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Sample records for response mutants defective

  1. Early transcriptional responses of internalization defective Brucella abortus mutants in professional phagocytes, RAW 264.7

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brucella abortus is an intracellular zoonotic pathogen which causes undulant fever, endocarditis, arthritis and osteomyelitis in human and abortion and infertility in cattle. This bacterium is able to invade and replicate in host macrophage instead of getting removed by this defense mechanism. Therefore, understanding the interaction between virulence of the bacteria and the host cell is important to control brucellosis. Previously, we generated internalization defective mutants and analyzed the envelope proteins. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the changes in early transcriptional responses between wild type and internalization defective mutants infected mouse macrophage, RAW 264.7. Results Both of the wild type and mutant infected macrophages showed increased expression levels in proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, apoptosis and G-protein coupled receptors (Gpr84, Gpr109a and Adora2b) while the genes related with small GTPase which mediate intracellular trafficking was decreased. Moreover, cytohesin 1 interacting protein (Cytip) and genes related to ubiquitination (Arrdc3 and Fbxo21) were down-regulated, suggesting the survival strategy of this bacterium. However, we could not detect any significant changes in the mutant infected groups compared to the wild type infected group. Conclusions In summary, it was very difficult to clarify the alterations in host cellular transcription in response to infection with internalization defective mutants. However, we found several novel gene changes related to the GPCR system, ubiquitin-proteosome system, and growth arrest and DNA damages in response to B. abortus infection. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying host-pathogen interactions and need to be studied further. PMID:23802650

  2. Epididymis Response Partly Compensates for Spermatozoa Oxidative Defects in snGPx4 and GPx5 Double Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Noblanc, Anaïs; Peltier, Manon; Damon-Soubeyrand, Christelle; Kerchkove, Nicolas; Chabory, Eléonore; Vernet, Patrick; Saez, Fabrice; Cadet, Rémi; Janny, Laurent; Pons-Rejraji, Hanae; Conrad, Marcus; Drevet, Joël R.; Kocer, Ayhan

    2012-01-01

    We report here that spermatozoa of mice lacking both the sperm nucleaus glutathione peroxidase 4 (snGPx4) and the epididymal glutathione peroxidase 5 (GPx5) activities display sperm nucleus structural abnormalities including delayed and defective nuclear compaction, nuclear instability and DNA damage. We show that to counteract the GPx activity losses, the epididymis of the double KO animals mounted an antioxydant response resulting in a strong increase in the global H2O2-scavenger activity especially in the cauda epididymis. Quantitative RT-PCR data show that together with the up-regulation of epididymal scavengers (of the thioredoxin/peroxiredoxin system as well as glutathione-S-transferases) the epididymis of double mutant animals increased the expression of several disulfide isomerases in an attempt to recover normal disulfide-bridging activity. Despite these compensatory mechanisms cauda-stored spermatozoa of double mutant animals show high levels of DNA oxidation, increased fragmentation and greater susceptibility to nuclear decondensation. Nevertheless, the enzymatic epididymal salvage response is sufficient to maintain full fertility of double KO males whatever their age, crossed with young WT female mice. PMID:22719900

  3. Epididymis response partly compensates for spermatozoa oxidative defects in snGPx4 and GPx5 double mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Noblanc, Anaïs; Peltier, Manon; Damon-Soubeyrand, Christelle; Kerchkove, Nicolas; Chabory, Eléonore; Vernet, Patrick; Saez, Fabrice; Cadet, Rémi; Janny, Laurent; Pons-Rejraji, Hanae; Conrad, Marcus; Drevet, Joël R; Kocer, Ayhan

    2012-01-01

    We report here that spermatozoa of mice lacking both the sperm nucleus glutathione peroxidase 4 (snGPx4) and the epididymal glutathione peroxidase 5 (GPx5) activities display sperm nucleus structural abnormalities including delayed and defective nuclear compaction, nuclear instability and DNA damage. We show that to counteract the GPx activity losses, the epididymis of the double KO animals mounted an antioxydant response resulting in a strong increase in the global H(2)O(2)-scavenger activity especially in the cauda epididymis. Quantitative RT-PCR data show that together with the up-regulation of epididymal scavengers (of the thioredoxin/peroxiredoxin system as well as glutathione-S-transferases) the epididymis of double mutant animals increased the expression of several disulfide isomerases in an attempt to recover normal disulfide-bridging activity. Despite these compensatory mechanisms cauda-stored spermatozoa of double mutant animals show high levels of DNA oxidation, increased fragmentation and greater susceptibility to nuclear decondensation. Nevertheless, the enzymatic epididymal salvage response is sufficient to maintain full fertility of double KO males whatever their age, crossed with young WT female mice.

  4. Characterization of Halobacterium halobium mutants defective in taxis.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, S A; Alam, M; Lebert, M; Spudich, J L; Oesterhelt, D; Hazelbauer, G L

    1990-05-01

    Mutant derivatives of Halobacterium halobium previously isolated by using a procedure that selected for defective phototactic response to white light were examined for an array of phenotypic characteristics related to phototaxis and chemotaxis. The properties tested were unstimulated swimming behavior, behaviorial responses to temporal gradients of light and spatial gradients of chemoattractants, content of photoreceptor pigments, methylation of methyl-accepting taxis proteins, and transient increases in rate of release of volatile methyl groups induced by tactic stimulation. Several distinct phenotypes were identified, corresponding to a mutant missing photoreceptors, a mutant defective in the methyltransferase, a mutant altered in control of the methylesterase, and mutants apparently defective in intracellular signaling. All except the photoreceptor mutant were defective in both chemotaxis and phototaxis.

  5. Mutagenic and Recombinagenic Responses to Defective DNA Polymerase δ Are Facilitated by the Rev1 Protein in pol3-t Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Mito, Erica; Mokhnatkin, Janet V.; Steele, Molly C.; Buettner, Victoria L.; Sommer, Steve S.; Manthey, Glenn M.; Bailis, Adam M.

    2008-01-01

    Defective DNA replication can result in substantial increases in the level of genome instability. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the pol3-t allele confers a defect in the catalytic subunit of replicative DNA polymerase δ that results in increased rates of mutagenesis, recombination, and chromosome loss, perhaps by increasing the rate of replicative polymerase failure. The translesion polymerases Pol η, Pol ζ, and Rev1 are part of a suite of factors in yeast that can act at sites of replicative polymerase failure. While mutants defective in the translesion polymerases alone displayed few defects, loss of Rev1 was found to suppress the increased rates of spontaneous mutation, recombination, and chromosome loss observed in pol3-t mutants. These results suggest that Rev1 may be involved in facilitating mutagenic and recombinagenic responses to the failure of Pol δ. Genome stability, therefore, may reflect a dynamic relationship between primary and auxiliary DNA polymerases. PMID:18711219

  6. Biofilm formation-defective mutants in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    López-Sánchez, Aroa; Leal-Morales, Antonio; Jiménez-Díaz, Lorena; Platero, Ana I; Bardallo-Pérez, Juan; Díaz-Romero, Alberto; Acemel, Rafael D; Illán, Juan M; Jiménez-López, Julia; Govantes, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Out of 8000 candidates from a genetic screening for Pseudomonas putida KT2442 mutants showing defects in biofilm formation, 40 independent mutants with diminished levels of biofilm were analyzed. Most of these mutants carried insertions in genes of the lap cluster, whose products are responsible for synthesis, export and degradation of the adhesin LapA. All mutants in this class were strongly defective in biofilm formation. Mutants in the flagellar regulatory genes fleQ and flhF showed similar defects to that of the lap mutants. On the contrary, transposon insertions in the flagellar structural genes fliP and flgG, that also impair flagellar motility, had a modest defect in biofilm formation. A mutation in gacS, encoding the sensor element of the GacS/GacA two-component system, also had a moderate effect on biofilm formation. Additional insertions targeted genes involved in cell envelope function: PP3222, encoding the permease element of an ABC-type transporter and tolB, encoding the periplasmic component of the Tol-OprL system required for outer membrane stability. Our results underscore the central role of LapA, suggest cross-regulation between motility and adhesion functions and provide insights on the role of cell envelope trafficking and maintenance for biofilm development in P. putida.

  7. Isolation of a Defective Prion Mutant from Natural Scrapie

    PubMed Central

    Migliore, Sergio; Cosseddu, Gian Mario; Pirisinu, Laura; Riccardi, Geraldina; Nonno, Romolo

    2016-01-01

    It is widely known that prion strains can mutate in response to modification of the replication environment and we have recently reported that prion mutations can occur in vitro during amplification of vole-adapted prions by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification on bank vole substrate (bvPMCA). Here we exploited the high efficiency of prion replication by bvPMCA to study the in vitro propagation of natural scrapie isolates. Although in vitro vole-adapted PrPSc conformers were usually similar to the sheep counterpart, we repeatedly isolated a PrPSc mutant exclusively when starting from extremely diluted seeds of a single sheep isolate. The mutant and faithful PrPSc conformers showed to be efficiently autocatalytic in vitro and were characterized by different PrP protease resistant cores, spanning aa ∼155–231 and ∼80–231 respectively, and by different conformational stabilities. The two conformers could thus be seen as different bona fide PrPSc types, putatively accounting for prion populations with different biological properties. Indeed, once inoculated in bank vole the faithful conformer was competent for in vivo replication while the mutant was unable to infect voles, de facto behaving like a defective prion mutant. Overall, our findings confirm that prions can adapt and evolve in the new replication environments and that the starting population size can affect their evolutionary landscape, at least in vitro. Furthermore, we report the first example of “authentic” defective prion mutant, composed of brain-derived PrPC and originating from a natural scrapie isolate. Our results clearly indicate that the defective mutant lacks of some structural characteristics, that presumably involve the central region ∼90–155, critical for infectivity but not for in vitro replication. Finally, we propose a molecular mechanism able to account for the discordant in vitro and in vivo behavior, suggesting possible new paths for investigating the molecular bases of

  8. Increase in chitin as an essential response to defects in assembly of cell wall polymers in the ggp1delta mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Popolo, L; Gilardelli, D; Bonfante, P; Vai, M

    1997-01-01

    The GGP1/GAS1 gene codes for a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored plasma membrane glycoprotein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ggp1delta mutant shows morphogenetic defects which suggest changes in the cell wall matrix. In this work, we have investigated cell wall glucan levels and the increase of chitin in ggp1delta mutant cells. In these cells, the level of alkali-insoluble 1,6-beta-D-glucan was found to be 50% of that of wild-type cells and was responsible for the observed decrease in the total alkali-insoluble glucan. Moreover, the ratio of alkali-soluble to alkali-insoluble glucan almost doubled, suggesting a change in glucan solubility. The increase of chitin in ggp1delta cells was found to be essential since the chs3delta ggp1delta mutations determined a severe reduction in the growth rate and in cell viability. Electron microscopy analysis showed the loss of the typical structure of yeast cell walls. Furthermore, in the chs3delta ggp1delta cells, the level of alkali-insoluble glucan was 57% of that of wild-type cells and the alkali-soluble/alkali-insoluble glucan ratio was doubled. We tested the effect of inhibition of chitin synthesis also by a different approach. The ggp1delta cells were treated with nikkomycin Z, a well-known inhibitor of chitin synthesis, and showed a hypersensitivity to this drug. In addition, studies of genetic interactions with genes related to the construction of the cell wall indicate a synthetic lethal effect of the ggp1delta kre6delta and the ggp1delta pkc1delta combined mutations. Our data point to an involvement of the GGP1 gene product in the cross-links between cell wall glucans (1,3-beta-D-glucans with 1,6-beta-D-glucans and with chitin). Chitin is essential to compensate for the defects due to the lack of Ggp1p. Moreover, the activities of Ggp1p and Chs3p are essential to the formation of the organized structure of the cell wall in vegetative cells. PMID:8990299

  9. Isolation and characterization of an olfactory mutant in Drosophila with a chemically specific defect.

    PubMed Central

    Helfand, S L; Carlson, J R

    1989-01-01

    A Drosophila mutant was isolated and shown to exhibit defective response to the chemical odorant benzaldehyde in two distinctly different behavioral assays. The defect exhibited chemical specificity: response to three other chemicals was normal. The mutant also showed abnormalities in pigmentation and fertility. Genetic mapping and complementation analysis provide evidence that the olfactory, pigmentation, and fertility defects arise as a result of a lesion at the pentagon locus. The specificity of the olfactory defect suggests the possibility that the mutation may define a molecule required in reception, transduction, or processing of a specific subset of chemical information in the olfactory system. Images PMID:2495539

  10. Multiple Chemosensory Defects in Daf-11 and Daf-21 Mutants of Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Vowels, J. J.; Thomas, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Phenotypic analysis of the daf-11 and daf-21 mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans suggests that they have defects in components shared by processes analogous to vertebrate taste and olfaction. daf-11 and daf-21 mutations were previously shown to cause inappropriate response to the dauer-inducing pheromone. By mutational analysis and by disabling specific chemosensory sensilla with a laser, we show that neurons in the amphid sensilla are required for this pheromone response. Using behavioral assays, we find that daf-11 and daf-21 mutants are not defective in avoidance of certain non-volatile repellents, but are defective in taxis to non-volatile attractants. In addition, both mutants are defective in taxis to volatile attractants detected primarily by the amphid neuron AWC, but respond normally to volatile attractants detected primarily by AWA. We propose that daf-11 and daf-21 mediate sensory transduction for both volatile and non-volatile compounds in specific amphid neurons. PMID:7828815

  11. Defective Glycinergic Synaptic Transmission in Zebrafish Motility Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Hiromi; Carta, Eloisa; Yamanaka, Iori; Harvey, Robert J.; Kuwada, John Y.

    2009-01-01

    Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo) mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR) β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic transmission due to a lack of synaptic aggregation of GlyRs. Due to the consequent loss of reciprocal inhibition of motor circuits between the two sides of the spinal cord, motor neurons activate simultaneously on both sides resulting in bilateral contraction of axial muscles of beo mutants, eliciting the so-called ‘accordion’ phenotype. Similar defects in GlyR subunit genes have been observed in several mammals and are the basis for human hyperekplexia/startle disease. By contrast, zebrafish shocked (sho) mutants have a defect in slc6a9, encoding GlyT1, a glycine transporter that is expressed by astroglial cells surrounding the glycinergic synapse in the hindbrain and spinal cord. GlyT1 mediates rapid uptake of glycine from the synaptic cleft, terminating synaptic transmission. In zebrafish sho mutants, there appears to be elevated extracellular glycine resulting in persistent inhibition of postsynaptic neurons and subsequent reduced motility, causing the ‘twitch-once’ phenotype. We review current knowledge regarding zebrafish ‘accordion’ and ‘twitch-once’ mutants, including beo and sho, and report the identification of a new α2 subunit that revises the phylogeny of zebrafish GlyRs. PMID:20161699

  12. Rhizobium japonicum mutants defective in symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed Central

    Noel, K D; Stacey, G; Tandon, S R; Silver, L E; Brill, W J

    1982-01-01

    Rhizobium japonicum strains 3I1b110 and 61A76 were mutagenized to obtain 25 independently derived mutants that produced soybean nodules defective in nitrogen fixation, as assayed by acetylene reduction. The proteins of both the bacterial and the plant portions of the nodules were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. All of the mutants had lower-than-normal levels of the nitrogenase components, and all but four contained a prominent bacteroid protein not observed in wild-type bacteroids. Experiments with bacteria grown ex planta suggested that this protein was derepressed by the absence of ammonia. Nitrogenase component II of one mutant was altered in isoelectric point. The soluble plant fraction of the nodules of seven mutants had very low levels of heme, yet the nodules of five of these seven mutants contained the polypeptide of leghemoglobin. Thus, the synthesis of the globin may not be coupled to the content of available heme in soybean nodules. The nodules of the other two of these seven mutants lacked not only leghemoglobin but most of the other normal plant and bacteroid proteins. Ultrastructural examination of nodules formed by these two mutants indicated normal ramification of infection threads but suggested a problem in subsequent survival of the bacteria and their release from the infection threads. Images PMID:6956566

  13. A Rice Mutant Defective in Si Uptake1

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian Feng; Tamai, Kazunori; Ichii, Masahiko; Wu, Guo Feng

    2002-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) accumulates silicon (Si) in the tops to levels up to 10.0% of shoot dry weight, but the mechanism responsible for high Si uptake by rice roots is not understood. We isolated a rice mutant (GR1) that is defective in active Si uptake by screening M2 seeds (64,000) of rice cv Oochikara that were treated with 10−3 m sodium azide for 6 h at 25oC. There were no phenotypic differences between wild type (WT) and GR1 except that the leaf blade of GR1 remained droopy when Si was supplied. Uptake experiments showed that Si uptake by GR1 was significantly lower than that by WT at both low and high Si concentrations. However, there was no difference in the uptake of other nutrients such as phosphorus and potassium. Si concentration in the xylem sap of WT was 33-fold that of the external solution, but that of GR1 was 3-fold higher than the external solution at 0.15 mm Si. Si uptake by WT was inhibited by metabolic inhibitors including NaCN and 2,4-dinitrophenol and by low temperature, whereas Si uptake by GR1 was not inhibited by these agents. These results suggest that an active transport system for Si uptake is disrupted in GR1. Analysis of F2 populations between GR1 and WT showed that roots with high Si uptake and roots with low Si uptake segregated at a 3:1 ratio, suggesting that GR1 is a recessive mutant of Si uptake. PMID:12481095

  14. hydra Mutants of Arabidopsis Are Defective in Sterol Profiles and Auxin and Ethylene Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Souter, Martin; Topping, Jennifer; Pullen, Margaret; Friml, Jiri; Palme, Klaus; Hackett, Rachel; Grierson, Don; Lindsey, Keith

    2002-01-01

    The hydra mutants of Arabidopsis are characterized by a pleiotropic phenotype that shows defective embryonic and seedling cell patterning, morphogenesis, and root growth. We demonstrate that the HYDRA1 gene encodes a Δ8-Δ7 sterol isomerase, whereas HYDRA2 encodes a sterol C14 reductase, previously identified as the FACKEL gene product. Seedlings mutant for each gene are similarly defective in the concentrations of the three major Arabidopsis sterols. Promoter::reporter gene analysis showed misexpression of the auxin-regulated DR5 and ACS1 promoters and of the epidermal cell file–specific GL2 promoter in the mutants. The mutants exhibit enhanced responses to auxin. The phenotypes can be rescued partially by inhibition of auxin and ethylene signaling but not by exogenous sterols or brassinosteroids. We propose a model in which correct sterol profiles are required for regulated auxin and ethylene signaling through effects on membrane function. PMID:12034894

  15. Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with defects in acetate metabolism: isolation and characterization of Acn- mutants.

    PubMed

    McCammon, M T

    1996-09-01

    The two carbon compounds, ethanol and acetate, can be oxidatively metabolized as well as assimilated into carbohydrate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The distribution of acetate metabolic enzymes among several cellular compartments, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and cytoplasm makes it an intriguing system to study complex metabolic interactions. To investigate the complex process of carbon catabolism and assimilation, mutants unable to grow on acetate were isolated. One hundred five Acn- ("ACetate Nonutilizing") mutants were sorted into 21 complementation groups with an additional 20 single mutants. Five of the groups have defects in TCA cycle enzymes: MDH1, CIT1, ACO1, IDH1, and IDH2. A defect in RTG2, involved in the retrograde communication between the mitochondrion and the nucleus, was also identified. Four genes encode enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis: ICL1, MLS1, MDH2, and PCK1. Five other genes appear to be defective in regulating metabolic activity since elevated levels of enzymes in several metabolic pathways, including the glyoxylate cycle, gluconeogenesis, and acetyl-CoA metabolism, were detected in these mutants: ACN8, ACN9, ACN17, ACN18, and ACN42. In summary, this analysis has identified at least 22 and as many as 41 different genes involved in acetate metabolism.

  16. Mutants of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae with Defects in Acetate Metabolism: Isolation and Characterization of Acn(-) Mutants

    PubMed Central

    McCammon, M. T.

    1996-01-01

    The two carbon compounds, ethanol and acetate, can be oxidatively metabolized as well as assimilated into carbohydrate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The distribution of acetate metabolic enzymes among several cellular compartments, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and cytoplasm makes it an intriguing system to study complex metabolic interactions. To investigate the complex process of carbon catabolism and assimilation, mutants unable to grow on acetate were isolated. One hundred five Acn(-) (``ACetate Nonutilizing'') mutants were sorted into 21 complementation groups with an additional 20 single mutants. Five of the groups have defects in TCA cycle enzymes: MDH1, CIT1, ACO1, IDH1, and IDH2. A defect in RTG2, involved in the retrograde communication between the mitochondrion and the nucleus, was also identified. Four genes encode enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis: ICL1, MLS1, MDH2, and PCK1. Five other genes appear to be defective in regulating metabolic activity since elevated levels of enzymes in several metabolic pathways, including the glyoxylate cycle, gluconeogenesis, and acetyl-CoA metabolism, were detected in these mutants: ACN8, ACN9, ACN17, ACN18, and ACN42. In summary, this analysis has identified at least 22 and as many as 41 different genes involved in acetate metabolism. PMID:8878673

  17. Temperature Sensitivity of Neural Tube Defects in Zoep Mutants.

    PubMed

    Ma, Phyo; Swartz, Morgan R; Kindt, Lexy M; Kangas, Ashley M; Liang, Jennifer Ostrom

    2015-12-01

    Neural tube defects (NTD) occur when the flat neural plate epithelium fails to fold into the neural tube, the precursor to the brain and spinal cord. Squint (Sqt/Ndr1), a Nodal ligand, and One-eyed pinhead (Oep), a component of the Nodal receptor, are required for anterior neural tube closure in zebrafish. The NTD in sqt and Zoep mutants are incompletely penetrant. The penetrance of several defects in sqt mutants increases upon heat or cold shock. In this project, undergraduate students tested whether temperature influences the Zoep open neural tube phenotype. Single pairs of adults were spawned at 28.5°C, the normal temperature for zebrafish, and one half of the resulting embryos were moved to 34°C at different developmental time points. Analysis of variance indicated temperature and clutch/genetic background significantly contributed to the penetrance of the open neural tube phenotype. Heat shock affected the embryos only at or before the midblastula stage. Many factors, including temperature changes in the mother, nutrition, and genetic background, contribute to NTD in humans. Thus, sqt and Zoep mutants may serve as valuable models for studying the interactions between genetics and the environment during neurulation.

  18. Temperature Sensitivity of Neural Tube Defects in Zoep Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Phyo; Swartz, Morgan R.; Kindt, Lexy M.; Kangas, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Neural tube defects (NTD) occur when the flat neural plate epithelium fails to fold into the neural tube, the precursor to the brain and spinal cord. Squint (Sqt/Ndr1), a Nodal ligand, and One-eyed pinhead (Oep), a component of the Nodal receptor, are required for anterior neural tube closure in zebrafish. The NTD in sqt and Zoep mutants are incompletely penetrant. The penetrance of several defects in sqt mutants increases upon heat or cold shock. In this project, undergraduate students tested whether temperature influences the Zoep open neural tube phenotype. Single pairs of adults were spawned at 28.5°C, the normal temperature for zebrafish, and one half of the resulting embryos were moved to 34°C at different developmental time points. Analysis of variance indicated temperature and clutch/genetic background significantly contributed to the penetrance of the open neural tube phenotype. Heat shock affected the embryos only at or before the midblastula stage. Many factors, including temperature changes in the mother, nutrition, and genetic background, contribute to NTD in humans. Thus, sqt and Zoep mutants may serve as valuable models for studying the interactions between genetics and the environment during neurulation. PMID:26366681

  19. Isolation and phenotypic characterization of Lotus japonicus mutants specifically defective in arbuscular mycorrhizal formation.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Tomoko; Saito, Katsuharu; Oba, Hirosuke; Yoshida, Yuma; Terasawa, Junya; Umehara, Yosuke; Suganuma, Norio; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Ohtomo, Ryo

    2014-05-01

    Several symbiotic mutants of legume plants defective in nodulation have also been shown to be mutants related to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. The origin of the AM symbiosis can be traced back to the early land plants. It has therefore been postulated that the older system of AM symbiosis was partially incorporated into the newer system of legume-rhizobium symbiosis. To unravel the genetic basis of the establishment of AM symbiosis, we screened about 34,000 plants derived from ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized Lotus japonicus seeds by microscopic observation. As a result, three lines (ME778, ME966 and ME2329) were isolated as AM-specific mutants that exhibit clear AM-defective phenotypes but form normal effective root nodules with rhizobial infection. In the ME2329 mutant, AM fungi spread their hyphae into the intercellular space of the cortex and formed trunk hyphae in the cortical cells, but the development of fine branches in the arbuscules was arrested. The ME2329 mutant carried a nonsense mutation in the STR-homolog gene, implying that the line may be an str mutant in L. japonicus. On the ME778 and ME966 mutant roots, the entry of AM fungal hyphae was blocked between two adjacent epidermal cells. Occasionally, hyphal colonization accompanied by arbuscules was observed in the two mutants. The genes responsible for the ME778 and ME966 mutants were independently located on chromosome 2. These results suggest that the ME778 and ME966 lines are symbiotic mutants involved in the early stage of AM formation in L. japonicus.

  20. Aspergillus nidulans mutants defective in stc gene cluster regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Butchko, R A; Adams, T H; Keller, N P

    1999-01-01

    The genes involved in the biosynthesis of sterigmatocystin (ST), a toxic secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus nidulans and an aflatoxin (AF) precursor in other Aspergillus spp., are clustered on chromosome IV of A. nidulans. The sterigmatocystin gene cluster (stc gene cluster) is regulated by the pathway-specific transcription factor aflR. The function of aflR appears to be conserved between ST- and AF-producing aspergilli, as are most of the other genes in the cluster. We describe a novel screen for detecting mutants defective in stc gene cluster activity by use of a genetic block early in the ST biosynthetic pathway that results in the accumulation of the first stable intermediate, norsolorinic acid (NOR), an orange-colored compound visible with the unaided eye. We have mutagenized this NOR-accumulating strain and have isolated 176 Nor(-) mutants, 83 of which appear to be wild type in growth and development. Sixty of these 83 mutations are linked to the stc gene cluster and are likely defects in aflR or known stc biosynthetic genes. Of the 23 mutations not linked to the stc gene cluster, 3 prevent accumulation of NOR due to the loss of aflR expression. PMID:10511551

  1. Isolation and characterization of Pichia heedii mutants defective in xylose uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Does, A.L.; Bisson, L.F. )

    1990-11-01

    To investigate the role of xylose uptake in xylose metabolism in yeasts, we isolated a series of mutated strains of the yeast Pichia heedii which are defective in xylose utilization. Four of these demonstrated defects in xylose uptake. Overlaps between the functional or regulatory mechanisms for glucose and xylose uptake may exist in this yeast since some of the mutants defective in xylose uptake were also defective in glucose transport. None of the mutants were defective in xylose reductase or xylitol dehydrogenase activities.

  2. Reduced heme levels underlie the exponential growth defect of the Shewanella oneidensis hfq mutant.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Christopher M; Mazzucca, Nicholas Q; Mezoian, Taylor; Hunt, Taylor M; Keane, Meaghan L; Leonard, Jessica N; Scola, Shelby E; Beer, Emma N; Perdue, Sarah; Pellock, Brett J

    2014-01-01

    The RNA chaperone Hfq fulfills important roles in small regulatory RNA (sRNA) function in many bacteria. Loss of Hfq in the dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 results in slow exponential phase growth and a reduced terminal cell density at stationary phase. We have found that the exponential phase growth defect of the hfq mutant in LB is the result of reduced heme levels. Both heme levels and exponential phase growth of the hfq mutant can be completely restored by supplementing LB medium with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), the first committed intermediate synthesized during heme synthesis. Increasing expression of gtrA, which encodes the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in heme biosynthesis, also restores heme levels and exponential phase growth of the hfq mutant. Taken together, our data indicate that reduced heme levels are responsible for the exponential growth defect of the S. oneidensis hfq mutant in LB medium and suggest that the S. oneidensis hfq mutant is deficient in heme production at the 5-ALA synthesis step.

  3. Reduced Heme Levels Underlie the Exponential Growth Defect of the Shewanella oneidensis hfq Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Mezoian, Taylor; Hunt, Taylor M.; Keane, Meaghan L.; Leonard, Jessica N.; Scola, Shelby E.; Beer, Emma N.; Perdue, Sarah; Pellock, Brett J.

    2014-01-01

    The RNA chaperone Hfq fulfills important roles in small regulatory RNA (sRNA) function in many bacteria. Loss of Hfq in the dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 results in slow exponential phase growth and a reduced terminal cell density at stationary phase. We have found that the exponential phase growth defect of the hfq mutant in LB is the result of reduced heme levels. Both heme levels and exponential phase growth of the hfq mutant can be completely restored by supplementing LB medium with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), the first committed intermediate synthesized during heme synthesis. Increasing expression of gtrA, which encodes the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in heme biosynthesis, also restores heme levels and exponential phase growth of the hfq mutant. Taken together, our data indicate that reduced heme levels are responsible for the exponential growth defect of the S. oneidensis hfq mutant in LB medium and suggest that the S. oneidensis hfq mutant is deficient in heme production at the 5-ALA synthesis step. PMID:25356668

  4. Cuticular Defects in Oryza sativa ATP-binding Cassette Transporter G31 Mutant Plants Cause Dwarfism, Elevated Defense Responses and Pathogen Resistance.

    PubMed

    Garroum, Imène; Bidzinski, Przemyslaw; Daraspe, Jean; Mucciolo, Antonio; Humbel, Bruno M; Morel, Jean-Benoit; Nawrath, Christiane

    2016-06-01

    The cuticle covers the surface of the polysaccharide cell wall of leaf epidermal cells and forms an essential diffusion barrier between plant and environment. Homologs of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter AtABCG32/HvABCG31 clade are necessary for the formation of a functional cuticle in both monocots and dicots. Here we characterize the osabcg31 knockout mutant and hairpin RNA interference (RNAi)-down-regulated OsABCG31 plant lines having reduced plant growth and a permeable cuticle. The reduced content of cutin in leaves and structural alterations in the cuticle and at the cuticle-cell wall interface in plants compromised in OsABCG31 expression explain the cuticle permeability. Effects of modifications of the cuticle on plant-microbe interactions were evaluated. The cuticular alterations in OsABCG31-compromised plants did not cause deficiencies in germination of the spores or the formation of appressoria of Magnaporthe oryzae on the leaf surface, but a strong reduction of infection structures inside the plant. Genes involved in pathogen resistance were constitutively up-regulated in OsABCG31-compromised plants, thus being a possible cause of the resistance to M. oryzae and the dwarf growth phenotype. The findings show that in rice an abnormal cuticle formation may affect the signaling of plant growth and defense.

  5. Mutations in rpoBC suppress the defects of a Sinorhizobium meliloti relA mutant.

    PubMed

    Wells, Derek H; Long, Sharon R

    2003-09-01

    The nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between Sinorhizobium meliloti and Medicago sativa requires complex physiological adaptation by both partners. One method by which bacteria coordinately control physiological adaptation is the stringent response, which is triggered by the presence of the nucleotide guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp). ppGpp, produced by the RelA enzyme, is thought to bind to and alter the ability of RNA polymerase (RNAP) to initiate and elongate transcription and affect the affinity of the core enzyme for various sigma factors. An S. meliloti relA mutant which cannot produce ppGpp was previously shown to be defective in the ability to form nodules. This mutant also overproduces a symbiotically necessary exopolysaccharide called succinoglycan. The work presented here encompasses the analysis of suppressor mutants, isolated from host plants, that suppress the symbiotic defects of the relA mutant. All suppressor mutations are extragenic and map to either rpoB or rpoC, which encode the beta and beta' subunits of RNAP. Phenotypic, structural, and gene expression analyses reveal that suppressor mutants can be divided into two classes; one is specific in its effect on stringent response-regulated genes and shares striking similarity with suppressor mutants of Escherichia coli strains that lack ppGpp, and another reduces transcription of all genes tested in comparison to that in the relA parent strain. Our findings indicate that the ability to successfully establish symbiosis is tightly coupled with the bacteria's ability to undergo global physiological adjustment via the stringent response.

  6. Molecular defect of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase in the skunk mutant of silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Urano, Kei; Daimon, Takaaki; Banno, Yutaka; Mita, Kazuei; Terada, Tohru; Shimizu, Kentaro; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

    2010-11-01

    The isovaleric acid-emanating silkworm mutant skunk (sku) was first studied over 30 years ago because of its unusual odour and prepupal lethality. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the gene responsible for the sku mutant. Because of its specific features and symptoms similar to human isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD) deficiency, also known as isovaleric acidaemia, IVD dysfunction in silkworms was predicted to be responsible for the phenotype of the sku mutant. Linkage analysis revealed that the silkworm IVD gene (BmIVD) was closely linked to the odorous phenotype as expected, and a single amino acid substitution (G376V) was found in BmIVD of the sku mutant. To investigate the effect of the G376V substitution on BmIVD function, wild-type and sku-type recombinants were constructed with a baculovirus expression system and the subsequent enzyme activity of sku-type BmIVD was shown to be significantly reduced compared with that of wild-type BmIVD. Molecular modelling suggested that this reduction in the enzyme activity may be due to negative effects of G376V mutation on FAD-binding or on monomer-monomer interactions. These observations strongly suggest that BmIVD is responsible for the sku locus and that the molecular defect in BmIVD causes the characteristic smell and prepupal lethality of the sku mutant. To our knowledge, this is, aside from humans, the first characterization of IVD deficiency in metazoa. Considering that IVD acts in the third step of leucine degradation and the sku mutant accumulates branched-chain amino acids in haemolymph, this mutant may be useful in the investigation of unique branched-chain amino acid catabolism in insects.

  7. Co-occurence of filamentation defects and impaired biofilms in Candida albicans protein kinase mutants.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidou, Nina; Morrissey, John Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Pathogenicity of Candida albicans is linked with its developmental stages, notably the capacity switch from yeast-like to hyphal growth, and to form biofilms on surfaces. To better understand the cellular processes involved in C. albicans development, a collection of 63 C. albicans protein kinase mutants was screened for biofilm formation in a microtitre plate assay. Thirty-eight mutants displayed some degree of biofilm impairment, with 20 categorised as poor biofilm formers. All the poor biofilm formers were also defective in the switch from yeast to hyphae, establishing it as a primary defect. Five genes, VPS15, IME2, PKH3, PGA43 and CEX1, encode proteins not previously reported to influence hyphal development or biofilm formation. Network analysis established that individual components of some processes, most interestingly MAP kinase pathways, are not required for biofilm formation, most likely indicating functional redundancy. Mutants were also screened for their response to bacterial supernatants and it was found that Pseudomonas aeruginosa supernatants inhibited biofilm formation in all mutants, regardless of the presence of homoserine lactones (HSLs). In contrast, Candida morphology was only affected by supernatant containing HSLs. This confirms the distinct HSL-dependent inhibition of filamentation and the HSL-independent impairment of biofilm development by P. aeruginosa.

  8. Germination-defective mutant of Neurospora crassa that responds to siderophores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlang, G.; Williams, N. P.

