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Sample records for responsables energie municipaux

  1. Beta contamination monitor energy response

    SciTech Connect

    Bjork, C.W.; Olsher, R.H.

    1998-12-31

    Beta contamination is monitored at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with portable handheld probes and their associated counters, smear counters, air-breathing continuous air monitors (CAM), personnel contamination monitors (PCM), and hand and foot monitors (HFM). The response of these monitors was measured using a set of anodized-aluminum beta sources for the five isotopes: Carbon-14, Technetium-99, Cesium-137, Chlorine-36 and Strontium/Yttrium-90. The surface emission rates of the sources are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with a precision of one relative standard deviation equal to 1.7%. All measurements were made in reproducible geometry, mostly using aluminum source holders. All counts, significantly above background, were collected to a precision of 1% or better. The study of the hand-held probes included measurements of six air gaps from 0.76 to 26.2 mm. The energy response of the detectors is well-parameterized as a function of the average beta energy of the isotopes (C14=50 keV, Tc99=85, Cs137=188, C136=246, and Sr/Y90=934). The authors conclude that Chlorine-36 is a suitable beta emitter for routine calibration. They recommend that a pancake Geiger-Mueller (GM) or gas-proportional counter be used for primarily beta contamination surveys with an air gap not to exceed 6 mm. Energy response varies about 30% from Tc99 to Sr/Y90 for the pancake GM detector. Dual alpha/beta probes have poor to negligible efficiency for low-energy betas. The rugged anodized sources represent partially imbedded contamination found in the field and they are provided with precise, NIST-traceable, emission rates for reliable calibration.

  2. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  3. Neutron energy measurements in emergency response applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Guss, Paul; Hornish, Michael; Wilde, Scott; Stampahar, Tom; Reed, Michael

    2009-08-01

    We present significant results in recent advances in the measurement of neutron energy. Neutron energy measurements are a small but significant part of radiological emergency response applications. Mission critical information can be obtained by analyzing the neutron energy given off from radioactive materials. In the case of searching for special nuclear materials, neutron energy information from an unknown source can be of importance. At the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) of National Security Technologies, LLC, a series of materials, viz., liquid organic scintillator (LOS), Lithium Gadolinium Borate (LGB) or Li6Gd(BO3)3 in a plastic matrix, a recently developed crystal of Cesium Lithium Yttrium Chloride, Cs2LiYCl6: Ce (called CLYC)[1], and normal plastic scintillator (BC-408) with 3He tubes have been used to study their effectiveness as a portable neutron energy spectrometer. Comparisons illustrating the strengths of the various materials will be provided. Of these materials, LGB offers the ability to tailor its response to the neutron spectrum by varying the isotopic composition of the key constituents (Lithium, Gadolinium [Yttrium], and Boron). All three of the constituent elements possess large neutron capture cross section isotopes for highly exothermic reactions. These compounds of composition Li6Gd(Y)(BO3)3 can be activated by Cerium ions Ce3+. CLYC, on the other hand, has a remarkable gamma response in addition to superb neutron discrimination, comparable to that of Europium-doped Lithium Iodide (6LiI: Eu). Comparing these two materials, CLYC has higher light output (4500 phe/MeV) than that from 6LiI: Eu and shows better energy resolution for both gamma and neutron pulse heights. Using CLYC, gamma energy pulses can be discriminated from the neutron signals by simple pulse height separation. For the cases of both LGB and LOS, careful pulse shape discrimination is needed to separate the gamma energy signals from neutron pulses. Both analog and digital

  4. Lattice Truss Structural Response Using Energy Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenner, Winfred Scottson

    1996-01-01

    A deterministic methodology is presented for developing closed-form deflection equations for two-dimensional and three-dimensional lattice structures. Four types of lattice structures are studied: beams, plates, shells and soft lattices. Castigliano's second theorem, which entails the total strain energy of a structure, is utilized to generate highly accurate results. Derived deflection equations provide new insight into the bending and shear behavior of the four types of lattices, in contrast to classic solutions of similar structures. Lattice derivations utilizing kinetic energy are also presented, and used to examine the free vibration response of simple lattice structures. Derivations utilizing finite element theory for unique lattice behavior are also presented and validated using the finite element analysis code EAL.

  5. Energy Response of LaBr3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertürk, S.; Maj, A.; Ciemala, M.; Stezowski, O.; Courtin, S.; Strachan, J.; Kumar, S.; Paris Collaboration

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, important developments in scintillator technology have been made in the Lanthanum Halogen LaBr3 (Ce) crystal, which has high-energy separation, very good timing-properties and a stopping-power that can be used as a detector at room temperature. The international PARIS project will be created as a prototype of this detector system, which will be used in SPIRAL2 as a stand alone or in collaboration with the EXOGAM or AGATA detector array. A fusion evaporation reaction is used to produce exotic nuclei and is then transferred at a very high angular momentum to compound nuclei. Due to the accompanying high rotation, the exotic shape starts changing into vibrational and rotational collective phenomena which hitherto have together become difficult to detect and fully understand. In order to perform this type of research, in addition to conventional known gamma-ray detectors, high-efficiency gamma-ray detectors that can effectively identify gamma rays are also required as calorimeters. LaBr3 is planned to use such means. Results of ongoing analysis for energy and the time response of LaBr3 will be presented.

  6. Home Energy Displays. Consumer Adoption and Response

    SciTech Connect

    LaMarche, Janelle; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.; Sachs, O.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this project was to investigate the factors influencing consumer adoption of Home Energy Displays (HEDs) and to evaluate electricity consumption in households with basic HEDs versus enhanced feedback methods - web portals or alerts. The team hypothesized that providing flexible and relatable information to users, in addition to a basic HED, would make feedback more effective and achieve persistent energy savings. In Phase I, Fraunhofer conducted three user research studies and found preferences for aesthetically pleasing, easy to understand feedback that is accessible through multiple media and offered free of charge. The deployment of HEDs in 150 households planned for Phase II encountered major recruitment and HED field deployment problems. In light of these challenges, the team is pursuing a modified study investigating the energy savings of a web portal versus alert-based energy feedback instead of a physical HED.

  7. Biologic response to microwave/RF energy

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelson, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    A systematic and up-to-date review of observations and theoretical approaches to the biological effects and health implications of exposure to microwave/radiofrequency energies is presented. A primary objective is to review and place available information and concepts in proper perspective to understand and encourage the full potential for the beneficial uses of these energies while at the same time preventing adverse effects to individuals exposed to microwaves/RF.

  8. Neutron Energy Measurements in Radiological Emergency Response Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Paul Guss, Michael Hornish, Scott Wilde, Tom Stampahar, Michael Reed

    2009-04-30

    We present significant results in recent advances in the determination of neutron energy. Neutron energy measurements are a small but very significant part of radiological emergency response applications. Mission critical information can be obtained by analyzing the neutron energy given off from radioactive materials. In the case of searching for special nuclear materials, neutron energy information from an unknown source can be of paramount importance.

  9. Response of the bubble detector to neutrons of various energies.

    PubMed

    Smith, M B; Andrews, H R; Ing, H; Koslowsky, M R

    2015-04-01

    A series of Monte-Carlo simulations has been performed in order to investigate the response of the bubble detector to monoenergetic neutrons of various energies. The work was driven by the need to better understand the energy dependence of the detector for applications in space, where the neutron spectrum has a significant component with energy of >20 MeV. The response to neutrons in the range of a few keV to 500 MeV has been calculated, and good agreement between the simulations and experimental data is demonstrated over the entire energy range.

  10. Home Energy Displays: Consumer Adoption and Response

    SciTech Connect

    LaMarche, J.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.; Sachs, O.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this project was to investigate the factors influencing consumer adoption of Home Energy Displays (HEDs) and to evaluate electricity consumption in households with basic HEDs versus enhanced feedback methods - web portals or alerts. We hypothesized that providing flexible and relatable information to users, in addition to a basic HED, would make feedback more effective and achieve persistent energy savings. In Phase I, we conducted three user research studies and found preferences for aesthetically pleasing, easy to understand feedback that is accessible through multiple media and offered free of charge. The deployment of HEDs in 150 households planned for Phase II encountered major recruitment and HED field deployment problems. First, after extensive outreach campaigns to apartment complexes with 760 units, only 8% of building's tenants elected to receive a free HED in their homes as part of the field study. Second, the HED used, a leading market model, had a spectrum of problems, including gateway miscommunications, failure to post to a data-hosting third party, and display malfunctions. In light of these challenges, we are pursuing a modified study investigating the energy savings of a web portal versus alert-based energy feedback instead of a physical HED.

  11. Thermoregulatory responses to RF energy absorption.

    PubMed

    Adair, Eleanor R; Black, David R

    2003-01-01

    This white paper combines a tutorial on the fundamentals of thermoregulation with a review of the current literature concerned with physiological thermoregulatory responses of humans and laboratory animals in the presence of radio frequency (RF) and microwave fields. The ultimate goal of research involving whole body RF exposure of intact organisms is the prediction of effects of such exposure on human beings. Most of the published research on physiological thermoregulation has been conducted on laboratory animals, with a heavy emphasis on laboratory rodents. Because their physiological heat loss mechanisms are limited, these small animals are very poor models for human beings. Basic information about the thermoregulatory capabilities of animal models relative to human capability is essential for the appropriate evaluation and extrapolation of animal data to humans. In general, reliance on data collected on humans and nonhuman primates, however fragmentary, yields a more accurate understanding of how RF fields interact with humans. Such data are featured in this review, including data from both clinic and laboratory. Featured topics include thermal sensation, human RF overexposures, exposures attending magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), predictions based on simulation models, and laboratory studies of human volunteers. Supporting data from animal studies include the thermoregulatory profile, response thresholds, physiological responses of heat production and heat loss, intense or prolonged exposure, RF effects on early development, circadian variation, and additive drug-microwave interactions. The conclusion is inescapable that humans demonstrate far superior thermoregulatory ability over other tested organisms during RF exposure at, or even above current human exposure guidelines. PMID:14628305

  12. Renewable Energy RFPs: Solicitation Response and Wind ContractPrices

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-04-18

    As input into renewable energy policy discussions in Illinois, we have been asked to provide information on the results of recent, competitive solicitations for renewable energy, with a focus on wind power. In particular, this memorandum includes two pieces of information: (1) Publicly available data on the strength of response to recent renewable energy solicitations; and (2) Wind power purchase costs as revealed through actual power purchase agreements with electric utilities.

  13. Evaluate Scintillation Response Over a Continuous Energy Region

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen; Elfman, Mikael; Milbrath, Brian D.; Weber, William J.

    2008-06-26

    A recently developed fast analysis technique utilizing a time of flight (TOF) telescope is demonstrated to obtain relevant quantitative data on material scintillation response to energetic He particles. With superior energy resolution and fast response of the TOF telescope, energy of individual particle before impinging on a scintillating crystal can be determined with a high counting rate, which allows quantitative study of material performance over a continuous energy range in a relatively short time. Scintillation performances in terms of light output, nonlinearity and energy resolution in bismuth germinate (BGO) and europium-doped calcium fluoride (CaF2:Eu) Crystals are demonstrated, and the corresponding energy resolution is compared with gamma-ray tests on the same crystals.

  14. Linking Continuous Energy Management and Open Automated Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila; Ghatikar, Girish

    2008-10-03

    Advances in communications and control technology, the strengthening of the Internet, and the growing appreciation of the urgency to reduce demand side energy use are motivating the development of improvements in both energy efficiency and demand response (DR) systems. This paper provides a framework linking continuous energy management and continuous communications for automated demand response (Auto-DR) in various times scales. We provide a set of concepts for monitoring and controls linked to standards and procedures such as Open Automation Demand Response Communication Standards (Open Auto-DR or OpenADR). Basic building energy science and control issues in this approach begin with key building components, systems, end-uses and whole building energy performance metrics. The paper presents a framework about when energy is used, levels of services by energy using systems, granularity of control, and speed of telemetry. DR, when defined as a discrete event, requires a different set of building service levels than daily operations. We provide examples of lessons from DR case studies and links to energy efficiency.

  15. Energy response improvement for photon dosimetry using pulse analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki, Dizaji H.

    2016-02-01

    During the last few years, active personal dosimeters have been developed and have replaced passive personal dosimeters in some external monitoring systems, frequently using silicon diode detectors. Incident photons interact with the constituents of the diode detector and produce electrons. These photon-induced electrons deposit energy in the detector's sensitive region and contribute to the response of diode detectors. To achieve an appropriate photon dosimetry response, the detectors are usually covered by a metallic layer with an optimum thickness. The metallic cover acts as an energy compensating shield. In this paper, a software process is performed for energy compensation. Selective data sampling based on pulse height is used to determine the photon dose equivalent. This method is applied to improve the energy response in photon dosimetry. The detector design is optimized for the response function and determination of the photon dose equivalent. Photon personal dose equivalent is determined in the energy range of 0.3-6 MeV. The error values of the calculated data for this wide energy range and measured data for 133Ba, 137Cs, 60Co and 241Am-Be sources respectively are up to 20% and 15%. Fairly good agreement is seen between simulation and dose values obtained from our process and specifications from several photon sources.

  16. Equilibrium shoreline response of a high wave energy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, M. L.; Guza, R. T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P. L.

    2011-04-01

    Four years of beach elevation surveys at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, are used to extend an existing equilibrium shoreline change model, previously calibrated with fine sand and moderate energy waves, to medium sand and higher-energy waves. The shoreline, characterized as the cross-shore location of the mean high water contour, varied seasonally by between 30 and 60 m, depending on the alongshore location. The equilibrium shoreline change model relates the rate of horizontal shoreline displacement to the hourly wave energy E and the wave energy disequilibrium, the difference between E and the equilibrium wave energy that would cause no change in the present shoreline location. Values for the model shoreline response coefficients are tuned to fit the observations in 500 m alongshore segments and averaged over segments where the model has good skill and the estimated effects of neglected alongshore sediment transport are relatively small. Using these representative response coefficients for 0.3 mm sand from Ocean Beach and driving the model with much lower-energy winter waves observed at San Onofre Beach (also 0.3 mm sand) in southern California, qualitatively reproduces the small seasonal shoreline fluctuations at San Onofre. This consistency suggests that the shoreline model response coefficients depend on grain size and may be constant, and thus transportable, between sites with similar grain size and different wave climates. The calibrated model response coefficients predict that for equal fluctuations in wave energy, changes in shoreline location on a medium-grained (0.3 mm) beach are much smaller than on a previously studied fine-grained (0.2 mm) beach.

  17. Equilibrium shoreline response of a high wave energy beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, M.L.; Guza, R.T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Hansen, J.E.; Barnard, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Four years of beach elevation surveys at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, are used to extend an existing equilibrium shoreline change model, previously calibrated with fine sand and moderate energy waves, to medium sand and higher-energy waves. The shoreline, characterized as the cross-shore location of the mean high water contour, varied seasonally by between 30 and 60 m, depending on the alongshore location. The equilibrium shoreline change model relates the rate of horizontal shoreline displacement to the hourly wave energy E and the wave energy disequilibrium, the difference between E and the equilibrium wave energy that would cause no change in the present shoreline location. Values for the model shoreline response coefficients are tuned to fit the observations in 500 m alongshore segments and averaged over segments where the model has good skill and the estimated effects of neglected alongshore sediment transport are relatively small. Using these representative response coefficients for 0.3 mm sand from Ocean Beach and driving the model with much lower-energy winter waves observed at San Onofre Beach (also 0.3 mm sand) in southern California, qualitatively reproduces the small seasonal shoreline fluctuations at San Onofre. This consistency suggests that the shoreline model response coefficients depend on grain size and may be constant, and thus transportable, between sites with similar grain size and different wave climates. The calibrated model response coefficients predict that for equal fluctuations in wave energy, changes in shoreline location on a medium-grained (0.3 mm) beach are much smaller than on a previously studied fine-grained (0.2 mm) beach. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. The Department of Energy's Emergency Response Support and Logistics Assets

    SciTech Connect

    Robert A. Lambert

    1999-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) possesses deployable mechanical, electrical, logistical, and communications assets for supporting emergency response operations in a field environment. These assets are operated and maintained by Bechtel Nevada personnel at the DOE's Remote Sensing Laboratory located in Las Vegas, Nevada

  19. Broadband vibratory energy harvesting via bubble shaped response curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ze-Qi; Chen, Li-Qun

    2016-09-01

    This paper concerns an investigation into the characteristics of a linear-nonlinear coupled electromagnetic energy harvester. The nonlinear oscillator consists of a linear (mass-spring-damper) oscillator with two additional horizontal springs. It is assumed that the vibration is restricted to one direction of harvesting mass to which the parallel magnetic field is induced. Of interest here, however, is the bubble shaped response curves for the amplitude- frequency response, and its potential benefits on the energy harvesting. The Harmonic balance method is used to analysis the power amplitude-frequency response of the system. It is found that the linear and nonlinear resonances could interact with each other at moderate excitation levels, so bubble shaped response curves are formed. The benefits of the nonlinearity on the energy harvesting are achieved. The results are also validated by some numerical work. Then the averaged power under Gaussian white noise is also calculated numerically, the results demonstrate that the bubble shaped response curves design produces more power than other designs under random excitation.

  20. Demand Response Resources for Energy and Ancillary Services (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, M.

    2014-04-01

    Demand response (DR) resources present a potentially important source of grid flexibility particularly on future systems with high penetrations of variable wind an solar power generation. However, DR in grid models is limited by data availability and modeling complexity. This presentation focuses on the co-optimization of DR resources to provide energy and ancillary services in a production cost model of the Colorado test system. We assume each DR resource can provide energy services by either shedding load or shifting its use between different times, as well as operating

  1. Nuclear Energy Response in the EMF27 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Son H.; Wada, Kenichi; Kurosawa, Atsushi; Roberts, Matthew

    2014-03-25

    The nuclear energy response for mitigating global climate change across eighteen participating models of the EMF27 study is investigated. Diverse perspectives on the future role of nuclear power in the global energy system are evident in the broad range of nuclear power contributions from participating models of the study. In the Baseline scenario without climate policy, nuclear electricity generation and shares span 0 – 66 EJ/ year and 0 - 25% in 2100 for all models, with a median nuclear electricity generation of 39 EJ/year (1,389 GWe at 90% capacity factor) and median share of 9%. The role of nuclear energy increased under the climate policy scenarios. The median of nuclear energy use across all models doubled in the 450 ppm CO2e scenario with a nuclear electricity generation of 67 EJ/year (2,352 GWe at 90% capacity factor) and share of 17% in 2100. The broad range of nuclear electricity generation (11 – 214 EJ/year) and shares (2 - 38%) in 2100 of the 450 ppm CO2e scenario reflect differences in the technology choice behavior, technology assumptions and competitiveness of low carbon technologies. Greater clarification of nuclear fuel cycle issues and risk factors associated with nuclear energy use are necessary for understanding the nuclear deployment constraints imposed in models and for improving the assessment of the nuclear energy potential in addressing climate change.

  2. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Ghatikar, Girish; Ni, Chun Chun; Dudley, Junqiao; Martin, Phil; Wikler, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).

  3. Propensity to obesity impacts the neuronal response to energy imbalance.

    PubMed

    Cornier, Marc-Andre; McFadden, Kristina L; Thomas, Elizabeth A; Bechtell, Jamie L; Bessesen, Daniel H; Tregellas, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the propensity to gain weight or remain normal weight are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to study the neuronal response to visual food cues during short-term energy imbalance in healthy adults recruited as obesity-resistant (OR) or obesity-prone (OP) based on self-identification, body mass index, and personal/family weight history. Twenty-five OR and 28 OP subjects were studied in underfed (UF) and overfed (OF) as compared to eucaloric (EU) conditions in a randomized crossover design. Each study phase included a 3-day run-in diet, 1 day of controlled feeding (basal energy needs for EU, 40% above/below basal energy needs for OF/UF), and a test day. On the test day, fMRI was performed in the acute fed stated (30 min after a test meal) while subjects viewed images of foods of high hedonic value and neutral non-food objects. Measures of appetite and hormones were also performed before and every 30 min after the test meal. UF was associated with significantly increased activation of insula, somatosensory cortex, inferior and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), parahippocampus, precuneus, cingulate, and visual cortex in OR. However, UF had no impact in OP. As a result, UF was associated with significantly greater activation, specifically in the insula, inferior PFC, and somatosensory cortex in OR as compared to OP. While OF was overall associated with reduced activation of inferior visual cortex, no group interaction was observed with OF. In summary, these findings suggest that individuals resistant to weight gain and obesity are more sensitive to short-term energy imbalance, particularly with UF, than those prone to weight gain. The inability to sense or adapt to changes in energy balance may represent an important mechanism contributing to excess energy intake and risk for obesity. PMID:25767441

  4. Propensity to Obesity Impacts the Neuronal Response to Energy Imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Cornier, Marc-Andre; McFadden, Kristina L.; Thomas, Elizabeth A.; Bechtell, Jamie L.; Bessesen, Daniel H.; Tregellas, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the propensity to gain weight or remain normal weight are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to study the neuronal response to visual food cues during short-term energy imbalance in healthy adults recruited as obesity-resistant (OR) or obesity-prone (OP) based on self-identification, body mass index, and personal/family weight history. Twenty-five OR and 28 OP subjects were studied in underfed (UF) and overfed (OF) as compared to eucaloric (EU) conditions in a randomized crossover design. Each study phase included a 3-day run-in diet, 1 day of controlled feeding (basal energy needs for EU, 40% above/below basal energy needs for OF/UF), and a test day. On the test day, fMRI was performed in the acute fed stated (30 min after a test meal) while subjects viewed images of foods of high hedonic value and neutral non-food objects. Measures of appetite and hormones were also performed before and every 30 min after the test meal. UF was associated with significantly increased activation of insula, somatosensory cortex, inferior and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), parahippocampus, precuneus, cingulate, and visual cortex in OR. However, UF had no impact in OP. As a result, UF was associated with significantly greater activation, specifically in the insula, inferior PFC, and somatosensory cortex in OR as compared to OP. While OF was overall associated with reduced activation of inferior visual cortex, no group interaction was observed with OF. In summary, these findings suggest that individuals resistant to weight gain and obesity are more sensitive to short-term energy imbalance, particularly with UF, than those prone to weight gain. The inability to sense or adapt to changes in energy balance may represent an important mechanism contributing to excess energy intake and risk for obesity. PMID:25767441

  5. Deriving a dosage-response relationship for community response to high-energy impulsive noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fidell, Sanford; Pearsons, Karl S.

    1994-01-01

    The inability to systematically predict community response to exposure to sonic booms (and other high energy impulsive sounds) is a major impediment to credible analyses of the environmental effects of supersonic flight operations. Efforts to assess community response to high energy impulsive sounds are limited in at least two important ways. First, a paucity of appropriate empirical data makes it difficult to infer a dosage-response relationship by means similar to those used in the case of general transportation noise. Second, it is unclear how well the 'equal energy hypothesis' (the notion that duration, number, and level of individual events are directly interchangeable determinants of annoyance) applies to some forms of impulsive noise exposure. Some of the issues currently under consideration by a CHABA working group addressing these problems are discussed. These include means for applying information gained in controlled exposure studies about different rates of growth of annoyance with impulsive and non-impulsive sound exposure levels, and strategies for developing a dosage-response relationship in a data-poor area.

  6. Simulation of Energy Response of the ATIC Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batkov, K. E.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Case, G.; Christl, M.; Chang, J.; Fazely, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Granger, D.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    ATIC (Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter) is a balloon borne experiment designed to measure the cosmic ray composition for elements from hydrogen to iron and their energy spectra from approx.50 GeV to near 100 TeV. It consists of a Si-matrix detector to determine the charge of a CR particle, a scintillator hodoscope for tracking, carbon interaction targets and a fully active BGO calorimeter. ATIC had its first flight from McMurdo, Antarctica from 28/12/2000 to 13/01/2001. The ATIC flight collected approximately 25 million events. For reconstruction of primary spectra from spectra of energy deposits measured in the experiment, correlations between kinetic energy of a primary particle E(sub kin) and energy deposit in the calorimeter E(sub d) should be known. For this purpose, simulations of energy response of the calorimeter on energy spectra of different nuclei were done. The simulations were performed by GEANT-3.21 code with QGSM generator for nucleus - nucleus interactions. The incident flux was taken as isotropic in the ATIC aperture. Primary spectra power-law by momentum were used as inputs according to standard models of cosmic ray acceleration. These spectra become power-law by kinetic energy at E(sub kin) higher than approx.20Mc(sup 2), where M is primary nucleus mass. It should be noted that energy deposit spectra measured by ATIC illustrate similar behavior. Distributions of ratio E(sub kin)/E(sub d) are presented for different energy deposits and for a set of primaries. For power-law regions of energy spectra at E(sub d)> or equal to 20Mc(sup 2) the obtained mean value of E(sub kin)/E(sub d) increases from approx.2.4 for protons to approx.3.1 for iron, while rms/ decreases from 50% for protons to about 15% for iron. These values were obtained for the spectral index gamma=1.6

  7. Global stabilization of high-energy response of a nonlinear wideband electromagnetic energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Kato, S.; Masuda, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a resonance-type vibration energy harvester with a Duffing-type nonlinear oscillator which is designed to perform effectively in a wide frequency band. For the conventional linear vibration energy harvester, the maximum performance of the power generation and its bandwidth are in a relation of trade-off. Introducing a Duffing-type nonlinearity can expand the resonance frequency band and enable the harvester to generate larger electric power in a wider frequency range. However, since such nonlinear oscillator may have coexisting multiple steady-state solutions in the resonance band, it is difficult for the nonlinear harvester to maintain the high performance of the power generation constantly. The principle of self-excitation and entrainment has been utilized to give global stability to the high-energy orbit by destabilizing other unexpected low-energy orbits by introducing a switching circuit of the load resistance between positive and the negative values depending on the response amplitude of the oscillator. In this paper, an improved control law that switches the load resistance according to a frequency-dependent threshold is proposed to ensure the oscillator to respond in the high-energy orbit without ineffective power consumption. Numerical study shows that the steady-state responses of the harvester with the proposed control low are successfully kept on the high-energy orbit without repeating activation of the excitationmode.

  8. Thermally responsive polymer electrolytes for inherently safe electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Jesse C.

    Electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs), supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries have emerged as premier candidates to meet the rising demands in energy storage; however, such systems are limited by thermal hazards, thermal runaway, fires and explosions, all of which become increasingly more dangerous in large-format devices. To prevent such scenarios, thermally-responsive polymer electrolytes (RPEs) that alter properties in electrochemical energy storage devices were designed and tested. These RPEs will be used to limit or halt device operation when temperatures increase beyond a predetermined threshold, therefore limiting further heating. The development of these responsive systems will offer an inherent safety mechanism in electrochemical energy storage devices, while preserving the performance, lifetimes, and versatility that large-format systems require. Initial work focused on the development of a model system that demonstrated the concept of RPEs in an electrochemical device. Aqueous electrolyte solutions of polymers exhibiting properties that change in response to temperature were developed for applications in EDLCs and supercapacitors. These "smart materials" provide a means to control electrochemical systems where polymer phase separation at high temperatures affects electrolyte properties and inhibits device performance. Aqueous RPEs were synthesized using N-isopropylacrylamide, which governs the thermal properties, and fractions of acrylic acid or vinyl sulfonic acids, which provide ions to the solution. The molecular properties of these aqueous RPEs, specifically the ionic composition, were shown to influence the temperature-dependent electrolyte properties and the extent to which these electrolytes control the energy storage characteristics of a supercapacitor device. Materials with high ionic content provided the highest room temperature conductivity and electrochemical activity; however, RPEs with low ionic content provided the highest "on

  9. Energy dependence of response of new high sensitivity radiochromic films for megavoltage and kilovoltage radiation energies

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu-Tsao, S.-T.; Ho Yunsil; Shankar, Ravi; Wang Lin; Harrison, Louis B.

    2005-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the energy dependence of the response of two new high sensitivity models of radiochromic films EBT and XR-QA. We determined the dose response curves of these films for four different radiation sources, namely, 6 MV photon beams (6 MVX), Ir-192, I-125, and Pd-103. The first type (EBT) is designed for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dosimetry, and the second type (XR-QA) is designed for kilovoltage dosimetry. All films were scanned using red (665 nm) and green (520 nm) light sources in a charge-coupled device-based densitometer. The dose response curves [net optical density (NOD) versus dose] were plotted and compared for different radiation energies and light sources. Contrary to the early GAFCHROMIC film types (such as models XR, HS, MD55-2, and HD810), the net optical densities of both EBT and XR-QA were higher with a green (520 nm) than those with a red (665 nm) light source due to the different absorption spectrum of the new radiochromic emulsion. Both film types yield measurable optical densities for doses below 2 Gy. EBT film response is nearly independent of radiation energy, within the uncertainty of measurement. The NOD values of EBT film at 1 and 2 Gy are 0.13 and 0.25 for green, and 0.1 and 0.17 for red, respectively. In contrast, the XR-QA film sensitivity varies with radiation energy. The doses required to produce NOD of 0.5 are 6.9, 5.4, 0.7, and 0.9 Gy with green light and 19, 13, 1.7, and 1.5 Gy with red light, for 6 MVX, Ir-192, I-125, and Pd-103, respectively. EBT film was found to have minimal photon energy dependence of response for the energies tested and is suitable for dosimetry of radiation with a wide energy spectrum, including primary and scattered radiation. XR-QA film is promising for kilovoltage sources with a narrow energy spectra. The new high sensitivity radiochromic films are promising tools in radiation dosimetry.

  10. Phenotypic clines, energy balances and ecological responses to climate change.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Lauren B; Nufio, César R; Kingsolver, Joel G

    2014-01-01

    The Metabolic Theory of Ecology has renewed interest in using energetics to scale across levels of ecological organization. Can scaling from individual phenotypes to population dynamics provides insight into why species have shifted their phenologies, abundances and distributions idiosyncratically in response to recent climate change? We consider how the energetic implications of phenotypes may scale to understand population and species level responses to climate change using four focal grasshopper species along an elevation gradient in Colorado. We use a biophysical model to translate phenotypes and environmental conditions into estimates of body temperatures. We measure thermal tolerances and preferences and metabolic rates to assess rates of energy use and acquisition. Body mass declines along the elevation gradient for all species, but mass-specific metabolic rates increases only modestly. We find interspecific differences in both overall thermal tolerances and preferences and in the variation of these metrics along the elevation gradient. The more dispersive species exhibit significantly higher thermal tolerance and preference consistent with much of their range spanning hot, low elevation areas. When integrating these metrics to consider metabolic constraints, we find that energetic costs decrease along the elevation gradient due to decreasing body size and temperature. Opportunities for energy acquisition, as reflected by the proportion of time that falls within a grasshopper's thermal tolerance range, peak at mid elevations. We discuss methods for translating these energetic metrics into population dynamics. Quantifying energy balances and allocation offers a viable approach for predicting how populations will respond to climate change and the consequences for species composed of populations that may be locally adapted.

  11. Response of shallow geothermal energy pile from laboratory model tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marto, A.; Amaludin, A.

    2015-09-01

    In shallow geothermal energy pile systems, the thermal loads from the pile, transferred and stored in the soil will cause thermally induced settlement. This factor must be considered in the geotechnical design process to avoid unexpected hazards. Series of laboratory model tests were carried out to study the behaviour of energy piles installed in kaolin soil, subjected to thermal loads and a combination of axial and thermal loads (henceforth known as thermo-axial loads). Six tests which included two thermal load tests (35°C and 40°C) and four thermo-axial load tests (100 N and 200 N, combined with 35°C and 40°C thermal loads) were conducted. To simulate the behaviour of geothermal energy piles during its operation, the thermo-axial tests were carried out by applying an axial load to the model pile head, and a subsequent application of thermal load. The model soil was compacted at 90% maximum dry density and had an undrained shear strength of 37 kPa, thus classified as having a firm soil consistency. The behaviour of model pile, having the ultimate load capacity of 460 N, was monitored using a linear variable displacement transducer, load cell and wire thermocouple, to measure the pile head settlement, applied axial load and model pile temperature. The acquired data from this study was used to define the thermo-axial response characteristics of the energy pile model. In this study, the limiting settlement was defined as 10% of the model pile diameter. For thermal load tests, higher thermal loads induced higher values of thermal settlement. At 40°C thermal load an irreversible settlement was observed after the heating and cooling cycle was applied to the model pile. Meanwhile, the pile response to thermo-axial loads were attributed to soil consistency and the magnitude of both the axial and thermal loads applied to the pile. The higher the thermoaxial loads, the higher the settlements occurred. A slight hazard on the model pile was detected, since the settlement

  12. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  13. Web-based energy information systems for energy management and demand response in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Herter, Karen

    2003-04-18

    Energy Information Systems (EIS) for buildings are becoming widespread in the U.S., with more companies offering EIS products every year. As a result, customers are often overwhelmed by the quickly expanding portfolio of EIS feature and application options, which have not been clearly identified for consumers. The object of this report is to provide a technical overview of currently available EIS products. In particular, this report focuses on web-based EIS products for large commercial buildings, which allow data access and control capabilities over the Internet. EIS products combine software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems to collect, analyze and display building information to aid commercial building energy managers, facility managers, financial managers and electric utilities in reducing energy use and costs in buildings. Data types commonly processed by EIS include energy consumption data; building characteristics; building system data, such as heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) and lighting data; weather data; energy price signals; and energy demand-response event information. This project involved an extensive review of research and trade literature to understand the motivation for EIS technology development. This study also gathered information on currently commercialized EIS. This review is not an exhaustive analysis of all EIS products; rather, it is a technical framework and review of current products on the market. This report summarizes key features available in today's EIS, along with a categorization framework to understand the relationship between EIS, Energy Management and Control Systems (EMCSs), and similar technologies. Four EIS types are described: Basic Energy Information Systems (Basic-EIS); Demand Response Systems (DRS); Enterprise Energy Management (EEM); and Web-based Energy Management and Control Systems (Web-EMCS). Within the context of these four categories, the following characteristics of EIS are

  14. The conversion of community-derived wastes to methane in a high-rate digester. La conversion des dechets solides municipaux en methane dans un digesteur a rendement eleve

    SciTech Connect

    Biljetina, R.; Srivastava, V.J.; Punwani, D.V.

    1988-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has been operating a 4.5-m/sup 3/, anaerobic solids-concentrating digester at the Walt Disney World Resort Complex in Lake Buena Vista, Florida, since January 1984. This digester development work is part of a larger effort that provides effective community waste treatment and disposal options while recovering a valuable methane resources from these wastes. Excellent conversions to methane have been obtained in the digester during 4 years of uninterrupted operation. Data were collected on wastes from experimental municipal wastewater treatment applications, that is, water hyacinths were harvested from secondary wastewater treatment channels and combined with sludge from primary clarifiers to maximize potential methane recoveries in the digester; wastes from agricultural operations, that is, sorghum was selected as a candidate because it represents both a potential energy crop, as well as a waste resource if only portions of the plant are converted after grain production; and wastes from municipal waste collection. Municipal solids waste (MSW) from a commercial resource recovery center was selected. 3 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. US energy policies: Will they be responsive to future needs?

    SciTech Connect

    Hemphill, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reviews the history of early US energy policy as a prescription for failure, the evolution of national goals in energy, and the basic principles of energy policy (market based, clean energy alternatives should receive recognition; energy and environment planning coordinated; progress measured and adjustments made; technology transfer encouraged; government assistance should support economic and environmental objectives).

  16. Numerical modeling of Thermal Response Tests in Energy Piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, A.; Toledo, M.; Moffat, R.; Herrera, P. A.

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays, thermal response tests (TRT) are used as the main tools for the evaluation of low enthalpy geothermal systems such as heat exchangers. The results of TRT are used for estimating thermal conductivity and thermal resistance values of those systems. We present results of synthetic TRT simulations that model the behavior observed in an experimental energy pile system, which was installed at the new building of the Faculty of Engineering of Universidad de Chile. Moreover, we also present a parametric study to identify the most influent parameters in the performance of this type of tests. The modeling was developed using the finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics, which allows the incorporation of flow and heat transport processes. The modeled system consists on a concrete pile with 1 m diameter and 28 m deep, which contains a 28 mm diameter PEX pipe arranged in a closed circuit. Three configurations were analyzed: a U pipe, a triple U and a helicoid shape implemented at the experimental site. All simulations were run considering transient response in a three-dimensional domain. The simulation results provided the temperature distribution on the pile for a set of different geometry and physical properties of the materials. These results were compared with analytical solutions which are commonly used to interpret TRT data. This analysis demonstrated that there are several parameters that affect the system response in a synthetic TRT. For example, the diameter of the simulated pile affects the estimated effective thermal conductivity of the system. Moreover, the simulation results show that the estimated thermal conductivity for a 1 m diameter pile did not stabilize even after 100 hours since the beginning of the test, when it reached a value 30% below value used to set up the material properties in the simulation. Furthermore, we observed different behaviors depending on the thermal properties of concrete and soil. According to the simulations, the thermal

  17. The Integration of Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, DemandResponse and Climate Change: Challenges and Opportunities for Evaluatorsand Planners

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, Edward

    2007-05-29

    This paper explores the feasibility of integrating energyefficiency program evaluation with the emerging need for the evaluationof programs from different "energy cultures" (demand response, renewableenergy, and climate change). The paper reviews key features andinformation needs of the energy cultures and critically reviews theopportunities and challenges associated with integrating these withenergy efficiency program evaluation. There is a need to integrate thedifferent policy arenas where energy efficiency, demand response, andclimate change programs are developed, and there are positive signs thatthis integration is starting to occur.

  18. Optimized growth of gold nanobars for energy responsive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Erik; Johnson, Anthony; Hart, Cacie; Schaefer, David; Kolagani, Rajeswari; Devadas, Mary Sajini

    The aim of this research is to create a reliable protocol for the synthesis of plasmonic gold nano bars for energy responsive applications such as light harvesting. The mechanism of growth in these metallic structures is not fully understood. Symmetry breaking by twinning introduces anisotropy in the shape of the nanostructures. This also results in the formation of highly faceted tip geometries that support the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons. Gold nanobars have been synthesized through chemical reduction in the presence of surfactants: cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Synthesis is executed by varying the concentrations of CTAB and PVP, as well as adjusting the growth temperature. The influence of additives such as metal ions will be presented. Resulting plasmonic gold nanobars are viewed using darkfield microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to visualize the nanoparticle product mixture. Atomic force microscopy is employed to measure the length and width of the nanobelts. X-ray diffraction determines the degree of crystallinity in the synthesized gold nanobars.

  19. Characterization of seismic hazard and structural response by energy flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Afak, E.

    2000-01-01

    Seismic safety of structures depends on the structure's ability to absorb the seismic energy that is transmitted from ground to structure. One parameter that can be used to characterize seismic energy is the energy flux. Energy flux is defined as the amount of energy transmitted per unit time through a cross-section of a medium, and is equal to kinetic energy multiplied by the propagation velocity of seismic waves. The peak or the integral of energy flux can be used to characterize ground motions. By definition, energy flux automatically accounts for site amplification. Energy flux in a structure can be studied by formulating the problem as a wave propagation problem. For buildings founded on layered soil media and subjected to vertically incident plane shear waves, energy flux equations are derived by modeling the buildings as an extension of the layered soil medium, and considering each story as another layer. The propagation of energy flux in the layers is described in terms of the upgoing and downgoing energy flux in each layer, and the energy reflection and transmission coefficients at each interface. The formulation results in a pair of simple finite-difference equations for each layer, which can be solved recursively starting from the bedrock. The upgoing and downgoing energy flux in the layers allows calculation of the energy demand and energy dissipation in each layer. The methodology is applicable to linear, as well as nonlinear structures. ?? 2000 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  20. Energy Crisis. Teaching Resources. A Special Publication Suggesting School Activities Which Stress Individual Responsibility Towards Energy Crisis Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Wendell; And Others

    This handbook provides public school teachers and administrators of Oregon with teaching ideas and information about the energy crisis. Suggested activities are intended to inform students (kindergarten through community college) about their responsibility toward the energy crisis and to motivate energy conservation. The handbook is divided into…

  1. 10 CFR 1040.124 - Responsibility of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be placed in title 18 CFR. Judicial Review ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. 1040.124 Section 1040.124 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION...

  2. 10 CFR 1040.124 - Responsibility of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be placed in title 18 CFR. Judicial Review ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. 1040.124 Section 1040.124 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION...

  3. 10 CFR 1040.124 - Responsibility of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... be placed in title 18 CFR. Judicial Review ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. 1040.124 Section 1040.124 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION...

  4. 10 CFR 1040.124 - Responsibility of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... be placed in title 18 CFR. Judicial Review ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. 1040.124 Section 1040.124 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION...

  5. Investigation of TLD-700 energy response to low energy x-ray encountered in diagnostic radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrati, Ammar; Bourouina, Mourad; Khalal-Kouache, Karima

    2016-05-01

    The aim of thiswork is to study the energy dependence of thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD-700) for low energy X-ray beams encountered in conventional diagnostic radiology. In the first step, we studied some characteristics (reproducibility and linearity) of TLD-700 chips using a 137Cs source, and selected TLD chips with reproducibility better than 2.5%. Then we determined TLD-700 energy response for diagnostic radiology X-ray qualities, and investigated its influence on air kerma estimate. A maximum deviation of 60% can be obtained if TLDs are calibrated for 137Cs radiation source and used in diagnostic radiology fields. However, this deviation became less than 20% if TLDs chips are calibrated for the reference x-ray radiation quality RQR5 (recommended by the IEC 61267 standard). Consequently, we recommend calibrating this kind of TLDdetector with RQR5 diagnostic radiology X-ray quality. This method permits to obtain a good accuracy when assessing the entrance dose in diagnostic radiology procedures.

  6. Time for a revolution: smart energy and microgrid use in disaster response.

    PubMed

    Callaway, David Wayne; Noste, Erin; McCahill, Peter Woods; Rossman, A J; Lempereur, Dominique; Kaney, Kathleen; Swanson, Doug

    2014-06-01

    Modern health care and disaster response are inextricably linked to high volume, reliable, quality power. Disasters place major strain on energy infrastructure in affected communities. Advances in renewable energy and microgrid technology offer the potential to improve mobile disaster medical response capabilities. However, very little is known about the energy requirements of and alternative power sources in disaster response. A gap analysis of the energy components of modern disaster response reveals multiple deficiencies. The MED-1 Green Project has been executed as a multiphase project designed to identify energy utilization inefficiencies, decrease demands on diesel generators, and employ modern energy management strategies to expand operational independence. This approach, in turn, allows for longer deployments in potentially more austere environments and minimizes the unit's environmental footprint. The ultimate goal is to serve as a proof of concept for other mobile medical units to create strategies for energy independence.

  7. Time for a revolution: smart energy and microgrid use in disaster response.

    PubMed

    Callaway, David Wayne; Noste, Erin; McCahill, Peter Woods; Rossman, A J; Lempereur, Dominique; Kaney, Kathleen; Swanson, Doug

    2014-06-01

    Modern health care and disaster response are inextricably linked to high volume, reliable, quality power. Disasters place major strain on energy infrastructure in affected communities. Advances in renewable energy and microgrid technology offer the potential to improve mobile disaster medical response capabilities. However, very little is known about the energy requirements of and alternative power sources in disaster response. A gap analysis of the energy components of modern disaster response reveals multiple deficiencies. The MED-1 Green Project has been executed as a multiphase project designed to identify energy utilization inefficiencies, decrease demands on diesel generators, and employ modern energy management strategies to expand operational independence. This approach, in turn, allows for longer deployments in potentially more austere environments and minimizes the unit's environmental footprint. The ultimate goal is to serve as a proof of concept for other mobile medical units to create strategies for energy independence. PMID:24992943

  8. 75 FR 15362 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... market price for energy for such reductions.\\4\\ \\1\\ Demand response means a reduction in the consumption... price of electric energy or to incentive payments designed to induce lower consumption of electric... decline of six to 12 percent.\\10\\ Demand response can also lower prices in the organized wholesale...

  9. 75 FR 54063 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets; Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...\\ Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 75 FR... Rulemaking and Notice of Technical Conference (Supplemental Notice), 75 FR 47,499, 132 FERC ] 61,094 (issued... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 35 Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets;...

  10. Non-Resonant Response Using Statistical Energy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RENJI, K.; NAIR, P. S.; NARAYANAN, S.

    2001-03-01

    When excited acoustically, the response of a panel consists of resonant and non-resonant waves. The non-resonant response is negligible for limp panels. However, it can become significant in the case of thin light structural panels. SEA modelling does not predict the non-resonant response of the structure. This paper discusses the above limitation of SEA and presents a modified SEA formulation by which the non-resonant response can also be estimated. The resonant and the non-resonant contributions to the response are assumed to be arising out of two separate subsystems. In the present formulation, modelling for non-resonant response is similar to the conventional SEA modelling for resonant response but uses different expressions for the coupling loss factors. The classical problem of two reverberant rooms separated by a panel is considered as an example. It is shown that by using this procedure the non-resonant response of the structure can be estimated. Also, the non-resonant sound transmission is obtained exactly. Results of a numerical example are presented to compare the conventional and the modified SEA modelling results.

  11. Statistical energy analysis response prediction methods for structural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    The results of an effort to document methods for accomplishing response predictions for commonly encountered aerospace structural configurations is presented. Application of these methods to specified aerospace structure to provide sample analyses is included. An applications manual, with the structural analyses appended as example problems is given. Comparisons of the response predictions with measured data are provided for three of the example problems.

  12. Energy Sector Adaptation in Response to Water Scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, N. A.; Fricko, O.; Parkinson, S.; Riahi, K.

    2015-12-01

    Global energy systems models have largely ignored the impacts of water scarcity on the energy sector and the related implications for climate change mitigation. However, significant water is required in the production of energy, including for thermoelectric power plant cooling, hydropower generation, irrigation for bioenergy, and the extraction and refining of liquid fuels. With a changing climate and expectations of increasing competition for water from the agricultural and municipal sectors, it is unclear whether sufficient water will be available where needed to support water-intensive energy technologies in the future. Thus, it is important that water use and water constraints are incorporated into energy systems models to better understand energy sector adaptation to water scarcity. The global energy systems model, MESSAGE, has recently been updated to quantify the water consumption and withdrawal requirements of the energy sector and now includes several cooling technologies for addressing water scarcity. This study introduces water constraints into the model to examine whether and how the energy sector can adapt to water scarcity over the next century. In addition, the implications for climate mitigation are evaluated under a scenario in which warming is limited to 2˚C over the pre-industrial level. Given the difficulty of introducing meaningful water constraints into global models, we use a simplistic approach and evaluate a series of scenarios in which the water available to the energy sector is systematically reduced. This approach allows for the evaluation of energy sector adaptations under various levels of water scarcity and can provide insight into how water scarcity, whether from climate change or competing demands, may impact the energy sector in different world regions. This study will provide insight into the following questions: How does the energy sector adapt to water scarcity in different regions? What are the costs associated with adaptation

  13. System for calibrating the energy-dependent response of an elliptical Bragg-crystal spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Marrs, R E; Brown, G V; Emig, J A; Heeter, R F

    2014-11-01

    A multipurpose spectrometer (MSPEC) with elliptical crystals is in routine use to obtain x-ray spectra from laser produced plasmas in the energy range 1.0-9.0 keV. Knowledge of the energy-dependent response of the spectrometer is required for an accurate comparison of the intensities of x-ray lines of different energy. The energy-dependent response of the MSPEC has now been derived from the spectrometer geometry and calibration information on the response of its components, including two different types of detectors. Measurements of the spectrometer response with a laboratory x-ray source are used to test the calculated response and provide information on crystal reflectivity and uniformity.

  14. Effects of Activation Energy to Transient Response of Semiconductor Gas Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Akira; Ohtani, Tatsuki

    The smell classifiable gas sensor will be desired for many applications such as gas detection alarms, process controls for food production and so on. We have tried to realize the sensor using transient responses of semiconductor gas sensor consisting of tin dioxide and pointed out that the sensor gave us different transient responses for kinds of gas. Results of model calculation showed the activation energy of chemical reaction on the sensor surface strongly depended on the transient response. We tried to estimate the activation energies by molecular orbital calculation with SnO2 Cluster. The results show that there is a liner relationship between the gradient of the transient responses and activation energies for carboxylic and alcoholic gases. Transient response will be predicted from activation energy in the same kind of gas and the smell discrimination by single semiconductor gas sensor will be realized by this relationship.

  15. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Rockoff, Alexandra; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-05-11

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities for industrial refrigerated warehouses in California. The report describes refrigerated warehouses characteristics, energy use and demand, and control systems. It also discusses energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities and provides analysis results from three demand response studies. In addition, several energy efficiency, load management, and demand response case studies are provided for refrigerated warehouses. This study shows that refrigerated warehouses can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for open automated demand response (OpenADR) at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to OpenADR due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  16. Is increased Nuclear Energy a practical response to Global Warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Jeanne

    2007-05-01

    With the threat of global warming there has been renewed interest in nuclear energy as a carbon-free energy source. There are currently 15 nuclear power plants planned for completion in the U.S. by 2014. In the last 30 years, however, investment and public support for nuclear energy has been minimal. Some factors that led to this loss of interest - high economic costs, risk of accident and radiation exposure, and the challenges of storing nuclear waste - have been analyzed in several recent publications. Comparing the costs and risks of nuclear energy to the benefits in reduced carbon emissions is the goal of this report. Coal plants contribute the most carbon dioxide of all types of power plants. The method of this study is a direct comparison of coal plants and nuclear plants in four areas: the current cost per kWh, the predicted annual cost for health issues, the statistically predicted deaths, and the clean-up costs assuming each facility is as ``green'' as possible. A normalized cost/risk value is then calculated for each plant type. Discussion for how these values are likely to vary is included. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NWS07.C1.11

  17. Modeling Greenhouse Gas Energy Technology Responses to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, John F.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.; Smith, Steven J.

    2004-07-01

    Models of the global energy system can help shed light on the competition and complementarities among technologies and energy systems both in the presence and absence of actions to affect the concentration of greenhouse gases. This paper explores the role of modeling in the analysis of technology deployment in addressing climate change. It examines the competition among technologies in a variety of markets, and explores conditions under which new markets, such as for hydrogen and carbon disposal, or modern commercial biomass, could emerge. Carbon capture and disposal technologies are shown have the potential to play a central role in controlling the cost of stabilizing the concentration of greenhouse gases, the goal of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.

  18. Response of silicon-Based Linear Energy Transfer Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aman, A.; Bman, B.; Badhwar, G. D.; ONeill, P. M. O.

    2000-01-01

    Silicon-based linear energy transfer (LET) telescope,(e. g., DOSTEL and RRMD) have recently been flown in space. LET spectra measured using tissue equivalent proportional counters show differences that need to be fully understood. A Monte Carlo technique based on: 1. radiation transport cluster intra-cascade model. 2. Landau-Vavilov distribution, 3. telescope geometry and detector coincidence & discriminator settings, 4. spacecraft shielding geometry, and 5. the external free space radiation environment, including recent albedo measurements, was developed.

  19. Earthquake Induced Damage Mechanism of Long Period Structures Using Energy Response

    SciTech Connect

    Du Yongfeng; Li Hui

    2008-07-08

    This paper presents a method of expounding the damage of RC long period frame structure using energy analysis method. Since the damage of structures usually occurs under major earthquakes, the structure is assumed to be in elasto-plastic state, and degraded Bouc-Wen model is used to describe the hysteretic component of the restoring force. A double index damage criterion defined by the maximum drift and energy absorption is used as the damage criterion. The energy transferring relation in a structure is derived, and both momentary and cumulative energy response is used to reflect the delay of the collapse of a long period structure. The mechanism of collapse delay of the long period structure is suggested through a numerical example combing the energy response and time history response.

  20. The Neutron Energy Response of the Panasonic Model 809 Personnel Dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick Cummings

    2010-04-01

    In 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy will adopt a new set of radiation weighting factors and quality factors to be consistent with values recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The change will affect the magnitude of occupational exposure assigned to radiation workers exposed to neutron radiation. Understanding the energy response of the dosimeter and the effect of the new quantities is critical to accurately ensuring that occupational exposure remains below the established regulatory limits. Therefore, the factors used to interpret dosimeter readings must be re-evaluated for each irradiation field over the range of neutron energies in which the dosimeter is used. This paper describes one method of determining the neutron response of the dosimeter. A Monte Carlo approach was used to model the energy response of the Panasonic Model 809 dosimeter over the range of energies from 1.0 x 10^-8 to 20 MeV. The response, normalized to the response at 2.1 MeV, ranged from approximately 0.5 at 20 MeV to approximately 26 at 1 eV. The response was then divided at each energy by the appropriate dose conversion coefficient to determine the dose response of the dosimeter. The dose responses, normalized to the response at 2.1 MeV, ranged from approximately 0.4 at 20 MeV to 765 at 1 eV. Dose conversion factors were determined for various reference neutron spectra and plotted on the dose response curve. Good agreement was observed except for the case of D2Omoderated 252Cf.

  1. Compensational scintillation detector with a flat energy response for flash X-ray measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Liang; Quan Lin; Zhang Zhongbing; Ouyang Xiaoping; Liu Bin; Liu Jinliang

    2013-01-15

    To measure the intensity of flash X-ray sources directly, a novel scintillation detector with a fast time response and flat energy response is developed by combining film scintillators of doped ZnO crystal and fast organic scintillator together. Through compensation design, the dual-scintillator detector (DSD) achieved a flat energy response to X-rays from tens of keV to several MeV, and sub-nanosecond time response by coupling to ultrafast photo-electronic devices. A prototype detector was fabricated according to the theoretical design; it employed ZnO:In and EJ228 with thicknesses of 0.3 mm and 0.1 mm, respectively. The energy response of this detector was tested on monoenergetic X-ray and {gamma}-ray sources. The detector performs very well with a sensitivity fluctuation below 5% for 8 discrete energy points within the 40-250 keV energy region and for other energies of 662 keV and 1.25 MeV as well, showing good accordance with the theoretical design. Additionally, the detector works properly for the application to the flash X-ray radiation field absolute intensity measurement. This DSD may be very useful for the diagnosis of time-resolved dynamic physical processes of flash X-ray sources without knowing the exact energy spectrum.

  2. Compensational scintillation detector with a flat energy response for flash X-ray measurements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Liu, Bin; Liu, Jinliang; Quan, Lin; Zhang, Zhongbing

    2013-01-01

    To measure the intensity of flash X-ray sources directly, a novel scintillation detector with a fast time response and flat energy response is developed by combining film scintillators of doped ZnO crystal and fast organic scintillator together. Through compensation design, the dual-scintillator detector (DSD) achieved a flat energy response to X-rays from tens of keV to several MeV, and sub-nanosecond time response by coupling to ultrafast photo-electronic devices. A prototype detector was fabricated according to the theoretical design; it employed ZnO:In and EJ228 with thicknesses of 0.3 mm and 0.1 mm, respectively. The energy response of this detector was tested on monoenergetic X-ray and γ-ray sources. The detector performs very well with a sensitivity fluctuation below 5% for 8 discrete energy points within the 40-250 keV energy region and for other energies of 662 keV and 1.25 MeV as well, showing good accordance with the theoretical design. Additionally, the detector works properly for the application to the flash X-ray radiation field absolute intensity measurement. This DSD may be very useful for the diagnosis of time-resolved dynamic physical processes of flash X-ray sources without knowing the exact energy spectrum.

  3. Compensational scintillation detector with a flat energy response for flash X-ray measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Liu, Bin; Liu, Jinliang; Quan, Lin; Zhang, Zhongbing

    2013-01-01

    To measure the intensity of flash X-ray sources directly, a novel scintillation detector with a fast time response and flat energy response is developed by combining film scintillators of doped ZnO crystal and fast organic scintillator together. Through compensation design, the dual-scintillator detector (DSD) achieved a flat energy response to X-rays from tens of keV to several MeV, and sub-nanosecond time response by coupling to ultrafast photo-electronic devices. A prototype detector was fabricated according to the theoretical design; it employed ZnO:In and EJ228 with thicknesses of 0.3 mm and 0.1 mm, respectively. The energy response of this detector was tested on monoenergetic X-ray and γ-ray sources. The detector performs very well with a sensitivity fluctuation below 5% for 8 discrete energy points within the 40-250 keV energy region and for other energies of 662 keV and 1.25 MeV as well, showing good accordance with the theoretical design. Additionally, the detector works properly for the application to the flash X-ray radiation field absolute intensity measurement. This DSD may be very useful for the diagnosis of time-resolved dynamic physical processes of flash X-ray sources without knowing the exact energy spectrum.

  4. Essays on Industry Response to Energy and Environmental Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Richard Leonard

    This dissertation consists of three essays on the relationship between firm incentives and energy and environmental policy outcomes. Chapters 1 and 2 study the impact of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on the United States oil refining industry. This legislation imposed extensive restrictions on refined petroleum product markets, requiring select end users to purchase new cleaner versions of gasoline and diesel. In Chapter 2, I estimate the static impact of this intervention on refining costs, product prices and consumer welfare. Isolating these effects is complicated by several challenges likely to appear in other regulatory settings, including overlap between regulated and non-regulated markets and deviations from perfect competition. Using a rich database of refinery operations, I estimate a structural model that incorporates each of these dimensions, and then use this cost structure to simulate policy counterfactuals. I find that the policies increased gasoline production costs by 7 cents per gallon and diesel costs by 3 cents per gallon on average, although these costs varied considerably across refineries. As a result of these restrictions, consumers in regulated markets experienced welfare losses on the order of 3.7 billion per year, but this welfare loss was partially offset by gains of 1.5 billion dollars per year among consumers in markets not subject to regulation. The results highlight the importance of accounting for imperfect competition and market spillovers when assessing the cost of environmental regulation. Chapter 2 estimates the sunk costs incurred by United States oil refineries as a result of the low sulfur diesel program. The complex, regionally integrated nature of the industry poses many challenges for estimating these costs. I overcome them by placing the decision to invest in sulfur removal technology within the framework of a two period model and estimate the model using moment inequalities. I find that the regulation induced between 2

  5. Low-energy electric dipole response of Sn isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakonstantinou, P.; Hergert, H.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Roth, R.

    2014-03-01

    We study the low-energy dipole (LED) strength distribution along the Sn isotopic chain in both the isoscalar (IS) and the isovector (IV, or E1) electric channels, to provide testable predictions and guidance for new experiments with stable targets and radioactive beams. We use the self-consistent quasi-particle random-phase approximation (QRPA) with finite-range interactions and mainly the Gogny D1S force. We analyze also the performance of a realistic two-body interaction supplemented by a phenomenological three-body contact term. We find that from N =50 and up to the N =82 shell closure (132Sn) the lowest-energy part of the IS-LED spectrum is dominated by a collective transition whose properties vary smoothly with neutron number and which cannot be interpreted as a neutron-skin oscillation. For the neutron-rich species this state contributes to the E1 strength below particle threshold, but much more E1 strength is carried by other, weak but numerous transitions around or above threshold. We find that strong structural changes in the spectrum take effect beyond N =82, namely increased LED strength and lower excitation energies. Our results with the Gogny interaction are compatible with existing data. On this basis we predict that (a) the summed IS strength below particle threshold shall be of the same order of magnitude for N =50-82, (b) the summed E1 strength up to approximately 12 MeV shall be similar for N =50-82 MeV, while (c) the summed E1 strength below threshold shall be of the same order of magnitude for N ≈64-82 and much weaker for the lighter, more-symmetric isotopes. We point out a general agreement of our results with other nonrelativistic studies, the absence of a collective IS mode in some of those studies, and a possibly radical disagreement with relativistic models.

  6. A systematic characterization of the low-energy photon response of plastic scintillation detectors.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Jonathan; Beddar, Sam; Bonde, Chris; Schmidt, Daniel; Culberson, Wesley; Guillemette, Maxime; Beaulieu, Luc

    2016-08-01

    To characterize the low energy behavior of scintillating materials used in plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs), 3 PSDs were developed using polystyrene-based scintillating materials emitting in different wavelengths. These detectors were exposed to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)-matched low-energy beams ranging from 20 kVp to 250 kVp, and to (137)Cs and (60)Co beams. The dose in polystyrene was compared to the dose in air measured by NIST-calibrated ionization chambers at the same location. Analysis of every beam quality spectrum was used to extract the beam parameters and the effective mass energy-absorption coefficient. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed to calculate the energy absorbed in the scintillators' volume. The scintillators' expected response was then compared to the experimental measurements and an energy-dependent correction factor was identified to account for low-energy quenching in the scintillators. The empirical Birks model was then compared to these values to verify its validity for low-energy electrons. The clear optical fiber response was below 0.2% of the scintillator's light for x-ray beams, indicating that a negligible amount of fluorescence contamination was produced. However, for higher-energy beams ((137)Cs and (60)Co), the scintillators' response was corrected for the Cerenkov stem effect. The scintillators' response increased by a factor of approximately 4 from a 20 kVp to a (60)Co beam. The decrease in sensitivity from ionization quenching reached a local minimum of about [Formula: see text] between 40 keV and 60 keV x-ray beam mean energy, but dropped by 20% for very low-energy (13 keV) beams. The Birks model may be used to fit the experimental data, but it must take into account the energy dependence of the kB quenching parameter. A detailed comprehension of intrinsic scintillator response is essential for proper calibration of PSD dosimeters for radiology.

  7. The Response of Vocational Education to the National Energy Crisis. A Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Advisory Council on Vocational Education, Washington, DC.

    Rationale and recommendations are presented for vocational education's response to the national energy crisis in light of present involvement and future needs. The problem is stated in terms of the need for training programs in the newer energy technologies, including those related to conservation. Federal policies are outlined, specifically the…

  8. A comparison of the response of PADC neutron dosemeters in high-energy neutron fields.

    PubMed

    Trompier, F; Boschung, M; Buffler, A; Domingo, C; Cale, E; Chevallier, M-A; Esposito, A; Ferrarini, M; Geduld, D R; Hager, L; Hohmann, E; Mayer, S; Musso, A; Romero-Esposito, M; Röttger, S; Smit, F D; Sashala Naik, A; Tanner, R; Wissmann, F; Caresana, M

    2014-10-01

    Within the framework of the EURADOS Working Group 11, a comparison of passive neutron dosemeters in high-energy neutron fields was organised in 2011. The aim of the exercise was to evaluate the response of poly-allyl-glycol-carbonate neutron dosemeters from various European dosimetry laboratories to high-energy neutron fields. Irradiations were performed at the iThemba LABS facility in South Africa with neutrons having energies up to 66 and 100 MeV. PMID:24298170

  9. The Relationship Between Oil and Gas Industry Investment in Alternative Energy and Corporate Social Responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyushikhin, Maxim

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration forecasted energy consumption in the United States to increase approximately 19% between 2006 and 2030, or about 0.7% annually. The research problem addressed in this study was that the oil and gas industry's interest in alternative energy is contrary to its current business objectives and profit goals. The purpose of the quantitative study was to explore the relationship between oil and gas industry investments in alternative energy and corporate social responsibilities. Research questions addressed the relationship between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility, the role of oil and gas companies in alternative energy investment, and why these companies chose to invest in alternative energy sources. Systems theory was the conceptual framework, and data were collected from a sample of 25 companies drawn from the 28,000 companies in the oil and gas industry from 2004 to 2009. Multiple regression and correlation analysis were used to answer the research questions and test hypotheses using corporate financial data and company profiles related to alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility in terms of oil and gas industry financial support of programs that serve the greater social good. Results indicated significant relationships between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility. With an increasing global population with energy requirements in excess of what is available using traditional means, the industry should increase investment in alternative sources. The research results may promote positive social change by increasing public awareness regarding the degree to which oil and gas companies invest in developing alternative energy sources, which might, in turn, inspire public pressure on companies in the oil and gas industry to pursue use of alternative energy.

  10. Suitability of rapid energy magnitude determinations for emergency response purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giacomo, Domenico; Parolai, Stefano; Bormann, Peter; Grosser, Helmut; Saul, Joachim; Wang, Rongjiang; Zschau, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    It is common practice in the seismological community to use, especially for large earthquakes, the moment magnitude Mw as a unique magnitude parameter to evaluate the earthquake's damage potential. However, as a static measure of earthquake size, Mw does not provide direct information about the released seismic wave energy and its high frequency content, which is the more interesting information both for engineering purposes and for a rapid assessment of the earthquake's shaking potential. Therefore, we recommend to provide to disaster management organizations besides Mw also sufficiently accurate energy magnitude determinations as soon as possible after large earthquakes. We developed and extensively tested a rapid method for calculating the energy magnitude Me within about 10-15 min after an earthquake's occurrence. The method is based on pre-calculated spectral amplitude decay functions obtained from numerical simulations of Green's functions. After empirical validation, the procedure has been applied offline to a large data set of 767 shallow earthquakes that have been grouped according to their type of mechanism (strike-slip, normal faulting, thrust faulting, etc.). The suitability of the proposed approach is discussed by comparing our rapid Me estimates with Mw published by GCMT as well as with Mw and Me reported by the USGS. Mw is on average slightly larger than our Me for all types of mechanisms. No clear dependence on source mechanism is observed for our Me estimates. In contrast, Me from the USGS is generally larger than Mw for strike-slip earthquakes and generally smaller for the other source types. For ~67 per cent of the event data set our Me differs <= +/-0.3 magnitude units (m.u.) from the respective Me values published by the USGS. However, larger discrepancies (up to 0.8 m.u.) may occur for strike-slip events. A reason of that may be the overcorrection of the energy flux applied by the USGS for this type of earthquakes. We follow the original

  11. CONTINUOUS-ENERGY MONTE CARLO METHODS FOR CALCULATING GENERALIZED RESPONSE SENSITIVITIES USING TSUNAMI-3D

    SciTech Connect

    Perfetti, Christopher M; Rearden, Bradley T

    2014-01-01

    This work introduces a new approach for calculating sensitivity coefficients for generalized neutronic responses to nuclear data uncertainties using continuous-energy Monte Carlo methods. The approach presented in this paper, known as the GEAR-MC method, allows for the calculation of generalized sensitivity coefficients for multiple responses in a single Monte Carlo calculation with no nuclear data perturbations or knowledge of nuclear covariance data. The theory behind the GEAR-MC method is presented here, and proof of principle is demonstrated by using the GEAR-MC method to calculate sensitivity coefficients for responses in several 3D, continuous-energy Monte Carlo applications.

  12. Responses of bistable piezoelectric-composite energy harvester by means of recurrences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syta, Arkadiusz; Bowen, Christopher R.; Kim, H. Alicia; Rysak, Andrzej; Litak, Grzegorz

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we examine the modal response of a bistable electro-mechanical energy harvesting device based on characterization of the experimental time-series. A piezoelectric element attached to a vibrating bistable carbon-fibre reinforced polymer laminate plate was used for the conversion of mechanical vibrations to electrical energy under harmonic excitations at a variety of frequencies and amplitudes. The inherent bistability of the mechanical resonator and snap-through phenomenon between stable states were exploited for energy harvesting. To identify the dynamics of the response of the studied harvesting structure and the associated output power generation we used the Fourier spectrum and Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA).

  13. Modeling silicon diode energy response factors for use in therapeutic photon beams.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Karin; Ahnesjö, Anders

    2009-10-21

    Silicon diodes have good spatial resolution, which makes them advantageous over ionization chambers for dosimetry in fields with high dose gradients. However, silicon diodes overrespond to low-energy photons, that are more abundant in scatter which increase with large fields and larger depths. We present a cavity-theory-based model for a general response function for silicon detectors at arbitrary positions within photon fields. The model uses photon and electron spectra calculated from fluence pencil kernels. The incident photons are treated according to their energy through a bipartition of the primary beam photon spectrum into low- and high-energy components. Primary electrons from the high-energy component are treated according to Spencer-Attix cavity theory. Low-energy primary photons together with all scattered photons are treated according to large cavity theory supplemented with an energy-dependent factor K(E) to compensate for energy variations in the electron equilibrium. The depth variation of the response for an unshielded silicon detector has been calculated for 5 x 5 cm(2), 10 x 10 cm(2) and 20 x 20 cm(2) fields in 6 and 15 MV beams and compared with measurements showing that our model calculates response factors with deviations less than 0.6%. An alternative method is also proposed, where we show that one can use a correlation with the scatter factor to determine the detector response of silicon diodes with an error of less than 3% in 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams.

  14. Energy response of glass bead TLDs irradiated with radiation therapy beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, S. M.; Jordan, T. J.; Hussein, M.; Bradley, D. A.; Clark, C. H.; Nisbet, A.; Spyrou, N. M.

    2014-11-01

    Glass beads are a novel TL dosimeter in radiotherapy. An important characteristic of TL dosimeters is their energy response, especially when intended for use in radiotherapy applications over a wide range of energies (typically from X-rays generated at 80 kVp up to 25 MV photon and MeV electron beams). In this paper, the energy response of glass beads (Mill Hill, Japan) is investigated for their TL response to kV X-rays from an orthovoltage radiotherapy unit and also for MV photon and MeV electron beams from a medical linear accelerator. The experimental findings show that for photon and electron beams, the TL response of this particular glass bead, normalised to unity for 6 MV X-rays (TPR20/10=0.670), decreases to 0.96±0.02 for 15 MV X-rays (TPR20/10=0.761) and to 0.95±0.01 for 20 MeV electron beams (R50,D=8.35 cm). This compares favourably with other TLD materials such as LiF and also alanine dosimeters that are readout with an EPR system. For kV X-rays, the response increases to 4.52±0.05 for 80 kV X-rays (HVL=2.4 mm Al) which approaches 3 times that of LiF TLDs and 5 times that of alanine. In conclusion, the particular glass beads, when used as a dosimeter material, show a relatively small energy dependence over the megavoltage range of clinically relevant radiation qualities, being clearly advantageous for accurate dosimetry. Conversely, the energy response is significant for photon beam energies covering the kV range. In both circumstances, in dosimetric evaluations the energy response needs to be taken into account.

