcement officers, multiple fire departments, paramedics, HAZMAT response teams, and possibly even federal personnel such as FBI and FEMA. Often times multiple jurisdictions respond to the incident which causes interoperability issues with respect to communication and dissemination of time critical information. Accurate information from all responding sources needs to be rapidly collected and made available to the current on site responders as well as the follow-on responders who may just be arriving on scene. The creation of a common central database with a simple easy to use interface that is dynamically updated in real time would allow prompt and efficient information distribution between different jurisdictions. Such a system is paramount to the success of any response to a major incident. First responders typically arrive in mobile vehicles that are equipped with communications equipment. Although the first responders may make reports back to their specific home based command centers, the details of those reports are not typically available to other first responders who are not a part of that agencies infrastructure. Furthermore, the collection of information often occurs outside of the first responder vehicle and the details of the scene are normally either radioed from the field or written down and then disseminated after significant delay. Since first responders are not usually on the same communications channels, and the fact that there is normally a considerable amount of confusion during the first few hours on scene, it would be beneficial if there were a centralized location for the repository of time critical information which could be accessed by all the first responders in a common fashion without having to redesign or add significantly to each first responders hardware/software systems. Each first responder would then be able to provide information

  11. Interactions between delta and mu opioid agonists in assays of schedule-controlled responding, thermal nociception, drug self-administration, and drug versus food choice in rhesus monkeys: studies with SNC80 [(+)-4-[(alphaR)-alpha-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide] and heroin.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Glenn W; Folk, John E; Rice, Kenner C; Negus, S Stevens

    2005-07-01

    Interactions between delta and mu opioid agonists in rhesus monkeys vary as a function of the behavioral endpoint. The present study compared interactions between the delta agonist SNC80 [(+)-4-[(alphaR)-alpha-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide] and the mu agonist heroin in assays of schedule-controlled responding, thermal nociception, and drug self-administration. Both SNC80 (ED50 = 0.43 mg/kg) and heroin (ED50 = 0.088 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent and complete suppression of response rates in the assay of schedule-controlled responding. Heroin also produced thermal antinociception (ED(5 degrees C) = 0.18 mg/kg) and maintained drug self-administration under both a fixed ratio schedule [dose-effect curve peak at 0.0032 mg/kg/injection (inj)] and under a food versus heroin concurrent-choice schedule (ED50 = 0.013 mg/kg/inj), whereas SNC80 did not produce thermal antinociception or maintain self-administration. Fixed ratio mixtures of SNC80 and heroin (1.6:1, 4.7:1, and 14:1 SNC80/heroin) produced additive effects in the assay of schedule-controlled responding and superadditive effects in the assay of thermal nociception. Also, SNC80 did not enhance the reinforcing effects of heroin, indicating that mixtures of SNC80 and heroin produced additive or infra-additive reinforcing effects. These results provide additional evidence to suggest that delta/mu interactions depend on the experimental endpoint and further suggest that delta agonists may selectively enhance the antinociceptive effects of mu agonists while either not affecting or decreasing the sedative and reinforcing effects of mu agonists.

  12. A Model of First-responder Coping: An Approach/Avoidance Bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Arble, Eamonn; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2017-08-01

    The work of first responders is fraught with numerous stressors, ranging from potentially traumatic critical incidents to institutional strains. The severity and pervasiveness of these difficulties prompt a necessary consideration of the coping methods employed by first responders. The present study developed an empirical model of first-responder coping strategies, based upon a nationally representative survey sample of 6240 first responders. Participants were drawn from Swedish first responders in the following occupations: coast guard, customs control, military, emergency medical services, fire department and police services. In the final model, exposure to stress related to well-being through several indirect paths that in sum accounted for the original direct relationship between these constructs. These several indirect paths were classified theoretically as either approach or avoidance coping behaviours or subsequent health outcomes. In general, approach coping behaviours were related to better well-being; and avoidance was related to a decrease in the outcome. The size of the present sample, as well as the diverse nature of the included first responders, suggests that the resulting model may offer a unique insight into potentially adaptive pathways for first-responder coping. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Identifying Factors Associated with Risk Assessment Competencies of Public Health Emergency Responders

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jiejing; Ren, Jiaojiao; Wu, Qunhong; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Ning, Ning; Ding, Ding

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to better understand the current situation of risk assessment and identify the factors associated with competence of emergency responders in public health risk assessment. The participants were selected by a multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling method in Heilongjiang Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The questionnaires that measured their perceptions on risk assessment competences were administered through the face-to-face survey. A final sample of 1889 staff was obtained. Of this sample, 78.6% of respondents rated their own risk assessment competences as “relatively low”, contrasting with 21.4% rated as “relatively high”. Most of the respondents (62.7%) did not participate in any risk assessment work. Only 13.7% and 42.7% of respondents reported participating in risk assessment training and were familiar with risk assessment tools. There existed statistical significance between risk assessment-related characteristics of respondents and their self-rated competences scores. Financial support from the government and administrative attention were regarded as the important factors contributing to risk assessment competences of CDC responders. Higher attention should be given to risk assessment training and enhancing the availability of surveillance data. Continuous efforts should be made to remove the financial and technical obstacles to improve the competences of risk assessment for public health emergency responders. PMID:28587226