    1977-01-01

    A conditionally germination-defective mutant of Neurospora crassa has been found to be partially curable by ferricrocin and other siderophores. The mutant conidia rapidly lose their membrane-bound siderophores when suspended in buffer or growth media. Germination is consequently delayed unless large numbers of conidia are present (positive population effect). This indicates that the mutant has a membrane defect involving the siderophore attachment site.

  9. Chloroplast dysfunction causes multiple defects in cell cycle progression in the Arabidopsis crumpled leaf mutant.

    PubMed

    Hudik, Elodie; Yoshioka, Yasushi; Domenichini, Séverine; Bourge, Mickaël; Soubigout-Taconnat, Ludivine; Mazubert, Christelle; Yi, Dalong; Bujaldon, Sandrine; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; De Veylder, Lieven; Bergounioux, Catherine; Benhamed, Moussa; Raynaud, Cécile

    2014-09-01

    The majority of research on cell cycle regulation is focused on the nuclear events that govern the replication and segregation of the genome between the two daughter cells. However, eukaryotic cells contain several compartmentalized organelles with specialized functions, and coordination among these organelles is required for proper cell cycle progression, as evidenced by the isolation of several mutants in which both organelle function and overall plant development were affected. To investigate how chloroplast dysfunction affects the cell cycle, we analyzed the crumpled leaf (crl) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which is deficient for a chloroplastic protein and displays particularly severe developmental defects. In the crl mutant, we reveal that cell cycle regulation is altered drastically and that meristematic cells prematurely enter differentiation, leading to reduced plant stature and early endoreduplication in the leaves. This response is due to the repression of several key cell cycle regulators as well as constitutive activation of stress-response genes, among them the cell cycle inhibitor SIAMESE-RELATED5. One unique feature of the crl mutant is that it produces aplastidic cells in several organs, including the root tip. By investigating the consequence of the absence of plastids on cell cycle progression, we showed that nuclear DNA replication occurs in aplastidic cells in the root tip, which opens future research prospects regarding the dialogue between plastids and the nucleus during cell cycle regulation in higher plants.

  10. Responses of a triple mutant defective in three iron deficiency-induced Basic Helix-Loop-Helix genes of the subgroup Ib(2) to iron deficiency and salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Felix; Naranjo Arcos, Maria Augusta; Bauer, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Plants are sessile organisms that adapt to external stress by inducing molecular and physiological responses that serve to better cope with the adverse growth condition. Upon low supply of the micronutrient iron, plants actively increase the acquisition of soil iron into the root and its mobilization from internal stores. The subgroup Ib(2) BHLH genes function as regulators in this response, however their concrete functions are not fully understood. Here, we analyzed a triple loss of function mutant of BHLH39, BHLH100 and BHLH101 (3xbhlh mutant). We found that this mutant did not have any iron uptake phenotype if iron was provided. However, under iron deficiency the mutant displayed a more severe leaf chlorosis than the wild type. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis revealed that this mutant phenotype resulted in the mis-regulation of 198 genes, out of which only 15% were associated with iron deficiency regulation itself. A detailed analysis revealed potential targets of the bHLH transcription factors as well as genes reflecting an exaggerated iron deficiency response phenotype. Since the BHLH genes of this subgroup have been brought into the context of the plant hormone salicylic acid, we investigated whether the 3xbhlh mutant might have been affected by this plant signaling molecule. Although a very high number of genes responded to SA, also in a differential manner between mutant and wild type, we did not find any indication for an association of the BHLH gene functions in SA responses upon iron deficiency. In summary, our study indicates that the bHLH subgroup Ib(2) transcription factors do not only act in iron acquisition into roots but in other aspects of the adaptation to iron deficiency in roots and leaves.

  11. Dendritic reduction in Passover, a Drosophila mutant with a defective giant fiber neuronal pathway.

    PubMed

    Baird, D H; Koto, M; Wyman, R J

    1993-07-01

    The jump response to a light-off startle stimulus in Drosophila melanogaster occurs when the Giant Fiber (GF), a neuron descending from the brain to the thorax, drives the jump (tergotrochanteral) muscle motorneuron (TTMn). Nonjumping mutants have been isolated in which this response is disrupted. Flies bearing the X-chromosome mutation Passover (Pas) fail to jump in response to a light-off stimulus, and electrical stimulation of the GF in the brain no longer elicits the normal response in the TTM. We have used retrograde HRP labelling to examine the TTMn motorneuron in wild-type flies and in a variety of newly identified Pas alleles. In wild type the medial branch (MB) of the TTMn has an extensive region of apposition with the GF. In Pas alleles, there is a general reduction in anterior-posterior (A-P) extent of the medial branch but not of the posterior branch. Nevertheless, Pas alleles usually leave the TTMn close enough to the GF so that contact would not be precluded. In flies carrying a particular deficiency of Pas, Df(1) 16-3-22, including Pas/Df(1) 16-3-22 heterozygotes, there can be extensive growth of the medial-branch including a contralateral projection; these heterozygotes have more than the normal amount of overlap between the GF and the TTMn. This phenotype, originally ascribed to Pas mutants, is associated with Df(1) 16-3-22, but not with other deletions of the Pas gene. The driving of the TTMn by the GF is defective in mutant genotypes with extensive medial branches as well as in mutants where GF-TTMn contact is reduced. The fact that the TTMn grows into its normal synaptic region in mutant genotypes, but the GF pathway functions abnormally suggests that pathfinding by the TTMn is not impaired. It is more likely that the Pas mutation disrupts cell recognition, synaptogenesis, or synaptic function in the TTMn or its presynaptic partners.

  12. Multiple classes of yeast mutants are defective in vacuole partitioning yet target vacuole proteins correctly.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y X; Zhao, H; Harding, T M; Gomes de Mesquita, D S; Woldringh, C L; Klionsky, D J; Munn, A L; Weisman, L S

    1996-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the vacuoles are partitioned from mother cells to daughter cells in a cell-cycle-coordinated process. The molecular basis of this event remains obscure. To date, few yeast mutants had been identified that are defective in vacuole partitioning (vac), and most such mutants are also defective in vacuole protein sorting (vps) from the Golgi to the vacuole. Both the vps mutants and previously identified non-vps vac mutants display an altered vacuolar morphology. Here, we report a new method to monitor vacuole inheritance and the isolation of six new non-vps vac mutants. They define five complementation groups (VAC8-VAC12). Unlike mutants identified previously, three of the complementation groups exhibit normal vacuolar morphology. Zygote studies revealed that these vac mutants are also defective in intervacuole communication. Although at least four pathways of protein delivery to the vacuole are known, only the Vps pathway seems to significantly overlap with vacuole partitioning. Mutants defective in both vacuole partitioning and endocytosis or vacuole partitioning and autophagy were not observed. However, one of the new vac mutants was additionally defective in direct protein transport from the cytoplasm to the vacuole. Images PMID:8885233

  13. What cardiovascular defect does my prenatal mouse mutant have, and why?

    PubMed

    Conway, Simon J; Kruzynska-Frejtag, Agnieszka; Kneer, Paige L; Machnicki, Michal; Koushik, Srinagesh V

    2003-01-01

    Since the advent of mouse targeted mutations, gene traps, an escalating use of a variety of complex transgenic manipulations, and large-scale chemical mutagenesis projects yielding many mutants with cardiovascular defects, it has become increasingly evident that defects within the heart and vascular system are largely responsible for the observed in utero lethality of the embryo and early fetus. If a transgenically altered embryo survives implantation but fails to be born, it usually indicates that there is some form of lethal cardiovascular defect present. A number of embryonic organ and body systems, including the central nervous system, gut, lungs, urogenital system, and musculoskeletal system appear to have little or no survival value in utero (Copp, 1995). Cardiovascular abnormalities include the failure to establish an adequate yolk-sac vascular circulation, which results in early lethality (E8.5-10.5); poor cardiac function (E9.0-birth); failure to undergo correct looping and chamber formation of the primitive heart tube (E9.0-11.0); improper septation, including division of the common ventricle and atria and the establishment of a divided outflow tract (E11.0-13.0); inadequate establishment of the cardiac conduction system (E12.0-birth); and the failure of the in utero cardiovascular system to adapt to adult life (birth) and close the interatrial and aorta-pulmonary trunk shunts that are required for normal fetal life. Importantly, the developmental timing of lethality is usually a good indicator of both the type of the cardiovascular defect present and may also suggest the possible underlying cause/s. The purpose of this review is both to review the literature and to provide a beginner's guide for analysing cardiovascular defects in mouse mutants.

  14. Proton suicide: general method for direct selection of sugar transport- and fermentation-defective mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelman, J.W.; Clark, D.P.

    1984-11-01

    A positive selection procedure was devised for bacterial mutants incapable of producing acid from sugars by fermentation. The method relied on the production of elemental bromine from a mixture of bromide and bromate under acidic conditions. When wild-type Escherichia coli cells were plated on media containing a fermentable sugar and an equimolar mixture of bromide and bromate, most of the cells were killed but a variety of mutants unable to produce acid from the sugar survived. Among these mutants were those defective in (i) sugar uptake, (ii) the glycolytic pathway, and (iii) the excretion. There were also novel mutants with some presumed regulatory defects affecting fermentation.

  15. Defective telomere elongation and hematopoiesis from telomerase-mutant aplastic anemia iPSCs

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Thomas; Hong, So Gun; Decker, Jake E.; Morgan, Mary J.; Wu, Chuanfeng; Hughes, William M.; Yang, Yanqin; Wangsa, Danny; Padilla-Nash, Hesed M.; Ried, Thomas; Young, Neal S.; Dunbar, Cynthia E.; Calado, Rodrigo T.

    2013-01-01

    Critically short telomeres activate p53-mediated apoptosis, resulting in organ failure and leading to malignant transformation. Mutations in genes responsible for telomere maintenance are linked to a number of human diseases. We derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from 4 patients with aplastic anemia or hypocellular bone marrow carrying heterozygous mutations in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) or the telomerase RNA component (TERC) telomerase genes. Both mutant and control iPSCs upregulated TERT and TERC expression compared with parental fibroblasts, but mutant iPSCs elongated telomeres at a lower rate compared with healthy iPSCs, and the deficit correlated with the mutations’ impact on telomerase activity. There was no evidence for alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) pathway activation. Elongation varied among iPSC clones derived from the same patient and among clones from siblings harboring identical mutations. Clonal heterogeneity was linked to genetic and environmental factors, but was not influenced by residual expression of reprogramming transgenes. Hypoxia increased telomere extension in both mutant and normal iPSCs. Additionally, telomerase-mutant iPSCs showed defective hematopoietic differentiation in vitro, mirroring the clinical phenotype observed in patients and demonstrating that human telomere diseases can be modeled utilizing iPSCs. Our data support the necessity of studying multiple clones when using iPSCs to model disease. PMID:23585473

  16. Insights into prevention of human neural tube defects by folic acid arising from consideration of mouse mutants.

    PubMed

    Harris, Muriel J

    2009-04-01

    Almost 30 years after the initial study by Richard W. Smithells and coworkers, it is still unknown how maternal periconceptional folic acid supplementation prevents human neural tube defects (NTDs). In this article, questions about human NTD prevention are considered in relation to three groups of mouse models: NTD mutants that respond to folate, NTD mutants and strains that do not respond to folate, and mutants involving folate-pathway genes. Of the 200 mouse NTD mutants, only a few have been tested with folate; half respond and half do not. Among responsive mutants, folic acid supplementation reduces exencephaly and/or spina bifida aperta frequency in the Sp(2H), Sp, Cd, Cited2, Cart1, and Gcn5 mutants. Prevention ranges from 35 to 85%. The responsive Sp(2H) (Pax3) mutant has abnormal folate metabolism, but the responsive Cited2 mutant does not. Neither folic nor folinic acid reduces NTD frequency in Axd, Grhl3, Fkbp8, Map3k4, or Nog mutants or in the curly tail or SELH/Bc strains. Spina bifida frequency is reduced in Axd by methionine and in curly tail by inositol. Exencephaly frequency is reduced in SELH/Bc by an alternative commercial ration. Mutations in folate-pathway genes do not cause NTDs, except for 30% exencephaly in folate-treated Folr1. Among folate-pathway mutants, neural tube closure is normal in Cbs, Folr2, Mthfd1, Mthfd2, Mthfr, and Shmt1 mutants. Embryos die by midgestation in Folr1, Mtr, Mtrr, and RFC1 mutants. The mouse models point to genetic heterogeneity in the ability to respond to folic acid and also to heterogeneity in genetic cause of NTDs that can be prevented by folic acid.

  17. Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant with a partial defect in the synthesis of CDP-diacylglycerol and altered regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Klig, L S; Homann, M J; Kohlwein, S D; Kelley, M J; Henry, S A; Carman, G M

    1988-01-01

    A Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant (cdg1 mutation) was isolated on the basis of an inositol excretion phenotype and exhibited pleiotropic deficiencies in phospholipid biosynthesis. Genetic analysis of the mutant confirmed that the cdg1 mutation represents a new genetic locus and that a defect in a single gene was responsible for the Cdg1 phenotype. CDP-diacylglycerol synthase activity in mutant haploid cells was 25% of the wild-type derepressed level. Biochemical and immunoblot analyses revealed that the defect in CDP-diacylglycerol synthase activity in the cdg1 mutant was due to a reduced level of the CDP-diacylglycerol synthase Mr-56,000 subunit rather than to an alteration in the enzymological properties of the enzyme. This defect resulted in a reduced rate of CDP-diacylglycerol synthesis, an elevated phosphatidate content, and alterations in overall phospholipid synthesis. Unlike wild-type cells, CDP-diacylglycerol synthase was not regulated in response to water-soluble phospholipid precursors. The cdg1 lesion also caused constitutive expression of inositol-1-phosphate synthase and elevated phosphatidylserine synthase. Phosphatidylinositol synthase was not affected in the cdg1 mutant. Images PMID:2832385

  18. Mutants of Myxococcus xanthus dsp defective in fibril binding.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, B Y; Dworkin, M

    1996-01-01

    The dsp mutant of Myxococcus xanthus lacks extracellular fibrils and as a result is unable to undergo cohesion, group motility, or development (J. W. Arnold and L. J. Shimkets, J. Bacteriol. 170:5765-5770, 1983; J. W. Arnold and L. J. Shimkets, J. Bacteriol. 170:5771-5777, 1983; R. M. Behmlander and M. Dworkin, J. Bacteriol. 173:7810-7821, 1991; L. J. Shimkets, J. Bacteriol. 166:837-841, 1986; L. J. Shimkets, J. Bacteriol. 166:842-848, 1986). However, cohesion and development can be phenotypically restored by the addition of isolated fibrils (R. M. Behmlander, Ph.D. thesis, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 1994; B.-Y. Chang and M. Dworkin, J. Bacteriol. 176:7190-7196, 1994). As part of our attempts to examine the interaction of fibrils and cells of M. xanthus, we have isolated a series of secondary mutants of M. xanthus dsp in which cohesion, unlike that of the parent strain, could not be rescued by the addition of isolated fibrils. Cells of M. xanthus dsp were mutagenized either by ethyl methanesulfonate or by Tn5 insertions. Mutagenized cultures were enriched by selection of those cells that could not be rescued, i.e., that failed to cohere in the presence of isolated fibrils. Seven mutants of M. xanthus dsp, designated fbd mutants, were isolated from 6,983 colonies; these represent putative fibril receptor-minus mutants. The fbd mutants, like the parent dsp mutant, still lacked fibrils, but displayed a number of unexpected properties. They regained group motility and the ability to aggregate but not the ability to form mature fruiting bodies. In addition, they partially regained the ability to form myxospores. The fbd mutant was backcrossed into the dsp mutant by Mx4 transduction. Three independently isolated transconjugants showed essentially the same properties as the fbd mutants--loss of fibril rescue of cohesion, partial restoration of myxospore morphogenesis, and restoration of group motility. These results suggest that the physical presence of fibrils

  19. Mutants of Saccharomycopsis lipolytica defective in lysine catabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Gaillardin, C; Fournier, P; Sylvestre, G; Heslot, H

    1976-01-01

    Wild-type strains of Saccharomycopsis lipolytica are able to use lysine as a carbon or a nitrogen source, but not as a unique source for both. Mutants were selected that could not use lysine either as a nitrogen or as a carbon source. Some of them, however, utilized N-6-acetyllysine or 5-aminovaleric acid. Many of the mutants appeared to be blocked in both utilizations, suggesting a unique pathway for lysine degradation (either as a carbon or as a nitrogen source). Genetic characterization of these mutants was achieved by complementation and recombination tests. PMID:1245461

  20. Anti-oncogenic activity of signalling-defective epidermal growth factor receptor mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Redemann, N; Holzmann, B; von Rüden, T; Wagner, E F; Schlessinger, J; Ullrich, A

    1992-01-01

    Overexpression and autocrine activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) cause transformation of cultured cells and correlate with tumor progression in cancer patients. Dimerization and transphosphorylation are crucial events in the process by which receptors with tyrosine kinase activity generate normal and transforming cellular signals. Interruption of this process by inactive receptor mutants offers the potential to inhibit ligand-induced cellular responses. Using recombinant retroviruses, we have examined the effects of signalling-incompetent EGF-R mutants on the growth-promoting and transforming potential of ligand-activated, overexpressed wild-type EGF-R and the v-erbB oncogene product. Expression of a soluble extracellular EGF-R domain had little if any effect on the growth and transformation of NIH 3T3 cells by either tyrosine kinase. However, both a kinase-negative EGF-R point mutant (HERK721A) and an EGF-R lacking 533 C-terminal amino acids efficiently inhibited wild-type EGF-R-mediated, de novo DNA synthesis and cell transformation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, coexpression with the v-erbBES4 oncogene product in NIH 3T3 cells resulted in transphosphorylation of the HERK721A mutant receptor and reduced soft-agar colony growth but had no effect in a focus formation assay. These results demonstrate that signalling-defective receptor tyrosine kinase mutants differentially interfere with oncogenic signals generated by either overexpressed EGF-R or the retroviral v-erbBES4 oncogene product. Images PMID:1346334

  1. Identification and Characterization of Aspergillus Nidulans Mutants Defective in Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, S. D.; Morrell, J. L.; Hamer, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    Filamentous fungi undergo cytokinesis by forming crosswalls termed septa. Here, we describe the genetic and physiological controls governing septation in Aspergillus nidulans. Germinating conidia do not form septa until the completion of their third nuclear division. The first septum is invariantly positioned at the basal end of the germ tube. Block-and-release experiments of nuclear division with benomyl or hydroxyurea, and analysis of various nuclear division mutants demonstrated that septum formation is dependent upon the third mitotic division. Block-and-release experiments with cytochalasin A and the localization of actin in germlings by indirect immunofluorescence showed that actin participated in septum formation. In addition to being concentrated at the growing hyphal tips, a band of actin was also apparent at the site of septum formation. Previous genetic analysis in A. nidulans identified four genes involved in septation (sepA-D). We have screened a new collection of temperature sensitive (ts) mutants of A. nidulans for strains that failed to form septa at the restrictive temperature but were able to complete early nuclear divisions. We identified five new genes designated sepE, G, H, I and J, along with one additional allele of a previously identified septation gene. On the basis of temperature shift experiments, nuclear counts and cell morphology, we sorted these cytokinesis mutants into three phenotypic classes. Interestingly, one class of mutants fails to form septa and fails to progress past the third nuclear division. This class of mutants suggests the existence of a regulatory mechanism in A. nidulans that ensures the continuation of nuclear division following the initiation of cytokinesis. PMID:8150280

  2. Temperature-sensitive yeast mutants defective in mitochondrial inheritance.

    PubMed

    McConnell, S J; Stewart, L C; Talin, A; Yaffe, M P

    1990-09-01

    The distribution of mitochondria to daughter cells is an essential feature of mitotic cell growth, yet the molecular mechanisms facilitating this mitochondrial inheritance are unknown. We have isolated mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are temperature-sensitive for the transfer of mitochondria into a growing bud. Two of these mutants contain single, recessive, nuclear mutations, mdm1 and mdm2, that cause temperature-sensitive growth and aberrant mitochondrial distribution at the nonpermissive temperature. The absence of mitochondria from the buds of mutant cells was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and by transmission electron microscopy. The mdm1 lesion also retards nuclear division and prevents the transfer of nuclei into the buds. Cells containing the mdm2 mutation grown at the nonpermissive temperature sequentially form multiple buds, each receiving a nucleus but no mitochondria. Neither mdm1 or mdm2 affects the transfer of vacuolar material into the buds or causes apparent changes in the tubulin- or actin-based cytoskeletons. The mdm1 and mdm2 mutations are cell-cycle specific, displaying an execution point in late G1 or early S phase.

  3. Proteus mirabilis mutants defective in swarmer cell differentiation and multicellular behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Belas, R; Erskine, D; Flaherty, D

    1991-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a dimorphic bacterium which exists in liquid cultures as a 1.5- to 2.0-microns motile swimmer cell possessing 6 to 10 peritrichous flagella. When swimmer cells are placed on a surface, they differentiate by a combination of events that ultimately produce a swarmer cell. Unlike the swimmer cell, the polyploid swarmer cell is 60 to 80 microns long and possesses hundreds to thousands of surface-induced flagella. These features, combined with multicellular behavior, allow the swarmer cells to move over a surface in a process called swarming. Transposon Tn5 was used to produce P. mirabilis mutants defective in wild-type swarming motility. Two general classes of mutants were found to be defective in swarming. The first class was composed of null mutants that were completely devoid of swarming motility. The majority of nonswarming mutations were the result of defects in the synthesis of flagella or in the ability to rotate the flagella. The remaining nonswarming mutants produced flagella but were defective in surface-induced elongation. Strains in the second general class of mutants, which made up more than 65% of all defects in swarming were motile but were defective in the control and coordination of multicellular swarming. Analysis of consolidation zones produced by such crippled mutants suggested that this pleiotropic phenotype was caused by a defect in the regulation of multicellular behavior. A possible mechanism controlling the cyclic process of differentiation and dediferentiation involved in the swarming behavior of P. mirabilis is discussed. Images PMID:1917860

  4. Isolation and characterization of prophage mutants of the defective Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage PBSX.

    PubMed Central

    Thurm, P; Garro, A J

    1975-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis mutants with lesions in PBSX prophage genes have been isolated. One of these appears to be a regulatory mutant and is defective for mitomycin C-induced derepression of PBSX; the others are defective for phage capsid formation. All of the PBSX structural proteins are synthesized during induction of the capsid defective mutants; however, several of these proteins exhibit abnormal serological reactivity with anti-PBSX antiserum. The two head proteins X4 and X7 are not immunoprecipitable in a mutant which fails to assemble phage head structures. In the tail mutant, proteins X5 and X6 are not immunoprecipitable, tails are not assembled, and a possible tail protein precursor remains uncleaved. The noninducible mutant does not synthesize any PBSX structural proteins after exposure to mitomycin C. The mutation is specific for PBSX since ø105 and SPO2 lysogens of the mutant are inducible. All of the known PBSX-specific mutations were shown to be clustered between argC and metC on the host chromosome. In addition, the metC marker was shown to be present in multiple copies in cells induced for PBSX replication. This suggests that the derepressed prophage replicates while still integrated and that replication extends into the adjacent regions of the host chromosome. Images PMID:805847

  5. The gravitropism defective 2 mutants of Arabidopsis are deficient in a protein implicated in endocytosis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Silady, Rebecca A; Kato, Takehide; Lukowitz, Wolfgang; Sieber, Patrick; Tasaka, Masao; Somerville, Chris R

    2004-10-01

    The gravitropism defective 2 (grv2) mutants of Arabidopsis show reduced shoot phototropism and gravitropism. Amyloplasts in the shoot endodermal cells of grv2 do not sediment to the same degree as in wild type. The GRV2 gene encodes a 277-kD polypeptide that is 42% similar to the Caenorhabditis elegans RME-8 protein, which is required for endocytosis. We hypothesize that a defect in endocytosis may affect both the initial gravity sensing via amyloplasts sedimentation and the subsequent more general tropic growth response.

  6. Correction of hair shaft defects through allele-specific silencing of mutant Krt75

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Snedecor, Elizabeth R.; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Yan-Feng; Huang, Lan; Jones, Evan; Zhang, Lianfeng; Clark, Richard A.; Roop, Dennis R.; Qin, Chuan; Chen, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Dominant mutations in keratin genes can cause a number of inheritable skin disorders characterized by intraepidermal blistering, epidermal hyperkeratosis, or abnormalities in skin appendages, such as nail plate dystrophy and structural defects in hair. Allele-specific silencing of mutant keratins through RNA interference is a promising therapeutic approach for suppressing the expression of mutant keratins and related phenotypes in the epidermis. However, its effectiveness on skin appendages remains to be confirmed in vivo. In this study, we developed allele specific siRNAs capable of selectively suppressing the expression of a mutant Krt75, which causes hair shaft structural defects characterized by the development of blebs along the hair shaft in mice. Hair regenerated from epidermal keratinocyte progenitor cells isolated from mutant Krt75 mouse models reproduced the blebbing phenotype when grafted in vivo. In contrast, mutant cells manipulated with a lentiviral vector expressing mutant Krt75-specific shRNA persistently suppressed this phenotype. The phenotypic correction was associated with significant reduction of mutant Krt75 mRNA in the skin grafts. Thus, data obtained from this study demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing RNA interference to achieve durable correction of hair structural phenotypes through allele-specific silencing of the mutant keratin genes. PMID:26763422

  7. Correction of Hair Shaft Defects through Allele-Specific Silencing of Mutant Krt75.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Snedecor, Elizabeth R; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Yanfeng; Huang, Lan; Jones, Evan C; Zhang, Lianfeng; Clark, Richard A; Roop, Dennis R; Qin, Chuan; Chen, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Dominant mutations in keratin genes can cause a number of inheritable skin disorders characterized by intraepidermal blistering, epidermal hyperkeratosis, or abnormalities in skin appendages, such as nail plate dystrophy and structural defects in hair. Allele-specific silencing of mutant keratins through RNA interference is a promising therapeutic approach for suppressing the expression of mutant keratins and related phenotypes in the epidermis. However, its effectiveness on skin appendages remains to be confirmed in vivo. In this study, we developed allele-specific small interfering RNAs capable of selectively suppressing the expression of a mutant Krt75, which causes hair shaft structural defects characterized by the development of blebs along the hair shaft in mice. Hair regenerated from epidermal keratinocyte progenitor cells isolated from mutant Krt75 mouse models reproduced the blebbing phenotype when grafted in vivo. In contrast, mutant cells manipulated with a lentiviral vector expressing mutant Krt75-specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) persistently suppressed this phenotype. The phenotypic correction was associated with a significant reduction of mutant Krt75 mRNA in the skin grafts. Thus, data obtained from this study demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing RNA interference to achieve durable correction of hair structural phenotypes through allele-specific silencing of mutant keratin genes.

  8. A novel histone H4 mutant defective in nuclear division and mitotic chromosome transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M M; Yang, P; Santisteban, M S; Boone, P W; Goldstein, A T; Megee, P C

    1996-01-01

    The histone proteins are essential for the assembly and function of th e eukaryotic chromosome. Here we report the first isolation of a temperature-sensitive lethal histone H4 mutant defective in mitotic chromosome transmission Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mutant requires two amino acid substitutions in histone H4: a lethal Thr-to-Ile change at position 82, which lies within one of the DNA-binding surfaces of the protein, and a substitution of Ala to Val at position 89 that is an intragenic suppressor. Genetic and biochemical evidence shows that the mutant histone H4 is temperature sensitive for function but not for synthesis, deposition, or stability. The chromatin structure of 2 micrometer circle minichromosomes is temperature sensitive in vivo, consistent with a defect in H4-DNA interactions. The mutant also has defects in transcription, displaying weak Spt- phenotypes. At the restrictive temperature, mutant cells arrest in the cell cycle at nuclear division, with a large bud, a single nucleus with 2C DNA content, and a short bipolar spindle. At semipermissive temperatures, the frequency of chromosome loss is elevated 60-fold in the mutant while DNA recombination frequencies are unaffected. High-copy CSE4, encoding an H3 variant related to the mammalian CENP-A kinetochore antigen, was found to suppress the temperature sensitivity of the mutant without suppressing the Spt- transcription defect. These genetic, biochemical, and phenotypic results indicate that this novel histone H4 mutant defines one or more chromatin-dependent steps in chromosome segregation. PMID:8622646

  9. Developmental Defects in Mutants of the PsbP Domain Protein 5 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Roose, Johnna L.; Frankel, Laurie K.; Bricker, Terry M.

    2011-01-01

    Plants contain an extensive family of PsbP-related proteins termed PsbP-like (PPL) and PsbP domain (PPD) proteins, which are localized to the thylakoid lumen. The founding member of this family, PsbP, is an established component of the Photosystem II (PS II) enzyme, and the PPL proteins have also been functionally linked to other photosynthetic processes. However, the functions of the remaining seven PPD proteins are unknown. To elucidate the function of the PPD5 protein (At5g11450) in Arabidopsis, we have characterized a mutant T-DNA insertion line (SALK_061118) as well as several RNAi lines designed to suppress the expression of this gene. The functions of the photosynthetic electron transfer reactions are largely unaltered in the ppd5 mutants, except for a modest though significant decrease in NADPH dehydrogenase (NDH) activity. Interestingly, these mutants show striking plant developmental and morphological defects. Relative to the wild-type Col-0 plants, the ppd5 mutants exhibit both increased lateral root branching and defects associated with axillary bud formation. These defects include the formation of additional rosettes originating from axils at the base of the plant as well as aerial rosettes formed at the axils of the first few nodes of the shoot. The root-branching phenotype is chemically complemented by treatment with the synthetic strigolactone, GR24. We propose that the developmental defects observed in the ppd5 mutants are related to a deficiency in strigolactone biosynthesis. PMID:22174848

  10. Azide-resistant mutants in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus A2 are defective in protein secretion.

    PubMed

    Elkeles, A; Rosenberg, E; Ron, E Z

    1994-02-15

    Azide, an inhibitor of ATPase, and a specific inhibitor of protein export was used in order to select for protein secretion mutants in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus A2. Two such mutants were isolated that were azide-resistant and defective in the general protein transport system. The mutation also conferred additional phenotypic changes, including an inability to grow on minimal media or at 40 degrees C. The existence of protein secretion mutants with a selectable phenotype may be useful for the genetic study of protein export.

  11. Exogenous Boron supplementation partially rescues fertilization defect of osbor4 mutant.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Uraguchi, Shimpei; Fujiwara, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana BOR1 is the first boron (B) transporter identified in the living systems. In the rice genome, there are four AtBOR1-like genes, OsBOR1, 2, 3 and 4. We have previously demonstrated that OsBOR4 is a B efflux transporter gene specifically expressed in rice pollen. OsBOR4 heterozygous lines showed abnormal segregation ratio, suggesting the significance of OsBOR4 in rice pollen tube germination/elongation process. To obtain further insights into the mechanisms underlying fertilization defects by osbor4 mutations, we examined if the mutant pollen exhibits morphological changes. The cross section of the pollen of the mutant was similar to those of the wild type. We also determined B concentrations in brown rice of three osbor4 mutants and found that B levels were comparable. These results suggest that osbor4 mutation does not affect B transport to pollen and seeds. We then examined if exogenous B supplementation can rescue segregation defect of osbor4. As reported previously, a OsBOR4 heterozygous lines showed abnormal segregation rate under the normal growth condition in this present study, too. Importantly, this abnormality in segregation was partially rescued by application of six-times higher B concentration to roots, providing further evidence that the fertilization defect of osbor4 is due to the defect in B transport process. Taken together we propose that osbor4 causes defect in B transport process during pollen germination to fertilization.

  12. Prp8 retinitis pigmentosa mutants cause defects in the transition between the catalytic steps of splicing.

    PubMed

    Mayerle, Megan; Guthrie, Christine

    2016-05-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing must occur with high fidelity and efficiency for proper gene expression. The spliceosome uses DExD/H box helicases to promote on-pathway interactions while simultaneously minimizing errors. Prp8 and Snu114, an EF2-like GTPase, regulate the activity of the Brr2 helicase, promoting RNA unwinding by Brr2 at appropriate points in the splicing cycle and repressing it at others. Mutations linked to retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a disease that causes blindness in humans, map to the Brr2 regulatory region of Prp8. Previous in vitro studies of homologous mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiaes how that Prp8-RP mutants cause defects in spliceosome activation. Here we show that a subset of RP mutations in Prp8 also causes defects in the transition between the first and second catalytic steps of splicing. Though Prp8-RP mutants do not cause defects in splicing fidelity, they result in an overall decrease in splicing efficiency. Furthermore, genetic analyses link Snu114 GTP/GDP occupancy to Prp8-dependent regulation of Brr2. Our results implicate the transition between the first and second catalytic steps as a critical place in the splicing cycle where Prp8-RP mutants influence splicing efficiency. The location of the Prp8-RP mutants, at the "hinge" that links the Prp8 Jab1-MPN regulatory "tail" to the globular portion of the domain, suggests that these Prp8-RP mutants inhibit regulated movement of the Prp8 Jab1/MPN domain into the Brr2 RNA binding channel to transiently inhibit Brr2. Therefore, in Prp8-linked RP, disease likely results not only from defects in spliceosome assembly and activation, but also because of defects in splicing catalysis.

  13. The Rec102 Mutant of Yeast Is Defective in Meiotic Recombination and Chromosome Synapsis

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, J.; Engebrecht, J. A.; Roeder, G. S.

    1992-01-01

    A mutation at the REC102 locus was identified in a screen for yeast mutants that produce inviable spores. rec102 spore lethality is rescued by a spo13 mutation, which causes cells to bypass the meiosis I division. The rec102 mutation completely eliminates meiotically induced gene conversion and crossing over but has no effect on mitotic recombination frequencies. Cytological studies indicate that the rec102 mutant makes axial elements (precursors to the synaptonemal complex), but homologous chromosomes fail to synapse. In addition, meiotic chromosome segregation is significantly delayed in rec102 strains. Studies of double and triple mutants indicate that the REC102 protein acts before the RAD52 gene product in the meiotic recombination pathway. The REC102 gene was cloned based on complementation of the mutant defect and the gene was mapped to chromosome XII between CDC25 and STE11. PMID:1732169

  14. How deeply does your mutant sleep? Probing arousal to better understand sleep defects in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Faville, R; Kottler, B; Goodhill, G J; Shaw, P J; van Swinderen, B

    2015-02-13

    The fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, has become a critical model system for investigating sleep functions. Most studies use duration of inactivity to measure sleep. However, a defining criterion for sleep is decreased behavioral responsiveness to stimuli. Here we introduce the Drosophila ARousal Tracking system (DART), an integrated platform for efficiently tracking and probing arousal levels in animals. This video-based platform delivers positional and locomotion data, behavioral responsiveness to stimuli, sleep intensity measures, and homeostatic regulation effects - all in one combined system. We show how insight into dynamically changing arousal thresholds is crucial for any sleep study in flies. We first find that arousal probing uncovers different sleep intensity profiles among related genetic background strains previously assumed to have equivalent sleep patterns. We then show how sleep duration and sleep intensity can be uncoupled, with distinct manipulations of dopamine function producing opposite effects on sleep duration but similar sleep intensity defects. We conclude by providing a multi-dimensional assessment of combined arousal and locomotion metrics in the mutant and background strains. Our approach opens the door for deeper insights into mechanisms of sleep regulation and provides a new method for investigating the role of different genetic manipulations in controlling sleep and arousal.