  15. Geothermal Program Review XI: proceedings. Geothermal Energy - The Environmental Responsible Energy Technology for the Nineties

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    These proceedings contain papers pertaining to current research and development of geothermal energy in the USA. The seven sections of the document are: Overview, The Geysers, Exploration and Reservoir Characterization, Drilling, Energy Conversion, Advanced Systems, and Potpourri. The Overview presents current DOE energy policy and industry perspectives. Reservoir studies, injection, and seismic monitoring are reported for the geysers geothermal field. Aspects of geology, geochemistry and models of geothermal exploration are described. The Drilling section contains information on lost circulation, memory logging tools, and slim-hole drilling. Topics considered in energy conversion are efforts at NREL, condensation on turbines and geothermal materials. Advanced Systems include hot dry rock studies and Fenton Hill flow testing. The Potpourri section concludes the proceedings with reports on low-temperature resources, market analysis, brines, waste treatment biotechnology, and Bonneville Power Administration activities. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. Energy Expenditure Responses to Fasting and Overfeeding Identify Phenotypes Associated With Weight Change.

    PubMed

    Schlögl, Mathias; Piaggi, Paolo; Pannacciuli, Nicola; Bonfiglio, Susan M; Krakoff, Jonathan; Thearle, Marie S

    2015-11-01

    Because it is unknown whether 24-h energy expenditure (EE) responses to dietary extremes will identify phenotypes associated with weight regulation, the aim of this study was to determine whether such responses to fasting or overfeeding are associated with future weight change. The 24-h EE during energy balance, fasting, and four different overfeeding diets with 200% energy requirements was measured in a metabolic chamber in 37 subjects with normal glucose regulation while they resided on our clinical research unit. Diets were given for 24 h each and included the following: (1) low protein (3%), (2) standard (50% carbohydrate, 20% protein), (3) high fat (60%), and (4) high carbohydrate (75%). Participants returned for follow-up 6 months after the initial measures. The decrease in 24-h EE during fasting and the increase with overfeeding were correlated. A larger reduction in EE during fasting, a smaller EE response to low-protein overfeeding, and a larger response to high-carbohydrate overfeeding all correlated with weight gain. The association of the fasting EE response with weight change was not independent from that of low protein in a multivariate model. We identified the following two independent propensities associated with weight gain: a predilection for conserving energy during caloric and protein deprivation and a profligate response to large amounts of carbohydrates.

  17. Energy Expenditure Responses to Fasting and Overfeeding Identify Phenotypes Associated With Weight Change.

    PubMed

    Schlögl, Mathias; Piaggi, Paolo; Pannacciuli, Nicola; Bonfiglio, Susan M; Krakoff, Jonathan; Thearle, Marie S

    2015-11-01

    Because it is unknown whether 24-h energy expenditure (EE) responses to dietary extremes will identify phenotypes associated with weight regulation, the aim of this study was to determine whether such responses to fasting or overfeeding are associated with future weight change. The 24-h EE during energy balance, fasting, and four different overfeeding diets with 200% energy requirements was measured in a metabolic chamber in 37 subjects with normal glucose regulation while they resided on our clinical research unit. Diets were given for 24 h each and included the following: (1) low protein (3%), (2) standard (50% carbohydrate, 20% protein), (3) high fat (60%), and (4) high carbohydrate (75%). Participants returned for follow-up 6 months after the initial measures. The decrease in 24-h EE during fasting and the increase with overfeeding were correlated. A larger reduction in EE during fasting, a smaller EE response to low-protein overfeeding, and a larger response to high-carbohydrate overfeeding all correlated with weight gain. The association of the fasting EE response with weight change was not independent from that of low protein in a multivariate model. We identified the following two independent propensities associated with weight gain: a predilection for conserving energy during caloric and protein deprivation and a profligate response to large amounts of carbohydrates. PMID:26185280

  18. Environmental justice: The Department of Energy`s response to Executive Order 12898

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, A.; Wernette, D.; Johnson, G.

    1996-12-01

    This paper delineates the major provisions and implications of Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations. It also presents a brief background of environmental justice concerns in relation to Department of Energy (DOE) activities, and describes selected elements of the U.S. Department of Energy`s impletation of the order. It further describes accomplishments thus far achieved toward implementation, provides examples of approaches which may be taken in the field, and discusses future expectations.

  19. Long-range correlation energy calculated from coupled atomic response functions

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosetti, Alberto; Reilly, Anthony M.; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; DiStasio, Robert A.

    2014-05-14

    An accurate determination of the electron correlation energy is an essential prerequisite for describing the structure, stability, and function in a wide variety of systems. Therefore, the development of efficient approaches for the calculation of the correlation energy (and hence the dispersion energy as well) is essential and such methods can be coupled with many density-functional approximations, local methods for the electron correlation energy, and even interatomic force fields. In this work, we build upon the previously developed many-body dispersion (MBD) framework, which is intimately linked to the random-phase approximation for the correlation energy. We separate the correlation energy into short-range contributions that are modeled by semi-local functionals and long-range contributions that are calculated by mapping the complex all-electron problem onto a set of atomic response functions coupled in the dipole approximation. We propose an effective range-separation of the coupling between the atomic response functions that extends the already broad applicability of the MBD method to non-metallic materials with highly anisotropic responses, such as layered nanostructures. Application to a variety of high-quality benchmark datasets illustrates the accuracy and applicability of the improved MBD approach, which offers the prospect of first-principles modeling of large structurally complex systems with an accurate description of the long-range correlation energy.

  20. Nonlinear thermoelectric response due to energy-dependent transport properties of a quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svilans, Artis; Burke, Adam M.; Svensson, Sofia Fahlvik; Leijnse, Martin; Linke, Heiner

    2016-08-01

    Quantum dots are useful model systems for studying quantum thermoelectric behavior because of their highly energy-dependent electron transport properties, which are tunable by electrostatic gating. As a result of this strong energy dependence, the thermoelectric response of quantum dots is expected to be nonlinear with respect to an applied thermal bias. However, until now this effect has been challenging to observe because, first, it is experimentally difficult to apply a sufficiently large thermal bias at the nanoscale and, second, it is difficult to distinguish thermal bias effects from purely temperature-dependent effects due to overall heating of a device. Here we take advantage of a novel thermal biasing technique and demonstrate a nonlinear thermoelectric response in a quantum dot which is defined in a heterostructured semiconductor nanowire. We also show that a theoretical model based on the Master equations fully explains the observed nonlinear thermoelectric response given the energy-dependent transport properties of the quantum dot.

  1. Towards a better understanding of people's responses to renewable energy technologies: Insights from Social Representations Theory.

    PubMed

    Batel, Susana; Devine-Wright, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    In the past few years, social research has been examining what contributes to the attitude-behaviour gap in people's responses to large-scale renewable energy technologies. The NIMBY explanation for the gap has long dominated that area of research, but has also been criticised. Alternative proposals to NIMBY were advanced, but it is still evident that some of those maintain presuppositions of NIMBY and that this area of research needs more integration, namely at a theoretical level. In this paper we argue that to overcome those aspects it is relevant, first, to situate the promotion of renewable energy production as a social change process in today's societies, and, second, to therefore consider the socio-psychological aspects involved in people's responses to social change. We discuss specifically how the Theory of Social Representations may help us with that and contribute to a better understanding of people's responses to renewable energy technologies.

  2. Emergency leak response earns A.G.A. honors for Consumers Energy

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Consumers Energy (formerly Consumers Power Company) has moved to the forefront as an industry leader in emergency natural gas leak response through the use of an innovative method of communication installed on its mainframe computer. Called WIN (Workload Information Network), the paperless work order system provides electronic management of 2.5 million short-cycle work orders each year for about 600 field employees. Functions include work order creation; workload forecasting, planning and scheduling; same-day wireless order dispatch and workload management; automated work order closing, archiving and on-line review, and improved radio network management. Consumers Energy`s gas business unit comprises gas service, distribution, storage and transmission businesses. The American Gas Association recently selected Consumers as a benchmark company for its gas leak response strategies, including emergency response time, productivity and the use of the WIN system.

  3. Response of energy envelop in complex oscillator networks to external stochastic excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiao-Ling; Huang, Zhi-Long; Chen, Guanrong; Leung, Andrew Y. T.

    2010-07-01

    The response of energy envelop in complex nonlinear oscillator networks to stochastic excitations is studied. First, by using the stochastic averaging method for quasi-nonintegrable-Hamiltonian systems, the averaged Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation governing the probability density of the Hamiltonian is established. Then, the stationary probability density of the Hamiltonian is derived, and the stationary probability density of the averaged energy as well as the statistical moments of the Hamiltonian is obtained. To that end, an illustrative example is provided with the analytical relationship between the response and the network parameters as well as the network structure. Specific solutions are presented for five representative topological structures. Throughout extensive simulations, the effects of system parameters, such as the network size, coupling strength and intensities of stochastic excitations on the response of the energy envelop of the networks, are carefully observed and analyzed.

  4. Optimal Technology Investment and Operation in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings with Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler , Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; ,, Hirohisa Aki; Lai, Judy

    2009-05-26

    The US Department of Energy has launched the Zero-Net-Energy (ZNE) Commercial Building Initiative (CBI) in order to develop commercial buildings that produce as much energy as they use. Its objective is to make these buildings marketable by 2025 such that they minimize their energy use through cutting-edge energy-efficient technologies and meet their remaining energy needs through on-site renewable energy generation. We examine how such buildings may be implemented within the context of a cost- or carbon-minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various technologies, such as photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and passive / demand-response technologies. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has a multi-criteria objective function: the minimization of a weighted average of the building's annual energy costs and carbon / CO2 emissions. The MILP's constraints ensure energy balance and capacity limits. In addition, constraining the building's energy consumed to equal its energy exports enables us to explore how energy sales and demand-response measures may enable compliance with the CBI. Using a nursing home in northern California and New York with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find that a ZNE building requires ample PV capacity installed to ensure electricity sales during the day. This is complemented by investment in energy-efficient combined heat and power equipment, while occasional demand response shaves energy consumption. A large amount of storage is also adopted, which may be impractical. Nevertheless, it shows the nature of the solutions and costs necessary to achieve ZNE. For comparison, we analyze a nursing home facility in New York to examine the effects of a flatter tariff structure and different load profiles. It has trouble reaching ZNE status and its load reductions as well as efficiency measures need to be more effective than those in the CA case

  5. Calculations of the response of shielded detectors to gamma rays at MeV-range energies

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Byrd

    2000-03-01

    Nuclear instruments designed to detect gamma rays at energies from 0.1 to 10 MeV respond primarily to the electrons produced by gamma-ray scattering and absorption in either the instrument itself or in the surrounding materials. Although tabulated attenuation coefficients are very useful for estimating macroscopic quantities such as bulk energy depositions, such quantities are averages over several different phenomena at the microscopic level. For detectors with active elements that are thin compared with an electron range, the competing effects of inscattering and outscattering result in complicated responses, as evidenced by the strong energy dependence of the resulting pulse-height spectra. Thus, for some applications the macroscopic averages are entirely sufficient, but for others a full microscopic analysis is needed. The author first reviews the literature on the responses of several types of detectors to gamma rays at energies below 10 MeV, and then they use a series of simple Monte Carlo calculations to illustrate the important physics issues. These simple calculations are followed by thorough studies of the energy and angle responses of two proposed instruments, including their responses to instantaneous pulses of large numbers of simultaneous incident photons.

  6. Applicability to foraging simulation of a reinforcement schedule controlling the response energy of pigeons.

    PubMed

    Kono, Masanori

    2013-12-01

    In optimal foraging theory (OFT), energy expenditure is an important variable for predicting foraging behavior. However, early studies, including operant simulations of foraging, did not measure energy expenditure. In the present study, an adjusting energy (AE) schedule was developed to control energy expenditure. Interresponse energy (IRE), a measure of the energy expenditure during a response, was calculated by dividing the square of the elapsed time between two consecutive responses by the square of the straight-line distance between the locations of the same two responses. An adjusting procedure was employed to estimate the indifference point between the requirements of the AE schedule and a fixed ratio (FR) schedule, which has been used in many operant simulations. In the adjusting procedure, pigeons adjusted the requirement of the AE schedule to that of the FR schedule. The results showed a systematic relationship between the requirements of the AE and FR schedules. Moreover, the total IRE per reinforcement systematically increased with the AE requirement. Thus, the present study demonstrates the utility of the AE schedule as a procedure for testing the validity of OFT.

  7. Applicability to foraging simulation of a reinforcement schedule controlling the response energy of pigeons.

    PubMed

    Kono, Masanori

    2013-12-01

    In optimal foraging theory (OFT), energy expenditure is an important variable for predicting foraging behavior. However, early studies, including operant simulations of foraging, did not measure energy expenditure. In the present study, an adjusting energy (AE) schedule was developed to control energy expenditure. Interresponse energy (IRE), a measure of the energy expenditure during a response, was calculated by dividing the square of the elapsed time between two consecutive responses by the square of the straight-line distance between the locations of the same two responses. An adjusting procedure was employed to estimate the indifference point between the requirements of the AE schedule and a fixed ratio (FR) schedule, which has been used in many operant simulations. In the adjusting procedure, pigeons adjusted the requirement of the AE schedule to that of the FR schedule. The results showed a systematic relationship between the requirements of the AE and FR schedules. Moreover, the total IRE per reinforcement systematically increased with the AE requirement. Thus, the present study demonstrates the utility of the AE schedule as a procedure for testing the validity of OFT. PMID:23949926

  8. Energy linked modifications of the radiation response in a human cerebral glioma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Dwarkanath, B.S.; Jain, V.K. )

    1989-11-01

    Effects of cellular energy metabolism on the radiation response of a cell derived from a human cerebral glioma have been studied under conditions of energy limitation produced by the presence of inhibitors of respiratory metabolism (KCN) and glycolysis (glucose analogues such as 2-DG, 5-TG, and 3-0-MG). Radiation 60Co induced DNA repair (Unscheduled DNA Synthesis) and micronuclei formation were studied as measures of radiation response. Glycolysis (lactate production) and levels of adenine and related nucleotides (UTP, GTP, ATP etc.) were measured as parameters of energy metabolism. Two 2-DG (5 mM) inhibited DNA repair and increased micronuclei frequency both in the presence and absence of respiration (KCN, 2 mM). Under similar experimental conditions, the presence of 2-DG also significantly reduced the cellular energy status. Five-TG and 3-0-MG on the other hand, neither significantly altered the energy status (sigma XTP) nor influenced the radiation response under respiratory proficient conditions. The results can be explained on the basis of a model postulating differential energy linked modulations of the repair and fixation processes acting on DNA lesions. Implications of the present results for the radiotherapy of brain tumors are discussed.

  9. A systematic characterization of the low-energy photon response of plastic scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, Jonathan; Beddar, Sam; Bonde, Chris; Schmidt, Daniel; Culberson, Wesley; Guillemette, Maxime; Beaulieu, Luc

    2016-08-01

    To characterize the low energy behavior of scintillating materials used in plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs), 3 PSDs were developed using polystyrene-based scintillating materials emitting in different wavelengths. These detectors were exposed to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)-matched low-energy beams ranging from 20 kVp to 250 kVp, and to 137Cs and 60Co beams. The dose in polystyrene was compared to the dose in air measured by NIST-calibrated ionization chambers at the same location. Analysis of every beam quality spectrum was used to extract the beam parameters and the effective mass energy-absorption coefficient. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed to calculate the energy absorbed in the scintillators’ volume. The scintillators’ expected response was then compared to the experimental measurements and an energy-dependent correction factor was identified to account for low-energy quenching in the scintillators. The empirical Birks model was then compared to these values to verify its validity for low-energy electrons. The clear optical fiber response was below 0.2% of the scintillator’s light for x-ray beams, indicating that a negligible amount of fluorescence contamination was produced. However, for higher-energy beams (137Cs and 60Co), the scintillators’ response was corrected for the Cerenkov stem effect. The scintillators’ response increased by a factor of approximately 4 from a 20 kVp to a 60Co beam. The decrease in sensitivity from ionization quenching reached a local minimum of about 11%+/- 1% between 40 keV and 60 keV x-ray beam mean energy, but dropped by 20% for very low-energy (13 keV) beams. The Birks model may be used to fit the experimental data, but it must take into account the energy dependence of the kB quenching parameter. A detailed comprehension of intrinsic scintillator response is essential for proper calibration of PSD dosimeters for radiology.

  10. A systematic characterization of the low-energy photon response of plastic scintillation detectors.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Jonathan; Beddar, Sam; Bonde, Chris; Schmidt, Daniel; Culberson, Wesley; Guillemette, Maxime; Beaulieu, Luc

    2016-08-01

    To characterize the low energy behavior of scintillating materials used in plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs), 3 PSDs were developed using polystyrene-based scintillating materials emitting in different wavelengths. These detectors were exposed to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)-matched low-energy beams ranging from 20 kVp to 250 kVp, and to (137)Cs and (60)Co beams. The dose in polystyrene was compared to the dose in air measured by NIST-calibrated ionization chambers at the same location. Analysis of every beam quality spectrum was used to extract the beam parameters and the effective mass energy-absorption coefficient. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed to calculate the energy absorbed in the scintillators' volume. The scintillators' expected response was then compared to the experimental measurements and an energy-dependent correction factor was identified to account for low-energy quenching in the scintillators. The empirical Birks model was then compared to these values to verify its validity for low-energy electrons. The clear optical fiber response was below 0.2% of the scintillator's light for x-ray beams, indicating that a negligible amount of fluorescence contamination was produced. However, for higher-energy beams ((137)Cs and (60)Co), the scintillators' response was corrected for the Cerenkov stem effect. The scintillators' response increased by a factor of approximately 4 from a 20 kVp to a (60)Co beam. The decrease in sensitivity from ionization quenching reached a local minimum of about [Formula: see text] between 40 keV and 60 keV x-ray beam mean energy, but dropped by 20% for very low-energy (13 keV) beams. The Birks model may be used to fit the experimental data, but it must take into account the energy dependence of the kB quenching parameter. A detailed comprehension of intrinsic scintillator response is essential for proper calibration of PSD dosimeters for radiology. PMID:27384872

  11. Advanced Control Technologies and Strategies Linking DemandResponse and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2005-09-02

    This paper presents a preliminary framework to describe how advanced controls can support multiple modes of operations including both energy efficiency and demand response (DR). A general description of DR, its benefits, and nationwide status is outlined. The role of energy management and control systems for DR is described. Building systems such as HVAC and lighting that utilize control technologies and strategies for energy efficiency are mapped on to DR and demand shedding strategies are developed. Past research projects are presented to provide a context for the current projects. The economic case for implementing DR from a building owner perspective is also explored.

  12. Modelling Socio-Environmental Sensitivities: How Public Responses to Low Carbon Energy Technologies Could Shape the UK Energy System

    PubMed Central

    Moran Jay, Brighid

    2014-01-01

    Low carbon energy technologies are not deployed in a social vacuum; there are a variety of complex ways in which people understand and engage with these technologies and the changing energy system overall. However, the role of the public's socio-environmental sensitivities to low carbon energy technologies and their responses to energy deployments does not receive much serious attention in planning decarbonisation pathways to 2050. Resistance to certain resources and technologies based on particular socio-environmental sensitivities would alter the portfolio of options available which could shape how the energy system achieves decarbonisation (the decarbonisation pathway) as well as affecting the cost and achievability of decarbonisation. Thus, this paper presents a series of three modelled scenarios which illustrate the way that a variety of socio-environmental sensitivities could impact the development of the energy system and the decarbonisation pathway. The scenarios represent risk aversion (DREAD) which avoids deployment of potentially unsafe large-scale technology, local protectionism (NIMBY) that constrains systems to their existing spatial footprint, and environmental awareness (ECO) where protection of natural resources is paramount. Very different solutions for all three sets of constraints are identified; some seem slightly implausible (DREAD) and all show increased cost (especially in ECO). PMID:24587735

  13. Modelling socio-environmental sensitivities: how public responses to low carbon energy technologies could shape the UK energy system.

    PubMed

    Moran Jay, Brighid; Howard, David; Hughes, Nick; Whitaker, Jeanette; Anandarajah, Gabrial

    2014-01-01

    Low carbon energy technologies are not deployed in a social vacuum; there are a variety of complex ways in which people understand and engage with these technologies and the changing energy system overall. However, the role of the public's socio-environmental sensitivities to low carbon energy technologies and their responses to energy deployments does not receive much serious attention in planning decarbonisation pathways to 2050. Resistance to certain resources and technologies based on particular socio-environmental sensitivities would alter the portfolio of options available which could shape how the energy system achieves decarbonisation (the decarbonisation pathway) as well as affecting the cost and achievability of decarbonisation. Thus, this paper presents a series of three modelled scenarios which illustrate the way that a variety of socio-environmental sensitivities could impact the development of the energy system and the decarbonisation pathway. The scenarios represent risk aversion (DREAD) which avoids deployment of potentially unsafe large-scale technology, local protectionism (NIMBY) that constrains systems to their existing spatial footprint, and environmental awareness (ECO) where protection of natural resources is paramount. Very different solutions for all three sets of constraints are identified; some seem slightly implausible (DREAD) and all show increased cost (especially in ECO). PMID:24587735

  14. Characterization of the energy response and backscatter contribution for two electronic personal dosimeter models.

    PubMed

    Meier, Joseph; Kappadath, S Cheenu

    2015-11-08

    We characterized the energy response of personal dose equivalent (Hp(10) in mrem) and the contribution of backscatter to the readings of two electronic personal dosimeter (EPD) models with radionuclides commonly used in a nuclear medicine clinic. The EPD models characterized were the RADOS RAD-60R, and the SAIC PD-10i. The experimental setup and calculation of EPD energy response was based on ANSI/HPS N13.11-2009. Fifteen RAD-60R and 2 PD-10i units were irradiated using (99m)Tc, (131)I, and (18)F radionuclides with emission energies at 140 keV, 364 keV, and 511 keV, respectively. At each energy, the EPDs output in Hp(10) [mrem] were recorded with 15 inch thick PMMA to simulate backscatter form the torso. Simultaneous free-in-air exposure rate measurements were also performed using two Victoreen ionization survey meters to calculate the expected EPD Hp(10) values per ANSI/HPS N13.11-2009. The energy response was calculated by taking the ratio of the EPD Hp(10) readings with the expected Hp(10) readings and a two-tailed z-test was used to determine the significance of the ratio deviating away from unity. The contribution from backscatter was calculated by taking the ratio of the EPD Hp(10) readings with and without backscatter material. A paired, two-tailed t-test was used to determine the significance of change in EPD Hp(10) readings. The RAD-60R mean energy response at 140 keV was 0.85, and agreed to within 5% and 11% at 364 and 511 keV, respectively. The PD-10i mean energy response at 140 keV was 1.20, and agreed to within 5% at 364 and 511 keV, respectively. On average, in the presence of acrylic, RAD-60R values increased by 32%, 12%, and 14%, at 140, 364, and 511 keV, respectively; all increases were statistically significant. The PD-10i increased by 25%, 19%, and 10% at 140 keV, 364 keV, and 511 keV, respectively; however, only the 140 keV measurement was statistically significant. Although both EPD models performed within the manufacturers' specifications of

  15. The Search for Energy Alternatives: Responses Received by State Agricultural Experiment Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, William M.

    Directors of the 51 agricultural experiment stations in the United States (including Guam) were mailed questionnaires inquiring as to the extent of requests which had been received for information about wind, solar, and other energy alternatives such as wood and gasahol. There was a total response of 88% with three mailings. The returned…

  16. Preliminary investigation into the design of thermally responsive Forster resonance energy transfer colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, Monte Scott

    While nuclear imaging techniques (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Computed Tomography, and Positron Emission Tomography) have proven effective for diagnosis and treatment of disease in the human body, fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging offers additional benefits. Fluorescent imaging provides high resolution with real-time response, persistent lifetime (hours to days), cell targeting, and transdermal penetration with minimal physical encumbrance. Malignant cells can be targeted by absorbance of exogenous fluorescent nanoprobe contrast agents. Imaging is improved by fluorescent enhancement, especially by energy transfer between attached dyes. Also for use against cancer are heat-active treatments, such as hyperthermal, photothermal, and chemothermal therapies. Helpful to these treatments is the thermal response from nanoprobes, within human cells, which provide real-time feedback. The present study investigates the design and feasibility of a nanoprobe molecular device, absorbable into malignant human cells, which provides real-time tracking and thermal response, as indicated by enhanced fluorescence by energy transfer. A poly(propargyl acrylate) colloidal suspension was synthesized. The particles were modified with a triblock copolymer, previously shown to be thermally responsive, and an end-attached fluorescent dye. A second dye was modeled for attachment in subsequent work. When two fluorescent dyes are brought within sufficiently close proximity, and excitation light is supplied, energy can be transferred between dyes to give enhanced fluorescence with a large Stokes shift (increase in wavelength between excitation and emission). The dye pair was modeled for overlap of emission and absorbance wavelengths, and energy transfer was demonstrated with 23% efficiency and a 209 nm Stokes shift. The quantum yield of the donor dye was determined at 70%, and the distance for 50% energy transfer was calculated at 2.9 nm, consistent with reports for similar compounds. When

  17. Use of borated polyethylene to improve low energy response of a prompt gamma based neutron dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyada, P.; Ashwini, U.; Sarkar, P. K.

    2016-05-01

    The feasibility of using a combined sample of borated polyethylene and normal polyethylene to estimate neutron ambient dose equivalent from measured prompt gamma emissions is investigated theoretically to demonstrate improvements in low energy neutron dose response compared to only polyethylene. Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out using the FLUKA code to calculate the response of boron, hydrogen and carbon prompt gamma emissions to mono energetic neutrons. The weighted least square method is employed to arrive at the best linear combination of these responses that approximates the ICRP fluence to dose conversion coefficients well in the energy range of 10-8 MeV to 14 MeV. The configuration of the combined system is optimized through FLUKA simulations. The proposed method is validated theoretically with five different workplace neutron spectra with satisfactory outcome.

  18. Sensitivity of inelastic response to numerical integration of strain energy. [for cantilever beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamat, M. P.

    1976-01-01

    The exact solution to the quasi-static, inelastic response of a cantilever beam of rectangular cross section subjected to a bending moment at the tip is obtained. The material of the beam is assumed to be linearly elastic-linearly strain-hardening. This solution is then compared with three different numerical solutions of the same problem obtained by minimizing the total potential energy using Gaussian quadratures of two different orders and a Newton-Cotes scheme for integrating the strain energy of deformation. Significant differences between the exact dissipative strain energy and its numerical counterpart are emphasized. The consequence of this on the nonlinear transient responses of a beam with solid cross section and that of a thin-walled beam on elastic supports under impulsive loads are examined.

  19. DOSIMETRIC response of a REM-500 in low energy neutron fields typical of nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Aslam; Matysiak, W; Atanackovic, J; Waker, A J

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates the response of a REM-500 to assess neutron quality factor and dose equivalent in low energy neutron fields, which are commonly encountered in the workplace environment of nuclear power stations. The McMaster University 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator facility was used to measure the response of the instrument in monoenergetic neutron fields in the energy range 51 to 727 keV by bombarding a thin LiF target with 1.93-2.50 MeV protons. The energy distribution of the neutron fields produced in the facility was measured by a (3)He filled gas ionization chamber. The MCA mode of the REM-500 instrument was used to collect lineal energy distributions at varying neutron energies and to calculate the frequency and dose-mean lineal energies. The effective quality factor, Q-, was also calculated using the values of Q(y)listed in the REM-500 operation manual and compared with those of ICRP 60. The authors observed a continuously increasing trend in y - F, y-D, and Q-with an increase in neutron energy. It is interesting to note that standard tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) filled with tissue equivalent(TE) gas give rise to a similar trend for these microdosimetric quantities of interest in the same energy range; however, the averages calculated in this study are larger by about 15%compared to a TEPC filled with propane-based TE gas probably because of the larger stopping power of protons in propane compared to TE gas. These somewhat larger event sizes did not result in any significant increase in the Q-compared to those obtained from a TEPC filled with TE gas and were found to be in good agreement with other measurements reported earlier at corresponding neutron energies. The instrument quality factor response, R(Q), defined as the ratio of measured quality factor to the calculated quality factor in an ICRU tissue sphere,was found to vary with neutron energy. The instrument response,R(Q), was ~0.6 at 727 keV, which deteriorates further to

  20. Using high frequency consumption data to identify demand response potential for solar energy integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.; Borgeson, S.; Fredman, D.; Hans, L.; Spurlock, A.; Todd, A.

    2015-12-01

    California's renewable portfolio standard (2012) requires the state to get 33% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2020. Increased share of variable renewable sources such as solar and wind in the California electricity system may require more grid flexibility to insure reliable power services. Such grid flexibility can be potentially provided by changes in end use electricity consumptions in response to grid conditions (demand-response). In the solar case, residential consumption in the late afternoon can be used as reserve capacity to balance the drop in solar generation. This study presents our initial attempt to identify, from a behavior perspective, residential demand response potentials in relation to solar ramp events using a data-driven approach. Based on hourly residential energy consumption data, we derive representative daily load shapes focusing on discretionary consumption with an innovative clustering analysis technique. We aggregate the representative load shapes into behavior groups in terms of the timing and rhythm of energy use in the context of solar ramp events. Households of different behavior groups that are active during hours with high solar ramp rates are identified for capturing demand response potential. Insights into the nature and predictability of response to demand-response programs are provided.

  1. Use of nonlinear programming to optimize performance response to energy density in broiler feed formulation.

    PubMed

    Guevara, V R

    2004-02-01

    A nonlinear programming optimization model was developed to maximize margin over feed cost in broiler feed formulation and is described in this paper. The model identifies the optimal feed mix that maximizes profit margin. Optimum metabolizable energy level and performance were found by using Excel Solver nonlinear programming. Data from an energy density study with broilers were fitted to quadratic equations to express weight gain, feed consumption, and the objective function income over feed cost in terms of energy density. Nutrient:energy ratio constraints were transformed into equivalent linear constraints. National Research Council nutrient requirements and feeding program were used for examining changes in variables. The nonlinear programming feed formulation method was used to illustrate the effects of changes in different variables on the optimum energy density, performance, and profitability and was compared with conventional linear programming. To demonstrate the capabilities of the model, I determined the impact of variation in prices. Prices for broiler, corn, fish meal, and soybean meal were increased and decreased by 25%. Formulations were identical in all other respects. Energy density, margin, and diet cost changed compared with conventional linear programming formulation. This study suggests that nonlinear programming can be more useful than conventional linear programming to optimize performance response to energy density in broiler feed formulation because an energy level does not need to be set.

  2. Grid Inertial Response-Based Probabilistic Determination of Energy Storage System Capacity Under High Solar Penetration

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yue, Meng; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2015-07-01

    It is well-known that responsive battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are an effective means to improve the grid inertial response to various disturbances including the variability of the renewable generation. One of the major issues associated with its implementation is the difficulty in determining the required BESS capacity mainly due to the large amount of inherent uncertainties that cannot be accounted for deterministically. In this study, a probabilistic approach is proposed to properly size the BESS from the perspective of the system inertial response, as an application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The proposed approach enables a risk-informed decision-making processmore » regarding (1) the acceptable level of solar penetration in a given system and (2) the desired BESS capacity (and minimum cost) to achieve an acceptable grid inertial response with a certain confidence level.« less

  3. Grid Inertial Response-Based Probabilistic Determination of Energy Storage System Capacity Under High Solar Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Meng; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2015-07-01

    It is well-known that responsive battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are an effective means to improve the grid inertial response to various disturbances including the variability of the renewable generation. One of the major issues associated with its implementation is the difficulty in determining the required BESS capacity mainly due to the large amount of inherent uncertainties that cannot be accounted for deterministically. In this study, a probabilistic approach is proposed to properly size the BESS from the perspective of the system inertial response, as an application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The proposed approach enables a risk-informed decision-making process regarding (1) the acceptable level of solar penetration in a given system and (2) the desired BESS capacity (and minimum cost) to achieve an acceptable grid inertial response with a certain confidence level.

  4. Efficient Calculations of Dispersion Energies for Nanoscale Systems from Coupled Density Response Functions.

    PubMed

    Podeszwa, Rafał; Cencek, Wojciech; Szalewicz, Krzysztof

    2012-06-12

    Dispersion energies computed from coupled Kohn-Sham (CKS) dynamic density-density response functions are known to be highly accurate. At the same time, the computational algorithm is of only modest complexity compared to other accurate methods of dispersion energy calculation. We present a new implementation of this algorithm that removes several computational barriers present in current implementations and enables calculations of dispersion energies for systems with more than 200 atoms using more than 5000 basis functions. The improvements were mainly achieved by reorganizing the algorithm to minimize memory and disk usage. We present applications to two systems: the buckycatcher complex with fullerene and the vancomycin complex with a diacetyl-Lys-d-Ala-d-Ala bacterial wall precursor, both calculations performed with triple-ζ-quality basis sets. Our implementation makes it possible to use ab initio computed dispersion energies in popular "density functional theory plus dispersion" approaches.

  5. Design and analysis of vibration energy harvesters based on peak response statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, S.; Friswell, M. I.; Litak, G.; Haddad Khodaparast, H.

    2016-06-01

    Energy harvesting using cantilever piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters excited by Gaussian broadband random base excitation is considered. The optimal design and analysis of energy harvesters under random excitation is normally performed using the mean and standard deviation of a response quantity of interest, such as the voltage. An alternative approach based on the statistics of the peak voltage is developed in this paper. Three extreme response characteristics, namely (a) level crossing, (b) response peaks above certain level, and (c) fractional time spend above a certain level, have been employed. Two cases, namely the harvesting circuit with and without an inductor, have been considered. Exact closed-form expressions have been derived for number of level crossings, statistics of response peaks and fractional time spend above a certain level for the output voltage. It is shown that these quantities can be related to the standard deviation of the voltage and its derivative with respect to time. Direct numerical simulation has been used to validate the analytical expressions. Based on the analytical results, closed-form expressions for optimal system parameters have been proposed. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the applicability of the analytical results.

  6. Forcing and response in simulated 20th and 21st century surface energy and precipitation trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Timothy

    2009-09-01

    A simple methodology is applied to a transient integration of the Met Office Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model version1 (UKMO-HadGEM1) fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model in order to separate forcing from climate response in simulated 20th century and future global mean surface energy and precipitation trends. Forcings include any fast responses that are caused by the forcing agent and that are independent of global temperature change. Results reveal that surface radiative forcing is dominated by shortwave forcing over the 20th and 21st centuries, which is strongly negative. However, when fast responses of surface turbulent heat fluxes are separated from climate feedbacks, and included in the forcing, net surface forcing becomes positive. The nonradiative forcings are the result of rapid surface and tropospheric adjustments and impact 20th century, as well as future, evaporation and precipitation trends. A comparison of energy balance changes in eight different climate models finds that all models exhibit a positive surface energy imbalance by the late 20th century. However, there is considerable disagreement in how this imbalance is partitioned between the longwave, shortwave, latent heat and sensible heat fluxes. In particular, all models show reductions in shortwave radiation absorbed at the surface by the late 20th century compared to the pre-industrial control state, but the spread of this reduction leads to differences in the sign of their latent heat flux changes and thus in the sign of their hydrological responses.

  7. Male Weasels Decrease Activity and Energy Expenditure in Response to High Ambient Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Zub, Karol; Fletcher, Quinn E.; Szafrańska, Paulina A.; Konarzewski, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The heat dissipation limit (HDL) hypothesis suggests that the capacity of endotherms to dissipate body heat may impose constraints on their energy expenditure. Specifically, this hypothesis predicts that endotherms should avoid the detrimental consequences of hyperthermia by lowering their energy expenditure and reducing their activity in response to high ambient temperatures (Ta). We used an extensive data set on the daily energy expenditure (DEE, n = 27) and the daily activity time (AT, n = 48) of male weasels (Mustela nivalis) during the spring and summer breeding season to test these predictions. We found that Ta was related in a “hump-shaped” (i.e. convex) manner to AT, DEE, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and metabolic scope (the ratio of DEE to RMR). These results support the HDL hypothesis because in response to warm Tas male weasels reduced their AT, DEE, and RMR. Although the activity and energy expenditure of large endotherms are most likely to be constrained in response to warm Tas because they are less able to dissipate heat, our results suggest that small endotherms may also experience constraints consistent with the HDL hypothesis. PMID:23977336

  8. Linear response subordination to intermittent energy release in off-equilibrium aging dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Simon; Sibani, Paolo

    2008-03-01

    The interpretation of experimental and numerical data describing off-equilibrium aging dynamics crucially depends on the connection between spontaneous and induced fluctuations. The hypothesis that linear response fluctuations are statistically subordinated to irreversible outbursts of energy, so-called quakes, leads to predictions for the average values and the fluctuation spectra of physical observables in reasonable agreement with experimental results (see e.g. Sibani et al 2006 Phys. Rev. B 74 224407). Using simulational data from a simple but representative Ising model with plaquette interactions, direct statistical evidence supporting the subordination hypothesis is presented and discussed in this work. Both energy and magnetic fluctuations are analyzed, with and without an external magnetic field present. In all cases, fluctuation spectra have a Gaussian zero centered component. For large negative values, the energy spectrum additionally features an intermittent tail describing the quakes. In the magnetization spectrum, two intermittent tails are present. These are symmetric around zero for zero-field, but asymmetric in other cases. The field has thus a biasing effect on the spontaneous intermittent magnetic fluctuations. Furthermore, the field has a negligible effect on the energy fluctuation spectra. From the observed strict temporal correlation between quakes and intermittent magnetization fluctuations, it is possible to conclude that the linear response is controlled by the quakes and inherits their temporal statistics. On this basis, the information culled from intermittent linear response data can be analyzed in the same way as spontaneous thermal energy fluctuations. The latter have a central rôle in thermally activated dynamics, but are harder to measure than linear response data.

  9. The low energy magnetic spectrometer on Ulysses and ACE response to near relativistic protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgado, Bruno; Filipe Maia, Dalmiro Jorge; Lanzerotti, Louis; Gonçalves, Patrícia; Patterson, J. Douglas

    2015-05-01

    Aims: We show that the Heliosphere Instrument for Spectra Composition and Anisotropy at Low Energies (HISCALE) on board the Ulysses spacecraft and the Electron Proton Alpha Monitor (EPAM) on board the Advance Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft can be used to measure properties for ion populations with kinetic energies in excess of 1 GeV. This previously unexplored source of information is valuable for understanding the origin of near relativistic ions of solar origin. Methods: We model the instrumental response from the low energy magnetic spectrometers from EPAM and HISCALE using a Monte Carlo approach implemented in the Geant4 toolkit to determine the response of different energy channels to energies up to 5 GeV. We compare model results with EPAM observations for 2012 May 17 ground level solar cosmic ray event, including directional fluxes. Results: For the 2012 May event, all the ion channels in EPAM show an onset more than one hour before ions with the highest nominal energy range (1.8 to 4.8 MeV) were expected to arrive. We show from Monte Carlo simulations that the timing at different channels, the ratio between counts at the different channels, and the directional fluxes within a given channel, are consistent with and can be explained by the arrival of particles with energies from 35 MeV to more than 1 GeV. Onset times for the EPAM penetrating protons are consistent with the rise seen in neutron monitor data, implying that EPAM and ground neutron monitors are seeing overlapping energy ranges and that both are consistent with GeV ions being released from the Sun at 10:38 UT.

  10. Characterization of energy response for photon-counting detectors using x-ray fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Huanjun; Cho, Hyo-Min; Barber, William C.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Molloi, Sabee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of characterizing a Si strip photon-counting detector using x-ray fluorescence. Methods: X-ray fluorescence was generated by using a pencil beam from a tungsten anode x-ray tube with 2 mm Al filtration. Spectra were acquired at 90° from the primary beam direction with an energy-resolved photon-counting detector based on an edge illuminated Si strip detector. The distances from the source to target and the target to detector were approximately 19 and 11 cm, respectively. Four different materials, containing silver (Ag), iodine (I), barium (Ba), and gadolinium (Gd), were placed in small plastic containers with a diameter of approximately 0.7 cm for x-ray fluorescence measurements. Linear regression analysis was performed to derive the gain and offset values for the correlation between the measured fluorescence peak center and the known fluorescence energies. The energy resolutions and charge-sharing fractions were also obtained from analytical fittings of the recorded fluorescence spectra. An analytical model, which employed four parameters that can be determined from the fluorescence calibration, was used to estimate the detector response function. Results: Strong fluorescence signals of all four target materials were recorded with the investigated geometry for the Si strip detector. The average gain and offset of all pixels for detector energy calibration were determined to be 6.95 mV/keV and −66.33 mV, respectively. The detector’s energy resolution remained at approximately 2.7 keV for low energies, and increased slightly at 45 keV. The average charge-sharing fraction was estimated to be 36% within the investigated energy range of 20–45 keV. The simulated detector output based on the proposed response function agreed well with the experimental measurement. Conclusions: The performance of a spectral imaging system using energy-resolved photon-counting detectors is very dependent on the energy calibration of the

  11. Characterization of energy response for photon-counting detectors using x-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Huanjun; Cho, Hyo-Min; Molloi, Sabee; Barber, William C.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of characterizing a Si strip photon-counting detector using x-ray fluorescence. Methods: X-ray fluorescence was generated by using a pencil beam from a tungsten anode x-ray tube with 2 mm Al filtration. Spectra were acquired at 90° from the primary beam direction with an energy-resolved photon-counting detector based on an edge illuminated Si strip detector. The distances from the source to target and the target to detector were approximately 19 and 11 cm, respectively. Four different materials, containing silver (Ag), iodine (I), barium (Ba), and gadolinium (Gd), were placed in small plastic containers with a diameter of approximately 0.7 cm for x-ray fluorescence measurements. Linear regression analysis was performed to derive the gain and offset values for the correlation between the measured fluorescence peak center and the known fluorescence energies. The energy resolutions and charge-sharing fractions were also obtained from analytical fittings of the recorded fluorescence spectra. An analytical model, which employed four parameters that can be determined from the fluorescence calibration, was used to estimate the detector response function. Results: Strong fluorescence signals of all four target materials were recorded with the investigated geometry for the Si strip detector. The average gain and offset of all pixels for detector energy calibration were determined to be 6.95 mV/keV and −66.33 mV, respectively. The detector’s energy resolution remained at approximately 2.7 keV for low energies, and increased slightly at 45 keV. The average charge-sharing fraction was estimated to be 36% within the investigated energy range of 20–45 keV. The simulated detector output based on the proposed response function agreed well with the experimental measurement. Conclusions: The performance of a spectral imaging system using energy-resolved photon-counting detectors is very dependent on the energy calibration of the

  12. U.S. Department of Energy Consequence Management Under the National Response Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Don Van Etten and Paul Guss

    2009-02-03

    Under the Nuclear/Radiological Incident Annex of the National Response Framework, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has specific responsibilities as a coordinating agency and for leading interagency response elements in the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). Emergency response planning focuses on rapidly providing response elements in stages after being notified of a nuclear/radiological incident. The use of Home Teams during the field team deployment period and recent advances in collecting and transmitting data from the field directly to assessment assets has greatly improved incident assessment times for public protection decisions. The DOE’s Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) based in Las Vegas, Nevada, has successfully deployed technical and logistical support for this mission at national exercises such as Top Officials Exercise IV (TOPOFF IV). In a unique response situation, DOE will provide advance contingency support to NASA during the scheduled launch in the fall of 2009 of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). The MSL rover will carry a radioisotope power system that generates electricity from the heat of plutonium’s radioactive decay. DOE assets and contingency planning will provide a pre-incident response posture for rapid early plume phase assessment in the highly unlikely launch anomaly.

  13. A Successful Case Study of Small Business Energy Efficiency and Demand Response with Communicating Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Herter, Karen; Wayland, Seth; Rasin, Josh

    2009-08-12

    This report documents a field study of 78 small commercial customers in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District service territory who volunteered for an integrated energy-efficiency/demand-response (EE-DR) program in the summer of 2008. The original objective for the pilot was to provide a better understanding of demand response issues in the small commercial sector. Early findings justified a focus on offering small businesses (1) help with the energy efficiency of their buildings in exchange for occasional load shed, and (2) a portfolio of options to meet the needs of a diverse customer sector. To meet these expressed needs, the research pilot provided on-site energy efficiency advice and offered participants several program options, including the choice of either a dynamic rate or monthly payment for air-conditioning setpoint control. Overall results show that pilot participants had energy savings of 20%, and the potential for an additional 14% to 20% load drop during a 100 F demand response event. In addition to the efficiency-related bill savings, participants on the dynamic rate saved an estimated 5% on their energy costs compared to the standard rate. About 80% of participants said that the program met or surpassed their expectations, and three-quarters said they would probably or definitely participate again without the $120 participation incentive. These results provide evidence that energy efficiency programs, dynamic rates and load control programs can be used concurrently and effectively in the small business sector, and that communicating thermostats are a reliable tool for providing air-conditioning load shed and enhancing the ability of customers on dynamic rates to respond to intermittent price events.

  14. Pyroelectric response of ferroelectric nanowires: Size effect and electric energy harvesting

    SciTech Connect

    Morozovska, A. N.; Eliseev, E. A.; Svechnikov, S. V.; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2010-01-01

    The size effect on pyroelectric response of ferroelectric nanowires is analyzed. The pyroelectric coefficient strongly increases with the wire radius decrease and diverges at critical radius Rcr corresponding to the size-driven transition into paraelectric phase. Size-driven enhancement of pyroelectric coupling leads to the giant pyroelectric current and voltage generation by the polarized ferroelectric nanoparticles in response to the temperature fluctuation. The maximum efficiency of the pyroelectric energy harvesting and bolometric detection is derived, and is shown to approach the Carnot limit for low temperatures.

  15. Electric dipole response of {sup 208}Pb and constraints on the symmetry energy

    SciTech Connect

    Tamii, A.

    2014-05-02

    The electric dipole (E1) response of {sup 208}Pb has been precisely determined by measuring polarized proton inelastic scattering at very forward angles including zero degrees. The electric dipole polarizability, that is defined as the inverse energy-weighted sum rule of the E1 reduced transition strength, has been extracted as α{sub D} = 20.1 ±0.6 fm{sup 3}. A constraint band has been extracted in the plane of the symmetry energy (J) and its slope parameter (L) at the saturation density.

  16. Energy response calibration of photon-counting detectors using X-ray fluorescence: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, H-M; Ding, H; Ziemer, BP; Molloi, S

    2014-01-01

    Accurate energy calibration is critical for the application of energy-resolved photon-counting detectors in spectral imaging. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of energy response calibration and characterization of a photon-counting detector using X-ray fluorescence. A comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation study was performed using Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) to investigate the optimal technique for X-ray fluorescence calibration. Simulations were conducted using a 100 kVp tungsten-anode spectra with 2.7 mm Al filter for a single pixel cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector with 3 × 3 mm2 in detection area. The angular dependence of X-ray fluorescence and scatter background was investigated by varying the detection angle from 20° to 170° with respect to the beam direction. The effects of the detector material, shape, and size on the recorded X-ray fluorescence were investigated. The fluorescent material size effect was considered with and without the container for the fluorescent material. In order to provide validation for the simulation result, the angular dependence of X-ray fluorescence from five fluorescent materials was experimentally measured using a spectrometer. Finally, eleven of the fluorescent materials were used for energy calibration of a CZT-based photon-counting detector. The optimal detection angle was determined to be approximately at 120° with respect to the beam direction, which showed the highest fluorescence to scatter ratio (FSR) with a weak dependence on the fluorescent material size. The feasibility of X-ray fluorescence for energy calibration of photon-counting detectors in the diagnostic X-ray energy range was verified by successfully calibrating the energy response of a CZT-based photon-counting detector. The results of this study can be used as a guideline to implement the X-ray fluorescence calibration method for photon-counting detectors in a typical imaging laboratory. PMID:25369288

  17. Training response inhibition to food is associated with weight loss and reduced energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Natalia S.; O'Sullivan, Jamie; Parslow, David; Javaid, Mahmood; Adams, Rachel C.; Chambers, Christopher D.; Kos, Katarina; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The majority of adults in the UK and US are overweight or obese due to multiple factors including excess energy intake. Training people to inhibit simple motor responses (key presses) to high-energy density food pictures reduces intake in laboratory studies. We examined whether online response inhibition training reduced real-world food consumption and weight in a community sample of adults who were predominantly overweight or obese (N = 83). Participants were allocated in a randomised, double-blind design to receive four 10-min sessions of either active or control go/no-go training in which either high-energy density snack foods (active) or non-food stimuli (control) were associated with no-go signals. Participants' weight, energy intake (calculated from 24-h food diaries), daily snacking frequency and subjective food evaluations were measured for one week pre- and post-intervention. Participants also provided self-reported weight and monthly snacking frequency at pre-intervention screening, and one month and six months after completing the study. Participants in the active relative to control condition showed significant weight loss, reductions in daily energy intake and a reduction in rated liking of high-energy density (no-go) foods from the pre-to post-intervention week. There were no changes in self-reported daily snacking frequency. At longer-term follow-up, the active group showed significant reductions in self-reported weight at six months, whilst both groups reported significantly less snacking at one- and six-months. Excellent rates of adherence (97%) and positive feedback about the training suggest that this intervention is acceptable and has the potential to improve public health by reducing energy intake and overweight. PMID:26122756

  18. Energy response calibration of photon-counting detectors using x-ray fluorescence: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Cho, H-M; Ding, H; Ziemer, B P; Molloi, S

    2014-12-01

    Accurate energy calibration is critical for the application of energy-resolved photon-counting detectors in spectral imaging. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of energy response calibration and characterization of a photon-counting detector using x-ray fluorescence. A comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation study was performed using Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) to investigate the optimal technique for x-ray fluorescence calibration. Simulations were conducted using a 100 kVp tungsten-anode spectra with 2.7 mm Al filter for a single pixel cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector with 3 × 3 mm(2) in detection area. The angular dependence of x-ray fluorescence and scatter background was investigated by varying the detection angle from 20° to 170° with respect to the beam direction. The effects of the detector material, shape, and size on the recorded x-ray fluorescence were investigated. The fluorescent material size effect was considered with and without the container for the fluorescent material. In order to provide validation for the simulation result, the angular dependence of x-ray fluorescence from five fluorescent materials was experimentally measured using a spectrometer. Finally, eleven of the fluorescent materials were used for energy calibration of a CZT-based photon-counting detector. The optimal detection angle was determined to be approximately at 120° with respect to the beam direction, which showed the highest fluorescence to scatter ratio (FSR) with a weak dependence on the fluorescent material size. The feasibility of x-ray fluorescence for energy calibration of photon-counting detectors in the diagnostic x-ray energy range was verified by successfully calibrating the energy response of a CZT-based photon-counting detector. The results of this study can be used as a guideline to implement the x-ray fluorescence calibration method for photon-counting detectors in a typical imaging laboratory.

  19. Training response inhibition to food is associated with weight loss and reduced energy intake.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Natalia S; O'Sullivan, Jamie; Parslow, David; Javaid, Mahmood; Adams, Rachel C; Chambers, Christopher D; Kos, Katarina; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2015-12-01

    The majority of adults in the UK and US are overweight or obese due to multiple factors including excess energy intake. Training people to inhibit simple motor responses (key presses) to high-energy density food pictures reduces intake in laboratory studies. We examined whether online response inhibition training reduced real-world food consumption and weight in a community sample of adults who were predominantly overweight or obese (N = 83). Participants were allocated in a randomised, double-blind design to receive four 10-min sessions of either active or control go/no-go training in which either high-energy density snack foods (active) or non-food stimuli (control) were associated with no-go signals. Participants' weight, energy intake (calculated from 24-h food diaries), daily snacking frequency and subjective food evaluations were measured for one week pre- and post-intervention. Participants also provided self-reported weight and monthly snacking frequency at pre-intervention screening, and one month and six months after completing the study. Participants in the active relative to control condition showed significant weight loss, reductions in daily energy intake and a reduction in rated liking of high-energy density (no-go) foods from the pre-to post-intervention week. There were no changes in self-reported daily snacking frequency. At longer-term follow-up, the active group showed significant reductions in self-reported weight at six months, whilst both groups reported significantly less snacking at one- and six-months. Excellent rates of adherence (97%) and positive feedback about the training suggest that this intervention is acceptable and has the potential to improve public health by reducing energy intake and overweight.

  20. Limiting Energy Dissipation Induces Glassy Kinetics in Single-Cell High-Precision Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Jayajit

    2016-03-01

    Single cells often generate precise responses by involving dissipative out-of-thermodynamic equilibrium processes in signaling networks. The available free energy to fuel these processes could become limited depending on the metabolic state of an individual cell. How does limiting dissipation affect the kinetics of high precision responses in single cells? I address this question in the context of a kinetic proofreading scheme used in a simple model of early time T cell signaling. I show using exact analytical calculations and numerical simulations that limiting dissipation qualitatively changes the kinetics in single cells marked by emergence of slow kinetics, large cell-to-cell variations of copy numbers, temporally correlated stochastic events (dynamic facilitation), and, ergodicity breaking. Thus, constraints in energy dissipation, in addition to negatively affecting ligand discrimination in T cells, can create a fundamental difficulty in interpreting single cell kinetics from cell population level results.

  1. California Federal Facilities: Rate-Responsive Building Operation for Deeper Cost and Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-01

    Dynamic pricing electricity tariffs, now the default for large customers in California (peak demand of 200 kW and higher for PG&E and SCE, and 20 kW and higher for SDG&E), are providing Federal facilities new opportunities to cut their electricity bills and help them meet their energy savings mandates. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) has created this fact sheet to help California federal facilities take advantage of these opportunities through “rate-responsive building operation.” Rate-responsive building operation involves designing your load management strategies around your facility’s variable electric rate, using measures that require little or no financial investment.

  2. Energy response of LiF (TLD-100) and CaSO4:Dy TL dosimeters to different diagnostic spectra.

    PubMed

    Servomaa, A J

    1985-08-01

    Energy response of LiF (TLD-100) and CaSO4:Dy TL dosimeters to different diagnostic X-ray spectra has been studied. Through energy response the X-ray spectrum influences the dose to be measured with a thermoluminescence dosimeter. The energy responses of both dosimeters were calculated with typical diagnostic high voltages 60-140 kVp and with 1-50 mmAl total filtrations for 2-pulse and constant potential generators. Theoretical X-ray spectra were used. Pulse form and small differences in high voltage and in total filtration do not cause any significant error in measured dose due to energy response. The ratio of the energy responses of CaSO4: Dy and LiF does not produce a sufficiently strongly sloping curve as a function of high voltage for the determination of the half-value layer with typical diagnostic exposure values.

  3. Metabolic responses to nocturnal eating in men are affected by sources of dietary energy.

    PubMed

    Holmbäck, Ulf; Forslund, Anders; Forslund, Jeanette; Hambraeus, Leif; Lennernäs, Maria; Lowden, Arne; Stridsberg, Mats; Akerstedt, Torbjörn

    2002-07-01

    Because night work is becoming more prevalent, we studied whether feeding at different times of a 24-h period would elicit different metabolic responses and whether dietary macronutrient composition would affect these responses. Seven men (26-43 y, 19.9-26.6 kg/m(2)) consumed two isocaloric diets, in a crossover design. The diets were a high carbohydrate (HC) diet [65 energy % (E%) carbohydrates, 20E% fat] and a high fat (HF) diet (40E% carbohydrates, 45E% fat). After a 6-d diet-adjustment period, the men were kept awake for 24 h and the food (continuation of respective diet) was provided as six isocaloric meals (i.e., every 4 h). Energy and substrate turnover, heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), blood glucose, triacylglycerol (TAG), nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and glycerol were measured throughout the 24-h period. Significantly higher energy expenditure and NEFA concentration, and lower blood glucose and TAG concentrations were observed when the men consumed the HF diet than when they consumed the HC diet. Significant circadian patterns were seen in body and skin temperature (nadir, 0400-0500 h). When the men consumed the HF diet, significant circadian patterns were seen in fat oxidation (nadir, 0800-1200 h; plateau, 1200-0800 h), heat release (nadir, 0800-1200 h; plateau, 1600-0800 h), heart rate (nadir, 0000 h), blood glucose (nadir, 0800-1200 h; peak, 0000-0400 h), NEFA (nadir, 0800-1200 h; peak, 1200-2000 h) and TAG (nadir, 0800-1200 h; peak, 0400-0800 h) concentrations. Energy expenditure, carbohydrate oxidation, MAP and glycerol concentration did not display circadian patterns. Unequal variances eradicated most circadian effects in the HC-diet data. The increased TAG concentration in response to feeding at 0400 h might be involved in the higher TAG concentrations seen in shift workers. Distinct macronutrient/circadian-dependent postprandial responses were seen in most studied variables.

  4. Metabolic responses to nocturnal eating in men are affected by sources of dietary energy.

    PubMed

    Holmbäck, Ulf; Forslund, Anders; Forslund, Jeanette; Hambraeus, Leif; Lennernäs, Maria; Lowden, Arne; Stridsberg, Mats; Akerstedt, Torbjörn

    2002-07-01

    Because night work is becoming more prevalent, we studied whether feeding at different times of a 24-h period would elicit different metabolic responses and whether dietary macronutrient composition would affect these responses. Seven men (26-43 y, 19.9-26.6 kg/m(2)) consumed two isocaloric diets, in a crossover design. The diets were a high carbohydrate (HC) diet [65 energy % (E%) carbohydrates, 20E% fat] and a high fat (HF) diet (40E% carbohydrates, 45E% fat). After a 6-d diet-adjustment period, the men were kept awake for 24 h and the food (continuation of respective diet) was provided as six isocaloric meals (i.e., every 4 h). Energy and substrate turnover, heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), blood glucose, triacylglycerol (TAG), nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and glycerol were measured throughout the 24-h period. Significantly higher energy expenditure and NEFA concentration, and lower blood glucose and TAG concentrations were observed when the men consumed the HF diet than when they consumed the HC diet. Significant circadian patterns were seen in body and skin temperature (nadir, 0400-0500 h). When the men consumed the HF diet, significant circadian patterns were seen in fat oxidation (nadir, 0800-1200 h; plateau, 1200-0800 h), heat release (nadir, 0800-1200 h; plateau, 1600-0800 h), heart rate (nadir, 0000 h), blood glucose (nadir, 0800-1200 h; peak, 0000-0400 h), NEFA (nadir, 0800-1200 h; peak, 1200-2000 h) and TAG (nadir, 0800-1200 h; peak, 0400-0800 h) concentrations. Energy expenditure, carbohydrate oxidation, MAP and glycerol concentration did not display circadian patterns. Unequal variances eradicated most circadian effects in the HC-diet data. The increased TAG concentration in response to feeding at 0400 h might be involved in the higher TAG concentrations seen in shift workers. Distinct macronutrient/circadian-dependent postprandial responses were seen in most studied variables. PMID:12097665

  5. Characterisation of energy response of Al2O3:C optically stimulated luminescent dosemeters (OSLDs) using cavity theory

    PubMed Central

    Scarboro, S. B.; Kry, S. F.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminium oxide (Al2O3:C) is a common material used in optically stimulated luminescent dosemeters (OSLDs). OSLDs have a known energy dependence, which can impact on the accuracy of dose measurements, especially for lower photon energies, where the dosemeter can overrespond by a factor of 3–4. The purpose of this work was to characterise the response of Al2O3:C using cavity theory and to evaluate the applicability of this approach for polyenergetic photon beams. The cavity theory energy response showed good agreement (within 2 %) with the corresponding measured values. A comparison with measured values reported in the literature for low-energy polyenergetic spectra showed more varied agreement (within 6 % on average). The discrepancy between these results is attributed to differences in the raw photon energy spectra used to calculate the energy response. Analysis of the impact of the photon energy spectra versus the mean photon energy showed improved accuracy if the energy response was determined using the entire photon spectrum rather than the mean photon energy. If not accounted for, the overresponse due to photon energy could introduce substantial inaccuracy in dose measurement using OSLDs, and the results of this study indicate that cavity theory may be used to determine the response with reasonable accuracy. PMID:22653437

  6. Calculations and measurements of the energy-dependent response of a shielded gamma-ray detector

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, R.C.

    1996-03-01

    Instruments designed to record high-intensity gamma-ray flashes must have fast time response, wide dynamic range, and good rejection of photon backgrounds at lower energies. In principle, plastic scintillators can easily provide the necessary time response and dynamic range; like other photon detectors, however, they must be carefully shielded to reduce their low-energy sensitivity. This shielding is often complicated by the need to use different optical sensors to cover the full dynamic range, which each sensor requiring a separate opening through the shielding. In this detector, a high-sensitivity photomultiplier tube handles low-intensity signals, and a silicon photodiode covers high intensities. These electronic components, particularly the diode, may also respond directly to incident radiation, so localized shielding must be provided. To reduce the detector`s total mass, the scintillator and photodiode are enclosed in a relatively thick, tight-fitting inner shield, which is surrounded by a thin outer shield to reduce the leakage through any gaps. Although efficient, this arrangement demands careful design and testing. This report describes such an analysis, which uses Monte Carlo simulations to develop a comprehensive model of the detector at photon energies from threshold to above 10 MeV. Included are discussions of the fundamental responses of the unshielded silicon diode and plastic scintillator, explanations of the effectiveness of different shielding materials, studies of calibration sources, and comparisons with laboratory tests.

  7. Response Surface Energy Modeling of an Electric Vehicle over a Reduced Composite Drive Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Jehlik, Forrest; LaClair, Tim J.

    2014-04-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) techniques were applied to develop a predictive model of electric vehicle (EV) energy consumption over the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standardized drive cycles. The model is based on measurements from a synthetic composite drive cycle. The synthetic drive cycle is a minimized statistical composite of the standardized urban (UDDS), highway (HWFET), and US06 cycles. The composite synthetic drive cycle is 20 minutes in length thereby reducing testing time of the three standard EPA cycles by over 55%. Vehicle speed and acceleration were used as model inputs for a third order least squared regression model predicting vehicle battery power output as a function of the drive cycle. The approach reduced three cycles and 46 minutes of drive time to a single test of 20 minutes. Application of response surface modeling to the synthetic drive cycle is shown to predict energy consumption of the three EPA cycles within 2.6% of the actual measured values. Additionally, the response model may be used to predict energy consumption of any cycle within the speed/acceleration envelope of the synthetic cycle. This technique results in reducing test time, which additionally provides a model that may be used to expand the analysis and understanding of the vehicle under consideration.

  8. Fuel switching and energy partitioning during the postprandial metabolic response in the ball python (Python regius).

    PubMed

    Waas, Stefan; Werner, Roland A; Starck, J Matthias

    2010-04-01

    Digestion, absorption and assimilation of the meal are active processes that require start-up energy before the energy contained in a meal can be utilized. The energetic costs associated with feeding (specific dynamic action, SDA) are high in sit-and-wait foraging snakes that tolerate long fasting periods. We used (13)C-labelled prey to partition between endogenous energy sources (i.e. snakes' own resources) and exogenous energy sources (i.e. prey). A linear mixing model was then applied to determine the portion of (13)C originating from the different sources. The snakes showed a normal and typical postprandial response. By four hours after feeding, the delta(13)C-values indicated fuel switching from endogenous to exogenous. From then on, fuel mixing continuously increased until, at 20 h after feeding, 75% of fuel was exogenous. Resource partitioning showed that throughout SDA, the amount of exogenous energy increased to approximately 60% of SDA, which was equivalent to approximately 4.5% of the energy contained in a meal.

  9. Phenotypic vulnerability of energy balance responses to sleep loss in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Dinges, David F; Goel, Namni

    2015-01-01

    Short sleep duration is a risk factor for increased hunger and caloric intake, late-night eating, attenuated fat loss when dieting, and for weight gain and obesity. It is unknown whether altered energy-balance responses to sleep loss are stable (phenotypic) over time, and the extent to which individuals differ in vulnerability to such responses. Healthy adults experienced two laboratory exposures to sleep restriction separated by 60-2132 days. Caloric intake, meal timing and weight were objectively measured. Although there were substantial phenotypic differences among participants in weight gain, increased caloric intake, and late-night eating and fat intake, responses within participants showed stability across sleep restriction exposures. Weight change was consistent in both normal-weight and overweight adults. Weight change and increased caloric intake were more stable in men whereas late-night eating was consistent in both genders. This is the first evidence of phenotypic differential vulnerability and trait-like stability of energy balance responses to repeated sleep restriction, underscoring the need for biomarkers and countermeasures to predict and mitigate this vulnerability.

  10. Phenotypic vulnerability of energy balance responses to sleep loss in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Spaeth, Andrea M.; Dinges, David F.; Goel, Namni

    2015-01-01

    Short sleep duration is a risk factor for increased hunger and caloric intake, late-night eating, attenuated fat loss when dieting, and for weight gain and obesity. It is unknown whether altered energy-balance responses to sleep loss are stable (phenotypic) over time, and the extent to which individuals differ in vulnerability to such responses. Healthy adults experienced two laboratory exposures to sleep restriction separated by 60–2132 days. Caloric intake, meal timing and weight were objectively measured. Although there were substantial phenotypic differences among participants in weight gain, increased caloric intake, and late-night eating and fat intake, responses within participants showed stability across sleep restriction exposures. Weight change was consistent in both normal-weight and overweight adults. Weight change and increased caloric intake were more stable in men whereas late-night eating was consistent in both genders. This is the first evidence of phenotypic differential vulnerability and trait-like stability of energy balance responses to repeated sleep restriction, underscoring the need for biomarkers and countermeasures to predict and mitigate this vulnerability. PMID:26446681

  11. [Responses of biological soil crust to and its relief effect on raindrop kinetic energy].

    PubMed

    Qin, Ning-qiang; Zhao, Yun-ge

    2011-09-01

    Based on the field investigation and by the method of simulated single-drop rain, this paper studied the responses of different types of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) in the wind-water erosion interleaving region of Loess Plateau to and their relief effect on the kinetic energy of raindrops. The responses of the biocrusts to raindrop kinetic energy had close relations with their biological composition. The cyanobacteria-dominated biocrusts with a thickness of 1 cm and the moss-dominated biocrusts with the coverage of 80% could resist in 0.99 J and 75.56 J of cumulative rain drop kinetic energy, respectively, and the potential resistance of the biocrusts with the same biological compositions was relative to the biomass of the biological compositions, i.e., the larger the biomass, the higher the resistance. As the chlorophyll a content of cyanobacteria- dominated biocrusts (which characterizes the cyanobacterial biomass) increased from 3.32 to 3.73 microg x g(-1), the resistance of the biocrusts against the cumulative raindrop kinetic energy increased from 0.99 to 2.17 J; when the moss biomass in the moss- dominated biocrusts increased from 2.03 to 4.73 g x dm(-2), the resistance of the crusts increased from 6.08 to 75.56 J. During the succession of the biocrusts, their responses to the raindrop kinetic energy presented an "S" pattern. No significant differences in the resistance against raindrop cumulative kinetic energy were observed between the cyanobacteria-dominated biocrusts with variable biomass, but the resistance of moss-dominated biocrusts increased significantly as their biomass per unit area increased. The resistance of moss-dominated biocrusts increased linearly when their biomass increased from 2.03 g x dm(-2) to 4.73 g x dm(-2). The moss-dominated biocrusts could resist in 62.03 J of raindrop kinetic energy when their biomass was up to 3.70 g x dm(-2). Biocrusts had obvious effects in relieving raindrop kinetic energy, and the relief effect

  12. Separating the nature and nurture of the allocation of energy in response to global change.

    PubMed

    Applebaum, Scott L; Pan, T-C Francis; Hedgecock, Dennis; Manahan, Donal T

    2014-07-01

    Understanding and predicting biological stability and change in the face of rapid anthropogenic modifications of ecosystems and geosystems are grand challenges facing environmental and life scientists. Physiologically, organisms withstand environmental stress through changes in biochemical regulation that maintain homeostasis, which necessarily demands tradeoffs in the use of metabolic energy. Evolutionarily, in response to environmentally forced energetic tradeoffs, populations adapt based on standing genetic variation in the ability of individual organisms to reallocate metabolic energy. Combined study of physiology and genetics, separating "Nature and Nurture," is, thus, the key to understanding the potential for evolutionary adaptation to future global change. To understand biological responses to global change, we need experimentally tractable model species that have the well-developed physiological, genetic, and genomic resources necessary for partitioning variance in the allocation of metabolic energy into its causal components. Model species allow for discovery and for experimental manipulation of relevant phenotypic contrasts and enable a systems-biology approach that integrates multiple levels of analyses to map genotypic-to-phenotypic variation. Here, we illustrate how combined physiological and genetic studies that focus on energy metabolism in developmental stages of a model marine organism contribute to an understanding of the potential to adapt to environmental change. This integrative research program provides insights that can be readily incorporated into individual-based ecological models of population persistence under global change.

  13. Energy crop (Sida hermaphrodita) fertilization using digestate under marginal soil conditions: A dose-response experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabel, Moritz; Bueno Piaz Barbosa, Daniela; Horsch, David; Jablonowski, Nicolai David

    2014-05-01

    The global demand for energy security and the mitigation of climate change are the main drivers pushing energy-plant production in Germany. However, the cultivation of these plants can cause land use conflicts since agricultural soil is mostly used for plant production. A sustainable alternative to the conventional cultivation of food-based energy-crops is the cultivation of special adopted energy-plants on marginal lands. To further increase the sustainability of energy-plant cultivation systems the dependency on synthetic fertilizers needs to be reduced via closed nutrient loops. In the presented study the energy-plant Sida hermaphrodita (Malvaceae) will be used to evaluate the potential to grow this high potential energy-crop on a marginal sandy soil in combination with fertilization via digestate from biogas production. With this dose-response experiment we will further identify an optimum dose, which will be compared to equivalent doses of NPK-fertilizer. Further, lethal doses and deficiency doses will be observed. Two weeks old Sida seedlings were transplanted to 1L pots and fertilized with six doses of digestate (equivalent to a field application of 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160t/ha) and three equivalent doses of NPK-fertilizer. Control plants were left untreated. Sida plants will grow for 45 days under greenhouse conditions. We hypothesize that the nutrient status of the marginal soil can be increased and maintained by defined digestate applications, compared to control plants suffering of nutrient deficiency due to the low nutrient status in the marginal substrate. The dose of 40t/ha is expected to give a maximum biomass yield without causing toxicity symptoms. Results shall be used as basis for further experiments on the field scale in a field trial that was set up to investigate sustainable production systems for energy crop production under marginal soil conditions.