  14. Identifying Factors Associated with Risk Assessment Competencies of Public Health Emergency Responders.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jiejing; Ren, Jiaojiao; Wu, Qunhong; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Ning, Ning; Ding, Ding

    2017-06-04

    This study aimed to better understand the current situation of risk assessment and identify the factors associated with competence of emergency responders in public health risk assessment. The participants were selected by a multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling method in Heilongjiang Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The questionnaires that measured their perceptions on risk assessment competences were administered through the face-to-face survey. A final sample of 1889 staff was obtained. Of this sample, 78.6% of respondents rated their own risk assessment competences as "relatively low", contrasting with 21.4% rated as "relatively high". Most of the respondents (62.7%) did not participate in any risk assessment work. Only 13.7% and 42.7% of respondents reported participating in risk assessment training and were familiar with risk assessment tools. There existed statistical significance between risk assessment-related characteristics of respondents and their self-rated competences scores. Financial support from the government and administrative attention were regarded as the important factors contributing to risk assessment competences of CDC responders. Higher attention should be given to risk assessment training and enhancing the availability of surveillance data. Continuous efforts should be made to remove the financial and technical obstacles to improve the competences of risk assessment for public health emergency responders.

  15. Antiretroviral therapy effects on sources of cortical rhythms in HIV subjects: responders vs. mild responders.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Pennica, Alfredo; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Onorati, Paolo; Muratori, Chiara; Ferracuti, Stefano; Roma, Paolo; Donato, Nicole; Noce, Giuseppe; Del Percio, Claudio; Bonacci, Cristiano; Di Campli, Francesco; Gianserra, Laura; Teti, Elisabetta; Aceti, Antonio; Soricelli, Andrea; Viscione, Magdalena; Rossini, Paolo M; Andreoni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that 5months of combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) affect cortical sources of resting state cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms in naïve HIV subjects. Eyes-closed resting state EEG data were recorded at baseline (i.e. pre-treatment; T0), T1 (after 4weeks of cART), T2 (after 8weeks of cART), and T5 (after 5months of cART) in 38 naïve HIV subjects. EEG data were also recorded in 40 age-matched cognitively normal subjects for control purposes. EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4Hz), theta (4-8Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13Hz), beta 1 (13-20Hz), and beta 2 (20-30Hz). Cortical EEG sources were estimated by LORETA software. Compared to the control group, the HIV group at T0 showed greater delta sources and lower widespread alpha sources. cART induced a global improvement of biological (viral load, CD4 count) and EEG (delta, alpha) markers, remarkable even after 4weeks. Compared to HIV Responders (>100cells/μl at 5-month follow up), the HIV Mild Responders (<100cells/μl) showed greater parietal delta sources at baseline and lower occipital alpha sources at 5-month follow up. In naïve HIV subjects, 5months of successful cART affect brain synchronization mechanisms at the basis of the generation of delta and alpha rhythms. The present EEG markers may be useful secondary neurophysiological end points for pharmacological clinical trials in naïve HIV subjects. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Smart Bodies: Louisiana Responds to Youth Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Ellen P.; Holston, Denise; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2005-01-01

    In Louisiana, it is estimated that almost 33% of school-age children are at risk for becoming overweight or are already overweight (Louisiana Office of Public Health, 2004). Studies have shown that poor nutrition, physical inactivity, and weight problems often associated with being overweight adversely affect academic performance in school…

  17. Multimodal Narrative Inquiry: Six Teacher Candidates Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morawski, Cynthia M.; Rottmann, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present findings of a study on the implementation of a multimodal teacher narrative inquiry component, theoretically grounded by Rosenblatt's theory of transaction analysis, methodologically supported by action research and practically enacted by narrative inquiry and multimodal learning. In particular, the component offered…

  18. How Institutions Respond to Training Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Andrew

    The impact of the transition to training packages (TPs) on institutionally based training in Australia was examined. Information was gathered from 14 case studies of registered trade organizations (RTOs) delivering qualifications to institutionally based students in TPs in the following areas: administration, beauty therapy, community services,…

  19. Transit Economy Market Challenge and University Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiulis, Algirdas Vaclovas

    2003-01-01

    In an ever-changing labour market, university tries to make efforts to estimate the free labour market demands for university graduates. The strength of Engineering Education lies in the range and depth of fundamental knowledge the students acquire during their studies, but the abilities like: taking risk, taking initiative, teamwork,…

  20. Curriculum Diversification: Responding to Changing Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Eric

    Considerations regarding the undergraduate psychology program at Ithaca College are reviewed. In reevaluating the program, the following projections were made: the number of students who select psychology as a major in preparation for graduate studies will diminish; the majority of students electing the major will primarily need a solid liberal…