  15. Characterization of zebrafish mutants with defects in bone calcification during development.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yang; Chen, Dongyan; Sun, Lei; Li, Yuhao; Li, Lei

    2013-10-11

    Using the fluorescent dyes calcein and alcian blue, we stained the F3 generation of chemically (ENU) mutagenized zebrafish embryos and larvae, and screened for mutants with defects in bone development. We identified a mutant line, bone calcification slow (bcs), which showed delayed axial vertebra calcification during development. Before 4-5 days post-fertilization (dpf), the bcs embryos did not display obvious abnormalities in bone development (i.e., normal number, size and shape of cartilage and vertebrae). At 5-6 dpf, when vertebrae calcification starts, bcs embryos began to show defects. At 7 dpf, for example, in most of the bcs embryos examined, calcein staining revealed no signals of vertebrae mineralization, whereas during the same developmental stages, 2-14 mineralized vertebrae were observed in wild-type animals. Decreases in the number of calcified vertebrae were also observed in bcs mutants when examined at 9 and 11 dpf, respectively. Interestingly, by 13 dpf the defects in bcs mutants were no longer evident. There were no significant differences in the number of calcified vertebrae between wild-type and mutant animals. We examined the expression of bone development marker genes (e.g., Sox9b, Bmp2b, and Cyp26b1, which play important roles in bone formation and calcification). In mutant fish, we observed slight increases in Sox9b expression, no alterations in Bmp2b expression, but significant increases in Cyp26b1 expression. Together, the data suggest that bcs delays axial skeletal calcification, but does not affect bone formation and maturation.

  16. Isolation and characterization of mutants defective in the cyanide-insensitive respiratory pathway of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, L; Williams, H D

    1995-01-01

    The branched respiratory chain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa contains at least two terminal oxidases which are active under normal physiological conditions. One of these, cytochrome co, is a cytochrome c oxidase which is completely inhibited by concentrations of the respiratory inhibitor potassium cyanide as low as 100 microM. The second oxidase, the cyanide-insensitive oxidase, is resistant to cyanide concentrations in excess of 1 mM as well as to sodium azide. In this work, we describe the isolation and characterization of a mutant of P. aeruginosa defective in cyanide-insensitive respiration. This insertion mutant was isolated with mini-D171 (a replication-defective derivative of the P. aeruginosa phage D3112) as a mutagen and by screening the resulting tetracycline-resistant transductants for the loss of ability to grow in the presence of 1 mM sodium azide. Polarographic studies on the NADH-mediated respiration rate of the mutant indicated an approximate 50% loss of activity, and titration of this activity against increasing cyanide concentrations gave a monophasic curve clearly showing the complete loss of cyanide-insensitive respiration. The mutated gene for a mutant affected in the cyanide-insensitive, oxidase-terminated respiratory pathway has been designated cio. We have complemented the azide-sensitive phenotype of this mutant with a wild-type copy of the gene by in vivo cloning with another mini-D element, mini-D386, carried on plasmid pADD386. The complemented cio mutant regained the ability to grow on medium containing 1 mM azide, titration of its NADH oxidase activity with cyanide gave a biphasic curve similar to that of the wild-type organism, and the respiration rate returned to normal levels. Spectral analysis of the cytochrome contents of the membranes of the wild type, the cio mutant, and the complemented mutant suggests that the cio mutant is not defective in any membrane-bound cytochromes and that the complementing gene does not encode a heme

  17. Chloroplast Dysfunction Causes Multiple Defects in Cell Cycle Progression in the Arabidopsis crumpled leaf Mutant1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Hudik, Elodie; Yoshioka, Yasushi; Domenichini, Séverine; Bourge, Mickaël; Soubigout-Taconnat, Ludivine; Mazubert, Christelle; Yi, Dalong; Bujaldon, Sandrine; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; De Veylder, Lieven; Bergounioux, Catherine; Benhamed, Moussa; Raynaud, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    The majority of research on cell cycle regulation is focused on the nuclear events that govern the replication and segregation of the genome between the two daughter cells. However, eukaryotic cells contain several compartmentalized organelles with specialized functions, and coordination among these organelles is required for proper cell cycle progression, as evidenced by the isolation of several mutants in which both organelle function and overall plant development were affected. To investigate how chloroplast dysfunction affects the cell cycle, we analyzed the crumpled leaf (crl) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which is deficient for a chloroplastic protein and displays particularly severe developmental defects. In the crl mutant, we reveal that cell cycle regulation is altered drastically and that meristematic cells prematurely enter differentiation, leading to reduced plant stature and early endoreduplication in the leaves. This response is due to the repression of several key cell cycle regulators as well as constitutive activation of stress-response genes, among them the cell cycle inhibitor SIAMESE-RELATED5. One unique feature of the crl mutant is that it produces aplastidic cells in several organs, including the root tip. By investigating the consequence of the absence of plastids on cell cycle progression, we showed that nuclear DNA replication occurs in aplastidic cells in the root tip, which opens future research prospects regarding the dialogue between plastids and the nucleus during cell cycle regulation in higher plants. PMID:25037213

  18. Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli mutants defective for phenylpropionate degradation.

    PubMed Central

    Burlingame, R P; Wyman, L; Chapman, P J

    1986-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli defective in catabolism of 3-phenylpropionate, 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionate, or both were isolated after mutagenesis with ethylmethane sulfonate. Nine phenotypically distinct classes of mutants were identified, including strains lacking each of the first five enzyme activities for the degradation of these compounds and mutants pleiotropically negative for some of these activities. Characterization of these mutants was greatly facilitated by the use of indicator media in which accumulation of 3-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl)propionate or 2-hydroxy-6-ketononadienedioic acid led to the formation of dark red or bright yellow colors, respectively, in the medium. Assays with wild-type and mutant strains indicated that 3-phenylpropionate (or its dihydrodiol), but none of the hydroxylated derivatives tested, induced the synthesis of enzymes for its conversion to 3-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl)propionate. The remaining enzymes were induced by the 2- or 3-hydroxy or 2,3-dihydroxy derivatives of 3-phenylpropionate, with the 2-hydroxy compound acting as an apparent gratuitous inducer. Metabolism to nonaromatic intermediates appeared to be unnecessary for full induction of any pathway enzyme. One unusual class of mutants, in which 2-keto-4-pentenoate hydratase appeared to be uninducible, indicated a level of control not previously shown in meta-fission catabolic pathways. PMID:3531186

  19. Isolation of Mutants Defective in α-Amylase from Bacillus subtilis: Genetic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Nagata, Yoshiho; Maruo, Bunji

    1974-01-01

    The rate of α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) synthesis in Bacillus subtilis is regulated by a gene, amyR, located near a structural gene, amyE, for the enzyme. To construct a fine map of the amyR-amyE region, we isolated 28 mutants defective in α-amylase activity. Eleven mutants out of 28 showed no α-amylase activity, whereas the other 17 showed less α-amylase activity than the parent. Out of 17 partially positive α-amylase mutants, 10 produced temperature-sensitive enzymes, and 4 produced immunologically altered enzymes, two of which are concurrently temperature-sensitive, and 5 produced smaller amounts of α-amylases which are indistinguishable from normal enzyme in their temperature sensitivity and immunological properties. Two out of 11 α-amylase-negative mutants produced material that cross-reacted with anti-amylase serum, and 3 mutants carried suppressible mutations by the suppressor described by Okubo. Mapping data indicate that all 28 mutation sites are located in the amyE region, and none of the groups of the mutants mentioned above contains lesions that are clustered in a single region of amyE. The amyR gene seems most likely to adjoin the terminal region of amyE. PMID:4212116

  20. Isolation and characterization of Arabidopsis mutants defective in the induction of ethylene biosynthesis by cytokinin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, J. P.; Schuerman, P.; Woeste, K.; Brandstatter, I.; Kieber, J. J.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Cytokinins elevate ethylene biosynthesis in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings via a post-transcriptional modification of one isoform of the key biosynthetic enzyme ACC synthase. In order to begin to dissect the signaling events leading from cytokinin perception to this modification, we have isolated a series of mutants that lack the ethylene-mediated triple response in the presence of cytokinin due to their failure to increase ethylene biosynthesis. Analysis of genetic complementation and mapping revealed that these Cin mutants (cytokinin-insensitive) represent four distinct complementation groups, one of which, cin4, is allelic to the constitutive photomorphogenic mutant fus9/cop10. The Cin mutants have subtle effects on the morphology of adult plants. We further characterized the Cin mutants by analyzing ethylene biosynthesis in response to various other inducers and in adult tissues, as well as by assaying additional cytokinin responses. The cin3 mutant did not disrupt ethylene biosynthesis under any other conditions, nor did it disrupt any other cytokinin responses. Only cin2 disrupted ethylene biosynthesis in multiple circumstances. cin1 and cin2 made less anthocyanin in response to cytokinin. cin1 also displayed reduced shoot initiation in tissue culture in response to cytokinin, suggesting that it affects a cytokinin signaling element.

  1. A requirement for recombinational repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is caused by DNA replication defects of mec1 mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, B J; Holm, C

    1999-01-01

    To examine the role of the RAD52 recombinational repair pathway in compensating for DNA replication defects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we performed a genetic screen to identify mutants that require Rad52p for viability. We isolated 10 mec1 mutations that display synthetic lethality with rad52. These mutations (designated mec1-srf for synthetic lethality with rad-fifty-two) simultaneously cause two types of phenotypes: defects in the checkpoint function of Mec1p and defects in the essential function of Mec1p. Velocity sedimentation in alkaline sucrose gradients revealed that mec1-srf mutants accumulate small single-stranded DNA synthesis intermediates, suggesting that Mec1p is required for the normal progression of DNA synthesis. sml1 suppressor mutations suppress both the accumulation of DNA synthesis intermediates and the requirement for Rad52p in mec1-srf mutants, but they do not suppress the checkpoint defect in mec1-srf mutants. Thus, it appears to be the DNA replication defects in mec1-srf mutants that cause the requirement for Rad52p. By using hydroxyurea to introduce similar DNA replication defects, we found that single-stranded DNA breaks frequently lead to double-stranded DNA breaks that are not rapidly repaired in rad52 mutants. Taken together, these data suggest that the RAD52 recombinational repair pathway is required to prevent or repair double-stranded DNA breaks caused by defective DNA replication in mec1-srf mutants. PMID:10511542

  2. Recombinant EDA or Sonic Hedgehog rescue the branching defect in Ectodysplasin A pathway mutant salivary glands in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wells, K L; Mou, C; Headon, D J; Tucker, A S

    2010-10-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by defective ectodermal organ development. This includes the salivary glands (SGs), which have an important role in lubricating the oral cavity. In humans and mice, HED is caused by mutations in Ectodysplasin A (Eda) pathway genes. Various phenotypes of the mutant mouse Eda(Ta/Ta), which lacks the ligand Eda, can be rescued by maternal injection or in vitro culture supplementation with recombinant EDA. However, the response of the SGs to this treatment has not been investigated. Here, we show that the submandibular glands (SMGs) of Eda(Ta/Ta) mice exhibit impaired branching morphogenesis, and that supplementation of Eda(Ta/Ta) SMG explants with recombinant EDA rescues the defect. Supplementation of Edar(dlJ/dlJ) SMGs with recombinant Sonic hedgehog (Shh) also rescues the defect, whereas treatment with recombinant Fgf8 does not. This work is the first to test the ability of putative Eda target molecules to rescue Eda pathway mutant SMGs.

  3. Agravitropic mutants of the moss Ceratodon purpureus do not complement mutants having a reversed gravitropic response.

    PubMed

    Cove, David J; Quatrano, Ralph S

    2006-07-01

    New mutants of the moss Ceratodon purpureus have been isolated, which showed abnormal gravitropic responses. The apical cells of protonemal filaments of wild-type strains respond to gravity by growing upwards and are well aligned to the gravity vector. This response only occurs in darkness. Mutants show a range of phenotypes. Some are insensitive to gravity, showing symmetrical growth, while others align to the gravity vector but orient growth downwards. A further class grows in darkness as though it were in light, showing insensitivity to gravity and continued chlorophyll synthesis. Somatic hybrids between mutants and wild-type strains and between pairs of mutants have been selected using transgenic antibiotic resistance as selective markers. Hybrids between wild-type strains and all of the mutants have a wild-type phenotype, and so all mutants therefore have recessive phenotypes. Mutants comprise three complementation groups. One group has a single member, while another has three members. The third has at least 16 members and shows a complex pattern of complementation consistent with a single gene product functioning in both orientation and alignment to gravity, as well as contributing more than one subunit to the mature product.

  4. Incomplete Splicing, Cell Division Defects and Hematopoietic Blockage in dhx8 Mutant Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    English, Milton A.; Lei, Lin; Blake, Trevor; Wincovitch, Stephen M.; Sood, Raman; Azuma, Mizuki; Hickstein, Dennis; Liu, P. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrate hematopoiesis is a complex developmental process that is controlled by genes in diverse pathways. To identify novel genes involved in early hematopoiesis, we conducted an ENU (N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) mutagenesis screen in zebrafish. The mummy (mmy) line was investigated because of its multiple hematopoietic defects. Homozygous mmy embryos lacked circulating blood cells types and were dead by 30 hours post-fertilization (hpf). The mmy mutants did not express myeloid markers and had significantly decreased expression of progenitor and erythroid markers in primitive hematopoiesis. Through positional cloning, we identified a truncation mutation in dhx8 in the mmy fish. dhx8 is the zebrafish ortholog of the yeast splicing factor prp22, which is a DEAH-box RNA helicase. Mmy mutants had splicing defects in many genes, including several hematopoietic genes. Mmy embryos also showed cell division defects as characterized by disorganized mitotic spindles and formation of multiple spindle poles in mitotic cells. These cell division defects were confirmed by DHX8 knockdown in HeLa cells. Together, our results confirm that dhx8 is involved in mRNA splicing and suggest that it is also important for cell division during mitosis. This is the first vertebrate model for dhx8, whose function is essential for primitive hematopoiesis in developing embryos. PMID:22411201

  5. Defective calmodulin-dependent rapid apical endocytosis in zebrafish sensory hair cell mutants.

    PubMed

    Seiler, C; Nicolson, T

    1999-11-15

    Vertebrate mechanosensory hair cells contain a narrow "pericuticular" zone which is densely populated with small vesicles between the cuticular plate and cellular junctions near the apical surface. The presence of many cytoplasmic vesicles suggests that the apical surface of hair cells has a high turnover rate. The significance of intense membrane trafficking at the apical surface is not known. Using a marker of endocytosis, the styryl dye FM1-43, this report shows that rapid apical endocytosis in zebrafish lateral line sensory hair cells is calcium and calmodulin dependent and is partially blocked by the presence of amiloride and dihydrostreptomycin, known inhibitors of mechanotransduction channels. As seen in lateral line hair cells, sensory hair cells within the larval otic capsule also exhibit rapid apical endocytosis. Defects in internalization of the dye in both lateral line and inner ear hair cells were found in five zebrafish auditory/vestibular mutants: sputnik, mariner, orbiter, mercury, and skylab. In addition, lateral line hair cells in these mutants were not sensitive to prolonged exposure to streptomycin, which is toxic to hair cells. The presence of endocytic defects in the majority of zebrafish mechanosensory mutants points to a important role of apical endocytosis in hair cell function.

  6. Mutants defective in secretory/vacuolar pathways in the EUROFAN collection of yeast disruptants.

    PubMed

    Avaro, Sandrine; Belgareh-Touzé, Naïma; Sibella-Argüelles, Carla; Volland, Christiane; Haguenauer-Tsapis, Rosine

    2002-03-15

    We have screened the EUROFAN (European Functional Analysis Network) deletion strain collection for yeast mutants defective in secretory/vacuolar pathways and/or associated biochemical modifications. We used systematic Western immunoblotting to analyse the electrophoretic pattern of several markers of the secretory/vacuolar pathways, the soluble alpha-factor, the periplasmic glycoprotein invertase, the plasma membrane GPI-anchored protein Gas1p, and two vacuolar proteins, the soluble carboxypeptidase Y and the membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase, which are targeted to the vacuole by different pathways. We also used colony immunoblotting to monitor the secretion of carboxypeptidase Y into the medium, to identify disruptants impaired in vacuolar targeting. We identified 25 mutants among the 631 deletion strains. Nine of these mutants were disrupted in genes identified in recent years on the basis of their involvement in trafficking (VPS53, VAC7, VAM6, APM3, SYS1), or glycosylation (ALG12, ALG9, OST4, ROT2). Three of these genes were identified on the basis of trafficking defects by ourselves and others within the EUROFAN project (TLG2, RCY1, MON2). The deletion of ERV29, which encodes a COPII vesicle protein, impaired carboxypeptidase Y trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. We also identified eight unknown ORFs, the deletion of which reduced Golgi glycosylation or impaired the Golgi to vacuole trafficking of carboxypeptidase Y. YJR044c, which we identified as a new VPS gene, encodes a protein with numerous homologues of unknown function in sequence databases.

  7. Analysis of a gene that suppresses the morphological defect of bald mutants of Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed Central

    McCue, L A; Kwak, J; Wang, J; Kendrick, K E

    1996-01-01

    When present in multiple copies, orf1590 restored sporulation to class IIIA bald mutants of Streptomyces griseus, which form sporulation septa and thick spore walls prematurely. The orf1590 alleles from class IIIA bald mutants restored sporulation upon introduction at a high copy number into those same mutants, and the nucleotide sequence of one of these alleles was identical to that of the wild-type strain. We conclude that overexpression of orf1590 suppresses the defect in class IIIA bald mutants. Previous nucleotide sequence and transcript analyses suggested that orf1590 could encode two related proteins, P56 and P49.5, from nested coding sequences. A mutation that prevented the synthesis of P56 without altering the coding sequence for P49.5 eliminated the function of orf1590, as did amino acid substitutions in the putative helix-turn-helix domain located at the N terminus of P56 and absent from P49.5. To determine the coding capacity of orf1590, we analyzed translational fusions between orf1590 and the neo gene from Tn5. Measurement of the expression of fusions to the wild-type and mutant alleles of orf1590 indicated that P56 was the sole product of orf1590 during vegetative growth. Attempts to generate a nonfunctional frameshift mutation in orf1590 were unsuccessful in the absence of a second-site bald mutation, suggesting that orf1590 may be required during vegetative growth by preventing early sporulation. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that P56 at a high level delays the premature synthesis of sporulation septa and spore walls in class IIIA mutants. PMID:8631675

  8. Characterization of T cell mutants with defects in capacitative calcium entry: genetic evidence for the physiological roles of CRAC channels

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Prolonged Ca2+ influx is an essential signal for the activation of T lymphocytes by antigen. This influx is thought to occur through highly selective Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels that are activated by the depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores. We have isolated mutants of the Jurkat human T cell line NZdipA to explore the molecular mechanisms that underlie capacitative Ca2+ entry and to allow a genetic test of the functions of CRAC channels in T cells. Five mutant cell lines (CJ-1 through CJ-5) were selected based on their failure to express a lethal diphtheria toxin A chain gene and a lacZ reporter gene driven by NF-AT, a Ca(2+)- and protein kinase C-dependent transcription factor. The rate of Ca2+ influx evoked by thapsigargin was reduced to varying degrees in the mutant cells whereas the dependence of NF-AT/lacZ gene transcription on [Ca2+]i was unaltered, suggesting that the transcriptional defect in these cells is caused by a reduced level of capacitative Ca2+ entry. We examined several factors that determine the rate of Ca2+ entry, including CRAC channel activity, K(+)-channel activity, and Ca2+ clearance mechanisms. The only parameter found to be dramatically altered in most of the mutant lines was the amplitude of the Ca2+ current (ICRAC), which ranged from 1 to 41% of that seen in parental control cells. In each case, the severity of the ICRAC defect was closely correlated with deficits in Ca2+ influx rate and Ca(2-)-dependent gene transcription. Behavior of the mutant cells provides genetic evidence for several roles of ICRAC in T cells. First, mitogenic doses of ionomycin appear to elevate [Ca2+]i primarily by activating CRAC channels. Second, ICRAC promotes the refilling of empty Ca2+ stores. Finally, CRAC channels are solely responsible for the Ca2+ influx that underlies antigen-mediated T cell activation. These mutant cell lines may provide a useful system for isolating, expressing, and exploring the functions of genes involved in

  9. Functional expression of human mutant phosphofructokinase in yeast: genetic defects in French Canadian and Swiss patients with phosphofructokinase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Raben, N; Exelbert, R; Spiegel, R; Sherman, J B; Nakajima, H; Plotz, P; Heinisch, J

    1995-01-01

    Human phosphofructokinase (PFK) is a tetrameric enzyme, encoded by muscle, liver, and platelet genes. Deficiency of muscle PFK (PFK-M), glycogenosis type VII (Tarui disease), is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by an exertional myopathy and hemolytic syndrome. Several disease-causing mutations have been identified in the PFK-M gene in Japanese, Ashkenazi Jewish, and Italian patients. We describe the genetic defects in French Canadian and Swiss patients with the disease, and we use a genetically well-defined yeast system devoid of endogenous PFK for structure-function studies of the mutant PFKs. A G-to-A transition at codon 209-in exon 8 of the PFK-M gene, changing an encoded Gly to Asp, is responsible for the disease in a homozygous French Canadian patient. Gly-209-mutated protein is completely inactive in the yeast system. The Swiss patient is a genetic compound, carrying a G-to-A transition at codon 100 in exon 6 (Arg to Gln) and a G-to-A transition at codon 696 in exon 22 (Arg to His). The mutants expressed in yeast generate functional enzyme with modest changes in thermal stability. The advantages and limitations of the yeast system for expression of human mutant PFKs are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7825568

  10. Genetic studies of an Escherichia coli K-12 temperature-sensitive mutant defective in membrane protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, T; Ohki, M; Yura, T; Ito, K

    1979-01-01

    The mutant divE42(Ts) of Escherichia coli K-12, defective in the synthesis of membrane proteins and in the transcription of the lac operon at high temperature, has been further characterized. It was found that a mutation (divE42) located at about min 22 on the E. coli chromosome map is responsible for the Lac- phenotype and temperature-sensitive growth. The mutation could be contransduced with serC, pyrD, or pyrC by phage P1 at a frequency of 4, 16, or 0.5%, respectively, the gene order being serC-pyrD-ompA-sulA-divE-pyrC. Examination of temperature-independent revertants and Pyr+ transductants revealed that all the mutant phenotypes examined (deficiencies in the increase of activities of some membrane enzymes, expression of the lac operon, and synthesis of several other proteins) are due to a single mutation (divE42) which is recessive to the wild-type (divE+) allele. Protein synthesis in the mutant was also analyzed by dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Synthesis of a number of proteins, including membrane proteins, was found to decrease significantly, whereas that of an elongation factor, EF-Tu, increased upon transfer of a log-phase culture to high temperature (42 degrees C). These effects of temperature shift-up on protein synthesis were evident within 5 min under the conditions used. Images PMID:374381

  11. Abelson murine leukemia virus transformation-defective mutants with impaired P120-associated protein kinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, F H; Van de Ven, W J; Stephenson, J R

    1980-01-01

    Several transformation-defective (td) mutants of Abelson murine leukemia virus (AbLV) are described. Cells nonproductively infected with such mutants exhibited a high degree of growth contact inhibition, failed to form colonies in soft agar, lacked rescuable transforming virus, and were as susceptible as uninfected control cells to transformation by wild-type (wt) AbLV pseudotype virus. In addition, each of several td AbLV nonproductively infected cell clones analyzed was found to be nontumorigenic in vivo. Biochemical analysis of td mutant AbLV-infected clones revealed levels of expression of the major AbLV translational product, P120, and a highly related 80,000-Mr AbLV-encoded protein, P80, at concentrations analogous to those in wt AbLV-transformed cells. Although the AbLV-specific 120,000-Mr polyproteins expressed in td mutant AbLV-infected clones were indistinguishable from those in wt AbLV-transformed lines with respect to molecular weight and [35S]methionine tryptic peptide composition, they each differed from wt AbLV P120 in their patterns of post-translational phosphorylation. A previously described AbLV-associated protein kinase activity is shown to recognize as substrate a major tyrosine-specific acceptor site(s) contained within a single well-resolved tryptic peptide common to both AbLV P120 and P80. In vitro [gamma-32P]ATP-mediated labeling of this phosphorylation site was reduced to below detectable levels in td mutant nonproductively infected cell clones. These findings establish that the AbLV-encoded polyprotein P120 and its associated protein kinase activity are involved in AbLV tumorigenesis. Images PMID:6253663

  12. Reduction of germ cells in the Odysseus null mutant causes male fertility defect in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ya-Jen; Fang, Shu; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Chen, Yi-Ling; Fu, Hua-Wen; Patel, Nipam H; Ting, Chau-Ti

    2012-01-01

    Odysseus (OdsH) has been identified as a hybrid male sterility gene between Drosophila mauritiana and D. simulans with accelerated evolutionary rate in both expression and DNA sequence. Loss of a testis-specific expression of OdsH causes male fertility defect in D. melanogaster. Yet, the underlying mechanisms at the cellular level are unknown. In an attempt to identify the possible mechanisms and functional roles of OdsH in spermatogenesis, the cell numbers at different developmental stages during spermatogenesis between the OdsH null mutant and wild-type flies were compared. The results showed that the early developing germ cells, including spermatogonia and spermatocytes, were reduced in the OdsH mutant males. In addition, the number of germline stem cells in aged males was also reduced, presumably due to the disruption of germline stem cell maintenance, which resulted in more severe fertility defect. These results suggest that the function of the enhancement of sperm production by OdsH acted across males of all ages.

  13. Cortico-striatal synaptic defects and OCD-like behaviors in SAPAP3 mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Jeffrey M.; Lu, Jing; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Trotta, Nicholas C.; Peca, Joao; Ding, Jin-Dong; Feliciano, Catia; Chen, Meng; Adams, J. Paige; Luo, Jianhong; Dudek, Serena M.; Weinberg, Richard J.; Calakos, Nicole; Wetsel, William C.; Feng, Guoping

    2008-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety-spectrum disorder characterized by persistent intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive actions (compulsions). Dysfunction of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry is implicated in OCD, though the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unknown. SAP90/PSD95-associated protein 3 (SAPAP3) is a postsynaptic scaffolding protein at excitatory synapses that is highly expressed in the striatum. Here we show that mice with genetic deletion of SAPAP3 exhibit increased anxiety and compulsive grooming behavior leading to facial hair loss and skin lesions; both behaviors are alleviated by a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Electrophysiological, structural, and biochemical studies of SAPAP3 mutant mice reveal defects in cortico-striatal synapses. Furthermore, lentiviral-mediated selective expression of SAPAP3 in the striatum rescues the synaptic and behavioral defects of SAPAP3 mutant mice. These findings demonstrate a critical role for SAPAP3 at cortico-striatal synapses and emphasize the importance of cortico-striatal circuitry in OCD-like behaviors. PMID:17713528

  14. An Escherichia coli mutant resistant to phleomycin, bleomycin, and heat inactivation is defective in ubiquinone synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Collis, C M; Grigg, G W

    1989-01-01

    A mutant of Escherichia coli, selected for resistance to the antibiotic and antitumor agent phleomycin, has been characterized, and the phleomycin resistance determinant has been identified. The mutant is equally resistant to bleomycins. The resistance to phleomycin is strongly dependent on the nature of the C-terminal amine of the drug, with the greatest resistance being shown to phleomycins and bleomycins with the most basic terminal amines. The mutation also confers resistance to the lethal effects of heating at 52 degrees C. Other characteristics of the phleomycin-resistant strain include a slow growth rate, an inability to grow on succinate as the sole carbon source (Suc- phenotype), cross resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics, and a slight sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, methyl methanesulfonate, and gamma-irradiation. Some of these characteristics, together with mapping data, suggested that the phleomycin resistance and Suc- determinant probably lies within the ubiF gene coding for an enzyme effecting a step in the biosynthesis of ubiquinone. The phenotypes of known mutants defective in this and other steps of the ubiquinone pathway were found to be closely similar to those of the original phleomycin-resistant strain. PMID:2475481

  15. Ceramides And Stress Signalling Intersect With Autophagic Defects In Neurodegenerative Drosophila blue cheese (bchs) Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Hebbar, Sarita; Sahoo, Ishtapran; Matysik, Artur; Argudo Garcia, Irene; Osborne, Kathleen Amy; Papan, Cyrus; Torta, Federico; Narayanaswamy, Pradeep; Fun, Xiu Hui; Wenk, Markus R; Shevchenko, Andrej; Schwudke, Dominik; Kraut, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipid metabolites are involved in the regulation of autophagy, a degradative recycling process that is required to prevent neuronal degeneration. Drosophila blue cheese mutants neurodegenerate due to perturbations in autophagic flux, and consequent accumulation of ubiquitinated aggregates. Here, we demonstrate that blue cheese mutant brains exhibit an elevation in total ceramide levels; surprisingly, however, degeneration is ameliorated when the pool of available ceramides is further increased, and exacerbated when ceramide levels are decreased by altering sphingolipid catabolism or blocking de novo synthesis. Exogenous ceramide is seen to accumulate in autophagosomes, which are fewer in number and show less efficient clearance in blue cheese mutant neurons. Sphingolipid metabolism is also shifted away from salvage toward de novo pathways, while pro-growth Akt and MAP pathways are down-regulated, and ER stress is increased. All these defects are reversed under genetic rescue conditions that increase ceramide generation from salvage pathways. This constellation of effects suggests a possible mechanism whereby the observed deficit in a potentially ceramide-releasing autophagic pathway impedes survival signaling and exacerbates neuronal death. PMID:26639035

  16. Yeast lsm pro-apoptotic mutants show defects in S-phase entry and progression.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Vanessa; Cundari, Enrico; Mangiapelo, Eleonora; Falcone, Claudio; Mazzoni, Cristina

    2010-10-01

    Expression of the histone genes is tightly coupled to rates of DNA synthesis in yeast and histone mRNAs are modulated both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. Trf4 and Trf5, poly(A) polymerases, that mediates polyadenylation and consequent degradation) and Rrp6, an exosome component, play a role in the regulation of histone mRNA levels. In this paper we show that in the mRNA degradation mutant Kllsm4Δ1, histone mRNAs are induced early in the S-phase and maintained at high level all along the entire cell cycle due to a delay in the exit from S-phase and/or entry into M-phase. The overexpression of the HIR1 gene (Histone transcriptional repressor), previously isolated as a multicopy suppressor of the apoptotic phenotypes observed in Kllsm4Δ1, can also restore the normal cycling of histone genes expression. We also found that low doses of hydroxyurea neutralize the onset of the apoptotic phenotypes in Kllsm4Δ1, as well in another mRNA decapping mutants (lsm1) and, in addition, increase the chronological lifespan in both strains suggesting that an entry delay into the S phase can recover some cellular defects in decapping mutants.

  17. Brucella abortus Cyclic β-1,2-Glucan Mutants Have Reduced Virulence in Mice and Are Defective in Intracellular Replication in HeLa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Briones, Gabriel; Iñón de Iannino, Nora; Roset, Mara; Vigliocco, Ana; Paulo, Patricia Silva; Ugalde, Rodolfo A.

    2001-01-01

    Null cyclic β-1,2-glucan synthetase mutants (cgs mutants) were obtained from Brucella abortus virulent strain 2308 and from B. abortus attenuated vaccinal strain S19. Both mutants show greater sensitivity to surfactants like deoxycholic acid, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and Zwittergent than the parental strains, suggesting cell surface alterations. Although not to the same extent, both mutants display reduced virulence in mice and defective intracellular multiplication in HeLa cells. The B. abortus S19 cgs mutant was completely cleared from the spleens of mice after 4 weeks, while the 2308 mutant showed a 1.5-log reduction of the number of brucellae isolated from the spleens after 12 weeks. These results suggest that cyclic β-1,2-glucan plays an important role in the residual virulence of the attenuated B. abortus S19 strain. Although the cgs mutant was cleared from the spleens earlier than the wild-type parental strain (B. abortus S19) and produced less inflammatory response, its ability to confer protection against the virulent strain B. abortus 2308 was fully retained. Equivalent levels of induction of spleen gamma interferon mRNA and anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) subtype antibodies were observed in mice injected with B. abortus S19 or the cgs mutant. However, the titer of anti-LPS antibodies of the IgG1 subtype induced by the cgs mutant was lower than that observed with the parental S19 strain, thus suggesting that the cgs mutant induces a relatively exclusive Th1 response. PMID:11401996

  18. Genetic mapping and characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants defective in the formation of extracellular proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Wretlind, B; Pavlovskis, O R

    1984-01-01

    We isolated 15 mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO which were defective in the formation of certain extracellular proteins, such as elastase, staphylolytic enzyme, and lipase ( Xcp mutants). The mutations were mapped on the chromosome by conjugation and transduction. The locations were xcp -1 near 0', with the gene order cys-59- xcp -1- proB , and loci xcp -2, xcp -3, and xcp -31 at 35', with the gene order trpC , D- xcp -3/ xcp -31- xcp -2- argC . Loci xcp -4 and xcp -41 through xcp -44 were cotransducible with proA at 40'; loci xcp -5, xcp -51, xcp -52, and xcp53 were located at 55', with the gene order leu-10- trpF -met-9010- xcp -53- xcp -5/ xcp -51/ xcp+ ++-52, and xcp -6 was located at 65' to 70', between catA and mtu-9002. Nine mutations ( xcp -2, xcp -3, xcp -31, xcp -4, and xcp -41 through xcp -45) caused decreased production of extracellular enzymes. Six strains with mutations xcp -1, xcp -5, xcp -51, xcp -52, xcp -53, and xcp -6 produced cell-bound exoproteins and had defective release mechanisms. The regulation of production of alkaline phosphatase and phospholipase C is different from other exoproteins , such as elastase, but they all seem to share a common release mechanism. Alkaline protease had separate mechanisms for regulation and release, since this protease was found in culture supernatants of all but one of the mutants, and none of the strains had cell-bound enzyme. PMID:6427194

  19. Homologous Recombination Defective Arabidopsis Mutants Exhibit Enhanced Sensitivity to Abscisic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sujit; Das, Kali Pada

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) acts as an important plant hormone in regulating various aspects of plant growth and developmental processes particularly under abiotic stress conditions. An increased ABA level in plant cells inhibits DNA replication and cell division, causing plant growth retardation. In this study, we have investigated the effects of ABA on the growth responses of some major loss-of-function mutants of DNA double-stand break (DSB) repair genes in Arabidopsis during seed germination and early stages of seedling growth for understanding the role of ABA in the induction of genome instability in plants. A comparative analysis of ABA sensitivity of wild-type Arabidopsis and the knockout mutant lines related to DSB sensors, including atatm, atatr, the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway genes, and mutants related to homologous recombination (HR) pathway genes showed relatively enhanced sensitivity of atatr and HR-related mutants to ABA treatment. The expression levels of HR-related genes were increased in wild-type Arabidopsis (Col-0) during seed germination and early stages of seedling growth. Immunoblotting experiments detected phosphorylation of histone H2AX in wild-type (Col-0) and DSB repair gene mutants after ABA treatment, indicating the activation of DNA damage response due to ABA treatment. Analyses of DSB repair kinetics using comet assay under neutral condition have revealed comparatively slower DSB repair activity in HR mutants. Overall, our results have provided comprehensive information on the possible effect of ABA on DNA repair machinery in plants and also indicated potential functional involvement of HR pathway in repairing ABA induced DNA damage in Arabidopsis. PMID:28046013

  20. Selective myelin defects in the anterior medullary velum of the taiep mutant rat.

    PubMed

    Song, J; Goetz, B D; Kirvell, S L; Butt, A M; Duncan, I D

    2001-01-01

    The taiep rat is a myelin mutant in which initial hypomyelination is followed by progressive demyelination of the CNS. An in vitro study suggests that accumulation of microtubules within oligodendrocytes is the cause of the taiep myelin defects (Song et al., 1999). In this article, we analyze microtubule accumulation in relation to taiep myelin defects in vivo in the anterior medullary velum (AMV), a CNS tissue that enables entire oligodendrocyte units to be resolved. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated notably high levels of beta-tubulin and the microtubule associated protein tau in the somata and processes of taiep oligodendrocytes. This was correlated with markedly reduced expression of the myelin proteins, proteolipid protein (PLP), myelin basic protein (MBP), 2',3 -cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, and both large (L) and small (S) isoforms of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). Moreover, PLP and L-MAG, which are dependent on the microtubule system for intracellular transport, accumulated in the perinuclear cytoplasm of the taiep oligodendrocyte. The myelin deficit was most marked in the area of the AMV populated by the small somata oligodendrocytes that have fine long processes that support numerous myelin sheaths of small diameter axons. Type III/IV oligodendrocytes, which have large somata and short processes that support a small number of myelin sheaths of large diameter axons, were also affected to a certain degree in compact myelin sheath formation. These results support the hypothesis that myelin loss and oligodendrocyte disruption in the taiep mutant result from a defect in the microtubule system that transports myelin components from the somata to the myelin sheath.