  14. Solvent free energy curves for electron transfer reactions: A nonlinear solvent response model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiye, Toshiko

    1996-05-01

    Marcus theory for electron transfer assumes a linear response of the solvent so that both the reactant and product free energy curves are parabolic functions of the solvent polarization, each with the same solvent force constant k characterizing the curvature. Simulation data by other workers indicate that the assumption of parabolic free energy curves is good for the Fe2+-Fe3+ self-exchange reaction but that the k of the reactant and product free energy curves are different for the reaction D0+A0→D1-+A1+. However, the fluctuations sampled in these simulations were not large enough to reach the activation barrier region, which was thus treated either by umbrella sampling or by parabolic extrapolation. Here, we present free energy curves calculated from a simple model of ionic solvation developed in an earlier paper by Hyun, Babu, and Ichiye, which we refer to here as the HBI model. The HBI model describes the nonlinearity of the solvent response due to the orientation of polar solvent molecules. Since it is a continuum model, it may be considered the first-order nonlinear correction to the linear response Born model. Moreover, in the limit of zero charge or infinite radius, the Born model and the Marcus relations are recovered. Here, the full free energy curves are calculated using analytic expressions from the HBI model. The HBI reactant and product curves have different k for D0+A0→D1-+A1+ as in the simulations, but examining the full curves shows they are nonparabolic due to the nonlinear response of the solvent. On the other hand, the HBI curves are close to parabolic for the Fe2+-Fe3+ reaction, also in agreement with simulations, while those for another self-exchange reaction D0-A1+ show greater deviations from parabolic behavior than the Fe2+-Fe3+ reaction. This indicates that transitions from neutral to charged species will have the largest deviations. Thus, the second moment of the polarization is shown to be a measure of the deviation from Marcus

  15. Energy Differential Response of Cancer Cells for Low Dose Irradiation:Impact of Monoenergetic Brachytherapy Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Gueye, Paul; Prilepskiy, Yuriy; Keppel, Cynthia; Britten, R

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the energy differential response of cancer cells under identical dose exposure to asses the relevancy of mono-energetic sources for Brachytherapy treatments. Method and Materials: An electron energy spectrum impinging on lived breast cancer cell lines (MDA321) was obtained by placing a 19.65 {micro}Ci {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y radioactive source in front of a non-uniform magnetic field constructed from two 5.08 x 5.0 cm x 2.54 cm neodimium ion permanent dipole magnets with a 1 cm separation gap. The cell lines were placed on the exit pole face of the magnet and were subsequently irradiated with different electron energies ranging from about 0.75 MeV to 1.85 MeV. The energy distribution was accurately measured with a scintillating fiber detector system that provided a 0.5% agreement with ICRU and a 5% energy resolution. The dosimetry was performed using a series of data acquired with a {sup 9}Sr/{sup 90}Y 4.5 mCi SIA-6 eye applicator, 6-21 MeV fixed energies from a Varian 2100 EX linac, EBT Gafchromic and Kodak ERT2 films, and an ion chamber detector. The accuracy of the dose rate obtained at different locations along and away from the magnet inside the cell containers was within 10.7%. Results: The cell lines were irradiated with a 0.5-4 Gy dose range. The data indicate a very strong differential energy response for electrons around 1 MeV (more lethal) compare to those with lesser or greater energy and a survival rate of at most 10% at very low dose (0.5-2 Gy). Conclusion: Mono-energetic Brachytherapy sources may provide a new pathway for radio-therapy treatment optimizations following a dedicated study showing very unusual high lethality in a specific energy window for MDA321 breast cancer cells.

  16. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L; DeMello, Madison M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0 ± 3.3 years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6 weeks in random order. Energy expenditure and PA were measured with the SenseWear Mini Armband prior to each intervention as well as during week 1, week 8 and week 16 of the aerobic and resistance exercise program. Body composition was measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition did not change in response to either exercise intervention. Total daily energy expenditure on exercise days increased by 443 ± 126 kcal/d and 239 ± 152 kcal/d for aerobic and resistance exercise, respectively (p < 0.01). Non-exercise moderate-to-vigorous PA, however, decreased on aerobic exercise days (-148 ± 161 kcal/d; p = 0.03). There was no change in total daily energy expenditure and PA on non-exercise days with aerobic exercise while resistance exercise was associated with an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA during non-exercise days (216 ± 178 kcal/d, p = 0.01). Results of the present study suggest a compensatory reduction in PA in response to aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise, on the other hand, appears to facilitate non-exercise PA, particularly on non-exercise days, which may lead to more sustainable adaptations in response to an exercise program.

  17. Response of corn markets to climate volatility under alternative energy futures.

    PubMed

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Hertel, Thomas W; Scherer, Martin; Verma, Monika

    2012-07-01

    Recent price spikes(1,2) have raised concern that climate change could increase food insecurity by reducing grain yields in the coming decades(3,4). However, commodity price volatility is also influenced by other factors(5,6), which may either exacerbate or buffer the effects of climate change. Here we show that US corn price volatility exhibits higher sensitivity to near-term climate change than to energy policy influences or agriculture-energy market integration, and that the presence of a biofuels mandate enhances the sensitivity to climate change by more than 50%. The climate change impact is driven primarily by intensification of severe hot conditions in the primary corn-growing region of the US, which causes US corn price volatility to increase sharply in response to global warming projected over the next three decades. Closer integration of agriculture and energy markets moderates the effects of climate change, unless the biofuels mandate becomes binding, in which case corn price volatility is instead exacerbated. However, in spite of the substantial impact on US corn price volatility, we find relatively small impact on food prices. Our findings highlight the critical importance of interactions between energy policies, energy-agriculture linkages, and climate change.

  18. Response of corn markets to climate volatility under alternative energy futures

    PubMed Central

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Hertel, Thomas W.; Scherer, Martin; Verma, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Recent price spikes1,2 have raised concern that climate change could increase food insecurity by reducing grain yields in the coming decades3,4. However, commodity price volatility is also influenced by other factors5,6, which may either exacerbate or buffer the effects of climate change. Here we show that US corn price volatility exhibits higher sensitivity to near-term climate change than to energy policy influences or agriculture-energy market integration, and that the presence of a biofuels mandate enhances the sensitivity to climate change by more than 50%. The climate change impact is driven primarily by intensification of severe hot conditions in the primary corn-growing region of the US, which causes US corn price volatility to increase sharply in response to global warming projected over the next three decades. Closer integration of agriculture and energy markets moderates the effects of climate change, unless the biofuels mandate becomes binding, in which case corn price volatility is instead exacerbated. However, in spite of the substantial impact on US corn price volatility, we find relatively small impact on food prices. Our findings highlight the critical importance of interactions between energy policies, energy-agriculture linkages, and climate change. PMID:23243468

  19. Energy Dependent Responses of Relativistic Electron Fluxes in the Outer Radiation Belt to Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, L.

    2015-12-01

    Geomagnetic storms can either increase 4 or decrease relativistic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt. A statistical survey of 84 isolated storms demonstrates that geomagnetic storms preferentially decrease relativistic electron fluxes at higher energies while flux enhancements are more common at lower energies. In about 87% of the storms, 0.3-2.5 MeV electrons fluxes show increase, whereas 2.5-14 MeV electron fluxes increase in only 35% of the storms. Superposed epoch analyses suggest that such 'energy dependent' behavior of electrons preferably occurs during conditions of high solar wind density which is favorable to generate magnetospheric electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and these 'energy dependent' events are associated with relatively weaker chorus activities. We have examined one of the cases where observed EMIC waves can resonate effectively with >2.5 MeV electrons and scatter them into the atmosphere. The correlation study further illustrates that electron flux drop-outs during storm main phases do not correlate well with the flux build-up during storm recovery phases. We suggest that a combination of efficient EMIC-induced scattering and weaker chorus-driven acceleration provide a viable candidate for the energy dependent responses of outer radiation belt relativistic electrons to geomagnetic storms. These results are of great interest to both understanding of the radiation belt dynamics and applications in space weather.

  20. Response of corn markets to climate volatility under alternative energy futures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Hertel, Thomas W.; Scherer, Martin; Verma, Monika

    2012-07-01

    Recent price spikes have raised concern that climate change could increase food insecurity by reducing grain yields in the coming decades. However, commodity price volatility is also influenced by other factors, which may either exacerbate or buffer the effects of climate change. Here we show that US corn price volatility exhibits higher sensitivity to near-term climate change than to energy policy influences or agriculture-energy market integration, and that the presence of a biofuels mandate enhances the sensitivity to climate change by more than 50%. The climate change impact is driven primarily by intensification of severe hot conditions in the primary corn-growing region of the United States, which causes US corn price volatility to increase sharply in response to global warming projected to occur over the next three decades. Closer integration of agriculture and energy markets moderates the effects of climate change, unless the biofuels mandate becomes binding, in which case corn price volatility is instead exacerbated. However, in spite of the substantial impact on US corn price volatility, we find relatively small impact on food prices. Our findings highlight the critical importance of interactions between energy policies, energy-agriculture linkages and climate change.

  1. Energy efficiency options for the New England Demand Response Initiative (NEDRI) -- Framing paper No.4

    SciTech Connect

    Schlegel, Jeff

    2002-05-01

    In response to direction from the Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control (DPUC) in Docket 99-09-30, the Connecticut Light and Power Company (CL&P) has assessed the role of third parties (e.g., ESCOs) in its current energy efficiency programs as well as additional opportunities for third parties to participate in future programs. In addition to working with consultants to the Energy Conservation Management Board, CL&P asked an independent consultant to develop a descriptive framework (i.e., typology) that summarizes alternative approaches to using third parties in ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs. For each approach, experiences of energy efficiency program administrators (EEA) in other states are summarized, major policy objectives and goals that motivated regulators or EEAs to pursue that option are identified, and lessons learned (e.g., strengths and weaknesses) are summarized. Existing program offerings of CL&P are then classified using this typology in order to characterize the current situation in Connecticut and the potential implications for Connecticut's energy efficiency programs are discussed.

  2. Spatial optimization of an ideal wind energy system as a response to the intermittency of renewable energies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassonde, Sylvain; Boucher, Olivier; Breon, François-Marie; Tobin, Isabelle; Vautard, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The share of renewable energies in the mix of electricity production is increasing worldwide. This trend is driven by environmental and economic policies aiming at a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and an improvement of energy security. It is expected to continue in the forthcoming years and decades. Electricity production from renewables is related to weather and climate factors such as the diurnal and seasonal cycles of sunlight and wind, but is also linked to variability on all time scales. The intermittency in the renewable electricity production (solar, wind power) could eventually hinder their future deployment. Intermittency is indeed a challenge as demand and supply of electricity need to be balanced at any time. This challenge can be addressed by the deployment of an overcapacity in power generation (from renewable and/or thermal sources), a large-scale energy storage system and/or improved management of the demand. The main goal of this study is to optimize a hypothetical renewable energy system at the French and European scales in order to investigate if spatial diversity of the production (here electricity from wind energy) could be a response to the intermittency. We use ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-interim meteorological reanalysis and meteorological fields from the Weather Research and Forecasts (WRF) model to estimate the potential for wind power generation. Electricity demand and production are provided by the French electricity network (RTE) at the scale of administrative regions for years 2013 and 2014. Firstly we will show how the simulated production of wind power compares against the measured production at the national and regional scale. Several modelling and bias correction methods of wind power production will be discussed. Secondly, we will present results from an optimization procedure that aims to minimize some measure of the intermittency of wind energy. For instance we estimate the optimal

  3. Relative response of the alanine dosimeter to medium energy x-rays.

    PubMed

    Anton, M; Büermann, L

    2015-08-01

    The response of the alanine dosimeter to kilovoltage x-rays with respect to the dose to water was measured, relative to the response to Co-60 radiation.Two series of x-ray qualities were investigated, one ranging from 30 kV to 100 kV tube voltage (TW series), the other one ranging from 70 kV to 280 kV (TH series). Due to the use of the water calorimeter as a primary standard, the uncertainty of the delivered dose is significantly lower than for other published data. The alanine response was measured as described in a previous publication (Anton et al 2013 Phys. Med. Biol. 58 3259-82). The uncertainty component due to the alanine measurement and analysis is ⩽0.4%, the major part of the combined uncertainty of the relative response originates from the uncertainty of the delivered dose. The relative uncertainties of the relative response vary from ⩽2% for the TW series to ⩽1.1% for the TH series.Different from the behaviour of the alanine dosimeter for megavoltage x-rays or electrons, the relative response drops significantly from unity for Co-60 radiation to less than 64% for the TW quality with a tube voltage of 30 kV. In order to reproduce this behaviour through Monte Carlo simulations, not only the ratio of the absorbed dose to alanine to the absorbed dose to water has to be known, but also the intrinsic efficiency, i.e. the dependence of the number of free radicals generated per unit of absorbed dose on the photon energy. This quantity is not yet accessible for the TW series.For a possible use of the alanine dosimeter for kilovoltage x-rays, for example in electronic brachytherapy, users should rely on the measured data for the relative response which have become available with this publication. PMID:26216572

  4. Relative response of the alanine dosimeter to medium energy x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, M.; Büermann, L.

    2015-08-01

    The response of the alanine dosimeter to kilovoltage x-rays with respect to the dose to water was measured, relative to the response to Co-60 radiation. Two series of x-ray qualities were investigated, one ranging from 30 kV to 100 kV tube voltage (TW series), the other one ranging from 70 kV to 280 kV (TH series). Due to the use of the water calorimeter as a primary standard, the uncertainty of the delivered dose is significantly lower than for other published data. The alanine response was measured as described in a previous publication (Anton et al 2013 Phys. Med. Biol. 58 3259-82). The uncertainty component due to the alanine measurement and analysis is ⩽0.4%, the major part of the combined uncertainty of the relative response originates from the uncertainty of the delivered dose. The relative uncertainties of the relative response vary from ⩽2% for the TW series to ⩽1.1% for the TH series. Different from the behaviour of the alanine dosimeter for megavoltage x-rays or electrons, the relative response drops significantly from unity for Co-60 radiation to less than 64% for the TW quality with a tube voltage of 30 kV. In order to reproduce this behaviour through Monte Carlo simulations, not only the ratio of the absorbed dose to alanine to the absorbed dose to water has to be known, but also the intrinsic efficiency, i.e. the dependence of the number of free radicals generated per unit of absorbed dose on the photon energy. This quantity is not yet accessible for the TW series. For a possible use of the alanine dosimeter for kilovoltage x-rays, for example in electronic brachytherapy, users should rely on the measured data for the relative response which have become available with this publication.

  5. Relative response of the alanine dosimeter to medium energy x-rays.

    PubMed

    Anton, M; Büermann, L

    2015-08-01

    The response of the alanine dosimeter to kilovoltage x-rays with respect to the dose to water was measured, relative to the response to Co-60 radiation.Two series of x-ray qualities were investigated, one ranging from 30 kV to 100 kV tube voltage (TW series), the other one ranging from 70 kV to 280 kV (TH series). Due to the use of the water calorimeter as a primary standard, the uncertainty of the delivered dose is significantly lower than for other published data. The alanine response was measured as described in a previous publication (Anton et al 2013 Phys. Med. Biol. 58 3259-82). The uncertainty component due to the alanine measurement and analysis is ⩽0.4%, the major part of the combined uncertainty of the relative response originates from the uncertainty of the delivered dose. The relative uncertainties of the relative response vary from ⩽2% for the TW series to ⩽1.1% for the TH series.Different from the behaviour of the alanine dosimeter for megavoltage x-rays or electrons, the relative response drops significantly from unity for Co-60 radiation to less than 64% for the TW quality with a tube voltage of 30 kV. In order to reproduce this behaviour through Monte Carlo simulations, not only the ratio of the absorbed dose to alanine to the absorbed dose to water has to be known, but also the intrinsic efficiency, i.e. the dependence of the number of free radicals generated per unit of absorbed dose on the photon energy. This quantity is not yet accessible for the TW series.For a possible use of the alanine dosimeter for kilovoltage x-rays, for example in electronic brachytherapy, users should rely on the measured data for the relative response which have become available with this publication.

  6. Sedimentation rapidly induces an immune response and depletes energy stores in a hard coral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, C.; Grosjean, Ph.; Leblud, J.; Palmer, C. V.; Kushmaro, A.; Eeckhaut, I.

    2014-12-01

    High sedimentation rates have been linked to reduced coral health within multiple systems; however, whether this is a direct result of compromised coral immunity has not been previously investigated. The potential effects of sedimentation on immunity of the hard coral Montipora patula were examined by comparing physiological responses of coral fragments inoculated with sterilized marine sediments and those under control conditions. Sediments were collected from terrestrial runoff-affected reefs in SW Madagascar and applied cyclically for a total of 24 h at a rate observed during precipitation-induced sedimentation events. Coral health was determined 24 h after the onset of the sedimentation stress through measuring metabolic proxies of O2 budget and lipid ratios. Immune response of the melanin synthesis pathway was measured by quantifying phenoloxidase activity and melanin deposits. Sedimentation induced both immune and metabolic responses in M. patula. Both phenoloxidase activity and melanin deposition were significantly higher in the sediment treatment compared to controls, indicating an induced immune response. Sediment-treated corals also showed a tendency towards increased respiration (during the night) and decreased photosynthesis (during the day) and a significant depletion of energy reserves as compared to controls. These data highlight that short-term (24 h) sedimentation, free of live microorganisms, compromises the health of M. patula. The energetically costly immune response, potentially elicited by residual endotoxins and other inflammatory particles associated with the sterile sediments, likely contributes to the energy depletion. Overall, exposure to sedimentation adversely affects coral health and continued exposure may lead to resource depletion and an increased susceptibility to disease.

  7. Automated Demand Response Approaches to Household Energy Management in a Smart Grid Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adika, Christopher Otieno

    The advancement of renewable energy technologies and the deregulation of the electricity market have seen the emergence of Demand response (DR) programs. Demand response is a cost-effective load management strategy which enables the electricity suppliers to maintain the integrity of the power grid during high peak periods, when the customers' electrical load is high. DR programs are designed to influence electricity users to alter their normal consumption patterns by offering them financial incentives. A well designed incentive-based DR scheme that offer competitive electricity pricing structure can result in numerous benefits to all the players in the electricity market. Lower power consumption during peak periods will significantly enhance the robustness of constrained networks by reducing the level of power of generation and transmission infrastructure needed to provide electric service. Therefore, this will ease the pressure of building new power networks as we avoiding costly energy procurements thereby translating into huge financial savings for the power suppliers. Peak load reduction will also reduce the inconveniences suffered by end users as a result of brownouts or blackouts. Demand response will also drastically lower the price peaks associated with wholesale markets. This will in turn reduce the electricity costs and risks for all the players in the energy market. Additionally, DR is environmentally friendly since it enhances the flexibility of the power grid through accommodation of renewable energy resources. Despite its many benefits, DR has not been embraced by most electricity networks. This can be attributed to the fact that the existing programs do not provide enough incentives to the end users and, therefore, most electricity users are not willing to participate in them. To overcome these challenges, most utilities are coming up with innovative strategies that will be more attractive to their customers. Thus, this dissertation presents various

  8. Verbal labels selectively bias brain responses to high-energy foods.

    PubMed

    Toepel, Ulrike; Ohla, Kathrin; Hudry, Julie; le Coutre, Johannes; Murray, Micah M

    2014-02-15

    The influence of external factors on food preferences and choices is poorly understood. Knowing which and how food-external cues impact the sensory processing and cognitive valuation of food would provide a strong benefit toward a more integrative understanding of food intake behavior and potential means of interfering with deviant eating patterns to avoid detrimental health consequences for individuals in the long run. We investigated whether written labels with positive and negative (as opposed to 'neutral') valence differentially modulate the spatio-temporal brain dynamics in response to the subsequent viewing of high- and low-energetic food images. Electrical neuroimaging analyses were applied to visual evoked potentials (VEPs) from 20 normal-weight participants. VEPs and source estimations in response to high- and low- energy foods were differentially affected by the valence of preceding word labels over the ~260-300 ms post-stimulus period. These effects were only observed when high-energy foods were preceded by labels with positive valence. Neural sources in occipital as well as posterior, frontal, insular and cingulate regions were down-regulated. These findings favor cognitive-affective influences especially on the visual responses to high-energetic food cues, potentially indicating decreases in cognitive control and goal-adaptive behavior. Inverse correlations between insular activity and effectiveness in food classification further indicate that this down-regulation directly impacts food-related behavior. PMID:24185017

  9. Fascicles from energy-storing tendons show an age-specific response to cyclic fatigue loading.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Chavaunne T; Riley, Graham P; Birch, Helen L; Clegg, Peter D; Screen, Hazel R C

    2014-03-01

    Some tendons, such as the human Achilles and equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), act as energy stores, stretching and recoiling to increase efficiency during locomotion. Our previous observations of rotation in response to applied strain in SDFT fascicles suggest a helical structure, which may provide energy-storing tendons with a greater ability to extend and recoil efficiently. Despite this specialization, energy-storing tendons are prone to age-related tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cyclic fatigue loading (FL) on the microstructural strain response of SDFT fascicles from young and old horses. The data demonstrate two independent age-related mechanisms of fatigue failure; in young horses, FL caused low levels of matrix damage and decreased rotation. This suggests that loading causes alterations to the helix substructure, which may reduce their ability to recoil and recover. By contrast, fascicles from old horses, in which the helix is already compromised, showed greater evidence of matrix damage and suffer increased fibre sliding after FL, which may partially explain the age-related increase in tendinopathy. Elucidation of helix structure and the precise alterations occurring owing to both ageing and FL will help to develop appropriate preventative and repair strategies for tendinopathy.

  10. Comparison of New Methods for Assessing Community Response to High Energy Impulsive Sounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fidell, Sanford; Pearsons, Karl S.

    1996-01-01

    The latest CHABA Working Group to have reviewed published information about the effects of high energy impulsive sounds (such as sonic booms) on communities has recommended abandonment of the dosage-response relationship identified by its predecessor in favor of two alternate prediction method. Both of the new assessment methods continue to rely on C-weighted measurements of impulsive sounds One of the two assessment methods retains the standard assumptions of the 'equal energy hypothesis' (the notion that annoyance is governed simply by the product of level, duration, and number noise events), and further assumes that the rate of growth of the prevalence of annoyance is proportional to the rate of growth of loudness with level. The other assessment method, however, assumes a level dependent (non-equal energy) summation of the C-weighted sound exposure levels of individual impulsive events. Since predictions of the second method are distribution-dependent, they are not readily represents graphically in the form of a single dosage-response function. The effects on annoyance predictions of variance in distributions of CSEL values of impulsive sounds are explored in this presentation.

  11. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response in the California Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank; Faulkner, David; McKane, Aimee

    2010-12-22

    This study examines the characteristics of cement plants and their ability to shed or shift load to participate in demand response (DR). Relevant factors investigated include the various equipment and processes used to make cement, the operational limitations cement plants are subject to, and the quantities and sources of energy used in the cement-making process. Opportunities for energy efficiency improvements are also reviewed. The results suggest that cement plants are good candidates for DR participation. The cement industry consumes over 400 trillion Btu of energy annually in the United States, and consumes over 150 MW of electricity in California alone. The chemical reactions required to make cement occur only in the cement kiln, and intermediate products are routinely stored between processing stages without negative effects. Cement plants also operate continuously for months at a time between shutdowns, allowing flexibility in operational scheduling. In addition, several examples of cement plants altering their electricity consumption based on utility incentives are discussed. Further study is needed to determine the practical potential for automated demand response (Auto-DR) and to investigate the magnitude and shape of achievable sheds and shifts.

  12. Energy Consumption and Control Response Evaluations of AODV Routing in WSANs for Building-Temperature Control

    PubMed Central

    Booranawong, Apidet; Teerapabkajorndet, Wiklom; Limsakul, Chusak

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of routing protocols on wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs), focusing on the control system response and the energy consumption of nodes in a network. We demonstrate that routing algorithms designed without considering the relationship between communication and control cannot be appropriately used in wireless networked control applications. For this purpose, an ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing, an IEEE 802.15.4, and a building-temperature control system are employed for this exploration. The findings from our scenarios show that the AODV routing can select a path with a high traffic load for data transmission. It takes a long time before deciding to change a new route although it experiences the unsuccessful transmission of packets. As a result, the desirable control target cannot be achieved in time, and nodes consume more energy due to frequent packet collisions and retransmissions. Consequently, we propose a simple routing solution to alleviate these research problems by modifying the original AODV routing protocol. The delay-threshold is considered to avoid any congested connection during routing procedures. The simulation results demonstrate that our solution can be appropriately applied in WSANs. Both the energy consumption and the control system response are improved. PMID:23807689

  13. Fascicles from energy-storing tendons show an age-specific response to cyclic fatigue loading

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Chavaunne T.; Riley, Graham P.; Birch, Helen L.; Clegg, Peter D.; Screen, Hazel R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Some tendons, such as the human Achilles and equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), act as energy stores, stretching and recoiling to increase efficiency during locomotion. Our previous observations of rotation in response to applied strain in SDFT fascicles suggest a helical structure, which may provide energy-storing tendons with a greater ability to extend and recoil efficiently. Despite this specialization, energy-storing tendons are prone to age-related tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cyclic fatigue loading (FL) on the microstructural strain response of SDFT fascicles from young and old horses. The data demonstrate two independent age-related mechanisms of fatigue failure; in young horses, FL caused low levels of matrix damage and decreased rotation. This suggests that loading causes alterations to the helix substructure, which may reduce their ability to recoil and recover. By contrast, fascicles from old horses, in which the helix is already compromised, showed greater evidence of matrix damage and suffer increased fibre sliding after FL, which may partially explain the age-related increase in tendinopathy. Elucidation of helix structure and the precise alterations occurring owing to both ageing and FL will help to develop appropriate preventative and repair strategies for tendinopathy. PMID:24402919

  14. Energy consumption and control response evaluations of AODV routing in WSANs for building-temperature control.

    PubMed

    Booranawong, Apidet; Teerapabkajorndet, Wiklom; Limsakul, Chusak

    2013-06-27

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of routing protocols on wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs), focusing on the control system response and the energy consumption of nodes in a network. We demonstrate that routing algorithms designed without considering the relationship between communication and control cannot be appropriately used in wireless networked control applications. For this purpose, an ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing, an IEEE 802.15.4, and a building-temperature control system are employed for this exploration. The findings from our scenarios show that the AODV routing can select a path with a high traffic load for data transmission. It takes a long time before deciding to change a new route although it experiences the unsuccessful transmission of packets. As a result, the desirable control target cannot be achieved in time, and nodes consume more energy due to frequent packet collisions and retransmissions. Consequently, we propose a simple routing solution to alleviate these research problems by modifying the original AODV routing protocol. The delay-threshold is considered to avoid any congested connection during routing procedures. The simulation results demonstrate that our solution can be appropriately applied in WSANs. Both the energy consumption and the control system response are improved.

  15. Calibration of BAS-TR image plate response to high energy (3-300 MeV) carbon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doria, D.; Kar, S.; Ahmed, H.; Alejo, A.; Fernandez, J.; Cerchez, M.; Gray, R. J.; Hanton, F.; MacLellan, D. A.; McKenna, P.; Najmudin, Z.; Neely, D.; Romagnani, L.; Ruiz, J. A.; Sarri, G.; Scullion, C.; Streeter, M.; Swantusch, M.; Willi, O.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the calibration of Fuji BAS-TR image plate (IP) response to high energy carbon ions of different charge states by employing an intense laser-driven ion source, which allowed access to carbon energies up to 270 MeV. The calibration method consists of employing a Thomson parabola spectrometer to separate and spectrally resolve different ion species, and a slotted CR-39 solid state detector overlayed onto an image plate for an absolute calibration of the IP signal. An empirical response function was obtained which can be reasonably extrapolated to higher ion energies. The experimental data also show that the IP response is independent of ion charge states.

  16. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Song, Katherine; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory?s research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities for wastewater treatment facilities in California. The report describes the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy use and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities. In addition, several energy efficiency and load management case studies are provided for wastewater treatment facilities.This study shows that wastewater treatment facilities can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for automated demand response at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to open automated demand response due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  17. Low energy x-ray response of Ge detectors with amorphous Ge entrance contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, P.N.; Rossington, C.S.; Wesela, M.F.

    1993-10-01

    The low energy x-ray response of GI detectors with amorphous GI entrance contacts has been evaluated. The spectral background due to near contact incomplete charge collection was found to consist of two components: a low level component which is insensitive to applied voltage and a high level step-like component which is voltage dependent. At high operating voltages, the high level component can be completely suppressed, resulting in background levels which are much lower than those previously observed using GI detectors with Pd surface barrier or B ion implanted contacts, and which also compare favorably to those obtained with Si(Li) x-ray detectors. The response of these detectors to {sup 55}Fe and 1.77 keV x-rays is shown. A qualitative explanation of the origins of the observed background components is presented.

  18. Physical origin of the high energy optical response of three dimensional photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Dorado, Luis A; Depine, Ricardo A; Lozano, Gabriel; Míguez, Hernán

    2007-12-24

    The physical origin of the optical response observed in three-dimensional photonic crystals when the photon wavelength is equal or lower than the lattice parameter still remains unsatisfactorily explained and is the subject of an intense and interesting debate. Herein we demonstrate for the first time that all optical spectra features in this high energy region of photonic crystals arise from electromagnetic resonances within the ordered array, modified by the interplay between these resonances with the opening of diffraction channels, the presence of imperfections and finite size effects. All these four phenomena are taken into account in our theoretical approach to the problem, which allows us to provide a full description of the observed optical response based on fundamental phenomena as well as to attain fair fittings of experimental results.

  19. Linear-response theory for Mukherjee's multireference coupled-cluster method: Excitation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagau, Thomas-C.; Gauss, Jürgen

    2012-07-01

    The recently presented linear-response function for Mukherjee's multireference coupled-cluster method (Mk-MRCC) [T.-C. Jagau and J. Gauss, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 044115 (2012)], 10.1063/1.4734308 is employed to determine vertical excitation energies within the singles and doubles approximation (Mk-MRCCSD-LR) for ozone as well as for o-benzyne, m-benzyne, and p-benzyne, which display increasing multireference character in their ground states. In order to assess the impact of a multireference ground-state wavefunction on excitation energies, we compare all our results to those obtained at the single-reference coupled-cluster level of theory within the singles and doubles as well as within the singles, doubles, and triples approximation. Special attention is paid to the artificial splitting of certain excited states which arises from the redundancy intrinsic to Mk-MRCC theory and hinders the straightforward application of the Mk-MRCC-LR method.

  20. Random phase approximation correlation energy using a compact representation for linear response functions: application to solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaoui, Fawzi; Rocca, Dario

    2016-01-01

    A new approach was recently presented to compute correlation energies within the random phase approximation using Lanczos chains and an optimal basis set (Rocca 2014 J. Chem. Phys. 140 18A501). This novel method avoids the explicit calculation of conduction states and represents linear response functions on a compact auxiliary basis set obtained from the diagonalization of an approximate dielectric matrix that contains only the kinetic energy contribution. Here, we extend this formalism, originally implemented for molecular systems, to treat periodic solids. In particular, the approximate dielectric matrix used to build the auxiliary basis set is generalized to avoid unphysical negative gaps, that make the model inefficient. The numerical convergence of the method is discussed and the accuracy is demonstrated considering a set including three covalently bonded (C, Si, and SiC) and three weakly bonded (Ne, Ar, and Kr) solids.

  1. The angular dependence of an Si energy deposition spectrometer response at several radiation sources.

    PubMed

    Spurný, Frantisek; Trompier, François; Bottollier-Depois, Jean-François

    2005-06-01

    An MDU-Liulin spectrometer based on an Si-diode was mainly used during the last few years with the goal to use them for measurements onboard aircraft. To investigate its ability to obtain such measurements, the detector was tested in some radiation reference fields, like 60Co and other photon beams, neutrons of an AmBe and 252Cf sources and in high-energy radiation fields at CERN. Due to the high geometrical asymmetry of the Si-diode semiconductor, an angular dependence of the response would be expected. This work presents analyses and discusses the results of angular dependence studies obtained at the different radiation sources mentioned. It was found that these angular dependences vary with the type and energy of radiation. The influence of these variations on the use as a dosimeter onboard aircraft is also studied and discussed.

  2. Affine-response model of molecular solvation of ions: Accurate predictions of asymmetric charging free energies

    PubMed Central

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Jungwirth, Pavel; Makowski, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to drive asymmetric solvent response to a solute charge: a static potential contribution similar to the liquid-vapor potential, and a steric contribution associated with a water molecule's structure and charge distribution. In this work, we use free-energy perturbation molecular-dynamics calculations in explicit water to show that these mechanisms act in complementary regimes; the large static potential (∼44 kJ/mol/e) dominates asymmetric response for deeply buried charges, and the steric contribution dominates for charges near the solute-solvent interface. Therefore, both mechanisms must be included in order to fully account for asymmetric solvation in general. Our calculations suggest that the steric contribution leads to a remarkable deviation from the popular “linear response” model in which the reaction potential changes linearly as a function of charge. In fact, the potential varies in a piecewise-linear fashion, i.e., with different proportionality constants depending on the sign of the charge. This discrepancy is significant even when the charge is completely buried, and holds for solutes larger than single atoms. Together, these mechanisms suggest that implicit-solvent models can be improved using a combination of affine response (an offset due to the static potential) and piecewise-linear response (due to the steric contribution). PMID:23020318

  3. Protein-energy malnutrition decreases immune response to Leishmania chagasi vaccine in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Malafaia, G; Serafim, T D; Silva, M E; Pedrosa, M L; Rezende, S A

    2009-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition and visceral leishmaniasis are important problems of public health affecting millions of people worldwide. Vaccine efficacy depends on the ability of individuals to mount an appropriate immune response and may be inadequate in malnourished persons. In this study, we used a mouse model to verify the effect of combined protein, iron and zinc deficiency in the response to Leishmania chagasi antigen vaccine. BALB/c mice were fed with a low-protein (3% casein), iron- and zinc-deficient diet or control diet (14% casein and sufficient in zinc and iron). After malnutrition establishment, mice were vaccinated subcutaneously with L. chagasi Ag plus saponin. After vaccination, mice were nutritionally repleted and then all mice were challenged with L. chagasi promastigotes. Four weeks later, liver and spleen parasite load was evaluated. Our data show that vaccine caused a significant reduction in parasite load in spleen and liver from mice fed with control diet. However, splenic parasitism was increased in mice fed with deficient diet and this diet caused a reduction in splenocyte IFN-gamma production in response to the vaccine in repleted mice. These data suggest that malnutrition may alter immune response to L. chagasi vaccine in BALB/c model of infection, even after nutritional repletion.

  4. Dosimetric response of radiochromic films to protons of low energies in the Bragg peak region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, M. C.; Schardt, D.; Espino, J. M.; Gallardo, M. I.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Quesada, J. M.; Lallena, A. M.; Miras, H.; Guirado, D.

    2016-06-01

    One of the major advantages of proton or ion beams, applied in cancer treatment, is their excellent depth-dose profile exhibiting a low dose in the entrance channel and a distinct dose maximum (Bragg peak) near the end of range in tissue. In the region of the Bragg peak, where the protons or ions are almost stopped, experimental studies with low-energy particle beams and thin biological samples may contribute valuable information on the biological effectiveness in the stopping region. Such experiments, however, require beam optimization and special dosimetry techniques for determining the absolute dose and dose homogeneity for very thin biological samples. At the National Centre of Accelerators in Seville, one of the beam lines at the 3 MV Tandem Accelerator was equipped with a scattering device, a special parallel-plate ionization chamber with very thin electrode foils and target holders for cell cultures. In this work, we present the calibration in absolute dose of EBT3 films [Gafchromic radiotherapy films, http://www.ashland.com/products/gafchromic-radiotherapy-films] for proton energies in the region of the Bragg peak, where the linear energy transfer increases and becomes more significant for radiobiology studies, as well as the response of the EBT3 films for different proton energy values. To irradiate the films in the Bragg peak region, the energy of the beam was degraded passively, by interposing Mylar foils of variable thickness to place the Bragg peak inside the active layer of the film. The results obtained for the beam degraded in Mylar foils are compared with the dose calculated by means of the measurement of the beam fluence with an ionization chamber and the energy loss predicted by srim2008 code.

  5. Why energy from waste incineration is an essential component of environmentally responsible waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Porteous, A. . E-mail: s.j.lumbers@open.ac.uk

    2005-07-01

    This paper outlines the key factors involved in adopting energy from waste incineration (EfWI) as part of a waste management strategy. Incineration means all forms of controlled direct combustion of waste. 'Emerging' technologies, such as gasification, are, in the author's view, 5 to 10 years from proven commercial application. The strict combustion regimen employed and the emissions therefrom are detailed. It is shown that EfWI merits consideration as an integral part of an environmentally responsible and sustainable waste management strategy, where suitable quantities of waste are available.

  6. Response of a tungsten powder target to an incident high energy proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Fitton, M.; Loveridge, P.; O'Dell, J.; Charitonidis, N.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fabich, A.; Rivkin, L.

    2014-10-01

    The experiment described in this paper is the first study of the response of a static tungsten powder sample to an impinging high energy proton beam pulse. The experiment was carried out at the HiRadMat facility at CERN. Observations include high speed videos of a proton beam induced perturbation of the powder sample as well as data from a laser Doppler vibrometer measuring the oscillations of the powder container. A comparison with a previous analogous experiment which studied a proton beam interaction with mercury is made.

  7. Increased energy expenditure by a seabird in response to higher food abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Roby, D.D.; Suryan, R.M.; Irons, D.B.; Turco, K.R.; Brown, E.D.; Thedinga, J.F.; Visser, G.H.

    2006-01-01

    Variability in forage fish abundance strongly affects seabird behavior and reproductive success, although details of this relationship are unclear. During 1997 and 1998, we measured (1) daily energy expenditure (DEE) of 80 parent black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla at 2 colonies in Prince William Sound, Alaska (North Icy Bay and Shoup Bay), (2) abundance of surface-schooling forage fishes within the foraging range of each colony, and (3) diet composition, energy delivery rates to nestlings, and reproductive success of kittiwakes at these same colonies. Female DEE was highest at North Icy Bay in 1998, while male DEE did not differ by colony year. Abundances of Pacific herring Clupea pallasi and sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus were highest near North Icy Bay in 1998 and nearly egual in density, although Age 1+ herring comprised the majority of the diet there. Energy delivery rates to nestlings, nestling growth rates, and productivity were also highest at North Icy Bay in 1998. We suggest that female kittiwakes responded to the increased abundance of Age 1+ herring near North Icy Bay in 1998 by increasing their DEE, which in turn positively affected reproductive success. Given that adult kittiwakes have been shown to suffer decreased survival as a response to increased energy expenditure during brood rearing, the positive correlation we observed between increased abundance of a high quality food source, parental effort, and productivity is consistent with maximizing lifetime reproductive success. The lack of a response in male DEE suggests that brood-rearing roles in kittiwakes differ between genders. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  8. Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…

  9. Energy response of GR-200A thermoluminescence dosemeters to 60Co and to monoenergetic synchrotron radiation in the energy range 28-40 keV.

    PubMed

    Emiro, F; Di Lillo, F; Mettivier, G; Fedon, C; Longo, R; Tromba, G; Russo, P

    2016-01-01

    The response of LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescence dosemeters (type GR-200A) to monoenergetic radiation of energy 28, 35, 38 and 40 keV was evaluated with respect to irradiation with a calibrated (60)Co gamma-ray source. High-precision measurements of the relative air kerma response performed at the SYRMEP beamline of the ELETTRA synchrotron radiation facility (Trieste, Italy) showed a significant deviation of the average response to low-energy X-rays from that to (60)Co, with an over-response from 6 % (at 28 keV) to 22 % (at 40 keV). These data are not consistent with literature data for these dosemeters, where model predictions gave deviation from unity of the relative air kerma response of about 10 %. The authors conclude for the need of additional determinations of the low-energy relative response of GR-200A dosemeters, covering a wider range of monoenergetic energies sampled at a fine energy step, as planned in future experiments by their group at the ELETTRA facility.

  10. Low energy response of the NICER detectors and "threshold efficiency" effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigozhin, Gregory; Doty, John; LaMarr, Beverly; Malonis, Andrew; Remillard, Ronald A.; Scholze, Frank; Laubis, Christian; Krumrey, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) is an instrument that is planned to be installed on the International Space Station in 2016 to study time-resolved spectra of the rapidly changing celestial ojects. The focal plane of the instrument consists of 56 Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs). Signal from each SDD is fed to shaping amplifiers and triggering circuits that determine both amplitude and time of arrival for each "event".Zero crossing timing circuit is used in order to suppress energy dependent "time walk". That is done with a chain producing a derivative of the shaped signal, and the same chain detects threshold crossings marking the arrival of an X-ray photon. Higher noise of the differentiated signal leads to a somewhat extended band of signal amplitudes close to the threshold value, for which detection efficiency is less than 100%. Detection efficiency in this area affects the low energy portion of the detector response, and is very well described by an error function. We will present accurate measurements of this effect, show the consequences for the instrument quantum efficiency and the shape of the response function and will describe the calibration procedures that would allow selection of optimal threshold values for each observation.

  11. Amchitka Island, Alaska, Potential U.S. Department of Energy Site Responsibilities

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-01-22

    This historical records review report concerns the activities of the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) at Amchitka Island, Alaska, over a period extending from 1942 to 1993. The report focuses on AEC activities resulting in known or suspected contamination of the island environment by nonradiological hazardous or toxic materials as discerned through historical records. In addition, the information from historical records was augmented by an August 1998 sampling event. Both the records review and sampling were conducted by IT Corporation on behalf of the US Department of Energy (DOE), the predecessor agency to the AEC. The intent of this investigation was to identify all potentially contaminated sites for which DOE may be responsible, wholly or partially, including all official sites of concern as recognized by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Additionally, potential data gaps that the DOE will need to fill to support the ecological and human health risk assessments performed were identified. A review of the available historical information regarding AEC's activities on Amchitka Island indicates that the DOE is potentially responsible for 11 sites identified by USFWS and an additional 10 sites that are not included in the USFWS database of sites of potential concern.

  12. Characterizing the spatio-temporal and energy-dependent response of riometer absorption to particle precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerman, Adam; Makarevich, Roman; Spanswick, Emma; Donovan, Eric; Shprits, Yuri

    2016-07-01

    Energetic electrons in the 10's of keV range precipitate to the upper D- and lower E-region ionosphere, and are responsible for enhanced ionization. The same particles are important in the inner magnetosphere, as they provide a source of energy for waves, and thus relate to relativistic electron enhancements in Earth's radiation belts.In situ observations of plasma populations and waves are usually limited to a single point, which complicates temporal and spatial analysis. Also, the lifespan of satellite missions is often limited to several years which does not allow one to infer long-term climatology of particle precipitation, important for affecting ionospheric conditions at high latitudes. Multi-point remote sensing of the ionospheric plasma conditions can provide a global view of both ionospheric and magnetospheric conditions, and the coupling between magnetospheric and ionospheric phenomena can be examined on time-scales that allow comprehensive statistical analysis. In this study we utilize multi-point riometer measurements in conjunction with in situ satellite data, and physics-based modeling to investigate the spatio-temporal and energy-dependent response of riometer absorption. Quantifying this relationship may be a key to future advancements in our understanding of the complex D-region ionosphere, and may lead to enhanced specification of auroral precipitation both during individual events and over climatological time-scales.

  13. Negative energy balance in a male songbird, the Abert's towhee, constrains the testicular endocrine response to luteinizing hormone stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Scott; Gao, Sisi; Valle, Shelley; Bittner, Stephanie; Hutton, Pierce; Meddle, Simone L.; Deviche, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Energy deficiency can suppress reproductive function in vertebrates. As the orchestrator of reproductive function, endocrine activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis is potentially an important mechanism mediating such effects. Previous experiments in wild-caught birds found inconsistent relationships between energy deficiency and seasonal reproductive function, but these experiments focused on baseline HPG axis activity and none have investigated the responsiveness of this axis to endocrine stimulation. Here, we present data from an experiment in Abert's towhees, Melozone aberti, using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) challenges to investigate whether energy deficiency modulates the plasma testosterone responsiveness of the HPG axis. Wild-caught birds were either ad libitum fed or energetically constrained via chronic food restriction during photoinduced reproductive development. Energy deficiency did not significantly affect the development of reproductive morphology, the baseline endocrine activity of the HPG axis, or the plasma testosterone response to GnRH challenge. Energy deficiency did, however, decrease the plasma testosterone responsiveness to LH challenge. Collectively, these observations suggest that energy deficiency has direct gonadal effects consisting of a decreased responsiveness to LH stimulation. Our study, therefore, reveals a mechanism by which energy deficiency modulates reproductive function in wild birds in the absence of detectable effects on baseline HPG axis activity. PMID:26333925

  14. Increased dietary protein attenuates C-reactive protein and creatine kinase responses to exercise-induced energy deficit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined if dietary protein (P) modulates responses of C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase (CK), biomarkers of inflammation and muscle damage, during exercise-induced energy deficit (DEF). Thirteen healthy men (22 +/- 1 y, VO2peak 60 +/- 2 ml.kg-1.min-1) balanced energy expenditure (EE...

  15. Relaxation response induces temporal transcriptome changes in energy metabolism, insulin secretion and inflammatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, Manoj K; Dusek, Jeffery A; Chang, Bei-Hung; Joseph, Marie G; Denninger, John W; Fricchione, Gregory L; Benson, Herbert; Libermann, Towia A

    2013-01-01

    The relaxation response (RR) is the counterpart of the stress response. Millennia-old practices evoking the RR include meditation, yoga and repetitive prayer. Although RR elicitation is an effective therapeutic intervention that counteracts the adverse clinical effects of stress in disorders including hypertension, anxiety, insomnia and aging, the underlying molecular mechanisms that explain these clinical benefits remain undetermined. To assess rapid time-dependent (temporal) genomic changes during one session of RR practice among healthy practitioners with years of RR practice and also in novices before and after 8 weeks of RR training, we measured the transcriptome in peripheral blood prior to, immediately after, and 15 minutes after listening to an RR-eliciting or a health education CD. Both short-term and long-term practitioners evoked significant temporal gene expression changes with greater significance in the latter as compared to novices. RR practice enhanced expression of genes associated with energy metabolism, mitochondrial function, insulin secretion and telomere maintenance, and reduced expression of genes linked to inflammatory response and stress-related pathways. Interactive network analyses of RR-affected pathways identified mitochondrial ATP synthase and insulin (INS) as top upregulated critical molecules (focus hubs) and NF-κB pathway genes as top downregulated focus hubs. Our results for the first time indicate that RR elicitation, particularly after long-term practice, may evoke its downstream health benefits by improving mitochondrial energy production and utilization and thus promoting mitochondrial resiliency through upregulation of ATPase and insulin function. Mitochondrial resiliency might also be promoted by RR-induced downregulation of NF-κB-associated upstream and downstream targets that mitigates stress. PMID:23650531

  16. Responses of energy partitioning and surface resistance to drought in a poplar plantation in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M.; Zhang, Z.; Noormets, A.; Fang, X.; Zha, T.; Zhou, J.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S.; Chen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Poplar (Populus sp.) plantations have been used broadly for combating desertification, urban greening, and paper and wood production in northern China. However, given the high water use by the species and the regional dry environment, the long-term sustainability of these plantations needs to be evaluated. Currently, the understanding of energy partitioning and canopy resistance to water vapor and CO2 in poplar plantations is limited, impeding an accurate assessment of their true ecosystem functions. This study examined the variability of canopy bulk resistance parameters and energy partitioning over a four-year period encompassing both dry and wet conditions in a poplar (Populus euramericana CV. "74 / 76") plantation ecosystem located in northern China. Available energy (Net radiation Rn minus Soil Heat Flux, G) partitioning to latent (LE) and sensible (H) heat was responsive to climatological drought, with LE/(Rn-G) ranging from 62% in wet years (e.g. 2007 and 2008) to 53% in dry years (e.g. 2006 and 2009), and H/(Rn-G) from 25 to 33% between wet and dry years. Correspondingly, the Bowen ratio (β=H/LE) were 0.83 and 1.57. Surface resistance (Rs) had the greatest response to drought (+43%), but the aerodynamic and climatological resistances did not change significantly (p > 0.05). Partial correlation analysis indicated that Rs was the dominant factor in controlling the Bowen ratio. Furthermore, Rs was the major factor controlling LE during the growing season, even in wet years, as indicated by the decoupling coefficient (Ω = 0.45 and 0.39 in wet and dry years, respectively), and the LE / LEeq ratio ranged from 0.81 and 0.68 in wet and dry years, respectively. In general, the dry surface conditions dominated in this poplar plantation ecosystem regardless of soil water availability suggesting that fast-growing and water use-intensive species like poplar plantations are poorly adapted for the water limited region.

  17. Explicit solvent simulations of the aqueous oxidation potential and reorganization energy for neutral molecules: gas phase, linear solvent response, and non-linear response contributions.

    PubMed

    Guerard, Jennifer J; Tentscher, Peter R; Seijo, Marianne; Samuel Arey, J

    2015-06-14

    First principles simulations were used to predict aqueous one-electron oxidation potentials (Eox) and associated half-cell reorganization energies (λaq) for aniline, phenol, methoxybenzene, imidazole, and dimethylsulfide. We employed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the oxidized and reduced species in an explicit aqueous solvent, followed by EOM-IP-CCSD computations with effective fragment potentials for diabatic energy gaps of solvated clusters, and finally thermodynamic integration of the non-linear solvent response contribution using classical MD. A priori predicted Eox and λaq values exhibit mean absolute errors of 0.17 V and 0.06 eV, respectively, compared to experiment. We also disaggregate Eox into several well-defined free energy properties, including the gas phase adiabatic free energy of ionization (7.73 to 8.82 eV), the solvent-induced shift in the free energy of ionization due to linear solvent response (-2.01 to -2.73 eV), and the contribution from non-linear solvent response (-0.07 to -0.14 eV). The linear solvent response component is further apportioned into contributions from the solvent-induced shift in vertical ionization energy of the reduced species (ΔVIEaq) and the solvent-induced shift in negative vertical electron affinity of the ionized species (ΔNVEAaq). The simulated ΔVIEaq and ΔNVEAaq are found to contribute the principal sources of uncertainty in computational estimates of Eox and λaq. Trends in the magnitudes of disaggregated solvation properties are found to correlate with trends in structural and electronic features of the solute. Finally, conflicting approaches for evaluating the aqueous reorganization energy are contrasted and discussed, and concluding recommendations are given.

  18. Disturbance of wildlife by outdoor winter recreation: allostatic stress response and altered activity-energy budgets.

    PubMed

    Arlettaz, Raphaël; Nusslé, Sébastien; Baltic, Marjana; Vogel, Peter; Palme, Rupert; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Patthey, Patrick; Genoud, Michel

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance of wildlife is of growing conservation concern, but we lack comprehensive approaches of its multiple negative effects. We investigated several effects of disturbance by winter outdoor sports on free-ranging alpine Black Grouse by simultaneously measuring their physiological and behavioral responses. We experimentally flushed radio-tagged Black Grouse from their snow burrows, once a day, during several successive days, and quantified their stress hormone levels (corticosterone metabolites in feces [FCM] collected. from individual snow burrows). We also measured feeding time allocation (activity budgets reconstructed from radio-emitted signals) in response to anthropogenic disturbance. Finally, we estimated the related extra energy expenditure that may be incurred: based on activity budgets, energy expenditure was modeled from measures of metabolism obtained from captive birds subjected to different ambient temperatures. The pattern of FCM excretion indicated the existence of a funneling effect as predicted by the allostatic theory of stress: initial stress hormone concentrations showed a wide inter-individual variation, which decreased during experimental flushing. Individuals with low initial pre-flushing FCM values augmented their concentration, while individuals with high initial FCM values lowered it. Experimental disturbance resulted in an extension of feeding duration during the following evening foraging bout, confirming the prediction that Black Grouse must compensate for the extra energy expenditure elicited by human disturbance. Birds with low initial baseline FCM concentrations were those that spent more time foraging. These FCM excretion and foraging patterns suggest that birds with high initial FCM concentrations might have been experiencing a situation of allostatic overload. The energetic model provides quantitative estimates of extra energy expenditure. A longer exposure to ambient temperatures outside the shelter of snow

  19. Geomorphically Effective Energy Expenditure for Quantifying Channel Responses to Extreme Floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amponsah, William; Righini, Margherita; Wohl, Ellen E.; Borga, Marco; Marchi, Lorenzo; Rathburn, Sara L.; Surian, Nicola; Zoccatelli, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Flash floods are characterized by strong spatio-temporal rainfall variability and therefore show variations in energy expenditure and associated geomorphic impacts that depend on geological controls on channel geometry and sediment characteristics, as well as on variations in flood intensity. Geomorphic modification is expected to occur in river channels when driving forces (i.e., hydraulic and abrasive forces of water and sediment acting on the channel) exceed threshold of resisting forces (i.e., the ability of channel boundaries to remain unchanged by the passage of water and sediments). However, these forces that determine the capacity of floods to modify existing channel configuration are extremely difficult to quantify. Geomorphic impacts or hazards usually take the form of erosional and depositional modification of the pre-flood channel and valley geometry. A central question in hydrogeomorphology relates to why flash floods of similar magnitudes and intensities sometimes produce dissimilar geomorphic results? In fact, some less magnitude floods in terms of discharge per unit of drainage area have been found to produce major geomorphic damage than some high magnitude events. Furthermore, the use of peak instantaneous flow parameters such as discharge, velocity, shear stress and stream power to quantify geomorphic changes have often been non-deterministic and/or inconclusive. Investigations are therefore needed on how factors such as channel geometry, substrate, riparian vegetation, sediment supply, and flood magnitude and duration can interact and influence geomorphic effectiveness of high magnitude floods. The main objective of this study is to assess the coupled influence of flood-flow duration and total energy expenditure on geomorphic response to extreme flash floods, which is aimed at developing an index that combines flow duration, stream power per unit area and threshold for major channel erosion to be evaluated as a predictor of geomorphic adjustment

  20. Energy harvesting from the discrete gust response of a piezoaeroelastic wing: Modeling and performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Jinwu; Wu, Yining; Li, Daochun

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate energy harvesting from the unfavorable gust response of a piezoelectric wing. An aeroelectroelastic model is built for the evaluation and improvement of the harvesting performance. The structural model is built based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The unsteady aerodynamics, combined with 1-cosine gust load, are obtained from Jones' approximation of the Wagner function. The state-space equation of the aeroelectroelastic model is derived and solved numerically. The energy conversion efficiency and output density are defined to evaluate the harvesting performance. The effects of the sizes and location of the piezoelectric transducers, the load resistance in the external circuit, and the locations of the elastic axis and gravity center axis of the wing are studied, respectively. The results show that, under a given width of the transducers in chordwise direction, there are one thickness of the transducers corresponding to highest conversion efficiency and one smaller optimal value for the output density. The conversion efficiency has an approximate linear relationship with the width. As the transducers are placed at the wing root, a maximum conversion efficiency is reached under a certain length in the spanwise direction, whereas a smaller length helps reaching a larger output density. One optimal resistance is found to maximize the conversion efficiency. The rearward shift of either the elastic axis or gravity center axis improves the energy output while reducing the conversion efficiency.

  1. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Lai, Judy

    2010-06-01

    We take the perspective of a microgrid that has installed distribution energy resources (DER) in the form of distributed generation with combined heat and power applications. Given uncertain electricity and fuel prices, the microgrid minimizes its expected annual energy bill for various capacity sizes. In almost all cases, there is an economic and environmental advantage to using DER in conjunction with demand response (DR): the expected annualized energy bill is reduced by 9percent while CO2 emissions decline by 25percent. Furthermore, the microgrid's risk is diminished as DER may be deployed depending on prevailing market conditions and local demand. In order to test a policy measure that would place a weight on CO2 emissions, we use a multi-criteria objective function that minimizes a weighted average of expected costs and emissions. We find that greater emphasis on CO2 emissions has a beneficial environmental impact only if DR is available and enough reserve generation capacity exists. Finally, greater uncertainty results in higher expected costs and risk exposure, the effects of which may be mitigated by selecting a larger capacity.

  2. Watershed response and land energy feedbacks under climate change depend upon groundwater.

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, R M; Kollet, S J

    2008-06-10

    Human induced climate change will have a significant impact on the hydrologic cycle, creating changes in fresh water resources, land cover, and feedbacks that are difficult to characterize, which makes it an issue of global importance. Previous studies have not included subsurface storage in climate change simulations and feedbacks. A variably-saturated groundwater flow model with integrated overland flow and land surface model processes is used to examine the interplay between coupled water and energy processes under climate change conditions. A case study from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) USA, an important agricultural region that is susceptible to drought, is used as the basis for three scenarios simulations using a modified atmospheric forcing dataset to reflect predicted effects due to human-induced climate change. These scenarios include an increase in the atmospheric temperature and variations in rainfall amount and are compared to the present-day climate case. Changes in shallow soil saturation and groundwater levels are quantified as well as the corresponding energy fluxes at the land surface. Here we show that groundwater and subsurface lateral flow processes are critical in understanding hydrologic response and energy feedbacks to climate change and that certain regions are more susceptible to changes in temperature, while others to changes in precipitation. This groundwater control is critical for understanding recharge and drought processes, possible under future climate conditions.

  3. Improving the energy response of external beam therapy (EBT) GafChromic{sup TM} dosimetry films at low energies (≤100 keV)

    SciTech Connect

    Bekerat, H. Devic, S.; DeBlois, F.; Singh, K.; Sarfehnia, A.; Seuntjens, J.; Shih, Shelley; Yu, Xiang; Lewis, D.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of varying the active layer composition of external beam therapy (EBT) GafChromic{sup TM} films on the energy dependence of the film, as well as try to develop a new prototype with more uniform energy response at low photon energies (⩽100 keV). Methods: First, the overall energy response (S{sub AD,} {sub W}(Q)) of different commercial EBT type film models that represent the three different generations produced to date, i.e., EBT, EBT2, and EBT3, was investigated. Pieces of each film model were irradiated to a fixed dose of 2 Gy to water for a wide range of beam qualities and the corresponding S{sub AD,} {sub W}(Q) was measured using a flatbed document scanner. Furthermore, the DOSRZnrc Monte Carlo code was used to determine the absorbed dose to water energy dependence of the film, f(Q). Moreover, the intrinsic energy dependence, k{sub bq}(Q), for each film model was evaluated using the corresponding S{sub AD,} {sub W}(Q) and f(Q). In the second part of this study, the authors investigated the effects of changing the chemical composition of the active layer on S{sub AD,} {sub W}(Q). Finally, based on these results, the film manufacturer fabricated several film prototypes and the authors evaluated their S{sub AD,} {sub W}(Q). Results: The commercial EBT film model shows an under response at all energies below 100 keV reaching 39% ± 4% at about 20 keV. The commercial EBT2 and EBT3 film models show an under response of about 27% ± 4% at 20 keV and an over response of about 16% ± 4% at 40 keV.S{sub AD,} {sub W}(Q) of the three commercial film models at low energies show strong correlation with the corresponding f{sup −1}(Q) curves. The commercial EBT3 model with 4% Cl in the active layer shows under response of 22% ± 4% at 20 keV and 6% ± 4% at about 40 keV. However, increasing the mass percent of chlorine makes the film more hygroscopic which may affect the stability of the film's readout. The

  4. Response to Energy Dilution in the Short Term: Evidence of Nutritional Wisdom in Young Children?

    PubMed

    Hetherington, M M; Wood, C; Lyburn, S C

    2000-01-01

    Young children respond to energy dilution achieved using fat or sugar substitutes by compensating for reduced energy within a single meal. The ability to respond to energy dilution in the short term may diminish with age, since adults do not reliably demonstrate accurate caloric compensation in the short term. Two experiments were conducted to examine caloric compensation across age groups. In Experiment 1,15 young children (2-5 years) and 10 older children (7-10 years) received regular (100 g: 73 kcal) and low-calorie (100 g: 6 kcal) raspberry gelatin dessert as a mid-morning snack on two test days separated by at least 2 weeks. Young children demonstrated caloric compensation by consuming more following the low-calorie snack (571.3 ± 48.8 kcal) than after the regular snack (487.7 ± 31.5 kcal). Older children failed to adjust intake in response to the difference in energy. In Experiment 2, a similar procedure was used but young children (n = 19) received 150 g of raspberry gelatin dessert (9 kcal vs. 109 kcal) and older children (n = 12) received 225 g of gelatin dessert (13 kcal vs. 164 kcal). The compensation index (COMPX) indicated that young children (88.1 ± 22.4%) compensated better than older children (21.5 ± 21.9%). Short-term caloric compensation may diminish with age, possibly reflecting a transition from using unlearned internal cues to a more adult pattern of eating influenced by external cues and learning.

  5. AMP-activated protein kinase mediates mitochondrial fission in response to energy stress

    PubMed Central

    Courchet, Julien; Lewis, Tommy L.; Losón, Oliver C.; Hellberg, Kristina; Young, Nathan P.; Chen, Hsiuchen; Polleux, Franck; Chan, David C.; Shaw, Reuben J.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria undergo fragmentation in response to electron transport chain (ETC) poisons and mitochondrial DNA–linked disease mutations, yet how these stimuli mechanistically connect to the mitochondrial fission and fusion machinery is poorly understood. We found that the energy-sensing adenosine monophosphate (AMP)–activated protein kinase (AMPK) is genetically required for cells to undergo rapid mitochondrial fragmentation after treatment with ETC inhibitors. Moreover, direct pharmacological activation of AMPK was sufficient to rapidly promote mitochondrial fragmentation even in the absence of mitochondrial stress. A screen for substrates of AMPK identified mitochondrial fission factor (MFF), a mitochondrial outer-membrane receptor for DRP1, the cytoplasmic guanosine triphosphatase that catalyzes mitochondrial fission. Nonphosphorylatable and phosphomimetic alleles of the AMPK sites in MFF revealed that it is a key effector of AMPK-mediated mitochondrial fission. PMID:26816379

  6. Fluctuating currents in stochastic thermodynamics. II. Energy conversion and nonequilibrium response in kinesin models.

    PubMed

    Altaner, Bernhard; Wachtel, Artur; Vollmer, Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    Unlike macroscopic engines, the molecular machinery of living cells is strongly affected by fluctuations. Stochastic thermodynamics uses Markovian jump processes to model the random transitions between the chemical and configurational states of these biological macromolecules. A recently developed theoretical framework [A. Wachtel, J. Vollmer, and B. Altaner, Phys. Rev. E 92, 042132 (2015)] provides a simple algorithm for the determination of macroscopic currents and correlation integrals of arbitrary fluctuating currents. Here we use it to discuss energy conversion and nonequilibrium response in different models for the molecular motor kinesin. Methodologically, our results demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm in dealing with parameter-dependent stochastic models. For the concrete biophysical problem our results reveal two interesting features in experimentally accessible parameter regions: the validity of a nonequilibrium Green-Kubo relation at mechanical stalling as well as a negative differential mobility for superstalling forces.

  7. Morphological plasticity in the tropical sponge Anthosigmella varians: responses to predators and wave energy.

    PubMed

    Hill, Malcolm S; Hill, April L

    2002-02-01

    The goal of the research presented here was to examine phenotypic plasticity exhibited by three morphotypes of the common Caribbean sponge Anthosigmella varians (Duchassaing & Michelotti). We were interested in examining the biotic (and, to a lesser extent, abiotic) factors responsible for branch production in this species. We also tested the hypothesis that the skeleton may serve an antipredator function in this sponge, focusing on vertebrate fish predators (i.e., angelfish) in this work. In transplant and caging experiments, unprotected forma varians replicates were immediately consumed by angelfish, while caged replicates persisted on the reef for several months. These findings support the hypothesis that predators (and not wave energy) restrict forma varians to lagoonal habitats. Branch production was not observed in A. varians forma incrustans when sponges were protected from predators or placed in predator-free, low-wave-energy environments. It is not clear from our work whether forma incrustans is capable of producing branches (i.e., whether branch production is a plastic trait in this morph). Additional field experiments demonstrated that A. varians forma varians increased spicule concentrations, compared to uninjured sponges, in response to artificial predation events, and A. varians forma rigida reduced spicule concentrations, compared to uncaged controls, when protected from predators. These findings indicate that spicule concentration is a plastic morphological trait that can be induced by damage, and that A. varians may be able to reduce spicule concentrations when environmental conditions change (e.g., in the absence of predators). The potential significance of inducible defenses and structural anti-predator defenses in sponges is discussed in relation to recent work on sponge chemical defenses.