  1. Hyperproduction of β-Glucanase Exg1 Promotes the Bioconversion of Mogrosides in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mutants Defective in Mannoprotein Deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Reuben; Lin, Pei-Yin; Huang, Shyue-Tsong; Chiu, Chun-Hui; Lu, Ting-Jang; Lo, Yi-Chen

    2015-12-02

    Bacteria and fungi can secrete extracellular enzymes to convert macromolecules into smaller units. Hyperproduction of extracellular enzymes is often associated with alterations in cell wall structure in fungi. Recently, we identified that Saccharomyces cerevisiae kre6Δ mutants can efficiently convert mogroside V into mogroside III E, which has antidiabetic properties. However, the underlying efficient bioconversion mechanism is unclear. In the present study, the mogroside (MG) bioconversion properties of several cell wall structure defective mutants were analyzed. We also compared the cell walls of these mutants by transmission electron microscopy, a zymolyase sensitivity test, and a mannoprotein release assay. We found zymolyase-sensitive mutants (including kre1Δ, las21Δ, gas1Δ, and kre6Δ), with defects in mannoprotein deposition, exhibit efficient MG conversion and excessive leakage of Exg1; such defects were not observed in wild-type cells, or mutants with abnormal levels of glucans in the cell wall. Thus, yeast mutants defective in mannoprotein deposition may be employed to convert glycosylated bioactive compounds.

  2. A defective mutant of Salmonella enterica Serovar Gallinarum in cobalamin biosynthesis is avirulent in chickens

    PubMed Central

    de Paiva, Jacqueline Boldrin; Penha Filho, Rafael Antonio Casarin; Arguello, Yuli Melisa Sierra; Berchieri Junior, Ângelo; Lemos, Manuel Victor Franco; Barrow, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum (SG) is a fowl typhoid agent in chickens and is a severe disease with worldwide economic impact as its mortality may reach up to 80%. It is one of a small group of serovars that typically produces typhoid-like infections in a narrow range of host species and which therefore represents a good model for human typhoid. The survival mechanisms are not considered to be virulent mechanisms but are essential for the life of the bacterium. Mutants of Salmonella Gallinarum containing defective genes, related to cobalamin biosynthesis and which Salmonella spp. has to be produced to survive when it is in an anaerobic environment, were produced in this study. Salmonella Gallinarum is an intracellular parasite. Therefore, this study could provide information about whether vitamin B12 biosynthesis might be essential to its survival in the host. The results showed that the singular deletion in cbiA or cobS genes did not interfere in the life of Salmonella Gallinarum in the host, perhaps because single deletion is not enough to impede vitamin B12 biosynthesis. It was noticed that diluted SG mutants with single deletion produced higher mortality than the wild strain of SG. When double mutation was carried out, the Salmonella Gallinarum mutant was unable to provoke mortality in susceptible chickens. This work showed that B12 biosynthesis is a very important step in the metabolism of Salmonella Gallinarum during the infection of the chickens. Further research on bacterium physiology should be carried out to elucidate the events described in this research and to assess the mutant as a vaccine strain. PMID:24031393

  3. Enhanced Biofilm Formation by Escherichia coli LPS Mutants Defective in Hep Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Ryoma; Ramstedt, Madeleine; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Uhlin, Bernt Eric

    2012-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major component of the surface of Gram-negative bacteria and its polysaccharide portion is situated at the outermost region. We investigated the relationship between the polysaccharide portion of LPS and biofilm formation using a series of Escherichia coli mutants defective in genes earlier shown to affect the LPS sugar compositions. Biofilm formation by a deep rough LPS mutant, the hldE strain, was strongly enhanced in comparison with the parental strain and other LPS mutants. The hldE strain also showed a phenotype of increased auto-aggregation and stronger cell surface hydrophobicity compared to the wild-type. Similar results were obtained with another deep rough LPS mutant, the waaC strain whose LPS showed same molecular mass as that of the hldE strain. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis and biofilm formation assay using DNase I revealed that biofilm formation by the hldE strain was dependent on extracellular DNA. Furthermore, a loss of flagella and an increase in amount of outer membrane vesicles in case of the hldE strain were also observed by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. In addition, we demonstrated that a mutation in the hldE locus, which alters the LPS structure, caused changes in both expression and properties of several surface bacterial factors involved in biofilm formation and virulence. We suggest that the implication of these results should be considered in the context of biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces, which is frequently associated with nosocominal infections such as the catheter-associated infections. PMID:23284671

  4. Defective FANCI binding by a fanconi anemia-related FANCD2 mutant.

    PubMed

    Sato, Koichi; Ishiai, Masamichi; Takata, Minoru; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    FANCD2 is a product of one of the genes associated with Fanconi anemia (FA), a rare recessive disease characterized by bone marrow failure, skeletal malformations, developmental defects, and cancer predisposition. FANCD2 forms a complex with FANCI (ID complex) and is monoubiquitinated, which facilitates the downstream interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair steps, such as ICL unhooking and nucleolytic end resection. In the present study, we focused on the chicken FANCD2 (cFANCD2) mutant harboring the Leu234 to Arg (L234R) substitution. cFANCD2 L234R corresponds to the human FANCD2 L231R mutation identified in an FA patient. We found that cFANCD2 L234R did not complement the defective ICL repair in FANCD2-/- DT40 cells. Purified cFANCD2 L234R did not bind to chicken FANCI, and its monoubiquitination was significantly deficient, probably due to the abnormal ID complex formation. In addition, the histone chaperone activity of cFANCD2 L234R was also defective. These findings may explain some aspects of Fanconi anemia pathogenesis by a FANCD2 missense mutation.

  5. Heterotaxy and complex structural heart defects in a mutant mouse model of primary ciliary dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Serena Y.; Rosenthal, Julie; Zhao, Xiao-Qing; Francis, Richard J.; Chatterjee, Bishwanath; Sabol, Steven L.; Linask, Kaari L.; Bracero, Luciann; Connelly, Patricia S.; Daniels, Mathew P.; Yu, Qing; Omran, Heymut; Leatherbury, Linda; Lo, Cecilia W.

    2007-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder associated with ciliary defects and situs inversus totalis, the complete mirror image reversal of internal organ situs (positioning). A variable incidence of heterotaxy, or irregular organ situs, also has been reported in PCD patients, but it is not known whether this is elicited by the PCD-causing genetic lesion. We studied a mouse model of PCD with a recessive mutation in Dnahc5, a dynein gene commonly mutated in PCD. Analysis of homozygous mutant embryos from 18 litters yielded 25% with normal organ situs, 35% with situs inversus totalis, and 40% with heterotaxy. Embryos with heterotaxy had complex structural heart defects that included discordant atrioventricular and ventricular outflow situs and atrial/pulmonary isomerisms. Variable combinations of a distinct set of cardiovascular anomalies were observed, including superior-inferior ventricles, great artery alignment defects, and interrupted inferior vena cava with azygos continuation. The surprisingly high incidence of heterotaxy led us to evaluate the diagnosis of PCD. PCD was confirmed by EM, which revealed missing outer dynein arms in the respiratory cilia. Ciliary dyskinesia was observed by videomicroscopy. These findings show that Dnahc5 is required for the specification of left-right asymmetry and suggest that the PCD-causing Dnahc5 mutation may also be associated with heterotaxy. PMID:18037990

  6. Role of cilia in structural birth defects: insights from ciliopathy mutant mouse models.

    PubMed

    Rao Damerla, Rama; Gabriel, George C; Li, You; Klena, Nikolai T; Liu, Xiaoqin; Chen, Yu; Cui, Cheng; Pazour, Gregory J; Lo, Cecilia W

    2014-06-01

    Structural birth defect (SBD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn period. Although the etiology of SBD is diverse, a wide spectrum of SBD associated with ciliopathies points to the cilium as having a central role in the pathogenesis of SBDs. Ciliopathies are human diseases arising from disruption of cilia structure and/or function. They are associated with developmental anomalies in one or more organ systems and can involve defects in motile cilia, such as those in the airway epithelia or from defects in nonmotile (primary cilia) that have sensory and cell signaling function. Availability of low cost next generation sequencing has allowed for explosion of new knowledge in genetic etiology of ciliopathies. This has led to the appreciation that many genes are shared in common between otherwise clinically distinct ciliopathies. Further insights into the relevance of the cilium in SBD has come from recovery of pathogenic mutations in cilia-related genes from many large-scale mouse forward genetic screens with differing developmental phenotyping focus. Our mouse mutagenesis screen for congenital heart disease (CHD) using noninvasive fetal echocardiography has yielded a marked enrichment for pathogenic mutations in genes required for motile or primary cilia function. These novel mutant mouse models will be invaluable for modeling human ciliopathies and further interrogating the role of the cilium in the pathogenesis of SBD and CHD. Overall, these findings suggest a central role for the cilium in the pathogenesis of a wide spectrum of developmental anomalies associated with CHD and SBDs.

  7. Generation of a homozygous fertilization-defective gcs1 mutant by heat-inducible removal of a rescue gene.

    PubMed

    Nagahara, Shiori; Takeuchi, Hidenori; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Key message: New gametic homozygous mutants. In angiosperms, a haploid male gamete (sperm cell) fuses with a haploid female gamete (egg cell) during fertilization to form a zygote carrying paternally and maternally derived chromosomes. Several fertilization-defective mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana, including a generative cell-specific 1 (gcs1)/hapless 2 mutant, the sperm cells of which are unable to fuse with female gametes, can only be maintained as heterozygous lines due to the infertile male or female gametes. Here, we report successful generation of a gcs1 homozygous mutant by heat-inducible removal of the GCS1 transgene. Using the gcs1 homozygous mutant as male, the defect in gamete fusion was observed with great frequency; in our direct observation by semi-in vivo fertilization assay using ovules, 100 % of discharged sperm cells in culture failed to show gamete fusion. More than 70 % of ovules in the pistil received a second pollen tube as attempted fertilization recovery. Moreover, gcs1 mutant sperm cells could fertilize female gametes at a low frequency in the pistil. This strategy to generate homozygous fertilization-defective mutants will facilitate novel approaches in plant reproduction research.

  8. Defects in the ratio of the dynein isoform, DHC11 in the long-flagella mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Marilyn P; Sinha, Sapna; Motiwalla, Mustafa J; Rao, Venkatramanan G; D'Souza, Jacinta S

    2017-01-22

    The long-flagella mutants (lf1, lf2, lf3 and lf4) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are defective in proteins that are required for the assembly of normal flagella, their phenotype being long flagella. In a previous study, we biophysically characterized these mutants for their waveform patterns, swimming speeds, beat frequencies and correlated these parameters with their flagellar lengths. We found an anomaly in this correlation and set out to explore the underlying molecular significance, if any. The diverse inner dynein isoforms are the flagellar motors that convert the chemical energy of ATP into the mechanical energy of motility; we probed the presence of one of these isoforms (DHC11, which might help in bend initiation) in the lf mutants and compared it with the wild-type. Our studies show that the ratio of DHC11 is defective in the long-flagella mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  9. Accumulation of p53 in a mutant cell line defective in the ubiquitin pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Chowdary, D R; Dermody, J J; Jha, K K; Ozer, H L

    1994-01-01

    The wild-type p53 gene product plays an important role in the control of cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Altered function is frequently associated with changes in p53 stability. We have studied the role of the ubiquitination pathway in the degradation of p53, utilizing a temperature-sensitive mutant, ts20, derived from the mouse cell line BALB/c 3T3. We found that wild-type p53 accumulates markedly because of decreased breakdown when cells are shifted to the restrictive temperature. Introduction of sequences encoding the human ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 corrects the temperature sensitivity defect in ts20 and prevents accumulation of p53. The data therefore strongly indicate that wild-type p53 is degraded intracellularly by the ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic pathway. Images PMID:8114731

  10. The selection of S. cerevisiae mutants defective in the start event of cell division.

    PubMed

    Reed, S I

    1980-07-01

    Thirty-three temperature-sensitive mutations defective in the start event of the cell division cycle of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated and subjected to preliminary characterization. Complementation studies assigned thes mutations to four complementation groups, one of which, cdc28, has been described previously. Genetic analysis revealed that these complementation groups define single nuclear genes, unlinked to one another. One of the three newly identified genes, cdc37, has been located in the yeast linkage map on chromosome IV, two meiotic map units distal to hom2.--Each mutation produces stage-specific arrest of cell division at start, the same point where mating pheromone interrupts division. After synchronization at start by incubation at the restrictive temperature, the mutants retain the capacity to enlarge and to conjugate.

  11. Viral DNA Synthesis Defects in Assembly-Competent Rous Sarcoma Virus CA Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Tina M.; Craven, Rebecca C.

    2001-01-01

    The major structural protein of the retroviral core (CA) contains a conserved sequence motif shared with the CA-like proteins of distantly related transposable elements. The function of this major region of homology (MHR) has not been defined, in part due to the baffling array of phenotypes in mutants of several viruses and the yeast TY3. This report describes new mutations in the CA protein of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) that were designed to test whether these different phenotypes might indicate distinct functional subdomains in the MHR. A comparison of 25 substitutions at 10 positions in the RSV conserved motif argues against this possibility. Most of the replacements destroyed virus infectivity, although either of two lethal phenotypes was obtained depending on the residue introduced. At most of the positions, one or more replacements (generally the more conservative substitutions) caused a severe replication defect without having any obvious effects on virus assembly, budding, Gag-Pol and genome incorporation, or protein processing. The mutant particles exhibited a defect in endogenous viral DNA synthesis and showed increased sensitivity of the core proteins to detergent, indicating that the mutations interfere with the formation and/or activity of the virion core. The distribution of these mutations across the MHR, with no evidence of clustering, suggests that the entire region is important for a critical postbudding function. In contrast, a second class of lethal substitutions (those that destroyed virus assembly and release) consists of alterations that are expected to cause severe effects on protein structure by disruption either of the hydrophobic core of the CA carboxyl-terminal domain or of the hydrogen bond network that stabilizes the domain. We suggest that this duality of phenotypes is consistent with a role for the MHR in the maturation process that links the two parts of the life cycle. PMID:11119594

  12. ATP utilization by yeast replication factor C. IV. RFC ATP-binding mutants show defects in DNA replication, DNA repair, and checkpoint regulation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S L; Pautz, A L; Burgers, P M

    2001-09-14

    Replication factor C is required to load proliferating cell nuclear antigen onto primer-template junctions, using the energy of ATP hydrolysis. Four of the five RFC genes have consensus ATP-binding motifs. To determine the relative importance of these sites for proper DNA metabolism in the cell, the conserved lysine in the Walker A motif of RFC1, RFC2, RFC3, or RFC4 was mutated to either arginine or glutamic acid. Arginine mutations in all RFC genes tested permitted cell growth, although poor growth was observed for rfc2-K71R. A glutamic acid substitution resulted in lethality in RFC2 and RFC3 but not in RFC1 or RFC4. Most double mutants combining mutations in two RFC genes were inviable. Except for the rfc1-K359R and rfc4-K55E mutants, which were phenotypically similar to wild type in every assay, the mutants were sensitive to DNA-damaging agents. The rfc2-K71R and rfc4-K55R mutants show checkpoint defects, most likely in the intra-S phase checkpoint. Regulation of the damage-inducible RNR3 promoter was impaired in these mutants, and phosphorylation of Rad53p in response to DNA damage was specifically defective when cells were in S phase. No dramatic defects in telomere length regulation were detected in the mutants. These data demonstrate that the ATP binding function of RFC2 is important for both DNA replication and checkpoint function and, for the first time, that RFC4 also plays a role in checkpoint regulation.

  13. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae start mutant carrying the cdc25 mutation is defective in activation of plasma membrane ATPase by glucose.

    PubMed Central

    Portillo, F; Mazón, M J

    1986-01-01

    Activation of plasma membrane ATPase by the addition of glucose was examined in several cell division cycle mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The start mutant carrying the cdc25 mutation was shown to be defective in ATPase activation at the restrictive temperature. Genetic analysis showed that lack of growth and defective activation of ATPase at the restrictive temperature were caused by the same mutation. It was also found that CDC25 does not map at the same locus as the structural gene of plasma membrane ATPase (PMA1). We conclude that the product of CDC25 controls the activation of ATPase. PMID:2877973

  14. Identification of genes involved in fungal responses to strigolactones using mutants from fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Belmondo, S; Marschall, R; Tudzynski, P; López Ráez, J A; Artuso, E; Prandi, C; Lanfranco, L

    2016-06-28

    Strigolactones (SLs) as components of root exudates induce hyphal branching of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi which is thought to favor the establishment of the beneficial symbiosis. Little is known on how AM fungi respond to SLs. Since AM fungi are poor model systems due to their obligate biotrophism and the lack of genetic transformation protocols, we took advantage of the sensitivity of several phytopathogenic fungi to GR24, a synthetic SLs analog. With the aim to identify the molecular determinants involved in SLs response in AM fungi and assuming conserved mechanisms in the fungal kingdom, we exploited the fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Cryphonectria parasitica, for which mutant collections are available. Exposure of B. cinerea and C. parasitica to GR24 embedded in solid medium led to reduction of fungal radial growth. We set up the screening of a set of well-characterized gene deletion mutants to isolate genotypes with altered responses to SLs. Two B. cinerea mutants (defective of BcTrr1, a thioredoxin reductase and BcLTF1, a GATA transcription factor) turned out to be less responsive to GR24. One feature shared by the two mutants is the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Indeed, an oxidizing effect was observed in a B. cinerea strain expressing a redox-sensitive GFP2 in the mitochondrial intermembrane space upon exposure to GR24. ROS and mitochondria are, therefore, emerging as mediators of SLs actions.

  15. Mutant DnaK chaperones cause ribosome assembly defects in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Alix, J H; Guérin, M F

    1993-01-01

    To determine whether the biogenesis of ribosomes in Escherichia coli is the result of the self-assembly of their different constituents or involves the participation of additional factors, we have studied the influence of a chaperone, the product of the gene dnaK, on ribosome assembly in vivo. Using three thermosensitive (ts) mutants carrying the mutations dnaK756-ts, dnaK25-ts, and dnaK103-ts, we have observed the accumulation at nonpermissive temperature (45 degrees C) of ribosomal particles with different sedimentation constants--namely, 45S, 35S, and 25S along with the normal 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits. This is the result of a defect not in thermostability but in ribosome assembly at the nonpermissive temperature. These abnormal ribosomal particles are rescued if the mutant cells are returned to 30 degrees C. Thus, the product of the dnaK gene is implicated in ribosome biogenesis at high temperature. PMID:8105482

  16. Neurophysiological Defects and Neuronal Gene Deregulation in Drosophila mir-124 Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kailiang; Westholm, Jakub Orzechowski; Tsurudome, Kazuya; Hagen, Joshua W.; Lu, Yubing; Kohwi, Minoree; Betel, Doron; Gao, Fen-Biao; Haghighi, A. Pejmun; Doe, Chris Q.; Lai, Eric C.

    2012-01-01

    miR-124 is conserved in sequence and neuronal expression across the animal kingdom and is predicted to have hundreds of mRNA targets. Diverse defects in neural development and function were reported from miR-124 antisense studies in vertebrates, but a nematode knockout of mir-124 surprisingly lacked detectable phenotypes. To provide genetic insight from Drosophila, we deleted its single mir-124 locus and found that it is dispensable for gross aspects of neural specification and differentiation. On the other hand, we detected a variety of mutant phenotypes that were rescuable by a mir-124 genomic transgene, including short lifespan, increased dendrite variation, impaired larval locomotion, and aberrant synaptic release at the NMJ. These phenotypes reflect extensive requirements of miR-124 even under optimal culture conditions. Comparison of the transcriptomes of cells from wild-type and mir-124 mutant animals, purified on the basis of mir-124 promoter activity, revealed broad upregulation of direct miR-124 targets. However, in contrast to the proposed mutual exclusion model for miR-124 function, its functional targets were relatively highly expressed in miR-124–expressing cells and were not enriched in genes annotated with epidermal expression. A notable aspect of the direct miR-124 network was coordinate targeting of five positive components in the retrograde BMP signaling pathway, whose activation in neurons increases synaptic release at the NMJ, similar to mir-124 mutants. Derepression of the direct miR-124 target network also had many secondary effects, including over-activity of other post-transcriptional repressors and a net incomplete transition from a neuroblast to a neuronal gene expression signature. Altogether, these studies demonstrate complex consequences of miR-124 loss on neural gene expression and neurophysiology. PMID:22347817

  17. A cytoplasmically inherited barley mutant is defective in photosystem I assembly due to a temperature-sensitive defect in ycf3 splicing.

    PubMed

    Landau, Alejandra Mabel; Lokstein, Heiko; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Lainez, Verónica; Maldonado, Sara; Prina, Alberto Raúl

    2009-12-01

    A cytoplasmically inherited chlorophyll-deficient mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare) termed cytoplasmic line 3 (CL3), displaying a viridis (homogeneously light-green colored) phenotype, has been previously shown to be affected by elevated temperatures. In this article, biochemical, biophysical, and molecular approaches were used to study the CL3 mutant under different temperature and light conditions. The results lead to the conclusion that an impaired assembly of photosystem I (PSI) under higher temperatures and certain light conditions is the primary cause of the CL3 phenotype. Compromised splicing of ycf3 transcripts, particularly at elevated temperature, resulting from a mutation in a noncoding region (intron 1) in the mutant ycf3 gene results in a defective synthesis of Ycf3, which is a chaperone involved in PSI assembly. The defective PSI assembly causes severe photoinhibition and degradation of PSII.

  18. Developmental Genetics of Chromosome I Spermatogenesis-Defective Mutants in the Nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    L'Hernault, S. W.; Shakes, D. C.; Ward, S.

    1988-01-01

    Mutations affecting Caenorhabditis elegans spermatogenesis can be used to dissect the processes of meiosis and spermatozoan morphological maturation. We have obtained 23 new chromosome I mutations that affect spermatogenesis (spe mutations). These mutations, together with six previously described mutations, identify 11 complementation groups, of which six are defined by multiple alleles. These spe mutations are all recessive and cause normally self-fertile hermaphrodites to produce unfertilized oocytes that can be fertilized by wild-type male sperm. Five chromosome I mutation/deficiency heterozygotes have similar phenotypes to the homozygote showing that the probable null phenotype of these genes is defective sperm. Spermatogenesis is disrupted at different steps by mutations in these genes. The maturation of 1° spermatocytes is disrupted by mutations in spe-4 and spe-5. Spermatids from spe-8 and spe-12 mutants develop into normal spermatozoa in males, but not in hermaphrodites. fer-6 spermatids are abnormal, and fer-1 spermatids look normal but subsequently become abnormal spermatozoa. Mutations in five genes (fer-7, spe-9, spe-11, spe-13 and spe-15) allow formation of normal looking motile spermatozoa that appear to be defective in either sperm-spermathecal or sperm-oocyte interactions. PMID:3197956

  19. Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum Due to Defective Glial Wedge Formation in Lhx2 Mutant Mice.

    PubMed

    Chinn, Gregory A; Hirokawa, Karla E; Chuang, Tony M; Urbina, Cecilia; Patel, Fenil; Fong, Jeanette; Funatsu, Nobuo; Monuki, Edwin S

    2015-09-01

    Establishment of the corpus callosum involves coordination between callosal projection neurons and multiple midline structures, including the glial wedge (GW) rostrally and hippocampal commissure caudally. GW defects have been associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). Here we show that conditional Lhx2 inactivation in cortical radial glia using Emx1-Cre or Nestin-Cre drivers results in ACC. The ACC phenotype was characterized by aberrant ventrally projecting callosal axons rather than Probst bundles, and was 100% penetrant on 2 different mouse strain backgrounds. Lhx2 inactivation in postmitotic cortical neurons using Nex-Cre mice did not result in ACC, suggesting that the mutant phenotype was not autonomous to the callosal projection neurons. Instead, ACC was associated with an absent hippocampal commissure and a markedly reduced to absent GW. Expression studies demonstrated strong Lhx2 expression in the normal GW and in its radial glial progenitors, with absence of Lhx2 resulting in normal Emx1 and Sox2 expression, but premature exit from the cell cycle based on EdU-Ki67 double labeling. These studies define essential roles for Lhx2 in GW, hippocampal commissure, and corpus callosum formation, and suggest that defects in radial GW progenitors can give rise to ACC.

  20. Mus308 Mutants of Drosophila Exhibit Hypersensitivity to DNA Cross-Linking Agents and Are Defective in a Deoxyribonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, J. B.; Sakaguchi, K.; Harris, P. V.

    1990-01-01

    Mutagen-sensitive strains that identify 16 different Drosophila genes have been screened for alterations in DNA metabolic enzymes. A characteristic defect in an acid-active deoxyribonuclease was observed in strains carrying the six available mutant alleles of the mus308 gene. Since that enzyme is detected at normal levels in a mutant strain that is deficient in the previously identified enzymes DNase 1 and DNase 2, it represents a new Drosophila nuclease that is designated Nuclease 3. The mus308 mutants were originally distinguished from all other mutagen-sensitive mutants of Drosophila because they exhibit hypersensitivity to the DNA cross-linking agent nitrogen mustard without expressing a concurrent sensitivity to the monofunctional agent methyl methanesulfonate. Further observations of hypersensitivity to the mutagens trimethylpsoralen, diepoxybutane and cis-platinum now establish a more general sensitivity of these mutants to agents capable of generating DNA cross-links. In spite of the hypersensitivity of the mus308 mutants to DNA cross-linking agents, the initial incision step of DNA cross-link repair is normal in mus308 cells as assayed by the alkaline elution procedure. The Drosophila mus308 mutants show promise of providing a useful model for analogous defects in other organisms including man. PMID:2397884

  1. 'Green revolution' genes encode mutant gibberellin response modulators.

    PubMed

    Peng, J; Richards, D E; Hartley, N M; Murphy, G P; Devos, K M; Flintham, J E; Beales, J; Fish, L J; Worland, A J; Pelica, F; Sudhakar, D; Christou, P; Snape, J W; Gale, M D; Harberd, N P

    1999-07-15

    World wheat grain yields increased substantially in the 1960s and 1970s because farmers rapidly adopted the new varieties and cultivation methods of the so-called 'green revolution'. The new varieties are shorter, increase grain yield at the expense of straw biomass, and are more resistant to damage by wind and rain. These wheats are short because they respond abnormally to the plant growth hormone gibberellin. This reduced response to gibberellin is conferred by mutant dwarfing alleles at one of two Reduced height-1 (Rht-B1 and Rht-D1) loci. Here we show that Rht-B1/Rht-D1 and maize dwarf-8 (d8) are orthologues of the Arabidopsis Gibberellin Insensitive (GAI) gene. These genes encode proteins that resemble nuclear transcription factors and contain an SH2-like domain, indicating that phosphotyrosine may participate in gibberellin signalling. Six different orthologous dwarfing mutant alleles encode proteins that are altered in a conserved amino-terminal gibberellin signalling domain. Transgenic rice plants containing a mutant GAI allele give reduced responses to gibberellin and are dwarfed, indicating that mutant GAI orthologues could be used to increase yield in a wide range of crop species.

  2. The heterozygous abp1/ABP1 insertional mutant has defects in functions requiring polar auxin transport and in regulation of early auxin-regulated genes.

    PubMed

    Effendi, Yunus; Rietz, Steffen; Fischer, Urs; Scherer, Günther F E

    2011-01-01

    AUXIN-BINDING PROTEIN 1 (ABP1) is not easily accessible for molecular studies because the homozygous T-DNA insertion mutant is embryo-lethal. We found that the heterozygous abp1/ABP1 insertion mutant has defects in auxin physiology-related responses: higher root slanting angles, longer hypocotyls, agravitropic roots and hypocotyls, aphototropic hypocotyls, and decreased apical dominance. Heterozygous plants flowered earlier than wild-type plants under short-day conditions. The length of the main root, the lateral root density and the hypocotyl length were little altered in the mutant in response to auxin. Compared to wild-type plants, transcription of early auxin-regulated genes (IAA2, IAA11, IAA13, IAA14, IAA19, IAA20, SAUR9, SAUR15, SAUR23, GH3.5 and ABP1) was less strongly up-regulated in the mutant by 0.1, 1 and 10 μm IAA. Surprisingly, ABP1 was itself an early auxin-up-regulated gene. IAA uptake into the mutant seedlings during auxin treatments was indistinguishable from wild-type. Basipetal auxin transport in young roots was slower in the mutant, indicating a PIN2/EIR1 defect, while acropetal transport was indistinguishable from wild-type. In the eir1 background, three of the early auxin-regulated genes tested (IAA2, IAA13 and ABP1) were more strongly induced by 1 μm IAA in comparison to wild-type, but eight of them were less up-regulated in comparison to wild-type. Similar but not identical disturbances in regulation of early auxin-regulated genes indicate tight functional linkage of ABP1 and auxin transport regulation. We hypothesize that ABP1 is involved in the regulation of polar auxin transport, and thus affects local auxin concentration and early auxin gene regulation. In turn, ABP1 itself is under the transcriptional control of auxin.

  3. A novel stereocilia defect in sensory hair cells of the deaf mouse mutant Tasmanian devil.

    PubMed

    Erven, Alexandra; Skynner, Michael J; Okumura, Katsuzumi; Takebayashi, Shin-ichiro; Brown, Steve D M; Steel, Karen P; Allen, Nicholas D

    2002-10-01

    Stereocilia are specialized actin-filled, finger-like processes arrayed in rows of graded heights to form a crescent or W-shape on the apical surface of sensory hair cells. The stereocilia are deflected by the vibration of sound, which opens transduction channels and allows an influx of ions to depolarize the hair cell, in turn triggering synaptic activity. The specialized morphology and organization of the stereocilia bundle is crucial in the process of sensory transduction in the inner ear. However, we know little about the development of stereocilia in the mouse and few molecules that are involved in stereocilia maturation are known. We describe here a new mouse mutant with abnormal stereocilia development. The Tasmanian devil (tde) mouse mutation arose by insertional mutagenesis and has been mapped to the middle of chromosome 5. Homozygotes show head-tossing and circling and have raised thresholds for cochlear nerve responses to sound. The gross morphology of the inner ear was normal, but the stereocilia of cochlear and vestibular hair cells are abnormally thin, and they become progressively disorganized with increasing age. Ultimately, the hair cells die. This is the first report of a mutant showing thin stereocilia. The association of thin stereocilia with cochlear dysfunction emphasizes the critical role of stereocilia in auditory transduction, and the discovery of the Tasmanian devil mutant provides a resource for the identification of an essential molecule in hair cell function.

  4. Increased phagocytosis of Mycobacterium marinum mutants defective in lipooligosaccharide production: a structure-activity relationship study.

    PubMed

    Alibaud, Laeticia; Pawelczyk, Jakub; Gannoun-Zaki, Laila; Singh, Vipul K; Rombouts, Yoann; Drancourt, Michel; Dziadek, Jaroslaw; Guérardel, Yann; Kremer, Laurent

    2014-01-03

    Mycobacterium marinum is a waterborne pathogen responsible for tuberculosis-like infections in ectotherms and is an occasional opportunistic human pathogen. In the environment, M. marinum also interacts with amoebae, which may serve as a natural reservoir for this microorganism. However, the description of mycobacterial determinants in the early interaction with macrophages or amoebae remains elusive. Lipooligosaccharides (LOSs) are cell surface-exposed glycolipids capable of modulating the host immune system, suggesting that they may be involved in the early interactions of M. marinum with macrophages. Herein, we addressed whether LOS composition affects the uptake of M. marinum by professional phagocytes. Mutants with various truncated LOS variants were generated, leading to the identification of several previously uncharacterized biosynthetic genes (wbbL2, MMAR_2321, and MMAR_2331). Biochemical and structural approaches allowed resolving the structures of LOS precursors accumulating in this set of mutants. These strains with structurally defined LOS profiles were then used to infect both macrophages and Acanthamoebae. An inverse correlation between LOS completeness and uptake of mycobacteria by phagocytes was found, allowing the proposal of three mutant classes: class I (papA4), devoid of LOS and highly efficiently phagocytosed; class II, accumulating only early LOS intermediates (wbbL2 and MMAR_2331) and efficiently phagocytosed but less than class I mutants; class III, lacking LOS-IV (losA, MMAR_2319, and MMAR_2321) and phagocytosed similarly to the control strain. These results indicate that phagocytosis is conditioned by the LOS pattern and that the LOS pathway used by M. marinum in macrophages is conserved during infection of amoebae.

  5. The Arabidopsis pxa1 Mutant Is Defective in an ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter-Like Protein Required for Peroxisomal Fatty Acid β-Oxidation1

    PubMed Central

    Zolman, Bethany K.; Silva, Illeana D.; Bartel, Bonnie

    2001-01-01

    Peroxisomes are important organelles in plant metabolism, containing all the enzymes required for fatty acid β-oxidation. More than 20 proteins are required for peroxisomal biogenesis and maintenance. The Arabidopsis pxa1 mutant, originally isolated because it is resistant to the auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), developmentally arrests when germinated without supplemental sucrose, suggesting defects in fatty acid β-oxidation. Because IBA is converted to the more abundant auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), in a mechanism that parallels β-oxidation, the mutant is likely to be IBA resistant because it cannot convert IBA to IAA. Adult pxa1 plants grow slowly compared with wild type, with smaller rosettes, fewer leaves, and shorter inflorescence stems, indicating that PXA1 is important throughout development. We identified the molecular defect in pxa1 using a map-based positional approach. PXA1 encodes a predicted peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter that is 42% identical to the human adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) protein, which is defective in patients with the demyelinating disorder X-linked ALD. Homology to ALD protein and other human and yeast peroxisomal transporters suggests that PXA1 imports coenzyme A esters of fatty acids and IBA into the peroxisome for β-oxidation. The pxa1 mutant makes fewer lateral roots than wild type, both in response to IBA and without exogenous hormones, suggesting that the IAA derived from IBA during seedling development promotes lateral root formation. PMID:11706205

  6. Reduced naphthylphthalamic acid binding in the tir3 mutant of Arabidopsis is associated with a reduction in polar auxin transport and diverse morphological defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruegger, M.; Dewey, E.; Hobbie, L.; Brown, D.; Bernasconi, P.; Turner, J.; Muday, G.; Estelle, M.

    1997-01-01

    Polar auxin transport plays a key role in the regulation of plant growth and development. To identify genes involved in this process, we have developed a genetic procedure to screen for mutants of Arabidopsis that are altered in their response to auxin transport inhibitors. We recovered a total of 16 independent mutants that defined seven genes, called TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE (TIR) genes. Recessive mutations in one of these genes, TIR3, result in altered responses to transport inhibitors, a reduction in polar auxin transport, and a variety of morphological defects that can be ascribed to changes in indole-3-acetic acid distribution. Most dramatically, tir3 seedlings are strongly deficient in lateral root production, a process that is known to depend on polar auxin transport from the shoot into the root. In addition, tir3 plants display a reduction in apical dominance as well as decreased elongation of siliques, pedicels, roots, and the inflorescence. Biochemical studies indicate that tir3 plants have a reduced number of N-1-naphthylphthalamic (NPA) binding sites, suggesting that the TIR3 gene is required for expression, localization, or stabilization of the NPA binding protein (NBP). Alternatively, the TIR3 gene may encode the NBP. Because the tir3 mutants have a substantial defect in NPA binding, their phenotype provides genetic evidence for a role for the NBP in plant growth and development.

  7. A simple method for isolation and construction of markerless cyanobacterial mutants defective in acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kouji; Keta, Sumie; Uesaka, Kazuma; Kato, Akihiro; Takatani, Nobuyuki; Ihara, Kunio; Omata, Tatsuo; Aichi, Makiko

    2016-12-01

    Cyanobacterial mutants defective in acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (Aas) secrete free fatty acids (FFAs) into the external medium and hence have been used for the studies aimed at photosynthetic production of biofuels. While the wild-type strain of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is highly sensitive to exogenously added linolenic acid, mutants defective in the aas gene are known to be resistant to the externally provided fatty acid. In this study, the wild-type Synechocystis cells were shown to be sensitive to lauric, oleic, and linoleic acids as well, and the resistance to these fatty acids was shown to be enhanced by inactivation of the aas gene. On the basis of these observations, we developed an efficient method to isolate aas-deficient mutants from cultures of Synechocystis cells by counter selection using linoleic acid or linolenic acid as the selective agent. A variety of aas mutations were found in about 70 % of the FFA-resistant mutants thus selected. Various aas mutants were isolated also from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, using lauric acid as a selective agent. Selection using FFAs was useful also for construction of markerless aas knockout mutants from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Thus, genetic engineering of FFA-producing cyanobacterial strains would be greatly facilitated by the use of the FFAs for counter selection.

  8. A prl Mutation in SecY Suppresses Secretion and Virulence Defects of Listeria monocytogenes secA2 Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Durack, Juliana; Burke, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The bulk of bacterial protein secretion occurs through the conserved SecY translocation channel that is powered by SecA-dependent ATP hydrolysis. Many Gram-positive bacteria, including the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, possess an additional nonessential specialized ATPase, SecA2. SecA2-dependent secretion is required for normal cell morphology and virulence in L. monocytogenes; however, the mechanism of export via this pathway is poorly understood. L. monocytogenes secA2 mutants form rough colonies, have septation defects, are impaired for swarming motility, and form small plaques in tissue culture cells. In this study, 70 spontaneous mutants were isolated that restored swarming motility to L. monocytogenes secA2 mutants. Most of the mutants had smooth colony morphology and septated normally, but all were lysozyme sensitive. Five representative mutants were subjected to whole-genome sequencing. Four of the five had mutations in proteins encoded by the lmo2769 operon that conferred lysozyme sensitivity and increased swarming but did not rescue virulence defects. A point mutation in secY was identified that conferred smooth colony morphology to secA2 mutants, restored wild-type plaque formation, and increased virulence in mice. This secY mutation resembled a prl suppressor known to expand the repertoire of proteins secreted through the SecY translocation complex. Accordingly, the ΔsecA2prlA1 mutant showed wild-type secretion levels of P60, an established SecA2-dependent secreted autolysin. Although the prl mutation largely suppressed almost all of the measurable SecA2-dependent traits, the ΔsecA2prlA1 mutant was still less virulent in vivo than the wild-type strain, suggesting that SecA2 function was still required for pathogenesis. PMID:25535272

  9. Defective co-activator recruitment in osteoclasts from microphthalmia-oak ridge mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sudarshana M; Sif, Said; Ostrowski, Michael C; Sankar, Uma

    2009-07-01

    The three basic DNA-binding domain mutations of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf), Mitf(mi/mi), Mitf(or/or), and Mitf(wh/wh) affect osteoclast differentiation with variable penetrance while completely impairing melanocyte development. Mitf(or/or) mice exhibit osteopetrosis that improves with age and their osteoclasts form functional multinuclear osteoclasts, raising the question as to why the Mitf(or/or) mutation results in osteopetrosis. Here we show that Mitf(or/or) osteoclasts express normal levels of acid phosphatase 5 (Acp5) mRNA and significantly lower levels of Cathepsin K (Ctsk) mRNA during receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) ligand (RANKL)-mediated differentiation. Studies using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis indicate that low levels of Mitf(or/or) protein are recruited to the Ctsk promoter. However, enrichment of Mitf-transcriptional co-activators PU.1 and Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1) are severely impaired at the Ctsk promoter of Mitf(or/or) osteoclast precursors, indicating that defective recruitment of co-activators by the mutant Mitf(or/or) results in impaired Ctsk expression in osteoclasts. Cathepsin K may thus represent a unique class of Mitf-regulated osteoclast-specific genes that are important for osteoclast function.

  10. Association between congenital defects in papillary outgrowth and functional obstruction in Crim1 mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Lorine; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Phua, Yu Leng; Nguyen, Michael J; Li, Joan; Galloway, Graham J; Hashitani, Hikaru; Lang, Richard J; Little, Melissa H

    2012-08-01

    Crim1 hypomorphic (Crim1(KST264/KST264)) mice display progressive renal disease characterized by glomerular defects, leaky peritubular vasculature, and progressive interstitial fibrosis. Here we show that 27% of these mice also present with hydronephrosis, suggesting obstructive nephropathy. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging using Magnevist showed fast development of hypo-intense signal in the kidneys of Crim1(KST264/KST264) mice, suggesting pooling of filtrate within the renal parenchyma. Rhodamine dextran (10 kDa) clearance was also delayed in Crim1(KST264/KST264) mice. Pyeloureteric peristalsis, while present, was less co-ordinated in Crim1(KST264/KST264) mice. However, isolated renal pelvis preparations suggest normal pelvic smooth muscle contractile responses. An analysis of maturation during the immediate postnatal period [postnatal day (P) 0-15] revealed defects in papillary extension in Crim1({KST264/KST264) mice. While Crim1 expression is weak in pelvic smooth muscle, strong expression is seen in the interstitium and loops of Henle of the extending papilla, commencing at the tip of the P1 papilla and disseminating throughout the papilla by P15. These results, as well as implicating Crim1 in papillary extension and pelvic smooth muscle contractility, highlight the previously unrecognized association between defects in papillary development and progression to chronic kidney disease later in life.

  11. Purification of a. beta. -amylase that accumulates in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants defective in starch metabolism. [Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, J.D.; Preiss, J. )

    1990-11-01

    Amylase activity is elevated 5- to 10-fold in leaves of several different Arabidopsis thaliana mutants defective in starch metabolism when they are grown under a 12-hour photoperiod. Activity is also increased when plants are grown under higher light intensity. It was previously determined that the elevated activity was an extrachloroplastic {beta}-(exo)amylase. Due to the location of this enzyme outside the chloroplast, its function is not known. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity from leaves of both a starchless mutant deficient in plastid phosphoglucomutase and from the wild type using polyethylene glycol fractionation and cyclohexaamylose affinity chromatography. The molecular mass of the {beta}-amylase from both sources was 55,000 daltons as determined by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Gel filtration studies indicated that the enzyme was a monomer. The specific activities of the purified protein from mutant and wild-type sources, their substrate specificities, and K{sub m} for amylopectin were identical. Based on these results it was concluded that the mutant contained an increased level of {beta}-amylase protein. Enzyme neutralization studies using a polyclonal antiserum raised to purified {beta}-amylase showed that in each of two starchless mutants, one starch deficient mutant and one starch overproducing mutant, the elevated amylase activity was due to elevated {beta}-amylase protein.

  12. Hypersensitivity to mutation and sister-chromatid-exchange induction in CHO cell mutants defective in incising DNA containing UV lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Brookman, K.W.; Dillehay, L.E.; Mooney, C.L.; Carrano, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    Five UV-sensitive mutant strains of CHO cells representing different genetic complementation groups were analyzed for their ability to perform the incision step of nucleotide excision repair after UV exposure. The assay utilized inhibitors of DNA synthesis to accumulate the short-lived strand breaks resulting from repair incisions. After 6 J/m/sup 2/, each of the mutants showed < 10% of the incision rate of the parental AA8 cells. After 50 J/m/sup 2/, the rate in AA8 was similar to that at 6 J/m/sup 2/, but the rates in the mutants were significantly higher (approx. 20% of the rate of AA8). Thus by this incision assay the mutants were phenotypically indistinguishable. Each of the mutants were hypersensitive to mutation induction at both the hprt and aprt loci by a factor of 10, and in the one strain tested ouabain resistance was induced sevenfold more efficiently than in AA8 cells. Sister chromatid exchange was also induced with sevenfold increased efficiency in the two mutant strains examined. Thus, here CHO mutants resemble xeroderma pigmentosum cells in terms of their incision defects and their hypersensitivity to DNA damage by UV.

  13. Mutants for Drosophila Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 3b Are Defective in Mitochondrial Function and Larval Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Dianne M.; Kiefel, Paula; Duncan, Ian

    2017-01-01

    The death of larval salivary gland cells during metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster has been a key system for studying steroid controlled programmed cell death. This death is induced by a pulse of the steroid hormone ecdysone that takes place at the end of the prepupal period. For many years, it has been thought that the ecdysone direct response gene Eip93F (E93) plays a critical role in initiating salivary gland cell death. This conclusion was based largely on the finding that the three “type” alleles of E93 cause a near-complete block in salivary gland cell death. Here, we show that these three mutations are in fact allelic to Idh3b, a nearby gene that encodes the β subunit of isocitrate dehydrogenase 3, a mitochondrial enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The strongest of the Idh3b alleles appears to cause a near-complete block in oxidative phosphorylation, as mitochondria are depolarized in mutant larvae, and development arrests early during cleavage in embryos from homozygous-mutant germline mothers. Idh3b-mutant larval salivary gland cells fail to undergo mitochondrial fragmentation, which normally precedes the death of these cells, and do not initiate autophagy, an early step in the cell death program. These observations suggest a close relationship between the TCA cycle and the initiation of larval cell death. In normal development, tagged Idh3b is released from salivary gland mitochondria during their fragmentation, suggesting that Idh3b may be an apoptogenic factor that functions much like released cytochrome c in mammalian cells. PMID:28104670

  14. Mutants for Drosophila Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 3b Are Defective in Mitochondrial Function and Larval Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Dianne M; Kiefel, Paula; Duncan, Ian

    2017-03-10

    The death of larval salivary gland cells during metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster has been a key system for studying steroid controlled programmed cell death. This death is induced by a pulse of the steroid hormone ecdysone that takes place at the end of the prepupal period. For many years, it has been thought that the ecdysone direct response gene Eip93F (E93) plays a critical role in initiating salivary gland cell death. This conclusion was based largely on the finding that the three "type" alleles of E93 cause a near-complete block in salivary gland cell death. Here, we show that these three mutations are in fact allelic to Idh3b, a nearby gene that encodes the β subunit of isocitrate dehydrogenase 3, a mitochondrial enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The strongest of the Idh3b alleles appears to cause a near-complete block in oxidative phosphorylation, as mitochondria are depolarized in mutant larvae, and development arrests early during cleavage in embryos from homozygous-mutant germline mothers. Idh3b-mutant larval salivary gland cells fail to undergo mitochondrial fragmentation, which normally precedes the death of these cells, and do not initiate autophagy, an early step in the cell death program. These observations suggest a close relationship between the TCA cycle and the initiation of larval cell death. In normal development, tagged Idh3b is released from salivary gland mitochondria during their fragmentation, suggesting that Idh3b may be an apoptogenic factor that functions much like released cytochrome c in mammalian cells.

  15. Fusion-defective mutants of mouse hepatitis virus A59 contain a mutation in the spike protein cleavage signal.

    PubMed Central

    Gombold, J L; Hingley, S T; Weiss, S R

    1993-01-01

    Infection of primary mouse glial cell cultures with mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 results in a productive, persistent infection, but without any obvious cytopathic effect. Mutant viruses isolated from infected glial cultures 16 to 18 weeks postinfection replicate with kinetics similar to those of wild-type virus but produce small plaques on fibroblasts and cause only minimal levels of cell-to-cell fusion under conditions in which wild type causes nearly complete cell fusion. However, since extensive fusion is present in mutant-infected cells at late times postinfection, the defect is actually a delay in kinetics rather than an absolute block in activity. Addition of trypsin to mutant-infected fibroblast cultures enhanced cell fusion a small (two- to fivefold) but significant degree, indicating that the defect could be due to a lack of cleavage of the viral spike (fusion) protein. Sequencing of portions of the spike genes of six fusion-defective mutants revealed that all contained the same single nucleotide mutation resulting in a substitution of aspartic acid for histidine in the spike cleavage signal. Mutant virions contained only the 180-kDa form of spike protein, suggesting that this mutation prevented the normal proteolytic cleavage of the 180-kDa protein into the 90-kDa subunits. Examination of revertants of the mutants supports this hypothesis. Acquisition of fusion competence correlates with the replacement of the negatively charged aspartic acid with either the wild-type histidine or a nonpolar amino acid and the restoration of spike protein cleavage. These data confirm and extend previous reports concluding cleavage of S is required for efficient cell-cell fusion by mouse hepatitis virus but not for virus-cell fusion (infectivity). Images PMID:8392595

  16. Medicago truncatula Mtha1-2 mutants loose metabolic responses to mycorrhizal colonization.

    PubMed

    Hubberten, Hans-Michael; Sieh, Daniela; Zöller, Daniela; Hoefgen, Rainer; Krajinski, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    Bidirectional nutrient transfer is one of the key features of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Recently we were able to identify a Medicago truncatula mutant (mtha1-2) that is defective in the uptake of phosphate from the periarbuscular space due to a lack of the energy providing proton gradient provided by the symbiosis specific proton ATPase MtHA1 In order to further characterize the impact of fungal colonization on the plant metabolic status, without the beneficial aspect of improved mineral nutrition, we performed leaf ion analyses in mutant and wildtype plants with and without fungal colonization. Although frequency of fungal colonization was unaltered, the mutant did not show a positive growth response to mycorrhizal colonization. This indicates that nutrient transfer into the plant cell fails in the truncated arbuscules due to lacking expression of a functional MtHA1 protein. The leaves of wildtype plants showed clear metabolic responses to root mycorrhizal colonization, whereas no changes of leaf metabolite levels of mycorrhizal mtha1-2 plants were detected, even though they were colonized. These results show that MtHa1 is indispensable for a functional mycorrhizal symbiosis and, moreover, suggest that fungal root colonization per se does not depend on nutrient transfer to the plant host.

  17. Isolation and characterisation of transport-defective substrate-binding mutants of the tetracycline antiporter TetA(B)

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David J.; Tate, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    The tetracycline antiporter TetA(B) is a member of the Major Facilitator Superfamily which confers tetracycline resistance to cells by coupling the efflux of tetracycline to the influx of protons down their chemical potential gradient. Although it is a medically important transporter, its structure has yet to be determined. One possibility for why this has proven difficult is that the transporter may be conformationally heterogeneous in the purified state. To overcome this, we developed two strategies to rapidly identify TetA(B) mutants that were transport-defective and that could still bind tetracycline. Up to 9 amino acid residues could be deleted from the loop between transmembrane α-helices 6 and 7 with only a slight decrease in affinity of tetracycline binding as measured by isothermal titration calorimetry, although the mutant was transport-defective. Scanning mutagenesis where all the residues between 2 and 389 were mutated to either valine, alanine or glycine (VAG scan) identified 15 mutants that were significantly impaired in tetracycline transport. Of these mutants, 12 showed no evidence of tetracycline binding by isothermal titration calorimetry performed on the purified transporters. In contrast, the mutants G44V and G346V bound tetracycline 4–5 fold more weakly than TetA(B), with Kds of 28 μM and 36 μM, respectively, whereas the mutant R70G bound tetracycline 3-fold more strongly (Kd 2.1 μM). Systematic mutagenesis is thus an effective strategy for isolating transporter mutants that may be conformationally constrained and which represent attractive targets for crystallisation and structure determination. PMID:26143388

  18. Valosin-containing protein (VCP/p97) inhibitors relieve Mitofusin-dependent mitochondrial defects due to VCP disease mutants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Mishra, Prashant; Hay, Bruce A; Chan, David; Guo, Ming

    2017-03-21

    Missense mutations of valosin-containing protein (VCP) cause an autosomal dominant disease known as inclusion body myopathy, Paget disease with frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. The pathological mechanism of IBMPFD is not clear and there is no treatment. We show that endogenous VCP negatively regulates Mitofusin, which is required for outer mitochondrial membrane fusion. Because 90% of IBMPFD patients have myopathy, we generated an in vivo IBMPFD model in adult Drosophila muscle, which recapitulates disease pathologies. We show that common VCP disease mutants act as hyperactive alleles with respect to regulation of Mitofusin. Importantly, VCP inhibitors suppress mitochondrial defects, muscle tissue damage and cell death associated with IBMPFD models in Drosophila. These inhibitors also suppress mitochondrial fusion and respiratory defects in IBMPFD patient fibroblasts. These results suggest that VCP disease mutants cause IBMPFD through a gain-of-function mechanism, and that VCP inhibitors have therapeutic value.

  19. Mutant huntingtin, abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, defective axonal transport of mitochondria, and selective synaptic degeneration in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P Hemachandra; Shirendeb, Ulziibat P

    2012-02-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by expanded polyglutamine repeats in the HD gene. HD is characterized by chorea, seizures, involuntary movements, dystonia, cognitive decline, intellectual impairment and emotional disturbances. Research into mutant huntingtin (Htt) and mitochondria has found that mutant Htt interacts with the mitochondrial protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), enhances GTPase Drp1 enzymatic activity, and causes excessive mitochondrial fragmentation and abnormal distribution, leading to defective axonal transport of mitochondria and selective synaptic degeneration. This article summarizes latest developments in HD research and focuses on the role of abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and defective axonal transport in HD neurons. This article also discusses the therapeutic strategies that decrease mitochondrial fragmentation and neuronal damage in HD.

  20. Wing Defects in Drosophila xenicid Mutant Clones Are Caused by C-Terminal Deletion of Additional Sex Combs (Asx)

    PubMed Central

    Bischoff, Kara; Ballew, Anna C.; Simon, Michael A.; O'Reilly, Alana M.

    2009-01-01

    Background The coordinated action of genes that control patterning, cell fate determination, cell size, and cell adhesion is required for proper wing formation in Drosophila. Defects in any of these basic processes can lead to wing aberrations, including blisters. The xenicid mutation was originally identified in a screen designed to uncover regulators of adhesion between wing surfaces [1]. Principal Findings Here, we demonstrate that expression of the βPS integrin or the patterning protein Engrailed are not affected in developing wing imaginal discs in xenicid mutants. Instead, expression of the homeotic protein Ultrabithorax (Ubx) is strongly increased in xenicid mutant cells. Conclusion Our results suggest that upregulation of Ubx transforms cells from a wing blade fate to a haltere fate, and that the presence of haltere cells within the wing blade is the primary defect leading to the adult wing phenotypes observed. PMID:19956620

  1. Properties of bacteriophage T4 mutants defective in gene 30 (deoxyribonucleic acid ligase) and the rII gene.

    PubMed

    Karam, J D; Barker, B

    1971-02-01

    In Escherichia coli K-12 strains infected with phage T4 which is defective in gene 30 [deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ligase] and in the rII gene (product unknown), near normal levels of DNA and viable phage were produced. Growth of such T4 ligase-rII double mutants was less efficient in E. coli B strains which show the "rapidlysis" phenotype of rII mutations. In pulse-chase experiments coupled with temperature shifts and with inhibition of DNA synthesis, it was observed that DNA synthesized by gene 30-defective phage is more susceptible to breakdown in vivo when the phage is carrying a wild-type rII gene. Breakdown was delayed or inhibited by continued DNA synthesis. Mutations of the rII gene decreased but did not completely abolish the breakdown. T4 ligase-rII double mutants had normal sensitivity to ultraviolet irradiation.

  2. Mutants of PC12 cells with altered cyclic AMP responses

    SciTech Connect

    Block, T.; Kon, C.; Breckenridge, B.M.

    1984-10-01

    PCl2 cells, derived from a rat pheochromocytoma, were mutagenized and selected in media containing agents known to elevate intracellular concentrations of cyclic AMP (cAMP). More than 40 clones were isolated by selection with cholera toxin or 2-chloroadenosine or both. The variants that were deficient in accumulating cAMP were obtained by using a protocol in which 1 ..mu..m 8-bromo-cAMP was included in addition to the agonist. Certain of these variants were partially characterized with respect to the site of altered cAMP metabolism. The profiles of adenylate cyclase activity responsiveness of certain variants to guanosine-5'-(BETA,..gamma..-imido) triphosphate and to forskolin resembled those of UNC and cyc phenotypes of S49 lymphoma cells, which are functionally deficient in the GTP-sensitive coupling protein, N/sub s/. Other variants were characterized by increased cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity at low substrate concentration. Diverse morphological traits were observed among the variants, but it was not possible to assign them to a particular cAMP phenotype. Two revertants of a PCl2 mutant were isolated and observed to have regained a cellular cAMP response to 2-chloroadenosine and to forskolin. It is hoped that these PCl2 mutants will have utility for defining cAMP-mediated functions, including any links to the action of nerve growth factor, in cells derived from the neural crest.

  3. High Throughput Sequencing Identifies Misregulated Genes in the Drosophila Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein (hephaestus) Mutant Defective in Spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Vinod; Heimiller, Joseph; Robida, Mark D; Singh, Ravinder

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (dmPTB or hephaestus) plays an important role during spermatogenesis. The heph2 mutation in this gene results in a specific defect in spermatogenesis, causing aberrant spermatid individualization and male sterility. However, the array of molecular defects in the mutant remains uncharacterized. Using an unbiased high throughput sequencing approach, we have identified transcripts that are misregulated in this mutant. Aberrant transcripts show altered expression levels, exon skipping, and alternative 5' ends. We independently verified these findings by reverse-transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Our analysis shows misregulation of transcripts that have been connected to spermatogenesis, including components of the actomyosin cytoskeletal apparatus. We show, for example, that the Myosin light chain 1 (Mlc1) transcript is aberrantly spliced. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis reveals that Mlc1 contains a high affinity binding site(s) for dmPTB and that the site is conserved in many Drosophila species. We discuss that Mlc1 and other components of the actomyosin cytoskeletal apparatus offer important molecular links between the loss of dmPTB function and the observed developmental defect in spermatogenesis. This study provides the first comprehensive list of genes misregulated in vivo in the heph2 mutant in Drosophila and offers insight into the role of dmPTB during spermatogenesis.

  4. High Throughput Sequencing Identifies Misregulated Genes in the Drosophila Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein (hephaestus) Mutant Defective in Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Vinod; Heimiller, Joseph; Robida, Mark D.; Singh, Ravinder

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (dmPTB or hephaestus) plays an important role during spermatogenesis. The heph2 mutation in this gene results in a specific defect in spermatogenesis, causing aberrant spermatid individualization and male sterility. However, the array of molecular defects in the mutant remains uncharacterized. Using an unbiased high throughput sequencing approach, we have identified transcripts that are misregulated in this mutant. Aberrant transcripts show altered expression levels, exon skipping, and alternative 5’ ends. We independently verified these findings by reverse-transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Our analysis shows misregulation of transcripts that have been connected to spermatogenesis, including components of the actomyosin cytoskeletal apparatus. We show, for example, that the Myosin light chain 1 (Mlc1) transcript is aberrantly spliced. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis reveals that Mlc1 contains a high affinity binding site(s) for dmPTB and that the site is conserved in many Drosophila species. We discuss that Mlc1 and other components of the actomyosin cytoskeletal apparatus offer important molecular links between the loss of dmPTB function and the observed developmental defect in spermatogenesis. This study provides the first comprehensive list of genes misregulated in vivo in the heph2 mutant in Drosophila and offers insight into the role of dmPTB during spermatogenesis. PMID:26942929

  5. Brucellosis Vaccines: Assessment of Brucella melitensis Lipopolysaccharide Rough Mutants Defective in Core and O-Polysaccharide Synthesis and Export

    PubMed Central

    González, David; Grilló, María-Jesús; De Miguel, María-Jesús; Ali, Tara; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; Delrue, Rose-May; Conde-Álvarez, Raquel; Muñoz, Pilar; López-Goñi, Ignacio; Iriarte, Maite; Marín, Clara-M.; Weintraub, Andrej; Widmalm, Göran; Zygmunt, Michel; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Blasco, José-María; Moriyón, Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    Background The brucellae are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, one of the major neglected zoonoses. In endemic areas, vaccination is the only effective way to control this disease. Brucella melitensis Rev 1 is a vaccine effective against the brucellosis of sheep and goat caused by B. melitensis, the commonest source of human infection. However, Rev 1 carries a smooth lipopolysaccharide with an O-polysaccharide that elicits antibodies interfering in serodiagnosis, a major problem in eradication campaigns. Because of this, rough Brucella mutants lacking the O-polysaccharide have been proposed as vaccines. Methodology/Principal Findings To examine the possibilities of rough vaccines, we screened B. melitensis for lipopolysaccharide genes and obtained mutants representing all main rough phenotypes with regard to core oligosaccharide and O-polysaccharide synthesis and export. Using the mouse model, mutants were classified into four attenuation patterns according to their multiplication and persistence in spleens at different doses. In macrophages, mutants belonging to three of these attenuation patterns reached the Brucella characteristic intracellular niche and multiplied intracellularly, suggesting that they could be suitable vaccine candidates. Virulence patterns, intracellular behavior and lipopolysaccharide defects roughly correlated with the degree of protection afforded by the mutants upon intraperitoneal vaccination of mice. However, when vaccination was applied by the subcutaneous route, only two mutants matched the protection obtained with Rev 1 albeit at doses one thousand fold higher than this reference vaccine. These mutants, which were blocked in O-polysaccharide export and accumulated internal O-polysaccharides, stimulated weak anti-smooth lipopolysaccharide antibodies. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrate that no rough mutant is equal to Rev 1 in laboratory models and question the notion that rough vaccines are

  6. Isolation and partial characterization of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides mutants defective in the regulation of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Weaver, K E; Tabita, F R

    1983-11-01

    Several mutants of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides defective in the derepression of the enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase have been isolated by using the unstable Tn5 vectors pJB4JI and pRK340. Transpositional insertion mutants obtained with pJB4JI were demonstrated to be incapable of increasing ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase levels when grown on butyrate-bicarbonate medium or under conditions of carbon starvation, whereas the wild-type strain increased activity four- to eightfold. When the wild-type strain was starved for carbon in the presence of chloramphenicol, no derepression was observed. Crude extracts from mutant and wild-type strains had distinct and consistent differences in protein content as observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Chromatographic evidence indicated that mutants were defective in the regulation of only one of the two forms of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase synthesized by R. sphaeroides.

  7. Sodium Orthovanadate-Resistant Mutants of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Show Defects in Golgi-Mediated Protein Glycosylation, Sporulation and Detergent Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kanik-Ennulat, C.; Montalvo, E.; Neff, N.

    1995-01-01

    Orthovanadate is a small toxic molecule that competes with the biologically important oxyanion orthophosphate. Orthovanadate resistance arises spontaneously in Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid cells by mutation in a number of genes. Mutations selected at 3 mM sodium orthovanadate have different degrees of vanadate resistance, hygromycin sensitivity, detergent sensitivity and sporulation defects. Recessive vanadate-resistant mutants belong to at least six genetic loci. Most mutants are defective in outer chain glycosylation of secreted invertase (van1, van2, van4, van5, van6, VAN7-116 and others), a phenotype found in some MNN or VRG mutants. The phenotypes of these vanadate-resistant mutants are consistent with an alteration in the permeability or specificity of the Golgi apparatus. The previously published VAN1 gene product has a 200 amino acid domain with 40% identity with the MNN9 gene product and 70% identity with the ANP1 gene product. Cells containing the van1-18, mnn9 (vrg6) or anp1 mutations have some phenotypic similarities. The VAN2 gene was isolated and its coding region is identified and reported. It is an essential gene on chromosome XV and its translated amino acid sequence predicts a unique 337 amino acid protein with multiple transmembrane domains. PMID:7672592

  8. A Medicago truncatula Tobacco Retrotransposon Insertion Mutant Collection with Defects in Nodule Development and Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pislariu, Catalina I.; D. Murray, Jeremy; Wen, JiangQi; Cosson, Viviane; Muni, RajaSekhara Reddy Duvvuru; Wang, Mingyi; A. Benedito, Vagner; Andriankaja, Andry; Cheng, Xiaofei; Jerez, Ivone Torres; Mondy, Samuel; Zhang, Shulan; Taylor, Mark E.; Tadege, Million; Ratet, Pascal; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Chen, Rujin; Udvardi, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    A Tnt1-insertion mutant population of Medicago truncatula ecotype R108 was screened for defects in nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Primary screening of 9,300 mutant lines yielded 317 lines with putative defects in nodule development and/or nitrogen fixation. Of these, 230 lines were rescreened, and 156 lines were confirmed with defective symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Mutants were sorted into six distinct phenotypic categories: 72 nonnodulating mutants (Nod−), 51 mutants with totally ineffective nodules (Nod+ Fix−), 17 mutants with partially ineffective nodules (Nod+ Fix+/−), 27 mutants defective in nodule emergence, elongation, and nitrogen fixation (Nod+/− Fix−), one mutant with delayed and reduced nodulation but effective in nitrogen fixation (dNod+/− Fix+), and 11 supernodulating mutants (Nod++Fix+/−). A total of 2,801 flanking sequence tags were generated from the 156 symbiotic mutant lines. Analysis of flanking sequence tags revealed 14 insertion alleles of the following known symbiotic genes: NODULE INCEPTION (NIN), DOESN’T MAKE INFECTIONS3 (DMI3/CCaMK), ERF REQUIRED FOR NODULATION, and SUPERNUMERARY NODULES (SUNN). In parallel, a polymerase chain reaction-based strategy was used to identify Tnt1 insertions in known symbiotic genes, which revealed 25 additional insertion alleles in the following genes: DMI1, DMI2, DMI3, NIN, NODULATION SIGNALING PATHWAY1 (NSP1), NSP2, SUNN, and SICKLE. Thirty-nine Nod− lines were also screened for arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis phenotypes, and 30 mutants exhibited defects in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Morphological and developmental features of several new symbiotic mutants are reported. The collection of mutants described here is a source of novel alleles of known symbiotic genes and a resource for cloning novel symbiotic genes via Tnt1 tagging. PMID:22679222

  9. Repair-defective mutants of Alteromonas espejiana, the host for bacteriophage PM2

    SciTech Connect

    Zerler, B.R.; Wallace, S.S.

    1984-02-01

    The in vivo repair processes of Alteromonas espejiana, the host for bacteriophage PM2, were characterized, and UV- and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-sensitive mutants were isolated. Wild-type A. espejiana cells were capable of photoreactivation, excision, recombination, and inducible repair. There was no detecttable pyrimidine dimer-DNA N-glycosylase activity, and pyrimidine dimer removal appeared to occur by a pathway analogous to the Escherichia coli Uvr pathway. The UV- and MMS-sensitive mutants of A. espejiana included three groups, each containing at least one mutation involved with excision, recombination, or inducible repair. One group that was UV sensitive but not sensitive to MMS or X rays showed a decreased ability to excise pyrimidine dimers. Mutants in this group were also sensitive to psoralen plus near-UV light and were phenotypically analogous to the E. coli uvr mutants. A second group was UV and MMS sensitive but not sensitive to X rays and appeared to contain mutations in a gene(s) involved in recombination repair. These recombination-deficient mutants differed from the E. coli rec mutants, which are MMS and X-ray sensitive. The third group of A. espejiana mutants was sensitive to UV, MMS, and X rays. These mutants were recombination deficient, lacked inducible repair, and were phenotypically similar to E. coli recA mutants.

  10. Promoting cooperation through fast response to defection in spatial games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu-Wen; Jiang, Luo-Luo; Nie, Sen; Chen, Shi-Ming; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2016-10-01

    Recent experimental research has revealed that the cooperation in dynamic social networks, has significant scope for enhancement because individuals in a social system break the links with defective neighbours. To investigate how the length of defection tolerance affects the cooperation of prisoner’s dilemma game in dynamic ring networks, we study evolution of breaking and rewiring operations for social interaction as a response to the defection strategy. Defection tolerance is measured in terms of the time length that an individual tolerates a defector who continuously adopts the defective strategy. The results show that the dynamic nature of human social networks plays an essential role in promoting cooperation. Interestingly, there exists a critical value of the temptation to defect, below which the system is entirely dominated by cooperators, and a lower value of defection tolerance induces a larger threshold of temptation.