  8. Cardiac Response to Low Energy Field Pacing Challenges the Standard Theory of Defibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Bryan J.; Trew, Mark L.; Pertsov, Arkady M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The electrical response of myocardial tissue to periodic field stimuli has attracted significant attention as the basis for low-energy anti-fibrillation pacing (LEAP), potentially more effective than traditional single high-energy shocks. In conventional models, an electric field produces a highly non-uniform response of the myocardial wall, with discrete excitations, or “hot spots” (HS), occurring at cathodal tissue surfaces or large coronary vessels. We test this prediction using novel 3D tomographic optical imaging. Methods and Results Experiments were performed in isolated coronary perfused pig ventricular wall preparations stained with near-infrared voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye DI-4-ANBDQBS. The 3D coordinates of HS were determined using alternating transillumination. To relate HS formation with myocardial structures we used ultra-deep confocal imaging (interrogation depths >4 mm). The peak HS distribution is located deep inside the heart wall and the depth is not significantly affected by field polarity. We did not observe the strong co-localization of HS with major coronary vessels anticipated from theory. Yet, we observed considerable lateral displacement of HS with field polarity reversal. Models that deemphasized lateral intracellular coupling and accounted for resistive heterogeneity in the extracellular space showed similar HS distributions to the experimental observations. Conclusions The HS distributions within the myocardial wall and the significant lateral displacements with field polarity reversal are inconsistent with standard theories of defibrillation. Extended theories based around enhanced descriptions of cellular scale electrical mechanisms may be necessary. The considerable lateral displacement of HS with field polarity reversal supports the hypothesis of biphasic stimuli in LEAP being advantageous. PMID:25772543

  9. Short-latency disparity vergence eye movements: a response to disparity energy.

    PubMed

    Sheliga, B M; FitzGibbon, E J; Miles, F A

    2006-10-01

    Vergence eye movements were elicited in human subjects by applying disparities to square-wave gratings lacking the fundamental ("missing fundamental", mf). Using a dichoptic arrangement, subjects viewed gratings that were identical at the two eyes except for a phase difference of 1/4 wavelength so that, based on the nearest-neighbor matches, the features and the 4n+1 harmonics (5th, 9th, etc.) all had binocular disparities of one sign, whereas the 4n-1 harmonics (3rd, 7th, etc.) all had disparities of the opposite sign. Further, the amplitude of the ith harmonic was proportional to 1/i. Using the electromagnetic search coil technique to record the positions of both eyes indicated that the earliest vergence eye movements elicited by these disparity stimuli had ultra-short latencies (minimum, <65 ms) and were always in the direction of the most prominent harmonic, the 3rd, but their magnitudes fell short of those elicited when the same disparities were applied to pure sinusoids whose spatial frequency and contrast matched those of the 3rd harmonic. This shortfall was evident in both the horizontal vergence responses recorded with vertical grating stimuli and the vertical vergence responses recorded with horizontal grating stimuli. When the next most prominent harmonic, the 5th, was removed from the mf stimulus (creating the "mf-5" stimulus) the vertical vergence responses showed almost no shortfall-indicating that it had been almost entirely due to that 5th harmonic-but the horizontal vergence responses still showed a small shortfall, at least with higher contrast stimuli. This small shortfall might represent a very minor contribution from higher harmonics and/or distortion products and/or a feature-based mechanism. We conclude that the earliest disparity vergence responses-especially vertical-were strongly dependent on the major Fourier components of the binocular images, consistent with early spatial filtering of the monocular visual inputs prior to their binocular

  10. Short-latency disparity vergence eye movements: a response to disparity energy.

    PubMed

    Sheliga, B M; FitzGibbon, E J; Miles, F A

    2006-10-01

    Vergence eye movements were elicited in human subjects by applying disparities to square-wave gratings lacking the fundamental ("missing fundamental", mf). Using a dichoptic arrangement, subjects viewed gratings that were identical at the two eyes except for a phase difference of 1/4 wavelength so that, based on the nearest-neighbor matches, the features and the 4n+1 harmonics (5th, 9th, etc.) all had binocular disparities of one sign, whereas the 4n-1 harmonics (3rd, 7th, etc.) all had disparities of the opposite sign. Further, the amplitude of the ith harmonic was proportional to 1/i. Using the electromagnetic search coil technique to record the positions of both eyes indicated that the earliest vergence eye movements elicited by these disparity stimuli had ultra-short latencies (minimum, <65 ms) and were always in the direction of the most prominent harmonic, the 3rd, but their magnitudes fell short of those elicited when the same disparities were applied to pure sinusoids whose spatial frequency and contrast matched those of the 3rd harmonic. This shortfall was evident in both the horizontal vergence responses recorded with vertical grating stimuli and the vertical vergence responses recorded with horizontal grating stimuli. When the next most prominent harmonic, the 5th, was removed from the mf stimulus (creating the "mf-5" stimulus) the vertical vergence responses showed almost no shortfall-indicating that it had been almost entirely due to that 5th harmonic-but the horizontal vergence responses still showed a small shortfall, at least with higher contrast stimuli. This small shortfall might represent a very minor contribution from higher harmonics and/or distortion products and/or a feature-based mechanism. We conclude that the earliest disparity vergence responses-especially vertical-were strongly dependent on the major Fourier components of the binocular images, consistent with early spatial filtering of the monocular visual inputs prior to their binocular

  11. Monte Carlo study of the energy and angular dependence of the response of plastic scintillation detectors in photon beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lilie L. W.; Klein, David; Beddar, A. Sam

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: By using Monte Carlo simulations, the authors investigated the energy and angular dependence of the response of plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) in photon beams. Methods: Three PSDs were modeled in this study: A plastic scintillator (BC-400) and a scintillating fiber (BCF-12), both attached by a plastic-core optical fiber stem, and a plastic scintillator (BC-400) attached by an air-core optical fiber stem with a silica tube coated with silver. The authors then calculated, with low statistical uncertainty, the energy and angular dependences of the PSDs' responses in a water phantom. For energy dependence, the response of the detectors is calculated as the detector dose per unit water dose. The perturbation caused by the optical fiber stem connected to the PSD to guide the optical light to a photodetector was studied in simulations using different optical fiber materials. Results: For the energy dependence of the PSDs in photon beams, the PSDs with plastic-core fiber have excellent energy independence within about 0.5% at photon energies ranging from 300 keV (monoenergetic) to 18 MV (linac beam). The PSD with an air-core optical fiber with a silica tube also has good energy independence within 1% in the same photon energy range. For the angular dependence, the relative response of all the three modeled PSDs is within 2% for all the angles in a 6 MV photon beam. This is also true in a 300 keV monoenergetic photon beam for PSDs with plastic-core fiber. For the PSD with an air-core fiber with a silica tube in the 300 keV beam, the relative response varies within 1% for most of the angles, except in the case when the fiber stem is pointing right to the radiation source in which case the PSD may over-response by more than 10%. Conclusions: At {+-}1% level, no beam energy correction is necessary for the response of all three PSDs modeled in this study in the photon energy ranges from 200 keV (monoenergetic) to 18 MV (linac beam). The PSD would be even closer

  12. Monte Carlo study of the energy and angular dependence of the response of plastic scintillation detectors in photon beams

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lilie L. W.; Klein, David; Beddar, A. Sam

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: By using Monte Carlo simulations, the authors investigated the energy and angular dependence of the response of plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) in photon beams. Methods: Three PSDs were modeled in this study: A plastic scintillator (BC-400) and a scintillating fiber (BCF-12), both attached by a plastic-core optical fiber stem, and a plastic scintillator (BC-400) attached by an air-core optical fiber stem with a silica tube coated with silver. The authors then calculated, with low statistical uncertainty, the energy and angular dependences of the PSDs’ responses in a water phantom. For energy dependence, the response of the detectors is calculated as the detector dose per unit water dose. The perturbation caused by the optical fiber stem connected to the PSD to guide the optical light to a photodetector was studied in simulations using different optical fiber materials. Results: For the energy dependence of the PSDs in photon beams, the PSDs with plastic-core fiber have excellent energy independence within about 0.5% at photon energies ranging from 300 keV (monoenergetic) to 18 MV (linac beam). The PSD with an air-core optical fiber with a silica tube also has good energy independence within 1% in the same photon energy range. For the angular dependence, the relative response of all the three modeled PSDs is within 2% for all the angles in a 6 MV photon beam. This is also true in a 300 keV monoenergetic photon beam for PSDs with plastic-core fiber. For the PSD with an air-core fiber with a silica tube in the 300 keV beam, the relative response varies within 1% for most of the angles, except in the case when the fiber stem is pointing right to the radiation source in which case the PSD may over-response by more than 10%. Conclusions: At ±1% level, no beam energy correction is necessary for the response of all three PSDs modeled in this study in the photon energy ranges from 200 keV (monoenergetic) to 18 MV (linac beam). The PSD would be even closer

  13. Performance, immunity, and physiological responses of broilers to dietary energy and protein sequential variations.

    PubMed

    Ale Saheb Fosoul, S S; Toghyani, M; Gheisari, A; Tabeidiyan, S A; Mohammadrezaei, M; Azarfar, A

    2016-09-01

    The current trial was designed to examine effects of sequential feeding of diets varying in energy and protein contents on performance, gut development, welfare indices, and immune responses of broiler chicks. A total of 240 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments with 5 replicates in a completely randomized design. Sequential feeding was evaluated in 48-h cycles during 8 to 28 d of age. Diets varied in energy (E+ = 3,210 kcal/kg and E- = 2,790 kcal/kg) and protein (P+ = 25.14% CP and P- = 16.76% CP) contents. The 4 feeding programs were: control (ME: 3,000 kcal/kg, CP: 20.95%); P+/P- (P+ followed by P- containing 3,000 kcal/kg energy); E-/E+ (E- followed by E+ containing 20.95% CP), and E-P+ / E+P- (E-P+ followed by E+P-). The experiment lasted 42 d and birds were fed by a standard finishing diet from d 28 to 42. Broilers fed on E-/E+ and E-P+/E+P- had lower daily feed intake than control ones during 8 to 28 d of age (P < 0.05), while daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were not affected significantly. Footpad dermatitis was lower in birds sequentially fed E-/E+ and E-P+/E+P- at 35 d of age (P < 0.05). Sequential feeding of diets varying in either energy or protein or both increased duration of tonic immobility at d 39 of age (P < 0.05). Feeding with E-/E+ regime decreased jejunal crypt depth, while feeding P+/P- regime increased villus height and crypt depth in the duodenum and ileum (P < 0.05). However, no relationship was found between intestinal morphology and growth performance of broiler chickens. Antibody production against sheep red blood cells as well as Newcastle and influenza disease viruses was not affected by sequential feeding. In conclusion, digestive organs and intestinal morphology might be adjusted to energy and protein variations. Sequential feeding increased the fear level in chickens. PMID:26994199

  14. Immune response and energy metabolism of Chlamys farreri under Vibrio anguillarum challenge and high temperature exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingqiang; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Huan; Ji, Qingzhi; Song, Linsheng; Qiu, Limei; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Leilei

    2012-10-01

    The complex interactions among host, pathogen and environment are believed to be the main causes for the mass mortality of cultured scallops during summer period. In the present study, the temporal variations of immune and energy parameters of Chlamys farreri under Vibrio anguillarum challenge, higher temperature (29°C) exposure as well as their combined treatment were investigated in order to better understand the energetic mechanisms of scallop immune defense. After the treatments, the superoxide anion level, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and acid phosphatase, as well as heat shock protein 70 expression level in the hemolymph of scallops increased substantially within 48 h. And as time progressed, the malondialdehyde content in the serum of scallops in the higher temperature treated and the combined stress treated groups were significantly increased, while the SOD activity was significantly depressed (96 h, P<0.05). After 3 h, a significant decline (P<0.05) in glycogen reserves was observed in the examined tissues of all the scallops in the bacteria challenged, higher temperature treated and the combined stress treated groups. The cellular energy allocation (CEA) in the examined tissues dropped considerably when the treatments lasted 48 h. There was a significant decline in the CEA and a significant increase in the energy consumption in the examined tissues compared with other treatments when the scallops were exposed to the combined stress for 96 h (P<0.05). All the results demonstrated that the antioxidant systems and acute phase response system in scallops were not enough to wholly repair oxidative damage caused by higher temperature and the combined stress with bacteria challenge, and glycogen reserved in relative tissues were mobilized to meet the increased energy demands during the process of immune defense. Immune defense against the combined stress imposed greater costs on scallop's energy expenditure than either stressor alone, and CEA

  15. Adaptive responses of energy storage and fish life histories to climatic gradients.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Henrique C; Shuter, Brian J

    2013-12-21

    Energy storage is a common adaptation of fish living in seasonal environments. For some species, the energy accumulated during the growing season, and stored primarily as lipids, is crucial to preventing starvation mortality over winter. Thus, in order to understand the adaptive responses of fish life history to climate, it is important to determine how energy should be allocated to storage and how it trades off with the other body components that contribute to fitness. In this paper, we extend previous life history theory to include an explicit representation of how the seasonal allocation of energy to storage acts as a constraint on fish growth. We show that a strategy that privileges allocation to structural mass in the first part of the growing season and switches to storage allocation later on, as observed empirically in several fish species, is the strategy that maximizes growth efficiency and hence is expected to be favored by natural selection. Stochastic simulations within this theoretical framework demonstrate that the relative performance of this switching strategy is robust to a wide range of fluctuations in growing season length, and to moderate short-term (i.e., daily) fluctuations in energy intake and/or expenditure within the growing season. We then integrate this switching strategy with a biphasic growth modeling framework to predict typical growth rates of walleye Sander vitreus, a cool water species, and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, a cold water specialist, across a climatic gradient in North America. As predicted, growth rates increased linearly with the duration of the growing season. Regression line intercepts were negative, indicating that growth can only occur when growing season length exceeds a threshold necessary to produce storage for winter survival. The model also reveals important differences between species, showing that observed growth rates of lake trout are systematically higher than those of walleye in relatively colder lakes

  16. Leptin-inhibited PBN neurons enhance counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycemia in negative energy balance

    PubMed Central

    D’Agostino, Giuseppe; Goforth, Paulette B.; Sutton, Amy K.; Malec, Paige A.; Wong, Jenny-Marie T.; Germani, Mark; Jones, Justin C.; Rajala, Michael; Satin, Leslie; Rhodes, Christopher J.; Olson, David P.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Heisler, Lora K.; Myers, Martin G.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoglycemia initiates the counter regulatory response (CRR), in which the sympathetic nervous system, glucagon, and glucocorticoids restore glucose to appropriate concentrations. During starvation, low leptin restrains energy utilization, enhancing long-term survival. To ensure short-term survival during hypoglycemia in fasted animals, the CRR must overcome this energy-sparing program and nutrient depletion. Here, we identify in mice a previously unrecognized role for leptin and a population of leptin-regulated neurons that modulate the CRR to meet these challenges. Hypoglycemia activates leptin receptor (LepRb) and cholecystokinin (CCK)-expressing neurons of the parabrachial nucleus (PBN), which project to the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. Leptin inhibits these cells and Cckcre-mediated ablation of LepRb enhances the CRR. Inhibition of PBN LepRb cells blunts the CRR, while their activation mimics the CRR in a CCK-dependent manner. PBN LepRbCCK neurons represent a crucial component of the CRR system, and may represent a therapeutic target in hypoglycemia. PMID:25383904

  17. Response of large area avalanche photodiodes to low energy x rays

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, T. R.; Bales, M.; Arp, U.; Dong, B.; Farrell, R.

    2012-05-15

    For an experiment to study neutron radiative beta-decay, we operated large area avalanche photodiodes (APDs) near liquid nitrogen temperature to detect x rays with energies between 0.2 keV and 20 keV. Whereas there are numerous reports of x ray spectrometry using APDs at energies above 1 keV, operation near liquid nitrogen temperature allowed us to reach a nominal threshold of 0.1 keV. However, due to the short penetration depth of x rays below 1 keV, the pulse height spectrum of the APD become complex. We studied the response using monochromatic x ray beams and employed phenomenological fits of the pulse height spectrum to model the measurement of a continuum spectrum from a synchrotron. In addition, the measured pulse height spectrum was modelled using a profile for the variation in efficiency of collection of photoelectrons with depth into the APD. The best results are obtained with the collection efficiency model.

  18. Reconciled climate response estimates from climate models and the energy budget of Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Mark; Cowtan, Kevin; Hawkins, Ed; Stolpe, Martin B.

    2016-10-01

    Climate risks increase with mean global temperature, so knowledge about the amount of future global warming should better inform risk assessments for policymakers. Expected near-term warming is encapsulated by the transient climate response (TCR), formally defined as the warming following 70 years of 1% per year increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration, by which point atmospheric CO2 has doubled. Studies based on Earth's historical energy budget have typically estimated lower values of TCR than climate models, suggesting that some models could overestimate future warming. However, energy-budget estimates rely on historical temperature records that are geographically incomplete and blend air temperatures over land and sea ice with water temperatures over open oceans. We show that there is no evidence that climate models overestimate TCR when their output is processed in the same way as the HadCRUT4 observation-based temperature record. Models suggest that air-temperature warming is 24% greater than observed by HadCRUT4 over 1861-2009 because slower-warming regions are preferentially sampled and water warms less than air. Correcting for these biases and accounting for wider uncertainties in radiative forcing based on recent evidence, we infer an observation-based best estimate for TCR of 1.66 °C, with a 5-95% range of 1.0-3.3 °C, consistent with the climate models considered in the IPCC 5th Assessment Report.

  19. Calculation of excitation energies from the CC2 linear response theory using Cholesky decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Baudin, Pablo; Marín, José Sánchez; Cuesta, Inmaculada García; Sánchez de Merás, Alfredo M. J.

    2014-03-14

    A new implementation of the approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles CC2 linear response model is reported. It employs a Cholesky decomposition of the two-electron integrals that significantly reduces the computational cost and the storage requirements of the method compared to standard implementations. Our algorithm also exploits a partitioning form of the CC2 equations which reduces the dimension of the problem and avoids the storage of doubles amplitudes. We present calculation of excitation energies of benzene using a hierarchy of basis sets and compare the results with conventional CC2 calculations. The reduction of the scaling is evaluated as well as the effect of the Cholesky decomposition parameter on the quality of the results. The new algorithm is used to perform an extrapolation to complete basis set investigation on the spectroscopically interesting benzylallene conformers. A set of calculations on medium-sized molecules is carried out to check the dependence of the accuracy of the results on the decomposition thresholds. Moreover, CC2 singlet excitation energies of the free base porphin are also presented.

  20. Plasma response to electron energy filter in large volume plasma device

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, S. K.; Singh, R.; Kaw, P. K.

    2013-12-15

    An electron energy filter (EEF) is embedded in the Large Volume Plasma Device plasma for carrying out studies on excitation of plasma turbulence by a gradient in electron temperature (ETG) described in the paper of Mattoo et al. [S. K. Mattoo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255007 (2012)]. In this paper, we report results on the response of the plasma to the EEF. It is shown that inhomogeneity in the magnetic field of the EEF switches on several physical phenomena resulting in plasma regions with different characteristics, including a plasma region free from energetic electrons, suitable for the study of ETG turbulence. Specifically, we report that localized structures of plasma density, potential, electron temperature, and plasma turbulence are excited in the EEF plasma. It is shown that structures of electron temperature and potential are created due to energy dependence of the electron transport in the filter region. On the other hand, although structure of plasma density has origin in the particle transport but two distinct steps of the density structure emerge from dominance of collisionality in the source-EEF region and of the Bohm diffusion in the EEF-target region. It is argued and experimental evidence is provided for existence of drift like flute Rayleigh-Taylor in the EEF plasma.

  1. Interactions between negative energy balance, metabolic diseases, uterine health and immune response in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Giulia; Irons, Pete C; Webb, Edward C; Chapwanya, Aspinas

    2014-01-30

    The biological cycles of milk production and reproduction determine dairying profitability thus making management decisions dynamic and time-dependent. Diseases also negatively impact on net earnings of a dairy enterprise. Transition cows in particular face the challenge of negative energy balance (NEB) and/or disproportional energy metabolism (fatty liver, ketosis, subacute, acute ruminal acidosis); disturbed mineral utilization (milk fever, sub-clinical hypocalcemia); and perturbed immune function (retained placenta, metritis, mastitis). Consequently NEB and reduced dry matter intake are aggravated. The combined effects of all these challenges are reduced fertility and milk production resulting in diminishing profits. Risk factors such as NEB, inflammation and impairment of the immune response are highly cause-and-effect related. Thus, managing cows during the transition period should be geared toward reducing NEB or feeding specially formulated diets to improve immunity. Given that all cows experience a reduced feed intake and body condition, infection and inflammation of the uterus after calving, there is a need for further research on the immunology of transition dairy cows. Integrative approaches at the molecular, cellular and animal level may unravel the complex interactions between disturbed metabolism and immune function that predispose cows to periparturient diseases.

  2. Electron Transport, Energy Transfer, and Optical Response in Single Molecule Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Alexander James

    The last decade has seen incredible growth in the quality of experiments being done on single molecule junctions. Contemporary experimental measurements have expanded far beyond simple electron transport. Measurement of vibronic eects, quantum interference and decoherence eects, molecular optical response (Raman spectroscopy), and molecular spintronics are just some of the continuing areas of research in single molecule junctions. Experimental advancements demand advanced theoretical treatments, which can be used accurately within appropriate physical regimes, in order to understand measured phenomena and predict interesting directions for future study. In this dissertation we will study systems with strong intra-system interactions using a many-body states based approach. We will be focused on three related processes in molecular junctions: electron transport, electronic energy transfer, and molecular excitation. Inelastic electron transport in the regime of strong and nonlinear electron-vibration coupling within and outside of the Born-Oppenheimer regime will be investigated. To understand their appropriateness, we will compare simple semi-classical approximations in molecular redox junctions and electron-counting devices to fully quantum calculations based on many-body system states. The role of coherence and quantum interference in energy and electron transfer in molecular junctions is explored. Experiments that simultaneously measure surface enhanced Raman scattering and electron conduction have revealed a strong interaction between conducting electrons and molecular excitation. We investigate the role of the molecular response to a classical surface plasmon enhanced electric eld considering the back action of the oscillating molecular dipole. Raman scattering is quantum mechanical by nature and involves strong interaction between surface plasmons in the contacts and the molecular excitation. We develop a scheme for treating strong plasmon-molecular excitation

  3. Calibration of BAS-TR image plate response to high energy (3-300 MeV) carbon ions.

    PubMed

    Doria, D; Kar, S; Ahmed, H; Alejo, A; Fernandez, J; Cerchez, M; Gray, R J; Hanton, F; MacLellan, D A; McKenna, P; Najmudin, Z; Neely, D; Romagnani, L; Ruiz, J A; Sarri, G; Scullion, C; Streeter, M; Swantusch, M; Willi, O; Zepf, M; Borghesi, M

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the calibration of Fuji BAS-TR image plate (IP) response to high energy carbon ions of different charge states by employing an intense laser-driven ion source, which allowed access to carbon energies up to 270 MeV. The calibration method consists of employing a Thomson parabola spectrometer to separate and spectrally resolve different ion species, and a slotted CR-39 solid state detector overlayed onto an image plate for an absolute calibration of the IP signal. An empirical response function was obtained which can be reasonably extrapolated to higher ion energies. The experimental data also show that the IP response is independent of ion charge states. PMID:26724017

  4. Energy deposition and middle atmosphere electrodynamic response to a highly relativistic electron precipitation event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, R. A.; Baker, D. N.; Herrero, F. A.; Mccarthy, S. P.; Twigg, P. A.; Croskey, C. L.; Hale, L. C.

    1994-01-01

    Rocket data have been used to evaluate the characteristics of precipitating relativistic electrons and their effects on the electrodynamic structure of the middle atmosphere. These data were obtained at Poker Flat, Alaska, on May 13 and 14, 1990, during a midday, highly relativistic electron (HRE) precipitation event. Solid state detectors were used to measure the electron fluxes and their energy spectra. An X ray scintillator was included on each flight to measure bremsstrahlung X rays produced by energetic electrons impacting on the upper atmosphere. However, these were found the be of negligible importance for this particular event. The energy deposition by the electrons has been determined from the flux measurements and compared with in situ measurements of the atmospheric electrical response. The electrodynamic measurements were obtained by the same rockets and additionally on May 13, with an accompanying rocket. The impact flux was highly irregular, containing short-lived bursts of relativistic electrons, mainly with energies below 0.5 MeV and with fluxes most enhanced between pitch angles of 0 deg - 20 deg. Although the geostationary counterpart of this measured event was considered to be of relatively low intensity and hardness, energy deposition peaked near 75 km with fluxes approaching an ion pair production rate in excess of 100/cu cm s. This exceeds peak fluxes in relativistic electron precipitation (REP) events as observed by us in numerous rocket soundings since 1976. Conductivity measurements from a blunt probe showed that negative electrical conductivities exceeded positive conductivities down to 50 km or lower, consistent with steady ionization by precipitating electrons above 1 MeV. These findings imply that the electrons from the outer radiation zone can modulate the electrical properties of the middle atmosphere to altitudes below 50 km. During the decline and activity minimum of the current solar cycle, we anticipate the occurence of similar

  5. Ultrasonic vibration-assisted pelleting of wheat straw: a predictive model for energy consumption using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Meng; Pei, Z J; Wang, Donghai

    2014-01-01

    Cellulosic biomass can be used as a feedstock for biofuel manufacturing. Pelleting of cellulosic biomass can increase its bulk density and thus improve its storability and reduce the feedstock transportation costs. Ultrasonic vibration-assisted (UV-A) pelleting can produce biomass pellets whose density is comparable to that processed by traditional pelleting methods (e.g. extruding, briquetting, and rolling). This study applied response surface methodology to the development of a predictive model for the energy consumption in UV-A pelleting of wheat straw. Effects of pelleting pressure, ultrasonic power, sieve size, and pellet weight were investigated. This study also optimized the process parameters to minimize the energy consumption in UV-A pelleting using response surface methodology. Optimal conditions to minimize the energy consumption were the following: ultrasonic power at 20%, sieve size at 4 mm, and pellet weight at 1g, and the minimum energy consumption was 2.54 Wh. PMID:23859359

  6. Effects of skeletal muscle energy availability on protein turnover responses to exercise.

    PubMed

    Smiles, William J; Hawley, John A; Camera, Donny M

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise training is a consequence of repeated contraction-induced increases in gene expression that lead to the accumulation of functional proteins whose role is to blunt the homeostatic perturbations generated by escalations in energetic demand and substrate turnover. The development of a specific 'exercise phenotype' is the result of new, augmented steady-state mRNA and protein levels that stem from the training stimulus (i.e. endurance or resistance based). Maintaining appropriate skeletal muscle integrity to meet the demands of training (i.e. increases in myofibrillar and/or mitochondrial protein) is regulated by cyclic phases of synthesis and breakdown, the rate and turnover largely determined by the protein's half-life. Cross-talk among several intracellular systems regulating protein synthesis, breakdown and folding is required to ensure protein equilibrium is maintained. These pathways include both proteasomal and lysosomal degradation systems (ubiquitin-mediated and autophagy, respectively) and the protein translational and folding machinery. The activities of these cellular pathways are bioenergetically expensive and are modified by intracellular energy availability (i.e. macronutrient intake) and the 'training impulse' (i.e. summation of the volume, intensity and frequency). As such, exercise-nutrient interactions can modulate signal transduction cascades that converge on these protein regulatory systems, especially in the early post-exercise recovery period. This review focuses on the regulation of muscle protein synthetic response-adaptation processes to divergent exercise stimuli and how intracellular energy availability interacts with contractile activity to impact on muscle remodelling.

  7. Response surface methodology toward the optimization of high-energy carotenoid extraction from Aristeus antennatus shrimp.

    PubMed

    Tsiaka, Thalia; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Sinanoglou, Vassilia J; Makris, Constantinos; Heropoulos, Georgios A; Calokerinos, Antony C

    2015-06-01

    High-energy assisted extraction techniques, like ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave assisted extraction (MAE), are widely applied over the last years for the recovery of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, antioxidants and phenols from foods, animals and herbal natural sources. Especially for the case of xanthophylls, the main carotenoid group of crustaceans, they can be extracted in a rapid and quantitative way with the use of UAE and MAE. Response surface methodology (RSM) is used for the optimization of extraction methodologies, also being applied to optimize high energy techniques. Three independent variables, namely extraction time, ultrasound or microwave power and solvent/material ratio, were investigated for both methods by employing a 16-run three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD). Considering the extraction efficiency for carotenoids from Aristeus antennatus shrimp, the selected conditions for UAE were 5 min, 600 W and 10:1 mL g(-1). Acetone was the solvent of choice for the extraction procedure. For MAE, the best experimental values were 7 min, 30 W and 20:1 mL g(-1) using n-hexane:acetone:ethanol 2:1:1 (v/v/v) as extraction solvent. The determination of total carotenoid yield was carried out using the spectophotometric calibration curve (A=0.1646(±0.0061)C-0.005(±0.022), R(2)=0.996, n=3) of a standard mix solution of canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein at 452.1 nm. Under the selected conditions, the yield of total carotenoids for UAE was 23.4(±2.3) and 6.73(±0.56) mg of carotenoids per 100 g dry sample for the head and the body of shrimp, while for MAE was 23.92(±0.63) and 13.3(±1.1) mg of carotenoids per 100g dry sample, respectively. The recovery of both methods was calculated between 60 and 105%. The results indicate that high-energy extraction techniques are faster, less laborious, more repeatable and reproducible methods than the conventional approaches for the quantitative recovery of sensitive bioactive compounds

  8. High atomic weight, high-energy radiation (HZE) induces transcriptional responses shared with conventional stresses in addition to a core "DSB" response specific to clastogenic treatments.

    PubMed

    Missirian, Victor; Conklin, Phillip A; Culligan, Kevin M; Huefner, Neil D; Britt, Anne B

    2014-01-01

    Plants exhibit a robust transcriptional response to gamma radiation which includes the induction of transcripts required for homologous recombination and the suppression of transcripts that promote cell cycle progression. Various DNA damaging agents induce different spectra of DNA damage as well as "collateral" damage to other cellular components and therefore are not expected to provoke identical responses by the cell. Here we study the effects of two different types of ionizing radiation (IR) treatment, HZE (1 GeV Fe(26+) high mass, high charge, and high energy relativistic particles) and gamma photons, on the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Both types of IR induce small clusters of radicals that can result in the formation of double strand breaks (DSBs), but HZE also produces linear arrays of extremely clustered damage. We performed these experiments across a range of time points (1.5-24 h after irradiation) in both wild-type plants and in mutants defective in the DSB-sensing protein kinase ATM. The two types of IR exhibit a shared double strand break-repair-related damage response, although they differ slightly in the timing, degree, and ATM-dependence of the response. The ATM-dependent, DNA metabolism-related transcripts of the "DSB response" were also induced by other DNA damaging agents, but were not induced by conventional stresses. Both Gamma and HZE irradiation induced, at 24 h post-irradiation, ATM-dependent transcripts associated with a variety of conventional stresses; these were overrepresented for pathogen response, rather than DNA metabolism. In contrast, only HZE-irradiated plants, at 1.5 h after irradiation, exhibited an additional and very extensive transcriptional response, shared with plants experiencing "extended night." This response was not apparent in gamma-irradiated plants.

  9. Responses of the central nervous system to high linear energy transfer radiation: NSCOR project highlights

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Gregory; Fike, John; Limoli, Charles; Obenaus, André; Raber, Jacob; Soltesz, Ivan; Vlkolinský, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Overview: The five-university NSCOR project investigates the responses of the central nervous system to space-like charged particle exposure by evaluating: synaptic function, in vitro and in vivo neurogenesis, behavior and behaviorally induced gene expression, and oxidative stress of the mouse hippocampus and cultured neural precursor cells. To test the role of reactive oxygen species in mediating the effects of radiation exposure, we compare responses in a catalase overexpressing transgenic mouse strain to wild type. We also use computational models of the hippocampus in three dimensions, informed by experimental measurements, to provide insight into network behavior. Radiation exposure protocols include single, acute whole-body exposures to 1H, 28Si and 56Fe ions and mixed field exposures using 1H + 56Fe ions (24 h later). The animal models are 10-week-old C57BL/6J and MCATtg males which are evaluated at 30 and 90 days postirradiation. In vitro models are cultured murine and human neural stem cells irradiated with 1H, 16O, 28Si and 56Fe ions at multiple energies and are evaluated at times from days to weeks. Highlights: Neural stem cells organized into neurospheres were irradiated with several ions at doses as low as 0.75 cGy. Data show that significant oxidative stress occurs that alters survival, proliferation and differentiation. Overall trends indicate that changes in oxidative stress (persisting for weeks) correlate with particle linear energy transfer (LET). 56Fe ions elicited the largest and most persistent changes in stress markers, including antioxidant enzyme expression levels. The hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and novel object recognition (NOR) paradigms were used to assess cognition and showed cognitive deficits after irradiation with the NOR paradigm more sensitive than CFC. Analysis of neurogenesis indicates that overall neurogenesis is inhibited at doses ≥1 Gy, but newly born activated microglia are significantly

  10. Electron Transport, Energy Transfer, and Optical Response in Single Molecule Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    The field of molecular electronics has grown significantly since the first measurements of single molecule conductance. The single molecule junction, a device in which two conducting leads are spanned by a single molecule, has become a powerful tool for studying charge transfer at the molecular level. While early experiments were focused on elastic electron conductance, today measurements of vibronic effects, molecular optical response, spintronics, thermal conductance, and quantum interference and decoherence effects are prominent areas of research. These new experimental advancements demand improved theoretical treatments which properly account for the interactions between different degrees of freedom: charge, electronic, vibrational, spin, etc.; all in physically relevant parameter ranges. This talk focuses on using a many-body states based approach to investigate the regime of strong interaction between these degrees of freedom, with relatively weak coupling between the molecule and the electric reservoirs created by the conducting leads. We focused on three related processes, electron transfer, electronic energy transfer and molecular excitation. In collaboraton with Boris Fainberg, Faculty of Sciences, Holon Institute of Technology; Sergei Tretiak, Theoretical Division, Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory; and Michael Galperin, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego.

  11. Global, Energy-Dependent Ring Current Response During Two Large Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Burch, J. L.; De Pascuale, S.; Fuselier, S. A.; Genestreti, K. J.; Kurth, W. S.; LLera, K.; McComas, D. J.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Valek, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    Two recent large (~200 nT) geomagnetic storms occurred during 17--18 March 2015 and 22--23 June 2015. The global, energy-dependent ring current response to these two extreme events is investigated using both global imaging and multi-point in situ observations. Energetic neutral atom (ENA) imaging by the Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission provides a global view of ring current ions. Local measurements are provided by two multi-spacecraft missions. The two Van Allen Probes measure in situ plasma (including ion composition) and fields at ring current and plasmaspheric L values. The recently launched Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) comprises four spacecraft that have just begun to measure particles (including ion composition) and fields at outer magnetospheric L-values. We analyze the timing and energetics of the stormtime evolution of ring current ions, both trapped and precipitating, using TWINS ENA images and in situ data by the Van Allen Probes and MMS.

  12. pH-responsive self-assembly of polysaccharide through a rugged energy landscape

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Brian H.; Payne, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembling polysaccharides can form complex networks with structures and properties highly dependent on the sequence of triggering cues. Controlling the emergence of such networks provides an opportunity to create soft matter with unique features; however, it requires a detailed understanding of the subtle balance between the attractive and repulsive forces that drives the stimuli-induced self-assembly. Here we employ all-atom molecular dynamics simulations on the order of 100 ns to study the mechanisms of the pH-responsive gelation of the weakly basic aminopolysaccharide chitosan. We find that low pH induces a sharp transition from gel to soluble state, analogous to pH-dependent folding of proteins, while at neutral and high pH self-assembly occurs via a rugged energy landscape, reminiscent of RNA folding. A surprising role of salt is to lubricate conformational search for the thermodynamically stable states. Although our simulations represent the early events in the self-assembly process of chitosan, which may take seconds or minutes to complete, the atomically-detailed insights are consistent with recent experimental observations and provide a basis for understanding how environmental conditions modulate the structure and mechanical properties of the self-assembled polysaccharide systems. The ability to control structure and properties via modification of process conditions will aid in the technological efforts to create complex soft matter with applications ranging from bioelectronics to regenerative medicine. PMID:26383701

  13. Converting hazardous organics into clean energy using a solar responsive dual photoelectrode photocatalytic fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianyong; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Quanpeng; Bai, Jing; Zhou, Baoxue

    2013-11-15

    Direct discharging great quantities of organics into water-body not only causes serious environmental pollution but also wastes energy sources. In this paper, a solar responsive dual photoelectrode photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC(2)) based on TiO2/Ti photoanode and Cu2O/Cu photocathode was designed for hazardous organics treatment with simultaneous electricity generation. Under solar irradiation, the interior bias voltage produced for the Fermi level difference between photoelectrodes drives photoelectrons of TiO2/Ti photoanode to combine with photoholes of Cu2O/Cu photocathode through external circuit thus generating electricity. In the meantime, organics are decomposed by photoholes remained at TiO2/Ti photoanode. By using various hazardous organics including azo dyes as model pollutants, the PFC showed high converting performance of organics into electricity. For example, in 0.05 M phenol solution, a short-circuit current density 0.23 mA cm(-2), open-circuit voltage 0.49 V, maximum power output 0.3610(-4)W cm(-2) was achieved. On the other hand, removal rate of chroma reached 67%, 87% and 63% in 8h for methyl orange, methylene blue, Congo red, respectively.

  14. Monitoring and modeling shoreline response due to shoreface nourishment on a high-energy coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, P. L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hansen, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    Shoreface nourishment can be an efficient technique to feed sediment into the littoral zone without the order of magnitude cost increase incurred by directly nourishing the beach. An erosion hot spot at Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California, USA, threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as safe recreational use of the beach. In an effort to reduce the erosion at this location, a new beneficial reuse plan was implemented in May 2005 for the sediment dredged annually from the main shipping channel at the mouth of San Francisco Bay. From 2005 to 2007, approximately 230,000 m of sand was placed annually at depths between 9 and 14 m, in a location where strong tidal currents and open-ocean waves could potentially feed sediment onto the section of beach experiencing critical erosion. The evolution of the disposal mound and adjacent beach were monitored with 12 multibeam bathymetric surveys, and over 40 high-resolution beach topographic surveys. In addition, sediment transport processes were investigated using sediment grab samples, acoustic Doppler profilers, and two separate models: a cross-shore profile model (UNIBEST-TC) and a coastal area model (Delft3D). The results of the monitoring and modeling demonstrate that the disposal mound may be effective in dissipating wave energy striking this vulnerable stretch of coast with negligible shadowing effects, but a positive shoreline response can only be achieved by placing the sediment in water depths less than 5 m. 

  15. Converting hazardous organics into clean energy using a solar responsive dual photoelectrode photocatalytic fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianyong; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Quanpeng; Bai, Jing; Zhou, Baoxue

    2013-11-15

    Direct discharging great quantities of organics into water-body not only causes serious environmental pollution but also wastes energy sources. In this paper, a solar responsive dual photoelectrode photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC(2)) based on TiO2/Ti photoanode and Cu2O/Cu photocathode was designed for hazardous organics treatment with simultaneous electricity generation. Under solar irradiation, the interior bias voltage produced for the Fermi level difference between photoelectrodes drives photoelectrons of TiO2/Ti photoanode to combine with photoholes of Cu2O/Cu photocathode through external circuit thus generating electricity. In the meantime, organics are decomposed by photoholes remained at TiO2/Ti photoanode. By using various hazardous organics including azo dyes as model pollutants, the PFC showed high converting performance of organics into electricity. For example, in 0.05 M phenol solution, a short-circuit current density 0.23 mA cm(-2), open-circuit voltage 0.49 V, maximum power output 0.3610(-4)W cm(-2) was achieved. On the other hand, removal rate of chroma reached 67%, 87% and 63% in 8h for methyl orange, methylene blue, Congo red, respectively. PMID:24051045

  16. pH-Responsive Self-Assembly of Polysaccharide through a Rugged Energy Landscape.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Brian H; Payne, Gregory F; Shen, Jana

    2015-10-14

    Self-assembling polysaccharides can form complex networks with structures and properties highly dependent on the sequence of triggering cues. Controlling the emergence of such networks provides an opportunity to create soft matter with unique features; however, it requires a detailed understanding of the subtle balance between the attractive and repulsive forces that drives the stimuli-induced self-assembly. Here we employ all-atom molecular dynamics simulations on the order of 100 ns to study the mechanisms of the pH-responsive gelation of the weakly basic aminopolysaccharide chitosan. We find that low pH induces a sharp transition from gel to soluble state, analogous to pH-dependent folding of proteins, while at neutral and high pH self-assembly occurs via a rugged energy landscape, reminiscent of RNA folding. A surprising role of salt is to lubricate the conformational search for the thermodynamically stable states. Although our simulations represent the early events in the self-assembly process of chitosan, which may take seconds or minutes to complete, the atomically detailed insights are consistent with recent experimental observations and provide a basis for understanding how environmental conditions modulate the structure and mechanical properties of the self-assembled polysaccharide systems. The ability to control structure and properties via modification of process conditions will aid in the technological efforts to create complex soft matter with applications ranging from bioelectronics to regenerative medicine.

  17. Electrostatic Solvation Free Energy of Amino Acid Side Chain Analogs: Implications for the Validity of Electrostatic Linear Response in Water

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Bin; Pettitt, Bernard M.

    2011-04-15

    Electrostatic free energies of solvation for 15 neutral amino acid side chain analogs are computed. We compare three methods of varying computational complexity and accuracy for three force fields: free energy simulations, Poisson-Boltzmann (PB), and linear response approximation (LRA) using AMBER, CHARMM, and OPLSAA force fields. We find that deviations from simulation start at low charges for solutes. The approximate PB and LRA produce an overestimation of electrostatic solvation free energies for most of molecules studied here. These deviations are remarkably systematic. The variations among force fields are almost as large as the variations found among methods. Our study confirms that success of the approximate methods for electrostatic solvation free energies comes from their ability to evaluate free energy differences accurately.

  18. Efficiency and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers limit-fed diets of differing energy density

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of limit-feeding diets of different predicted energy density on the efficiency of utilization of feed and nitrogen and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (4 heifers beginning at 257 ± ...

  19. The effects of energy balance, obesity-proneness and sex on the neuronal response to sweet taste.

    PubMed

    Cornier, Marc-Andre; Shott, Megan E; Thomas, Elizabeth A; Bechtell, Jamie L; Bessesen, Daniel H; Tregellas, Jason R; Frank, Guido K

    2015-02-01

    We have previously shown that propensity for weight gain, energy balance state and sex are important determinants of the neuronal response to visual food cues. It is not clear, though, whether these factors also impact the neuronal response to taste. The objective of this study was to examine the neuronal response to sweet taste during energy imbalance in men and women recruited to be obesity-prone (OP) or obesity-resistant (OR). OP (13 men and 12 women) and OR (12 men and 12 women) subjects were studied after 1 day of eucaloric, overfed and underfed conditions in a randomized crossover design. On each test day, fMRI was performed in the respective acute fed state while subjects received in random order 60 trials each of 1M sucrose solution (SU), or artificial saliva (AS) following a visual cue predicting the taste. The neuronal response to SU versus AS expectation was significantly greater in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, putamen and insula in OR versus OP; SU receipt was not different between groups. There were also sex-based differences with men having greater neuronal response to SU versus AS receipt in the caudate than women. The results, however, were not impacted by the state of energy balance. In summary, response to expectation but not receipt of basic sweet taste was different in OR compared to OP, highlighting the importance of learning and conditioning in the propensity to gain weight. Response to sucrose taste receipt was stronger in men than women, raising questions about the effect of sex hormones on brain response to food. PMID:25447301

  20. Audit Report "Department of Energy Efforts to Manage Information Technology Resources in an Energy-Efficient and Environmentally Responsible Manner"

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 emphasizes energy efficiency and conservation as critical to the Nation's economic vitality; its goal of reducing dependence on foreign energy sources; and, related efforts to improve the environment. The Act highlights the significant use of various forms of energy in the Federal sector and promotes efforts to improve the energy efficiency of Federal operations. One specific area of interest is the increasing demand for Federal sector computing resources and the corresponding increase in energy use, with both cost and environmental implications. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reported that, without aggressive conservation measures, data center energy consumption alone is expected to double over the next five years. In our report on Management of the Department's Data Centers at Contractor Sites (DOE/IG-0803, October 2008) we concluded that the Department of Energy had not always improved the efficiency of its contractor data centers even when such modifications were possible and practical. Despite its recognized energy conservation leadership role, the Department had not always taken advantage of opportunities to reduce energy consumption associated with its information technology resources. Nor, had it ensured that resources were managed in a way that minimized impact on the environment. In particular: (1) The seven Federal and contractor sites included in our review had not fully reduced energy consumption through implementation of power management settings on their desktop and laptop computers; and, as a consequence, spent $1.6 million more on energy costs than necessary in Fiscal Year 2008; (2) None of the sites reviewed had taken advantage of opportunities to reduce energy consumption, enhance cyber security, and reduce costs available through the use of techniques, such as 'thin-client computing' in their unclassified environments; and, (3) Sites had not always taken the necessary steps to reduce

  1. Understanding the response of commercial and institutional organizations to the California energy crisis. A report to the California Energy Commission - Sylvia Bender, Project Manager

    SciTech Connect

    Lutzenhiser, Loren; Janda, Kathryn; Kunkle, Rick; Payne, Christopher

    2002-07-24

    Beginning in the summer of 2000, California experienced serious energy supply problems, sharp increases in wholesale (and retail) electricity and natural gas prices, and isolated blackouts. In response to the rapidly worsening electricity situation in California in late 2000, the state set, as an initial goal, the reduction of the state's peak demand for the summer of 2001 by 5,000 megawatts. To meet this goal, the governor and legislature took a variety of steps to enhance supply, encourage rapid voluntary reductions in demand, and provide incentives for actions that would result in load reductions. Three bills-Assembly Bill 970, Senate Bill X1 5 and Assembly Bill X1 29-allocated roughly $950 million for consumption and demand reduction programs. The governor also enacted a variety of additional measures, including the ''Flex Your Power'' (media awareness and direct business involvement) campaign, requirements for retail sector outdoor lighting reductions, and toughening of energy efficiency building codes. There were, in fact, significant reductions in electricity demand in California during the summer of 2001 and the large number of expected supply disruptions was avoided. To understand the nature of these demand reductions and the motivations for consumer response, Washington State University (WSU) undertook a study for the California Energy Commission (CEC) focusing on conservation behavior in the residential, commercial, and agricultural sectors. The research presented in this report represents an exploration of the response of commercial and institutional organizations to the California energy situation and the unique set of influences that existed during this time. These influences included informational messages and media attention, program interventions, price changes, and external triggering events (e.g., blackouts). To better understand the effects of these influences on organizational response to the energy situation, we conducted 84 semi

  2. Stimuli-Responsive Metal Organic Frameworks: Stimuli-Responsive Metal Organic Frameworks for Energy-Efficient Post Combustion Capture

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: A team led by three professors at Texas A&M is developing a subset of metal organic frameworks that respond to stimuli such as small changes in temperature to trap CO2 and then release it for storage. These frameworks are a promising class of materials for carbon capture applications because their structure and chemistry can be controlled with great precision. Because the changes in temperature required to trap and release CO2 in Texas A&M’s frameworks are much smaller than in other carbon capture approaches, the amount of energy or stimulus that has to be diverted from coal-fired power plants to accomplish this is greatly reduced. The team is working to alter the materials so they bind only with CO2, and are stable enough to withstand the high temperatures found in the chimneys of coal-fired power plants.

  3. A comprehensive study on the photon energy response of RadFET dosimeters using the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahraman, A.; Kaya, S.; Jaksic, A.; Yilmaz, E.

    2015-05-01

    Radiation-sensing Field Effect Transistors (RadFETs or MOSFET dosimeters) with SiO2 gate dielectric have found applications in space, radiotherapy clinics, and high-energy physics laboratories. More sensitive RadFETs, which require modifications in device design, including gate dielectric, are being considered for personal dosimetry applications. This paper presents results of a detailed study of the RadFET energy response simulated with PENELOPE Monte Carlo code. Alternative materials to SiO2 were investigated to develop high-efficiency new radiation sensors. Namely, in addition to SiO2, Al2O3 and HfO2 were simulated as gate material and deposited energy amounts in these layers were determined for photon irradiation with energies between 20 keV and 5 MeV. The simulations were performed for capped and uncapped configurations of devices irradiated by point and extended sources, the surface area of which is the same with that of the RadFETs. Energy distributions of transmitted and backscattered photons were estimated using impact detectors to provide information about particle fluxes within the geometrical structures. The absorbed energy values in the RadFETs material zones were recorded. For photons with low and medium energies, the physical processes that affect the absorbed energy values in different gate materials are discussed on the basis of modelling results. The results show that HfO2 is the most promising of the simulated gate materials.

  4. Potential responses of tundra ecosystems to perturbations from energy development. Part I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Oechel, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    This report discusses research conducted to understand the effects of energy development on changes in nutrient status, changes in water flow and water availability, and changes in surface energy balance of the arctic tundra. (ACR)

  5. Spatial heterogeneity in response of male greater sage-grouse lek attendance to energy development.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Andrew J; Beck, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Landscape modification due to rapidly expanding energy development, in particular oil and gas, in the westernUSA, have prompted concerns over how such developments may impact wildlife. One species of conservation concern across much of the Intermountain West is the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercusurophasianus). Sage-grouse have been petitioned for listing under provisions of the Endangered Species Act 7 times and the state of Wyoming alone represents 64% of the extant sage-grouse population in the eastern portion of their range. Consequently, the relationship between sage-grouse populations and oil and gas development in Wyoming is an important component to managing the long-term viability of this species. We used 814 leks from the Wyoming Game and Fish Department's lek survey database and well pad data from the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission to evaluate changes in sage-grouse lek counts as a function of oil and gas development since 1991.From 1991-2011 we found that oil and gas well-pad density increased 3.6-fold across the state and was associated with a 24% decline in the number of male sage-grouse. Using a spatial and temporally structured analysis via Geographically Weighted Regression, we found a 1-to-4 year time lag between development density and lek decline. Sage-grouse also responded to development densities at multiple spatial neighborhoods surrounding leks, including broad scales of 10 km. However, sage-grouse lek counts do not always decline as a result of oil and gas development. We found similar development densities resulting in different sage-grouse lek count responses, suggesting that development density alone is insufficient to predict the impacts that oil and gas development have on sage-grouse. Finally, our analysis suggests a maximum development density of 1 well-pad within 2 km of leks to avoid measurable impacts within 1 year, and <6 well-pads within 10 km of leks to avoid delayed impacts.

  6. NECAP 4.1: NASA's Energy Cost Analysis Program thermal response factor routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weise, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    A thermal response factor is described and calculation sequences and flowcharts for RESFAC2 are provided. RESFAC is used by NASA's (NECAP) to calculate hourly heat transfer coefficients (thermal response factors) for each unique delayed surface. NECAP uses these response factors to compute each spaces' hourly heat gain/loss.

  7. Advice and recommendations to the US Department of Energy in response to the charge letter of September 20, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    In Jan. 1996, the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC) provided recommendations to DOE on how to restructure the fusion program in light of compressional guidance and budget realities. DOE endorsed these recommendations and prepared a strategic plan. The FEAC report concluded that the goals of the restructured program could most effectively be accomplished at a funding level of $275 million per year, including Federal government management costs. DOE requested that Congress appropriate $255.6 million in FY97 for the fusion energy sciences program exclusive of Federal government management costs (about $8 million). On Sept. 11, 1996, the Energy and Water Development Conference Committee settled on a FY97 appropriation for the fusion energy sciences program of $232.5 million. This report contains the response to the charge letter, on how the program described in the strategic plan could be changed to make it consistent with the $232.5 million appropriation.

  8. A hybrid Monte Carlo model for the energy response functions of X-ray photon counting detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dufan; Xu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Li; Wang, Sen

    2016-09-01

    In photon counting computed tomography (CT), it is vital to know the energy response functions of the detector for noise estimation and system optimization. Empirical methods lack flexibility and Monte Carlo simulations require too much knowledge of the detector. In this paper, we proposed a hybrid Monte Carlo model for the energy response functions of photon counting detectors in X-ray medical applications. GEANT4 was used to model the energy deposition of X-rays in the detector. Then numerical models were used to describe the process of charge sharing, anti-charge sharing and spectral broadening, which were too complicated to be included in the Monte Carlo model. Several free parameters were introduced in the numerical models, and they could be calibrated from experimental measurements such as X-ray fluorescence from metal elements. The method was used to model the energy response function of an XCounter Flite X1 photon counting detector. The parameters of the model were calibrated with fluorescence measurements. The model was further tested against measured spectrums of a VJ X-ray source to validate its feasibility and accuracy.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Homebuyer Response to New Zero-Energy Homes: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Farhar, B. C.; Coburn, T. C.; Murphy, M.

    2004-07-01

    In 2004, mail questionnaires were sent to 271 homebuyers in a highly energy-efficient community and 98 homebuyers living in an adjacent conventional community. People surveyed had to have lived in their homes for at least 6 months. The questionnaires addressed perceptions and preferences relative to the new home purchases, and the role, if any, that energy efficiency and solar features might have played in these purchases. Also investigated was the willingness to pay for energy features; preferences on whether energy features should be standard or optional; preferences on energy policies; perceived problems; aesthetics; homebuyer satisfaction and the reasons for it; environmentalism; and experience with the utility company.

  10. Optimizing minimum free-energy crossing points in solution: Linear-response free energy/spin-flip density functional theory approach

    SciTech Connect

    Minezawa, Noriyuki

    2014-10-28

    Examining photochemical processes in solution requires understanding the solvent effects on the potential energy profiles near conical intersections (CIs). For that purpose, the CI point in solution is determined as the crossing between nonequilibrium free energy surfaces. In this work, the nonequilibrium free energy is described using the combined method of linear-response free energy and collinear spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory. The proposed approach reveals the solvent effects on the CI geometries of stilbene in an acetonitrile solution and those of thymine in water. Polar acetonitrile decreases the energy difference between the twisted minimum and twisted-pyramidalized CI of stilbene. For thymine in water, the hydrogen bond formation stabilizes significantly the CI puckered at the carbonyl carbon atom. The result is consistent with the recent simulation showing that the reaction path via this geometry is open in water. Therefore, the present method is a promising way of identifying the free-energy crossing points that play an essential role in photochemistry of solvated molecules.

  11. Optimizing minimum free-energy crossing points in solution: linear-response free energy/spin-flip density functional theory approach.

    PubMed

    Minezawa, Noriyuki

    2014-10-28

    Examining photochemical processes in solution requires understanding the solvent effects on the potential energy profiles near conical intersections (CIs). For that purpose, the CI point in solution is determined as the crossing between nonequilibrium free energy surfaces. In this work, the nonequilibrium free energy is described using the combined method of linear-response free energy and collinear spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory. The proposed approach reveals the solvent effects on the CI geometries of stilbene in an acetonitrile solution and those of thymine in water. Polar acetonitrile decreases the energy difference between the twisted minimum and twisted-pyramidalized CI of stilbene. For thymine in water, the hydrogen bond formation stabilizes significantly the CI puckered at the carbonyl carbon atom. The result is consistent with the recent simulation showing that the reaction path via this geometry is open in water. Therefore, the present method is a promising way of identifying the free-energy crossing points that play an essential role in photochemistry of solvated molecules.

  12. Comment response document for the Secretary of Energy`s ``Report to Congress on Reassessment of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program``

    SciTech Connect

    1990-11-01

    On November 29, 1989, the Secretary of Energy published his ``Report to Congress on the Reassessment of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program`` (Report), and sent copies to numerous interested parties for their review and comment. This document summarizes comments received on the Report and presents the DOE`s current responses to those comments as a basis for further discussions. Included as appendixes are a list of commenters, a crosswalk showing where each comment is addressed, the comment letters themselves with specific comments delineated, and the DOE`s response to those letters. Twenty-five individuals or organizations submitted comments on the Report. The DOE identified 130 individual comments and classified them into the following seven categories: Management, Institutional, Regulatory, Transportation, Monitored Retrievable Storage, Scheduling, and Yucca Mountain. For the responses, comments were than grouped into more specific topics under each of the major headings. The DOE attempted to respond to all comments.

  13. Increased colonic propionate reduces anticipatory reward responses in the human striatum to high-energy foods123

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Claire S; Chambers, Edward S; Alhabeeb, Habeeb; Chhina, Navpreet; Preston, Tom; Tedford, Catriona; Fitzpatrick, Julie; Irani, Cherag; Busza, Albert; Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Fountana, Sofia; Holmes, Elaine; Goldstone, Anthony P; Frost, Gary S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), metabolites produced through the microbial fermentation of nondigestible dietary components, have key roles in energy homeostasis. Animal research suggests that colon-derived SCFAs modulate feeding behavior via central mechanisms. In humans, increased colonic production of the SCFA propionate acutely reduces energy intake. However, evidence of an effect of colonic propionate on the human brain or reward-based eating behavior is currently unavailable. Objectives: We investigated the effect of increased colonic propionate production on brain anticipatory reward responses during food picture evaluation. We hypothesized that elevated colonic propionate would reduce both reward responses and ad libitum energy intake via stimulation of anorexigenic gut hormone secretion. Design: In a randomized crossover design, 20 healthy nonobese men completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) food picture evaluation task after consumption of control inulin or inulin-propionate ester, a unique dietary compound that selectively augments colonic propionate production. The blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) signal was measured in a priori brain regions involved in reward processing, including the caudate, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, anterior insula, and orbitofrontal cortex (n = 18 had analyzable fMRI data). Results: Increasing colonic propionate production reduced BOLD signal during food picture evaluation in the caudate and nucleus accumbens. In the caudate, the reduction in BOLD signal was driven specifically by a lowering of the response to high-energy food. These central effects were partnered with a decrease in subjective appeal of high-energy food pictures and reduced energy intake during an ad libitum meal. These observations were not related to changes in blood peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose, or insulin concentrations. Conclusion: Our results suggest that colonic propionate production may

  14. Free Energy Contribution Analysis Using Response Kernel Approximation: Insights into the Acylation Reaction of a Beta-Lactamase.

    PubMed

    Asada, Toshio; Ando, Kanta; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta; Koseki, Shiro

    2016-09-01

    A widely applicable free energy contribution analysis (FECA) method based on the quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approximation using response kernel approaches has been proposed to investigate the influences of environmental residues and/or atoms in the QM region on the free energy profile. This method can evaluate atomic contributions to the free energy along the reaction path including polarization effects on the QM region within a dramatically reduced computational time. The rate-limiting step in the deactivation of the β-lactam antibiotic cefalotin (CLS) by β-lactamase was studied using this method. The experimentally observed activation barrier was successfully reproduced by free energy perturbation calculations along the optimized reaction path that involved activation by the carboxylate moiety in CLS. It was found that the free energy profile in the QM region was slightly higher than the isolated energy and that two residues, Lys67 and Lys315, as well as water molecules deeply influenced the QM atoms associated with the bond alternation reaction in the acyl-enzyme intermediate. These facts suggested that the surrounding residues are favorable for the reactant complex and prevent the intermediate from being too stabilized to proceed to the following deacylation reaction. We have demonstrated that the free energy contribution analysis should be a useful method to investigate enzyme catalysis and to facilitate intelligent molecular design. PMID:27501066

  15. Free Energy Contribution Analysis Using Response Kernel Approximation: Insights into the Acylation Reaction of a Beta-Lactamase.

    PubMed

    Asada, Toshio; Ando, Kanta; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta; Koseki, Shiro

    2016-09-01

    A widely applicable free energy contribution analysis (FECA) method based on the quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approximation using response kernel approaches has been proposed to investigate the influences of environmental residues and/or atoms in the QM region on the free energy profile. This method can evaluate atomic contributions to the free energy along the reaction path including polarization effects on the QM region within a dramatically reduced computational time. The rate-limiting step in the deactivation of the β-lactam antibiotic cefalotin (CLS) by β-lactamase was studied using this method. The experimentally observed activation barrier was successfully reproduced by free energy perturbation calculations along the optimized reaction path that involved activation by the carboxylate moiety in CLS. It was found that the free energy profile in the QM region was slightly higher than the isolated energy and that two residues, Lys67 and Lys315, as well as water molecules deeply influenced the QM atoms associated with the bond alternation reaction in the acyl-enzyme intermediate. These facts suggested that the surrounding residues are favorable for the reactant complex and prevent the intermediate from being too stabilized to proceed to the following deacylation reaction. We have demonstrated that the free energy contribution analysis should be a useful method to investigate enzyme catalysis and to facilitate intelligent molecular design.

  16. Beyond prometheus and Bakasura: Elements of an alternative to nuclear power in India's response to the energy-environment crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathai, Manu Verghese

    In India, as elsewhere, modern energy-society relations and economic development, metaphorically, Prometheus and the insatiable demon Bakasura, respectively, have produced unprecedented economic growth even as they have ushered in the "energy-environment crisis." Government efforts interpret the crisis as insufficiently advanced modernity. Resulting efforts to redress this crisis reaffirm more economic growth through modern energy-society relations and economic development. The civilian nuclear power renaissance in India, amidst rapidly accelerating economic growth and global climate change, is indicative. It presents the prospect of producing "abundant energy" and being "green" at the same time. This confidence in civilian nuclear power is questioned. It is investigated as proceeding from the modern discourse of "Cornucopianism" and its institutionalization as "modern megamachine organization of society." It is found that civilian nuclear power as energy policy is based on a presumption of overabundance as imperative for viable social and economic development; is predisposed to centralization and secrecy; its institutionalization limits deliberation on energy-society relations to technocratic terms; such deliberation is restrained to venues accessible only to the highest political office and technocratic elite; it fails to redress entrenched "energy injustice;" it embodies "modern technique" fostering the "displaced person" while eclipsing the "complete human personality." Overall, despite its green rhetoric, civilian nuclear power reaffirms the "politics of commodification" and refutes social and political arrangements for sustainability and equity. Alternatives are surveyed as strategies for resistance. They include the DEFENDUS approach for energy planning, the "Human Development and Capability Approach" and the "Sustainable Energy Utility." These alternatives and the synergy between them are offered as avenues to resist nuclear power as a response to the

  17. One and three dimensional models for the dynamical sensing response of Galfenol with applications to energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weetman, Philip; Akhras, George

    2010-04-01

    One and three-dimensional computational models for the dynamical sensing response of Galfenol based magnetostrictive devices are developed. The sensing model calculates the fraction of magnetic moments oriented along each of the energetically preferred directions of the crystal as a function of time, which can then be used to determine the time evolution of the total magnetization. Results from the sensing model are compared to quasi-static loading experiments for validation and extraction of phenomenological parameters. As a sample application, the sensing model is incorporated into an AC energy harvesting circuit to predict the magnetization and energy harvested under dynamical loading conditions.

  18. No Evidence for a Low Linear Energy Transfer Adaptive Response in Irradiated RKO Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sowa, Marianne B.; Goetz, Wilfried; Baulch, Janet E.; Lewis, Adam J.; Morgan, William F.

    2011-01-06

    It has become increasingly evident from reports in the literature that there are many confounding factors that are capable of modulating radiation induced non-targeted responses such as the bystander effect and the adaptive response. In this paper we examine recent data that suggest that the observation of non-targeted responses may not be universally observable for differing radiation qualities. We have conducted a study of the adaptive response following low LET exposures for human colon carcinoma cells and failed to observe adaption for the endpoints of clonogenic survival or micronucleus formation.

  19. Spatial Heterogeneity in Response of Male Greater Sage-Grouse Lek Attendance to Energy Development

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Andrew J.; Beck, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Landscape modification due to rapidly expanding energy development, in particular oil and gas, in the westernUSA, have prompted concerns over how such developments may impact wildlife. One species of conservation concern across much of the Intermountain West is the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercusurophasianus). Sage-grouse have been petitioned for listing under provisions of the Endangered Species Act 7 times and the state of Wyoming alone represents 64% of the extant sage-grouse population in the eastern portion of their range. Consequently, the relationship between sage-grouse populations and oil and gas development in Wyoming is an important component to managing the long-term viability of this species. We used 814 leks from the Wyoming Game and Fish Department's lek survey database and well pad data from the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission to evaluate changes in sage-grouse lek counts as a function of oil and gas development since 1991.From 1991–2011 we found that oil and gas well-pad density increased 3.6-fold across the state and was associated with a 24% decline in the number of male sage-grouse. Using a spatial and temporally structured analysis via Geographically Weighted Regression, we found a 1-to-4 year time lag between development density and lek decline. Sage-grouse also responded to development densities at multiple spatial neighborhoods surrounding leks, including broad scales of 10 km. However, sage-grouse lek counts do not always decline as a result of oil and gas development. We found similar development densities resulting in different sage-grouse lek count responses, suggesting that development density alone is insufficient to predict the impacts that oil and gas development have on sage-grouse. Finally, our analysis suggests a maximum development density of 1 well-pad within 2 km of leks to avoid measurable impacts within 1 year, and <6 well-pads within 10 km of leks to avoid delayed impacts. PMID:24918922

  20. Red-Green-Blue Trichromophoric Nanoparticles with Dual Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: Highly Sensitive Fluorogenic Response Toward Polyanions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinjia; Takai, Atsuro; Takeuchi, Masayuki

    2016-09-01

    A red-green-blue (RGB) trichromophoric fluorescent organic nanoparticle exhibiting multi-colour emission was constructed; the blue-emitting cationic oligofluorene nanoparticle acted as an energy-donor scaffold to undergo fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to a red-emitting dye embedded in the nanoparticle (interior FRET) and to a green-emitting dye adsorbed on the surface through electrostatic interactions (exterior FRET). Each FRET event occurs independently and is free from sequential FRET, thus the resultant dual-FRET system exhibits multi-colour emission, including white, in aqueous solution and film state. A characteristic white-emissive nanoparticle showed visible responses upon perturbation of the exterior FRET efficiency by acceptor displacement, leading to highly sensitive responses toward polyanions in a ratiometric manner. Specifically, our system exhibits high sensitivity toward heparin with an extremely low detection limit.

  1. Global Analysis of Response in the Piezomagnetoelastic Energy Harvester System under Harmonic and Poisson White Noise Excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xiao-Le; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Liang

    2015-10-01

    The piezomagnetoelastic energy harvester system subjected to harmonic and Poisson white noise excitations is studied by using the generalized cell mapping method. The transient and stationary probability density functions (PDFs) of response based on the global viewpoint are obtained by the matrix analysis method. Monte Carlo simulation results verify the accuracy of this method. It can be observed that evolutionary direction of transient and stationary PDFs is in accordance with the unstable manifold for this system, and a stochastic P-bifurcation occurs as the intensity of Poisson white noise increases. This study presents an efficient numerical tool to solve the stochastic response of a three-dimensional dynamical system and provides a new idea to analyze the energy harvester system. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11302170, 11202160, 11302171, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant No. 3102014JCQ01079

  2. Red-Green-Blue Trichromophoric Nanoparticles with Dual Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: Highly Sensitive Fluorogenic Response Toward Polyanions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinjia; Takai, Atsuro; Takeuchi, Masayuki

    2016-09-01

    A red-green-blue (RGB) trichromophoric fluorescent organic nanoparticle exhibiting multi-colour emission was constructed; the blue-emitting cationic oligofluorene nanoparticle acted as an energy-donor scaffold to undergo fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to a red-emitting dye embedded in the nanoparticle (interior FRET) and to a green-emitting dye adsorbed on the surface through electrostatic interactions (exterior FRET). Each FRET event occurs independently and is free from sequential FRET, thus the resultant dual-FRET system exhibits multi-colour emission, including white, in aqueous solution and film state. A characteristic white-emissive nanoparticle showed visible responses upon perturbation of the exterior FRET efficiency by acceptor displacement, leading to highly sensitive responses toward polyanions in a ratiometric manner. Specifically, our system exhibits high sensitivity toward heparin with an extremely low detection limit. PMID:27487175

  3. Experimental verificatio of load resistance switching for global stabilization of high-energy response of a nonlinear wideband electromagnetic vibration energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Masuda, A.; Sanada, T.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an experimental verification of a self-excitation control of a resonance- type vibration energy harvester with a Duffing-type nonlinearity which is designed to perform effectively in a wide frequency range. For the conventional linear vibration energy harvester, the performance of the power generation at the resonance frequency and the bandwidth of the resonance peak are trade-off. The resonance frequency band can be expanded by introducing a Duffing-type nonlinear oscillator in order to enable the harvester to generate larger electric power in a wider frequency range. However, since such nonlinear oscillator can have multiple stable steady-state solutions in the resonance band, it is difficult for the nonlinear harvester to maintain the high performance of the power generation constantly. The principle of self-excitation and entrainment has been utilized to provide the global stability to the highest-energy solution by destabilizing other unexpected lower-energy solutions by introducing a switching circuit of the load resistance between positive and the negative values depending on the response amplitude of the oscillator. It has been experimentally validated that this control law imparts the self-excitation capability to the oscillator to show an entrainment into the highest-energy solution.

  4. Negative energy balance alters global gene expression and immune responses in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wathes, D Claire; Cheng, Zhangrui; Chowdhury, Waliul; Fenwick, Mark A; Fitzpatrick, Richard; Morris, Dermot G; Patton, Joe; Murphy, John J

    2009-09-01

    Most dairy cows suffer uterine microbial contamination postpartum. Persistent endometritis often develops, associated with reduced fertility. We used a model of differential feeding and milking regimes to produce cows in differing negative energy balance status in early lactation (mild or severe, MNEB or SNEB). Blood hematology was assessed preslaughter at 2 wk postpartum. RNA expression in endometrial samples was compared using bovine Affymetrix arrays. Data were mapped using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Circulating concentrations of IGF-I remained lower in the SNEB group, whereas blood nonesterified fatty acid and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were raised. White blood cell count and lymphocyte number were reduced in SNEB cows. Array analysis of endometrial samples identified 274 differentially expressed probes representing 197 recognized genes between the energy balance groups. The main canonical pathways affected related to immunological and inflammatory disease and connective tissue disorders. Inflammatory response genes with major upregulation in SNEB cows included matrix metalloproteinases, chemokines, cytokines, and calgranulins. Expression of several interferon-inducible genes including ISG20, IFIH1, MX1, and MX2 were also significantly increased in the SNEB cows. These results provide evidence that cows in SNEB were still undergoing an active uterine inflammatory response 2 wk postpartum, whereas MNEB cows had more fully recovered from their energy deficit, with their endometrium reaching a more advanced stage of repair. SNEB may therefore prevent cows from mounting an effective immune response to the microbial challenge experienced after calving, prolonging the time required for uterine recovery and compromising subsequent fertility.

  5. Peasant agriculture and global change: A maya response to energy development in southeastern Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, G.A. ); Mountjoy, D.C. ); Nigh, R.B. )

    1994-06-01

    This article combines data and perspectives from anthropology, agricultural economics, and landscape ecology to study how peasant activity mediates the influence of global economic driving forces on land-use patterns. Southeastern Mexico underwent rapid energy development during the 1960's and 1970's. The state used oil revenues to complete projects such as two major new hydroelectric power projects. As energy development went into high gear, the southeastern region, which had been primarily agrarian, began to supply Mexico with 50% of its energy and much of its export oil and the agricultural base declined. Discussed in this article are the following related areas: sectoral changes under the energy development boom; landscape dynamics; off-farm activities of peasants during the energy boom; Ainacanteco agriculture transformed after 1982; off-farm peasant production and agrarian transformation; peasant versatility and environmental policy. 28 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Zone Level Occupant-Responsive Building Energy Systems at the GSA

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Alastair

    2014-03-01

    The General Services Administration (GSA) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement building energy system retrofits, aiming to reduce energy consumption of at least two building systems by a total of 30 percent or more, as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) Program. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) provided technical expertise in support of this DOE program, working with the GSA and a team of consultants. This case study reports expected energy savings from appropriate energy efficient design and operations modifications to lighting and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems at the selected study sites. These retrofits comprised installation of new lighting systems with dimming capability and occupancy-sensor control at the individual light fixture level, and utilized lighting system occupancy sensor signals to continually readjust zone-level ventilation airflow according to the number of people present, down to minimum rates when vacant.

  7. Optimizing the torrefaction of mixed softwood by response surface methodology for biomass upgrading to high energy density.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Won; Kim, Young-Hun; Lee, Soo-Min; Lee, Hyoung-Woo

    2012-07-01

    The optimal conditions for the torrefaction of mixed softwood were investigated by response surface methodology. This showed that the chemical composition of torrefied biomass was influenced by the severity factor of torrefaction. The lignin content in the torrefied biomass increased with the SF, while holocellulose content decreased. Similarly, the carbon content energy value of torrefied biomass ranged from 19.31 to 22.12 MJ/kg increased from 50.79 to 57.36%, while the hydrogen and oxygen contents decreased. The energy value of torrefied biomass ranged from 19.31 to 22.12 MJ/kg. This implied that the energy contained in the torrefied biomass increased by 4-19%, when compared with the untreated biomass. The energy value and weight loss in biomass slowly increased as the SF increased up until 6.12; and then dramatically increased as the SF increased further from 6.12 to 7.0. However, the energy yield started decreasing at SF value higher than 6.12; and the highest energy yield was obtained at low SF.