  11. A Carotenoid-Deficient Mutant in Pantoea sp. YR343, a Bacteria Isolated from the Rhizosphere of Populus deltoides, Is Defective in Root Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Bible, Amber N.; Fletcher, Sarah J.; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Jawdy, Sara S.; Weston, David J.; Engle, Nancy L.; Tschaplinski, Timothy; Masyuko, Rachel; Polisetti, Sneha; Bohn, Paul W.; Coutinho, Teresa A.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The complex interactions between plants and their microbiome can have a profound effect on the health and productivity of the plant host. A better understanding of the microbial mechanisms that promote plant health and stress tolerance will enable strategies for improving the productivity of economically important plants. Pantoea sp. YR343 is a motile, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from the roots of Populus deltoides that possesses the ability to solubilize phosphate and produce the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Pantoea sp. YR343 readily colonizes plant roots and does not appear to be pathogenic when applied to the leaves or roots of selected plant hosts. To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in plant association and rhizosphere survival by Pantoea sp. YR343, we constructed a mutant in which the crtB gene encoding phytoene synthase was deleted. Phytoene synthase is responsible for converting geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to phytoene, an important precursor to the production of carotenoids. As predicted, the ΔcrtB mutant is defective in carotenoid production, and shows increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. Moreover, we find that the ΔcrtB mutant is impaired in biofilm formation and production of IAA. Finally we demonstrate that the ΔcrtB mutant shows reduced colonization of plant roots. Taken together, these data suggest that carotenoids are important for plant association and/or rhizosphere survival in Pantoea sp. YR343. PMID:27148182

  12. Mirror Movement-Like Defects in Startle Behavior of Zebrafish dcc Mutants Are Caused by Aberrant Midline Guidance of Identified Descending Hindbrain Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Roshan A.; Bell, Hannah; Lim, Amy; Chien, Chi-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Mirror movements are involuntary movements on one side of the body that occur simultaneously with intentional movements on the contralateral side. Humans with heterozygous mutations in the axon guidance receptor DCC display such mirror movements, where unilateral stimulation results in inappropriate bilateral motor output. Currently, it is unclear whether mirror movements are caused by incomplete midline crossing and reduced commissural connectivity of DCC-dependent descending pathways or by aberrant ectopic ipsilateral axonal projections of normally commissural neurons. Here, we show that in response to unilateral tactile stimuli, zebrafish dcc mutant larvae perform involuntary turns on the inappropriate body side. We show that these mirror movement-like deficits are associated with axonal guidance defects of two identified groups of commissural reticulospinal hindbrain neurons. Moreover, we demonstrate that in dcc mutants, axons of these identified neurons frequently fail to cross the midline and instead project ipsilaterally. Whereas laser ablation of these neurons in wild-type animals does not affect turning movements, their ablation in dcc mutants restores turning movements. Thus, our results demonstrate that in dcc mutants, turns on the inappropriate side of the body are caused by aberrant ipsilateral axonal projections, and suggest that aberrant ipsilateral connectivity of a very small number of descending axons is sufficient to induce incorrect movement patterns. PMID:24553931

  13. A Carotenoid-Deficient Mutant in Pantoea sp. YR343, a Bacteria Isolated from the Rhizosphere of Populus deltoides, Is Defective in Root Colonization

    DOE PAGES

    Bible, Amber; Fletcher, Sarah J; Pelletier, Dale A; ...

    2016-04-18

    The complex interactions between plants and their microbiome can have a profound effect on the health and productivity of the plant host. A better understanding of the microbial mechanisms that promote plant health and stress tolerance will enable strategies for improving the productivity of economically-important plants. Pantoea sp. YR343 is a motile, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from the roots of Populus deltoides that possesses the ability to solubilize phosphate and produce the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid. Pantoea sp. YR343 readily colonizes plant roots and does not appear to be pathogenic when applied to the leaves or roots of selected plant hosts. Tomore » better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in plant association and rhizosphere survival by Pantoea sp. YR343, we constructed a mutant in which the crtB gene encoding phytoene synthase was deleted. Phytoene synthase is responsible for converting geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to phytoene, an important precursor to the production of carotenoids. As predicted, the ΔcrtB mutant is defective in carotenoid production, and shows increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. Moreover, we find that the ΔcrtB mutant is impaired in biofilm formation and production of indole-3-acetic acid. Finally we demonstrate that the ΔcrtB mutant shows reduced colonization of plant roots. Taken together, these data suggest that carotenoids are important for plant association and/or rhizosphere survival in Pantoea sp. YR343.« less

  14. A Carotenoid-Deficient Mutant in Pantoea sp. YR343, a Bacteria Isolated from the Rhizosphere of Populus deltoides, Is Defective in Root Colonization

    SciTech Connect

    Bible, Amber; Fletcher, Sarah J; Pelletier, Dale A; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Jawdy, Sara; Weston, David; Engle, Nancy L.; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Masyuko, Rachel; Polisetti, Sneha; Bohn, Paul W.; Coutinho, Teresa; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L.

    2016-04-18

    The complex interactions between plants and their microbiome can have a profound effect on the health and productivity of the plant host. A better understanding of the microbial mechanisms that promote plant health and stress tolerance will enable strategies for improving the productivity of economically-important plants. Pantoea sp. YR343 is a motile, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from the roots of Populus deltoides that possesses the ability to solubilize phosphate and produce the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid. Pantoea sp. YR343 readily colonizes plant roots and does not appear to be pathogenic when applied to the leaves or roots of selected plant hosts. To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in plant association and rhizosphere survival by Pantoea sp. YR343, we constructed a mutant in which the crtB gene encoding phytoene synthase was deleted. Phytoene synthase is responsible for converting geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to phytoene, an important precursor to the production of carotenoids. As predicted, the ΔcrtB mutant is defective in carotenoid production, and shows increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. Moreover, we find that the ΔcrtB mutant is impaired in biofilm formation and production of indole-3-acetic acid. Finally we demonstrate that the ΔcrtB mutant shows reduced colonization of plant roots. Taken together, these data suggest that carotenoids are important for plant association and/or rhizosphere survival in Pantoea sp. YR343.

  15. The mur4 mutant of arabidopsis is partially defective in the de novo synthesis of uridine diphospho L-arabinose

    SciTech Connect

    Burget, E.G.; Reiter, W.D.

    1999-10-01

    To obtain information on the synthesis and function of arabinosylated glycans, the mur4 mutant of arabidopsis was characterized. This mutation leads to a 50% reduction in the monosaccharide L-arabinose in most organs and affects arabinose-containing pectic cell wall polysaccharides and arabinogalactan proteins. Feeding L-arabinose to mur4 plants restores the cell wall composition to wild-type levels, suggesting a partial defect in the de novo synthesis of UDP-L-arabinose, the activated sugar used by arabinosyltransferases. The defect was traced to the conversion of UDP-D-xylose to UDP-L-arabinose in the microsome fraction of leaf material, indicating that mur4 plants are defective in a membrane-bound UDP-D-xylose 4-epimerase.

  16. Chemostat cultivation and transcriptional analyses of Clostridium acetobutylicum mutants with defects in the acid and acetone biosynthetic pathways.

    PubMed

    Hönicke, Daniel; Lütke-Eversloh, Tina; Liu, Ziyong; Lehmann, Dörte; Liebl, Wolfgang; Ehrenreich, Armin

    2014-12-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum is a model organism for the biotechnologically important acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. With the objective to rationally develop strains with improved butanol production, detailed insights into the physiological and genetic mechanisms of solvent production are required. Therefore, pH-controlled phosphate-limited chemostat cultivation and DNA microarray technology were employed for an in-depth analysis of knockout mutants with defects in the central fermentative metabolism. The set of studied mutants included strains with inactivated phosphotransacetylase (pta), phosphotransbutyrylase (ptb), and acetoacetate decarboxylase (adc) encoding genes, as well as an adc/pta double knockout mutant. A comprehensive physiological characterization of the mutants was performed by continuous cultivation, allowing for a well-defined separation of acidogenic and solventogenic growth, combined with the advantage of the high reproducibility of steady-state conditions. The ptb-negative strain C. acetobutylicum ptb::int(87) exhibited the most striking metabolite profile: Sizable amounts of butanol (29 ± 1.3 mM) were already produced during acidogenic growth. The product patterns of the mutants as well as accompanying transcriptomic data are presented and discussed.

  17. A MUTANT OF YEAST APPARENTLY DEFECTIVE IN THE INITIATION OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS*

    PubMed Central

    Hartwell, Leland H.; McLaughlin, Calvin S.

    1969-01-01

    A temperature-sensitive mutant of yeast, ts-187, which is apparently unable to initiate the synthesis of new polypeptide chains after a short incubation at the restrictive temperature, is described. The existence of this mutant demonstrates that in eucaryotic cells, as in procaryotic cells, there are processes unique to the initiation of polypeptide chains. PMID:5256225

  18. A Laboratory Exercise for Isolation and Characterizing Microbial Mutants with Metabolic Defects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doe, Frank J.; Leslie, John F.

    1993-01-01

    Describes science experiments for undergraduate biology instruction on the concepts of mutation and characterization of the resulting mutant strains. The filamentous fungi "Fusarium moniliforme" is used to illustrate the induction of mutants (mutagenesis), identification of the mutated gene, construction of a biochemical pathway, and…

  19. A poliovirus 2A(pro) mutant unable to cleave 3CD shows inefficient viral protein synthesis and transactivation defects.

    PubMed Central

    Ventoso, I; Carrasco, L

    1995-01-01

    Four poliovirus mutants with modifications of tyrosine 88 in 2A(pro) were generated and introduced into the cloned poliovirus genome. Mutants Y88P and Y88L were nonviable, mutant Y88F showed a wild-type (WT) phenotype, and mutant Y88S showed a delayed cytopathic effect and formed small plaques in HeLa cells. Growth of Y88S in HeLa cells was restricted, giving rise to about 20% of the PFU production of the WT poliovirus. The 2A (Y88S) mutant synthesized significantly lower levels of viral proteins in HeLa cells than did the WT poliovirus, while the kinetics of p220 cleavage were identical for both viruses. Strikingly, the 2A (Y88S) mutant was unable to cleave 3CD, as shown by analysis of poliovirus proteins labeled with [35S]methionine or immunoblotted with a specific anti-3C serum. The ability of the Y88S mutant to form infectious virus and cleave 3CD can be complemented by the WT poliovirus. Synthesis of viral RNA was diminished in the Y88S mutant but less than the inhibition of translation of viral RNA. Experiments in which guanidine was used to inhibit poliovirus RNA synthesis suggest that the primary defect of the Y88S mutant virus is at the level of poliovirus RNA translation, while viral genome replication is much less affected. Transfection of HeLa cells infected with the WT poliovirus with a luciferase mRNA containing the poliovirus 5' untranslated sequence gives rise to a severalfold increase in luciferase activity. This enhanced translation of leader-luc mRNA was not observed when the transfected cells were infected with the 2A (Y88S) mutant. Moreover, cotransfection with mRNA encoding WT poliovirus 2A(pro) enhanced translation of leader-luc mRNA. This enhancement was much lower upon transfection with mRNA encoding 2A(Y88S), 2A(Y88L), or 2A(Y88P). These findings support the view that 2A(pro) itself, rather than the 3C' and/or 3D' products, is necessary for efficient translation of poliovirus RNA in HeLa cells. PMID:7666528

  20. Glucose Starvation Alters Heat Shock Response, Leading to Death of Wild Type Cells and Survival of MAP Kinase Signaling Mutant.

    PubMed

    Plesofsky, Nora; Higgins, LeeAnn; Markowski, Todd; Brambl, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A moderate heat shock induces Neurospora crassa to synthesize large quantities of heat shock proteins that are protective against higher, otherwise lethal temperatures. However, wild type cells do not survive when carbohydrate deprivation is added to heat shock. In contrast, a mutant strain defective in a stress-activated protein kinase does survive the combined stresses. In order to understand the basis for this difference in survival, we have determined the relative levels of detected proteins in the mutant and wild type strain during dual stress, and we have identified gene transcripts in both strains whose quantities change in response to heat shock or dual stress. These data and supportive experimental evidence point to reasons for survival of the mutant strain. By using alternative respiratory mechanisms, these cells experience less of the oxidative stress that proves damaging to wild type cells. Of central importance, mutant cells recycle limited resources during dual stress by undergoing autophagy, a process that we find utilized by both wild type and mutant cells during heat shock. Evidence points to inappropriate activation of TORC1, the central metabolic regulator, in wild type cells during dual stress, based upon behavior of an additional signaling mutant and inhibitor studies.

  1. Glucose Starvation Alters Heat Shock Response, Leading to Death of Wild Type Cells and Survival of MAP Kinase Signaling Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, LeeAnn; Markowski, Todd; Brambl, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A moderate heat shock induces Neurospora crassa to synthesize large quantities of heat shock proteins that are protective against higher, otherwise lethal temperatures. However, wild type cells do not survive when carbohydrate deprivation is added to heat shock. In contrast, a mutant strain defective in a stress-activated protein kinase does survive the combined stresses. In order to understand the basis for this difference in survival, we have determined the relative levels of detected proteins in the mutant and wild type strain during dual stress, and we have identified gene transcripts in both strains whose quantities change in response to heat shock or dual stress. These data and supportive experimental evidence point to reasons for survival of the mutant strain. By using alternative respiratory mechanisms, these cells experience less of the oxidative stress that proves damaging to wild type cells. Of central importance, mutant cells recycle limited resources during dual stress by undergoing autophagy, a process that we find utilized by both wild type and mutant cells during heat shock. Evidence points to inappropriate activation of TORC1, the central metabolic regulator, in wild type cells during dual stress, based upon behavior of an additional signaling mutant and inhibitor studies. PMID:27870869

  2. Arabidopsis DNA polymerase lambda mutant is mildly sensitive to DNA double strand breaks but defective in integration of a transgene.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Tomoyuki; Angelis, Karel J; Britt, Anne B

    2015-01-01

    The DNA double-strand break (DSB) is a critical type of damage, and can be induced by both endogenous sources (e.g., errors of oxidative metabolism, transposable elements, programmed meiotic breaks, or perturbation of the DNA replication fork) and exogenous sources (e.g., ionizing radiation or radiomimetic chemicals). Although higher plants, like mammals, are thought to preferentially repair DSBs via nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), much remains unclear about plant DSB repair pathways. Our reverse genetic approach suggests that DNA polymerase λ is involved in DSB repair in Arabidopsis. The Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant (atpolλ-1) displayed sensitivity to both gamma-irradiation and treatment with radiomimetic reagents, but not to other DNA damaging treatments. The atpolλ-1 mutant showed a moderate sensitivity to DSBs, while Arabidopsis Ku70 and DNA ligase 4 mutants (atku70-3 and atlig4-2), both of which play critical roles in NHEJ, exhibited a hypersensitivity to these treatments. The atpolλ-1/atlig4-2 double mutant exhibited a higher sensitivity to DSBs than each single mutant, but the atku70/atpolλ-1 showed similar sensitivity to the atku70-3 mutant. We showed that transcription of the DNA ligase 1, DNA ligase 6, and Wee1 genes was quickly induced by BLM in several NHEJ deficient mutants in contrast to wild-type. Finally, the T-DNA transformation efficiency dropped in NHEJ deficient mutants and the lowest transformation efficiency was scored in the atpolλ-1/atlig4-2 double mutant. These results imply that AtPolλ is involved in both DSB repair and DNA damage response pathway.

  3. Arabidopsis DNA polymerase lambda mutant is mildly sensitive to DNA double strand breaks but defective in integration of a transgene

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Tomoyuki; Angelis, Karel J.; Britt, Anne B.

    2015-01-01

    The DNA double-strand break (DSB) is a critical type of damage, and can be induced by both endogenous sources (e.g., errors of oxidative metabolism, transposable elements, programmed meiotic breaks, or perturbation of the DNA replication fork) and exogenous sources (e.g., ionizing radiation or radiomimetic chemicals). Although higher plants, like mammals, are thought to preferentially repair DSBs via nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), much remains unclear about plant DSB repair pathways. Our reverse genetic approach suggests that DNA polymerase λ is involved in DSB repair in Arabidopsis. The Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant (atpolλ-1) displayed sensitivity to both gamma-irradiation and treatment with radiomimetic reagents, but not to other DNA damaging treatments. The atpolλ-1 mutant showed a moderate sensitivity to DSBs, while Arabidopsis Ku70 and DNA ligase 4 mutants (atku70-3 and atlig4-2), both of which play critical roles in NHEJ, exhibited a hypersensitivity to these treatments. The atpolλ-1/atlig4-2 double mutant exhibited a higher sensitivity to DSBs than each single mutant, but the atku70/atpolλ-1 showed similar sensitivity to the atku70-3 mutant. We showed that transcription of the DNA ligase 1, DNA ligase 6, and Wee1 genes was quickly induced by BLM in several NHEJ deficient mutants in contrast to wild-type. Finally, the T-DNA transformation efficiency dropped in NHEJ deficient mutants and the lowest transformation efficiency was scored in the atpolλ-1/atlig4-2 double mutant. These results imply that AtPolλ is involved in both DSB repair and DNA damage response pathway. PMID:26074930

  4. The basis for colorless hemolymph and cocoons in the Y-gene recessive Bombyx mori mutants: a defect in the cellular uptake of carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Kozo; Katagiri, Chihiro; Tanaka, Yoshiro; Tabunoki, Hiroko; Sato, Ryoichi; Maekawa, Hideaki; Takada, Naoko; Banno, Yutaka; Fujii, Hiroshi; Wells, Michael A; Jouni, Zeina E

    2004-10-01

    Bombyx mori is an excellent model for the study of carotenoid-binding proteins (CBP). In previous papers, we identified and molecularly characterized a CBP from the Y-gene dominant mutants. In the present study, we attempted to correlate and establish lipid metabolism and distribution in these mutants. When [3H]-triolein was fed to the mutants, typical patterns of uptake of labeled fatty acids from midgut to hemolymph and subsequent delivery to fat body and silk glands were obtained in all mutants. Further analysis of lipid and carotenoid profiles revealed that the yellow coloration in the hemolymph associated with lipophorin is not attributed to a difference in lipophorin concentrations among the mutants, nor to its lipid composition, but rather to its carotenoid content. Lipophorin of the Y+I mutant exhibited the highest concentration of total carotenoids of 55.8 microg/mg lipophorin compared to 3.1 microg/mg in the +Y+I mutant, 1.2 microg/mg in the YI mutant and 0.5 microg/mg in the +YI mutant. Characteristic retention time in HPLC of the different classes of carotenoids of lipophorin identified the presence of lutein as the major chromophore (62-77%), followed by beta-carotenes (22-38%). Although lutein and beta-carotene content of mutants' lipophorin differed significantly, the ratio of lutein to beta-carotene of 3:1 was not different among mutants. Similarly, lipid compositions of mutant silk glands were not significantly different, but carotenoid contents were. The significantly high concentration of lutein in the Y+I mutant silk gland represented more than 160-fold increase compared to +Y+I mutant (p<0.001). In this report, we conclude that lipid metabolism in the mutants is not defected and that the molecular basis for colorless hemolymph and cocoons is a defect in the cellular uptake of lutein associated with the Y-gene recessive mutants.

  5. Organ fusion and defective cuticle function in a lacs1 lacs2 double mutant of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Weng, Hua; Molina, Isabel; Shockey, Jay; Browse, John

    2010-04-01

    As the outermost layer on aerial tissues of the primary plant body, the cuticle plays important roles in plant development and physiology. The major components of the cuticle are cutin and cuticular wax, both of which are composed primarily of fatty acid derivatives synthesized in the epidermal cells. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (LACS) catalyze the formation of long-chain acyl-CoAs and the Arabidopsis genome contains a family of nine genes shown to encode LACS enzymes. LACS2 is required for cutin biosynthesis, as revealed by previous investigations on lacs2 mutants. Here, we characterize lacs1 mutants of Arabidopsis that reveals a role for LACS1 in biosynthesis of cuticular wax components. lacs1 lacs2 double-mutant plants displayed pleiotropic phenotypes including organ fusion, abnormal flower development and reduced seed set; phenotypes not found in either of the parental mutants. The leaf cuticular permeability of lacs1 lacs2 was higher than that of either lacs1 or lacs2 single mutants, as determined by measurements of chlorophyll leaching from leaves immersed in 80% ethanol, staining with toluidine blue dye and direct measurements of water loss. Furthermore, lacs1 lacs2 mutant plants are highly susceptible to drought stress. Our results indicate that a deficiency in cuticular wax synthesis and a deficiency in cutin synthesis together have compounding effects on the functional integrity of the cuticular barrier, compromising the ability of the cuticle to restrict water movement, protect against drought stress and prevent organ fusion.

  6. [Defects in immune system response by our organisms].

    PubMed

    Español, Teresa

    2005-09-01

    When some of the mechanisms in our immune response system fail, this can be due to external problems such as infections or transplants or due to congenital errors, known as Primary Immunologic Deficiencies. Dr. Español briefly reviews the most important characteristics of our immune response system, and then continues with an analysis of the defects of this system, especially those defects which are classified as Primary Immunologic Deficiencies.

  7. A Glycosylation Mutant of Trypanosoma brucei Links Social Motility Defects In Vitro to Impaired Colonization of Tsetse Flies In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Imhof, Simon; Vu, Xuan Lan; Bütikofer, Peter; Roditi, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    Transmission of African trypanosomes by tsetse flies requires that the parasites migrate out of the midgut lumen and colonize the ectoperitrophic space. Early procyclic culture forms correspond to trypanosomes in the lumen; on agarose plates they exhibit social motility, migrating en masse as radial projections from an inoculation site. We show that an Rft1(-/-) mutant needs to reach a greater threshold number before migration begins, and that it forms fewer projections than its wild-type parent. The mutant is also up to 4 times less efficient at establishing midgut infections. Ectopic expression of Rft1 rescues social motility defects and restores the ability to colonize the fly. These results are consistent with social motility reflecting movement to the ectoperitrophic space, implicate N-glycans in the signaling cascades for migration in vivo and in vitro, and provide the first evidence that parasite-parasite interactions determine the success of transmission by the insect host.

  8. An update to the list of mouse mutants with neural tube closure defects and advances toward a complete genetic perspective of neural tube closure.

    PubMed

    Harris, Muriel J; Juriloff, Diana M

    2010-08-01

    The number of mouse mutants and strains with neural tube defects (NTDs) now exceeds 240, including 205 representing specific genes, 30 for unidentified genes, and 9 multifactorial strains. These mutants identify genes needed for embryonic neural tube closure. Reports of 50 new NTD mutants since our 2007 review (Harris and Juriloff, 2007) were considered in relation to the previously reviewed mutants to obtain new insights into mechanisms of NTD etiology. In addition to null mutations, some are hypomorphs or conditional mutants. Some mutations do not cause NTDs on their own, but do so in digenic, trigenic, and oligogenic combinations, an etiology that likely parallels the nature of genetic etiology of human NTDs. Mutants that have only exencephaly are fourfold more frequent than those that have spina bifida aperta with or without exencephaly. Many diverse cellular functions and biochemical pathways are involved; the NTD mutants draw new attention to chromatin modification (epigenetics), the protease-activated receptor cascade, and the ciliopathies. Few mutants directly involve folate metabolism. Prevention of NTDs by maternal folate supplementation has been tested in 13 mutants and reduces NTD frequency in six diverse mutants. Inositol reduces spina bifida aperta frequency in the curly tail mutant, and three new mutants involve inositol metabolism. The many NTD mutants are the foundation for a future complete genetic understanding of the processes of neural fold elevation and fusion along mechanistically distinct cranial-caudal segments of the neural tube, and they point to several candidate processes for study in human NTD etiology.

  9. Mouse Slc9a8 Mutants Exhibit Retinal Defects Due to Retinal Pigmented Epithelium Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Jadeja, Shalini; Barnard, Alun R.; McKie, Lisa; Cross, Sally H.; White, Jacqueline K.; Robertson, Morag; Budd, Peter S.; MacLaren, Robert E.; Jackson, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. As part of a large scale systematic screen to determine the effects of gene knockout mutations in mice, a retinal phenotype was found in mice lacking the Slc9a8 gene, encoding the sodium/hydrogen ion exchange protein NHE8. We aimed to characterize the mutant phenotype and the role of sodium/hydrogen ion exchange in retinal function. Methods. Detailed histology characterized the pathological consequences of Slc9a8 mutation, and retinal function was assessed by electroretinography (ERG). A conditional allele was used to identify the cells in which NHE8 function is critical for retinal function, and mutant cells analyzed for the effect of the mutation on endosomes. Results. Histology of mutant retinas reveals a separation of photoreceptors from the RPE and infiltration by macrophages. There is a small reduction in photoreceptor length and a mislocalization of visual pigments. The ERG testing reveals a deficit in rod and cone pathway function. The RPE shows abnormal morphology, and mutation of Slc9a8 in only RPE cells recapitulates the mutant phenotype. The NHE8 protein localizes to endosomes, and mutant cells have much smaller recycling endosomes. Conclusions. The NHE8 protein is required in the RPE to maintain correct regulation of endosomal volume and/or pH which is essential for the cellular integrity and subsequent function of RPE. PMID:25736793

  10. Flagellar mutants of Chlamydomonas: Studies of radial spoke-defective strains by dikaryon and revertant analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luck, David; Piperno, Gianni; Ramanis, Zenta; Huang, B.

    1977-01-01

    The motility mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii pf14 lacks radial spoke structures in its flagellar axonemes, and 12 proteins present in wild type are missing from a two-dimensional map (isoelectrofocusing/sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis) of its 35S-labeled flagellar proteins. Six of these same proteins are missing in pf1, which lacks spoke-heads. To determine whether any of the missing proteins represent the mutant gene product two experimental approaches have been applied. The first makes use of the fact that gametes of either mutant strain when fused with wild-type gametes to form quadriflagellate dikaryons undergo recovery of flagellar function. Recovery at the molecular level was monitored by prelabeling the mutant proteins with 35S and allowing recovery to occur in the absence of protein synthesis. It is to be expected that the mutant gene product would not be restored as a radioactive protein and that recovery would depend on the assembly of the wild-type counterpart that is not labeled. The second technique makes use of revertants induced by UV irradiation. Dikaryon rescue in the case of pf14 leads to restoration of 11 radioactive components; only protein 3 fails to appear as a radioactive spot. For pf1 only two radioactive proteins are restored; proteins 4, 6, 9, and 10 were not radioactive. Analysis of revertants of pf1 gave evidence (altered map positions) that protein 4 is the mutant gene product. In the case of pf14, analysis of 22 revertants has not provided similar positive evidence that protein 3 is the gene product. Images PMID:269405

  11. Maize reas1 Mutant Stimulates Ribosome Use Efficiency and Triggers Distinct Transcriptional and Translational Responses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Weiwei; Zhu, Jie; Wu, Qiao; Wang, Qun; Li, Xia; Yao, Dongsheng; Jin, Ying; Wang, Gang; Wang, Guifeng

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a fundamental cellular process in all cells. Impaired ribosome biogenesis causes developmental defects; however, its molecular and cellular bases are not fully understood. We cloned a gene responsible for a maize (Zea mays) small seed mutant, dek* (for defective kernel), and found that it encodes Ribosome export associated1 (ZmReas1). Reas1 is an AAA-ATPase that controls 60S ribosome export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm after ribosome maturation. dek* is a weak mutant allele with decreased Reas1 function. In dek* cells, mature 60S ribosome subunits are reduced in the nucleus and cytoplasm, but the proportion of actively translating polyribosomes in cytosol is significantly increased. Reduced phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α and the increased elongation factor 1α level indicate an enhancement of general translational efficiency in dek* cells. The mutation also triggers dramatic changes in differentially transcribed genes and differentially translated RNAs. Discrepancy was observed between differentially transcribed genes and differentially translated RNAs, indicating distinct cellular responses at transcription and translation levels to the stress of defective ribosome processing. DNA replication and nucleosome assembly-related gene expression are selectively suppressed at the translational level, resulting in inhibited cell growth and proliferation in dek* cells. This study provides insight into cellular responses due to impaired ribosome biogenesis. PMID:26645456

  12. Uncovering DELLA-Independent Gibberellin Responses by Characterizing New Tomato procera Mutants.

    PubMed

    Livne, Sivan; Lor, Vai S; Nir, Ido; Eliaz, Natanella; Aharoni, Asaph; Olszewski, Neil E; Eshed, Yuval; Weiss, David

    2015-06-01

    Gibberellin (GA) regulates plant development primarily by triggering the degradation/deactivation of the DELLA proteins. However, it remains unclear whether all GA responses are regulated by DELLAs. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) has a single DELLA gene named PROCERA (PRO), and its recessive pro allele exhibits constitutive GA activity but retains responsiveness to external GA. In the loss-of-function mutant pro(ΔGRAS), all examined GA developmental responses were considerably enhanced relative to pro and a defect in seed desiccation tolerance was uncovered. As pro, but not pro(ΔGRAS), elongation was promoted by GA treatment, pro may retain residual DELLA activity. In agreement with homeostatic feedback regulation of the GA biosynthetic pathway, we found that GA20oxidase1 expression was suppressed in pro(ΔGRAS) and was not affected by exogenous GA3. In contrast, expression of GA2oxidase4 was not affected by the elevated GA signaling in pro(ΔGRAS) but was strongly induced by exogenous GA3. Since a similar response was found in Arabidopsis thaliana plants with impaired activity of all five DELLA genes, we suggest that homeostatic GA responses are regulated by both DELLA-dependent and -independent pathways. Transcriptome analysis of GA-treated pro(ΔGRAS) leaves suggests that 5% of all GA-regulated genes in tomato are DELLA independent.

  13. Photosynthetic properties of an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant possessing a defective PsbS gene.

    PubMed

    Peterson, R B; Havir, E A

    2001-11-01

    We describe the properties of npq4-9, a new mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. with reduced nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) capacity that possesses a single amino acid substitution in the PsbS gene encoding PSII-S, a ubiquitous pigment-binding protein associated with photosystem II (PSII) of higher plants. Growth, photosynthetic pigment contents, and levels of the major PSII antenna proteins were not affected by npq4-9. Although the extent of de-epoxidatin of violaxanthin to antheraxanthin plus zeaxanthin for leaves displaying the mutant phenotype equaled or exceeded that observed for the wild type, the relative effectiveness of de-epoxidized xanthophylls in promoting NPQ was consistently lower for the mutant. Energy partitioning in PSII was analyzed in terms of the competition for singlet chlorophyll a among the processes of fluorescence, thermal dissipation, and photochemistry. The key processes of NPQ and photochemistry in open PSII centers are represented by the relative in vivo rate constants kN and kP0, respectively. The magnitude of kP0 in normal leaves declined only slightly with increasing kN, consistent with localization of NPQ primarily in the antenna complex. Conversely, a highly significant linear decline in kP0 with increasing kN was observed for the mutant, consistent with a role for the PSII reaction center in the NPQ mechanism. Although the PSII absorption cross-section for white light was not significantly different relative to that of the wild type, PSII quantum yield was significantly lower in the mutant. The resulting lower capacity for linear electron transport in the mutant primarily affected reduction of terminal acceptors other than CO2. Parallel measurements of fluorescence and in vivo absorbance at 820 nm indicated a consistently higher steady-state level of reduction of PSII acceptors and accumulation of P700+ for the mutant. This suggests that inter-photosystem electron transport in the mutant is restricted either by a higher

  14. [Salt Stress Response in Arabidopsis thaliana Plants with Defective Jasmonate Signaling].

    PubMed

    Yastreb, T O; Kolupayev, Yu E; Shvidenko, A A; Lugovaya, A A; Dmitriev, A P

    2015-01-01

    The effects of exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) on antioxidant enzymes in four-week-old leaves of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana L. (Columbia-0) and jin1 (jasmonate insensitive 1) mutant plants with defective jasmonate signaling were investigated under normal conditions and under salt stress (200 mM NaCl, 24 h). The wild-type plants responded to JA by an increase in the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase, while there was no change in the case of the mutant plants. In response to the salt stress of both the wild-type and mutant genotypes, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase were unchanged, decreased, and increased, respectively. The JA-treated wild type plants showed the highest activity of all three enzymes as compared with the mutant plants. Salinity caused a decrease in chlorophyll content in the wild-type and jin 1 plants. Preliminary JA treatment of the Col-0 plants resulted in a normal content of photosynthetic pigments after the salt stress, while the positive JA effect was insignificant in the jin 1 mutants. It was concluded that the MYC2/JIN 1 protein is involved in the JA signal transduction and plant adaptation to salt stress.

  15. Identification of a malate chemoreceptor in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by screening for chemotaxis defects in an energy taxis-deficient mutant.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ortega, Carolina; Harwood, Caroline S

    2007-12-01

    We found that a robust energy taxis response mediated by the Aer receptor can sometimes mask chemotaxis mediated by other methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We identified PA2652 as a chemoreceptor for malate by screening aer mcp double mutants by using swarm plate assays.

  16. Genetic Interaction Landscape Reveals Critical Requirements for Schizosaccharomyces pombe Brc1 in DNA Damage Response Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Arancha; Roguev, Assen; Krogan, Nevan J.; Russell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Brc1, which was first identified as a high-copy, allele-specific suppressor of a mutation impairing the Smc5-Smc6 holocomplex in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, protects genome integrity during normal DNA replication and when cells are exposed to toxic compounds that stall or collapse replication forks. The C-terminal tandem BRCT (BRCA1 C-terminus) domain of fission yeast Brc1 docks with phosphorylated histone H2A (γH2A)-marked chromatin formed by ATR/Rad3 checkpoint kinase at arrested and damaged replication forks; however, how Brc1 functions in relation to other genome protection modules remains unclear. Here, an epistatic mini-array profile reveals critical requirements for Brc1 in mutants that are defective in multiple DNA damage response pathways, including checkpoint signaling by Rad3-Rad26/ATR-ATRIP kinase, DNA repair by Smc5-Smc6 holocomplex, replication fork stabilization by Mrc1/claspin and Swi1-Swi3/Timeless-Tipin, and control of ubiquitin-regulated proteolysis by the COP9 signalosome (CSN). Exogenous genotoxins enhance these negative genetic interactions. Rad52 and RPA foci are increased in CSN-defective cells, and loss of γH2A increases genotoxin sensitivity, indicating a critical role for the γH2A-Brc1 module in stabilizing replication forks in CSN-defective cells. A negative genetic interaction with the Nse6 subunit of Smc5-Smc6 holocomplex indicates that the DNA repair functions of Brc1 and Smc5-Smc6 holocomplex are at least partially independent. Rtt107, the Brc1 homolog in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has a very different pattern of genetic interactions, indicating evolutionary divergence of functions and DNA damage responses. PMID:25795664

  17. The cellular and molecular etiology of the craniofacial defects in the avian ciliopathic mutant talpid2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    talpid2 is an avian autosomal recessive mutant with a myriad of congenital malformations, including polydactyly and facial clefting. Although phenotypically similar to talpid3, talpid2 has a distinct facial phenotype and an unknown cellular, molecular and genetic basis. We set out to determine the e...

  18. Circadian period lengths of lipid synthesis mutants (cel, chol-1) of Neurospora show defective temperature, but intact pH-compensation.

    PubMed

    Ruoff, Peter; Slewa, Ieda

    2002-05-01

    The influence of extracellular pH on the circadian sporulation rhythm of Neurospora crassa has been investigated for the mutants chol-1 and cel. Both mutants have a defect in the lipid synthesis pathway and require either choline or palmitate, respectively, as supplements for normal growth. The chol-1 and cel mutants also show an impaired temperature-compensation when growing on minimal medium. We investigated the possible correlation between loss of temperature- and pH-compensation in cel and chol-1 similar to the correlation found earlier for the frq7 mutant. Our results show that the cel and the chol-1 mutants, although defective in temperature-compensation have an intact pH-compensation of their circadian rhythms. At present, the products of the frq-locus are the only components of the clock that affect the sporulation rhythm of Neurospora both through pH- and temperature-compensation.