  8. Ghrelin Modulates the fMRI BOLD Response of Homeostatic and Hedonic Brain Centers Regulating Energy Balance in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Deli, Levente; Gajári, Dávid; Dávid, Szabolcs; Pozsgay, Zsófia; Hegedűs, Nikolett; Tihanyi, Károly; Liposits, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    The orexigenic gut-brain peptide, ghrelin and its G-protein coupled receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1A) are pivotal regulators of hypothalamic feeding centers and reward processing neuronal circuits of the brain. These systems operate in a cooperative manner and receive a wide array of neuronal hormone/transmitter messages and metabolic signals. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed in the current study to map BOLD responses to ghrelin in different brain regions with special reference on homeostatic and hedonic regulatory centers of energy balance. Experimental groups involved male, ovariectomized female and ovariectomized estradiol-replaced rats. Putative modulation of ghrelin signaling by endocannabinoids was also studied. Ghrelin-evoked effects were calculated as mean of the BOLD responses 30 minutes after administration. In the male rat, ghrelin evoked a slowly decreasing BOLD response in all studied regions of interest (ROI) within the limbic system. This effect was antagonized by pretreatment with GHS-R1A antagonist JMV2959. The comparison of ghrelin effects in the presence or absence of JMV2959 in individual ROIs revealed significant changes in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens of the telencephalon, and also within hypothalamic centers like the lateral hypothalamus, ventromedial nucleus, paraventricular nucleus and suprachiasmatic nucleus. In the female rat, the ghrelin effects were almost identical to those observed in males. Ovariectomy and chronic estradiol replacement had no effect on the BOLD response. Inhibition of the endocannabinoid signaling by rimonabant significantly attenuated the response of the nucleus accumbens and septum. In summary, ghrelin can modulate hypothalamic and mesolimbic structures controlling energy balance in both sexes. The endocannabinoid signaling system contributes to the manifestation of ghrelin's BOLD effect in a region specific manner. In females, the estradiol milieu does

  9. Where is the chromospheric response to conductive energy input from a hot pre-flare coronal loop?

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, Marina; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Simões, Paulo J. A.

    2014-07-01

    Before the onset of a flare is observed in hard X-rays, there is often a prolonged pre-flare or pre-heating phase with no detectable hard X-ray emission but pronounced soft X-ray emission, which suggests that energy is already being released and deposited into the corona and chromosphere at this stage. This work analyzes the temporal evolution of coronal source heating and the chromospheric response during this pre-heating phase to investigate the origin and nature of early energy release and transport during a solar flare. Simultaneous X-ray, EUV, and microwave observations of a well-observed flare with a prolonged pre-heating phase are analyzed to study the time evolution of the thermal emission and to determine the onset of particle acceleration. During the 20 minute duration of the pre-heating phase we find no hint of accelerated electrons in either hard X-rays or microwave emission. However, the total energy budget during the pre-heating phase suggests that energy must be supplied to the flaring loop to sustain the observed temperature and emission measure. Under the assumption of this energy being transported toward the chromosphere via thermal conduction, significant energy deposition at the chromosphere is expected. However, no detectable increase of the emission in the AIA wavelength channels sensitive to chromospheric temperatures is observed. The observations suggest energy release and deposition in the flaring loop before the onset of particle acceleration, yet a model in which energy is conducted to the chromosphere and subsequent heating of the chromosphere is not supported by the observations.

  10. Modeling and characterization of the mechanoelectric response of ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Rashi

    2009-12-01

    Electroactive Polymers (EAPs) have gained momentum in the past few years. An especially promising material, Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC), was the subject of the reported research. IPMCs are capable of electromechanical and mechanoelectrical transduction (i.e conversion of energy from one form to another) on application of electric field and mechanical deformation, respectively. There are three key aspects of the research reported in this dissertation: develop a framework on the mechanoelectric model, evaluate the capability of IPMC as energy harvester in natural bender configuration and assess the feasibility of non-conventional configurations including disc shaped IPMC for energy harvesting applications. First of all, a framework on mechanoelectric model based on electrostatic effect and ion transport inside the membrane was developed. The model gives an insight into the mechanoelectric principle in IPMC, along with the role played by different material parameters like Young's modulus, cluster dimension, permittivity and diffusivity. Secondly, IPMC was analyzed for energy harvesting applications. The research demonstrates applicability of IPMC as energy harvester in lower frequency regions (<50 Hz) with an average efficiency of around 2% or less. Instantaneous power output from a 10 mm (width) x 50mm (length) x 0.2mm (thickness) was measured to be around 4 muW. The effect of different parameters in mechanical domain (stiffness and scalability) and electrical domain (electrode property like resistance and capacitance) was studied, both experimentally and through a formulated Grey-box model. Lastly, non-traditional configurations were tested for energy harvesting applications.

  11. Fusion Energy Advisory Committee: Advice and recommendations to the US Department of Energy in response to the charge letter of September 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This document is a compilation of the written records that relate to the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee`s deliberations with regard to the Letter of Charge received from the Director of Energy Research, dated September 1, 1992. During its sixth meeting, held in March 1993, FEAC provided a detailed response to the charge contained in the letter of September 1, 1992. In particular, it responded to the paragraph: ``I would like the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC) to evaluate the Neutron Interactive Materials Program of the Office of Fusion Energy (OFE). Materials are required that will satisfy the service requirements of components in both inertial and magnetic fusion reactors -- including the performance, safety, economic, environmental, and recycle/waste management requirements. Given budget constraints, is our program optimized to achieve these goals for DEMO, as well as to support the near-term ITER program?`` Before FEAC could generate its response to the charge in the form of a letter report, one member, Dr. Parker, expressed severe concerns over one of the conclusions that the committee had reached during the meeting. It proved necessary to resolve the issue in public debate, and the matter was reviewed by FEAC for a second time, during its seventh meeting, held in mid-April, 1993. In order to help it to respond to this charge in a timely manner, FEAC established a working group, designated Panel No. 6, which reviewed the depth and breadth of the US materials program, and its interactions and collaborations with international programs. The panel prepared background material, included in this report as Appendix I, to help FEAC in its deliberations.

  12. The influence of dietary salt and energy on the response to low pH in juvenile rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    D'Cruz, L M; Wood, C M

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated the role of diet, specifically the relative importance of salt content versus energy content, in the response of juvenile rainbow trout to environmental acid stress in soft water ([Ca2+] = 0.057 mmol L-1, [Na+] = 0.047 mmol L-1). Diets were formulated at two energy levels (regular, 16.3 MJ kg-1, and low, 9.8 MJ kg-1) and two levels of NaCl (regular, approximately 263 mmol kg-1, and low, approximately 64 mmol kg-1), yielding four treatment combinations, each fed at a ration of 0.6% body weight d-1. A fifth group of fish was not fed during the experiment. All groups were subjected to an initial acid challenge (24 h at pH 5.0 plus 12 h at pH 4.0), followed by 28 d of exposure to pH 5.2. Following the initial acid challenge, typical ionoregulatory disturbances were seen, but most effects had attenuated or disappeared by day 20 of chronic low-pH exposure. However, after 28 d, fish fed the regular-salt diets maintained the restored ionic homeostasis, whereas those fed low-salt diets did not, regardless of the energy content of the diet. Growth and food conversion efficiency were greatest in trout fed the regular-energy/regular-salt diet, negative in fish fed the low-energy/regular-salt diet, and intermediate in trout on the other diets; starved fish lost weight. Fish maintained on the regular-energy/low-salt diet exhibited the most deleterious effects, including elevated cortisol levels and a 4.1% d-1 mortality rate. Fish fed the low-energy/low-salt diet, those fed regular-salt diets, and starved fish were not as adversely affected by the acid stress. Following a regular-energy meal, fish tended to exhibit an elevated rate of oxygen consumption, but this did not occur after a low-energy meal, regardless of its salt content. Elevated oxygen consumption may be accompanied by a loss of ions via the osmorespiratory compromise. We hypothesize that fish fed the regular-energy/low-salt diets were most deleteriously affected in an acidified environment

  13. Response of a delta-doped charge-coupled device to low energy protons and nitrogen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Lepri, S.T.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Jones, T.; Blacksberg, J.; Zurbuchen, T.H.

    2006-05-15

    We present the results of a study of the response of a delta-doped charge-coupled device (CCD) exposed to ions with energies less than 10 keV. The study of ions in the solar wind, the majority having energies in the 1-5 keV range, has proven to be vital in understanding the solar atmosphere and the near Earth space environment. Delta-doped CCD technology has essentially removed the dead layer of the silicon detector. Using the delta-doped detector, we are able to detect H{sup +} and N{sup +} ions with energies ranging from 1 to 10 keV in the laboratory. This is a remarkable improvement in the low energy detection threshold over conventional solid-state detectors, such as those used in space sensors, one example being the solar wind ion composition spectrometer (SWICS) on the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft, which can only detect ions with energies greater than 30 keV because of the solid-state detector's minimum energy threshold. Because this threshold is much higher than the average energy of the solar wind ions, the SWICS instrument employs a bulky high voltage postacceleration stage that accelerates ions above the 30 keV detection threshold. This stage is massive, exposes the instrument to hazardous high voltages, and is therefore problematic both in terms of price and its impact on spacecraft resources. Adaptation of delta-doping technology in future space missions may be successful in reducing the need for heavy postacceleration stages allowing for miniaturization of space-borne ion detectors.

  14. Stationary response of nonlinear magneto-piezoelectric energy harvester systems under stochastic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, W.; von Wagner, U.; Litak, G.

    2013-09-01

    Recent years have shown increasing interest of researchers in energy harvesting systems designed to generate electrical energy from ambient energy sources, such as mechanical excitations. In a lot of cases excitation patterns of such systems exhibit random rather than deterministic behaviour with broad-band frequency spectra. In this paper, we study the efficiency of vibration energy harvesting systems with stochastic ambient excitations by solving corresponding Fokker-Planck equations. In the system under consideration, mechanical energy is transformed by a piezoelectric transducer in the presence of mechanical potential functions which are governed by magnetic fields applied to the device. Depending on the magnet positions and orientations the vibrating piezo beam system is subject to characteristic potential functions, including single and double well shapes. Considering random excitation, the probability density function (pdf) of the state variables can be calculated by solving the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation. For this purpose, the pdf is expanded into orthogonal polynomials specially adapted to the problem and the residual is minimized by a Galerkin procedure. The power output has been estimated as a function of basic potential function parameters determining the characteristic pdf shape.

  15. Characterizing the response of Juno's JADE-E energy analyzers in the presence of Jupiter's strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, G. B.; Allegrini, F.; Crary, F. J.; Louarn, P.; McComas, D. J.; Pollock, C. J.; Valek, P. W.; Weidner, S.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Juno mission, which is scheduled to launch this August, will be the first spacecraft to achieve polar orbit around Jupiter. The Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment (JADE), onboard Juno, measures the full pitch angle distribution of electrons (JADE-E) and the 3D velocity-space distribution of ions and ion composition (JADE-I). JADE-E consists of three identical energy analyzers covering the range from ~0.1-100 keV. Below ~5keV and in the relatively strong Jovian magnetic field (up to ~8 G along the orbit) the gyro-radius of electrons is comparable to the radius of curvature of the analyzers. Therefore, the response at low energies will be strongly affected by the magnetic field. To better understand, predict, and correct for the response of JADE-E in the presence of Jupiter's strong magnetic field we are characterizing its response in the laboratory. A set of Helmholtz coils capable of producing a magnetic field up to about 9 G with three axis control was built around the vacuum test chamber. We also compare the laboratory measurements with electro-optics simulations. We will present both simulations and measurement results taken with the engineering model of JADE-E and discuss expected performance of the flight instruments when they arrive at Jupiter.

  16. Alpha particle energy response of 1-mm-thick polycarbonate track detectors by 50 Hz-HV electrochemical etching method.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, M; Ramezani, V

    2015-04-01

    The electrochemical etching (ECE) method enlarges charged particle tracks to enhance its applications in particular in health physics and radiation dosimetry. The ECE method is usually based on using a high frequency-high voltage (HF-HV) generator with 250-µm-thick polycarbonate track detectors (PCTDs). The authors' recent studies on nitrogen and helium ions and alpha tracks in 1-mm-thick large-size PCTDs under a 50 Hz-HV ECE process provided promising results. In this study, alpha track efficiency and mean track diameter versus energy responses and registration energy range as well as alpha and background track shapes under three sets of 50 Hz-4, 5 and 6 kV applied field conditions have been studied and are reported. The efficiency versus alpha energy has a Bragg-type response from ∼15 keV to ∼4.5 MeV for the field conditions applied with an efficiency value of 40-50% at the Bragg peak. The results are presented and discussed.

  17. Metabolic and vasomotor responses of rhesus monkeys exposed to 225-MHz radiofrequency energy. [Macaca mulatta

    SciTech Connect

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    A previous study showed a substantial increase in the colonic temperature of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) exposed to radiofrequency (RF) fields at a frequency near whole-body resonance and specific absorption rates (SAR) of 2-3 W/kg. The present experiments were conducted to determine the metabolic and vasomotor responses during exposures to similar RF fields. We exposed five adult male rhesus monkeys to 225 MHz radiation (E orientation) in an anechoic chamber. Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were measured before, during, and after RF exposure. Colonic, tail and leg skin temperatures were continuously monitored with RF-nonperturbing probes. The monkeys were irradiated at two carefully-controlled ambient temperatures, either cool (20 degrees C) or thermoneutral (26 degrees C). Power densities ranged from 0 (sham) to 10.0 mW/cm2 with an average whole-body SAR of 0.285 (W/kg)/(mW/cm2). We used two experimental protocols, each of which began with a 120-min pre-exposure equilibration period. One protocol involved repetitive 10-min RF exposures at successively higher power densities with a recovery period between exposures. In the second protocol, a 120-min RF exposure permitted the measurement of steady-state thermoregulatory responses. Metabolic and vasomotor adjustments in the rhesus monkey exposed to 225 MHz occurred during brief or sustained exposures at SARs at or above 1.4 W/kg. The SAR required to produce a given response varied with ambient temperature. Metabolic and vasomotor responses were coordinated effectively to produce a stable deep body temperature. The results show that the thermoregulatory response of the rhesus monkey to an RF exposure at a resonant frequency limits storage of heat in the body. However, substantial increases in colonic temperature were not prevented by such responses, even in a cool environment.

  18. Electric Industry Structure and Regulatory Responses in a High Distributed Energy Resources Future

    SciTech Connect

    Corneli, Steve; Kihm, Steve; Schwartz, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The emergence of distributed energy resources (DERs) that can generate, manage and store energy on the customer side of the electric meter is widely recognized as a transformative force in the power sector. This report focuses on two key aspects of that transformation: structural changes in the electric industry and related changes in business organization and regulation that are likely to result from them. Both industry structure and regulation are inextricably linked. History shows that the regulation of the power sector has responded primarily to innovation in technologies and business models that created significant structural changes in the sector’s cost and organizational structure.

  19. 76 FR 16657 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 75 FR 15362 (Mar. 29, 2010... Organized Electric Markets, Order No. 719, 73 FR 64100 (Oct. 28, 2008), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,281 (2008...., Wholesale Competition in Regions with Organized Electric Markets, Order No. 719, 73 FR 64100 (Oct. 28,...

  20. Common challenge, collaborative response: a roadmap for US-China cooperation on energy and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-15

    This Report which was produced in partnership between Asia Society's Center on U.S.-China Relations and Pew Center on Global Climate Change, in collaboration with The Brookings Institution, Council on Foreign Relations, National Committee on U.S.-China Relations, and Environmental Defense Fund presents both a vision and a concrete Roadmap for such Sino-U.S. collaboration. With input from scores of experts and other stakeholders from the worlds of science, business, civil society, policy, and politics in both China and the United States, the Report, or 'Roadmap', explores the climate and energy challenges facing both nations and recommends a concrete program for sustained, high-level, bilateral engagement and on-the-ground action. The Report recommends that, as a first step in forging this new partnership, the leaders of the two countries should convene a leaders summit as soon as practically possible following the inauguration of Barack Obama to launch a 'U.S.-China Partnership on Energy and Climate Change'. This presidential summit should outline a major plan of joint-action and empower relevant officials in each country to take the necessary actions to ensure its implementation. Priority areas of collaboration include: deploying low-emissions coal technologies; improving energy efficiency and conservation; developing an advanced electric grid; promoting renewable energy; and quantifying emissions and financing low-carbon technologies. 5 figs., 1 tab., 2 apps.

  1. Response analysis of a nonlinear magnetoelectric energy harvester under harmonic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naifar, S.; Bradai, S.; Viehweger, C.; Kanoun, O.

    2015-11-01

    Magnetostrictive (MS) piezoelectric composites provide interesting possibilities to harvest energy from low amplitude and low frequency vibrations with a relative high energy outcome. In this paper a magnetoelectric (ME) vibration energy harvester has been designed, which consists of two ME transducers a magnetic circuit and a magnetic spring. The ME transducers consist of three layered Terfenol-D and Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) laminated composites. The outcoming energy is collected directly from the piezo layer to avoid electrical losses. In the system under consideration, the magnetic forces between the ME transducers and the magnetic circuit introduce additional stiffness on the magnetic spring. The one degree of freedom system is analysed analytically and the corresponding governing equation is solved with the Lindstedt-Poincaré method. The effects of the structure parameters, such as the nonlinear magnetic forces and the magnetic field distribution, are analysed based on finite element analysis for optimization of electric output performances. Investigations demonstrate that 1.56 mW output power across 8 MΩ load resistance can be harvested for an excitation amplitude of 1 mm at 21.84 Hz.

  2. Response investigations of a TEPC in high energy proton and neutron beams using the variance method.

    PubMed

    Kyllönen, J E; Grindborg, J E; Lindborg, L

    2002-01-01

    Results from measurements in proton and neutron beams between 68 and 174 MeV at the T. Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala are presented. The result indicate that a TEPC might underestimate the high-energy contribution to H*(10) in cosmic radiation applications such as measurements onboard aircraft.

  3. Metabolic and vasomotor responses of rhesus monkeys exposed to 225-MHz radiofrequency energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    A previous study showed a substantial increase in the colonic temperature of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) exposed to radio-frequency (RF) fields at a frequency near whole-body resonance and specific absorption rates (SAR) of 2 to 3 W/kg. The present experiments were conducted to determine the metabolic and vasomotor responses during exposures to similar RF fields. Five adult male rhesus monkeys were exposed to 225-MHz radiation (E orientation) in an anechoic chamber. The monkeys were irradiated at two carefully-controlled ambient temperatures, either cool (20 C) or thermoneutral (26 C). Power densities ranged from 0 (sham) to 10.0 mW/sq cm with an average whole-body SAR of 0.285 (W/kg)/(mW/sq cm). Two experimental protocols were used, each of which began with a 120-min preexposure equilibration period. Then, one protocol involved repetitive 10-min RF exposures at successively higher power densities with a recovery period between exposures. In the second protocol, a 120-min RF exposure permitted the measurement of steady-state thermoregulatory responses. Metabolic and vasomotor adjustments in the rhesus monkey exposed to 225 MHz occurred during brief or sustained exposures at SARs at or above 1.4 W/kg. Metabolic and vasomotor responses were coordinated effectively to produce a stable deep-body temperature. The results show that the thermoregulatory response of the rhesus monkey to an RF exposure at a resonant frequency limits storage of heat in the body. However, substantial increases in colonic temperature were not prevented by such responses, even in a cool environment.

  4. Response to dietary-induced energy restriction in dairy sheep divergently selected for resistance or susceptibility to mastitis.

    PubMed

    Bouvier-Muller, J; Allain, C; Enjalbert, F; Tabouret, G; Portes, D; Caubet, C; Tasca, C; Foucras, G; Rupp, R

    2016-01-01

    Dairy ruminants experiencing a severe postpartum negative energy balance (NEB) are considered to be more susceptible to mastitis. Although the genetic variability of mastitis resistance is well established, the biological basis of the link between energy metabolism and resistance is mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of NEB on metabolism and immune response according to the genetic background for mastitis resistance or susceptibility. Forty-eight ewes from high and low somatic cell score (SCS) genetic lines were allocated to 2 homogeneous subgroups 2 wk after lambing: one group (NEB) received an energy-restricted diet to cover 60% of their energy requirements, and the other group received a control (positive energy balance: PEB) diet. Both diets met the protein requirements. After 10 d on either the NEB or PEB diet, all ewes were injected with a Pam3CSK4/MDP solution in one half-udder to induce an inflammatory response. The ewes were monitored for milk production, somatic cell count (SCC), body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), and blood metabolites. Differential milk cell counts were determined by flow cytometry. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and triiodothyronine were determined. Energy restriction resulted in an increased fat:protein ratio in milk and decreased milk yield, BW, and BCS. The NEB ewes had significantly higher NEFA and BHB and lower plasma glucose concentrations than PEB ewes, reflecting a mobilization of body reserves and ketone body synthesis. High-SCS ewes had a higher SCS than low-SCS throughout the experiment, except after the inflammatory challenge, which resulted in similar SCS in all 4 groups. A noteworthy interaction between genetic background and diet was evidenced on metabolic parameters and BW. Indeed, high-SCS ewes subjected to NEB showed greater decrease in BW and increased NEFA and BHB concentrations compared with low

  5. Experimental evaluation of the response of micro-channel plate detector to ions with 10s of MeV energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Tae Won; Singh, P. K.; Scullion, C.; Ahmed, H.; Kakolee, K. F.; Hadjisolomou, P.; Alejo, A.; Kar, S.; Borghesi, M.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.

    2016-08-01

    The absolute calibration of a microchannel plate (MCP) assembly using a Thomson spectrometer for laser-driven ion beams is described. In order to obtain the response of the whole detection system to the particles' impact, a slotted solid state nuclear track detector (CR-39) was installed in front of the MCP to record the ions simultaneously on both detectors. The response of the MCP (counts/particles) was measured for 5-58 MeV carbon ions and for protons in the energy range 2-17.3 MeV. The response of the MCP detector is non-trivial when the stopping range of particles becomes larger than the thickness of the detector. Protons with energies E ≳ 10 MeV are energetic enough that they can pass through the MCP detector. Quantitative analysis of the pits formed in CR-39 and the signal generated in the MCP allowed to determine the MCP response to particles in this energy range. Moreover, a theoretical model allows to predict the response of MCP at even higher proton energies. This suggests that in this regime the MCP response is a slowly decreasing function of energy, consistently with the decrease of the deposited energy. These calibration data will enable particle spectra to be obtained in absolute terms over a broad energy range.

  6. Experimental evaluation of the response of micro-channel plate detector to ions with 10s of MeV energies.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Tae Won; Singh, P K; Scullion, C; Ahmed, H; Kakolee, K F; Hadjisolomou, P; Alejo, A; Kar, S; Borghesi, M; Ter-Avetisyan, S

    2016-08-01

    The absolute calibration of a microchannel plate (MCP) assembly using a Thomson spectrometer for laser-driven ion beams is described. In order to obtain the response of the whole detection system to the particles' impact, a slotted solid state nuclear track detector (CR-39) was installed in front of the MCP to record the ions simultaneously on both detectors. The response of the MCP (counts/particles) was measured for 5-58 MeV carbon ions and for protons in the energy range 2-17.3 MeV. The response of the MCP detector is non-trivial when the stopping range of particles becomes larger than the thickness of the detector. Protons with energies E ≳ 10 MeV are energetic enough that they can pass through the MCP detector. Quantitative analysis of the pits formed in CR-39 and the signal generated in the MCP allowed to determine the MCP response to particles in this energy range. Moreover, a theoretical model allows to predict the response of MCP at even higher proton energies. This suggests that in this regime the MCP response is a slowly decreasing function of energy, consistently with the decrease of the deposited energy. These calibration data will enable particle spectra to be obtained in absolute terms over a broad energy range.

  7. Experimental evaluation of the response of micro-channel plate detector to ions with 10s of MeV energies.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Tae Won; Singh, P K; Scullion, C; Ahmed, H; Kakolee, K F; Hadjisolomou, P; Alejo, A; Kar, S; Borghesi, M; Ter-Avetisyan, S

    2016-08-01

    The absolute calibration of a microchannel plate (MCP) assembly using a Thomson spectrometer for laser-driven ion beams is described. In order to obtain the response of the whole detection system to the particles' impact, a slotted solid state nuclear track detector (CR-39) was installed in front of the MCP to record the ions simultaneously on both detectors. The response of the MCP (counts/particles) was measured for 5-58 MeV carbon ions and for protons in the energy range 2-17.3 MeV. The response of the MCP detector is non-trivial when the stopping range of particles becomes larger than the thickness of the detector. Protons with energies E ≳ 10 MeV are energetic enough that they can pass through the MCP detector. Quantitative analysis of the pits formed in CR-39 and the signal generated in the MCP allowed to determine the MCP response to particles in this energy range. Moreover, a theoretical model allows to predict the response of MCP at even higher proton energies. This suggests that in this regime the MCP response is a slowly decreasing function of energy, consistently with the decrease of the deposited energy. These calibration data will enable particle spectra to be obtained in absolute terms over a broad energy range. PMID:27587107

  8. Wild Skylarks Seasonally Modulate Energy Budgets but Maintain Energetically Costly Inflammatory Immune Responses throughout the Annual Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Hegemann, Arne; Matson, Kevin D.; Versteegh, Maaike A.; Tieleman, B. Irene

    2012-01-01

    A central hypothesis of ecological immunology is that immune defences are traded off against competing physiological and behavioural processes. During energetically demanding periods, birds are predicted to switch from expensive inflammatory responses to less costly immune responses. Acute phase responses (APRs) are a particularly costly form of immune defence, and, hence, seasonal modulations in APRs are expected. Yet, hypotheses about APR modulation remain untested in free-living organisms throughout a complete annual cycle. We studied seasonal modulations in the APRs and in the energy budgets of skylarks Alauda arvensis, a partial migrant bird from temperate zones that experiences substantial ecological changes during its annual cycle. We characterized throughout the annual cycle changes in their energy budgets by measuring basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass. We quantified APRs by measuring the effects of a lipopolysaccharide injection on metabolic rate, body mass, body temperature, and concentrations of glucose and ketone. Body mass and BMR were lowest during breeding, highest during winter and intermediate during spring migration, moult and autumn migration. Despite this variation in energy budgets, the magnitude of the APR, as measured by all variables, was similar in all annual cycle stages. Thus, while we find evidence that some annual cycle stages are relatively more energetically constrained, we find no support for the hypothesis that during these annual cycle stages birds compromise an immune defence that is itself energetically costly. We suggest that the ability to mount an APR may be so essential to survival in every annual cycle stage that skylarks do not trade off this costly form of defence with other annual cycle demands. PMID:22570706

  9. Changes in oxidative stress in response to different levels of energy restriction in obese ponies.

    PubMed

    Bruynsteen, Lien; Janssens, Geert P J; Harris, Patricia A; Duchateau, Luc; Valle, Emanuela; Odetti, Patrizio; Vandevelde, Kimberley; Buyse, Johan; Hesta, Myriam

    2014-10-28

    The present study evaluated the effect of different levels of energy restriction on metabolic parameters in obese ponies. Relative weight changes, markers of lipid metabolism and oxidant/antioxidant balance were monitored. A total of eighteen obese (body condition score ≥ 7/9) Shetland ponies were studied over a 23·5-week trial, which was divided into three periods. The first period involved a 4-week adaptation period in which each animal was fed 100% of their maintenance energy requirements needed to maintain a stable obese body weight (MERob). This was followed by a 16·5-week weight-loss period in which ponies were assigned to receive either 100% (control group, CONTROL), 80% (slow weight-loss (SLOW) group) or 60% (rapid weight-loss (RAPID) group) of their MERob. During the 3-week end-phase period, all ponies were again fed 100% of their MERob. Relative weight loss was higher in the RAPID group (P< 0·001) compared with the SLOW group. No linear relationship was found as a doubling of the percentage of energy restriction was accompanied by a tripling of the percentage of weight loss. Relative weight gain afterwards in the end-phase period was higher in the RAPID group (P< 0·001) compared with the SLOW and CONTROL groups. During the weight-loss period, TAG and NEFA concentrations were highest in the RAPID group, as were α-tocopherol and ferric-reducing ability of plasma concentrations. After 8 weeks of weight loss, the concentrations of advanced oxidation protein products were higher in the RAPID group compared with the SLOW and CONTROL groups (P< 0·001). In conclusion, the level of energy restriction influences the extent of changes in oxidant/antioxidant balance. Practically, more severe energy restriction regimens may be associated with a greater regain of weight after the restriction period. PMID:25181634

  10. Response of male buffalo calves to different levels of energy and protein in finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudzadeh, H; Fazaeli, H; Kordnejad, I; Mirzaei, H R

    2007-05-01

    A factorial experiment with completely randomised design was conducted, using 27 heads of 15 month buffalo male calves with initial live weight of 287 +/- 15 kg. The animals were individually housed and randomly allocated into 9 treatment groups of three animals each. Three levels of energy (E1, E2, E3) with three levels of crude protein (P1, P2, P3) were formulated to provide 90, 100 and 110% requirement equivalents for 900 g, expected body weight gain of steers derived from NRC beef cattle requirements (1976). Live weight changes were obtained by direct weighing of the animals every month and ended by slaughtering the calves for carcass index measurements. Results indicated that Dry Matter Intake (DMI) was not significantly different between treatments. Average Daily Gain (ADG) ranged from 503 to 951 g/animal that was significantly varied among the diets (p < 0.05). The significantly higher daily gain was obtained (p < 0.05) when animals received medium energy diets that was similar to 100% beef cattle steer requirements. In addition the feed conversion ratio was significantly lower, when the animals received medium energy diets (p < 0.05). The dressing yield as well as the meat % age was not affected by the type of the diet, but abdominal fat was significantly higher in medium energy diets (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that the optimum fattening performance of 15 month old buffalo male calves may be obtained by providing around 10.42 MJ/kg of dietary metabolisable energy and about 10.22% of crude protein. PMID:19069949

  11. Local CC2 response method based on the Laplace transform: analytic energy gradients for ground and excited states.

    PubMed

    Ledermüller, Katrin; Schütz, Martin

    2014-04-28

    A multistate local CC2 response method for the calculation of analytic energy gradients with respect to nuclear displacements is presented for ground and electronically excited states. The gradient enables the search for equilibrium geometries of extended molecular systems. Laplace transform is used to partition the eigenvalue problem in order to obtain an effective singles eigenvalue problem and adaptive, state-specific local approximations. This leads to an approximation in the energy Lagrangian, which however is shown (by comparison with the corresponding gradient method without Laplace transform) to be of no concern for geometry optimizations. The accuracy of the local approximation is tested and the efficiency of the new code is demonstrated by application calculations devoted to a photocatalytic decarboxylation process of present interest.

  12. Modelling energy efficiency of an integrated anaerobic digestion and photodegradation of distillery effluent using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Apollo, Seth; Onyango, Maurice S; Ochieng, Aoyi

    2016-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is efficient in organic load removal and bioenergy recovery when applied in treating distillery effluent; however, it is ineffective in colour reduction. In contrast, ultraviolet (UV) photodegradation post-treatment for the AD-treated distillery effluent is effective in colour reduction but has high energy requirement. The effects of operating parameters on bioenergy production and energy demand of photodegradation were modelled using response surface methodology (RSM) with a view of developing a sustainable process in which the biological step could supply energy to the energy-intensive photodegradation step. The organic loading rate (OLRAD) and hydraulic retention time (HRTAD) of the initial biological step were the variables investigated. It was found that the initial biological step removed about 90% of COD and only about 50% colour while photodegradation post-treatment removed 98% of the remaining colour. Maximum bioenergy production of 180.5 kWh/m(3) was achieved. Energy demand of the UV lamp was lowest at low OLRAD irrespective of HRTAD, with values ranging between 87 and 496 kWh/m(3). The bioenergy produced formed 93% of the UV lamp energy demand when the system was operated at OLRAD of 3 kg COD/m(3) d and HRT of 20 days. The presumed carbon dioxide emission reduction when electricity from bioenergy was used to power the UV lamp was 28.8 kg CO2 e/m(3), which could reduce carbon emission by 31% compared to when electricity from the grid was used, leading to environmental conservation.

  13. Growth, nutrient retention, and metabolic response in low birth weight infants fed varying intakes of protein and energy.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, S; Schulze, K F; Forsyth, M; Zucker, C; Dell, R B; Ramakrishnan, R; Heird, W C

    1988-10-01

    Growth, nutrient retention, and metabolic response were determined in low birth weight (LBW) infants fed daily protein and energy intakes, respectively, of 2.8 gm/kg and 119 kcal/kg (group 1), 3.8 gm/kg and 120 kcal/kg (group 2), and 3.9 gm/kg and 142 kcal/kg (group 3). The mean rates of both weight gain and nitrogen retention in group 1 were somewhat greater than intrauterine rates; plasma concentrations of transthyretin and albumin also were acceptable. Thus the lower protein intake appeared to be adequate. On the other hand, the rates of weight gain and nitrogen retention in groups 2 and 3 were greater than those in group 1, supporting the efficacy of the higher protein intake with respect to growth. However, blood urea nitrogen and plasma amino acid concentrations also were higher in groups 2 and 3; both were higher in group 2 than in group 3, reflecting the positive effect of the higher energy intake on protein utilization. This observation, combined with data from an earlier study, indicates that protein intakes in excess of 3 gm/100 kcal will not be utilized completely. Energy expenditure in group 3 was greater than in group 1 but not group 2, raising the possibility that protein intakes not utilized completely contribute to diet-induced thermogenesis. The higher energy intake in group 3 vs group 2 did not affect rate of weight gain significantly, but energy storage in group 3, and hence fat accretion, was greater than that of other groups. In all groups the ratio of protein accretion to fat accretion reflected dietary proportions of protein and energy.

  14. Modelling energy efficiency of an integrated anaerobic digestion and photodegradation of distillery effluent using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Apollo, Seth; Onyango, Maurice S; Ochieng, Aoyi

    2016-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is efficient in organic load removal and bioenergy recovery when applied in treating distillery effluent; however, it is ineffective in colour reduction. In contrast, ultraviolet (UV) photodegradation post-treatment for the AD-treated distillery effluent is effective in colour reduction but has high energy requirement. The effects of operating parameters on bioenergy production and energy demand of photodegradation were modelled using response surface methodology (RSM) with a view of developing a sustainable process in which the biological step could supply energy to the energy-intensive photodegradation step. The organic loading rate (OLRAD) and hydraulic retention time (HRTAD) of the initial biological step were the variables investigated. It was found that the initial biological step removed about 90% of COD and only about 50% colour while photodegradation post-treatment removed 98% of the remaining colour. Maximum bioenergy production of 180.5 kWh/m(3) was achieved. Energy demand of the UV lamp was lowest at low OLRAD irrespective of HRTAD, with values ranging between 87 and 496 kWh/m(3). The bioenergy produced formed 93% of the UV lamp energy demand when the system was operated at OLRAD of 3 kg COD/m(3) d and HRT of 20 days. The presumed carbon dioxide emission reduction when electricity from bioenergy was used to power the UV lamp was 28.8 kg CO2 e/m(3), which could reduce carbon emission by 31% compared to when electricity from the grid was used, leading to environmental conservation. PMID:26864148

  15. Dynamical response of helium bubble motion to irradiation with high-energy self-ions in aluminum at high temperature.

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, K.; Miyamoto, M.; Arakawa, K.; Birtcher, R. C.; Materials Science Division; Shimane Univ.; Osaka Univ.

    2009-02-21

    Brownian-type motion of helium bubbles in aluminum and its dynamical response to irradiation with 100-keV Al{sup +} ions at high temperatures has been studied using in situ irradiation and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that, for most bubbles, the Brownian-type motion is retarded under irradiation, while the mobility returns when the irradiation is stopped. In contrast, under irradiation, a small number of bubbles display exceptionally rapid motion associated with the change in bubble size. These effects are discussed in terms of the dynamical interaction of helium bubbles with cascade damage formed by the high-energy self-ion irradiation.

  16. Protein-energy malnutrition modifies the production of interleukin-10 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Crisma, Amanda Rabello; Nakajima, Karina; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Borelli, Primavera

    2008-10-01

    Malnutrition modifies resistance to infection by impairing a number of physiological processes including hematopoesis and the immune response. In this study, we examined the production of Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-10 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and also evaluated the cellularity of the blood, bone marrow, and spleen in a mouse model of protein-energy malnutrition. Two-month-old male Swiss mice were subjected to protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) with a low-protein diet (4%) as compared to the control diet (20%). When the experimental group lost approximately 20% of their original body weight, the animals from both groups received 1.25 microg of LPS intravenously. The cells in the blood, bone marrow, and spleen were counted, and circulating levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were evaluated in animals stimulated with LPS. Cells from the spleen, bone marrow, and peritoneal cavity of non-inoculated animals were collected for culture to evaluate the production of IL-4 and IL-10 after stimulating these cells with 1.25 microg of LPS in vitro. Malnourished animals presented leucopenia and a severe reduction in bone marrow, spleen, and peritoneal cavity cellularity before and after stimulus with LPS. The circulating levels of IL-10 were increased in malnourished animals inoculated with LPS when compared to control animals, although the levels of IL-4 did not differ. In cells cultured with LPS, we observed high levels of IL-10 in the bone marrow cells of malnourished animals. These findings suggest that malnourished mice present a deficient immune response to LPS. These alterations may be partly responsible for the immunodeficiency observed in these malnourished mice.

  17. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and natural…

  18. U.S. Department of Energy Region 6 Radiological Assistance Program response plan. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Jakubowski, F.M.

    1998-02-01

    Upon request, the DOE, through the Radiological Assistance Program (RAP), makes available and will provide radiological advice, monitoring, and assessment activities during radiological incidents where the release of radioactive materials is suspected or has occurred. Assistance will end when the need for such assistance is over, or if there are other resources available to adequately address the incident. The implementation of the RAP is usually accomplished through the recommendation of the DOE Regional Coordinating Office`s (RCO) on duty Regional Response Coordinator (RRC) with the approval of the Regional Coordinating Office Director (RCOD). The DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is the designated RCO for DOE Region 6 RAP. The purpose of this document is: to describe the mechanism for responding to any organization or private citizen requesting assistance to radiological incidents; to coordinate radiological assistance among participating federal agencies, states, and tribes in DOE Region 6; and to describe the RAP Scaled Response concept of operations.

  19. Modulation of Root Microbiome Community Assembly by the Plant Immune Response (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Lebeis, Sarah

    2013-03-01

    Sarah Lebeis of University of North Carolina on "Modulation of root microbiome community assembly by the plant immune response" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 28, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  20. Reduced tillage systems for irrigated cotton: Energy requirements and crop response

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, W.; Thacker, G.

    1997-09-01

    Arizona law mandates that plant material left in the field following cotton harvest be buried to reduce overwintering sites for insects. Conventional operations which accomplish this are energy-intensive. Reduced tillage systems offer significant energy savings over conventional systems, however growers have expressed concerns that compaction will increase over time, with resultant yield reduction. To address this concern, two reduced tillage systems were compared to a conventional system over six reasons at one site, while at another site, four reduced tillage systems were compared to the same conventional system over three seasons. The reduced tillage systems required significantly indicates that growers can reduce the inputs required to produce irrigated cotton, without negatively impacting yield, at least over the time intervals examined.

  1. Mean transverse energy and response time measurements of GaInP based photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Xiuguang; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Miyajima, Tsukasa; Honda, Yosuke; Uchiyama, Takashi; Tabuchi, Masao; Takeda, Yoshikazu

    2014-08-14

    GaInP, which has a wider band gap than GaAs, is introduced as a photocathode for energy recovery linac (ERL). The wide band gap of material is expected to reduce the heating effect in the thermal relaxation process after high energy excitation. GaInP photocathodes exhibited higher quantum efficiency than GaAs and low thermal emittance as the same as GaAs photocathodes under green laser light irradiation. A short picosecond electron pulse was also achieved with the GaInP photocathode under 532 nm pulse laser irradiation. These experimental results demonstrate that the GaInP photocathode is an important candidate for ERL.

  2. Peripartum responses of dairy cows fed energy-dense diets for 3 or 6 weeks prepartum.

    PubMed

    Mashek, D G; Beede, D K

    2001-01-01

    Pregnant cows (n = 189) in two commercial dairy farms were assigned randomly to be fed energy-dense diets for either 3 or 6 wk before expected calving. Cows fed diets for less than or equal to 26 d were designated the short (S) treatment group, and those fed greater than 26 d were the long (L) treatment group. Cows in L tended to have improved energy status during the first 2 wk postpartum, as indicated by higher insulin concentrations and a tendency for lower nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. Treatment did not affect plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. Cows in L tended to gain more body condition during the late dry period. Total body condition loss from parturition through 6 wk postpartum was not different between treatments, but the rate of change varied over this period. Cows in S lost more body condition during the first 3 wk postpartum than cows in L. In farm 1 only, cows in L lost more body condition from 3 to 6 wk postpartum and had a higher incidence of metritis and a longer interval to first service than cows in S. Cows in L had higher milk protein content through 60 d in milk compared with cows in S. Additionally, cows in L in farm 1 produced 4.4 kg/d less milk, tended to have lower milk fat content and yields, and higher somatic cell counts through 150 d in milk than cows in S. Overall, increasing the length of time cows were fed the energy-dense diet prepartum elicited significant changes in farm 1, but had little effect in farm 2. Based on these results, L treatment may improve energy status immediately postpartum, but long-term effects varied between farms, perhaps due to other unmeasured management differences.

  3. Physiological responses and energy cost during a simulation of a Muay Thai boxing match.

    PubMed

    Crisafulli, Antonio; Vitelli, Stefano; Cappai, Ivo; Milia, Raffaele; Tocco, Filippo; Melis, Franco; Concu, Alberto

    2009-04-01

    Muay Thai is a martial art that requires complex skills and tactical excellence for success. However, the energy demand during a Muay Thai competition has never been studied. This study was devised to obtain an understanding of the physiological capacities underlying Muay Thai performance. To that end, the aerobic energy expenditure and the recruitment of anaerobic metabolism were assessed in 10 male athletes during a simulation match of Muay Thai. Subjects were studied while wearing a portable gas analyzer, which was able to provide data on oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, and heart rate (HR). The excess of CO2 production (CO2 excess) was also measured to obtain an index of anaerobic glycolysis. During the match, group energy expenditure was, on average (mean +/- standard error of the mean), 10.75 +/- 1.58 kcal.min-1, corresponding to 9.39 +/- 1.38 metabolic equivalents. Oxygen uptake and HRs were always above the level of the anaerobic threshold assessed in a preliminary incremental test. CO2 excess showed an abrupt increase in the first round, and reached a value of 636 +/- 66.5 mL.min-1. This parameter then gradually decreased throughout the simulation match. These data suggest that Muay Thai is a physically demanding activity with great involvement of both the aerobic metabolism and anaerobic glycolysis. In particular, it appears that, after an initial burst of anaerobic glycolysis, there was a progressive increase in the aerobic energy supply. Thus, training protocols should include exercises that train both aerobic and anaerobic energetic pathways. PMID:19370044

  4. Physiological responses and energy cost during a simulation of a Muay Thai boxing match.

    PubMed

    Crisafulli, Antonio; Vitelli, Stefano; Cappai, Ivo; Milia, Raffaele; Tocco, Filippo; Melis, Franco; Concu, Alberto

    2009-04-01

    Muay Thai is a martial art that requires complex skills and tactical excellence for success. However, the energy demand during a Muay Thai competition has never been studied. This study was devised to obtain an understanding of the physiological capacities underlying Muay Thai performance. To that end, the aerobic energy expenditure and the recruitment of anaerobic metabolism were assessed in 10 male athletes during a simulation match of Muay Thai. Subjects were studied while wearing a portable gas analyzer, which was able to provide data on oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, and heart rate (HR). The excess of CO2 production (CO2 excess) was also measured to obtain an index of anaerobic glycolysis. During the match, group energy expenditure was, on average (mean +/- standard error of the mean), 10.75 +/- 1.58 kcal.min-1, corresponding to 9.39 +/- 1.38 metabolic equivalents. Oxygen uptake and HRs were always above the level of the anaerobic threshold assessed in a preliminary incremental test. CO2 excess showed an abrupt increase in the first round, and reached a value of 636 +/- 66.5 mL.min-1. This parameter then gradually decreased throughout the simulation match. These data suggest that Muay Thai is a physically demanding activity with great involvement of both the aerobic metabolism and anaerobic glycolysis. In particular, it appears that, after an initial burst of anaerobic glycolysis, there was a progressive increase in the aerobic energy supply. Thus, training protocols should include exercises that train both aerobic and anaerobic energetic pathways.

  5. Regulation of rDNA transcription in response to growth factors, nutrients and energy.

    PubMed

    Kusnadi, Eric P; Hannan, Katherine M; Hicks, Rodney J; Hannan, Ross D; Pearson, Richard B; Kang, Jian

    2015-02-01

    Exquisite control of ribosome biogenesis is fundamental for the maintenance of cellular growth and proliferation. Importantly, synthesis of ribosomal RNA by RNA polymerase I is a key regulatory step in ribosome biogenesis and a major biosynthetic and energy consuming process. Consequently, ribosomal RNA gene transcription is tightly coupled to the availability of growth factors, nutrients and energy. Thus cells have developed an intricate sensing network to monitor the cellular environment and modulate ribosomal DNA transcription accordingly. Critical controllers in these sensing networks, which mediate growth factor activation of ribosomal DNA transcription, include the PI3K/AKT/mTORC1, RAS/RAF/ERK pathways and MYC transcription factor. mTORC1 also responds to amino acids and energy status, making it a key hub linking all three stimuli to the regulation of ribosomal DNA transcription, although this is achieved via overlapping and distinct mechanisms. This review outlines the current knowledge of how cells respond to environmental cues to control ribosomal RNA synthesis. We also highlight the critical points within this network that are providing new therapeutic opportunities for treating cancers through modulation of RNA polymerase I activity and potential novel imaging strategies.

  6. Energy and antioxidant responses of pacific oyster exposed to trace levels of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Epelboin, Yanouk; Quéré, Claudie; Pernet, Fabrice; Pichereau, Vianney; Corporeau, Charlotte

    2015-09-21

    Here, we assess the physiological effects induced by environmental concentrations of pesticides in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Oysters were exposed for 14 d to trace levels of metconazole (0.2 and 2 μg/L), isoproturon (0.1 and 1 μg/L), or both in a mixture (0.2 and 0.1 μg/L, respectively). Exposure to trace levels of pesticides had no effect on the filtration rate, growth, and energy reserves of oysters. However, oysters exposed to metconazole and isoproturon showed an overactivation of the sensing-kinase AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα), a key enzyme involved in energy metabolism and more particularly glycolysis. In the meantime, these exposed oysters showed a decrease in hexokinase and pyruvate kinase activities, whereas 2-DE proteomic revealed that fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (F-1,6-BP), a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis, was up-regulated. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were higher in oysters exposed to the highest pesticide concentrations. Both pesticides enhanced the superoxide dismutase activity of oysters. Isoproturon enhanced catalase activity, and metconazole enhanced peroxiredoxin activity. Overall, our results show that environmental concentrations of metconazole or isoproturon induced subtle changes in the energy and antioxidant metabolisms of oysters.

  7. Cell type-specific transcriptomics of hypothalamic energy-sensing neuron responses to weight-loss

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Fredrick E; Sugino, Ken; Tozer, Adam; Branco, Tiago; Sternson, Scott M

    2015-01-01

    Molecular and cellular processes in neurons are critical for sensing and responding to energy deficit states, such as during weight-loss. Agouti related protein (AGRP)-expressing neurons are a key hypothalamic population that is activated during energy deficit and increases appetite and weight-gain. Cell type-specific transcriptomics can be used to identify pathways that counteract weight-loss, and here we report high-quality gene expression profiles of AGRP neurons from well-fed and food-deprived young adult mice. For comparison, we also analyzed Proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons, an intermingled population that suppresses appetite and body weight. We find that AGRP neurons are considerably more sensitive to energy deficit than POMC neurons. Furthermore, we identify cell type-specific pathways involving endoplasmic reticulum-stress, circadian signaling, ion channels, neuropeptides, and receptors. Combined with methods to validate and manipulate these pathways, this resource greatly expands molecular insight into neuronal regulation of body weight, and may be useful for devising therapeutic strategies for obesity and eating disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09800.001 PMID:26329458

  8. OSLD energy response performance and dose accuracy at 24 - 1250 keV: Comparison with TLD-100H and TLD-100

    SciTech Connect

    Kadir, A. B. A.; Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Dolah, M. T.

    2013-11-27

    OSLD was evaluated in terms of energy response and accuracy of the measured dose in comparison with TLD-100H and TLD-100. The OSLD showed a better energy response performance for H{sub p}(10) whereas for H{sub p}(0.07), TLD-100H is superior than the others. The OSLD dose accuracy is comparable with the other two dosimeters since it fulfilled the requirement of the ICRP trumpet graph analysis.

  9. Photon energy response of luminescence dosemeters and its impact on assessment of Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) in mixed fields of varying energies of photons and beta radiation.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, A S

    2002-01-01

    X and gamma rays continue to remain the main contributors to the dose to humans. As these photons of varying energies are encountered in various applications, the study of photon energy response of a dosemeter is an important aspect to ensure the accuracy in dose measurement. Responses of dosemeters have to be experimentally established because for luminescence dosemeters, they depend not only on the effective atomic number (ratio of mass energy absorption coefficients of dosemeter and tissue) of the detector, but also considerably on the luminescence efficiency and the material surrounding the dosemeters. Metal filters are generally used for the compensation of energy dependence below 200 keV and/or to provide photon energy discrimination. It is noted that the contribution to Hp(0.07) could be measured more accurately than Hp(10). For the dosemeters exhibiting high photon energy-dependent response, estimation of the beta component of Hp(0.07) becomes very difficult in the mixed field of beta radiation and photons of energy less than 100 keV. Recent studies have shown that the thickness and the atomic number of metal filters not only affect the response below 200 keV but also cause a significant over-response for high energy (>6 MeV) photons often encountered in the environments of pressurised heavy water reactors and accelerators. PMID:12382729

  10. The energy dependence and dose response of a commercial optically stimulated luminescent detector for kilovoltage photon, megavoltage photon, and electron, proton, and carbon beams

    SciTech Connect

    Reft, Chester S.

    2009-05-15

    Optically stimulated luminescent detectors, which are widely used in radiation protection, offer a number of potential advantages for application in radiation therapy dosimetry. Their introduction into this field has been somewhat hampered by the lack of information on their radiation response in megavoltage beams. Here the response of a commercially available optically stimulated luminescent detector (OSLD) is determined as a function of energy, absorbed dose to water, and linear energy transfer (LET). The detector response was measured as a function of energy for absorbed doses from 0.5 to 4.0 Gy over the following ranges: 125 kVp to18 MV for photons, 6-20 MeV for electrons, 50-250 MeV for protons, and 290 MeV/u for the carbon ions. For the low LET beams, the response of the detector was linear up to 2 Gy with supralinearity occurring at higher absorbed doses. For the kilovoltage photons, the detector response relative to 6 MV increased with decreasing energy due to the higher atomic number of aluminum oxide (11.2) relative to water (7.4). For the megavoltage photons and electrons, the response was independent of energy. The response for protons was also independent of energy, but it was about 6% higher than its response to 6 MV photons. For the carbon ions, the dose response was linear for a given LET from 0.5 to 4.0 Gy, and no supralinearity was observed. However, it did exhibit LET dependence on the response relative to 6 MV photons decreasing from 1.02 at 1.3 keV/{mu}m to 0.41 at 78 keV/{mu}m. These results provide additional information on the dosimetric properties for this particular OSL detector and also demonstrate the potential for their use in photon, electron, and proton radiotherapy dosimetry with a more limited use in high LET radiotherapy dosimetry.

  11. Cerebro- and Cardio-vascular Responses to Energy Drink in Young Adults: Is there a Gender Effect?

    PubMed Central

    Monnard, Cathríona R.; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Grasser, Erik K.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Energy drinks (EDs) are suspected to induce potential adverse cardiovascular effects and have recently been shown to reduce cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) in young, healthy subjects. Gender differences in CBFV in response to EDs have not previously been investigated, despite the fact that women are more prone to cardiovascular disturbances such as neurocardiogenic syncope than men. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore gender differences in cerebrovascular and cardiovascular responses to EDs. Methods: We included 45 subjects in a retrospective analysis of pooled data from two previous randomized trials carried out in our laboratory with similar protocols. Beat-to-beat blood pressure, impedance cardiography, transcranial Doppler, and end-tidal carbon dioxide (etCO2) measurements were made for at least 20 min baseline and for 80 min following the ingestion of 355 mL of a sugar-sweetened ED. Gender and time differences in cerebrovascular and cardiovascular parameters were investigated. Results: CBFV was significantly reduced in response to ED, with the greatest reduction observed in women compared with men (−12.3 ± 0.8 vs. −9.7 ± 0.8%, P < 0.05). Analysis of variance indicated significant time (P < 0.01) and gender × time (P < 0.01) effects. The percentage change in CBFV in response to ED was independent of body weight and etCO2. No significant gender difference in major cardiovascular parameters in response to ED was observed. Conclusions: ED ingestion reduced CBFV over time, with a greater reduction observed in women compared with men. Our results have potential implications for women ED consumers, as well as high-risk individuals. PMID:27559316

  12. Altered physiology of rainbow trout in response to modified energy intake combined with pulp and paper effluent exposure.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Michael R; Landman, Michael J; Finley, Megan A; West, David W

    2008-02-01

    Two experiments using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were conducted to examine the combined effects of energy intake as manipulated by ration and pulp and paper mill effluent exposure over either one, or two consecutive reproductive cycles. This study demonstrated that the level of energy intake affected the full range of measured parameters from energy allocation to somatic growth and the gonadal development, steroid production and hematology. Increasing ration level expectedly increased growth, condition, liver and gonad size. Female trout in the higher ration treatments produced more follicles and had larger eggs, investing the same relative proportion of total energy into ovarian development. Sex steroid levels and hematological parameters were also positively influenced by increasing ration level in males and females. By far, the most dramatic impact of reduced ration on reproduction was to substantially reduce the frequency of sexually maturing fish. The effects of effluent exposure were not as marked as those linked to ration level and typically did not manifest unless fish were exposed through two consecutive reproductive cycles. The physiological effects of pulp and paper effluent exposure observed in these experiments were not consistent between the two experiments conducted herein, nor were they consistent with previously observed impacts in similar experiments with this effluent. Effluent exposure over one reproductive cycle did not impact physiological parameters in trout. However, when effluent exposure was maintained over two reproductive cycles, a new pattern of effluent response emerged including increased condition factor in both sexes, a decrease in the potential ability of the blood of females to transport oxygen, and increased sex steroids and reproductive investment in males. Effluent was also observed to cause reduced growth in male trout over two years. The effects of ration on gonad and liver size were far more obvious and consistent

  13. The Urban Fabric of the City as Its Affects Thermal Energy Responses Derived from Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The physical geography of the city affects numerous aspects of its interlinked biophysical, social, and land-atmosphere characteristics - those attributes that come together to form the total urban environment. One approach to studying the multitude of interactions that occur as a result of urbanization is to view the city from a systems ecology perspective, where energy and material cycle into and out of the urban milieu. Thus, the urban ecosystem is synergistic in linking land, air, water, and living organisms in a vast network of interrelated physical, human, and biological process. Given the number and the shear complexity of the exchanges and, ultimately, their effects, that occur within the urban environment, we are focusing our research on looking at how the morphology or urban fabric of the city, drives thermal energy exchanges across the urban landscape. The study of thermal energy attributes for different cities provides insight into how thermal fluxes and characteristics are partitioned across the city landscape in response to each city's morphology. We are using thermal infrared remote sensing data obtained at a high spatial resolution from aircraft, along with satellite data, to identify and quantify thermal energy characteristics for 4 U.S. cities: Atlanta, GA, Baton Rouge, LA, Salt Lake City, UT, and Sacramento, CA. Analysis of how thermal energy is spatially distributed across the urban landscapes for these cities provides a unique perspective for understanding how the differing morphology of cities forces land-atmosphere exchanges, such as the urban heat island effect, as well as related meteorological and air quality interactions. Keyword: urban ecosystems, remote sensing, urban heat island

  14. Energy and water balance response of a vegetated wetland to herbicide treatment of invasive Phragmites australis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykleby, Phillip M.; Lenters, John D.; Cutrell, Gregory J.; Herrman, Kyle S.; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Scott, Durelle T.; Twine, Tracy E.; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Awada, Tala; Soylu, Mehmet E.; Dong, Bo

    2016-08-01

    The energy and water balance of a Phragmites australis dominated wetland in south central Nebraska was analyzed to assess consumptive water use and the potential for "water savings" as a result of vegetation eradication via herbicide treatment. Energy balance measurements were made at the field site for two growing seasons (treated and untreated), including observations of net radiation, heat storage, and sensible heat flux, which was measured using a large-aperture scintillometer. Latent heat flux was calculated as a residual of the energy balance, and comparisons were made between the two growing seasons and with model simulations to examine the relative impacts of vegetation removal and climate variability. Observed ET rates dropped by roughly 32% between the two growing seasons, from a mean of 4.4 ± 0.7 mm day-1 in 2009 (with live vegetation) to 3.0 ± 0.8 mm day-1 in 2010 (with dead P. australis). These results are corroborated by the Agro-IBIS model simulations, and the reduction in ET implies a total "water savings" of 245 mm over the course of the growing season. The significant decreases in ET were accompanied by a more-than-doubling of sensible heat flux, as well as a ∼60% increase in heat storage due to decreased LAI. Removal of P. australis was also found to cause measurable changes in the local micrometeorology at the wetland. Consistent with the observed increase in sensible heat flux during 2010, warmer, drier, windier conditions were observed in the dead, P. australis section of the wetland, compared to an undisturbed section of live, native vegetation. Modeling results suggest that the elimination of transpiration in 2010 was partially offset by an increase in surface evaporation, thereby reducing the subsequent water savings by roughly 60%. Thus, the impact of vegetation removal depends on the local climate, depth to groundwater, and management decisions related to regrowth of vegetation.

  15. Room temperature photo-response of titanium supersaturated silicon at energies over the bandgap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olea, J.; López, E.; Antolín, E.; Martí, A.; Luque, A.; García-Hemme, E.; Pastor, D.; García-Hernansanz, R.; del Prado, A.; González-Díaz, G.

    2016-02-01

    Silicon samples were implanted with high Ti doses and subsequently processed with the pulsed-laser melting technique. The electronic transport properties in the 15-300 K range and the room temperature spectral photoresponse at energies over the bandgap were measured. Samples with Ti concentration below the insulator-metal (I-M) transition limit showed a progressive reduction of the carrier lifetime in the implanted layer as Ti dose is increased. However, when the Ti concentration exceeded this limit, an extraordinary recovery of the photoresponse was measured. This result supports the theory of intermediate band materials and is of utmost relevance for photovoltaic cells and Si-based detectors.

  16. SILICOMB PEEK Kirigami cellular structures: mechanical response and energy dissipation through zero and negative stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virk, K.; Monti, A.; Trehard, T.; Marsh, M.; Hazra, K.; Boba, K.; Remillat, C. D. L.; Scarpa, F.; Farrow, I. R.

    2013-08-01

    The work describes the manufacturing, testing and parametric analysis of cellular structures exhibiting zero Poisson’s ratio-type behaviour, together with zero and negative stiffness effects. The cellular structures are produced in flat panels and curved configurations, using a combination of rapid prototyping techniques and Kirigami (Origami and cutting) procedures for PEEK (Polyether Ether Ketone) thermoplastic composites. The curved cellular configurations show remarkable large deformation behaviours, with zero and negative stiffness regimes depending also on the strain rate applied. These unusual stiffness characteristics lead to a large increase of energy absorption during cyclic tests.

  17. Fiber fermentability effects on energy and macronutrient digestibility, fecal traits, postprandial metabolite responses, and colon histology of overweight cats.

    PubMed

    Fischer, M M; Kessler, A M; de Sá, L R M; Vasconcellos, R S; Filho, F O Roberti; Nogueira, S P; Oliveira, M C C; Carciofi, A C

    2012-07-01

    Considering the different potential benefits of divergent fiber ingredients, the effect of 3 fiber sources on energy and macronutrient digestibility, fermentation product formation, postprandial metabolite responses, and colon histology of overweight cats (Felis catus) fed kibble diets was compared. Twenty-four healthy adult cats were assigned in a complete randomized block design to 2 groups of 12 animals, and 3 animals from each group were fed 1 of 4 of the following kibble diets: control (CO; 11.5% dietary fiber), beet pulp (BP; 26% dietary fiber), wheat bran (WB; 24% dietary fiber), and sugarcane fiber (SF; 28% dietary fiber). Digestibility was measured by the total collection of feces. After 16 d of diet adaptation and an overnight period without food, blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride postprandial responses were evaluated for 16 h after continued exposure to food. On d 20, colon biopsies of the cats were collected under general anesthesia. Fiber addition reduced food energy and nutrient digestibility. Of all the fiber sources, SF had the least dietary fiber digestibility (P < 0.05), causing the largest reduction of dietary energy digestibility (P < 0.05). The greater fermentability of BP resulted in reduced fecal DM and pH, greater fecal production [g/(cat × d); as-is], and greater fecal concentration of acetate, propionate, and lactate (P < 0.05). For most fecal variables, WB was intermediate between BP and SF, and SF was similar to the control diet except for an increased fecal DM and firmer feces production for the SF diet (P < 0.05). Postprandial evaluations indicated reduced mean glucose concentration and area under the glucose curve in cats fed the SF diet (P < 0.05). Colon mucosa thickness, crypt area, lamina propria area, goblet cell area, crypt mean size, and crypt in bifurcation did not vary among the diets. According to the fiber solubility and fermentation rates, fiber sources can induce different physiological responses in cats

  18. Electronic energy transfer from molecules to metal and semiconductor surfaces, and chemisorption-induced changes in optical response of the nickel (111) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmore, P.M.

    1982-10-01

    The evolution of molecular excited states near solid surfaces is investigated. The mechanisms through which energy is transferred to the surface are described within a classical image dipole picture of the interaction. More sophisticated models for the dielectric response of the solid surface add important new decay channels for the energy dissipation. The predictions and applicability of three of these refined theories are discussed.

  19. Electron transport and electron energy distributions within the wurtzite and zinc-blende phases of indium nitride: Response to the application of a constant and uniform electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqua, Poppy; Hadi, Walid A.; Salhotra, Amith K.; O'Leary, Stephen K.; Shur, Michael S.

    2015-03-28

    Within the framework of an ensemble semi-classical three-valley Monte Carlo electron transport simulation approach, we critically contrast the nature of the electron transport that occurs within the wurtzite and zinc-blende phases of indium nitride in response to the application of a constant and uniform electric field. We use the electron energy distribution and its relationship with the electron transport characteristics in order to pursue this analysis. For the case of zinc-blende indium nitride, only a peak corresponding to the electrons within the lowest energy conduction band valley is observed, this peak being seen to broaden and shift to higher energies in response to increases in the applied electric field strength, negligible amounts of upper energy conduction band valley occupancy being observed. In contrast, for the case of wurtzite indium nitride, in addition to the aforementioned lowest energy conduction band valley peak in the electron energy distribution, and its broadening and shifting to higher energies in response to increases in the applied electric field strength, beyond a certain critical electric field strength, 30 kV/cm for the case of this particular material, upper energy conduction band valley occupancy is observed, this occupancy being further enhanced in response to further increases in the applied electric field strength. Reasons for these results are provided. The potential for device consequences is then commented upon.

  20. A Correlated Study of the Response of a Satellite to Acoustic Radiation Using Statistical Energy Analysis and Acoustic Test Data

    SciTech Connect

    CAP,JEROME S.; TRACEY,BRIAN

    1999-11-15

    Aerospace payloads, such as satellites, are subjected to vibroacoustic excitation during launch. Sandia's MTI satellite has recently been certified to this environment using a combination of base input random vibration and reverberant acoustic noise. The initial choices for the acoustic and random vibration test specifications were obtained from the launch vehicle Interface Control Document (ICD). In order to tailor the random vibration levels for the laboratory certification testing, it was necessary to determine whether vibration energy was flowing across the launch vehicle interface from the satellite to the launch vehicle or the other direction. For frequencies below 120 Hz this issue was addressed using response limiting techniques based on results from the Coupled Loads Analysis (CLA). However, since the CLA Finite Element Analysis FEA model was only correlated for frequencies below 120 Hz, Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) was considered to be a better choice for predicting the direction of the energy flow for frequencies above 120 Hz. The existing SEA model of the launch vehicle had been developed using the VibroAcoustic Payload Environment Prediction System (VAPEPS) computer code [1]. Therefore, the satellite would have to be modeled using VAPEPS as well. As is the case for any computational model, the confidence in its predictive capability increases if one can correlate a sample prediction against experimental data. Fortunately, Sandia had the ideal data set for correlating an SEA model of the MTI satellite--the measured response of a realistic assembly to a reverberant acoustic test that was performed during MTI's qualification test series. The first part of this paper will briefly describe the VAPEPS modeling effort and present the results of the correlation study for the VAPEPS model. The second part of this paper will present the results from a study that used a commercial SEA software package [2] to study the effects of in-plane modes and to

  1. SnRK1-triggered switch of bZIP63 dimerization mediates the low-energy response in plants

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Andrea; Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Wurzinger, Bernhard; Anrather, Dorothea; Simeunovic, Andrea; Weiste, Christoph; Valerio, Concetta; Dietrich, Katrin; Kirchler, Tobias; Nägele, Thomas; Vicente Carbajosa, Jesús; Hanson, Johannes; Baena-González, Elena; Chaban, Christina; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang; Teige, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic adjustment to changing environmental conditions, particularly balancing of growth and defense responses, is crucial for all organisms to survive. The evolutionary conserved AMPK/Snf1/SnRK1 kinases are well-known metabolic master regulators in the low-energy response in animals, yeast and plants. They act at two different levels: by modulating the activity of key metabolic enzymes, and by massive transcriptional reprogramming. While the first part is well established, the latter function is only partially understood in animals and not at all in plants. Here we identified the Arabidopsis transcription factor bZIP63 as key regulator of the starvation response and direct target of the SnRK1 kinase. Phosphorylation of bZIP63 by SnRK1 changed its dimerization preference, thereby affecting target gene expression and ultimately primary metabolism. A bzip63 knock-out mutant exhibited starvation-related phenotypes, which could be functionally complemented by wild type bZIP63, but not by a version harboring point mutations in the identified SnRK1 target sites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05828.001 PMID:26263501

  2. Third-party brachytherapy source calibrations and physicist responsibilities: Report of the AAPM Low Energy Brachytherapy Source Calibration Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Wayne M.; Bice, William S. Jr.; DeWerd, Larry A.; Hevezi, James M.; Huq, M. Saiful; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Palta, Jatinder R.; Rivard, Mark J.; Seuntjens, Jan P.; Thomadsen, Bruce R.

    2008-09-15

    The AAPM Low Energy Brachytherapy Source Calibration Working Group was formed to investigate and recommend quality control and quality assurance procedures for brachytherapy sources prior to clinical use. Compiling and clarifying recommendations established by previous AAPM Task Groups 40, 56, and 64 were among the working group's charges, which also included the role of third-party handlers to perform loading and assay of sources. This document presents the findings of the working group on the responsibilities of the institutional medical physicist and a clarification of the existing AAPM recommendations in the assay of brachytherapy sources. Responsibility for the performance and attestation of source assays rests with the institutional medical physicist, who must use calibration equipment appropriate for each source type used at the institution. Such equipment and calibration procedures shall ensure secondary traceability to a national standard. For each multi-source implant, 10% of the sources or ten sources, whichever is greater, are to be assayed. Procedures for presterilized source packaging are outlined. The mean source strength of the assayed sources must agree with the manufacturer's stated strength to within 3%, or action must be taken to resolve the difference. Third party assays do not absolve the institutional physicist from the responsibility to perform the institutional measurement and attest to the strength of the implanted sources. The AAPM leaves it to the discretion of the institutional medical physicist whether the manufacturer's or institutional physicist's measured value should be used in performing dosimetry calculations.

  3. Third-party brachytherapy source calibrations and physicist responsibilities: report of the AAPM Low Energy Brachytherapy Source Calibration Working Group.

    PubMed

    Butler, Wayne M; Bice, William S; DeWerd, Larry A; Hevezi, James M; Huq, M Saiful; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Palta, Jatinder R; Rivard, Mark J; Seuntjens, Jan P; Thomadsen, Bruce R

    2008-09-01

    The AAPM Low Energy Brachytherapy Source Calibration Working Group was formed to investigate and recommend quality control and quality assurance procedures for brachytherapy sources prior to clinical use. Compiling and clarifying recommendations established by previous AAPM Task Groups 40, 56, and 64 were among the working group's charges, which also included the role of third-party handlers to perform loading and assay of sources. This document presents the findings of the working group on the responsibilities of the institutional medical physicist and a clarification of the existing AAPM recommendations in the assay of brachytherapy sources. Responsibility for the performance and attestation of source assays rests with the institutional medical physicist, who must use calibration equipment appropriate for each source type used at the institution. Such equipment and calibration procedures shall ensure secondary traceability to a national standard. For each multi-source implant, 10% of the sources or ten sources, whichever is greater, are to be assayed. Procedures for presterilized source packaging are outlined. The mean source strength of the assayed sources must agree with the manufacturer's stated strength to within 3%, or action must be taken to resolve the difference. Third party assays do not absolve the institutional physicist from the responsibility to perform the institutional measurement and attest to the strength of the implanted sources. The AAPM leaves it to the discretion of the institutional medical physicist whether the manufacturer's or institutional physicist's measured value should be used in performing dosimetry calculations. PMID:18841836

  4. Geographic variation in energy storage and physiological responses to freezing in the gray treefrogs Hyla versicolor and H. chrysoscelis.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Jason T; Lee, Richard E

    2003-08-01

    The physiological responses supporting freeze tolerance in anurans are well known, but the evolution of this trait remains little studied. This is the first common-garden study of geographic variation in cryoprotective responses to freezing and the degree of freeze tolerance. We studied the gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor and H. chrysoscelis) from sympatric sites in Minnesota, Indiana and Missouri. Patterns in the literature suggest that northern frogs produce more cryoprotectants upon freezing, but we found no geographic variation in cryoprotective responses or degree of freeze tolerance. The concentration of glucose produced upon freezing was higher than previously reported for this species (liver: 475 micro mol g(-1) dry mass). Unfrozen frogs had high levels of glycerol (liver: approx. 150 micro mol g(-1) dry mass), and did not produce more upon freezing. Liver glycogen content (concentration multiplied by liver mass) was highest in frogs from Minnesota and Missouri, and was stored in preference to lipids in Minnesota frogs, possibly to provide energy for the longer northern winters. Minnesota frogs accumulated more ice (53.4+/-1.8%) after freezing to-2.5 degrees C than Indiana frogs (45.5+/-3.3%). The two species differed in body size but not in any of the physiological parameters measured. We conclude that these populations show no adaptive variation in freeze tolerance and that comparing published studies may be misleading because of different acclimation and feeding regimes.

  5. Effect of surface viscosity, anchoring energy, and cell gap on the response time of nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, R.F. de; Yang, D.-Ke; Lenzi, E.K.; Evangelista, L.R.; Zola, R.S.

    2014-07-15

    An analytical expression for the relaxation time of a nematic liquid crystal is obtained for the first time by considering the influence of surface viscosity, anchoring energy strength and cell gap, validated numerically by using the so-called relaxation method. This general equation for the molecular response time (τ{sub 0}) was derived for a vertical aligned cell and by solving an eigenvalue equation coming from the usual balance of torque equation in the Derzhanskii and Petrov formulation, recovering the usual equations in the appropriate limit. The results show that τ∼d{sup b}, where b=2 is observed only for strongly anchored cells, while for moderate to weak anchored cells, the exponent lies between 1 and 2, depending on both, surface viscosity and anchoring strength. We found that the surface viscosity is important when calculating the response time, specially for thin cells, critical for liquid crystal devices. The surface viscosity’s effect on the optical response time with pretilt is also explored. Our results bring new insights about the role of surface viscosity and its effects in applied physics. - Highlights: • The relaxation of nematic liquid crystals is calculated by taking the surface viscosity into account. • An analytical expression for the relaxation time depending on surface viscosity, anchoring strength and cell gap is obtained. • The results are numerically verified. • Surface viscosity is crucial for thin and weak anchored cells. • The effect on optical time and pretilt angle is also studied.

  6. The DOE Subsurface (SubTER) Initiative: Revolutionizing Responsible use of the Subsurface for Energy Production and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, S. S.; Walck, M. C.; Blankenship, D.; Bonneville, A.; Bromhal, G. S.; Daley, T. M.; Pawar, R.; Polsky, Y.; Mattson, E.; Mellors, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    The subsurface supplies more than 80% of the U.S.'s total energy needs through geothermal and hydrocarbon strategies and also provides vast potential for safe storage of CO2 and disposal of nuclear waste. Responsible and efficient use of the subsurface poses many challenges, many of which require the capability to monitor and manipulate sub-surface stress, fractures, and fluid flow at all scales. Adaptive control of subsurface fractures and flow is a multi-disciplinary challenge that, if achieved, has the potential to transform all subsurface energy strategies. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's SubTER (Subsurface Technology and Engineering Research development and demonstration) initiative, a multi-National Laboratory team is developing next-generation approaches that will allow for adaptive control of subsurface fractures and flow. SubTER has identified an initial suite of technical thrust areas to focus work, and has initiated a number of small projects. This presentation will describe early progress associated with the SubTER technical topic areas of wellbore integrity, subsurface stress and induced seismicity, permeability manipulation and new subsurface signals. It will also describe SubTER plans, and provide a venue to solicit suggestions and discuss potential partnerships associated with future research directions.

  7. Dynamic Controls for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response:Framework Concepts and a New Construction Study Case in New York

    SciTech Connect

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Hughes, Glenn

    2006-06-20

    Many of today's advanced building control systems are designed to improve granularity of control for energy efficiency. Examples include direct digital controls for building heating, ventilation, and cooling systems (HVAC), and dimmable ballasts for continuous dimming for daylighting applications. This paper discusses recent research on the use of new and existing controls in commercial buildings for integrated energy efficiency and demand response (DR). The paper discusses the use of DR controls strategies in commercial buildings and provides specific details on DR control strategy design concepts for a new building in New York. We present preliminary results from EnergyPlus simulations of the DR strategies at the New York Times Headquarters building currently under construction. The DR strategies at the Times building involve unique state of the art systems with dimmable ballasts, movable shades on the glass facade, and underfloor air HVAC. The simulation efforts at this building are novel, with an innovative building owner considering DR and future DR program participation strategies during the design phase. This paper also discusses commissioning plans for the DR strategies. The trends in integration of various systems through the EMCS, master versus supervisory controls and dynamic operational modes concepts are presented and future research directions are outlined.

  8. Response of a close to final prototype for the P bar ANDA Electromagnetic Calorimeter to photons at energies below 1 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, C.; Diehl, S.; Dormenev, V.; Drexler, Peter; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kuske, T.; Nazarenko, S.; Novotny, R. W.; Rosier, P.; Ryazantsev, A.; Wieczorek, P.; Wilms, A.; Wohlfahrt, B.; Zaunick, H.-G.

    2016-07-01

    The response of two generations of prototypes of the P bar ANDA Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMC), PROTO60 and PROT120, to photons in the energy range between 50 MeV and 800 MeV was obtained. Furthermore, the performance of the pre-amplifier ASIC (APFEL) under real experimental conditions, the position dependence of the energy resolution within the crystal and the implementation of higher order energy correction algorithms with a 15 GeV/c positron beam were studied.

  9. Defects in tungsten responsible for molecular hydrogen isotope retention after exposure to low energy plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Causey, R. A.; Doerner, R.; Fraser, H.; Kolasinski, R. D.; Smugeresky, J.; Umstadter, K.; Williams, R.

    2009-06-01

    Recent work on hydrogen isotope retention in tungsten has shown a substantial fraction of the retained hydrogen to be in the form of molecules. It can be expected that hydrogen permeating through a material such as tungsten, that has a very low solubility for hydrogen, would come out of solution and combine into molecules at voids located throughout the bulk. The purpose of this report is to determine the type of voids responsible for the molecular retention. High purity tungsten provided by Plansee Aktiengesellschaft was first polished, annealed at 1273 K in vacuum for one hour, and then exposed to high fluxes and high fluences of deuterium in the PISCES facility. High resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy was then used to examine the samples for voids. The results of these experiments were used to interpret the expected behavior of tungsten to be used as the divertor of the ITER fusion device.

  10. Order selection of the hearing aid Feedback Canceller filter based on its impulse response energy.

    PubMed

    Khoubrouy, Soudeh A; Panahi, Issa M S

    2012-01-01

    Numerous methods have been proposed to cancel the unpleasant effects of acoustic feedback between the loudspeaker and microphone in hearing aid systems. Adaptive Feedback Cancellation (AFC) methods are often used to estimate an FIR filter for cancelling the feedback path effect. In estimating the AFC FIR filter, it is important to select the order of the filter properly; especially when the feedback path changes from one environment to another and no knowledge about it is available. Choosing improper filter order causes deficient system performance or excessive computations and power usage in the system. We present tracking of the energy of AFC FIR filters and its convergence behavior as a new criterion for determining the proper order for AFC FIR filter. Experimental results show validity of the proposed criterion.

  11. Order selection of the hearing aid Feedback Canceller filter based on its impulse response energy.

    PubMed

    Khoubrouy, Soudeh A; Panahi, Issa M S

    2012-01-01

    Numerous methods have been proposed to cancel the unpleasant effects of acoustic feedback between the loudspeaker and microphone in hearing aid systems. Adaptive Feedback Cancellation (AFC) methods are often used to estimate an FIR filter for cancelling the feedback path effect. In estimating the AFC FIR filter, it is important to select the order of the filter properly; especially when the feedback path changes from one environment to another and no knowledge about it is available. Choosing improper filter order causes deficient system performance or excessive computations and power usage in the system. We present tracking of the energy of AFC FIR filters and its convergence behavior as a new criterion for determining the proper order for AFC FIR filter. Experimental results show validity of the proposed criterion. PMID:23367105

  12. Electro-magneto-thermo-elastic response of infinite functionally graded cylinders without energy dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkour, Ashraf M.; Abbas, Ibrahim A.

    2015-12-01

    The electro-magneto-thermo-elastic analysis problem of an infinite functionally graded (FG) hollow cylinder is studied in the context of Green-Naghdi's (G-N) generalized thermoelasticity theory (without energy dissipation). Material properties are assumed to be graded in the radial direction according to a novel power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the metal and ceramic constituents. The inner surface of the FG cylinder is pure metal whereas the outer surface is pure ceramic. The equations of motion and the heat-conduction equation are used to derive the governing second-order differential equations. A finite element scheme is presented for the numerical purpose. The system of differential equations is solved numerically and some plots for displacement, radial and electromagnetic stresses, and temperature are presented. The radial displacement, mechanical stresses and temperature as well as the electromagnetic stress are all investigated along the radial direction of the infinite cylinder.

  13. Response of Organ Structure and Physiology to Autotetraploidization in Early Development of Energy Willow Salix viminalis.

    PubMed

    Dudits, Dénes; Török, Katalin; Cseri, András; Paul, Kenny; Nagy, Anna V; Nagy, Bettina; Sass, László; Ferenc, Györgyi; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Petre; Vass, Imre; Ayaydin, Ferhan

    2016-03-01

    The biomass productivity of the energy willow Salix viminalis as a short-rotation woody crop depends on organ structure and functions that are under the control of genome size. Colchicine treatment of axillary buds resulted in a set of autotetraploid S. viminalis var. Energo genotypes (polyploid Energo [PP-E]; 2n = 4x = 76) with variation in the green pixel-based shoot surface area. In cases where increased shoot biomass was observed, it was primarily derived from larger leaf size and wider stem diameter. Autotetraploidy slowed primary growth and increased shoot diameter (a parameter of secondary growth). The duplicated genome size enlarged bark and wood layers in twigs sampled in the field. The PP-E plants developed wider leaves with thicker midrib and enlarged palisade parenchyma cells. Autotetraploid leaves contained significantly increased amounts of active gibberellins, cytokinins, salicylic acid, and jasmonate compared with diploid individuals. Greater net photosynthetic CO2 uptake was detected in leaves of PP-E plants with increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Improved photosynthetic functions in tetraploids were also shown by more efficient electron transport rates of photosystems I and II. Autotetraploidization increased the biomass of the root system of PP-E plants relative to diploids. Sections of tetraploid roots showed thickening with enlarged cortex cells. Elevated amounts of indole acetic acid, active cytokinins, active gibberellin, and salicylic acid were detected in the root tips of these plants. The presented variation in traits of tetraploid willow genotypes provides a basis to use autopolyploidization as a chromosome engineering technique to alter the organ development of energy plants in order to improve biomass productivity. PMID:26729798

  14. Response of Organ Structure and Physiology to Autotetraploidization in Early Development of Energy Willow Salix viminalis.

    PubMed

    Dudits, Dénes; Török, Katalin; Cseri, András; Paul, Kenny; Nagy, Anna V; Nagy, Bettina; Sass, László; Ferenc, Györgyi; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Petre; Vass, Imre; Ayaydin, Ferhan

    2016-03-01

    The biomass productivity of the energy willow Salix viminalis as a short-rotation woody crop depends on organ structure and functions that are under the control of genome size. Colchicine treatment of axillary buds resulted in a set of autotetraploid S. viminalis var. Energo genotypes (polyploid Energo [PP-E]; 2n = 4x = 76) with variation in the green pixel-based shoot surface area. In cases where increased shoot biomass was observed, it was primarily derived from larger leaf size and wider stem diameter. Autotetraploidy slowed primary growth and increased shoot diameter (a parameter of secondary growth). The duplicated genome size enlarged bark and wood layers in twigs sampled in the field. The PP-E plants developed wider leaves with thicker midrib and enlarged palisade parenchyma cells. Autotetraploid leaves contained significantly increased amounts of active gibberellins, cytokinins, salicylic acid, and jasmonate compared with diploid individuals. Greater net photosynthetic CO2 uptake was detected in leaves of PP-E plants with increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Improved photosynthetic functions in tetraploids were also shown by more efficient electron transport rates of photosystems I and II. Autotetraploidization increased the biomass of the root system of PP-E plants relative to diploids. Sections of tetraploid roots showed thickening with enlarged cortex cells. Elevated amounts of indole acetic acid, active cytokinins, active gibberellin, and salicylic acid were detected in the root tips of these plants. The presented variation in traits of tetraploid willow genotypes provides a basis to use autopolyploidization as a chromosome engineering technique to alter the organ development of energy plants in order to improve biomass productivity.

  15. Yearling greater sage-grouse response to energy development in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holloran, M.J.; Kaiser, R.C.; Hubert, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)-dominated habitats in the western United States have experienced extensive, rapid changes due to development of natural-gas fields, resulting in localized declines of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations. It is unclear whether population declines in natural-gas fields are caused by avoidance or demographic impacts, or the age classes that are most affected. Land and wildlife management agencies need information on how energy developments affect sage-grouse populations to ensure informed land-use decisions are made, effective mitigation measures are identified, and appropriate monitoring programs are implemented (Sawyer et al. 2006). We used information from radio-equipped greater sage-grouse and lek counts to investigate natural-gas development influences on 1) the distribution of, and 2) the probability of recruiting yearling males and females into breeding populations in the Upper Green River Basin of southwestern Wyoming, USA. Yearling males avoided leks near the infrastructure of natural-gas fields when establishing breeding territories; yearling females avoided nesting within 950 m of the infrastructure of natural-gas fields. Additionally, both yearling males and yearling females reared in areas where infrastructure was present had lower annual survival, and yearling males established breeding territories less often, compared to yearlings reared in areas with no infrastructure. Our results supply mechanisms for population-level declines of sage-grouse documented in natural-gas fields, and suggest to land managers that current stipulations on development may not provide management solutions. Managing landscapes so that suitably sized and located regions remain undeveloped may be an effective strategy to sustain greater sage-grouse populations affected by energy developments. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  16. Protein-energy malnutrition induces an aberrant acute-phase response and modifies the circadian rhythm of core temperature.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shari E; Ramos, Rafaela Andrade; Refinetti, Roberto; Farthing, Jonathan P; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2013-08-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), present in 12%-19% of stroke patients upon hospital admission, appears to be a detrimental comorbidity factor that impairs functional outcome, but the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Because ischemic brain injury is highly temperature-sensitive, the objectives of this study were to investigate whether PEM causes sustained changes in temperature that are associated with an inflammatory response. Activity levels were recorded as a possible explanation for the immediate elevation in temperature upon introduction to a low protein diet. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats (7 weeks old) were fed a control diet (18% protein) or a low protein diet (PEM, 2% protein) for either 7 or 28 days. Continuous core temperature recordings from bioelectrical sensor transmitters demonstrated a rapid increase in temperature amplitude, sustained over 28 days, in response to a low protein diet. Daily mean temperature rose transiently by day 2 (p = 0.01), falling to normal by day 4 (p = 0.08), after which mean temperature continually declined as malnutrition progressed. There were no alterations in activity mean (p = 0.3) or amplitude (p = 0.2) that were associated with the early rise in mean temperature. Increased serum alpha-2-macroglobulin (p < 0.001) and decreased serum albumin (p ≤ 0.005) combined with a decrease in serum alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (p < 0.001) suggest an atypical acute-phase response. In contrast, a low protein diet had no effect on the signaling pathway of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor, NFκB, in the hippocampus. In conclusion, PEM induces an aberrant and sustained acute-phase response coupled with long-lasting effects on body temperature.

  17. Hypothalamic energy balance gene responses in the Sprague-Dawley rat to supplementation of high-energy diet with liquid ensure and subsequent transfer to chow.

    PubMed

    Archer, Z A; Rayner, D V; Barrett, P; Balik, A; Duncan, J S; Moar, K M; Mercer, J G

    2005-11-01

    Energy dense, high fat, high sugar, foods and beverages in our diet are a major contributor to the escalating global obesity problem. Here, we examine the physiological and neuroendocrine effects of feeding rats a solid high-energy (HE) diet with or without a liquid supplement (Ensure) and the consequence of subsequently transferring animals back to chow (C). Outbred Sprague-Dawley rats were fed C until 49-56 days of age, and then transferred a HE diet for 3 weeks before allocation to one of two weight-matched groups. Over the next 10 weeks, one group remained on HE diet, whereas the other had access to the liquid diet, chocolate Ensure (EN), in addition to HE diet (HE + EN). Half the rats from each group were then killed, and the remainder were returned to C for 3 weeks. Supplementation of the HE diet with EN accelerated weight gain and increased daily energy intake, adipose tissue mass, and circulating leptin levels. Transferring animals back to C caused a decrease in bodyweight in the HE + EN group, whereas HE animals were weight stable. Both groups also exhibited voluntary hypophagia, although the magnitude and duration of this response was greater in HE + EN animals. The only effect of Ensure on the hypothalamic genes studied was on tyrosine kinase B expression in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH), which was increased in rats given the supplement. Withdrawal of the obesogenic diets decreased gene expression for cocaine-and-amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) and dynorphin (DYN) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), and DYN and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the VMH, whereas neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression in the ARC was increased. These changes were independent of previous dietary history. EN supplementation generates distinct physiological responses, yet has a minimal effect on hypothalamic neuropeptide or receptor gene expression, possibly due to the development of leptin resistance. Withdrawal of obesogenic diets induces changes in

  18. Appetite, appetite hormone and energy intake responses to two consecutive days of aerobic exercise in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Jessica A; King, James A; McFarlane, Ewan; Baker, Luke; Bradley, Chloe; Crouch, Nicole; Hill, David; Stensel, David J

    2015-09-01

    Single bouts of exercise do not cause compensatory changes in appetite, food intake or appetite regulatory hormones on the day that exercise is performed. It remains possible that such changes occur over an extended period or in response to a higher level of energy expenditure. This study sought to test this possibility by examining appetite, food intake and appetite regulatory hormones (acylated ghrelin, total peptide-YY, leptin and insulin) over two days, with acute bouts of exercise performed on each morning. Within a controlled laboratory setting, 15 healthy males completed two, 2-day long (09:00-16:00) experimental trials (exercise and control) in a randomised order. On the exercise trial participants performed 60 min of continuous moderate-high intensity treadmill running (day one: 70.1 ± 2.5% VO2peak, day two: 70.0 ± 3.2% VO2max (mean ± SD)) at the beginning of days one and two. Across each day appetite perceptions were assessed using visual analogue scales and appetite regulatory hormones were measured from venous blood samples. Ad libitum energy and macronutrient intakes were determined from meals provided two and six hours into each day and from a snack bag provided in-between trial days. Exercise elicited a high level of energy expenditure (total = 7566 ± 635 kJ across the two days) but did not produce compensatory changes in appetite or energy intake over two days (control: 29,217 ± 4006 kJ; exercise: 28,532 ± 3899 kJ, P > 0.050). Two-way repeated measures ANOVA did not reveal any main effects for acylated ghrelin or leptin (all P > 0.050). However a significant main effect of trial (P = 0.029) for PYY indicated higher concentrations on the exercise vs. control trial. These findings suggest that across a two day period, high volume exercise does not stimulate compensatory appetite regulatory changes.

  19. Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs): A Response to Five Challenges for Science and the Imagination (2011 EFRC Summit, panel session)

    ScienceCinema

    Alivisatos, Paul (Director, LBNL); Crabtree, George (ANL); Dresselhaus, Mildred (MIT); Ratner, Mark (Northwestern University)

    2016-07-12

    A distinguished panel of speakers at the 2011 EFRC Summit looks at the EFRC Program and how it serves as a response to "Five Challenges for Science and the Imagination”, the culminating report that arose from a series of Basic Research Needs workshops. The panel members are Paul Alivisatos, the Director of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, George Crabtree, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, Mildred Dresselhause, Institute Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Mark Ratner, Professor at Northwestern University. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several “grand challenges” and use-inspired “basic research needs” recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  20. Experimental determination of the energy response of alanine pellets in the high dose rate 192Ir spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeken, B.; Cuypers, R.; Goossens, J.; Van den Weyngaert, D.; Verellen, D.

    2011-10-01

    An experimental determination of the energy correction factor for alanine/paraffin pellets in the 192Ir spectrum at varying distances from the source is presented. Alanine dosimeters were irradiated in water under full scatter conditions with a high dose rate (HDR) 192Ir source (Flexisource), using a dedicated holder. Up to six line sources (catheters) fit in a regular pattern at fixed radial distances from the holder axis, the alanine detector being placed at the centre of the holder. The HDR source was stepping every 0.5 cm within a trocar needle within ± 3.0 cm around the medial plane through the detector in order to achieve dose homogeneity within the detector volume. The energy correction factor of alanine/paraffin pellets in 192Ir relative to 60Co was experimentally determined as the inverse ratio of the dose to water measured in water around the 192Ir source to the dose to water calculated in water using the TG-43 formalism. The pellets were read out with a Bruker EMXmicro spectrometer (X-band). The amplitude of the central line in the alanine absorption spectrum from pellets irradiated within the 192Ir spectrum was directly compared with the amplitude from 60Co-irradiated pellets. The energy correction factors of Harwell pellets irradiated in the 192Ir spectrum are 1.029 ± 0.02, 1.027 ± 0.02 and 1.045 ± 0.02 at a mean weighted source-detector distance of 2.0, 2.9 and 5.3 cm, respectively. The experimentally obtained values for the energy response are 1.3% lower compared to the theoretical values for radial distances smaller than 3 cm.

  1. Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs): A Response to Five Challenges for Science and the Imagination (2011 EFRC Summit, panel session)

    SciTech Connect

    Alivisatos, Paul; Crabtree, George; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Ratner, Mark

    2011-05-25

    A distinguished panel of speakers at the 2011 EFRC Summit looks at the EFRC Program and how it serves as a response to "Five Challenges for Science and the Imagination”, the culminating report that arose from a series of Basic Research Needs workshops. The panel members are Paul Alivisatos, the Director of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, George Crabtree, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, Mildred Dresselhause, Institute Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Mark Ratner, Professor at Northwestern University. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several “grand challenges” and use-inspired “basic research needs” recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  2. Demonstration with Energy and Daylighting Assessment of Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic (SRT) Window Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Broekhuis, Michael; Liposcak, Curtis; Witte, Michael; Henninger, Robert; Zhou, Xiaohui; Petzen, George; Buchanan, Michael; Kumar, Sneh

    2012-03-31

    Pleotint, LLC was able to successfully extrude thermochromic interlayer for use in the fenestration industry. Pleotint has developed a thermochromic sytem that requires two thermochromic colors to make a neutral color when in the tinted state. These two colors were assembled into a single interlayer called a tri-layer prelam by Crown Operations for use in the glass lamination industry. Various locations, orientations, and constructions of thermochromic windows were studied with funds from this contract. Locations included Australia, California, Costa Rica, Indiana, Iowa, Mexico. Installed orientations included vertical and skylight glazing applications. Various constructions included monolithic, double pane, triple pane constructions. A daylighting study was conducted at LinEl Signature. LinEl Signature has a conference room with a sylight roof system that has a west orientation. The existing LinEl Signature conference room had constant tint 40% VLT transparent skylights. Irradiance meters were installed on the interior and exterior sides of a constant tint skylight. After a month and a half of data collection, the irradiance meters were removed and the constant tint skylights were replaced with Pleotint thermochromic skylight windows. The irradiance meters were reinstalled in the same locations and irradiance data was collected. Both data sets were compared. The data showed that there was a linear relationship with exterior and interior irradiance for the existing constant tint skylights. The thermochromic skylights have a non-linear relationship. The thermochromic skylights were able to limit the amount of irradiance that passed through the thermochromic skylight. A second study of the LinEl Signature conference was performed using EnergyPlus to calculate the amount of Illuminance that passed through constant tint skylights as compared to thermochromic skylights. The constant tint skylights transmitted Illuminance is 2.8 times higher than the thermochromic

  3. Effects of Energy Development on Hydrologic Response: a Multi-Scale Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vithanage, J.; Miller, S. N.; Berendsen, M.; Caffrey, P. A.; Bellis, J.; Schuler, R.

    2013-12-01

    Potential impacts of energy development on surface hydrology in western Wyoming were assessed using spatially explicit hydrological models. Currently there are proposals to develop over 800 new oil and gas wells in the 218,000 acre-sized LaBarge development area that abuts the Wyoming Range and contributes runoff to the Upper Green River (approximately 1 well per 2 square miles). The intensity of development raises questions relating to impacts on the hydrological cycle, water quality, erosion and sedimentation. We developed landscape management scenarios relating to current disturbance and proposed actions put forth by the energy operators to provide inputs to spatially explicit hydrologic models. Differences between the scenarios were derived to quantify the changes and analyse the impacts to the project area. To perform this research, the Automated Watershed Assessment Tool (AGWA) was enhanced by adding different management practices suitable for the region, including the reclamation of disturbed lands over time. The AGWA interface was used to parameterize and execute two hydrologic models: the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the KINEmatic Runoff and EROSion model (KINEROS2). We used freely available data including SSURGO soils, Multi-Resolution Landscape Consortium (MRLC) land cover, and 10m resolution terrain data to derive suitable initial parameters for the models. The SWAT model was manually calibrated using an innovative method at the monthly level; observed daily rainfall and temperature inputs were used as a function of elevation considering the local climate effects. Higher temporal calibration was not possible due to a lack of adequate climate and runoff data. The Nash Sutcliff efficiencies of two calibrated watersheds at the monthly scale exceeded 0.95. Results of the AGWA/SWAT simulations indicate a range of sensitivity to disturbance due to heterogeneous soil and terrain characteristics over a simulated time period of 10 years. The KINEROS

  4. U.S. Department of Energy Consequence Management Under the National Response Framework

    SciTech Connect

    H. Clark, R. Allen, J. Essex, B. Pobanz

    2009-02-03

    Dramatic advances in data management have been made as a result of the Paperless FRMAC initiative, sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Emergency Response (NA-42). The FRMAC (Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center) is the hub for all radiological monitoring and the production of data products that interpret those measurements in terms of protective action guidelines. As such, very large amounts of data must be quickly assimilated from numerous sources and then widely distributed as graphical interpretations as fast as possible. Paperless FRMAC is a broad initiative to move that data faster, farther and better through telemetry, automation, and networking. This discussion reviews for the first time the status of the now two-year-old Paperless FRMAC initiative. Key features of Paperless FRMAC include multipath telemetry of measurements from DOE field teams, 24/7 Internet presence, early data entry by first responders, support for distance collaborations, and data exchange with the EPA’s SCRIBE database. The heart of the enterprise is the RAMS database, which provides seamless interfacing with GIS, LIMS, and TurboFRMAC for calculations. Paperless FRMAC is presented to users via two Internet websites. The first, FRMAC Portal website, is restricted to the emergency responders for data input, analysis, and product development. The second, CMweb website, is the showroom for completed and approved products, which are made much more widely available. In fact, CMweb offers seamless, single log-in access to all data products for any IMAAC, NARAC or CMweb user.

  5. Monte Carlo-based energy response studies of diode dosimeters in radiotherapy photon beams.

    PubMed

    Arun, C; Palani Selvam, T; Dinkar, Verma; Munshi, Prabhat; Kalra, Manjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    This study presents Monte Carlo-calculated absolute and normalized (relative to a (60)Co beam) sensitivity values of silicon diode dosimeters for a variety of commercially available silicon diode dosimeters for radiotherapy photon beams in the energy range of (60)Co-24 MV. These values were obtained at 5 cm depth along the central axis of a water-equivalent phantom of 10 cm × 10 cm field size. The Monte Carlo calculations were based on the EGSnrc code system. The diode dosimeters considered in the calculations have different buildup materials such as aluminum, brass, copper, and stainless steel + epoxy. The calculated normalized sensitivity values of the diode dosimeters were then compared to previously published measured values for photon beams at (60)Co-20 MV. The comparison showed reasonable agreement for some diode dosimeters and deviations of 5-17 % (17 % for the 3.4 mm brass buildup case for a 10 MV beam) for some diode dosimeters. Larger deviations of the measurements reflect that these models of the diode dosimeter were too simple. The effect of wall materials on the absorbed dose to the diode was studied and the results are presented. Spencer-Attix and Bragg-Gray stopping power ratios (SPRs) of water-to-diode were calculated at 5 cm depth in water. The Bragg-Gray SPRs of water-to-diode compare well with Spencer-Attix SPRs for ∆ = 100 keV and above at all beam qualities.

  6. Scorpions regulate their energy metabolism towards increased carbohydrate oxidation in response to dehydration.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Bhawna; Gefen, Eran

    2012-08-01

    Scorpions successfully inhabit some of the most arid habitats on earth. During exposure to desiccating stress water is mobilized from the scorpion hepatopancreas to replenish the hemolymph and retain hydration and osmotic stability. Carbohydrate catabolism is advantageous under these conditions as it results in high metabolic water production rate, as well as the release of glycogen-bound water. Hypothesizing that metabolic fuel utilization in scorpions is regulated in order to boost body water management under stressful conditions we used a comparative approach, studying energy metabolism during prolonged desiccation in four species varying in resistance performance. We used respirometry for calculating respiratory gas exchange ratios, indicative of metabolic fuel utilization, and measured metabolic fuel contents in the scorpion hepatopancreas. We found that hydrated scorpions used a mixture of metabolic fuels (respiratory exchange rates, RER~0.9), but a shift towards carbohydrate catabolism was common during prolonged desiccation stress. Furthermore, the timing of metabolic shift to exclusive carbohydrate oxidation (RER not different from 1.0) was correlated with desiccation resistance of the respective studied species, suggesting triggering by alterations to hemolymph homeostasis.

  7. Grassland bird response to harvesting switchgrass as a biomass energy crop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roth, A.M.; Sample, D.W.; Ribic, C.A.; Paine, L.; Undersander, D.J.; Bartelt, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    The combustion of perennial grass biomass to generate electricity may be a promising renewable energy option. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) grown as a biofuel has the potential to provide a cash crop for farmers and quality nesting cover for grassland birds. In southwestern Wisconsin (near lat. 42??52???, long. 90??08???), we investigated the impact of an August harvest of switchgrass for bioenergy on community composition and abundance of Wisconsin grassland bird species of management concern. Harvesting the switchgrass in August resulted in changes in vegetation structure and bird species composition the following nesting season. In harvested transects, residual vegetation was shorter and the litter layer was reduced in the year following harvest. Grassland bird species that preferred vegetation of short to moderate height and low to moderate density were found in harvested areas. Unharvested areas provided tall, dense vegetation structure that was especially attractive to tall-grass bird species, such as sedge wren (Cistothorus platensis) and Henslow's sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii). When considering wildlife habitat value in harvest management of switchgrass for biofuel, leaving some fields unharvested each year would be a good compromise, providing some habitat for a larger number of grassland bird species of management concern than if all fields were harvested annually. In areas where most idle grassland habitat present on the landscape is tallgrass, harvest of switchgrass for biofuel has the potential to increase the local diversity of grassland birds.

  8. Potential responses of tundra ecosystems to perturbations from energy development. Part I. Annual report, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Oechel, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    The necessity to determine general effects of perturbations in the arctic resulting from energy development is the impetus for this research which quantifies the patterns of water and nutrient flux from fellfield through tussock tundra into riparian plant communities. The evaluation of the effects of this mass flow on plant productivity is one of the objectives of the proposed research. The second major goal is to quantify the effects of changes of this water and nutrient flux resulting from slope perturbations, such as increased water flow, fertilizer application, blading and vehicle tracks. Demographic studies of fellfield, tussock tundra, and riparian vegetation and the dynamics of rodent activity in regard to nutrient transfer will broaden the understanding of the biology of a small watershed. Results of the integrated subprojects will be used to test the main hypotheses of this project which concern patterns of water and nutrient flux from slopes into the riparian vegetation as a results of slope perturbations. With the obtained information, nutrient and water flux routines of ARTUS will be expanded, and a specific slope and watershed model developed.

  9. Simulating the Response of a Composite Honeycomb Energy Absorber. Part 2; Full-Scale Impact Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Annett, Martin S.; Jackson, Karen E.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA has sponsored research to evaluate an externally deployable composite honeycomb designed to attenuate loads in the event of a helicopter crash. The concept, designated the Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA), is an expandable Kevlar(Registered TradeMark) honeycomb. The DEA has a flexible hinge that allows the honeycomb to be stowed collapsed until needed during an emergency. Evaluation of the DEA began with material characterization of the Kevlar(Registered TradeMark)-129 fabric/epoxy, and ended with a full-scale crash test of a retrofitted MD-500 helicopter. During each evaluation phase, finite element models of the test articles were developed and simulations were performed using the dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA(Registered TradeMark). The paper will focus on simulations of two full-scale impact tests involving the DEA, a mass-simulator and a full-scale crash of an instrumented MD-500 helicopter. Isotropic (MAT24) and composite (MAT58) material models, which were assigned to DEA shell elements, were compared. Based on simulations results, the MAT58 model showed better agreement with test.

  10. Response functions of Fuji imaging plates to monoenergetic protons in the energy range 0.6-3.2 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnet, T.; Denis-Petit, D.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Aleonard, M. M.

    2013-01-15

    We have measured the responses of Fuji MS, SR, and TR imaging plates (IPs) to protons with energies ranging from 0.6 to 3.2 MeV. Monoenergetic protons were produced with the 3.5 MV AIFIRA (Applications Interdisciplinaires de Faisceaux d'Ions en Region Aquitaine) accelerator at the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan (CENBG). The IPs were irradiated with protons backscattered off a tantalum target. We present the photo-stimulated luminescence response of the IPs together with the fading measurements for these IPs. A method is applied to allow correction of fading effects for variable proton irradiation duration. Using the IP fading corrections, a model of the IP response function to protons was developed. The model enables extrapolation of the IP response to protons up to proton energies of 10 MeV. Our work is finally compared to previous works conducted on Fuji TR IP response to protons.

  11. Greater sage-grouse population response to energy development and habitat loss

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.L.; Naugle, D.E.; Doherty, K.E.

    2007-11-15

    Modification of landscapes due to energy development may alter both habitat use and vital rates of sensitive wildlife species. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana, USA, have experienced rapid, widespread changes to their habitat due to recent coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) development. We analyzed lek-count, habitat, and infrastructure data to assess how CBNG development and other landscape features influenced trends in the numbers of male sage-grouse observed and persistence of leks in the PRB. From 2001 to 2005, the number of males observed on leks in CBNG fields declined more rapidly than leks outside of CBNG. Of leks active in 1997 or later, only 38% of 26 leks in CBNG fields remained active by 2004-2005, compared to 84% of 250 leks outside CBNG fields. By 2005, leks in CBNG fields had 46% fewer males per active lek than leks outside of CBNG. Persistence of 110 leks was positively influenced by the proportion of sagebrush habitat within 6.4 km of the lek. After controlling for habitat, we found support for negative effects of CBNG development within 0.8 km and 3.2 km of the lek and for a time lag between CBNG development and lek disappearance. Current lease stipulations that prohibit development within 0.4 km of sage-grouse leks on federal lands are inadequate to ensure lek persistence and may result in impacts to breeding populations over larger areas. Seasonal restrictions on drilling and construction do not address impacts caused by loss of sagebrush and incursion of infrastructure that can affect populations over long periods of time. Regulatory agencies may need to increase spatial restrictions on development, industry may need to rapidly implement more effective mitigation measures, or both, to reduce impacts of CBNG development on sage-grouse populations in the PRB.

  12. Recent advances in visible-light-responsive photocatalysts for hydrogen production and solar energy conversion--from semiconducting TiO2 to MOF/PCP photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Yu; Toyao, Takashi; Takeuchi, Masato; Matsuoka, Masaya; Anpo, Masakazu

    2013-08-28

    The present perspective describes recent advances in visible-light-responsive photocatalysts intended to develop novel and efficient solar energy conversion technologies, including water splitting and photofuel cells. Water splitting is recognized as one of the most promising techniques to convert solar energy as a clean and abundant energy resource into chemical energy in the form of hydrogen. In recent years, increasing concern is directed to not only the development of new photocatalytic materials but also the importance of technologies to produce hydrogen and oxygen separately. Photofuel cells can convert solar energy into electrical energy by decomposing bio-related compounds and livestock waste as fuels. The advances of photocatalysts enabling these solar energy conversion technologies have been going on since the discovery of semiconducting titanium dioxide materials and have extended to organic-inorganic hybrid materials, such as metal-organic frameworks and porous coordination polymers (MOF/PCP).

  13. Electric dipole response of nuclei studied by proton inelastic scattering: neutron thickness, symmetry energy, and pygmy dipole resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamii, Atsushi; RCNP E282/E316/E326/E350/E376/E377 Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Electric dipole (E1) responses of heavy nuclei have been studied by high-resolution measurement of proton inelastic scattering at forward angles including zero degrees. Here the proton scattering at 300 MeV is used as an electromagnetic probe to extract precisely the distribution of E1 reduced transition probability B(E1). The measurement has been done on various stable nuclei such as 208Pb, 120Sn, 90Zr, 154Sm, and 96Mo. The dipole polarizability and pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) strength has been extracted. Those quantities are considered to have strong correlations to the neutron skin thickness and the first order density dependence of the symmetry energy of the nuclear equation of state. We will present the experimental methods and highlights of the results as well as the preliminary ones of recent analyses. Electric dipole (E1) responses of heavy nuclei have been studied by high-resolution measurement of proton inelastic scattering at forward angles including zero degrees. Here the proton scattering at 300 MeV is used as an electromagnetic probe to extract precisely the distribution of E1 reduced transition probability B(E1). The measurement has been done on various stable nuclei such as 208Pb, 120Sn, 90Zr, 154Sm, and 96Mo. The dipole polarizability and pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) strength has been extracted. Those quantities are considered to have strong correlations to the neutron skin thickness and the first order density dependence of the symmetry energy of the nuclear equation of state. We will present the experimental methods and highlights of the results as well as the preliminary ones of recent analyses. JSPS No. 25105509.

  14. Label-free proteomics uncovers energy metabolism and focal adhesion regulations responsive for endometrium receptivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Zhang, Aijun; Yu, Feng; Gao, Jing; Liu, Yue; Yu, Chengli; Zhou, Hu; Xu, Chen

    2015-04-01

    indirect immunofluorescence, including the up-regulation of CKB and down-regulation ACTN in the receptive phase. In summary, our proteomic analysis study shows potential for predicting the endometrial remodeling from the proliferative to the receptivity phase in women, and these results also reveal the key biological mechanisms (such as energy metabolism and focal adhesion) underlying human endometrial receptivity. PMID:25728905

  15. Sex-based fMRI differences in obese humans in response to high vs. low energy food cues.

    PubMed

    Geliebter, Allan; Pantazatos, Spiro P; McOuatt, Haley; Puma, Lauren; Gibson, Charlisa D; Atalayer, Deniz

    2013-04-15

    Gender specific effects on human eating have been previously reported. Here we investigated sex-based differences in neural activation via whole-brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in response to high energy-dense (high-ED) vs. low-ED visual and auditory food cues in obese men vs. women in both fed and fasted states. The results show that in response to high vs. low ED foods in the fed state, obese men (vs. women) had greater activation in brain areas associated with motor control regions (e.g. supplementary motor areas) whereas women showed greater activation in cognitive-related regions. In the fasted state, obese men had greater activation in a visual-attention region whereas obese women showed greater activation in affective and reward related processing regions (e.g. caudate). Overall the results support our a priori hypothesis that obese women (vs. men) have greater neural activation in regions associated with cognition and emotion-related brain regions. These findings may improve our understanding of sex specific differences among obese individuals in eating behavior. PMID:23261871

  16. Spectral response calibrations of x-ray diode photocathodes in the 50-5900 eV photon energy region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, C. D.; Simmons, A. C.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray diode photocathodes are employed in diagnostic instruments on the Helen laser at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) Aldermaston, UK. The photocathodes are mainly used in the Dante fast diode array and flat response diodes. These diagnostics enable the soft x-ray spectral emissions of laser irradiated targets to be determined. To derive quantitative spectral information, the quantum efficiency of the photocathodes must be known over the range of x-ray energies of interest. The photocathodes were manufactured in 1982, and were initially calibrated at that time. Since then further measurements have been performed in 1988 and 1999. The photocathodes have been exposed to a wide range of conditions during their lives, ranging from use in experiments to storage in a dry nitrogen environment. Reported here are the results of calibrations performed in 1999 at the soft x-ray calibration facility EXCALIBUR at AWE, Aldermaston, and at the National Synchrotron Light Source in Brookhaven NY. An assessment of their current condition and an evaluation of the change in their response over time, and the possible reasons for these changes, are made.

  17. Energy transfer from an individual silica nanoparticle to graphene quantum dots and resulting enhancement of photodetector responsivity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung; Shin, Dong Hee; Kim, Jungkil; Jang, Chan Wook; Kang, Soo Seok; Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Ju Hwan; Lee, Dae Hun; Kim, Jung Hyun; Choi, Suk-Ho; Hwang, Sung Won

    2016-01-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), referred to as the transfer of the photon energy absorbed in donor to acceptor, has received much attention as an important physical phenomenon for its potential applications in optoelectronic devices as well as for the understanding of some biological systems. If one-atom-thick graphene is used for donor or acceptor, it can minimize the separation between donor and acceptor, thereby maximizing the FRET efficiency (EFRET). Here, we report first fabrication of a FRET system composed of silica nanoparticles (SNPs) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as donors and acceptors, respectively. The FRET from SNPs to GQDs with an EFRET of ∼78% is demonstrated from excitation-dependent photoluminescence spectra and decay curves. The photodetector (PD) responsivity (R) of the FRET system at 532 nm is enhanced by 100∼101/102∼103 times under forward/reverse biases, respectively, compared to the PD containing solely GQDs. This remarkable enhancement is understood by network-like current paths formed by the GQDs on the SNPs and easy transfer of the carriers generated from the SNPs into the GQDs due to their close attachment. The R is 2∼3 times further enhanced at 325 nm by the FRET effect. PMID:27250343

  18. Energy transfer from an individual silica nanoparticle to graphene quantum dots and resulting enhancement of photodetector responsivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung; Shin, Dong Hee; Kim, Jungkil; Jang, Chan Wook; Kang, Soo Seok; Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Ju Hwan; Lee, Dae Hun; Kim, Jung Hyun; Choi, Suk-Ho; Hwang, Sung Won

    2016-06-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), referred to as the transfer of the photon energy absorbed in donor to acceptor, has received much attention as an important physical phenomenon for its potential applications in optoelectronic devices as well as for the understanding of some biological systems. If one-atom-thick graphene is used for donor or acceptor, it can minimize the separation between donor and acceptor, thereby maximizing the FRET efficiency (EFRET). Here, we report first fabrication of a FRET system composed of silica nanoparticles (SNPs) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as donors and acceptors, respectively. The FRET from SNPs to GQDs with an EFRET of ∼78% is demonstrated from excitation-dependent photoluminescence spectra and decay curves. The photodetector (PD) responsivity (R) of the FRET system at 532 nm is enhanced by 100∼101/102∼103 times under forward/reverse biases, respectively, compared to the PD containing solely GQDs. This remarkable enhancement is understood by network-like current paths formed by the GQDs on the SNPs and easy transfer of the carriers generated from the SNPs into the GQDs due to their close attachment. The R is 2∼3 times further enhanced at 325 nm by the FRET effect.

  19. The role of autacoids and the autonomic nervous system in cardiovascular responses to radio-frequency energy heating.

    PubMed

    Jauchem, J R

    2006-04-01

    Among the potential effects of exposure to high levels of radio-frequency energy (RFE) (which includes microwaves), an increase in body temperature is the primary consequence. Release of autacoids and activity of the autonomic nervous system may influence (or be directly responsible for) some of the physiological changes that occur in conjunction with this hyperthermia. The main focus of this review is the interaction of autacoids and the autonomic nervous system with cardiovascular changes during heating. Differences between environmental and RFE-induced heating (such as rate of temperature change and degree of skin vs. core heating) may be important when considering these effects. Antihistamines exhibited no beneficial effect on circulatory collapse during RFE-induced heating. The serotonergic blocker methysergide decreased survival time in rats during terminal RFE exposure, despite no effects on heart rate (HR) or blood pressure. Although blockade of platelet-activating factor resulted in lower HR before RFE exposure, there was a lack of effect on the subsequent increase in HR during heating. Nitric oxide did not contribute to the hypotension that occurs due to rapid heating by RFE exposure. There have been either no or very limited studies of effects of prostaglandins, bradykinin, or angiotensin on RFE-induced heating responses. beta-Adrenoceptor antagonism with propranolol resulted in significantly decreased survival times and lower final colonic temperatures during RFE exposure. A lack of effects of nadolol on survival time and temperature, coupled with its poor ability to traverse the blood-brain barrier, suggests that central beta-adrenergic stimulation rather than peripheral stimulation may alter thermoregulation. Effects of the autonomic nervous system (as studied by adrenoceptor blockade) on potassium changes during heating have not been fully investigated. Such changes could be important in animals' responses to RFE and other modalities of heating, and

  20. Structural response of transient heat loading on a molybdenum surface exposed to low-energy helium ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, G.; Tripathi, J. K.; Diwakar, P. K.; Hassanein, A.

    2016-03-01

    The advancement of fusion reactor engineering is currently inhibited by the lack of knowledge surrounding the stability of plasma facing components (PFCs) in a tokamak environment. During normal operation, events of high heat loading occur periodically where large amounts of energy are imparted onto the PFC surface. Concurrently, irradiation by low-energy helium ions present in the fusion plasma can result in the synthesis of a fibre form nanostructure on the PFC surface, called ‘fuzz’. In order to understand how this heterogeneous structure evolves and deforms in response to transient heat loading, a pulsed Nd:YAG millisecond laser is used to simulate these events on a fuzz form molybdenum (Mo) surface. Performance was analysed by three metrics: nanostructure evolution, particle emission, and improvement in optical properties. Experiments performed at the upper end of the expected range for type-I edge-localized modes (ELMs) found that the helium-induced nanostructure completely disappears after 200 pulses of the laser at 1.5 MJ m-2. In situ mass loss measurements found that the amount of particles leaving the surface increases as energy density increases and the rate of emission increases with pulse count. Finally, optical properties assisted in providing a qualitative indication of fuzz density on the Mo surface; after 400 pulses at 1.5 MJ m-2, the optical reflectivity of the damaged surface is ~90% of that of a mirror polished Mo sample. These findings provide different results than previous studies done with tungsten (W), and further help illustrate the complicated nature of how transient events of high heat loading in a tokamak environment might impact the performance and lifetime of PFCs in ITER and future DEMO devices (Ueda et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 901-6).

  1. Light Response of CO(2) Assimilation, Dissipation of Excess Excitation Energy, and Zeaxanthin Content of Sun and Shade Leaves.

    PubMed

    Demmig-Adams, B; Winter, K; Krüger, A; Czygan, F C

    1989-07-01

    Intact attached sun leaves of Helianthus annuus and shade leaves of Monstera deliciosa and Hedera helix were used to obtain light response curves of CO(2) uptake, the content of the carotenoid zeaxanthin (formed by violaxanthin de-epoxidation), as well as nonphotochemical quenching (q(NP)), and the rate constant of radiationless energy dissipation (k(D)). The latter two parameters were calculated from the decrease of chlorophyll a fluorescence at closed photosystem II traps in saturating pulses in the light. Among the three species, the light-saturated capacity of CO(2) uptake differed widely and light saturation of CO(2) uptake occurred at very different photon flux densities. Fluorescence quenching and zeaxanthin content exhibited features which were common to all three species: below light-saturation of CO(2) uptake nonphotochemical quenching occurred in the absence of zeaxanthin and was not accompanied by a decrease in the yield of instantaneous fluorescence. Nonphotochemical quenching, q(NP), increased up to values which ranged between 0.35 and 0.5 when based on a control value of the yield of variable fluorescence determined after 12 hours of darkness. As light saturation of CO(2) uptake was approached, q(NP) showed a secondary increase and the zeaxanthin content of the leaves began to rise. This was also the point from which the yield of instantaneous fluorescence began to decrease. The increase in zeaxanthin was paralleled by an increase in the rate constant for radiationless energy dissipation k(D), which opens the possibility that zeaxanthin is related to the rapidly relaxing "high-energy-state quenching" in leaves.

  2. Light Response of CO2 Assimilation, Dissipation of Excess Excitation Energy, and Zeaxanthin Content of Sun and Shade Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Winter, Klaus; Krüger, Almuth; Czygan, Franz-Christian

    1989-01-01

    Intact attached sun leaves of Helianthus annuus and shade leaves of Monstera deliciosa and Hedera helix were used to obtain light response curves of CO2 uptake, the content of the carotenoid zeaxanthin (formed by violaxanthin de-epoxidation), as well as nonphotochemical quenching (qNP), and the rate constant of radiationless energy dissipation (kD). The latter two parameters were calculated from the decrease of chlorophyll a fluorescence at closed photosystem II traps in saturating pulses in the light. Among the three species, the light-saturated capacity of CO2 uptake differed widely and light saturation of CO2 uptake occurred at very different photon flux densities. Fluorescence quenching and zeaxanthin content exhibited features which were common to all three species: below light-saturation of CO2 uptake nonphotochemical quenching occurred in the absence of zeaxanthin and was not accompanied by a decrease in the yield of instantaneous fluorescence. Nonphotochemical quenching, qNP, increased up to values which ranged between 0.35 and 0.5 when based on a control value of the yield of variable fluorescence determined after 12 hours of darkness. As light saturation of CO2 uptake was approached, qNP showed a secondary increase and the zeaxanthin content of the leaves began to rise. This was also the point from which the yield of instantaneous fluorescence began to decrease. The increase in zeaxanthin was paralleled by an increase in the rate constant for radiationless energy dissipation kD, which opens the possibility that zeaxanthin is related to the rapidly relaxing “high-energy-state quenching” in leaves. PMID:16666892

  3. Efficiency and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers limit-fed diets of differing energy density.

    PubMed

    Zanton, G I; Heinrichs, A J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of limit feeding diets of different predicted energy density on the efficiency of utilization of feed and nitrogen and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (4 heifers beginning at 257 ± 7 d, hereafter "young," and 4 heifers beginning at 610 ± 16 d, hereafter "old") were limit-fed high [HED; 2.64 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM), 15.31% crude protein (CP)] or low (LED; 2.42 Mcal/kg of DM, 14.15% CP) energy density diets according to a 4-period, split-plot Latin square design with 28-d periods. Diets were limit-fed to provide isonitrogenous and isoenergetic intake on a rumen empty body weight (BW) basis at a level predicted to support approximately 800 g/d of average daily gain. During the last 7d of each period, rumen contents were subsampled over a 24-h period, rumen contents were completely evacuated, and total collection of feces and urine was made over 4d. Intakes of DM and water were greater for heifers fed LED, although, by design, calculated intake of metabolizable energy did not differ between age groups or diets when expressed relative to rumen empty BW. Rumen pH was lower, ammonia (NH3-N) concentration tended to be higher, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was not different for HED compared with LED and was unaffected by age group. Rumen content mass was greater for heifers fed LED and for old heifers, so when expressing rumen fermentation responses corrected for this difference in pool size, NH3-N pool size was not different between diets and total moles of VFA in the rumen were greater for heifers fed LED, whereas these pool sizes were greater for old heifers. Total-tract digestibility of potentially digestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was greater in heifers fed LED and for young heifers, whereas the fractional rate of ruminal passage and digestion of NDF were both greater in heifers fed LED. Digestibility of N was greater for

  4. Efficiency and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers limit-fed diets of differing energy density.

    PubMed

    Zanton, G I; Heinrichs, A J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of limit feeding diets of different predicted energy density on the efficiency of utilization of feed and nitrogen and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (4 heifers beginning at 257 ± 7 d, hereafter "young," and 4 heifers beginning at 610 ± 16 d, hereafter "old") were limit-fed high [HED; 2.64 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM), 15.31% crude protein (CP)] or low (LED; 2.42 Mcal/kg of DM, 14.15% CP) energy density diets according to a 4-period, split-plot Latin square design with 28-d periods. Diets were limit-fed to provide isonitrogenous and isoenergetic intake on a rumen empty body weight (BW) basis at a level predicted to support approximately 800 g/d of average daily gain. During the last 7d of each period, rumen contents were subsampled over a 24-h period, rumen contents were completely evacuated, and total collection of feces and urine was made over 4d. Intakes of DM and water were greater for heifers fed LED, although, by design, calculated intake of metabolizable energy did not differ between age groups or diets when expressed relative to rumen empty BW. Rumen pH was lower, ammonia (NH3-N) concentration tended to be higher, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was not different for HED compared with LED and was unaffected by age group. Rumen content mass was greater for heifers fed LED and for old heifers, so when expressing rumen fermentation responses corrected for this difference in pool size, NH3-N pool size was not different between diets and total moles of VFA in the rumen were greater for heifers fed LED, whereas these pool sizes were greater for old heifers. Total-tract digestibility of potentially digestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was greater in heifers fed LED and for young heifers, whereas the fractional rate of ruminal passage and digestion of NDF were both greater in heifers fed LED. Digestibility of N was greater for

  5. The Response of the Ionospheric Cusp to the Solar Wind Through Two Perspectives: Low Energy Charged Particle In-Situ Measurements and Low-Energy Neutral Atom Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, V. N.; Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Giles, B. L.; Craven, P. D.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) mission provides a new perspective on the study of the response of the magnetosphere/ionosphere system to changing solar wind conditions, particularly the variability of ion outflow. Learning to interpret this new type of data becomes an essential step in the process of melding these results with the wealth of in-situ charged particle observations obtained over the past 25 years. In order to understand how the in-situ data correspond to and contrast with IMAGE results we will perform a conjunctive study of event data from two instruments to shed light on the coupling of the solar wind and ionosphere from these different perspectives. We will use the Low Energy Neutral Atom instrument (LENA) which images energetic neutral atom emissions from upward flowing ionospheric ions and the Thermal Ion Dynamics Instrument (TIDE) on the Polar satellite which measures in-situ ion outflow from 0.3-300 eV. Our primary goal will be to understand how comparing the imaging and in-situ perspectives can aid in the analysis of both data sets.

  6. Dose response effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on muscle performance: a repeated measures design

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Energy drinks have become the most used caffeine-containing beverages in the sport setting. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of two doses of a caffeine-containing energy drink on muscle performance during upper- and lower-body power-load tests. Methods In a randomized order, twelve active participants ingested 1 and 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body weight using a commercially available energy drink (Fure®, ProEnergetics) or the same drink without caffeine (placebo; 0 mg/kg). After sixty minutes, resting metabolic rate, heart rate and blood pressure were determined. Then, half-squat and bench-press power production with loads from 10 to 100% of 1 repetition maximum was determined using a rotator encoder. Results In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of the caffeinated drink increased mean arterial pressure (82 ± 7 < 88 ± 8 ≈ 90 ± 6 mmHg for 0 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg of caffeine, respectively; P < 0.05) and heart rate (57 ± 7 < 59 ± 8 < 62 ± 8 beats/min, respectively; P < 0.05) at rest in a dose response manner, though it did not affect resting metabolic rate. While the ingestion of 1 mg/kg of caffeine did not affect maximal power during the power-load tests with respect to the placebo, 3 mg/kg increased maximal power in the half-squat (2554 ± 167 ≈ 2549 ± 161 < 2726 ± 167 W, respectively; P < 0.05) and bench-press actions (349 ± 34 ≈ 358 ± 35 < 375 ± 33 W, respectively; P < 0.05). Conclusions A caffeine dose of at least 3 mg/kg in the form of an energy drink is necessary to significantly improve half-squat and bench-press maximal muscle power. PMID:22569090

  7. Variations in dose response with x-ray energy of LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescence dosimeters: implications for clinical dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Lisa; Hood, Claire; Warren-Forward, Helen; Haque, Mamoon; Kron, Tomas

    2004-09-01

    In many medical procedures where accurate radiation dose measurements are needed, the variation of detector response with x-ray energy is of concern. The response of LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs to a range of x-ray energies was analysed in monoenergetic (synchrotron), diagnostic and therapy radiation beams with the aim of implementing this dosimeter into clinical practice where existing dosimetry techniques are limited due to lack of sensitivity or tissue equivalence (e.g. neonatal radiography, mammography and brachytherapy). LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs in different forms from two manufacturers (MCP-N: TLD Poland, GR200: SDDML China) were irradiated using x-ray beams covering 10 keV to 18 MVp. Dose readings were compared with an ionization chamber. The effect of different TLD types and annealing cycles on clinical utility was investigated. The measured energy response of LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs was fit to a simple model devised by Kron et al (1998 Phys. Med. Biol. 43 3235-59) to describe the variation of TLD response with x-ray energy. If TLDs are handled as recommended in the present paper, the energy response of LiF:Mg,Cu,P deviates by a maximum of 15% from unity and agrees with the model to within 5% or experimental uncertainty between 15 keV and 10 MeV. LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs of all forms have consistent and superior energy response compared to the standard material LiF:Mg,Ti and are therefore suitable for a wide range of applications in diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy.

  8. Sensitivity to change in cognitive performance and mood measures of energy and fatigue in response to differing doses of caffeine or breakfast.

    PubMed

    Maridakis, Victor; Herring, Matthew P; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2009-01-01

    This double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects (N = 18) experiment compared the sensitivity to change of cognitive performance and mood measures of mental energy following consumption of either 100 or 200-mg caffeine or a 440-calorie breakfast. Breakfast and 200-mg caffeine improved mood and cognitive performance. The sensitivity to change of the measures did not differ in response to any treatment (all p values > .05). The mood and cognitive measures of mental energy used here have similar sensitivity to detecting change in response to a moderate dose of caffeine and breakfast consumption. PMID:19466633

  9. Response of LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosimeters at photon energies relevant to the dosimetry of brachytherapy (<1 MeV)

    SciTech Connect

    Tedgren, Aasa Carlsson; Hedman, Angelica; Grindborg, Jan-Erik; Carlsson, Gudrun Alm

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: High energy photon beams are used in calibrating dosimeters for use in brachytherapy since absorbed dose to water can be determined accurately and with traceability to primary standards in such beams, using calibrated ion chambers and standard dosimetry protocols. For use in brachytherapy, beam quality correction factors are needed, which include corrections for differences in mass energy absorption properties between water and detector as well as variations in detector response (intrinsic efficiency) with radiation quality, caused by variations in the density of ionization (linear energy transfer (LET) -distributions) along the secondary electron tracks. The aim of this work was to investigate experimentally the detector response of LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) for photon energies below 1 MeV relative to {sup 60}Co and to address discrepancies between the results found in recent publications of detector response. Methods: LiF:Mg,Ti dosimeters of formulation MTS-N Poland were irradiated to known values of air kerma free-in-air in x-ray beams at tube voltages 25-250 kV, in {sup 137}Cs- and {sup 60}Co-beams at the Swedish Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratory. Conversions from air kerma free-in-air into values of mean absorbed dose in the dosimeters in the actual irradiation geometries were made using EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulations. X-ray energy spectra were measured or calculated for the actual beams. Detector response relative to that for {sup 60}Co was determined at each beam quality. Results: An increase in relative response was seen for all beam qualities ranging from 8% at tube voltage 25 kV (effective energy 13 keV) to 3%-4% at 250 kV (122 keV effective energy) and {sup 137}Cs with a minimum at 80 keV effective energy (tube voltage 180 kV). The variation with effective energy was similar to that reported by Davis et al.[Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 106, 33-43 (2003)] with our values being systematically lower by 2%-4%. Compared to the

  10. The EPQ Code System for Simulating the Thermal Response of Plasma-Facing Components to High-Energy Electron Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Robert Cameron; Steiner, Don

    2004-06-15

    The generation of runaway electrons during a thermal plasma disruption is a concern for the safe and economical operation of a tokamak power system. Runaway electrons have high energy, 10 to 300 MeV, and may potentially cause extensive damage to plasma-facing components (PFCs) through large temperature increases, melting of metallic components, surface erosion, and possible burnout of coolant tubes. The EPQ code system was developed to simulate the thermal response of PFCs to a runaway electron impact. The EPQ code system consists of several parts: UNIX scripts that control the operation of an electron-photon Monte Carlo code to calculate the interaction of the runaway electrons with the plasma-facing materials; a finite difference code to calculate the thermal response, melting, and surface erosion of the materials; a code to process, scale, transform, and convert the electron Monte Carlo data to volumetric heating rates for use in the thermal code; and several minor and auxiliary codes for the manipulation and postprocessing of the data. The electron-photon Monte Carlo code used was Electron-Gamma-Shower (EGS), developed and maintained by the National Research Center of Canada. The Quick-Therm-Two-Dimensional-Nonlinear (QTTN) thermal code solves the two-dimensional cylindrical modified heat conduction equation using the Quickest third-order accurate and stable explicit finite difference method and is capable of tracking melting or surface erosion. The EPQ code system is validated using a series of analytical solutions and simulations of experiments. The verification of the QTTN thermal code with analytical solutions shows that the code with the Quickest method is better than 99.9% accurate. The benchmarking of the EPQ code system and QTTN versus experiments showed that QTTN's erosion tracking method is accurate within 30% and that EPQ is able to predict the occurrence of melting within the proper time constraints. QTTN and EPQ are verified and validated as able

  11. Thermal response of a series- and parallel-connected solar energy storage to multi-day charge sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Cruickshank, Cynthia A.; Harrison, Stephen J.

    2011-01-15

    The thermal response of a multi-tank thermal storage was studied under variable charge conditions. Tests were conducted on an experimental apparatus that simulated the thermal charging of the storage system by a solar collector over predetermined (prescribed) daylong periods. The storage was assembled from three standard 270 L hot-water storage tanks each charged through coupled, side-arm, natural convection heat exchangers which were connected in either a series- or parallel-flow configuration. Both energy storage rates and tank temperature profiles were experimentally measured during charge periods representative of two consecutive clear days or combinations of a clear and overcast day. During this time, no draw-offs were conducted. Of particular interest was the effect of rising and falling charge-loop temperatures and collector-loop flow rate on storage tank stratification levels. Results of this study show that the series-connected thermal storage reached high levels of temperature stratification in the storage tanks during periods of rising charge temperatures and also limited destratification during periods of falling charge temperature. This feature is a consequence of the series-connected configuration that allowed sequential stratification to occur in the component tanks and energy to be distributed according to temperature level. This effect was not observed in the parallel charge configuration. A further aspect of the study investigated the effect of increasing charge-loop flow rate on the temperature distribution within the series-connected storage and showed that, at high flow rates, the temperature distributions were found to be similar to those obtained during parallel charging. A disadvantage of both the high-flow series-connected and parallel-connected multi-tank storage is that falling charge-loop temperatures, which normally occur in the afternoon, tend to mix and destratify the storage tanks. (author)

  12. Response of the Cholesterol Metabolism to a Negative Energy Balance in Dairy Cows Depends on the Lactational Stage

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Christiane; Bruckmaier, Rupert M.

    2015-01-01

    The response of cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance (NEB) induced by feed restriction for 3 weeks starting at 100 days in milk (DIM) compared to the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 postpartum (p.p.) was investigated in 50 dairy cows (25 control (CON) and 25 feed-restricted (RES)). Blood samples, liver biopsies and milk samples were taken in week 1 p.p., and in weeks 0 and 3 of feed restriction. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (C), phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TAG), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased in RES cows from week 0 to 3 during feed restriction and were higher in week 3 compared to CON cows. In contrast, during the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 p.p., C, PL, TAG and lipoprotein concentrations were at a minimum. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities did not differ between week 0 and 3 for both groups, whereas during NEB in week 1 p.p. PLTP activity was increased and LCAT activity was decreased. Milk C concentration was not affected by feed restriction in both groups, whereas milk C mass was decreased in week 3 for RES cows. In comparison, C concentration and mass in milk were elevated in week 1 p.p. Hepatic mRNA abundance of sterol regulatory element-binding factor-2 (SREBF-2), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 1 (HMGCS1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) were similar in CON and RES cows during feed restriction, but were upregulated during NEB in week 1 p.p. compared to the non-lactating stage without a NEB. In conclusion, cholesterol metabolism in dairy cows is affected by nutrient and energy deficiency depending on the stage of lactation. PMID:26034989

  13. Response of the cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance in dairy cows depends on the lactational stage.

    PubMed

    Gross, Josef J; Kessler, Evelyne C; Albrecht, Christiane; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2015-01-01

    The response of cholesterol metabolism to a negative energy balance (NEB) induced by feed restriction for 3 weeks starting at 100 days in milk (DIM) compared to the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 postpartum (p.p.) was investigated in 50 dairy cows (25 control (CON) and 25 feed-restricted (RES)). Blood samples, liver biopsies and milk samples were taken in week 1 p.p., and in weeks 0 and 3 of feed restriction. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (C), phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TAG), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased in RES cows from week 0 to 3 during feed restriction and were higher in week 3 compared to CON cows. In contrast, during the physiologically occurring NEB in week 1 p.p., C, PL, TAG and lipoprotein concentrations were at a minimum. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities did not differ between week 0 and 3 for both groups, whereas during NEB in week 1 p.p. PLTP activity was increased and LCAT activity was decreased. Milk C concentration was not affected by feed restriction in both groups, whereas milk C mass was decreased in week 3 for RES cows. In comparison, C concentration and mass in milk were elevated in week 1 p.p. Hepatic mRNA abundance of sterol regulatory element-binding factor-2 (SREBF-2), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 1 (HMGCS1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) were similar in CON and RES cows during feed restriction, but were upregulated during NEB in week 1 p.p. compared to the non-lactating stage without a NEB. In conclusion, cholesterol metabolism in dairy cows is affected by nutrient and energy deficiency depending on the stage of lactation. PMID:26034989

  14. Impairment of the hematological response and interleukin-1β production in protein-energy malnourished mice after endotoxemia with lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Fock, R.A.; Vinolo, M.A.R.; Blatt, S.L.; Borelli, P.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) could affect the hematologic response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production, leukocyte migration, and blood leukocyte expression of CD11a/CD18. Two-month-old male Swiss mice were submitted to PEM (N = 30) with a low-protein diet (14 days) containing 4% protein, compared to 20% protein in the control group (N = 30). The total cellularity of blood, bone marrow, spleen, and bronchoalveolar lavage evaluated after the LPS stimulus indicated reduced number of total cells in all compartments studied and different kinetics of migration in malnourished animals. The in vitro migration assay showed reduced capacity of migration after the LPS stimulus in malnourished animals (45.7 ± 17.2 × 104 cells/mL) compared to control (69.6 ± 7.1 × 104 cells/mL, P ≤ 0.05), but there was no difference in CD11a/CD18 expression on the surface of blood leukocytes. In addition, the production of IL-1β in vivo after the LPS stimulus (180.7 pg·h−1·mL−1), and in vitro by bone marrow and spleen cells (41.6 ± 15.0 and 8.3 ± 4.0 pg/mL) was significantly lower in malnourished animals compared to control (591.1 pg·h−1·mL−1, 67.0 ± 23.0 and 17.5 ± 8.0 pg/mL, respectively, P ≤ 0.05). The reduced expression of IL-1β, together with the lower number of leukocytes in the central and peripheral compartments, different leukocyte kinetics, and reduced leukocyte migration capacity are factors that interfere with the capacity to mount an adequate immune response, being partly responsible for the immunodeficiency observed in PEM. PMID:22983177

  15. Drivers for the Value of Demand Response under Increased Levels of Wind and Solar Power; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Elaine

    2015-07-30

    Demand response may be a valuable flexible resource for low-carbon electric power grids. However, there are as many types of possible demand response as there are ways to use electricity, making demand response difficult to study at scale in realistic settings. This talk reviews our state of knowledge regarding the potential value of demand response in several example systems as a function of increasing levels of wind and solar power, sometimes drawing on the analogy between demand response and storage. Overall, we find demand response to be promising, but its potential value is very system dependent. Furthermore, demand response, like storage, can easily saturate ancillary service markets.

  16. Response of native and exotic bark beetles to high-energy wind event in the Tian Shan Mountains, Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhamadiev, N.; Lynch, A.; O'Connor, C.; Sagitov, A.; Panyushkina, I. P.

    2012-12-01

    On May 17, 2011, the spruce forest of Yile-Alatausky and Medeo National Parks in southeast Kazakhstan was surged by a high-energy cyclonic storm. Severe blowdown damaged several thousand hectare of Tian Shan spruce forest (Picea schrenkiana), with over 90% of trees killed in extensive areas. Bark beetle populations are increasing rapidly, particularly Ips hauseri, I. typographis, I. sexdentatus, and Pityogenes perfossus (all Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Little is known about the frequency or extent of either large storm events or bark beetle outbreaks in the Tian Shan Mountains, nor about associations between outbreaks of these species and temperature and precipitation regimes. Local managers are concerned that triggering bark beetle outbreaks during current unusually warm, dry conditions will have devastating consequences for the residual forest and forest outside of the blowdown. We characterize the bark beetle population response to the 2011 event to date, and reconstruct the temporal and spatial dynamics of historical disturbance events in the area using dendrochronology. Additionally temperature and precipitation-sensitive tree-ring width chronologies from the Tian Shan Mountains are analyzed to determine high- and low-frequency variability of climate for the past 200 years. Catastrophic windstorm disturbances may play a crucial role in determining forest structure across the mountains. We hypothesize that the Tian Shan spruce forest could be prone to severe storm winds and subsequent bark beetle outbreaks and never reach an old-growth phase between events.