  19. Monomeric yeast PCNA mutants are defective in interacting with and stimulating the ATPase activity of RFC.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Costin N; Shea, Kathleen A; Mehra, Rajendra; Prundeanu, Lucia; McAlear, Michael A

    2002-10-29

    Yeast PCNA is a homo-trimeric, ring-shaped DNA polymerase accessory protein that can encircle duplex DNA. The integrity of this multimeric sliding DNA clamp is maintained through the protein-protein interactions at the interfaces of adjacent subunits. To investigate the importance of trimer stability for PCNA function, we introduced single amino acid substitutions at residues (A112T, S135F) that map to opposite ends of the monomeric protein. Recombinant wild-type and mutant PCNAs were purified from E. coli, and they were tested for their properties in vitro. Unlike the stable wild-type PCNA trimers, the mutant PCNA proteins behaved as monomers when diluted to low nanomolar concentrations. In contrast to what has been reported for a monomeric form of the beta clamp in E. coli, the monomeric PCNAs were compromised in their ability to interact with their associated clamp loader, replication factor C (RFC). Similarly, monomeric PCNAs were not effective in stimulating the ATPase activity of RFC. The mutant PCNAs were able to form mixed trimers with wild-type subunits, although these mixed trimers were unstable when loaded onto DNA. They were able to function as weak DNA polymerase delta processivity factors in vitro, and when the monomeric PCNA-41 (A112T, S135F double mutant) allele was introduced as the sole source of PCNA in vivo, the cells were viable and healthy. These pol30-41 mutants were, however, sensitive to UV irradiation and to the DNA damaging agent methylmethane sulfonate, implying that DNA repair pathways have a distinct requirement for stable DNA clamps.

  20. Valosin-containing protein (VCP/p97) inhibitors relieve Mitofusin-dependent mitochondrial defects due to VCP disease mutants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Mishra, Prashant; Hay, Bruce A; Chan, David; Guo, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Missense mutations of valosin-containing protein (VCP) cause an autosomal dominant disease known as inclusion body myopathy, Paget disease with frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. The pathological mechanism of IBMPFD is not clear and there is no treatment. We show that endogenous VCP negatively regulates Mitofusin, which is required for outer mitochondrial membrane fusion. Because 90% of IBMPFD patients have myopathy, we generated an in vivo IBMPFD model in adult Drosophila muscle, which recapitulates disease pathologies. We show that common VCP disease mutants act as hyperactive alleles with respect to regulation of Mitofusin. Importantly, VCP inhibitors suppress mitochondrial defects, muscle tissue damage and cell death associated with IBMPFD models in Drosophila. These inhibitors also suppress mitochondrial fusion and respiratory defects in IBMPFD patient fibroblasts. These results suggest that VCP disease mutants cause IBMPFD through a gain-of-function mechanism, and that VCP inhibitors have therapeutic value. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17834.001 PMID:28322724

  1. Imaging modalities to assess structural birth defects in mutant mouse models.

    PubMed

    Tobita, Kimimasa; Liu, Xiaoqin; Lo, Cecilia W

    2010-09-01

    Assessment of structural birth defects (SBDs) in animal models usually entails conducting detailed necropsy for anatomical defects followed by histological analysis for tissue defects. Recent advances in new imaging technologies have provided the means for rapid phenotyping of SBDs, such as using ultra-high frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography, micro-CT, and micro-MRI. These imaging modalities allow the detailed assessment of organ/tissue structure, and with ultrasound biomicroscopy, structure and function of the cardiovascular system also can be assessed noninvasively, allowing the longitudinal tracking of the fetus in utero. In this review, we briefly discuss the application of these state-of-the-art imaging technologies for phenotyping of SBDs in rodent embryos and fetuses, showing how these imaging modalities may be used for the detection of a wide variety of SBDs.

  2. The Cell Wall Arabinose-Deficient Arabidopsis thaliana Mutant murus5 Encodes a Defective Allele of REVERSIBLY GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE2.

    PubMed

    Dugard, Christopher K; Mertz, Rachel A; Rayon, Catherine; Mercadante, Davide; Hart, Christopher; Benatti, Matheus R; Olek, Anna T; SanMiguel, Phillip J; Cooper, Bruce R; Reiter, Wolf-Dieter; McCann, Maureen C; Carpita, Nicholas C

    2016-07-01

    Traditional marker-based mapping and next-generation sequencing was used to determine that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) low cell wall arabinose mutant murus5 (mur5) encodes a defective allele of REVERSIBLY GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE2 (RGP2). Marker analysis of 13 F2 confirmed mutant progeny from a recombinant mapping population gave a rough map position on the upper arm of chromosome 5, and deep sequencing of DNA from these 13 lines gave five candidate genes with G→A (C→T) transitions predicted to result in amino acid changes. Of these five, only insertional mutant alleles of RGP2, a gene that encodes a UDP-arabinose mutase that interconverts UDP-arabinopyranose and UDP-arabinofuranose, exhibited the low cell wall arabinose phenotype. The identities of mur5 and two SALK insertional alleles were confirmed by allelism tests and overexpression of wild-type RGP2 complementary DNA placed under the control of the 35S promoter in the three alleles. The mur5 mutation results in the conversion of cysteine-257 to tyrosine-257 within a conserved hydrophobic cluster predicted to be distal to the active site and essential for protein stability and possible heterodimerization with other isoforms of RGP.

  3. Negative feedback-defective PRPS1 mutants drive thiopurine resistance in relapsed childhood ALL

    PubMed Central

    Li, Benshang; Li, Hui; Bai, Yun; Kirschner-Schwabe, Renate; Yang, Jun J; Chen, Yao; Lu, Gang; Tzoneva, Gannie; Ma, Xiaotu; Wu, Tongmin; Li, Wenjing; Lu, Haisong; Ding, Lixia; Liang, Huanhuan; Huang, Xiaohang; Yang, Minjun; Jin, Lei; Kang, Hui; Chen, Shuting; Du, Alicia; Shen, Shuhong; Ding, Jianping; Chen, Hongzhuan; Chen, Jing; von Stackelberg, Arend; Gu, Longjun; Zhang, Jinghui; Ferrando, Adolfo; Tang, Jingyan; Wang, Shengyue; Zhou, Bin-Bing S.

    2015-01-01

    Relapse is the leading cause of mortality in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Among chemotherapeutics, thiopurines are key drugs in the backbone of ALL combination therapy. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified relapse-specific mutations in phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase 1 (PRPS1), a rate-limiting purine biosynthesis enzyme, in 24/358 (6.7%) relapse B-ALL cases. All individuals who harbored PRPS1 mutations relapsed early on-treatment, and mutated ALL clones expanded exponentially prior to clinical relapse. Our functional analyses of PRPS1 mutants uncovered a new chemotherapy resistance mechanism involving reduced feedback inhibition of de novo purine biosynthesis and competitive inhibition of thiopurine activation. Notably, the de novo purine synthesis inhibitor lometrexol can effectively abrogate PRPS1 mutant-driven drug resistance. Overall these results highlight the importance of constitutive activation of de novo purine pathway in thiopurine resistance, and offer therapeutic strategies for the treatment of relapsed and resistant ALL. PMID:25962120

  4. Purification and characterization of a mutant DnaB protein specifically defective in ATP hydrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Shrimankar, P; Stordal, L; Maurer, R

    1992-01-01

    The dnaB gene of Escherichia coli encodes an essential DNA replication enzyme. Fueled by the energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP+P(i), this enzyme unwinds double-stranded DNA in advance of the DNA polymerase. While doing so, it intermittently stimulates primase to synthesize an RNA primer for an Okazaki fragment. To better understand the structural basis of these and other aspects of DnaB function, we have initiated a study of mutant DnaB proteins. Here, we report the purification and characterization of a mutant DnaB protein (RC231) containing cysteine in place of arginine at residue 231. The mutant protein attains a stable, properly folded structure that allows association of six promoters to form a hexamer, as is also true for wild-type DnaB. Further, the mutant protein interacts with ATP, the nonhydrolyzable ATP analog adenosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATP gamma S), ADP, and poly(dT), and it stimulates primase action. It is, however, profoundly deficient in ATP hydrolysis, helicase activity, and replication activity at the chromosomal origin of replication. In addition, while general priming reactions with wild-type DnaB and ATP elicited the synthesis of short primers, reactions with DnaB and ATP gamma S or with RC231 and either ATP or ATP gamma S stimulated the synthesis of significantly longer primers. On the basis of these observations, we suggest that primase interacts directly with DnaB throughout primer synthesis during general priming, until dissociation of DnaB from DNA or ATP hydrolysis by DnaB disrupts the interaction and leads to primer termination. Images PMID:1332941

  5. Organ fusion and defective shoot development in oni3 mutants of rice

    PubMed Central

    Akiba, Takafumi; Hibara, Ken-Ichiro; Kimura, Fumiko; Tsuda, Katsutoshi; Shibata, Kiko; Ishibashi, Mayu; Moriya, Chihiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kurata, Nori; Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Ito, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of organ separation is one of the essential phenomena for normal plant development. We have identified and analyzed ONION3 (ONI3), which is required for avoiding organ fusions in rice. Loss-of-function mutations of ONI3, which were identified as mutants with ectopic expression of KNOX genes in leaves and morphologically resembling KNOX overexpressors, showed abnormal organ fusions in developing shoots. The mutant seedlings showed fusions between neighboring organs and also within an organ; they stopped growing soon after germination and subsequently died. ONI3 was shown to encode an enzyme that is most similar to Arabidopsis HOTHEAD and is involved in biosynthesis of long-chain fatty acids. Expression analyses showed that ONI3 was specifically expressed in the outermost cell layer in the shoot apex throughout life cycle, and the oni3 mutants had an aberrant outermost cell layer. Our results together with previous studies suggest that long-chain fatty acids are required for avoiding organ fusions and promoting normal shoot development in rice. PMID:24192297

  6. Acyl-chain remodeling of dioctanoyl-phosphatidylcholine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant defective in de novo and salvage phosphatidylcholine synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kishino, Hideyuki; Eguchi, Hiroki; Takagi, Keiko; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Ohta, Akinori

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Dioctanoyl-PC (diC8PC) supported growth of a yeast mutant defective in PC synthesis. • diC8PC was converted to PC species containing longer acyl residues in the mutant. • Both acyl residues of diC8PC were replaced by longer fatty acids in vitro. • This system will contribute to the elucidation of the acyl chain remodeling of PC. - Abstract: A yeast strain, in which endogenous phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis is controllable, was constructed by the replacement of the promoter of PCT1, encoding CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, with GAL1 promoter in a double deletion mutant of PEM1 and PEM2, encoding phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase and phospholipid methyltransferase, respectively. This mutant did not grow in the glucose-containing medium, but the addition of dioctanoyl-phosphatidylcholine (diC8PC) supported its growth. Analyses of the metabolism of {sup 13}C-labeled diC8PC ((methyl-{sup 13}C){sub 3}-diC8PC) in this strain using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry revealed that it was converted to PC species containing acyl residues of 16 or 18 carbons at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions. In addition, both acyl residues of (methyl-{sup 13}C){sub 3}-diC8PC were replaced with 16:1 acyl chains in the in vitro reaction using the yeast cell extract in the presence of palmitoleoyl-CoA. These results indicate that PC containing short acyl residues was remodeled to those with acyl chains of physiological length in yeast.

  7. Strong morphological defects in conditional Arabidopsis abp1 knock-down mutants generated in absence of functional ABP1 protein

    PubMed Central

    Perrot-Rechenmann, Catherine; Friml, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    The Auxin Binding Protein 1 (ABP1) is one of the most studied proteins in plants. Since decades ago, it has been the prime receptor candidate for the plant hormone auxin with a plethora of described functions in auxin signaling and development. The developmental importance of ABP1 has recently been questioned by identification of Arabidopsis thaliana abp1 knock-out alleles that show no obvious phenotypes under normal growth conditions. In this study, we examined the contradiction between the normal growth and development of the abp1 knock-outs and the strong morphological defects observed in three different ethanol-inducible abp1 knock-down mutants ( abp1-AS, SS12K, SS12S). By analyzing segregating populations of abp1 knock-out vs. abp1 knock-down crosses we show that the strong morphological defects that were believed to be the result of conditional down-regulation of ABP1 can be reproduced also in the absence of the functional ABP1 protein. This data suggests that the phenotypes in  abp1 knock-down lines are due to the off-target effects and asks for further reflections on the biological function of ABP1 or alternative explanations for the missing phenotypic defects in the abp1 loss-of-function alleles. PMID:26925228

  8. Novel Jbts17 mutant mouse model of Joubert syndrome with cilia transition zone defects and cerebellar and other ciliopathy related anomalies.

    PubMed

    Damerla, Rama Rao; Cui, Cheng; Gabriel, George C; Liu, Xiaoqin; Craige, Branch; Gibbs, Brian C; Francis, Richard; Li, You; Chatterjee, Bishwanath; San Agustin, Jovenal T; Eguether, Thibaut; Subramanian, Ramiah; Witman, George B; Michaud, Jacques L; Pazour, Gregory J; Lo, Cecilia W

    2015-07-15

    Recent studies identified a previously uncharacterized gene C5ORF42 (JBTS17) as a major cause of Joubert syndrome (JBTS), a ciliopathy associated with cerebellar abnormalities and other birth defects. Here we report the first Jbts17 mutant mouse model, Heart Under Glass (Hug), recovered from a forward genetic screen. Exome sequencing identified Hug as a S235P missense mutation in the mouse homolog of JBTS17 (2410089e03rik). Hug mutants exhibit multiple birth defects typical of ciliopathies, including skeletal dysplasia, polydactyly, craniofacial anomalies, kidney cysts and eye defects. Some Hug mutants exhibit congenital heart defects ranging from mild pulmonary stenosis to severe pulmonary atresia. Immunostaining showed JBTS17 is localized in the cilia transition zone. Fibroblasts from Hug mutant mice and a JBTS patient with a JBTS17 mutation showed ciliogenesis defects. Significantly, Hug mutant fibroblasts showed loss of not only JBTS17, but also NPHP1 and CEP290 from the cilia transition zone. Hug mutants exhibited reduced ciliation in the cerebellum. This was associated with reduction in cerebellar foliation. Using a fibroblast wound-healing assay, we showed Hug mutant cells cannot establish cell polarity required for directional cell migration. However, stereocilia patterning was grossly normal in the cochlea, indicating planar cell polarity is not markedly affected. Overall, we showed the JBTS pathophysiology is replicated in the Hug mutant mice harboring a Jbts17 mutation. Our findings demonstrate JBTS17 is a cilia transition zone component that acts upstream of other Joubert syndrome associated transition zone proteins NPHP1 and CEP290, indicating its importance in the pathogenesis of Joubert syndrome.

  9. Unidirectional startle responses and disrupted left-right coordination of motor behaviors in robo3 mutant zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Harold A.; Johnson, Stephen L.; Granato, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Roundabout (Robo) family of receptors and their Slit ligands play well-established roles in axonal guidance, including in humans where horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) is caused by mutations in the robo3 gene. While significant progress has been made towards understanding the mechanism by which Robo receptors establish commissural projections in the central nervous system, less is known about how these projections contribute to neural circuits mediating behavior. Here we report cloning of the zebrafish behavioral mutant twitch twice and show that twitch twice encodes robo3. We demonstrate that in mutant hindbrains the axons of an identified pair of neurons, the Mauthner cells, fail to cross the midline. The Mauthner neurons are essential for the startle response, and in twitch twice/robo3 mutants misguidance of the Mauthner axons results in a unidirectional startle response. Moreover, we show that twitch twice mutants exhibit normal visual acuity but display defects in horizontal eye movements, suggesting a specific and critical role for twitch twice/robo3 in sensory guided behavior. PMID:19496826

  10. Development of natto with germination-defective mutants of Bacillus subtilis (natto).

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Nobuo; Murasawa, Hisashi; Sekiguchi, Junichi

    2009-03-01

    The effects of cortex-lysis related genes with the pdaA, sleB, and cwlD mutations of Bacillus subtilis (natto) NAFM5 on sporulation and germination were investigated. Single or double mutations did not prevent normal sporulation, but did affect germination. Germination was severely inhibited by the double mutation of sleB and cwlD. The quality of natto made with the sleB cwlD double mutant was tested, and the amounts of glutamic acid and ammonia were very similar to those in the wild type. The possibility of industrial development of natto containing a reduced number of viable spores is presented.

  11. Construction of a lipopolysaccharide reporter cell line and its use in identifying mutants defective in endotoxin, but not TNF-alpha, signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Delude, R L; Yoshimura, A; Ingalls, R R; Golenbock, D T

    1998-09-15

    Gram-negative bacterial LPS is a potent activator of inflammatory responses. The binding of LPS to CD14 initiates signal transduction; however, the molecular processes immediately following this event remain unclear. We engineered an LPS-inducible fibroblast reporter cell line to facilitate the use of molecular genetic techniques to study the LPS signaling pathway. A plasmid containing the human Tac Ag cDNA under transcriptional control of the human E selectin promoter was cotransfected into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells together with a CD14 expression plasmid. A cell line was obtained, 3E10, which upregulated expression of Tac following stimulation with LPS. Pools of mutagenized cells were exposed to LPS and then labeled with anti-Tac mAb. Cells that failed to up-regulate Tac expression were enriched by flow cytometry. Thirty clonal mutant cell lines were identified that continued to express CD14 and bind LPS, but failed to express Tac or translocate nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) following LPS exposure. TNF-alpha-treated mutant cells continued to express Tac and translocate NF-kappaB. An analysis of LPS-induced NF-kappaB activity in heterokaryons derived from polyethylene glycol-fused cell lines indicated that recessive mutations in genes encoding components of the LPS signaling pathway accounted for the signaling defects. To date, two complementation groups have been identified from 11 cell lines analyzed. These data demonstrate that the TNF-alpha signaling pathway diverges from the LPS pathway early in the signal-transduction cascade despite similarities in LPS- and TNF-alpha-induced responses. Identification of the genes affected in these mutant reporter cells should identify heretofore-elusive components of the LPS signaling cascade.

  12. Negative feedback-defective PRPS1 mutants drive thiopurine resistance in relapsed childhood ALL.

    PubMed

    Li, Benshang; Li, Hui; Bai, Yun; Kirschner-Schwabe, Renate; Yang, Jun J; Chen, Yao; Lu, Gang; Tzoneva, Gannie; Ma, Xiaotu; Wu, Tongmin; Li, Wenjing; Lu, Haisong; Ding, Lixia; Liang, Huanhuan; Huang, Xiaohang; Yang, Minjun; Jin, Lei; Kang, Hui; Chen, Shuting; Du, Alicia; Shen, Shuhong; Ding, Jianping; Chen, Hongzhuan; Chen, Jing; von Stackelberg, Arend; Gu, Longjun; Zhang, Jinghui; Ferrando, Adolfo; Tang, Jingyan; Wang, Shengyue; Zhou, Bin-Bing S

    2015-06-01

    Relapse is the leading cause of mortality in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Among chemotherapeutics, thiopurines are key drugs in ALL combination therapy. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified relapse-specific mutations in the phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase 1 gene (PRPS1), which encodes a rate-limiting purine biosynthesis enzyme, in 24/358 (6.7%) relapsed childhood B cell ALL (B-ALL) cases. All individuals who harbored PRPS1 mutations relapsed early during treatment, and mutated ALL clones expanded exponentially before clinical relapse. Our functional analyses of PRPS1 mutants uncovered a new chemotherapy-resistance mechanism involving reduced feedback inhibition of de novo purine biosynthesis and competitive inhibition of thiopurine activation. Notably, the de novo purine synthesis inhibitor lometrexol effectively abrogated PRPS1 mutant-driven drug resistance. These results highlight the importance of constitutive activation of the de novo purine synthesis pathway in thiopurine resistance, and they offer therapeutic strategies for the treatment of relapsed and thiopurine-resistant ALL.

  13. Dictyostelium mutants lacking the cytoskeletal protein coronin are defective in cytokinesis and cell motility

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Coronin is an actin-binding protein in Dictyostelium discoideum that is enriched at the leading edge of the cells and in projections of the cell surface called crowns. The polypeptide sequence of coronin is distinguished by its similarities to the beta-subunits of trimeric G proteins (E. L. de Hostos, B. Bradtke, F. Lottspeich, R. Guggenheim, and G. Gerisch, 1991. EMBO (Eur. Mol. Biol. Organ.) J. 10:4097-4104). To elucidate the in vivo function of coronin, null mutants have been generated by gene replacement. The mutant cells lacking coronin grow and migrate more slowly than wild-type cells. When these cor- cells grow in liquid medium they become multinucleate, indicating a role of coronin in cytokinesis. To explore this role, coronin has been localized in mitotic wild-type cells by immunofluorescence labeling. During separation of the daughter cells, coronin is strongly accumulated at their distal portions including the leading edges. This contrasts with the localization of myosin II in the cleavage furrow and suggests that coronin functions independently of the conventional myosin in facilitating cytokinesis. PMID:8380174

  14. A cysG mutant strain of Rhizobium etli pleiotropically defective in sulfate and nitrate assimilation.

    PubMed Central

    Tate, R; Riccio, A; Iaccarino, M; Patriarca, E J

    1997-01-01

    By its inability to grow on sulfate as the sole sulfur source, a mutant strain (CTNUX8) of Rhizobium etli carrying Tn5 was isolated and characterized. Sequence analysis showed that Tn5 is inserted into a cysG (siroheme synthetase)-homologous gene. By RNase protection assays, it was established that the cysG-like gene had a basal level of expression in thiosulfate- or cysteine-grown cells, which was induced when sulfate or methionine was used. Unlike its wild-type parent (strain CE3), the mutant strain, CTNUX8, was also unable to grow on nitrate as the sole nitrogen source and was unable to induce a high level of nitrite reductase. Despite its pleiotropic phenotype, strain CTNUX8 was able to induce pink, effective (N2-fixing) nodules on the roots of Phaseolus vulgaris plants. However, mixed inoculation experiments showed that strain CTNUX8 is significantly different from the wild type in its ability to nodulate. Our data support the notion that sulfate (or sulfite) is the sulfur source of R. etli in the rhizosphere, while cysteine, methionine, or glutathione is supplied by the root cells to bacteria growing inside the plant. PMID:9393698

  15. Peripheral nervous system defects in erbB2 mutants following genetic rescue of heart development

    PubMed Central

    Woldeyesus, Masresha T.; Britsch, Stefan; Riethmacher, Dieter; Xu, Lan; Sonnenberg-Riethmacher, Eva; Abou-Rebyeh, Faikah; Harvey, Richard; Caroni, Pico; Birchmeier, Carmen

    1999-01-01

    The ErbB2 tyrosine kinase functions as coreceptor for the neuregulin receptors ErbB3 and ErbB4 and can participate in signaling of EGF receptor (ErbB1), interleukin receptor gp130, and G-protein coupled receptors. ErbB2−/− mice die at midgestation because of heart malformation. Here, we report a genetic rescue of their heart development by myocardial expression of erbB2 cDNA that allows survival of the mutants to birth. In rescued erbB2 mutants, Schwann cells are lacking. Motoneurons form and can project to muscle, but nerves are poorly fasciculated and disorganized. Neuromuscular junctions form, as reflected in clustering of AChR and postsynaptic expression of the genes encoding the α-AChR, AChE, ε-AChR, and the RI subunit of the cAMP protein kinase. However, a severe loss of motoneurons on cervical and lumbar, but not on thoracic levels occurs. Our results define the roles of Schwann cells during motoneuron and synapse development, and reveal different survival requirements for distinct motoneuron populations. PMID:10521398

  16. Cell-dependent gag mutants of HIV-1 are crucially defective at the stage of uncoating/reverse transcription in non-permissive cells.

    PubMed

    Koh, K; Miyaura, M; Yoshida, A; Sakurai, A; Fujita, M; Adachi, A

    2000-10-01

    We have previously shown that some of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gag matrix (MA), capsid (CA), and nucleocapsid (NC) mutants display host-cell-dependent replication potential, and that they are defective at the early phase of the virus replication cycle in non-permissive cells. To determine the defective replication stage of the cell-dependent mutants precisely, the processes of virus entry into cells and virus DNA synthesis were monitored by the highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction amplification analysis. The results obtained indicated that all the cell-dependent MA, CA and NC mutants are defective at the stage of uncoating/reverse transcription, and that a cellular factor(s) is involved in this process.

  17. Improved Functional Expression of Human Cardiac Kv1.5 Channels and Trafficking-Defective Mutants by Low Temperature Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Toyoda, Futoshi; Matsuura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    We herein investigated the effect of low temperature exposure on the expression, degradation, localization and activity of human Kv1.5 (hKv1.5). In hKv1.5-expressing CHO cells, the currents were significantly increased when cultured at a reduced temperature (28°C) compared to those observed at 37°C. Western blot analysis indicated that the protein levels (both immature and mature proteins) of hKv1.5 were significantly elevated under the hypothermic condition. Treatment with a proteasome inhibitor, MG132, significantly increased the immature, but not the mature, hKv1.5 protein at 37°C, however, there were no changes in either the immature or mature hKv1.5 proteins at low temperature following MG132 exposure. These observations suggest that the enhancement of the mature hKv1.5 protein at reduced temperature may not result from the inhibition of proteolysis. Moreover, the hKv1.5 fluorescence signal in the cells increased significantly on the cell surface at 28°C versus those cultured at 37°C. Importantly, the low temperature treatment markedly shifted the subcellular distribution of the mature hKv1.5, which showed considerable overlap with the trans-Golgi component. Experiments using tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-glycosylation, indicated that the N-glycosylation of hKv1.5 is more effective at 28°C than at 37°C. Finally, the hypothermic treatment also rescued the protein expression and currents of trafficking-defective hKv1.5 mutants. These results indicate that low temperature exposure stabilizes the protein in the cellular organelles or on the plasma membrane, and modulates its maturation and trafficking, thus enhancing the currents of hKv1.5 and its trafficking defect mutants. PMID:24663680

  18. Mechanisms of pharmacological rescue of trafficking defective hERG mutant channels in human long QT syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Qiuming; Jones, Melanie A.; Zhou, Zhengfeng

    2006-01-01

    Long QT syndrome type 2 is caused by mutations in the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG). We previously reported that the N470D mutation is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but can be rescued to the plasma membrane by hERG channel blocker E-4031. The mechanisms of ER retention and how E-4031 rescues the N470D mutant are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the interaction of hERG channels with ER chaperone protein calnexin. Using coimmunoprecipitation, we showed that the immature forms of both wild type hERG and N470D associated with calnexin. The association required N-linked glycosylation of hERG channels. Pulse-chase analysis revealed that N470D had a prolonged association with calnexin compared to wild type hERG, and E-4031 shortened the time course of calnexin association with N470D. To test whether the prolonged association of N470D with calnexin is due to defective folding of mutant channels, we studied hERG channel folding using trypsin digestion method. We found that N470D and the immature form of wild type hERG were more sensitive to trypsin digestion than the mature form of wild type hERG. In the presence of E-4031, N470D became more resistant to trypsin even in the conditions that its ER-to-Golgi transport was blocked by brefeldin A. These results suggest that defective folding of N470D contributes to its prolonged association with calnexin and ER retention, and that E-4031 may restore proper folding of the N470D channel leading to its cell surface expression. PMID:16361248

  19. Carbon allocation and element composition in four Chlamydomonas mutants defective in genes related to the CO2 concentrating mechanism.

    PubMed

    Memmola, Francesco; Mukherjee, Bratati; Moroney, James V; Giordano, Mario

    2014-09-01

    Four mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with defects in different components of the CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) or in Rubisco activase were grown autotrophically at high pCO2 and then transferred to low pCO2, in order to study the role of different components of the CCM on carbon allocation and elemental composition. To study carbon allocation, we measured the relative size of the main organic pools by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence was used to analyze the elemental composition of algal cells. Our data show that although the organic pools increased their size at high CO2 in all strains, their stoichiometry was highly homeostatic, i.e., the ratios between carbohydrates and proteins, lipid and proteins, and carbohydrates and lipids, did not change significantly. The only exception was the wild-type 137c, in which proteins decreased relative to carbohydrates and lipids, when the cells were transferred to low CO2. It is noticeable that the two wild types used in this study responded differently to the transition from high to low CO2. Malfunctions of the CCM influenced the concentration of several elements, somewhat altering cell elemental stoichiometry: especially the C/P and N/P ratios changed appreciably in almost all strains as a function of the growth CO2 concentration, except in 137c and the Rubisco activase mutant rca1. In strain cia3, defective in the lumenal carbonic anhydrase (CA), the cell quotas of P, S, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Zn were about 5-fold higher at low CO2 than at high CO2. A Principle Components Analysis showed that, mostly because of its elemental composition, cia3 behaved in a substantially different way from all other strains, at low CO2. The lumenal CA thus plays a crucial role, not only for the correct functioning of the CCM, but also for element utilization. Not surprisingly, growth at high CO2 attenuated differences among strains.

  20. New nodulation mutants responsible for infection thread development in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Yano, Koji; Tansengco, Myra L; Hio, Taihei; Higashi, Kuniko; Murooka, Yoshikatsu; Imaizumi-Anraku, Haruko; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Hayashi, Makoto

    2006-07-01

    Legume plants develop specialized root organs, the nodules, through a symbiotic interaction with rhizobia. The developmental process of nodulation is triggered by the bacterial microsymbiont but regulated systemically by the host legume plants. Using ethylmethane sulfonate mutagenesis as a tool to identify plant genes involved in symbiotic nodule development, we have isolated and analyzed five nodulation mutants, Ljsym74-3, Ljsym79-2, Ljsym79-3, Ljsym80, and Ljsym82, from the model legume Lotus japonicus. These mutants are defective in developing functional nodules and exhibit nitrogen starvation symptoms after inoculation with Mesorhizobium loti. Detailed observation revealed that infection thread development was aborted in these mutants and the nodules formed were devoid of infected cells. Mapping and complementation tests showed that Ljsym74-3, and Ljsym79-2 and Ljsym79-3, were allelic with reported mutants of L. japonicus, alb1 and crinkle, respectively. The Ljsym82 mutant is unique among the mutants because the infection thread was aborted early in its development. Ljsym74-3 and Ljsym80 were characterized as mutants with thick infection threads in short root hairs. Map-based cloning and molecular characterization of these genes will help us understand the genetic mechanism of infection thread development in L. japonicus.

  1. nip, a symbiotic Medicago truncatula mutant that forms root nodules with aberrant infection threads and plant defense-like response.

    PubMed

    Veereshlingam, Harita; Haynes, Janine G; Penmetsa, R Varma; Cook, Douglas R; Sherrier, D Janine; Dickstein, Rebecca

    2004-11-01

    To investigate the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis, we isolated and studied a novel symbiotic mutant of the model legume Medicago truncatula, designated nip (numerous infections and polyphenolics). When grown on nitrogen-free media in the presence of the compatible bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, the nip mutant showed nitrogen deficiency symptoms. The mutant failed to form pink nitrogen-fixing nodules that occur in the wild-type symbiosis, but instead developed small bump-like nodules on its roots that were blocked at an early stage of development. Examination of the nip nodules by light microscopy after staining with X-Gal for S. meliloti expressing a constitutive GUS gene, by confocal microscopy following staining with SYTO-13, and by electron microscopy revealed that nip initiated symbiotic interactions and formed nodule primordia and infection threads. The infection threads in nip proliferated abnormally and very rarely deposited rhizobia into plant host cells; rhizobia failed to differentiate further in these cases. nip nodules contained autofluorescent cells and accumulated a brown pigment. Histochemical staining of nip nodules revealed this pigment to be polyphenolic accumulation. RNA blot analyses demonstrated that nip nodules expressed only a subset of genes associated with nodule organogenesis, as well as elevated expression of a host defense-associated phenylalanine ammonia lyase gene. nip plants were observed to have abnormal lateral roots. nip plant root growth and nodulation responded normally to ethylene inhibitors and precursors. Allelism tests showed that nip complements 14 other M. truncatula nodulation mutants but not latd, a mutant with a more severe nodulation phenotype as well as primary and lateral root defects. Thus, the nip mutant defines a new locus, NIP, required for appropriate infection thread development during invasion of the nascent nodule by rhizobia, normal lateral root elongation, and normal regulation of host defense-like responses

  2. Characterizing and Targeting Replication Stress Response Defects in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    oncogene activation or loss of tumor suppressor genes induces stalling and collapse of DNA replication forks, which in turn activates the replication...stress response (RSR) to maintain genome integrity [1-4]. RSR is a subset of the DNA damage response that safeguards the replication process [5]; defects...Taiwan, and one poster presentation by my postdoctoral fellow at the Conference of Exploring DNA Repair Pathways as Targets for Cancer at Cancun

  3. Defects of mutant DNMT1 are linked to a spectrum of neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Baets, Jonathan; Duan, Xiaohui; Wu, Yanhong; Smith, Gordon; Seeley, William W.; Mademan, Inès; McGrath, Nicole M.; Beadell, Noah C.; Khoury, Julie; Botuyan, Maria-Victoria; Mer, Georges; Worrell, Gregory A.; Hojo, Kaori; DeLeon, Jessica; Laura, Matilde; Liu, Yo-Tsen; Senderek, Jan; Weis, Joachim; Van den Bergh, Peter; Merrill, Shana L.; Reilly, Mary M.; Houlden, Henry; Grossman, Murray; Scherer, Steven S.; De Jonghe, Peter; Dyck, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    We report a broader than previously appreciated clinical spectrum for hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1E (HSAN1E) and a potential pathogenic mechanism for DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1) mutations. The clinical presentations and genetic characteristics of nine newly identified HSAN1E kinships (45 affected subjects) were investigated. Five novel mutations of DNMT1 were discovered; p.C353F, p.T481P, p.P491L, p.Y524D and p.I531N, all within the target-sequence domain, and two mutations (p.T481P, p.P491L) arising de novo. Recently, HSAN1E has been suggested as an allelic disorder of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness and narcolepsy. Our results indicate that all the mutations causal for HSAN1E are located in the middle part or N-terminus end of the TS domain, whereas all the mutations causal for autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness and narcolepsy are located in the C-terminus end of the TS domain. The impact of the seven causal mutations in this cohort was studied by cellular localization experiments. The binding efficiency of the mutant DNMT proteins at the replication foci and heterochromatin were evaluated. Phenotypic characterizations included electromyography, brain magnetic resonance and nuclear imaging, electroencephalography, sural nerve biopsies, sleep evaluation and neuropsychometric testing. The average survival of HSAN1E was 53.6 years. [standard deviation = 7.7, range 43–75 years], and mean onset age was 37.7 years. (standard deviation = 8.6, range 18–51 years). Expanded phenotypes include myoclonic seizures, auditory or visual hallucinations, and renal failure. Hypersomnia, rapid eye movement sleep disorder and/or narcolepsy were identified in 11 subjects. Global brain atrophy was found in 12 of 14 who had brain MRI. EEGs showed low frequency (delta waves) frontal-predominant abnormality in five of six patients. Marked variability in cognitive deficits was observed, but the majority of patients (89%) developed

  4. Expansion of the piriform cortex contributes to corticothalamic pathfinding defects in Gli3 conditional mutants.

    PubMed

    Amaniti, Eleni-Maria; Fu, Chaoying; Lewis, Sean; Saisana, Marina; Magnani, Dario; Mason, John O; Theil, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    The corticothalamic and thalamocortical tracts play essential roles in the communication between the cortex and thalamus. During development, axons forming these tracts have to follow a complex path to reach their target areas. While much attention has been paid to the mechanisms regulating their passage through the ventral telencephalon, very little is known about how the developing cortex contributes to corticothalamic/thalamocortical tract formation. Gli3 encodes a zinc finger transcription factor widely expressed in telencephalic progenitors which has important roles in corticothalamic and thalamocortical pathfinding. Here, we conditionally inactivated Gli3 in dorsal telencephalic progenitors to determine its role in corticothalamic tract formation. In Emx1Cre;Gli3(fl/fl) mutants, only a few corticothalamic axons enter the striatum in a restricted dorsal domain. This restricted entry correlates with a medial expansion of the piriform cortex. Transplantation experiments showed that the expanded piriform cortex repels corticofugal axons. Moreover, expression of Sema5B, a chemorepellent for corticofugal axons produced by the piriform cortex, is similarly expanded. Finally, time course analysis revealed an expansion of the ventral pallial progenitor domain which gives rise to the piriform cortex. Hence, control of lateral cortical development by Gli3 at the progenitor level is crucial for corticothalamic pathfinding.