  17. The Role of Values, Moral Norms, and Descriptive Norms in Building Occupant Responses to an Energy-Efficiency Pilot Program and to Framing of Related Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arpan, Laura M.; Barooah, Prabir; Subramany, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    This study examined building occupants' responses associated with an occupant-based energy-efficiency pilot in a university building. The influence of occupants' values and norms as well as effects of two educational message frames (descriptive vs. moral norms cues) on program support were tested. Occupants' personal moral norm to conserve energy…

  18. Contrasting responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to heat waves explain synergies between urban heat islands and heat waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan; Sun, Ting; Liu, Maofeng; Yang, Long; Wang, Linlin; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2015-05-01

    Heat waves (HWs) are projected to become more frequent and last longer over most land areas in the late 21st century, which raises serious public health concerns. Urban residents face higher health risks due to synergies between HWs and urban heat islands (UHIs) (i.e., UHIs are higher under HW conditions). However, the responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to HWs are still largely unknown. This study analyzes observations from two flux towers in Beijing, China and reveals significant differences between the responses of urban and rural (cropland) ecosystems to HWs. It is found that UHIs increase significantly during HWs, especially during the nighttime, implying synergies between HWs and UHIs. Results indicate that the urban site receives more incoming shortwave radiation and longwave radiation due to HWs as compared to the rural site, resulting in a larger radiative energy input into the urban surface energy budget. Changes in turbulent heat fluxes also diverge strongly for the urban site and the rural site: latent heat fluxes increase more significantly at the rural site due to abundant available water, while sensible heat fluxes and possibly heat storage increase more at the urban site. These comparisons suggest that the contrasting responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to HWs are responsible for the synergies between HWs and UHIs. As a result, urban mitigation and adaption strategies such as the use of green roofs and white roofs are needed in order to mitigate the impact of these synergies.

  19. Effects of dietary source and intake of energy on immune competence and the response to an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) challenge in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives were to evaluate how dietary energy intake and source affect immune competence and response to an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) challenge in cattle. Forty-eight crossbred beef steers were stratified by body weight within 2 periods and randomized to 1 of 3 dietary treatmen...

  20. Effects of source and level of energy on the immune competence and response to an Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus (IBRV) challenge in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives were to evaluate how dietary energy level and source affect immune competence and response to a viral challenge in cattle. Forty-eight crossbred beef steers were stratified by BW within 2 periods and randomized to 1 of 3 dietary treatments (8 steers/treatment within period). Treatments we...

  1. Using EnergyPlus to Simulate the Dynamic Response of a Residential Building to Advanced Cooling Strategies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Booten, C.; Tabares-Velasco, P. C.

    2012-08-01

    This study demonstrates the ability of EnergyPlus to accurately model complex cooling strategies in a real home with a goal of shifting energy use off peak and realizing energy savings. The house was retrofitted through the Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) deep energy retrofit demonstration program; field tests were operated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The experimental data were collected as part of a larger study and are used here to validate simulation predictions.

  2. The acute effects of the thermogenic supplement Meltdown on energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and hemodynamic responses in young, healthy males

    PubMed Central

    Jitomir, Jean; Nassar, Erika; Culbertson, Julie; Moreillon, Jen; Buford, Thomas; Hudson, Geoffrey; Cooke, Matt; Kreider, Richard; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a thermogenic supplement, Meltdown, on energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and hemodynamics before and after maximal treadmill exercise. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, 12 male participants underwent two testing sessions after consuming either the Meltdown or placebo supplement. While in a fasted state, participants rested for one hour, orally ingested either Meltdown or placebo and rested for another hour, performed a maximal treadmill exercise test, and then rested for another hour. Throughout the testing protocol, resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were assessed. In addition, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were assessed before and after exercise. Meltdown increased REE significantly more than placebo at 45 min (1.44 ± 0.25 vs. 1.28 ± 0.23 kcal/min; p = 0.003), 60 min (1.49 ± 0.28 vs. 1.30 ± 0.22 kcal/min; p = 0.025), and 120 min (1.51 ± 0.26 vs. 1.33 ± 0.27 kcals/min; p = 0.014) post-ingestion. Meltdown significantly decreased RER at 30 min (0.84 ± 0.03 vs. 0.91 ± 0.04; p = 0.022) and 45 min post-ingestion (0.82 ± 0.04 vs. 0.89 ± 0.05; p = 0.042), and immediately post-exercise (0.83 ± 0.05 vs. 0.90 ± 0.07; p = 0.009). Furthermore, over the course of the evaluation period, area under the curve assessment demonstrated that REE was significantly increased with Meltdown compared to placebo (992.5 ± 133.1 vs. 895.1 ± 296.1 kcals; p = 0.043), while RER was significantly less than placebo (5.55 ± 0.61 vs. 5.89 ± 0.44; p = 0.002) following ingestion. HR and BP were not significantly affected prior to exercise with either supplement (p > 0.05) and the exercise-induced increases for HR and BP decreased into recovery and were not different between supplements (p > 0.05). These data suggest that Meltdown enhances REE and fat oxidation more than placebo for several hours after ingestion in fully rested and post

  3. Circulatory response to single circuit weight and walking training sessions of similar energy cost in middle-aged overweight females.

    PubMed

    Jürimäe, T; Jürimäe, J; Pihl, E

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare circulatory responses to circuit weight (CWT) and aerobic walking training sessions of similar energy cost in middle-aged overweight females. Thirty-three middle-aged pre-menopausal females participated in the experiment. They were divided into overweight (n=18, 36.2 +/- 6.3 years, 166.3 +/- 8.0 cm, 83.5 +/- 9.7 kg, BMI 30.2 +/- 3.1 kg m-2) and non-overweight control (n=15, 34.1 +/- 6.3 years, 165.0 +/- 5.6 cm, 61.6 +/- 5.0 kg, BMI 22.7 +/- 1.5 kg m-2) groups. Individual physical working capacity (PWC) was measured using the cycle ergometer test (calculated at the level of predicted HRmax (205 - (1/2) age). A CWT session consisted of leg extension, bench press, sit-ups and leg press exercises. The subjects performed four circuits at the maximal possible speed, using a work-to-rest ratio of 60 s. Blood pressure (BP) was measured during every rest period between the exercises, and the heart rate (HR) was recorded continuously during the whole CWT programme. During the walking training session, the subjects walked as fast as possible on the indoor track. The total energy cost of the walking training session was the same as during the CWT session, approximately 270 kcal, and was controlled by a CALTRAC accelerometer. HR and BP were measured every 5 min during the walking training session. The PWC index was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the overweight group in comparison with the control females (215.4 +/- 76.1 and 187.9 +/- 42.4 W, respectively). The resting BP was normal in both groups (<140/90 mmHg). HR was between 120 and 140 beats min-1 during CWT and walking sessions. There were no differences in BP during both training sessions in overweight and control subjects. It was concluded that both CWT and walking training sessions were acceptable forms of physical activity to increase cardiovascular fitness in middle-aged overweight and normal body weight females.

  4. 75 FR 34152 - Record of Decision for the Cape Wind Energy Project; Secretary of the Interior's Response to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... the Minerals Management Service, Office of Offshore Alternative Energy Programs (Mail Stop 4080), 381... CONTACT: Minerals Management Service, Ms. Maureen Bornholdt, Office of Offshore Alternative Energy... Minerals Management Service (MMS) Record of Decision for the Cape Wind Energy Project; Secretary of...

  5. Effects of energy supplementation frequency and forage quality on performance, reproductive, and physiological responses of replacement beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Vendramini, J M B; Arthington, J D

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare performance, physiological, and reproductive responses of beef heifers consuming forages differing in nutritional quality and offered a low-starch energy supplement at 2 different frequencies. Forty-eight Brahman × British heifers (initial age = 294 ± 3 d) were allocated into 1 of 16 drylot pens (3 heifers/pen) which were randomly assigned to receive, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) low-quality hay [LQ; stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) with 8% CP and 81% NDF, DM basis] and daily supplementation (S7); 2) LQ and supplementation 3 times weekly (S3); 3) medium-quality hay [MQ; bermudagrass (C. dactylon) with 12% CP and 74% NDF, DM basis] and S7; and 4) MQ and S3. Throughout the study (d 0 to 120), hay was offered in amounts to ensure ad libitum access, and a supplement based on soybean hulls and wheat middlings was offered at weekly rates of 15.8 and 7.9 kg/heifer (DM basis) for LQ and MQ, respectively. Forage and total DMI were evaluated daily, from d 20 to 26, d 34 to 40, and d 48 to 54. Blood samples were collected weekly for determination of plasma progesterone to evaluate puberty attainment. Blood samples were also collected daily, from d 13 to 16, d 27 to 30, d 41 to 44, and d 55 to 58 for determination of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), glucose, insulin, IGF-I, and NEFA. On d 60, heifers were reallocated by treatment into 4 paddocks and exposed to Angus bulls (1:12 bull:heifer ratio) until d 120. Date of conception was estimated retrospectively by subtracting gestation length (286 d) from the calving date. Heifers receiving S7 had similar (P = 0.52) ADG compared with S3 heifers (0.27 vs. 0.25 kg/d). Heifers provided S7 had less daily variation in hay DMI and plasma concentrations of glucose, NEFA, and IGF-I compared with S3 cohorts (supplementation frequency × day interaction; P < 0.01). Similarly, heifers offered MQ and LQ and receiving S7 had less daily variation in total DMI, energy and protein

  6. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Agency's Use of Geographic Information Systems for Nuclear Emergency Response Support

    SciTech Connect

    A. L. Guber

    2001-06-01

    The U.S, Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Agency's (NNSA) Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) provides Geographic Information System (GIS) support during nuclear emergency response activities. As directed by the NNSA, the RSL GIS staff maintains databases and equipment for rapid field deployment during an emergency response. When on location, GIS operators provide information products to on-site emergency managers as well as to emergency managers at the DOE Headquarters (HQ) Emergency Operations Center (EOC) in Washington, D.C. Data products are derived from multiple information sources in the field including radiological prediction models, field measurements taken on the ground and from the air, and pertinent information researched on the Internet. The GIS functions as a central data hub where it supplies the information to response elements in the field, as well as to headquarters officials at HQ during emergency response activities.

  7. Proton response of CEPA4: A novel LaBr3(Ce)-LaCl3(Ce) phoswich array for high-energy gamma and proton spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nácher, E.; Mårtensson, M.; Tengblad, O.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Bendel, M.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Gernhäuser, R.; Le Bleis, T.; Maj, A.; Nilsson, T.; Perea, A.; Pietras, B.; Ribeiro, G.; Sánchez del Río, J.; Sánchez Rosado, J.; Heinz, A.; Szpak, B.; Winkel, M.; Zieblinski, M.

    2015-01-01

    A new phoswich array, for the detection of high-energy protons and gamma rays from nuclear reactions, has been built. This new detector consists of four individual closely packed scintillator detectors, each of them made of 4 cm of LaBr3(Ce) and 6 cm of LaCl3(Ce) in phoswich configuration (optically coupled and with a common readout). In this paper we report on the results of a beam test performed at the Bronowice Cyclotron Centre (CCB) in Krakow, showing the response of this versatile instrument to high energy protons (70-230 MeV). Furthermore, for the first time we prove that we can reconstruct the original energy of fast protons (E > 200 MeV) which pass through the total length of the crystal while still retaining a good energy resolution.

  8. A novel flat-response x-ray detector in the photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhichao; Jiang, Xiaohua; Liu, Shenye; Huang, Tianxuan; Zheng, Jian; Yang, Jiamin; Li, Sanwei; Guo, Liang; Zhao, Xuefeng; Du, Huabin; Song, Tianming; Yi, Rongqing; Liu, Yonggang; Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun

    2010-07-01

    A novel flat-response x-ray detector has been developed for the measurement of radiation flux from a hohlraum. In order to obtain a flat response in the photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV, it is found that both the cathode and the filter of the detector can be made of gold. A further improvement on the compound filter can then largely relax the requirement of the calibration x-ray beam. The calibration of the detector, which is carried out on Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility at Institute of High Energy Physics, shows that the detector has a desired flat response in the photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV, with a response flatness smaller than 13%. The detector has been successfully applied in the hohlraum experiment on Shenguang-III prototype laser facility. The radiation temperatures inferred from the detector agree well with those from the diagnostic instrument Dante installed at the same azimuth angle from the hohlraum axis, demonstrating the feasibility of the detector.

  9. A novel flat-response x-ray detector in the photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhichao; Guo Liang; Jiang Xiaohua; Liu Shenye; Huang Tianxuan; Yang Jiamin; Li Sanwei; Zhao Xuefeng; Du Huabin; Song Tianming; Yi Rongqing; Liu Yonggang; Jiang Shaoen; Ding Yongkun; Zheng Jian

    2010-07-15

    A novel flat-response x-ray detector has been developed for the measurement of radiation flux from a hohlraum. In order to obtain a flat response in the photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV, it is found that both the cathode and the filter of the detector can be made of gold. A further improvement on the compound filter can then largely relax the requirement of the calibration x-ray beam. The calibration of the detector, which is carried out on Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility at Institute of High Energy Physics, shows that the detector has a desired flat response in the photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV, with a response flatness smaller than 13%. The detector has been successfully applied in the hohlraum experiment on Shenguang-III prototype laser facility. The radiation temperatures inferred from the detector agree well with those from the diagnostic instrument Dante installed at the same azimuth angle from the hohlraum axis, demonstrating the feasibility of the detector.

  10. Effect of Varying the Energy Density of Protein-adequate Diets on Nutrient Metabolism, Clinical Chemistry, Immune Response and Growth of Muzaffarnagari Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Singh, V. K.; Pattanaik, A. K.; Goswami, T. K.; Sharma, K.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of varied dietary energy densities on immune response and performance of Muzzafarnagari lambs were ascertained in a 180-d study. Animals (n = 24), in three groups, were fed diets providing 100% (100E), 80% (80E) or 70% (70E) of their metabolizable energy requirement. Mean nutrient digestibilities varied significantly among treatments. Nitrogen intake was lower (p<0.01) in the 70E. Nitrogen retention, was reduced (p<0.001) in 80E and 70E vs 100E. The average daily gain (p<0.001) was 47.01±4.23, 13.54±1.72 and -16.67±8.24 g for 100E, 80E and 70E, respectively. Hemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, total and differential leukocyte counts were lower (p<0.001) for 80E and 70E than for 100E with a similar trend (p<0.05) for serum glucose and total protein. Serum cortisol was reduced (p<0.001) with decreased energy availability. Antibody titre to Brucella abortus S19 showed an initial reduction in 80E and 70E vs 100E. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response was lower (p<0.001) in 80E and 70E vs 100E, accompanying a lower (p<0.001) nitric oxide production by the peripheral lymphocytes. It is concluded that the reduced dietary energy density significantly affects the growth performance and immune response of lambs. PMID:25049889

  11. Cell aggregation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 as an energy-dependent stress response during growth with sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Klebensberger, Janosch; Rui, Oliver; Fritz, Eva; Schink, Bernhard; Philipp, Bodo

    2006-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 grew with the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The growth started with the formation of macroscopic cell aggregates which consisted of respiring cells embedded in an extracellular matrix composed of acidic polysaccharides and DNA. Damaged and uncultivable cells accumulated in these aggregates compared to those cells that remained suspended. We investigated the response of suspended cells to SDS under different conditions. At high energy supply, the cells responded with a decrease in optical density and in viable counts, release of protein and DNA, and formation of macroscopic aggregates. This response was not observed if the energy supply was reduced by inhibiting respiration with KCN, or if cells not induced for SDS degradation were exposed to SDS. Exposure to SDS caused cell lysis without aggregation if cells were completely deprived of energy, either by applying anoxic conditions, by addition of CCCP, or by addition of KCN to a mutant defective in cyanide-insensitive respiration. Aggregated cells showed a more than 100-fold higher survival rate after exposure to SDS plus CCCP than suspended cells. Our results demonstrate that cell aggregation is an energy-dependent response of P. aeruginosa to detergent stress which might serve as a survival strategy during growth with SDS. PMID:16775748

  12. Elements of an Alternative to Nuclear Power as a Response to the Energy-Environment Crisis in India: Development as Freedom and a Sustainable Energy Utility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathai, Manu V.

    2009-01-01

    Even as the conventional energy system is fundamentally challenged by the "energy-environment crisis," its adherents have presented the prospect of "abundant" and purportedly "green" nuclear power as part of a strategy to address the crisis. Surveying the development of nuclear power in India, this article finds that it is predisposed to…

  13. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a model to study the response of energy homeostasis-related genes to acute changes in feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Caimari, Antoni; Oliver, Paula; Keijer, Jaap; Palou, Andreu

    2010-04-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are readily accessible biological material and a potential tissue source to discover novel biomarkers of response to environmental exposures including nutrition. We analyzed whether PBMCs could reflect molecular changes that take place in response to different feeding conditions in key organs/tissues involved in energy homeostasis. We studied energy balance-related genes whose expression was altered in normoweight (control) rats and in diet-induced (cafeteria) obese rats in response to ad libitum feeding, 14-h fasting, and 6-h refeeding after fasting, using whole-genome microarray analysis. In PBMCs, the expression of the genes central to energy metabolism was altered by the feeding conditions. The number of affected genes was 75 in the control rats, but only 23 in the cafeteria obese rats. Most of these genes play a role in metabolic pathways regulated by nutritional changes, such as lipid metabolism (the metabolic pathway mainly reflected in blood cells), carbohydrate metabolism, central energy metabolism, respiratory chain/mitochondrial ATPase system, and food intake regulation. Importantly, our results showed a similar behavior to that of the mesenteric white adipose tissue. In conclusion, metabolic adaptations to acute changes in feeding conditions are reflected in the expression of genes central to energy homeostasis in PBMCs of normoweight rats, while response is impaired in cafeteria obese animals. The lower number of genes affected in obese animals indicates impaired nutritional regulation. PBMCs appear as a suitable potential model to characterize metabolic adaptations to food intake and body weight maintenance in experimental animals. These findings may also inform the development of future peripheral tissue models in the emerging field of clinical nutrigenomics.

  14. Impact of dose-response calorie reduction or supplementation of a covertly manipulated lunchtime meal on energy compensation.

    PubMed

    Tey, Siew Ling; Chia, Edwin Ming En; Forde, Ciarán G

    2016-10-15

    Numerous studies have examined energy compensation following overfeeding regimes whereas much less is known about the impact of acute underfeeding on energy compensation and fewer still have compared energy reduction and addition in the same group of individuals. This study compared the effects of consuming lunches with varying energy content (7.2-fold difference) on subsequent energy intake. A total of 27 healthy males took part in this randomized, crossover study with five treatments: 163kcal (very low energy meal, VLEM), 302kcal (low energy meal, LEM), 605kcal (control), 889kcal (high energy meal, HEM), and 1176kcal (very high energy meal, VHEM) served as a noodle soup. Participants were instructed to consume a standardized breakfast in the morning and they were provided with one of the five treatments for lunch on non-consecutive test day. Test lunches were matched for palatability, sensory properties, and volume. Participants were provided with an afternoon snack and ad libitum dinner on each test day and recorded food intake for the rest of the day. Appetite ratings were measured at regular intervals. As the energy content of treatments increased, participants' hunger, desire to eat, and prospective consumption decreased significantly whereas fullness increased significantly. However, no significant difference in subsequent meal intake was found between the treatments (P=0.458): 1003kcal VLEM, 1010kcal LEM, 1011kcal control, 940kcal HEM, and 919kcal VHEM. Total daily energy intake was statistically significantly different between the treatments (P<0.001) and was varied directly with the energy content of the lunchtime meal. Despite the large difference in energy content between the treatments, participants did not compensate for the "missing calories" or "additional calories" at subsequent meals. These results suggest that covertly manipulated, equally palatable, sensory and volume matched meals have the potential to promote either positive or negative energy

  15. Impact of dose-response calorie reduction or supplementation of a covertly manipulated lunchtime meal on energy compensation.

    PubMed

    Tey, Siew Ling; Chia, Edwin Ming En; Forde, Ciarán G

    2016-10-15

    Numerous studies have examined energy compensation following overfeeding regimes whereas much less is known about the impact of acute underfeeding on energy compensation and fewer still have compared energy reduction and addition in the same group of individuals. This study compared the effects of consuming lunches with varying energy content (7.2-fold difference) on subsequent energy intake. A total of 27 healthy males took part in this randomized, crossover study with five treatments: 163kcal (very low energy meal, VLEM), 302kcal (low energy meal, LEM), 605kcal (control), 889kcal (high energy meal, HEM), and 1176kcal (very high energy meal, VHEM) served as a noodle soup. Participants were instructed to consume a standardized breakfast in the morning and they were provided with one of the five treatments for lunch on non-consecutive test day. Test lunches were matched for palatability, sensory properties, and volume. Participants were provided with an afternoon snack and ad libitum dinner on each test day and recorded food intake for the rest of the day. Appetite ratings were measured at regular intervals. As the energy content of treatments increased, participants' hunger, desire to eat, and prospective consumption decreased significantly whereas fullness increased significantly. However, no significant difference in subsequent meal intake was found between the treatments (P=0.458): 1003kcal VLEM, 1010kcal LEM, 1011kcal control, 940kcal HEM, and 919kcal VHEM. Total daily energy intake was statistically significantly different between the treatments (P<0.001) and was varied directly with the energy content of the lunchtime meal. Despite the large difference in energy content between the treatments, participants did not compensate for the "missing calories" or "additional calories" at subsequent meals. These results suggest that covertly manipulated, equally palatable, sensory and volume matched meals have the potential to promote either positive or negative energy

  16. Response of liquid xenon to low-energy ionizing radiation and its use in the XENON10 dark matter search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manalaysay, Aaron Gosta

    higher energy recoils we measure a value of 0.21, consistent with previously reported data. In light of this new measurement, the XENON10 experiment's upper limits on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section, which were calculated assuming a constant 0.19 relative scintillation efficiency, change from 8.8 x 10-44 cm2 to 9.9 x 10-44 cm2 for WIMPs of mass 100 GeV/c2, and from 4.5 x 10-44 cm2 to 5.6 x 10-44 cm2 for WIMPs of mass 30 GeV/ c2. In Chapter 6, I highlight the fact that a difficult task with many particle detectors focusing on interactions below ˜100 keV is to perform a calibration in the appropriate energy range that adequately probes all regions of the detector. Because detector response can vary greatly in various locations within the device, a spatially uniform calibration is important. A new method for calibration of liquid xenon (LXe) detectors is presented, using the short-lived 83mKr. This source has transitions at 9.4 and 32.1 keV, and as a noble gas like Xe, it disperses uniformly in all regions of the detector. Even for low source activities, the existence of the two transitions provides a method of identifying the decays that is free of background. At decreasing energies, the LXe light yield increases, while the amount of electric field quenching is diminished. Additionally, if any long-lived radioactive backgrounds are introduced by this method, it is shown that they will present less than 67x10 -6 events kg-1 day-1 keV-1 of background in the next generation of LXe dark matter direct detection searches. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)

  17. The treatment of climate science in Integrated Assessment Modelling: integration of climate step function response in an energy system integrated assessment model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessens, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) are used as crucial inputs to policy-making on climate change. These models simulate aspect of the economy and climate system to deliver future projections and to explore the impact of mitigation and adaptation policies. The IAMs' climate representation is extremely important as it can have great influence on future political action. The step-function-response is a simple climate model recently developed by the UK Met Office and is an alternate method of estimating the climate response to an emission trajectory directly from global climate model step simulations. Good et al., (2013) have formulated a method of reconstructing general circulation models (GCMs) climate response to emission trajectories through an idealized experiment. This method is called the "step-response approach" after and is based on an idealized abrupt CO2 step experiment results. TIAM-UCL is a technology-rich model that belongs to the family of, partial-equilibrium, bottom-up models, developed at University College London to represent a wide spectrum of energy systems in 16 regions of the globe (Anandarajah et al. 2011). The model uses optimisation functions to obtain cost-efficient solutions, in meeting an exogenously defined set of energy-service demands, given certain technological and environmental constraints. Furthermore, it employs linear programming techniques making the step function representation of the climate change response adapted to the model mathematical formulation. For the first time, we have introduced the "step-response approach" method developed at the UK Met Office in an IAM, the TIAM-UCL energy system, and we investigate the main consequences of this modification on the results of the model in term of climate and energy system responses. The main advantage of this approach (apart from the low computational cost it entails) is that its results are directly traceable to the GCM involved and closely connected to well-known methods of

  18. SU-E-T-308: Systematic Characterization of the Energy Response of Different LiF TLD Crystals for Dosimetry Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, E; Caprile, P; Sanchez-Nieto, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The thermoluminiscense dosimeters (TLDs) are widely used in personal and clinical dosimetry due to its small size, good sensitivity and tissue equivalence, among other advantages. This study presents the characterization of Lithium Fluoride based TLDs, in terms of their absorbed dose response to successive irradiation cycles in a broad range of beam energies, measured under reference conditions. Methods: Four types of Harshaw TLD chips were used: TLD-100, TLD-600 TLD-700 and 100-H. They were irradiated with 10 photon beams of different energy spectrums, from 28 kVp to 18MV (in 30 consecutive cycles for 6 and 18 MV). Results: It was found that the response of the dosimetric system was stabilized (less than ±3%) after 10 cycles for TLD-600 and TLD-700. In the case of TLD-100 and TLD-100H this dependence was not observed. A decreased response to increasing beam energy in terms of absorbed dose to water was observed, as expected, except for TLD-100H which showed the opposite behavior. The less energy dependent detector was the TLD-100H exhibiting a maximum deviation of 12%. The highest variation observed was 33% for TLD-100. The study allowed the determination of calibration factors in absorbed dose for a wide range of energies and materials for different dosimetric applications, such as in-vivo dosimetry during imaging and radiotherapy. Conclusion: The study allowed the determination of calibration factors in absorbed dose for a wide range of energies and materials for different dosimetric applications, such as in-vivo dosimetry during imaging and radiotherapy.

  19. Low-calorie energy drink improves physiological response to exercise in previously sedentary men: a placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Christopher M; Moon, Jordan R; Smith, Abbie E; Tobkin, Sarah E; Kendall, Kristina L; Graef, Jennifer L; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2010-08-01

    Energy drink use has grown despite limited research to support efficacy or safety and amid concerns when combined with exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of 10 weeks of once-daily energy drink consumption or energy drink consumption with exercise on measures of body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, mood, and safety in previously sedentary males. Thirty-eight males were randomly assigned to energy drink + exercise (EX-A), energy drink (NEX-A), placebo + exercise (EX-B), or placebo (NEX-B). All participants consumed 1 drink per day for 10 weeks; EX-A and EX-B participated in 10 weeks of resistance and endurance exercise. Testing was performed before (PRE) and after (POST) the 10-week intervention. No significant (p > 0.05) changes were observed for body composition, fitness, or strength in NEX-A; however, significantly greater decreases in fat mass and percentage body fat and increases in VO2peak were observed in EX-A versus EX-B. Ventilatory threshold (VT), minute ventilation, VO2 at VT, and power output at VT improved significantly PRE to POST in EX-A but not in EX-B or nonexercising groups. Clinical markers for hepatic, renal, cardiovascular, and immune function, as determined by PRE and POST blood work revealed no adverse effects in response to the energy drink. Mood was not affected by energy drink use. Absent energy restriction or other dietary controls, chronic ingestion of a once-daily low-calorie energy drink appears ineffective at improving body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, or strength in sedentary males. However, when combined with exercise, preworkout energy drink consumption may significantly improve some physiological adaptations to combined aerobic and resistance training.

  20. Response to FESAC survey, non-fusion connections to Fusion Energy Sciences. Applications of the FES-supported beam and plasma simulation code, Warp

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Vay, J. L.

    2015-05-29

    The Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee’s subcommittee on non-fusion applications (FESAC NFA) is conducting a survey to obtain information from the fusion community about non-fusion work that has resulted from their DOE-funded fusion research. The subcommittee has requested that members of the community describe recent developments connected to the activities of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences. Two questions in particular were posed by the subcommittee. This document contains the authors’ responses to those questions.

  1. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanebrook, J. Richard

    This document describes a course designed to acquaint students with the many societal and technological problems facing the United States and the world due to the increasing demand for energy. The course begins with a writing assignment that involves readings on the environmental philosophy of Native Americans and the Chernobyl catastrophe.…

  2. Energy Deposition in the Body from External Sources to Chemically Trigger Cellular Responses in Desired Localized Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibsen, Stuart Duncan

    One of the major challenges of modern chemotherapy is to deliver a therapeutic dose of active drug to the tumor tissue without causing systemic exposure. The realization of this goal could considerably reduce the negative side effects experienced by patients. The work conducted in this thesis looks at two different approaches to trigger drug activation with the use of external energy sources. This avoids the challenges of relying solely on biochemical and environmental differences as triggers. The two triggers used were low intensity focused ultrasound and 365 nm light delivered with a custom designed needle UV LED fiber optic system. Both can be localized within the body to spatially highlight just the tumor tissue creating a stark differentiation between it and the healthy tissue. The 365nm light based delivery scheme developed here was the first demonstration of a photoactivatable doxorubicin (DOX) prodrug called DOX-PCB. DOX-PCB was shown to be 200 times less toxic than DOX and could be activated to a fully therapeutic form upon exposure to 365nm light. The pharmacokinetics showed a circulation half life comparable to that of DOX and stability against in vivo metabolic degradation. The 365 nm light was shown to adequately irradiate a centimeter of tumor tissue and cause localized activation. In vivo tumors exposed to the light had significantly higher doses of DOX than unexposed control tumors in the same individual. The second delivery scheme made use of focused ultrasound to activate echogenic drug delivery vehicles. These vehicles were the first demonstration of encapsulating microbubbles within liposomes. Specially designed optical equipment documented that the microbubble was ultrasound responsive. The microbubble was shown to violently cavitate and rupture the outer liposome membrane releasing the payload contents. The three dimensional localization of activation was demonstrated in tissue phantoms. The strengths of these two delivery schemes could

  3. Metabolic and developmental adaptations of growing potato tubers in response to specific manipulations of the adenylate energy status.

    PubMed

    Riewe, David; Grosman, Lukasz; Zauber, Henrik; Wucke, Cornelia; Fernie, Alisdair R; Geigenberger, Peter

    2008-04-01

    Heterotrophic carbon metabolism has been demonstrated to be limited by oxygen availability in a variety of plant tissues, which in turn inevitably affects the adenylate status. To study the effect of altering adenylate energy metabolism, without changing the oxygen supply, we expressed a plastidially targeted ATP/ADP hydrolyzing phosphatase (apyrase) in tubers of growing potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants under the control of either inducible or constitutive promoters. Inducible apyrase expression in potato tubers, for a period of 24 h, resulted in a decrease in the ATP-content and the ATP-ADP ratio in the tubers. As revealed by metabolic profiling, this was accompanied by a decrease in the intermediates of sucrose to starch conversion and several plastidially synthesized amino acids, indicating a general depression of tuber metabolism. Constitutive tuber-specific apyrase expression did not lead to a reduction of ATP, but rather a decrease in ADP and an increase in AMP levels. Starch accumulation was strongly inhibited and shifted to the production of amylopectin instead of amylose in these tubers. Furthermore, the levels of almost all amino acids were decreased, although soluble sugars and hexose-Ps were highly abundant. Respiration was elevated in the constitutively expressing lines indicating a compensation for the dramatic increase in ATP hydrolysis. The increase in respiration did not affect the internal oxygen tensions in the tubers. However, the tubers developed a ginger-like phenotype having an elevated surface-volume ratio and a reduced mass per tuber. Decreased posttranslational redox activation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and a shift in the ratio of soluble starch synthase activity to granule-bound starch synthase activity were found to be partially responsible for the alterations in starch structure and abundance. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase was decreased and pyruvate decarboxylase was induced, but this was neither reflected by an increase

  4. Parametric and energy consumption optimization of Basic Red 2 removal by electrocoagulation/egg shell adsorption coupling using response surface methodology in a batch system.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Helder Pereira; Huang, Jiguo; Zhao, Meixia; Liu, Gang; Yang, Xinyu; Dong, Lili; Liu, Xingjuan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) model was applied for optimization of Basic Red 2 (BR2) removal using electrocoagulation/eggshell (ES) coupling process in a batch system. Central composite design was used to evaluate the effects and interactions of process parameters including current density, reaction time, initial pH and ES dosage on the BR2 removal efficiency and energy consumption. The analysis of variance revealed high R(2) values (≥85%) indicating that the predictions of RSM models are adequately applicable for both responses. The optimum conditions when the dye removal efficiency of 93.18% and energy consumption of 0.840 kWh/kg were observed were 11.40 mA/cm(2) current density, 5 min and 3 s reaction time, 6.5 initial pH and 10.91 g/L ES dosage.

  5. Diagnosing x-ray power and energy of tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun-lun; Ren, Xiao-dong; Huang, Xian-bin; Zhang, Si-qun; Zhou, Shao-tong; Dan, Jia-kun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Ouyang, Kai; Cai, Hong-chun; Wei, Bing; Ji, Ce; Feng, Shu-ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-ping; Deng, Jian-jun

    2015-11-01

    Fast z-pinch is a very efficient way of converting electromagnetic energy to radiation. With an 8-10 MA current on primary test stand facility, about 1 MJ electromagnetic energy is delivered to vacuum chamber, which heats z-pinch plasma to radiate soft x-ray. To develop a pulsed high power x-ray source, we studied the applicability of diagnosing x-ray power from tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode (FSR-XRD). The detector was originally developed to diagnose radiation of a hohlraum in SG-III prototype laser facility. It utilized a gold cathode XRD and a specially configured compound gold filter to yield a nearly flat spectral response in photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV. In practice, it was critical to avoid surface contamination of gold cathode. It is illustrated that an exposure of an XRD to multiple shots caused a significant change of response. Thus, in diagnosing x-ray power and energy, we used each XRD in only one shot after calibration. In a shot serial, output of FSR-XRD was compared with output of a nickel bolometer. In these shots, the outputs agreed with each other within their uncertainties which were about 12% for FSR-XRD and about 15% for bolometer. Moreover, the ratios between the FSR-XRD and the bolometer among different shots were explored. In 8 shots, the standard deviation of the ratio was 6%. It is comparable to XRD response change of 7%. PMID:26628136

  6. A Test Bed for Self-regulating Distribution Systems: Modeling Intergrated Renewable Energy and Demand Response in the GridLAB-D/MATLAB Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dan; de Wit, Braydon; Parkinson, Simon; Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.; Crawford, Curran; Djilali, Ned

    2012-01-16

    This paper discusses the development of a simulation test bed permitting the study of integrated renewable energy generators and controlled distributed heat pumps operating within distribution systems. The test bed is demonstrated in this paper by addressing the important issue of the self-regulating effect of consumer-owned air-source heat pumps on the variability induced by wind power integration, particularly when coupled with increased access to demand response realized through a centralized load control strategy.

  7. Diagnosing x-ray power and energy of tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kun-lun; Ren, Xiao-dong; Huang, Xian-bin Zhang, Si-qun; Zhou, Shao-tong; Dan, Jia-kun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Ouyang, Kai; Cai, Hong-chun; Wei, Bing; Ji, Ce; Feng, Shu-ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-ping; Deng, Jian-jun

    2015-11-15

    Fast z-pinch is a very efficient way of converting electromagnetic energy to radiation. With an 8-10 MA current on primary test stand facility, about 1 MJ electromagnetic energy is delivered to vacuum chamber, which heats z-pinch plasma to radiate soft x-ray. To develop a pulsed high power x-ray source, we studied the applicability of diagnosing x-ray power from tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode (FSR-XRD). The detector was originally developed to diagnose radiation of a hohlraum in SG-III prototype laser facility. It utilized a gold cathode XRD and a specially configured compound gold filter to yield a nearly flat spectral response in photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV. In practice, it was critical to avoid surface contamination of gold cathode. It is illustrated that an exposure of an XRD to multiple shots caused a significant change of response. Thus, in diagnosing x-ray power and energy, we used each XRD in only one shot after calibration. In a shot serial, output of FSR-XRD was compared with output of a nickel bolometer. In these shots, the outputs agreed with each other within their uncertainties which were about 12% for FSR-XRD and about 15% for bolometer. Moreover, the ratios between the FSR-XRD and the bolometer among different shots were explored. In 8 shots, the standard deviation of the ratio was 6%. It is comparable to XRD response change of 7%.

  8. Discrimination between energy transfer and back transfer processes for GaAs host and Er luminescent dopants using electric response analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, Masashi; Koizumi, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Yasufumi; Takeda, Yoshikazu

    2014-04-07

    The energy transfer and back transfer processes of GaAs co-doped with Er and O (GaAs:Er,O) were experimentally distinguished by using a frequency response analysis of the AC photocurrent. The results were achieved by using the difference in the frequency dispersion between (1) the dispersion of the energy transfer, which is triggered by the trapping of free charges in the GaAs host and is represented with the Debye relaxation response and (2) the dispersion of the energy back transfer, which is induced by non-radiative transition of 4f bound electrons in the Er dopants and is described with a Lorentzian. The Debye relaxation response found in GaAs:Er,O provided a charge trapping time that was dependent on temperature, which was well correlated with the thermal quenching property of intense intra-4f-shell luminescence. The spectral shape of the Lorentzian dependence on the temperature was explained with the thermal excitation of Er 4f electrons and release of trapped charges in GaAs. The thermal excitation and release of charges consistently explained the characteristics of weak 4f luminescence in low- and high-temperature regions, respectively.

  9. a Bilayer Model for Incorporating the Simultaneous Effects of Surface Energy and Microstructure Size Dependency on the Dynamic Response and Stability of Electromechanical Nanocantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keivani, Maryam; Koochi, Ali; Kanani, Abolfazl; Abadyan, Mohamadreza

    2016-05-01

    Nanoscale beams might not be considered uniform isotropic since the energy of the surface layer and microstructure of the bulk material highly affect the mechanical characteristics of the beams. Herein, the simultaneous effects of energy of the surface and microstructure of the bulk on the dynamic response and stability of beam-type electromechanical nanocantilevers are investigated. A bilayer model has been developed which incorporates the strain energy of the surface atoms as well as the microstructure-dependent strain energy of the bulk. The Gurtin-Murdoch surface elasticity in conjunction with the modified couple stress theory (MCST) is applied to derive the governing equation. Since the classical assumption for zero normal surface stresses is not consistent with the surface equilibrium assumption in Gurtin-Murdoch elasticity, the presence of normal surface stresses is incorporated. The von Karman nonlinear strain is employed to derive the governing equation. The presence of gas rarefaction at various Knudsen numbers is considered as well as the edge effect on the distribution of Coulomb and dispersion forces. The mode shapes of the nanobeam are determined as a function of the surface and microstructure parameter and the nonlinear governing equation is solved using Galerkin method. The dynamic response, phase plane and stability threshold of the nanocantilever are discussed.

  10. Six-month Calorie Restriction in Overweight Individuals Elicits Transcriptomic Response in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue That is Distinct From Effects of Energy Deficit.

    PubMed

    Lam, Yan Y; Ghosh, Sujoy; Civitarese, Anthony E; Ravussin, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Calorie restriction confers health benefits distinct from energy deficit by exercise. We characterized the adipose-transcriptome to investigate the molecular basis of the differential phenotypic responses. Abdominal subcutaneous fat was collected from 24 overweight participants randomized in three groups (N = 8/group): weight maintenance (control), 25% energy deficit by calorie restriction alone (CR), and 25% energy deficit by calorie restriction with structured exercise (CREX). Within each group, gene expression was compared between 6 months and baseline with cutoffs at nominal p ≤ .01 and absolute fold-change ≥ 1.5. Gene-set enrichment analysis (false discovery rate < 5%) was used to identify significantly regulated biological pathways. CR and CREX elicited similar overall clinical response to energy deficit and a comparable reduction in gene transcription specific to oxidative phosphorylation and proteasome function. CR vastly outweighed CREX in the number of differentially regulated genes (88 vs 39) and pathways (28 vs 6). CR specifically downregulated the chemokine signaling-related pathways. Among the CR-regulated genes, 27 functioned as transcription/translation regulators (eg, mRNA processing or transcription/translation initiation), whereas CREX regulated only one gene in this category. Our data suggest that CR has a broader effect on the transcriptome compared with CREX which may mediate its specific impact on delaying primary aging.

  11. Factors responsible for the stability and the existence of a clean energy gap of a silicon nanocluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Jayanthi, C. S.; Wu, Shi-Yu

    2001-10-01

    We present a critical theoretical study of electronic properties of silicon nanoclusters, in particular the roles played by symmetry, relaxation, and hydrogen passivation on the stability, the gap states and the energy gap of the system using the order N [O(N)] nonorthogonal tight-binding molecular dynamics and the local analysis of electronic structure. We find that for an unrelaxed cluster with its atoms occupying the regular tetrahedral network, the presence of undistorted local bonding configuration is sufficient for the appearance of a small clean energy gap. However, the energy gap of the unrelaxed cluster does not start at the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO). In fact, between the HOMO and the lower edge of the energy gap, localized dangling bond states are found. With hydrogen passivation, the localized dangling bond states are eliminated, resulting in a wider and clean energy gap. Relaxation of these hydrogen passivated clusters does not alter either the structure or the energy gap appreciably. However, if the silicon clusters are allowed to relax first, the majority of the dangling bonds are eliminated but additional defect states due to bond distortion appear, making the energy gap dirty. Hydrogen passivation of these relaxed clusters will further eliminate most of the remnant dangling bonds but no appreciable effect on the defect states associated with bond distortions will take place, thus still resulting in a dirty gap. For the hydrogen-passivated SiN nanoclusters with no bond distortion and no overall symmetry, we have studied the variation of the energy gap as a function of size of the cluster for N in the range of 80energy gap on the size shows similar behavior to that for silicon nanoclusters with no bond distortion but possessing overall symmetry.

  12. Response of detector modules of the neutron hodoscope SENECA to neutrons with energies 7-70 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    v. Edel, G.; Selke, O.; Pöch, C.; Smend, F.; Schumacher, M.; Nolte, R.; Schrewe, U.; Brede, H. J.; Schuhmacher, H.; Henneck, R.

    1993-07-01

    SENECA is a hodoscope for recoil neutrons from photoreactions on nuclei and nucleons in the photon energy range 50-900 MeV. It consists of 32 hexagonal scintillation detector modules in a honeycomb array. Differential detection efficiency spectra of a single module as well as the cross-talk between neighbouring modules were measured at neutron energies between 7 and 70 MeV. Neutron detection efficiencies were determined in the same energy range with an average experimental uncertainty of 7.6%. The experimental results agree with predictions from Monte Carlo codes within the limits of the experimental error.

  13. Brain response to images of food varying in energy density is associated with body composition in 7- to 10-year-old children: Results of an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Fearnbach, S Nicole; English, Laural K; Lasschuijt, Marlou; Wilson, Stephen J; Savage, Jennifer S; Fisher, Jennifer O; Rolls, Barbara J; Keller, Kathleen L

    2016-08-01

    Energy balance is regulated by a multifaceted system of physiological signals that influence energy intake and expenditure. Therefore, variability in the brain's response to food may be partially explained by differences in levels of metabolically active tissues throughout the body, including fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that children's body composition would be related to their brain response to food images varying in energy density (ED), a measure of energy content per weight of food. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure brain response to High (>1.5kcal/g) and Low (<1.5kcal/g) ED food images, and Control images, in 36 children ages 7-10years. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Multi-subject random effects general linear model (GLM) and two-factor repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to test for main effects of ED (High ED vs. Low ED) in a priori defined brain regions of interest previously implicated in energy homeostasis and reward processing. Pearson's correlations were then calculated between activation in these regions for various contrasts (High ED-Low ED, High ED-Control, Low ED-Control) and child body composition (FFM index, FM index, % body fat). Relative to Low ED foods, High ED foods elicited greater BOLD activation in the left thalamus. In the right substantia nigra, BOLD activation for the contrast of High ED-Low ED foods was positively associated with child FFM. There were no significant results for the High ED-Control or Low ED-Control contrasts. Our findings support literature on FFM as an appetitive driver, such that greater amounts of lean mass were associated with greater activation for High ED foods in an area of the brain associated with dopamine signaling and reward (substantia nigra). These results confirm our hypothesis that brain response to foods varying in energy content is related to measures

  14. Dependence with air density of the response of the PTW SourceCheck ionization chamber for low energy brachytherapy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Tornero-López, Ana M.; Guirado, Damián; Ruiz-Arrebola, Samuel; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Simancas, Fernando; Lallena, Antonio M.; Gazdic-Santic, Maja

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Air-communicating well ionization chambers are commonly used to assess air kerma strength of sources used in brachytherapy. The signal produced is supposed to be proportional to the air density within the chamber and, therefore, a density-independent air kerma strength is obtained when the measurement is corrected to standard atmospheric conditions using the usual temperature and pressure correction factor. Nevertheless, when assessing low energy sources, the ionization chambers may not fulfill that condition and a residual density dependence still remains after correction. In this work, the authors examined the behavior of the PTW 34051 SourceCheck ionization chamber when measuring the air kerma strength of {sup 125}I seeds.Methods: Four different SourceCheck chambers were analyzed. With each one of them, two series of measurements of the air kerma strength for {sup 125}I selectSeed{sup TM} brachytherapy sources were performed inside a pressure chamber and varying the pressure in a range from 747 to 1040 hPa (560 to 780 mm Hg). The temperature and relative humidity were kept basically constant. An analogous experiment was performed by taking measurements at different altitudes above sea level.Results: Contrary to other well-known ionization chambers, like the HDR1000 PLUS, in which the temperature-pressure correction factor overcorrects the measurements, in the SourceCheck ionization chamber they are undercorrected. At a typical atmospheric situation of 933 hPa (700 mm Hg) and 20 °C, this undercorrection turns out to be 1.5%. Corrected measurements show a residual linear dependence on the density and, as a consequence, an additional density dependent correction must be applied. The slope of this residual linear density dependence is different for each SourceCheck chamber investigated. The results obtained by taking measurements at different altitudes are compatible with those obtained with the pressure chamber.Conclusions: Variations of the altitude and

  15. A review of numerical models for predicting the energy deposition and resultant thermal response of humans exposed to electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegal, R.J.

    1984-08-01

    For humans exposed to electromagnetic (EM) radiation, the resulting thermophysiologic response is not well understood. Because it is unlikely that this information will be determined from quantitative experimentation, it is necessary to develop theoretical models which predict the resultant thermal response after exposure to EM fields. These calculations are difficult and involved because the human thermoregulatory system is very complex. In this paper, the important numerical models are reviewed and possibilities for future development are discussed.

  16. Cellular effects of individual high-linear energy transfer particles and implications for tissue response at low doses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braby, L. A.; Brooks, A. L.; Metting, N. F.

    1997-01-01

    The energy deposition patterns produced by the radiation environment in space can be quite different from those in conventional radiation environments. Furthermore, conventional radiation biological experiments, using randomly distributed particle tracks, cannot access some variables which may be important in determining the health effects of irradiation. Controlled microbeam irradiation provides the means to investigate the effects and unique energy deposition patterns and cell environment for a variety of end points.

  17. Response of AMP-activated protein kinase and energy metabolism to acute nitrite exposure in the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhixin; Li, Erchao; Xu, Chang; Gan, Lei; Qin, Jian G; Chen, Liqiao

    2016-08-01

    Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a prevalent mammalian energy metabolism sensor, but little is known about its role as an energy sensor in fish experiencing stress. We aimed to study AMPK in Oreochromis niloticus on both the molecular and the physical level. We found that the cDNAs encoding the AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 variants of the O. niloticus catalytic α subunit were 1753bp and 2563 bp long and encoded 571 and 557 amino acids, respectively. Both the AMPKα1 and the AMPKα2 isoform possess structural features similar to mammalian AMPKα, including a phosphorylation site at Thr172 in the N-terminus, and exhibit high homology with other fish and vertebrate AMPKα sequences (81.3%-98.1%). mRNA encoding the AMPKα isoforms was widely expressed in various tissues with distinctive patterns. AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 were primarily expressed in the intestines and brain, respectively. Under acute nitrite challenge, the mRNA encoding the AMPKα isoforms, as well as AMPK activity, changed over time. Its recovery period in freshwater, combined with the fact that it is highly conserved, suggests that fish AMPK, like its mammalian orthologues, acts as an energy metabolism sensor. Furthermore, subsequent decreases in AMPK mRNA levels and activity suggested that its action was transient but efficient. Physically, glucose, lactic acid and TGs in plasma, as well as energy materials in the hepatopancreas and muscle, were significantly altered over time, indicating changes in energy metabolism during the experimental period. These data have enabled us to characterize energy utilization in O. niloticus and further illustrate the role of fish AMPK as an energy sensor. This study provides new insight into energy metabolism and sensing by AMPK in teleost and necessitates further study of the multiple physiologic roles of AMPK in fish.

  18. Growth and haematological response of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 to 13 weeks to varying dietary lysine to energy ratios.

    PubMed

    Alabi, O J; Ng'ambi, J W; Mbajiorgu, E F; Norris, D; Mabelebele, M

    2015-06-01

    The effect of feeding varying dietary lysine to energy levels on growth and haematological values of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 - 13 weeks was evaluated. Four hundred and twenty Venda chickens (BW 362 ± 10 g) were allocated to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated seven times, and each replicate had fifteen chickens. Four maize-soya beans-based diets were formulated. Each diet had similar CP (150 g/kg DM) and lysine (8 g lysine/kg DM) but varying energy levels (11, 12, 13 and 14 MJ ME/kg DM). The birds were reared in a deep litter house; feed and water were provided ad libitum. Data on growth and haematological values were collected and analysed using one-way analysis of variance. Duncan's test for multiple comparisons was used to test the significant difference between treatment means (p < 0.05). A quadratic equation was used to determine dietary lysine to energy ratios for optimum parameters which were significant difference. Results showed that dietary energy level influenced (p < 0.05) feed intake, feed conversion ratio, live weight, haemoglobin and pack cell volume values of chickens. Dry matter digestibility, metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. Also, white blood cell, red blood cell, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in female Venda chickens aged 91 days were not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. It is concluded that dietary lysine to energy ratios of 0.672, 0.646, 0.639 and 0.649 optimized feed intake, growth rate, FCR and live weight in indigenous female Venda chickens fed diets containing 8 g of lysine/kg DM, 150 g of CP/kg DM and 11 MJ of ME/kg DM. This has implications in diet formulation for indigenous female Venda chickens.

  19. Response of AMP-activated protein kinase and energy metabolism to acute nitrite exposure in the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhixin; Li, Erchao; Xu, Chang; Gan, Lei; Qin, Jian G; Chen, Liqiao

    2016-08-01

    Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a prevalent mammalian energy metabolism sensor, but little is known about its role as an energy sensor in fish experiencing stress. We aimed to study AMPK in Oreochromis niloticus on both the molecular and the physical level. We found that the cDNAs encoding the AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 variants of the O. niloticus catalytic α subunit were 1753bp and 2563 bp long and encoded 571 and 557 amino acids, respectively. Both the AMPKα1 and the AMPKα2 isoform possess structural features similar to mammalian AMPKα, including a phosphorylation site at Thr172 in the N-terminus, and exhibit high homology with other fish and vertebrate AMPKα sequences (81.3%-98.1%). mRNA encoding the AMPKα isoforms was widely expressed in various tissues with distinctive patterns. AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 were primarily expressed in the intestines and brain, respectively. Under acute nitrite challenge, the mRNA encoding the AMPKα isoforms, as well as AMPK activity, changed over time. Its recovery period in freshwater, combined with the fact that it is highly conserved, suggests that fish AMPK, like its mammalian orthologues, acts as an energy metabolism sensor. Furthermore, subsequent decreases in AMPK mRNA levels and activity suggested that its action was transient but efficient. Physically, glucose, lactic acid and TGs in plasma, as well as energy materials in the hepatopancreas and muscle, were significantly altered over time, indicating changes in energy metabolism during the experimental period. These data have enabled us to characterize energy utilization in O. niloticus and further illustrate the role of fish AMPK as an energy sensor. This study provides new insight into energy metabolism and sensing by AMPK in teleost and necessitates further study of the multiple physiologic roles of AMPK in fish. PMID:27262938

  20. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems. Final Report of the Princeton Power Systems Development of the 100kW Demand Response Inverter.

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, Ward Isaac; Heavener, Paul; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; Hammell, Darren; Holveck, Mark; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali; Gonzalez, Sigifredo

    2012-01-01

    Initiated in 2008, the Solar Energy Grid Integration (SEGIS) program is a partnership involving the U.S. Department of Energy, Sandia National Laboratories, electric utilities, academic institutions and the private sector. Recognizing the need to diversify the nation's energy portfolio, the SEGIS effort focuses on specific technologies needed to facilitate the integration of large-scale solar power generation into the nation's power grid Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) awarded a contract to Princeton Power Systems, Inc., (PPS) to develop a 100kW Advanced AC-link SEGIS inverter prototype under the Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for near-term commercial applications. This SEGIS initiative emphasizes the development of advanced inverters, controllers, communications and other balance-of-system components for photovoltaic (PV) distributed power applications. The SEGIS Stage 3 Contract was awarded to PPS on July 28, 2010. PPS developed and implemented a Demand Response Inverter (DRI) during this three-stage program. PPS prepared a 'Site Demonstration Conference' that was held on September 28, 2011, to showcase the cumulative advancements. This demo of the commercial product will be followed by Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., certification by the fourth quarter of 2011, and simultaneously the customer launch and commercial production sometime in late 2011 or early 2012. This final report provides an overview of all three stages and a full-length reporting of activities and accomplishments in Stage 3.

  1. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Armstrong, Cheryl L H; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-02-01

    Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume) and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein) on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER) in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each) in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab), TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03). While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p < 0.05), protein source did not affect cardio-metabolic indices. In conclusion, diets varying in protein quantity with either beef/pork or soy/legume as the predominant source have minimal effects on appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss. PMID:26821042

  2. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Armstrong, Cheryl L. H.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2016-01-01

    Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume) and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein) on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER) in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each) in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab), TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03). While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p < 0.05), protein source did not affect cardio-metabolic indices. In conclusion, diets varying in protein quantity with either beef/pork or soy/legume as the predominant source have minimal effects on appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss. PMID:26821042

  3. Response of Cs2LiYCl6:Ce (CLYC) to High Energy Protons

    SciTech Connect

    Coupland, Daniel David Schechtman; Stonehill, Laura Catherine; Goett, John Jerome III

    2015-11-23

    Cs2LiYCl6:Ce (CLYC) is a promising new inorganic scintillator for gamma and neutron detection. As a gamma-ray detector, it exhibits bright light output and better resolution and proportionality of response than traditional gamma-ray scintillators such as NaI. It is also highly sensitive to thermal neutrons through capture on 6Li, and recent experiments have demonstrated sensitivity to fast neutrons through interactions with 35Cl. The response of CLYC to other forms of radiation has not been reported. We have performed the first measurements of the response of CLYC to several-hundred MeV protons. We have collected digitized waveforms from proton events, and compare to those produced by gammas and thermal neutrons. Finally, we discuss the potential for pulse shape discrimination between them.

  4. Effects of high energy x ray and proton irradiation on lead zirconate titanate thin films' dielectric and piezoelectric response

    SciTech Connect

    Bastani, Y.; Cortes-Pena, A. Y.; Wilson, A. D.; Gerardin, S.; Bagatin, M.; Paccagnella, A.; Bassiri-Gharb, N.

    2013-05-13

    The effects of irradiation by X rays and protons on the dielectric and piezoelectric response of highly (100)-textured polycrystalline Pb(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films have been studied. Low-field dielectric permittivity, remanent polarization, and piezoelectric d{sub 33,f} response all degraded with exposure to radiation, for doses higher than 300 krad. At first approximation, the degradation increased at higher radiation doses, and was stronger in samples exposed to X rays, compared to the proton-irradiated ones. Nonlinear and high-field dielectric characterization suggest a radiation-induced reduction of the extrinsic contributions to the response, attributed to increased pinning of the domain walls by the radiation-induced point defects.

  5. Storm-time response of the Van Allen radiation belts organized by the large-scale solar wind drivers, energy and distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hietala, Heli; Kilpua, Emilia; Turner, Drew

    2016-04-01

    We study the response of the Van Allen radiation belts during geomagnetic storms. A combination of the long-term geosynchronous observations from GOES (> 2.5 MeV) and energy (tens of keV to 2 MeV) and L-shell (2.5 < L < 6.0) resolved Van Allen Probe observations are used. We demonstrate that the radiation belt response (depletion, no-change, increase) is organized by the large-scale solar wind driver (coronal mass ejection ejecta/sheath, slow-fast stream interface region, fast stream) and that the response is highly dependent on both the electron energy and the L-shell. In addition, we show detailed Van Allen Probe observations from two geomagnetic storms that occurred during two consecutive Carrington rotations of the solar maximum year 2015. Both of these storms involved a slow-fast stream interaction region and a fast stream originating from the same coronal hole. However, the first storm also included a large-scale coronal mass ejection. We study in particular how the added presence of this coronal mass ejection affected the dynamics of the radiation belts.

  6. High Energy Charge as a Requirement for Axis Elongation in Response to Gibberellic Acid and Kinetin during Stratification of Acer saccharum Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Simmonds, J. A.; Dumbroff, E. B.

    1974-01-01

    The growth potential of embryonic axes of Acer saccharum Marsh. increased during moist storage at 5 C but not at 20 C. During the period of increasing growth potential, the oxygen consumption of the axes remained constant. It was possible to distinguish three phases of the stratification-germination process at 5 C with respect to response of the axis to gibberellic acid and kinetin. From 0 to 10 days the growth regulators had no effect on elongation; from 10 to 60 days axis elongation was stimulated; and between day 60 and day 75, when germination had begun, the growth substances were inhibitory. The adenylate energy charge remained low (0.15) in axes of dry dormant seeds but increased to 0.78 following imbibition of water and 10 days of moist storage at 5 C. This phenomenon was not specifically related to low temperature stratification, since a rapid increase in the energy charge of the axes also occurred following imbibition and moist storage at 20 C. The excised axes would elongate in response to the growth substances only when a high energy charge (approximately 0.8) was maintained. PMID:16658660

  7. Spatial and temporal benthic species assemblage responses with a deployed marine tidal energy device: a small scaled study.

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, Melanie; Orme, C David L

    2014-08-01

    The addition of man-made structures to the marine environment is known to increase the physical complexity of the seafloor, which can influence benthic species community patterns and habitat structure. However, knowledge of how deployed tidal energy device structures influence benthic communities is currently lacking. Here we examined species biodiversity, composition and habitat type surrounding a tidal energy device within the European Marine Energy Centre test site, Orkney. Commercial fishing and towed video camera techniques were used over three temporal periods, from 2009 to 2010. Our results showed increased species biodiversity and compositional differences within the device site, compared to a control site. Both sites largely comprised of crustacean species, omnivore or predatory feeding regimes and marine tide-swept EUNIS habitat types, which varied over the time. We conclude that the device could act as a localised artificial reef structure, but that further in-depth investigations are required. PMID:24840255

  8. Spatial and temporal benthic species assemblage responses with a deployed marine tidal energy device: a small scaled study.

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, Melanie; Orme, C David L

    2014-08-01

    The addition of man-made structures to the marine environment is known to increase the physical complexity of the seafloor, which can influence benthic species community patterns and habitat structure. However, knowledge of how deployed tidal energy device structures influence benthic communities is currently lacking. Here we examined species biodiversity, composition and habitat type surrounding a tidal energy device within the European Marine Energy Centre test site, Orkney. Commercial fishing and towed video camera techniques were used over three temporal periods, from 2009 to 2010. Our results showed increased species biodiversity and compositional differences within the device site, compared to a control site. Both sites largely comprised of crustacean species, omnivore or predatory feeding regimes and marine tide-swept EUNIS habitat types, which varied over the time. We conclude that the device could act as a localised artificial reef structure, but that further in-depth investigations are required.

  9. Thermal response of integral multicomponent composites to a high-energy aerothermodynamic heating environment with surface temperature to 1800 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David A.; Leiser, Daniel B.

    1987-01-01

    Laminated composite insulations developed for potential use on advanced spacecraft operating between GEO and LEO were tested in an aerothermodynamic environment simulating an AOTV aerobraking maneuver (altitude 82.3 km and velocity = 9.0 km/s). Comparisons are discussed between these data and predictions of in-depth temperature response using dynamical thermal conductivity values to 2000 K.

  10. Thermal response of integral multicomponent composites to a high-energy aerothermodynamic heating environment with surface temperature to 1800 K

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, D.A.; Leiser, D.B.

    1987-08-01

    Laminated composite insulations developed for potential use on advanced spacecraft operating between GEO and LEO were tested in an aerothermodynamic environment simulating an AOTV aerobraking maneuver (altitude 82.3 km and velocity = 9.0 km/s). Comparisons are discussed between these data and predictions of in-depth temperature response using dynamical thermal conductivity values to 2000 K. 8 references.

  11. Changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana Proteome Implicate cAMP in Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses and Changes in Energy Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Alqurashi, May; Gehring, Chris; Marondedze, Claudius

    2016-01-01

    The second messenger 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is increasingly recognized as having many different roles in plant responses to environmental stimuli. To gain further insights into these roles, Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture was treated with 100 nM of cell permeant 8-bromo-cAMP for 5 or 10 min. Here, applying mass spectrometry and comparative proteomics, 20 proteins were identified as differentially expressed and we noted a specific bias in proteins with a role in abiotic stress, particularly cold and salinity, biotic stress as well as proteins with a role in glycolysis. These findings suggest that cAMP is sufficient to elicit specific stress responses that may in turn induce complex changes to cellular energy homeostasis. PMID:27258261

  12. Energy Band Structure and Optical Response Function of Icosahedral B12As2: A Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and First-principles Calculational Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bakalova, S.; Gong, Y; Cobet, C; Esser, N; Zhang, Y; Edgar, J; Zhang, Y; Dudley, M; Kuball, M

    2010-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical study on the dielectric-response function of icosahedral B{sub 12}As{sub 2} in the spectral region between 1.24 and 9.8 eV is presented. Comprehensive experimental information on the energy band structure from the analysis of features in the optical dispersion was complemented by spin-orbit first-principles calculations. The lowest indirect band gap width is 3.2 eV; the two lowest direct interband transitions are at 3.46 and 3.9 eV. High-energy critical points are assigned to specific electron transitions in the Brillouin zone and their dimensionality was determined. The static dielectric constant of B{sub 12}As{sub 2} is uniaxially anisotropic with values of 7.84 and 9.02 for polarization perpendicular and parallel to the trigonal axis. Hole and electron effective masses are derived from the band dispersions.

  13. Energy dissipation and dynamic response of an amplitude-modulation atomic-force microscopy subjected to a tip-sample viscous force.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shueei Muh

    2007-01-01

    In a common environment of atomic force microscopy (AFM), a damping force occurs between a tip and a sample. The influence of damping on the dynamic response of a cantilever must be significant. Moreover, accurate theory is very helpful for the interpretation of a sample's topography and properties. In this study, the effects of damping and nonlinear interatomic tip-sample forces on the dynamic response of an amplitude-formulation AFM are investigated. The damping force is simulated by using the conventional Kelvin-Voigt damping model. The interatomic tip-sample force is the attractive van der Waals force. For consistance with real measurement of a cantilever, the mathematical equations of the beam theory of an AM-AFM are built and its analytical solution is derived. Moreover, an AFM system is also simplified into a mass-spring-damper model. Its exact solution is simple and intuitive. Several relations among the damping ratio, the response ratio, the frequency shift, the energy dissipation and the Q-factor are revealed. It is found that the resonant frequencies and the phase angles determined by the two models are almost same. Significant differences in the resonant quality factors and the response ratios determined by using the two models are also found. Finally, the influences of the variations of several parameters on the error of measuring a sample's topography are investigated. PMID:16982149

  14. Report to the Nuclear energy Research Advisory Committee (NERAC) Subcommittee on "Long-Term Isotope Research and Productions Plan" - Responses to Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Ammoniums

    1999-07-01

    This report presents responses to two series of questions that were raised by a subcommittee of the Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee (NERAC) that has been charged with producing a ''Long-Term Isotope Research and Production Plan.'' The NERAC subcommittee is chaired by Dr. Richard Reba, and the Hanford Site Visit team, which comprises a subset of the subcommittee members, is chaired by Dr. Thomas Ruth. The first set of questions raised by the subcommittee on isotope production at the Hanford Site was received from Dr. Ruth on May 10, 1999, and the second set was received from him on July 5, 1999. Responses to the first set of questions were prepared as part of a June 1999 report entitled ''Isotope Production at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington'' (PNNL 1999a). The responses to these questions are summarized in this document, with frequent references to the June 1999 report for additional details. Responses to the second set of questions from the NERAC subcommittee are presented in this document for the first time.

  15. MiR-34a is up-regulated in response to low dose, low energy X-ray induced DNA damage in breast cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs involved in the regulation of gene expression including DNA damage responses. Low doses of low energy X-ray radiation, similar to those used in mammographic exams, has been described to be genotoxic. In the present work we investigated the expression of miR-34a; a well described p53-regulated miRNA implicated in cell responses to X-ray irradiation at low doses. Methods Non-cancerous breast cell line MCF-10A and cancerous T-47D and MCF-7 cell lines were submitted to a low-energy X-ray irradiation (ranging from 28–30 Kv) using a dose of 5 Gy. The expression level of miR-34a, let-7a and miR-21 was assessed by qRT-PCR at 4 and 24 hours post-irradiation. DNA damage was then measured by comet assay and micronuclei estimation in MCF-10A and MCF-7 cell lines, where an increase of miR-34a levels could be observed after irradiation. The rate of apoptotic cells was estimated by nuclear staining and fluorescence microscopy. These experiments were also performed at low doses (3; 12 and 48 mGy) in MCF-10A and MCF-7 cell lines. Results We have observed an increase in miR-34a expression 4 hours post-irradiation at 5 Gy in MCF-10A and MCF-7 cell lines while its level did not change in T-47D, a breast cancer cell line bearing non-functional p53. At low doses, miR-34a was up-regulated in non-tumoral MCF-10A to a higher extent as compared to MCF-7. MiR-34a levels decreased 24 hours post-irradiation. We have also observed DNA damage and apoptosis at low-energy X-ray irradiation at low doses and the high dose in MCF-10A and MCF-7 4 and 24 hours post-irradiation relative to the mock control. Conclusion Low energy X-ray is able to promote DNA strand breaks and miR-34a might be involved in cell responses to low energy X-ray DNA damage. MiR-34a expression correlates with X-ray dose, time after irradiation and cell type. The present study reinforces the need of investigating consequences of low dose X-ray irradiation of breast cells. PMID

  16. Joint Real-Time Energy and Demand-Response Management using a Hybrid Coalitional-Noncooperative Game

    SciTech Connect

    He, Fulin; Gu, Yi; Hao, Jun; Zhang, Jun Jason; Wei, Jiaolong; Zhang, Yingchen

    2015-11-11

    In order to model the interactions among utility companies, building demands and renewable energy generators (REGs), a hybrid coalitional-noncooperative game framework has been proposed. We formulate a dynamic non-cooperative game to study the energy dispatch within multiple utility companies, while we take a coalitional perspective on REGs and buildings demands through a hedonic coalition formation game approach. In this case, building demands request different power supply from REGs, then the building demands can be organized into an ultimate coalition structure through a distributed hedonic shift algorithm. At the same time, utility companies can also obtain a stable power generation profile. In addition, the interactive progress among the utility companies and building demands which cannot be supplied by REGs is implemented by distributed game theoretic algorithms. Numerical results illustrate that the proposed hybrid coalitional-noncooperative game scheme reduces the cost of both building demands and utility companies compared with the initial scene.

  17. Alterations in sleep architecture in response to experimental sleep curtailment are associated with signs of positive energy balance.

    PubMed

    Shechter, Ari; O'Keeffe, Majella; Roberts, Amy L; Zammit, Gary K; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2012-11-01

    Sleep reduction is associated with increased energy intake and weight gain, though few studies have explored the relationship between sleep architecture and energy balance measures in the context of experimental sleep restriction. Fourteen males and 13 females (body mass index: 22-26 kg/m(2)) participated in a crossover sleep curtailment study. Participants were studied under two sleep conditions: short (4 h/night; 0100-0500 h) and habitual (9 h/night; 2200-0700 h), for 5 nights each. Sleep was polysomnographically recorded nightly. Outcome measures included resting metabolic rate (RMR), feelings of appetite-satiety, and ad libitum food intake. Short sleep resulted in reductions in stage 2 sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep duration (P < 0.001), as well as decreased percentage of stage 2 sleep and REM sleep and increased slow wave sleep (SWS) percentage (P < 0.05). Linear mixed model analysis demonstrated a positive association between stage 2 sleep duration and RMR (P = 0.051). Inverse associations were observed between REM sleep duration and hunger (P = 0.031) and between stage 2 sleep duration and appetite for sweet (P = 0.015) and salty (P = 0.046) foods. Stage 2 sleep percentage was inversely related to energy consumed (P = 0.024). Stage 2 sleep (P = 0.005), SWS (P = 0.008), and REM sleep (P = 0.048) percentages were inversely related to fat intake, and SWS (P = 0.040) and REM sleep (P = 0.050) were inversely related to carbohydrate intake. This study demonstrates that changes in sleep architecture are associated with markers of positive energy balance and indicate a means by which exposure to short sleep duration and/or an altered sleep architecture profile may lead to excess weight gain over time.

  18. Simulating the Response of a Composite Honeycomb Energy Absorber. Part 1; Dynamic Crushing of Components and Multi-Terrain Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental and analytical evaluation of an externally deployable composite honeycomb structure that is designed to attenuate impact energy during helicopter crashes. The concept, designated the Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA), utilizes an expandable Kevlar (Registered Trademark) honeycomb to dissipate kinetic energy through crushing. The DEA incorporates a unique flexible hinge design that allows the honeycomb to be packaged and stowed until needed for deployment. Experimental evaluation of the DEA included dynamic crush tests of multi-cell components and vertical drop tests of a composite fuselage section, retrofitted with DEA blocks, onto multi-terrain. Finite element models of the test articles were developed and simulations were performed using the transient dynamic code, LSDYNA (Registered Trademark). In each simulation, the DEA was represented using shell elements assigned two different material properties: Mat 24, an isotropic piecewise linear plasticity model, and Mat 58, a continuum damage mechanics model used to represent laminated composite fabrics. DEA model development and test-analysis comparisons are presented.

  19. Absolute calibration of Kodak Biomax-MS film response to x rays in the 1.5- to 8-keV energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, F. J.; Knauer, J. P.; Anderson, D.; Schmitt, B. L.

    2006-10-01

    The absolute response of Kodak Biomax-MS film to x rays in the range from 1.5- to 8-keV has been measured using a laboratory electron-beam generated x-ray source. The measurements were taken at specific line energies by using Bragg diffraction to produce monochromatic beams of x rays. Multiple exposures were taken on Biomax MS film up to levels exceeding optical densities of 2 as measured by a microdensitometer. The absolute beam intensity for each exposure was measured with a Si (Li) detector. Additional response measurements were taken with Kodak direct exposure film (DEF) so as to compare the results of this technique to previously published calibrations. The Biomax-MS results have been fitted to a semiempirical mathematical model (Knauer et al., these proceedings). Users of the model can infer absolute fluences from observed exposure levels at either interpolated or extrapolated energies. To summarize the results: Biomax MS has comparable sensitivity to DEF film below 3keV but has reduced sensitivity above 3keV (˜50%). The lower exposure results from thinner emulsion layers, designed for use with phosphor screens. The ease with which Biomax-MS can be used in place of DEF (same format film, same developing process, and comparable sensitivity) makes it a good replacement.

  20. Chemo-responsive shape memory effect in shape memory polyurethane triggered by inductive release of mechanical energy storage undergoing copper (II) chloride migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haibao; Lu, Chunrui; Huang, Wei Min; Leng, Jinsong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, 10% weight fraction of copper (II) chloride (CuCl2) was embedded into shape memory polyurethane (SMPU) by dissolving it in a solvent mixture of tetrahydrofuran and N,N-dimethyl formamide. It is found that CuCl2 particles migrate; they are released from the polymer in the water-driven shape recovery process of SMPU composites. SMPU composites, after various immersion times in water, were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. Experimental results support that hydrogen bonding between polyurethane macromolecules and water molecules is the driving force, resulting from the inductive decrease in the glass transition temperature. Furthermore, the release of the stored mechanical energy in SMPU is demonstrated by means of tracking the migration of CuCl2 particles via x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy tests. This study focuses on the mechanism of release of the stored mechanical energy of a polymer, which is identified as the driving force for the chemo-responsive shape memory effect and inductive decrease in glass transition temperature of SMPU in response to the water.

  1. MCNP SIMULATION OF THE HP(10) ENERGY RESPONSE OF A BRAZILIAN TLD ALBEDO NEUTRON INDIVIDUAL DOSEMETER, FROM THERMAL TO 20 MeV.

    PubMed

    Freitas, B M; Martins, M M; Pereira, W W; da Silva, A X; Mauricio, C L P

    2016-09-01

    The Brazilian Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD) runs a neutron individual monitoring system with a home-made TLD albedo dosemeter. It has already been characterised and calibrated in some reference fields. However, the complete energy response of this dosemeter is not known, and the calibration factors for all monitored workplace neutron fields are difficult to be obtained experimentally. Therefore, to overcome such difficulties, Monte Carlo simulations have been used. This paper describes the simulation of the HP(10) neutron response of the IRD TLD albedo dosemeter using the MCNPX transport code, for energies from thermal to 20 MeV. The validation of the MCNPX modelling is done comparing the simulated results with the experimental measurements for ISO standard neutron fields of (241)Am-Be, (252)Cf, (241)Am-B and (252)Cf(D2O) and also for (241)Am-Be source moderated with paraffin and silicone. Bare (252)Cf are used for normalisation. PMID:26276807

  2. Vortex activation energy in the AC magnetic response of superconducting YBa2Cu3O7 thin films with complex pinning structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivan, I.; Ionescu, A. M.; Miu, D.; Mele, P.; Miu, L.

    2016-09-01

    The vortex activation energy U AC in the AC magnetic response of superconductors exhibits a logarithmic variation with the screening current density J (regardless of the pinning structure details), and takes surprisingly high values in the vicinity of the DC irreversibility line, especially at low external DC magnetic fields, as often reported. This is essentially different from the behaviour of the vortex-creep activation energy at long relaxation time scales in DC magnetic measurements, and is not completely understood. We investigated the DC relaxation and the AC response for YBa2Cu3O7 films containing nanorods and nanoparticles, with the DC and AC fields oriented perpendicular to the film surface. It is shown that the large U AC values in the vicinity of the DC irreversibility line, where the critical-state-related AC signal occurs, are generated by a non-diffusive vortex motion during the AC cycle, with the mean vortex hopping length longer than the average distance between the pinning centres. In these conditions, the smearing of the vortex pinning potential by thermally induced vortex fluctuations is weak, and U AC mainly results from the strong influence of the pinning-enhanced viscous drag on the vortex hopping process. The logarithmic U AC(J) dependence is consistent with a high U AC.

  3. Rational design for enhancing inflammation-responsive in vivo chemiluminescence via nanophotonic energy relay to near-infrared AIE-active conjugated polymer.

    PubMed

    Seo, Young Hun; Singh, Ajay; Cho, Hong-Jun; Kim, Youngsun; Heo, Jeongyun; Lim, Chang-Keun; Park, Soo Young; Jang, Woo-Dong; Kim, Sehoon

    2016-04-01

    H2O2-specific peroxalate chemiluminescence is recognized as a potential signal for sensitive in vivo imaging of inflammation but the effect of underlying peroxalate-emitter energetics on its efficiency has rarely been understood. Here we report a simple nanophotonic way of boosting near-infrared chemiluminescence with no need of complicated structural design and synthesis of an energetically favored emitter. The signal enhancement was attained from the construction of a nanoparticle imaging probe (∼26 nm in size) by dense nanointegration of multiple molecules possessing unique photonic features, i.e., i) a peroxalate as a chemical fuel generating electronic excitation energy in response to inflammatory H2O2, ii) a low-bandgap conjugated polymer as a bright near-infrared emitter showing aggregation-induced emission (AIE), and iii) an energy gap-bridging photonic molecule that relays the chemically generated excitation energy to the emitter for its efficient excitation. From static and kinetic spectroscopic studies, a green-emissive BODIPY dye has proven to be an efficient relay molecule to bridge the energy gap between the AIE polymer and the chemically generated excited intermediate of H2O2-reacted peroxalates. The energy-relayed nanointegration of AIE polymer and peroxalate in water showed a 50-times boosted sensing signal compared to their dissolved mixture in THF. Besides the high H2O2 detectability down to 10(-9) M, the boosted chemiluminescence presented a fairly high tissue penetration depth (>12 mm) in an ex vivo condition, which enabled deep imaging of inflammatory H2O2 in a hair-covered mouse model of peritonitis. PMID:26826300

  4. In vitro hydrolytic digestion, glycemic response in dogs, and true metabolizable energy content of soluble corn fibers.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, M R C; Knapp, B K; Parsons, C M; Swanson, K S; Fahey, George C

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this research was to measure in vitro hydrolytic digestion, glycemic and insulinemic responses in dogs, and true ME (TMEn) content of select soluble corn fibers (SCF) in roosters. The first generation (G1) SCF included hydrochloric acid-treated corn syrup (G1-CS-HCl), an SCF with an increased total dietary fiber (TDF) content (G1-SCF-HCl), an SCF that was spray-dried (G1-SCF-SD), and a hydrogenated SCF (G1-SCF-hydrog). The second generation (G2) SCF included those prepared using phosphoric acid catalyzation in both a liquid [G2-SCF-phos (Lq)] and powder [G2-SCF-phos (Pw)] form, and SCF that were prepared using hydrochloric acid catalyzation in both a liquid [G2-SCF-HCl (Lq)] and powder [G2-SCF-HCl (Pw)] form. Also, in the G2 set of samples were SCF prepared using the same method, but in 3 separate batches, all of which contained 70% TDF and 15% sugars. Two were in liquid form [G2-SCF-phos+HCl (Lq1)] and [G2-SCF-phos+HCl (Lq2)], and one in powder form ([G2-SCF-phos+HCl (Pw)]. A lower sugar form (80% TDF and 5% sugar) of SCF was also evaluated (G2-SCF-low sugar). Glucose was the major free sugar and bound monosaccharide in all SCF except for G1-SCF-hydrog that had greater concentrations of sorbitol. All SCF had intermediate to low amounts of monosaccharides released as a result of in vitro hydrolytic digestion, with glucose being the primary sugar component released. The G1-SCF were more digestible in vitro (approximately 50%) compared to G2-SCF (approximately 32%). All SCF had attenuated glycemic responses in adult dogs compared to a maltodextrin control (P < 0.05). The G2-SCF, on average, had lower glycemic responses and TMEn values in roosters than G1-SCF. All SCF had low free sugar concentrations with varying degrees of resistance to digestion, reduced caloric content, and attenuated glycemic and insulinemic responses in adult dogs. These ingredients are potential candidates for inclusion in reduced calorie and low glycemic canine diets.

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of the nuclear-electromagnetic cascade development and the energy response of ionization spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. V.

    1973-01-01

    Modifications to the basic computer program for performing the simulations are reported. The major changes include: (1) extension of the calculations to include the development of cascades initiated by heavy nuclei, (2) improved treatment of the nuclear disintegrations which occur during the interactions of hadrons in heavy absorbers, (3) incorporation of accurate multi-pion final-state cross sections for various interactions at accelerator energies, (4) restructuring of the program logic so that calculations can be made for sandwich-type detectors, and (5) logic modifications related to execution of the program.

  6. Impact of ocean acidification on energy metabolism of oyster, Crassostrea gigas--changes in metabolic pathways and thermal response.

    PubMed

    Lannig, Gisela; Eilers, Silke; Pörtner, Hans O; Sokolova, Inna M; Bock, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Climate change with increasing temperature and ocean acidification (OA) poses risks for marine ecosystems. According to Pörtner and Farrell, synergistic effects of elevated temperature and CO₂-induced OA on energy metabolism will narrow the thermal tolerance window of marine ectothermal animals. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of an acute temperature rise on energy metabolism of the oyster, Crassostrea gigas chronically exposed to elevated CO₂ levels (partial pressure of CO₂ in the seawater ~0.15 kPa, seawater pH ~ 7.7). Within one month of incubation at elevated PCo₂ and 15 °C hemolymph pH fell (pH(e) = 7.1 ± 0.2 (CO₂-group) vs. 7.6 ± 0.1 (control)) and P(e)CO₂ values in hemolymph increased (0.5 ± 0.2 kPa (CO₂-group) vs. 0.2 ± 0.04 kPa (control)). Slightly but significantly elevated bicarbonate concentrations in the hemolymph of CO₂-incubated oysters ([HCO₃⁻](e) = 1.8 ± 0.3 mM (CO₂-group) vs. 1.3 ± 0.1 mM (control)) indicate only minimal regulation of extracellular acid-base status. At the acclimation temperature of 15 °C the OA-induced decrease in pH(e) did not lead to metabolic depression in oysters as standard metabolism rates (SMR) of CO₂-exposed oysters were similar to controls. Upon acute warming SMR rose in both groups, but displayed a stronger increase in the CO₂-incubated group. Investigation in isolated gill cells revealed a similar temperature dependence of respiration between groups. Furthermore, the fraction of cellular energy demand for ion regulation via Na+/K+-ATPase was not affected by chronic hypercapnia or temperature. Metabolic profiling using ¹H-NMR spectroscopy revealed substantial changes in some tissues following OA exposure at 15 °C. In mantle tissue alanine and ATP levels decreased significantly whereas an increase in succinate levels was observed in gill tissue. These findings suggest shifts in metabolic pathways following OA-exposure. Our study confirms that OA affects energy

  7. Impact of Ocean Acidification on Energy Metabolism of Oyster, Crassostrea gigas—Changes in Metabolic Pathways and Thermal Response

    PubMed Central

    Lannig, Gisela; Eilers, Silke; Pörtner, Hans O.; Sokolova, Inna M.; Bock, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Climate change with increasing temperature and ocean acidification (OA) poses risks for marine ecosystems. According to Pörtner and Farrell [1], synergistic effects of elevated temperature and CO2-induced OA on energy metabolism will narrow the thermal tolerance window of marine ectothermal animals. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of an acute temperature rise on energy metabolism of the oyster, Crassostrea gigas chronically exposed to elevated CO2 levels (partial pressure of CO2 in the seawater ~0.15 kPa, seawater pH ~ 7.7). Within one month of incubation at elevated Pco2 and 15 °C hemolymph pH fell (pHe = 7.1 ± 0.2 (CO2-group) vs. 7.6 ± 0.1 (control)) and Peco2 values in hemolymph increased (0.5 ± 0.2 kPa (CO2-group) vs. 0.2 ± 0.04 kPa (control)). Slightly but significantly elevated bicarbonate concentrations in the hemolymph of CO2-incubated oysters ([HCO− 3]e = 1.8 ± 0.3 mM (CO2-group) vs. 1.3 ± 0.1 mM (control)) indicate only minimal regulation of extracellular acid-base status. At the acclimation temperature of 15 °C the OA-induced decrease in pHe did not lead to metabolic depression in oysters as standard metabolism rates (SMR) of CO2-exposed oysters were similar to controls. Upon acute warming SMR rose in both groups, but displayed a stronger increase in the CO2-incubated group. Investigation in isolated gill cells revealed a similar temperaturedependence of respiration between groups. Furthermore, the fraction of cellular energy demand for ion regulation via Na+/K+-ATPase was not affected by chronic hypercapnia or temperature. Metabolic profiling using 1H-NMR spectroscopy revealed substantial changes in some tissues following OA exposure at 15 °C. In mantle tissue alanine and ATP levels decreased significantly whereas an increase in succinate levels was observed in gill tissue. These findings suggest shifts in metabolic pathways following OA-exposure. Our study confirms that OA affects energy metabolism in oysters and

  8. Postpartal immunometabolic gene network expression and function in blood neutrophils are altered in response to prepartal energy intake and postpartal intramammary inflammatory challenge.

    PubMed

    Moyes, K M; Graugnard, D E; Khan, M J; Mukesh, M; Loor, J J

    2014-01-01

    The effect of over-feeding energy prepartum on blood polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) response remains unclear. Cows fed controlled (CON; 1.34Mcal/kg of dry matter) or excess energy (OVE; 1.62Mcal/kg dry matter) during the dry period (~45d before expected calving date) received an intramammary (IM) challenge with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) during the postpartal period to determine the effects of IM LPS and prepartal diet on the expression of key genes associated with immunometabolic response in blood PMN. Feed intake and daily milk yield were recorded throughout the study period. At 7d in milk (DIM), all cows received LPS (200µg) into 1 rear mammary quarter. Blood PMN were isolated at 7, 14, and 30 DIM, as well as before (0h) and after (12h) IM LPS challenge for gene expression analysis using quantitative real time PCR. Phagocytosis capabilities in vitro were assessed at 7, 14, and 30 DIM. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS with repeated measures. No differences in feed intake and milk yield were observed between OVE- and CON-fed cows. As expected, IM LPS challenge altered the expression of genes associated with the immune response (e.g., 1.9- and 1.8-fold for SELL and TLR2, respectively), metabolism (e.g., 1.8- and -1.8-fold for LDHA and SLC2A1, respectively), and transcription (e.g., 1.1- and 1.7-fold for NCOR1 and PPARD, respectively). At 12h postchallenge, an upregulation of TLR2 (1.8-fold), HIF1A (1.9-fold), and NFKB1 (1.5-fold) was observed for OVE rather than CON. At 7 DIM, S100A9 tended (2.2-fold) to be upregulated for OVE rather than CON. At 14 DIM, OVE resulted in lower PMN phagocytosis and an upregulation of NCOR2 (1.6-fold) and RXRA (1.9-fold) compared with CON-fed cows. At 30 DIM, an upregulation of MPO (3.5-fold) and PLA2G4A (1.5-fold) and a tendency for RXRA (1.7-fold) was observed for OVE- rather than CON-fed cows. Our results suggest that IM LPS challenge altered gene expression associated with metabolism in PMN

  9. US Department of Energy participation in the development of emergency response planning guidelines: The program and process

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, L.H.; Holder, B.W.

    1991-10-01

    Emergency response levels and protective action guides for incidents that could expose the public to an accidental release of radiation have been developed and used for many years. Similar attention, has not been focused on hazards from potential chemical releases. The tragic incident in Bhopal, India, in which over 2000 people died and many suffered irreversible health damage, has heightened concern worldwide about real and potential releases of chemicals. This concern, and the resultant re-evaluation by many companies, has demonstrated a need for similar guidelines for dealing with chemical hazards; such guidance would aid significantly in plant design and community planning. To address the need for reliable, consistent, and well-documented emergency planning guidelines, a program of Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPGs) was established by Organization Resources Counselors, Inc. (ORC). ORC, working through established task forces and the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), oversees ERPG development. This paper describes the program established for developing and issuing ERPGs and the process within DOE for providing support.

  10. US Department of Energy response to standards for remedial actions at inactive uranium processing sites: Proposed rule

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-29

    The Title I groundwater standards for inactive uranium mill tailings sites, which were promulgated on January 5, 1983, by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, were remanded to the EPA on September 3, 1985, by the US Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals. The Court instructed the EPA to compile general groundwater standards for all Title I sites. On September 24, 1987, the EPA published proposed standards (52FR36000-36008) in response to the remand. This report includes an evaluation of the potential effects of the proposed EPA groundwater standards on the UMTRA Project, as well as a discussion of the DOE's position on the proposed standards. The report also contains and appendix which provides supporting information and cost analyses. In order to assess the impacts of the proposed EPA standards, this report summarizes the proposed EPA standards in Section 2.0. The next three sections assess the impacts of the three parts of the EPA standards: Subpart A considers disposal sites; Subpart B is concerned with restoration at processing sites; and Subpart C addresses supplemental standards. Section 6.0 integrates previous sections into a recommendations section. Section 7.0 contains the DOE response to questions posed by the EPA in the preamble to the proposed standards. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Response of Silicon-Based Linear Energy Transfer Spectrometers: Implication for Radiation Risk Assessment in Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; O'Neill, P. M.

    2001-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing silicon-based telescopes because of their compactness and low power requirements. Three such telescopes have been flown on board the Space Shuttle to measure the linear energy transfer spectra of trapped, galactic cosmic ray, and solar energetic particles. Dosimeters based on single silicon detectors have also been flown on the Mir orbital station. A comparison of the absorbed dose and radiation quality factors calculated from these telescopes with that estimated from measurements made with a tissue equivalent proportional counter show differences which need to be fully understood if these telescopes are to be used for astronaut radiation risk assessments. Instrument performance is complicated by a variety of factors. A Monte Carlo-based technique was developed to model the behavior of both single element detectors in a proton beam, and the performance of a two-element, wide-angle telescope, in the trapped belt proton field inside the Space Shuttle. The technique is based on: (1) radiation transport intranuclear-evaporation model that takes into account the charge and angular distribution of target fragments, (2) Landau-Vavilov distribution of energy deposition allowing for electron escape, (3) true detector geometry of the telescope, (4) coincidence and discriminator settings, (5) spacecraft shielding geometry, and (6) the external space radiation environment, including albedo protons. The value of such detailed modeling and its implications in astronaut risk assessment is addressed. c2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. SU-E-I-67: X-Ray Fluorescence for Energy Response Calibration of a Photon Counting Detector: A Simulation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H; Ding, H; Ziemer, B; Molloi, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of energy calibration and energy response characterization of a photon counting detector using x-ray fluorescence. Methods: A comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation study was done to investigate the influence of various geometric components on the x-ray fluorescence measurement. Different materials, sizes, and detection angles were simulated using Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) Monte Carlo package. Simulations were conducted using 100 kVp tungsten-anode spectra with 2 mm Al filter for a single pixel cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector with 3 × 3 mm2 in detection area. The fluorescence material was placed 300 mm away from both the x-ray source and the detector. For angular dependence measurement, the distance was decreased to 30 mm to reduce the simulation time. Compound materials, containing silver, barium, gadolinium, hafnium, and gold in cylindrical shape, were simulated. The object size varied from 5 to 100 mm in diameter. The angular dependence of fluorescence and scatter were simulated from 20° to 170° with an incremental step of 10° to optimize the fluorescence to scatter ratio. Furthermore, the angular dependence was also experimentally measured using a spectrometer (X-123CdTe, Amptek Inc., MA) to validate the simulation results. Results: The detection angle between 120° to 160° resulted in more optimal x-ray fluorescence to scatter ratio. At a detection angle of 120°, the object size did not have a significant effect on the fluorescence to scatter ratio. The experimental results of fluorescence angular dependence are in good agreement with the simulation results. The Kα and Kβ peaks of five materials could be identified. Conclusion: The simulation results show that the x-ray fluorescence procedure has the potential to be used for detector energy calibration and detector response characteristics by using the optimal system geometry.

  13. Responses to comments received on the draft final report of the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Task Force on Radioactive Waste Management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Task Force solicited comments on its Draft Final Report from a variety of sources. Letters were sent to over 400 individuals who had expressed interest in the interest in the Department`s radioactive waste, management programs, a notice was placed in the Federal Register, the morning session of the January 1993 meeting of the full Secretary of Energy Advisory Board was given over to discussion of the draft, and Task Force members and staff presented the effort at several professional meetings. Altogether 32 written comments were received. They are reproduced here, followed in each case by the Task Force`s response to specific suggestions made to improve the draft. (The panel did not respond to comments that simply reflected policy preferences or that praised the group`s effort.) With one exception, those specific suggestions are highlighted and given a letter designation from {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} to {open_quotes}Z{close_quotes}. The Task Force`s responses, written in the Fall 1993, are labeled in a like manner. For the one exception, a comments submitted by Judy Treichel, the Task Force`s response is printed on copies of her annotated pages.

  14. Energy Drink Administration in Combination with Alcohol Causes an Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress in the Hippocampus and Temporal Cortex of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Alfonso; Treviño, Samuel; Guevara, Jorge; Muñoz-Arenas, Guadalupe; Brambila, Eduardo; Espinosa, Blanca; Moreno-Rodríguez, Albino; Lopez-Lopez, Gustavo; Peña-Rosas, Ulises; Venegas, Berenice; Handal-Silva, Anabella; Morán-Perales, José Luis; Flores, Gonzalo; Aguilar-Alonso, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) are often consumed in combination with alcohol because they reduce the depressant effects of alcohol. However, different researches suggest that chronic use of these psychoactive substances in combination with alcohol can trigger an oxidative and inflammatory response. These processes are regulated by both a reactive astrogliosis and an increase of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS, causing cell death (apoptosis) at the central and peripheral nervous systems. Currently, mechanisms of toxicity caused by mixing alcohol and ED in the brain are not well known. In this study, we evaluated the effect of chronic alcohol consumption in combination with ED on inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the temporal cortex (TCx) and hippocampus (Hp) of adult rats (90 days old). Our results demonstrated that consuming a mixture of alcohol and ED for 60 days induced an increase in reactive gliosis, IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide, in the TCx and Hp. We also found immunoreactivity to caspase-3 and a decrease of synaptophysin in the same brain regions. The results suggested that chronic consumption of alcohol in combination with ED causes an inflammatory response and oxidative stress, which induced cell death via apoptosis in the TCx and Hp of the adult rats. PMID:27069534

  15. Energy Drink Administration in Combination with Alcohol Causes an Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress in the Hippocampus and Temporal Cortex of Rats.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Alfonso; Treviño, Samuel; Guevara, Jorge; Muñoz-Arenas, Guadalupe; Brambila, Eduardo; Espinosa, Blanca; Moreno-Rodríguez, Albino; Lopez-Lopez, Gustavo; Peña-Rosas, Ulises; Venegas, Berenice; Handal-Silva, Anabella; Morán-Perales, José Luis; Flores, Gonzalo; Aguilar-Alonso, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) are often consumed in combination with alcohol because they reduce the depressant effects of alcohol. However, different researches suggest that chronic use of these psychoactive substances in combination with alcohol can trigger an oxidative and inflammatory response. These processes are regulated by both a reactive astrogliosis and an increase of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS, causing cell death (apoptosis) at the central and peripheral nervous systems. Currently, mechanisms of toxicity caused by mixing alcohol and ED in the brain are not well known. In this study, we evaluated the effect of chronic alcohol consumption in combination with ED on inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the temporal cortex (TCx) and hippocampus (Hp) of adult rats (90 days old). Our results demonstrated that consuming a mixture of alcohol and ED for 60 days induced an increase in reactive gliosis, IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide, in the TCx and Hp. We also found immunoreactivity to caspase-3 and a decrease of synaptophysin in the same brain regions. The results suggested that chronic consumption of alcohol in combination with ED causes an inflammatory response and oxidative stress, which induced cell death via apoptosis in the TCx and Hp of the adult rats.

  16. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sayer, R. Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F.; Tamer, Gregory G.; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A.; Talavage, Thomas M.; McCrory, Megan A.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m2; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults. PMID:26742068

  17. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults.

    PubMed

    Sayer, R Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F; Tamer, Gregory G; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J; Tregellas, Jason R; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A; Talavage, Thomas M; McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-01-01

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m²; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults.

  18. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults.

    PubMed

    Sayer, R Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F; Tamer, Gregory G; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J; Tregellas, Jason R; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A; Talavage, Thomas M; McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-01-01

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m²; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults. PMID:26742068

  19. Energy Drink Administration in Combination with Alcohol Causes an Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress in the Hippocampus and Temporal Cortex of Rats.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Alfonso; Treviño, Samuel; Guevara, Jorge; Muñoz-Arenas, Guadalupe; Brambila, Eduardo; Espinosa, Blanca; Moreno-Rodríguez, Albino; Lopez-Lopez, Gustavo; Peña-Rosas, Ulises; Venegas, Berenice; Handal-Silva, Anabella; Morán-Perales, José Luis; Flores, Gonzalo; Aguilar-Alonso, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) are often consumed in combination with alcohol because they reduce the depressant effects of alcohol. However, different researches suggest that chronic use of these psychoactive substances in combination with alcohol can trigger an oxidative and inflammatory response. These processes are regulated by both a reactive astrogliosis and an increase of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS, causing cell death (apoptosis) at the central and peripheral nervous systems. Currently, mechanisms of toxicity caused by mixing alcohol and ED in the brain are not well known. In this study, we evaluated the effect of chronic alcohol consumption in combination with ED on inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the temporal cortex (TCx) and hippocampus (Hp) of adult rats (90 days old). Our results demonstrated that consuming a mixture of alcohol and ED for 60 days induced an increase in reactive gliosis, IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide, in the TCx and Hp. We also found immunoreactivity to caspase-3 and a decrease of synaptophysin in the same brain regions. The results suggested that chronic consumption of alcohol in combination with ED causes an inflammatory response and oxidative stress, which induced cell death via apoptosis in the TCx and Hp of the adult rats. PMID:27069534

  20. Adjustable rheology of fumed silica dispersion in urethane prepolymers: Composition-dependent sol and gel behaviors and energy-mediated shear responses

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Zhong Song, Yihu Wang, Xiang Zheng, Qiang

    2015-07-15

    Variation of colloidal and interfacial interactions leads to a microstructural diversity in fumed silica dispersions exhibiting absolutely different sol- or gel-like rheological responses. In this study, fumed silicas with different surface areas (200–400 m{sup 2}/g) and surface characteristics (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) are dispersed into moisture-cured polyurethane. The microstructures investigated using transmission electron microscope are associated perfectly with three different rheological behaviors: (i) Sols with well-dispersed silica aggregates, (ii) weak gels with agglomerate-linked networks, and (iii) strong gels with concentrated networks of large agglomerates. Though sols and gels are well distinguished by shear thickening or sustained thinning response through steady shear flow test, it is interesting that the sols and weak gels exhibit a uniform modulus plateau-softening-hardening-softening response with increasing dynamic strain at frequency 10 rad s{sup −1} while the strong gels show a sustained softening beyond the linear regime. Furthermore, the onset of softening and hardening can be normalized: The two softening are isoenergetic at mechanical energies of 0.3 J m{sup −3} and 10 kJ m{sup −3}. On the other hand, the hardening is initiated by a critical strain of 60%. The mechanisms involved in the generation of the sol- and the gel-like dispersions and their structural evolutions during shear are thoroughly clarified in relation to the polyols, the characteristic and content of silica and the curing catalysts.

  1. First-Principle Framework for Total Charging Energies in Electrocatalytic Materials and Charge-Responsive Molecular Binding at Gas-Surface Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xin; Tahini, Hassan A; Seal, Prasenjit; Smith, Sean C

    2016-05-01

    Heterogeneous charge-responsive molecular binding to electrocatalytic materials has been predicted in several recent works. This phenomenon offers the possibility of using voltage to manipulate the strength of the binding interaction with the target gas molecule and thereby circumvent thermochemistry constraints, which inhibit achieving both efficient binding and facile release of important targets such as CO2 and H2. Stability analysis of such charge-induced molecular adsorption has been beyond the reach of existing first-principle approaches. Here, we draw on concepts from semiconductor physics and density functional theory to develop a first principle theoretical approach that allows calculation of the change in total energy of the supercell due to charging. Coupled with the calculated adsorption energy of gas molecules at any given charge, this allows a complete description of the energetics of the charge-induced molecular adsorption process. Using CO2 molecular adsorption onto negatively charged h-BN (wide-gap semiconductor) and g-C4N3 (half metal) as example cases, our analysis reveals that - while adsorption is exothermic after charge is introduced - the overall adsorption processes are not intrinsically spontaneous due to the energetic cost of charging the materials. The energies needed to overcome the barriers of these processes are 2.10 and 0.43 eV for h-BN and g-C4N3, respectively. This first principle approach opens up new pathways for a more complete description of charge-induced and electrocatalytic processes.

  2. First-Principle Framework for Total Charging Energies in Electrocatalytic Materials and Charge-Responsive Molecular Binding at Gas-Surface Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xin; Tahini, Hassan A; Seal, Prasenjit; Smith, Sean C

    2016-05-01

    Heterogeneous charge-responsive molecular binding to electrocatalytic materials has been predicted in several recent works. This phenomenon offers the possibility of using voltage to manipulate the strength of the binding interaction with the target gas molecule and thereby circumvent thermochemistry constraints, which inhibit achieving both efficient binding and facile release of important targets such as CO2 and H2. Stability analysis of such charge-induced molecular adsorption has been beyond the reach of existing first-principle approaches. Here, we draw on concepts from semiconductor physics and density functional theory to develop a first principle theoretical approach that allows calculation of the change in total energy of the supercell due to charging. Coupled with the calculated adsorption energy of gas molecules at any given charge, this allows a complete description of the energetics of the charge-induced molecular adsorption process. Using CO2 molecular adsorption onto negatively charged h-BN (wide-gap semiconductor) and g-C4N3 (half metal) as example cases, our analysis reveals that - while adsorption is exothermic after charge is introduced - the overall adsorption processes are not intrinsically spontaneous due to the energetic cost of charging the materials. The energies needed to overcome the barriers of these processes are 2.10 and 0.43 eV for h-BN and g-C4N3, respectively. This first principle approach opens up new pathways for a more complete description of charge-induced and electrocatalytic processes. PMID:27067063

  3. Response of the seminiferous epithelium of the mouse exposed to low dose high energy (HZE) and electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Philpott, D E; Sapp, W; Williams, C; Stevenson, J; Corbett, R; Black, S

    1983-01-01

    This study was undertaken to observe the response of a rapidly dividing cell population (spermatogonial) to Helium and Argon ions as compared to x-rays. Low doses (below 100 rads) were used to more nearly simulate radiation encountered during space missions. The methods used proved compatible for both light and electron microscope studies. The average relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for Helium ions is 1, while Argon is twice as effective in killing spermatogonial cells. Part of this mixed population of cells exhibits a higher sensitivity to radiation below 15 rads. Quantitation of the radiation effects by counting the necrotic cells is not feasible because of their rapid removal, therefore all measurements were done using the surviving fraction (S/So) of spermatogonial cells.

  4. Effects of heating appliances with different energy efficiencies on associations among work environments, physiological responses, and subjective evaluation of workload.

    PubMed

    Matsuzuki, Hiroe; Ayabe, Makoto; Haruyama, Yasuo; Seo, Akihiko; Katamoto, Shizuo; Ito, Akiyoshi; Muto, Takashi

    2008-08-01

    To clarify the association between heat stress, physiological responses and subjective workload evaluations in kitchens using an induction heating stove (IH stove) or gas stove. The study design was an experimental trial involving 12 young men. The trial measured ambient dry-bulb temperature, globe temperature, wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and relative humidity; the subjects' weight, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen uptake, amount of activity, body temperature, subjective awareness of heat and workload before and after mock cooking for 30 min. The IH stove insignificantly increased heat indicators in the work environment and workers showed lower oxygen uptake, skin temperature, subjective awareness of heat and workload after heat exposure. Both physiological load and subjective awareness of heat and workload were slight in kitchens using the IH stove, which provided a better work environment.

  5. Investigation of a passenger car's dynamic response due to a flywheel-based kinetic energy recovery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischof, Günter; Reisinger, Karl; Singraber, Thomas; Summer, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    With the advent of flywheel-based kinetic energy recovery systems in automotive applications new safety issues arise as a consequence of the flywheel's high rotational speed. While the special structural safety requirements of the components are well discussed in the literature, there is still little research on the influence of gyroscopic effects on vehicle dynamics. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of a typical high-speed flywheel on the driving dynamics of an average passenger car. To this end the equations of motion of a gyroscope are derived, which relate the vehicle's roll, pitch and yaw rate with the transverse torque acting on the flywheel. These equations are implemented in a commercial vehicle dynamics simulation program in order to determine the reaction torques acting on the vehicle within a representative range of driving situations. Numerical simulations indicate that the gyroscopic effect can be considered insignificant in standard driving situations.

  6. Utilizing energy efficient microwave sintering to significantly enhance the tensile response of a lead-free solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nai, S. M. L.; Kuma, J. V. M.; Gupta, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of conventional sintering and hybrid microwave sintering techniques on the microstructure evolution and tensile properties of a Sn-Ag-Cu solder. A significant energy saving of up to 99% was achieved using the hybrid microwave assisted sintering approach. Hybrid microwave sintered samples exhibited better densification (in terms of lower porosity level) and this indicates the ability of microwaves to sinter solder materials more effectively. Furthermore, tensile results revealed that samples hybrid microwave sintered at 210 °C exhibited the best enhancement in yield strength and ultimate tensile strength, with no compromise in the failure strain, as compared with other widely used commercial solders. The morphology of pores and interparticle spacing were observed to be the two key factors influencing the mechanical properties of the solders.

  7. Temperature-dependent dynamic response to flash heating of molecular monolayers on metal surfaces: vibrational energy exchange.

    PubMed

    Berg, Christopher M; Sun, Yuxiao; Dlott, Dana D

    2014-07-17

    An ultrafast nonlinear coherent laser spectroscopy termed vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) was used to monitor vibrational transitions of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 4-nitrobenzenethiolate (NBT) on Au after Au flash heating. Ultrafast thermoreflectance measurements showed the surface temperature jumps ΔT were in the 35-250 K range. The NBT symmetric and antisymmetric nitro stretches νsNO2 and νasNO2 and a phenyl ring stretch νCC were probed. Flash heating caused these transitions to lose intensity, shift, and broaden. The time dependences all had overshoot-decay-plateau structures. In the long-lived plateau, the SAM was in thermal equilibrium with the hot Au surface. The SFG plateau intensity losses of νsNO2 and νCC, two vibrations with parallel transition moments, were identical, indicating that the SFG intensity loss was caused by thermally induced SAM orientational disorder. The T-jump-induced frequency shifts of νsNO2 and νasNO2 were identical and opposite in sign. The rise times of the shifts were identical and equal to the ∼3.5 ps time constant for the rise of Au surface temperature, which indicates that both shifts were caused by anharmonic coupling to the same lower-energy vibration. The temperature dependence of the νsNO2 shift and width indicated that this vibration was the ∼480 cm(-1) nitro bend. The νsNO2 temperature dependence was interpreted using a vibrational energy exchange mechanism between the nitro stretch and bend.

  8. Effects of varying protein and energy intakes on growth and metabolic response in low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, S; Forsyth, M; Zucker, C; Ramakrishnan, R; Dell, R B; Heird, W C

    1986-06-01

    Growth (weight, length, head circumference, and skinfold thickness), retention of major nutrients (nitrogen, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, and phosphorus), and chemical indices of protein adequacy (plasma albumin and transthyretin concentrations) and excess (blood urea nitrogen concentration and acid-base status; plasma amino acid concentrations) were determined serially from the time desired intake was tolerated until discharge weight (2200 gm) was reached in low birth weight infants (birth weight 900 to 1750 gm) fed one of three formulas, which provided protein and energy intakes, respectively, of 2.24 gm/kg/day and 115 kcal/kg/day (group 1), 3.6 gm/kg/day and 115 kcal/kg/day (group 2), and 3.5 gm/kg/day and 149 kcal/kg/day (group 3). Weight gain and rate of increase in length and head circumference were less in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3. Retention of most major nutrients also was less in group 1, as was blood urea nitrogen concentration, plasma albumin and transthyretin concentrations, and plasma concentrations of several amino acids. The rate of weight gain was not significantly greater in group 3 than in group 2, but the rate of increase in skinfold thickness was greater in this group. Neither nutrient retention nor metabolic indices differed between groups 2 and 3. These results suggest that a protein intake of 2.24 gm/kg/day is inadequate for the type of LBW infants studied, that the higher protein intakes are well tolerated, and that an energy intake of 149 vs 115 kcal/kg/day does not enhance utilization of the higher protein intakes studied.

  9. Effects of Tributyrin on Intestinal Energy Status, Antioxidative Capacity and Immune Response to Lipopolysaccharide Challenge in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiaolong; Hou, Yongqing; Yi, Dan; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Hongyi; Ding, Binying; Gong, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of tributyrin (TB) on the growth performance, pro-inflammatory cytokines, intestinal morphology, energy status, disaccharidase activity, and antioxidative capacity of broilers challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of 160 one-day-old Cobb broilers were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments, with 4 replicated pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. The experiment consisted of a 2×2 factorial arrangements of treatments with TB supplementation (0 or 500 mg/kg) and LPS challenge (0 or 500 μg/kg body weight [BW]). On days 22, 24, and 26 of the trial, broilers received an intraperitoneal administration of 500 μg/kg BW LPS or saline. Dietary TB showed no effect on growth performance. However, LPS challenge decreased the average daily gain of broilers from day 22 to day 26 of the trial. Dietary TB supplementation inhibited the increase of interleukin-1β (in the jejunum and ileum), interleukin-6 (in the duodenum and jejunum), and prostaglandin E2 (in the duodenum) of LPS-challenged broilers. Similar inhibitory effects of TB in the activities of total nitric oxide synthase (in the ileum) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (in the jejunum) were also observed in birds challenged with LPS. Additionally, TB supplementation mitigated the decrease of ileal adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate and total adenine nucleotide and the reduction of jejunal catalase activity induced by LPS. Taken together, these results suggest that the TB supplementation was able to reduce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and improve the energy status and anti-oxidative capacity in the small intestine of LPS-challenged broilers. PMID:26580447

  10. Plasma Free Amino Acid Responses to Intraduodenal Whey Protein, and Relationships with Insulin, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 and Energy Intake in Lean Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hutchison, Amy T; Soenen, Stijn; Steinert, Robert E; Clifton, Peter M; Horowitz, Michael; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2016-01-04

    This study determined the effects of increasing loads of intraduodenal (ID) dairy protein on plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations, and their relationships with serum insulin, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and energy intake. Sixteen healthy men had concentrations of AAs, GLP-1 and insulin measured in response to 60-min ID infusions of hydrolysed whey protein administered, in double-blinded and randomised order, at 2.1 (P2.1), 6.3 (P6.3) or 12.5 (P12.5) kJ/min (encompassing the range of nutrient emptying from the stomach), or saline control (C). Energy intake was quantified immediately afterwards. Compared with C, the concentrations of 19/20 AAs, the exception being cysteine, were increased, and this was dependent on the protein load. The relationship between AA concentrations in the infusions and the area under the curve from 0 to 60 min (AUC0-60 min) of each AA profile was strong for essential AAs (R² range, 0.61-0.67), but more variable for non-essential (0.02-0.54) and conditional (0.006-0.64) AAs. The AUC0-60 min for each AA was correlated directly with the AUC0-60 min of insulin (R² range 0.3-0.6), GLP-1 (0.2-0.6) and energy intake (0.09-0.3) (p < 0.05, for all), with the strongest correlations being for branched-chain AAs, lysine, methionine and tyrosine. These findings indicate that ID whey protein infused at loads encompassing the normal range of gastric emptying increases plasma concentrations of 19/20 AAs in a load-dependent manner, and provide novel information on the close relationships between the essential AAs, leucine, valine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, and the conditionally-essential AA, tyrosine, with energy intake, insulin and GLP-1.

  11. The Office of Inspector General audit report on the U.S. Department of Energy`s efforts to increase the financial responsibility of its major for-profit operating contractors

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    In 1994, the Departmental contract reform team recommended that the Department`s major for-profit operating contractors assume greater financial responsibility. IN response, the Department developed model contract provisions to increase contractor financial responsibility and accountability. The objective of the audit was to determine if the Government is protected from liabilities such as fines, penalties, third-party claims, and damage to or loss of Government property incurred by contractors who manage and operate Department facilities and sites. The Government was not adequately protected against contractor created liabilities on 16 of its 20 major for-profit operating contracts awarded by the Department of Energy. The auditors recommend that the Director for Procurement and Assistance Management negotiate changes in major for-profit operating contracts to include contract reform liability provisions and ensure that performance guarantees with indemnification provisions are executed with subsidiary contractors` parent or corporate business entities. They also recommend that the Director for Procurement and Assistance Management issue regulatory rulemaking that requires indemnification provisions be included in performance guarantees signed by the parent or corporate business entity of subsidiary contractors.

  12. Surface response of tungsten to helium and hydrogen plasma flux as a function of temperature and incident kinetic energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukumar, Harikrishnan

    Tungsten is a leading candidate material for the diverter in future nuclear fusion reactors. Previous experiments have demonstrated that surface defects and bubbles form in tungsten when ex- posed to helium and hydrogen plasmas, even at modest ion energies. In some regimes, between 1000K and 2000K, and for He energies below 100eV, "fuzz" like features form. The mechanisms leading to these surfaces comprised of nanometer sized tungsten tendrils which include visible helium bubbles are not currently known. The role of helium bubble formation in tendril morphology could very likely be the starting point of these mechanisms. Using Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the role of helium and hydrogen exposure in the initial formation mechanisms of tungsten "fuzz" are investigated. Molecular dynamics simulations are well suited to describe the time and length scales associated with initial formation of helium clusters that eventually grow to nano-meter sized helium bubbles. MD simulations also easily enable the modeling of a variety of surfaces such as single crystals, grain boundaries or "tendrils". While the sputtering yield of tungsten is generally low, previous observations of surface modification due to plasma exposure raise questions about the effects of surface morphology and sub-surface helium bubble populations on the sputtering behavior. Results of computational molecular dynamics are reported that investigate the influence of sub-surface helium bubble distributions on the sputtering yield of tungsten (100) and (110) surfaces induced by helium ion exposure in the range of 300 eV to 1 keV. The calculated sputtering yields are in reasonable agreement with a wide range of experimental data; but do not show any significant variation as a result of the pre-existing helium bubbles. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal a number of sub-surface mechanisms leading to nanometer- sized "fuzz" in tungsten exposed to low-energy helium plasmas. We find that during the bubble

  13. Response of plasma facing components in Tokamaks due to intense energy deposition using Particle-In-Cell (PIC) methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genco, Filippo

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFC) due to various plasma instabilities is still a major concern for the successful development of fusion energy and represents a significant research obstacle in the community. It is of great importance to fully understand the behavior and lifetime expectancy of PFC under both low energy cycles during normal events and highly energetic events as disruptions, Edge-Localized Modes (ELM), Vertical Displacement Events (VDE), and Run-away electron (RE). The consequences of these high energetic dumps with energy fluxes ranging from 10 MJ/m2 up to 200 MJ/m 2 applied in very short periods (0.1 to 5 ms) can be catastrophic both for safety and economic reasons. Those phenomena can cause a) large temperature increase in the target material b) consequent melting, evaporation and erosion losses due to the extremely high heat fluxes c) possible structural damage and permanent degradation of the entire bulk material with probable burnout of the coolant tubes; d) plasma contamination, transport of target material into the chamber far from where it was originally picked. The modeling of off-normal events such as Disruptions and ELMs requires the simultaneous solution of three main problems along time: a) the heat transfer in the plasma facing component b) the interaction of the produced vapor from the surface with the incoming plasma particles c) the transport of the radiation produced in the vapor-plasma cloud. In addition the moving boundaries problem has to be considered and solved at the material surface. Considering the carbon divertor as target, the moving boundaries are two since for the given conditions, carbon doesn't melt: the plasma front and the moving eroded material surface. The current solution methods for this problem use finite differences and moving coordinates system based on the Crank-Nicholson method and Alternating Directions Implicit Method (ADI). Currently Particle-In-Cell (PIC) methods are widely used for solving

  14. On the Inclusion of Energy-Shifting Demand Response in Production Cost Models: Methodology and a Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, Niamh; Hale, Elaine; Doebber, Ian; Jorgenson, Jennie

    2015-07-20

    In the context of future power system requirements for additional flexibility, demand response (DR) is an attractive potential resource. Its proponents widely laud its prospective benefits, which include enabling higher penetrations of variable renewable generation at lower cost than alternative storage technologies, and improving economic efficiency. In practice, DR from the commercial and residential sectors is largely an emerging, not a mature, resource, and its actual costs and benefits need to be studied to determine promising combinations of physical DR resource, enabling controls and communications, power system characteristics, regulatory environments, market structures, and business models. The work described in this report focuses on the enablement of such analysis from the production cost modeling perspective. In particular, we contribute a bottom-up methodology for modeling load-shifting DR in production cost models. The resulting model is sufficiently detailed to reflect the physical characteristics and constraints of the underlying flexible load, and includes the possibility of capturing diurnal and seasonal variations in the resource. Nonetheless, the model is of low complexity and thus suitable for inclusion in conventional unit commitment and market clearing algorithms. The ability to simulate DR as an operational resource on a power system over a year facilitates an assessment of its time-varying value to the power system.

  15. Depositional response to seagrass mortality along a low-energy, barrier-island coast: west-central Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.W.; Hine, A.C.; David, R.A.; Belknap, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of aerial photographs and surficial sediment samples from the northern islands of the west-central barrier system of Florida indicates that: (1) seagrass beds in the nearshore zone have controlled onshore/longshore sand transport, and (2) resulting sedimentary accumulations within nearshore seagrass beds make differentiation of nearshore and backbarrier facies difficult. Between 1957 and 1973, an extensive seagrass community occupying the nearshore zone off Anclote Key disappeared, thus allowing the sudden and rapid onshore and longshore transport of sand. The 1000 year old barrier island lengthened 30% by recurved spit growth in this very short period of time. Although there are not direct observations, four possible causes of seagrass mortality have been postulated, and of these overgrazing as a result of the accelerated population growth of sea urchins (Lytechinus variegatus) seems to be the most likely cause. Because of the ability of seagrasses to trap fine-grained sediments, contribute organic matter, and provide for low-energy, sheltered, molluscan biocoenosis, there is little depositional difference between these nearshore and backbarrier/lagoonal facies. This work indicates that the development and destruction of benthic floral communities should be considered as a process that generates or accentuates episodicity/cyclicity in the sedimentary record. Additionally, such changes in these communities should be expected to present a blurred distinction between certain types of coastal sedimentary facies.

  16. Streamline, Organizational, Legislative and Administrative Response to Permitting, PV Market Share, and Solar Energy Costs (Broward Go SOLAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, Jeffery D.

    2013-08-28

    Broward County and its partners (the Go SOLAR Team), operating under a Department of Energy Rooftop Solar Challenge Agreement, designed, developed and implemented an online permitting system for rooftop solar PV systems. This is a single web based system with a single permit fee that will issue a permit, with a set of design plans preapproved by partner building officials, within one hour. The system is currently available at gosolar.broward.org for use within any of the partner Authorities Having [permitting] Jurisdiction (AHJ). Additionally, the Go SOLAR Team researched, developed and to the extent feasible, implemented three best management practices to make a fertile environment for the new online permit system. These included Net Metering and Interconnection Standards, Solar-Friendly Financing, and Planning and Zoning Ordinances. Finally, the team implemented a substantial outreach effort to advocate for the development of solar in Broward County, with an emphasis on Solar Rights, concluding with a Go SOLAR Fest day and a half conference with over 1,200 attendees and 50 exhibitors. The Go SOLAR project was completed on time, under DOE’s budgeted amount, and all project objectives were met or exceeded.

  17. Metabolic responses of transition Holstein cows fed anionic salts and supplemented at calving with calcium and energy.

    PubMed

    Melendez, P; Donovan, A; Risco, C A; Hall, M B; Littell, R; Goff, J

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of plasma Ca, P, Mg, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), 3-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and glucose in transition cows fed anionic salts prepartum and provided with calcium and energy supplements at calving. The study was conducted on a Florida Holstein dairy farm from November to December 1997. Treatments consisted of no treatment (n = 30); 60 g of Ca as calcium chloride, orally (n = 30); 110 g of Ca as calcium propionate 510 g plus 400 g of propylene glycol, orally (n = 30); two doses of 60 g of Ca as calcium chloride, one at calving and the second 24 h later, orally (n = 30); and 10 g of Ca as borogluconate, intravenously (n = 30). Treatments were administered within 12 h after parturition. Blood samples were collected at d 1 (parturition), 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 after calving. Plasma total Ca, P, Mg, NEFA, BHBA, and glucose were measured. There were no differences in the concentrations of the blood metabolites among treatments.

  18. Responses of the red blood cells from two high-energy-demand teleosts, yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis), to catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Lowe, T E; Brill, R W; Cousins, K L

    1998-08-01

    affinity of yellowfin tuna blood. Our results, therefore, do not support our original hypothesis. The catecholamine response of red blood cells from high-energy-demand teleosts (i.e., tunas) is not enhanced compared to other teleosts. There are data on changes in cardio-respiratory function in tunas caused by acute hypoxia and modest increases in activity, but there are no data on the changes in cardio-respiratory function in tunas accompanying the large increases in metabolic rate seen during recovery from exhaustive exercise. However, we conclude that during those instances where high rates of O2 delivery to the tissues are needed, tunas' ability to increase cardiac output, ventilation volume, blood O2 carrying capacity, and effective respiratory (i.e., gill) surface area are probably more important than are the responses of red blood cells to catecholamines. We also use our data to investigate the extent of the Haldane effect and its relationship to blood O2 and CO2 transport in yellowfin tuna. Yellowfin tuna blood shows a large Haldane effect; intracellular pH increases 0.20 units during oxygenation. The largest change in intracellular pH occurs between 40-100% O2 saturation, indicating that yellowfin tuna, like other teleosts, fully exploit the Haldane effect over the normal physiological range of blood O2 saturation. PMID:9747521

  19. Short-term energy restriction during late gestation of beef cows decreases postweaning calf humoral immune response to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Piccolo, M B; Artioli, L F A; Marques, R S; Poore, M H; Cooke, R F

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the pre- and postweaning growth and measurements of innate and humoral immune response of beef calves born to cows fed 70 or 100% of NEm requirements during the last 40 d of gestation. On d 0 (approximately 40 d before calving), 30 multiparous Angus cows pregnant to embryo transfer (BW = 631 ± 15 kg; age = 5.2 ± 0.98 yr; BCS = 6.3 ± 0.12) were randomly allocated into 1 of 10 drylot pens (3 cows/pen). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens (5 pens/treatment) and consisted of cows limit-fed (d 0 to calving) isonitrogenous, total-mixed diets formulated to provide 100 (CTRL) or 70% (REST) of daily NEm requirements of a 630-kg beef cow at 8 mo of gestation. Immediately after calving, all cow-calf pairs were combined into a single management group and rotationally grazed on tall fescue pastures (6 pastures; 22 ha/pasture) until weaning (d 266). All calves were assigned to a 40-d preconditioning period in a drylot from d 266 to 306 and vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), , and spp. on d 273 and 287. Blood samples from jugular vein were collected from cows on d 0, 17, and 35 and from calves within 12 h of birth and on d 266, 273, 274, 276, 279, and 287. By design, REST cows consumed less ( ≤ 0.002) total DMI, TDN, and NEm but had similar CP intake ( = 0.67), which tended ( = 0.06) to increase BW loss from d 0 to calving, than CTRL cows (-1.09 vs. -0.70 ± 0.14 kg/d, respectively). However, gestational NEm intake did not affect ( ≥ 0.30) plasma concentrations of cortisol, insulin, and glucose during gestation and BCS at calving as well as postcalving pregnancy rate, BW, and BCS change of cows. Calf serum IgG concentrations and plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and cortisol at birth as well as calf pre- and postweaning BW and ADG did not differ ( ≥ 0.15) between calves born to REST and CTRL cows. However, calf postweaning overall plasma concentrations of cortisol; plasma

  20. Disentangling the response of forest and grassland energy exchange to heatwaves under idealized land-atmosphere coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heerwaarden, C. C.; Teuling, A. J.

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the difference in land-atmosphere interactions between grassland and forest during typical heat wave conditions in order to understand the controversial results of Teuling et al. (2010) (T10, hereafter), who have found the systematic occurrence of higher sensible heat fluxes over forest than over grassland during heat wave conditions. With a simple, but accurate coupled land-atmosphere model, we are able to reproduce the findings of T10 for both normal summer and heat wave conditions, and to carefully explore the sensitivity of the coupled land-atmosphere system to changes in incoming radiation and early-morning temperature. Our results emphasize the importance of fast processes during the onset of heat waves, since we are able to explain the results of T10 without having to take into account changes in soil moisture. In order to disentangle the contribution of differences in several static and dynamic properties between forest and grassland, we have performed an experiment in which new land use types are created that are equal to grassland, but with one of its properties replaced by that of forest. From these, we conclude that the closure of stomata in the presence of dry air is by far the most important process in creating the different behavior of grassland and forest during the onset of a heat wave. However, we conclude that for a full explanation of the results of T10 also the other properties (albedo, roughness and the ratio of minimum stomatal resistance to leaf-area index) play an important, but indirect role; their influences mainly consist of strengthening the feedback that leads to the closure of the stomata by providing more energy that can be converted into sensible heat. The model experiment also confirms that, in line with the larger sensible heat flux, higher atmospheric temperatures occur over forest.

  1. Disentangling the response of forest and grassland energy exchange to heatwaves under idealized land-atmosphere coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heerwaarden, C. C.; Teuling, A. J.

    2014-11-01

    This study investigates the difference in land-atmosphere interactions between grassland and forest during typical heatwave conditions in order to understand the controversial results of Teuling et al. (2010) (hereafter T10), who found the systematic occurrence of higher sensible heat fluxes over forest than over grassland during heatwaves. With a simple but accurate coupled land-atmosphere model, we show that existing parametrizations are able to reproduce the findings of T10 for normal summer and heatwave conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate the sensitivity of the coupled system to changes in incoming radiation and early-morning temperature typical for European heatwaves. Our results suggest that the fast atmospheric control of stomatal resistance can explain the observed differences between grassland and forest. The atmospheric boundary layer has a buffering function therein: increases in stomatal resistance are largely compensated for by increases in the potential evaporation due to atmospheric warming and drying. In order to disentangle the contributions of differences in several static and dynamic properties between forest and grassland, we have performed a virtual experiment with artificial land-use types that are equal to grassland, but with one of its properties replaced by that of forest. From these, we confirm the important role of the fast physiological processes that lead to the closure of stomata. Nonetheless, for a full explanation of T10's results, the other properties (albedo, roughness and the ratio of minimum stomatal resistance to leaf-area index) play an important but indirect role; their influences mainly consist of strengthening the feedback that leads to the closure of the stomata by providing more energy that can be converted into sensible heat. The model experiment also confirms that, in line with the larger sensible heat flux, higher atmospheric temperatures occur over forest. As our parametrization for stomatal resistance is empirical

  2. Quantify Plasma Response to Non-Axisymmetric (3D) Magnetic Fields in Tokamaks, Final Report for FES (Fusion Energy Sciences) FY2014 Joint Research Target

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, E. J.; Park, J. -K.; Marmar, E. S.; Ahn, J. -W.; Berkery, J. W.; Burrell, K. H.; Canik, J. M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Ferraro, N. M.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gates, D. A.; Greenwald, M.; Kim, K.; King, J. D.; Lanctot, M. J.; Lazerson, S. A.; Liu, Y. Q.; Lore, J. D.; Menard, J. E.; Nazikian, R.; Shafer, M. W.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Reiman, A. H.; Rice, J. E.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Sugiyama, L.; Turnbull, A. D.; Volpe, F.; Wang, Z. R.; Wolfe, S. M.

    2014-09-30

    The goal of the 2014 Joint Research Target (JRT) has been to conduct experiments and analysis to investigate and quantify the response of tokamak plasmas to non-axisymmetric (3D) magnetic fields. Although tokamaks are conceptually axisymmetric devices, small asymmetries often result from inaccuracies in the manufacture and assembly of the magnet coils, or from nearby magnetized objects. In addition, non-axisymmetric fields may be deliberately applied for various purposes. Even at small amplitudes of order 10-4 of the main axisymmetric field, such “3D” fields can have profound impacts on the plasma performance. The effects are often detrimental (reduction of stabilizing plasma rotation, degradation of energy confinement, localized heat flux to the divertor, or excitation of instabilities) but may in some case be beneficial (maintenance of rotation, or suppression of instabilities). In general, the magnetic response of the plasma alters the 3D field, so that the magnetic field configuration within the plasma is not simply the sum of the external 3D field and the original axisymmetric field. Typically the plasma response consists of a mixture of local screening of the external field by currents induced at resonant surfaces in the plasma, and amplification of the external field by stable kink modes. Thus, validated magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of the plasma response to 3D fields are crucial to the interpretation of existing experiments and the prediction of plasma performance in future devices. The non-axisymmetric coil sets available at each facility allow well-controlled studies of the response to external 3D fields. The work performed in support of the 2014 Joint Research Target has included joint modeling and analysis of existing experimental data, and collaboration on new experiments designed to address the goals of the JRT. A major focus of the work was validation of numerical models through quantitative comparison to experimental data, in

  3. Continuous Monitoring of Specific mRNA Expression Responses with a Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer-Based DNA Nano-tweezer Technique That Does Not Require Gene Recombination.

    PubMed

    Shigeto, Hajime; Nakatsuka, Keisuke; Ikeda, Takeshi; Hirota, Ryuichi; Kuroda, Akio; Funabashi, Hisakage

    2016-08-16

    This letter discusses the feasibility of continuously monitoring specific mRNA expression responses in a living cell with a probe structured as a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based DNA nano-tweezer (DNA-NT). The FRET-based DNA-NT, self-assembled from three single-stranded DNAs, alters its structure from an open state to a closed state in recognition of a target mRNA, resulting in the closing of the distal relation of previously modified FRET-paired fluorescent dyes and generating a FRET signal. The expressions of glucose transporters (GLUT) 1 and 4 in a mouse hepato-carcinoma (Hepa 1-6 cells) were selected as the target model. Live-cell imaging analysis of Hepa 1-6 cells with both FRET-based DNA-NTs indicated that the behaviors of the FRET signals integrated in each individual cell were similar to those measured with the conventional mass analysis technique of semiquantitative real-time (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). From these results, it is concluded that continuous monitoring of gene expression response without gene recombination is feasible with a FRET-based DNA-NT, even in a single cell manner. PMID:27458920

  4. The plasticizer benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) alters the ecdysone hormone pathway, the cellular response to stress, the energy metabolism, and several detoxication mechanisms in Chironomus riparius larvae.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Óscar; Planelló, Rosario; Morcillo, Gloria

    2015-06-01

    Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) has been extensively used worldwide as a plasticizer in the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry and the manufacturing of many other products, and its presence in the aquatic environment is expected for decades. In the present study, the toxicity of BBP was investigated in Chironomus riparius aquatic larvae. The effects of acute 24-h and 48-h exposures to a wide range of BBP doses were evaluated at the molecular level by analysing changes in genes related to the stress response, the endocrine system, the energy metabolism, and detoxication pathways, as well as in the enzyme activity of glutathione S-transferase. BBP caused a dose and time-dependent toxicity in most of the selected biomarkers. 24-h exposures to high doses affected larval survival and lead to a significant response of several heat-shock genes (hsp70, hsp40, and hsp27), and to a clear endocrine disrupting effect by upregulating the ecdysone receptor gene (EcR). Longer treatments with low doses triggered a general repression of transcription and GST activity. Furthermore, delayed toxicity studies were specially relevant, since they allowed us to detect unpredictable toxic effects, not immediately manifested after contact with the phthalate. This study provides novel and interesting results on the toxic effects of BBP in C. riparius and highlights the suitability of this organism for ecotoxicological risk assessment, especially in aquatic ecosystems.

  5. Wave energy converter with enhanced amplitude response at frequencies coinciding with Swedish west coast sea states by use of a supplementary submerged body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engström, J.; Eriksson, M.; Isberg, J.; Leijon, M.

    2009-09-01

    The full-scale direct-driven wave energy converter developed at Uppsala University has been in offshore operation at the Swedish west coast since 2006. Earlier simulations have now been validated by full-scale experiment with good agreement. Based on that, a theoretical model for a passive system having optimum amplitude response at frequencies coinciding with Swedish west coast conditions has been developed. The amplitude response is increased by adding supplementary inertia by use of the additional mass from a submerged body. A sphere with neutral buoyancy is chosen as the submerged body and modeled as being below the motion of the waves. The model is based on potential linear wave theory and the power capture ratio is studied for real ocean wave data collected at the research test site. It is found that the power capture ratio for the two body system can be increased from 30% to 60% compared to a single body system. Increased velocity in the system also decreases the value for optimal load damping from the generator, opening up the possibility to design smaller units.

  6. The plasticizer benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) alters the ecdysone hormone pathway, the cellular response to stress, the energy metabolism, and several detoxication mechanisms in Chironomus riparius larvae.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Óscar; Planelló, Rosario; Morcillo, Gloria

    2015-06-01

    Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) has been extensively used worldwide as a plasticizer in the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry and the manufacturing of many other products, and its presence in the aquatic environment is expected for decades. In the present study, the toxicity of BBP was investigated in Chironomus riparius aquatic larvae. The effects of acute 24-h and 48-h exposures to a wide range of BBP doses were evaluated at the molecular level by analysing changes in genes related to the stress response, the endocrine system, the energy metabolism, and detoxication pathways, as well as in the enzyme activity of glutathione S-transferase. BBP caused a dose and time-dependent toxicity in most of the selected biomarkers. 24-h exposures to high doses affected larval survival and lead to a significant response of several heat-shock genes (hsp70, hsp40, and hsp27), and to a clear endocrine disrupting effect by upregulating the ecdysone receptor gene (EcR). Longer treatments with low doses triggered a general repression of transcription and GST activity. Furthermore, delayed toxicity studies were specially relevant, since they allowed us to detect unpredictable toxic effects, not immediately manifested after contact with the phthalate. This study provides novel and interesting results on the toxic effects of BBP in C. riparius and highlights the suitability of this organism for ecotoxicological risk assessment, especially in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25725395

  7. Predicting the Dynamic Crushing Response of a Composite Honeycomb Energy Absorber Using Solid-Element-Based Models in LS-DYNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical study that was performed as part of the development of an externally deployable energy absorber (DEA) concept. The concept consists of a composite honeycomb structure that can be stowed until needed to provide energy attenuation during a crash event, much like an external airbag system. One goal of the DEA development project was to generate a robust and reliable Finite Element Model (FEM) of the DEA that could be used to accurately predict its crush response under dynamic loading. The results of dynamic crush tests of 50-, 104-, and 68-cell DEA components are presented, and compared with simulation results from a solid-element FEM. Simulations of the FEM were performed in LS-DYNA(Registered TradeMark) to compare the capabilities of three different material models: MAT 63 (crushable foam), MAT 26 (honeycomb), and MAT 126 (modified honeycomb). These material models are evaluated to determine if they can be used to accurately predict both the uniform crushing and final compaction phases of the DEA for normal and off-axis loading conditions

  8. Defining molecular and cellular responses after low and high linear energy transfer radiations to develop biomarkers of carcinogenic risk or therapeutic outcome.

    PubMed

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-hao; Brock, William A; Ang, K Kian; Alsbeih, Ghazi; Minna, John; Park, Seongmi; Das, Amit

    2012-11-01

    The variability in radiosensitivity across the human population is governed in part by genetic factors. The ability to predict therapeutic response, identify individuals at greatest risk for adverse clinical responses after therapeutic radiation doses, or identify individuals at high risk for carcinogenesis from environmental or medical radiation exposures has a medical and economic impact on both the individual and society at large. As radiotherapy incorporates particles, particularly particles larger than protons, into therapy, the need for such discriminators, (i.e., biomarkers) will become ever more important. Cellular assays for survival, DNA repair, or chromatid/chromosomal analysis have been used to identify at-risk individuals, but they are not clinically applicable. Newer approaches, such as genome-wide analysis of gene expression or single nucleotide polymorphisms and small copy number variations within chromosomes, are examples of technologies being applied to the discovery process. Gene expression analysis of primary or immortalized human cells suggests that there are distinct gene expression patterns associated with radiation exposure to both low and high linear energy transfer radiations and that those most radiosensitive are discernible by their basal gene expression patterns. However, because the genetic alterations that drive radio response may be subtle and cumulative, the need for large sample sizes of specific cell or tissue types is required. A systems biology approach will ultimately be necessary. Potential biomarkers from cell lines or animal models will require validation in a human setting where possible and before being considered as a credible biomarker some understanding of the molecular mechanism is necessary.

  9. Protein-energy malnutrition developing after global brain ischemia induces an atypical acute-phase response and hinders expression of GAP-43.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shari E; Figley, Sarah A; Schreyer, David J; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2014-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a common post-stroke problem. PEM can independently induce a systemic acute-phase response, and pre-existing malnutrition can exacerbate neuroinflammation induced by brain ischemia. In contrast, the effects of PEM developing in the post-ischemic period have not been studied. Since excessive inflammation can impede brain remodeling, we investigated the effects of post-ischemic malnutrition on neuroinflammation, the acute-phase reaction, and neuroplasticity-related proteins. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to global forebrain ischemia using the 2-vessel occlusion model or sham surgery. The sham rats were assigned to control diet (18% protein) on day 3 after surgery, whereas the rats exposed to global ischemia were assigned to either control diet or a low protein (PEM, 2% protein) diet. Post-ischemic PEM decreased growth associated protein-43, synaptophysin and synaptosomal-associated protein-25 immunofluorescence within the hippocampal CA3 mossy fiber terminals on day 21, whereas the glial response in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subregions was unaltered by PEM. No systemic acute-phase reaction attributable to global ischemia was detected in control diet-fed rats, as reflected by serum concentrations of alpha-2-macroglobulin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin, and albumin. Acute exposure to the PEM regimen after global brain ischemia caused an atypical acute-phase response. PEM decreased the serum concentrations of albumin and haptoglobin on day 5, with the decreases sustained to day 21. Serum alpha-2-macroglobulin concentrations were significantly higher in malnourished rats on day 21. This provides the first direct evidence that PEM developing after brain ischemia exerts wide-ranging effects on mechanisms important to stroke recovery.

  10. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) in the brain of zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata: Organization, interaction with neuropeptide Y, and response to changes in energy status.

    PubMed

    Singh, Omprakash; Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Uday; Kumar, Vinod; Lechan, Ronald M; Singru, Praful S

    2016-10-15

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has emerged as a potent anorectic agent. CART is widely distributed in the brain of mammals, amphibians, and teleosts, but the relevant information in avian brain is not available. In birds, CART inhibits food intake, whereas neuropeptide Y (NPY), a well-known orexigenic peptide, stimulates it. How these neuropeptides interact in the brain to regulate energy balance is not known. We studied the distribution of CART-immunoreactivity in the brain of zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, its interaction with NPY, and their response to dynamic energy states. CART-immunoreactive fibers were found in the subpallium, hypothalamus, midbrain, and brainstem. Conspicuous CART-immunoreactive cells were observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, hypothalamic paraventricular, supraoptic, dorsomedial, infundibular (IN), lateral hypothalamic, Edinger-Westphal, and parabrachial nuclei. Hypothalamic sections of fed, fasted, and refed animals were immunostained with cFos, NPY, and CART antisera. Fasting dramatically increased cFos- and NPY-immunoreactivity in the IN, followed by rapid reduction by 2 hours and restoration to normal fed levels 6-10 hours after refeeding. CART-immunoreactive fibers in IN showed a significant reduction during fasting and upregulation with refeeding. Within the IN, double immunofluorescence revealed that 94 ± 2.1% of NPY-immunoreactive neurons were contacted by CART-immunoreactive fibers and 96 ± 2.8% NPY-immunoreactive neurons expressed cFos during fasting. Compared to controls, superfused hypothalamic slices of fasted birds treated with CART-peptide showed a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in NPY-immunoreactivity in the IN. As in other vertebrates, CART in the brain of T. guttata may perform several functions, and has a particularly important role in the hypothalamic regulation of energy homeostasis. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3014-3041, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27018984

  11. Effects of a low- or a high-carbohydrate diet on performance, energy system contribution, and metabolic responses during supramaximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Pires, Flavio O; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Oliveira, Rodrigo S F; Kiss, Maria Augusta; Bishop, David

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a high- or low-carbohydrate (CHO) diet on performance, aerobic and anaerobic contribution, and metabolic responses during supramaximal exercise. Six physically-active men first performed a cycling exercise bout at 115% maximal oxygen uptake to exhaustion after following their normal diet for 48 h (∼50% of CHO, control test). Seventy-two hours after, participants performed a muscle glycogen depletion exercise protocol, followed by either a high- or low-CHO diet (∼70 and 25% of CHO, respectively) for