  5. A Colony Color Assay for Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Mutants Defective in Kinetochore Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Perier, F.; Carbon, J.

    1992-01-01

    We have designed a colony color assay for monitoring centromere DNA-protein interactions in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The assay is based on the ability of centromere DNA sequences to block (in cis) transcription initiated from a hybrid CEN-GAL1 promoter. Using a IacZ reporter gene under control of the CEN-GAL1 promoter, we screened colonies derived from mutagenized cells for a blue color phenotype indicative of derepression of the hybrid construct. A limited screen in which a 61-bp CEN11 DNA fragment containing an intact CDEIII subregion plus flanking sequences was used as the ``pseudo-operator'' led to the identification of mutations (blu) in three complementation groups. The blu1 mutants exhibited a decrease in activity of the major CEN DNA-binding proteins in vitro. The BLU1 gene was shown to be identical to the previously isolated SPT3 gene, known to be involved in the transcriptional regulation of a subset of yeast genes. Our results indicate that the BLU1/SPT3 gene product may also be required to maintain optimal levels of functional centromere DNA-binding proteins. PMID:1398062

  6. Defective erythroid differentiation in miR-451 mutant mice mediated by 14-3-3ζ

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, David M.; Zhang, Cheng C.; Tao, Ye; Yao, Huiyu; Qi, Xiaoxia; Schwartz, Robert J.; Jun-Shen Huang, Lily; Olson, Eric N.

    2010-01-01

    Erythrocyte formation occurs throughout life in response to cytokine signaling. We show that microRNA-451 (miR-451) regulates erythropoiesis in vivo. Mice lacking miR-451 display a reduction in hematrocrit, an erythroid differentiation defect, and ineffective erythropoiesis in response to oxidative stress. 14-3-3ζ, an intracellular regulator of cytokine signaling that is repressed by miR-451, is up-regulated in miR-451−/− erythroblasts, and inhibition of 14-3-3ζ rescues their differentiation defect. These findings reveal an essential role of 14-3-3ζ as a mediator of the proerythroid differentiation actions of miR-451, and highlight the therapeutic potential of miR-451 inhibitors. PMID:20679397

  7. Distinct innate responses are induced by attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutants.

    PubMed

    Powell, Daniel A; Roberts, Lydia M; Ledvina, Hannah E; Sempowski, Gregory D; Curtiss, Roy; Frelinger, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    Upon bacterial infection the host cells generate a wide variety of cytokines. Genetic attenuation of bacterial physiological pathogens can be accomplished not only by disruption of normal bacterial processes, but also by the loss of the ability to redirect the host immune system. We examined nine attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium mutants for their ability to replicate as well as the cytokines produced after infection of Bone Marrow Derived Macrophages (BMDM). Infection of BMDM with attenuated Salmonella mutants led to host cytokine patterns distinct from those that followed WT infection. Surprisingly, each bacterial mutant had a unique cytokine signature. Because some of the mutants induced an IL-10 response not seen in WT, we examined the role of IL-10 on Salmonella replication. Surprisingly, addition of IL-10 before or concurrent with infection restricted growth of WT Salmonella in BMDM. Bacterial attenuation is not a single process and results in attenuated host responses, which result in unique patterns for each attenuated mutants.

  8. Distinct Innate Responses are Induced by Attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Daniel A.; Roberts, Lydia M.; Ledvina, Hannah E.; Sempowski, Gregory D.; Curtiss, Roy; Frelinger, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Upon bacterial infection the host cells generate a wide variety of cytokines. Genetic attenuation of bacterial physiological pathogens can be accomplished not only by disruption of normal bacterial processes, but also by the loss of the ability to redirect the host immune system. We examined nine attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium mutants for their ability to replicate as well as the cytokines produced after infection of Bone Marrow Derived Macrophages (BMDM). Infection of BMDM with attenuated Salmonella mutants led to host cytokine patterns distinct from those that followed WT infection. Surprisingly, each bacterial mutant had a unique cytokine signature. Because some of the mutants induced an IL-10 response not seen in WT, we examined the role of IL-10 on Salmonella replication. Surprisingly, addition of IL-10 before or concurrent with infection restricted growth of WT Salmonella in BMDM. Bacterial attenuation is not a single process and results in attenuated host responses, which result in unique patterns for each attenuated mutants. PMID:26546408

  9. Biochemical defects of mutant nudel alleles causing early developmental arrest or dorsalization of the Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed Central

    LeMosy, E K; Leclerc, C L; Hashimoto, C

    2000-01-01

    The nudel gene of Drosophila is maternally required both for structural integrity of the egg and for dorsoventral patterning of the embryo. It encodes a structurally modular protein that is secreted by ovarian follicle cells. Genetic and molecular studies have suggested that the Nudel protein is also functionally modular, with a serine protease domain that is specifically required for ventral development. Here we describe biochemical and immunolocalization studies that provide insight into the molecular basis for the distinct phenotypes produced by nudel mutations and for the interactions between these alleles. Mutations causing loss of embryonic dorsoventral polarity result in a failure to activate the protease domain of Nudel. Our analyses support previous findings that catalytic activity of the protease domain is required for dorsoventral patterning and that the Nudel protease is auto-activated and reveal an important role for a region adjacent to the protease domain in Nudel protease function. Mutations causing egg fragility and early embryonic arrest result in a significant decrease in extracellular Nudel protein, due to defects in post-translational processing, stability, or secretion. On the basis of these and other studies of serine proteases, we suggest potential mechanisms for the complementary and antagonistic interactions between the nudel alleles. PMID:10628985

  10. DNA-binding-defective mutants of the Epstein-Barr virus lytic switch activator Zta transactivate with altered specificities.

    PubMed Central

    Flemington, E K; Lytle, J P; Cayrol, C; Borras, A M; Speck, S H

    1994-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus BRLF1 and BZLF1 genes are the first viral genes transcribed upon induction of the viral lytic cycle. The protein products of both genes (referred to here as Rta and Zta, respectively) activate expression of other viral genes, thereby initiating the lytic cascade. Among the viral antigens expressed upon induction of the lytic cycle, however, Zta is unique in its ability to disrupt viral latency; expression of the BZLF1 gene is both necessary and sufficient for triggering the viral lytic cascade. We have previously shown that Zta can activate its own promoter (Zp), through binding to two Zta recognition sequences (ZIIIA and ZIIIB). Here we describe mutant Zta proteins that do not bind DNA (referred to as Zta DNA-binding mutants [Zdbm]) but retain the ability to transactivate Zp. Consistent with the inability of these mutants to bind DNA, transactivation of Zp by Zdbm is not dependent on the Zta recognition sequences. Instead, transactivation by Zdbm is dependent upon promoter elements that bind cellular factors. An examination of other viral and cellular promoters identified promoters that are weakly responsive or unresponsive to Zdbm. An analysis of a panel of artificial promoters containing one copy of various promoter elements demonstrated a specificity for Zdbm activation that is distinct from that of Zta. These results suggest that non-DNA-binding forms of some transactivators retain the ability to transactivate specific target promoters without direct binding to DNA. Images PMID:8164660

  11. Draft Genome Sequences for Clostridium thermocellum Wild-Type Strain YS and Derived Cellulose Adhesion-Defective Mutant Strain AD2

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Steven D; Lamed, Raphael; Morag, Ely; Borovok, Ilya; Shoham, Yuval; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Johnson, Courtney M; Yang, Zamin; Land, Miriam L; Utturkar, Sagar M; Keller, Martin; Bayer, Edward A

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum wild-type strain YS is an anaerobic, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium capable of directly converting cellulosic substrates into ethanol. Strain YS and a derived cellulose adhesion-defective mutant strain AD2 played pivotal roles in describing the original cellulosome concept. We present their draft genome sequences.

  12. Cell shape and interaction defects in alpha-spectrin mutants of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    We show that the alpha-spectrin gene is essential for larval survival and development by characterizing several alpha-spectrin mutations in Drosophila. P-element minigene rescue and sequence analysis were used to identify the alpha-spectrin gene as the l(3)dre3 complementation group of the Dras-Roughened-ecdysoneless region of chromosome 3 (Sliter et al., 1988). Germ line transformants carrying an alpha-spectrin cDNA, whose expression is driven by the ubiquitin promoter, fully rescued the first to second instar lethality characteristic of the l(3)dre3 alleles. The molecular defects in two gamma-ray-induced alleles were identified. One of these mutations, which resulted in second instar lethality, contained a 73-bp deletion in alpha-spectrin segment 22 (starting at amino acid residue 2312), producing a premature stop codon between the two EF hands found in this segment. The second mutation, which resulted in first instar lethality, contained a 20 base pair deletion in the middle of segment 1 (at amino acid residue 92), resulting in a premature stop codon. Examination of the spectrin- deficient larvae revealed a loss of contact between epithelial cells of the gut and disruption of cell-substratum interactions. The most pronounced morphological change was seen in tissues of complex cellular architecture such as the middle midgut where a loss of cell contact between cup-shaped cuprophilic cells and neighboring interstitial cells was accompanied by disorganization of the cuprophilic cell brush borders. Our examination of spectrin deficient larvae suggests that an important role of non-erythroid spectrin is to stabilize cell to cell interactions that are critical for the maintenance of cell shape and subcellular organization within tissues. PMID:8276898

  13. Immune response to Candida albicans is preserved despite defect in O-mannosylation of secretory proteins.

    PubMed

    Corbucci, Cristina; Cenci, Elio; Skrzypek, Franck; Gabrielli, Elena; Mosci, Paolo; Ernst, Joachim F; Bistoni, Francesco; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2007-12-01

    The PMT gene family in Candida albicans encodes five isoforms of the protein mannosyltransferases that initiate O-mannosylation of secretory proteins. Mutations at the Pmt level have been associated with differences in pathogenicity, e.g. in contrast to pmt5/pmt5, pmt2/PMT2 mutants showed poor virulence. Our objective was to determine whether these differences were related to the capacity of pmt2/PMT2 and pmt5/pmt5 to (i) express differences in selected virulence factors, and (ii) stimulate the natural immune system. The results show that pmt mutants (i) form hyphae in serum, (ii) show defective production of proteases but not of phospholipases with respect to the parental strain, (iii) undergo mycelial transition in the kidneys of hematogenously infected animals, (iv) are phagocytosed and killed by macrophages similar to the parental strain, although neutrophils are unable to destroy pmt5/pmt5, (v) engage TLR4 and stimulate MyD88 leading to NF-kappaB activation, and (vi) stimulate cytokine production by macrophages. Collectively our findings suggest that the defect in protein O-mannosylation in C. albicans cause attenuation of the virulence although the antigenic factors that retain the capacity to stimulate an efficient immune response are preserved.

  14. myosin 7aa−/− mutant zebrafish show mild photoreceptor degeneration and reduced electroretinographic responses

    PubMed Central

    Wasfy, Meagan M.; Matsui, Jonathan I.; Miller, Jessica; Dowling, John E.; Perkins, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in myosin VIIa (MYO7A) cause Usher syndrome 1B (USH1B), a disease characterized by the combination of sensorineural hearing loss and visual impairment termed retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Although the shaker-1 mouse model of USH1B exists, only minor defects in the retina have been observed during its lifespan. Previous studies of the zebrafish mariner mutant, which also carries a mutation in myo7aa, revealed balance and hearing defects in the mutants but the retinal phenotype has not been described. We found elevated cell death in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) of myo7aa−/− mutants. While myo7aa−/− mutants retained visual behaviors in the optokinetic reflex (OKR) assay, electroretinogram (ERG) recordings revealed a significant decrease in both a- and b-wave amplitudes in mutant animals, but not a change in ERG threshold sensitivity. Immunohistochemistry showed mislocalization of rod and blue cone opsins and reduced expression of rod-specific markers in the myo7aa−/− ONL, providing further evidence that the photoreceptor degeneration observed represents the initial stages of the RP. Further, constant light exposure resulted in widespread photoreceptor degeneration and the appearance of large holes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). No differences were observed in the retinomotor movements of the photoreceptors or in melanosome migration within the RPE, suggesting that myo7aa−/− does not function in these processes in teleosts. These results indicate that the zebrafish myo7aa−/− mutant is a useful animal model for the RP seen in humans with USH1B. PMID:24698764

  15. Altered gravitropic response, amyloplast sedimentation and circumnutation in the Arabidopsis shoot gravitropism 5 mutant are associated with reduced starch levels.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Mimi; Tremblay, Reynald; Colasanti, Joseph

    2008-05-01

    Plants have developed sophisticated gravity sensing mechanisms to interpret environmental signals that are vital for optimum plant growth. Loss of SHOOT GRAVITROPISM 5 (SGR5) gene function has been shown to affect the gravitropic response of Arabidopsis inflorescence stems. SGR5 is a member of the INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD) zinc finger protein family of putative transcription factors. As part of an ongoing functional analysis of Arabidopsis IDD genes (AtIDD) we have extended the characterisation of SGR5, and show that gravity sensing amyloplasts in the shoot endodermis of sgr5 mutants sediment more slowly than wild type, suggesting a defect in gravity perception. This is correlated with lower amyloplast starch levels, which may account for the reduced gravitropic sensitivity in sgr5. Further, we find that sgr5 mutants have a severely attenuated stem circumnutation movement typified by a reduced amplitude and an decreased periodicity. adg1-1 and sex1-1 mutants, which contain no starch or increased starch, respectively, also show alterations in the amplitude and period of circumnutation. Together these results suggest that plant growth movement may depend on starch levels and/or gravity sensing. Overall, we propose that loss of SGR5 regulatory activity affects starch accumulation in Arabidopsis shoot tissues and causes decreased sensitivity to gravity and diminished circumnutational movements.

  16. Tropomyosin-dependent filament formation by a polymerization-defective mutant yeast actin (V266G,L267G).

    PubMed

    Wen, K K; Kuang, B; Rubenstein, P A

    2000-12-22

    A major function of tropomyosin (TPM) in nonmuscle cells may be stabilization of F-actin by binding longitudinally along the actin filament axis. However, no clear evidence exists in vitro that TPM can significantly affect the critical concentration of actin. We previously made a polymerization-defective mutant actin, GG (V266G, L267G). This actin will not polymerize alone at 25 degrees C but will in the presence of phalloidin or beryllium fluoride. With beryllium fluoride, but not phalloidin, this polymerization rescue is cold-sensitive. We show here that GG-actin polymerizability was restored by cardiac tropomyosin and yeast TPM1 and TPM2 at 25 degrees C with rescue efficiency inversely proportional to TPM length (TPM2 > TPM1 > cardiac tropomyosin), indicating the importance of the ends in polymerization rescue. In the presence of TPM, the apparent critical concentration of actin is 5.5 microm, 10-15-fold higher than that of wild type actin but well below that of the GG-actin alone (>20 microm). Non N-acetylated TPMs did not rescue GG-actin polymerization. The TPMs did not prevent cold-induced depolymerization of GG F-actin. TPM-dependent GG-actin polymerization did not occur at temperatures below 20 degrees C. Polymerization rescue may depend initially on the capture of unstable GG-F-actin oligomers by the TPM, resulting in the strengthening of actin monomer-monomer contacts along the filament axis.

  17. Characterization of papillomavirus E1 helicase mutants defective for interaction with the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9

    SciTech Connect

    Fradet-Turcotte, Amelie; Brault, Karine; Titolo, Steve; Howley, Peter M.; Archambault, Jacques

    2009-12-20

    The E1 helicase from BPV and HPV16 interacts with Ubc9 to facilitate viral genome replication. We report that HPV11 E1 also interacts with Ubc9 in vitro and in the yeast two-hybrid system. Residues in E1 involved in oligomerization (353-435) were sufficient for binding to Ubc9 in vitro, but the origin-binding and ATPase domains were additionally required in yeast. Nuclear accumulation of BPV E1 was shown previously to depend on its interaction with Ubc9 and sumoylation on lysine 514. In contrast, HPV11 and HPV16 E1 mutants defective for Ubc9 binding remained nuclear even when the SUMO pathway was inhibited. Furthermore, we found that K514 in BPV E1 and the analogous K559 in HPV11 E1 are not essential for nuclear accumulation of E1. These results suggest that the interaction of E1 with Ubc9 is not essential for its nuclear accumulation but, rather, depends on its oligomerization and binding to DNA and ATP.

  18. Selection of chemotaxis mutants of Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    A method has been developed for the efficient selection of chemotaxis mutants of Dictyostelium discoideum. Mutants defective in the chemotactic response to folate could be enriched up to 30-fold in one round of selection using a chamber in which a compartment that contained the chemoattractant was separated by a sandwich of four nitrocellulose filters from a compartment that contained buffer. Mutagenized cells were placed in the center of the filter layer and exposed to the attractant gradient built up between the compartments for a period of 3-4 h. While wild-type cells moved through the filters in a wave towards the compartment that contained attractant, mutant cells remained in the filter to which they were applied. After several repetitions of the selection procedure, mutants defective in chemotaxis made up 10% of the total cell population retained in that filter. Mutants exhibiting three types of alterations were collected: motility mutants with either reduced speed of movement, or altered rates of turning; a single mutant defective in production of the attractant- degrading enzyme, folate deaminase; and mutants with normal motility but reduced chemotactic responsiveness. One mutant showed drastically reduced sensitivity in folate-induced cGMP production. Morphogenetic alterations of mutants defective in folate chemotaxis are described. PMID:3793759

  19. Diseases Associated with Defective Responses to DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    O’Driscoll, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Within the last decade, multiple novel congenital human disorders have been described with genetic defects in known and/or novel components of several well-known DNA repair and damage response pathways. Examples include disorders of impaired nucleotide excision repair, DNA double-strand and single-strand break repair, as well as compromised DNA damage-induced signal transduction including phosphorylation and ubiquitination. These conditions further reinforce the importance of multiple genome stability pathways for health and development in humans. Furthermore, these conditions inform our knowledge of the biology of the mechanics of genome stability and in some cases provide potential routes to help exploit these pathways therapeutically. Here, I will review a selection of these exciting findings from the perspective of the disorders themselves, describing how they were identified, how genotype informs phenotype, and how these defects contribute to our growing understanding of genome stability pathways. PMID:23209155

  20. Improved cell survival by the reduction of immediate-early gene expression in replication-defective mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 but not by mutation of the virion host shutoff function.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, P A; Wang, M J; Friedmann, T

    1994-01-01

    Derivatives of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) have elicited considerable interest as gene transfer vectors because of their ability to infect a wide range of cell types efficiently, including fully differentiated neurons. However, it has been found that infection of many types of cell with vectors derived from replication-defective mutants of HSV-1 is associated with cytopathic effects (CPE). We have previously shown that viral gene expression played an important role in the induction of CPE caused by an HSV-1 mutant deleted for the essential immediate-early gene 3 (IE 3) (P.A. Johnson, A. Miyanohara, F. Levine, T. Cahill, and T. Friedmann, J. Virol. 66:2952-2965, 1992). We have investigated which viral genes might be responsible for CPE by comparing the ability of each of the individual genes expressed by an IE 3 deletion mutant during a nonproductive infection to inhibit biochemical transformation after cotransfection of BHK or CV-1 cells with a selectable marker gene. Transfection of IE genes 1,2, and 4 individually all caused a marked inhibition of colony formation, while transfection of IE 5 and the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase had little effect. These results suggested that it would be necessary to mutate or reduce the expression of nearly all HSV-1 IE genes to reduce virus-induced CPE. Therefore, we have used VP16 mutants, which are unable to transinduce IE gene expression (C. I. Ace, T. A. McKee, J. M. Ryan, J. M. Cameron, and C. M. Preston, J. Virol. 63:2260-2269, 1989), to derive two replication-defective strains: 14H delta 3, which is deleted for both copies of IE 3, and in 1850 delta 42, which has a deletion in the essential early gene UL42. The IE 3-VP16 double mutant, 14H delta 3, is significantly less toxic than a single IE 3 deletion mutant over a range of multiplicities of infection, as measured in a cell-killing assay, and has an enhanced ability to persist in infected cells in a biologically retrievable form. In contrast, the UL

  1. Novel functions of Stomatal Cytokinesis-Defective 1 (SCD1) in innate immune responses against bacteria.

    PubMed

    Korasick, David A; McMichael, Colleen; Walker, Katie A; Anderson, Jeffrey C; Bednarek, Sebastian Y; Heese, Antje

    2010-07-23

    Eukaryotes employ complex immune mechanisms for protection against microbial pathogens. Here, we identified SCD1 (Stomatal Cytokinesis-Defective 1), previously implicated in growth and development through its role in cytokinesis and polarized cell expansion (Falbel, T. G., Koch, L. M., Nadeau, J. A., Segui-Simarro, J. M., Sack, F. D., and Bednarek, S. Y. (2003) Development 130, 4011-4024) as a novel component of innate immunity. In Arabidopsis, SCD1 is a unique gene encoding for the only protein containing a complete DENN (Differentially Expressed in Normal and Neoplastic cells) domain. The DENN domain is a largely uncharacterized tripartite protein motif conserved among eukaryotic proteins. We show that conditional scd1-1 plants containing a point mutation in a conserved DENN residue affected a subset of signaling responses to some bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Consistent with increased transcript accumulation of Pathogen-related (PR) genes, scd1-1 plants were more resistant to Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pst) DC3000 infection implicating SCD1 as a negative regulator of basal resistance against bacteria. scd1-1 plants were different from known mutants exhibiting constitutive expressor of PR (cpr)-like phenotypes, in that growth impairment of scd1-1 plants was genetically independent of constitutive immune response activation. For scd1-1, shift to elevated temperature or introduction of a mutant allele in Salicylic acid Induction-Deficient 2 (SID2) suppressed constitutive defense response activation. sid2-2 also repressed the resistance phenotype of scd1-1. Temperature shift and sid2-2, however, did not rescue conditional growth and sterility defects of scd1-1. These results implicate SCD1 in multiple cellular pathways, possibly by affecting different proteins. Overall, our studies identified a novel role for eukaryotic DENN proteins in immunity against bacteria.

  2. Identification of six loci in which mutations partially restore peroxisome biogenesis and/or alleviate the metabolic defect of pex2 mutants in podospora.

    PubMed Central

    Ruprich-Robert, Gwenaël; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Zickler, Denise; Panvier-Adoutte, Arlette; Picard, Marguerite

    2002-01-01

    Peroxins (PEX) are proteins required for peroxisome biogenesis. Mutations in PEX genes cause lethal diseases in humans, metabolic defects in yeasts, and developmental disfunctions in plants and filamentous fungi. Here we describe the first large-scale screening for suppressors of a pex mutation. In Podospora anserina, pex2 mutants exhibit a metabolic defect [inability to grow on medium containing oleic acid (OA medium) as sole carbon source] and a developmental defect (inability to differentiate asci in homozygous crosses). Sixty-three mutations able to restore growth of pex2 mutants on OA medium have been analyzed. They fall in six loci (suo1 to suo6) and act as dominant, allele-nonspecific suppressors. Most suo mutations have pleiotropic effects in a pex2(+) background: formation of unripe ascospores (all loci except suo5 and suo6), impaired growth on OA medium (all loci except suo4 and suo6), or sexual defects (suo4). Using immunofluorescence and GFP staining, we show that peroxisome biogenesis is partially restored along with a low level of ascus differentiation in pex2 mutant strains carrying either the suo5 or the suo6 mutations. The data are discussed with respect to beta-oxidation of fatty acids, peroxisome biogenesis, and cell differentiation. PMID:12136013

  3. Bacillus subtilis Mutants with Knockouts of the Genes Encoding Ribonucleases RNase Y and RNase J1 Are Viable, with Major Defects in Cell Morphology, Sporulation, and Competence

    PubMed Central

    Figaro, Sabine; Durand, Sylvain; Gilet, Laetitia; Cayet, Nadège; Sachse, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The genes encoding the ribonucleases RNase J1 and RNase Y have long been considered essential for Bacillus subtilis cell viability, even before there was concrete knowledge of their function as two of the most important enzymes for RNA turnover in this organism. Here we show that this characterization is incorrect and that ΔrnjA and Δrny mutants are both viable. As expected, both strains grow relatively slowly, with doubling times in the hour range in rich medium. Knockout mutants have major defects in their sporulation and competence development programs. Both mutants are hypersensitive to a wide range of antibiotics and have dramatic alterations to their cell morphologies, suggestive of cell envelope defects. Indeed, RNase Y mutants are significantly smaller in diameter than wild-type strains and have a very disordered peptidoglycan layer. Strains lacking RNase J1 form long filaments in tight spirals, reminiscent of mutants of the actin-like proteins (Mre) involved in cell shape determination. Finally, we combined the rnjA and rny mutations with mutations in other components of the degradation machinery and show that many of these strains are also viable. The implications for the two known RNA degradation pathways of B. subtilis are discussed. PMID:23504012

  4. Ambroxol-induced rescue of defective glucocerebrosidase is associated with increased LIMP-2 and saposin C levels in GBA1 mutant Parkinson's disease cells.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Giulia; Ghezzi, Cristina; Zangaglia, Roberta; Levandis, Giovanna; Pacchetti, Claudio; Blandini, Fabio

    2015-10-01

    Heterozygous mutations in GBA1 gene, encoding for lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase), are a major risk factor for sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). Defective GCase has been reported in fibroblasts of GBA1-mutant PD patients and pharmacological chaperone ambroxol has been shown to correct such defect. To further explore this issue, we investigated GCase and elements supporting GCase function and trafficking in fibroblasts from sporadic PD patients--with or without heterozygous GBA1 mutations--and healthy subjects, in basal conditions and following in vitro exposure to ambroxol. We assessed protein levels of GCase, lysosomal integral membrane protein-2 (LIMP-2), which mediates GCase trafficking to lysosomes, GCase endogenous activator saposin (Sap) C and parkin, which is involved in degradation of defective GCase. We also measured activities of GCase and cathepsin D, which cleaves Sap C from precursor prosaposin. GCase activity was reduced in fibroblasts from GBA1-mutant patients and ambroxol corrected this defect. Ambroxol increased cathepsin D activity, GCase and Sap C protein levels in all groups, while LIMP-2 levels were increased only in GBA1-mutant PD fibroblasts. Parkin levels were slightly increased only in the PD group without GBA1 mutations and were not significantly modified by ambroxol. Our study confirms that GCase activity is deficient in fibroblasts of GBA1-mutant PD patients and that ambroxol corrects this defect. The drug increased Sap C and LIMP-2 protein levels, without interfering with parkin. These results confirm that chemical chaperone ambroxol modulates lysosomal markers, further highlighting targets that may be exploited for innovative PD therapeutic strategies.

  5. Regulation of the Bacterial Cell Wall: Analysis of a Mutant of Bacillus subtilis Defective in Biosynthesis of Teichoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Boylan, R. J.; Mendelson, N. H.; Brooks, D.; Young, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis 168ts-200B is a temperature-sensitive mutant of B. subtilis 168 which grows as rods at 30 C but as irregular spheres at 45 C. Growth at the nonpermissive temperature resulted in a deficiency of teichoic acid in the cell wall. A decrease in teichoic acid synthesis coupled with the rapid turnover of this polymer led to a progressive loss until less than 20% of the level found in wild-type rods remained in spheres. Extracts of cells grown at 45 C contained amounts of the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and glucosylation of teichoic acids that were equal to or greater than those found in normal rods. Cell walls of the spheres were deficient also in the endogenous autolytic enzyme (N-acyl muramyl-l-alanine amidase). Genetic analysis of the mutant by PBS1-mediated transduction and deoxyribonucleic acid-mediated transformation demonstrated that the lesion responsible for these effects (tag-1) is tightly linked to the genes which regulate the glucosylation of teichoic acid in the mid-portion of the chromosome of B. subtilis. PMID:4622900

  6. Flocculation-Related Gene Identification by Whole-Genome Sequencing of Thauera aminoaromatica MZ1T Floc-Defective Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Allen, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Thauera aminoaromatica MZ1T, a floc-forming bacterium isolated from an industrial activated-sludge wastewater treatment plant, overproduces exopolysaccharide (EPS), leading to viscous bulking. This phenomenon results in poor sludge settling and dewatering during the clarification process. To identify genes responsible for bacterial flocculation, a whole-genome phenotypic-sequencing technique was applied. Genomic DNA of MZ1T flocculation-deficient mutants was subjected to massively parallel sequencing. The resultant high-quality reads were assembled and compared to the reference genome of the wild type (WT). We identified nine nonsynonymous mutations and one nonsense mutation putatively involved in EPS biosynthesis. Complementation of the nonsense mutation located in an EPS deacetylase gene restored the flocculating phenotype. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of EPS isolated from the wild type showed a reduced C=O peak of the N-acetyl group at 1,665 cm−1 compared to the spectra of MZ1T floc-deficient mutant EPS, suggesting that the WT EPS was partially deacetylated. Gene expression analysis also demonstrated that the putative deacetylase gene transcript increased before flocculation occurred. These data suggest that targeting deacetylation processes via direct chemical modification of EPS or enzyme inhibition may prove useful in combating viscous bulking in this and related bacteria. PMID:26712552

  7. Structural Studies of Lipopolysaccharide-defective Mutants from Brucella melitensis Identify a Core Oligosaccharide Critical in Virulence*

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Carolina; Conde-Álvarez, Raquel; Ståhle, Jonas; Holst, Otto; Iriarte, Maite; Zhao, Yun; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; Hanniffy, Seán; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Moriyón, Ignacio; Widmalm, Göran

    2016-01-01

    The structures of the lipooligosaccharides from Brucella melitensis mutants affected in the WbkD and ManBcore proteins have been fully characterized using NMR spectroscopy. The results revealed that disruption of wbkD gives rise to a rough lipopolysaccharide (R-LPS) with a complete core structure (β-d-Glcp-(1→4)-α-Kdop-(2→4)[β-d-GlcpN-(1→6)-β-d-GlcpN-(1→4)[β-d-GlcpN-(1→6)]-β-d-GlcpN-(1→3)-α-d-Manp-(1→5)]-α-Kdop-(2→6)-β-d-GlcpN3N4P-(1→6)-α-d-GlcpN3N1P), in addition to components lacking one of the terminal β-d-GlcpN and/or the β-d-Glcp residues (48 and 17%, respectively). These structures were identical to those of the R-LPS from B. melitensis EP, a strain simultaneously expressing both smooth and R-LPS, also studied herein. In contrast, disruption of manBcore gives rise to a deep-rough pentasaccharide core (β-d-Glcp-(1→4)-α-Kdop-(2→4)-α-Kdop-(2→6)-β-d-GlcpN3N4P-(1→6)-α-d-GlcpN3N1P) as the major component (63%), as well as a minor tetrasaccharide component lacking the terminal β-d-Glcp residue (37%). These results are in agreement with the predicted functions of the WbkD (glycosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of the O-antigen) and ManBcore proteins (phosphomannomutase involved in the biosynthesis of a mannosyl precursor needed for the biosynthesis of the core and O-antigen). We also report that deletion of B. melitensis wadC removes the core oligosaccharide branch not linked to the O-antigen causing an increase in overall negative charge of the remaining LPS inner section. This is in agreement with the mannosyltransferase role predicted for WadC and the lack of GlcpN residues in the defective core oligosaccharide. Despite carrying the O-antigen essential in B. melitensis virulence, the core deficiency in the wadC mutant structure resulted in a more efficient detection by innate immunity and attenuation, proving the role of the β-d-GlcpN-(1→6)-β-d-GlcpN-(1→4)[β-d-GlcpN-(1→6)]-β-d-GlcpN-(1→3)-

  8. Analysis of combinatorial loss-of-function mutants in the Arabidopsis ethylene receptors reveals that the ers1 etr1 double mutant has severe developmental defects that are EIN2 dependent.

    PubMed

    Hall, Anne E; Bleecker, Anthony B

    2003-09-01

    Ethylene responses in Arabidopsis are controlled by the ETR receptor family. The receptors function as negative regulators of downstream signal transduction components and fall into two distinct subfamilies based on sequence similarity. To clarify the levels of functional redundancy between receptor isoforms, combinatorial mutant lines were generated that included the newly isolated ers1-2 allele. Based on the etiolated seedling growth response, all mutant combinations tested exhibited some constitutive ethylene responsiveness but also remained responsive to exogenous ethylene, indicating that all five receptor isoforms can contribute to signaling and no one receptor subtype is essential. On the other hand, light-grown seedlings and adult ers1 etr1 double mutants exhibited severe phenotypes such as miniature rosette size, delayed flowering, and sterility, revealing a distinct role for subfamily I receptors in light-grown plants. Introduction of an ein2 loss-of-function mutation into the ers1 etr1 double mutant line resulted in plants that phenocopy ein2 single mutants, indicating that all phenotypes observed in the ers1 etr1 double mutant are EIN2 dependent.

  9. Analysis of Combinatorial Loss-of-Function Mutants in the Arabidopsis Ethylene Receptors Reveals That the ers1 etr1 Double Mutant Has Severe Developmental Defects That Are EIN2 Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Anne E.; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    2003-01-01

    Ethylene responses in Arabidopsis are controlled by the ETR receptor family. The receptors function as negative regulators of downstream signal transduction components and fall into two distinct subfamilies based on sequence similarity. To clarify the levels of functional redundancy between receptor isoforms, combinatorial mutant lines were generated that included the newly isolated ers1-2 allele. Based on the etiolated seedling growth response, all mutant combinations tested exhibited some constitutive ethylene responsiveness but also remained responsive to exogenous ethylene, indicating that all five receptor isoforms can contribute to signaling and no one receptor subtype is essential. On the other hand, light-grown seedlings and adult ers1 etr1 double mutants exhibited severe phenotypes such as miniature rosette size, delayed flowering, and sterility, revealing a distinct role for subfamily I receptors in light-grown plants. Introduction of an ein2 loss-of-function mutation into the ers1 etr1 double mutant line resulted in plants that phenocopy ein2 single mutants, indicating that all phenotypes observed in the ers1 etr1 double mutant are EIN2 dependent. PMID:12953109

  10. Antibody-mediated activation of a defective beta-D-galactosidase: dimeric form of the activatable mutant enzyme.

    PubMed

    Conway de Macario, E; Ellis, J; Guzman, R; Rotman, B

    1978-02-01

    Sedimentation analyses of AMEF, an activatable mutant beta-D-galactosidase (beta-D-galactoside galactohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.23), and the products of its reaction with Fab fragments of activating antibody show that this enzyme exists mainly as 10S dimers. Activation of AMEF by purified antibody resulted in formation of 16S tetramers. A unifying hypothesis postulating a dimer--tetramer equilibrium accounts for this observation as the counterpart of inactivation, which was shown to involve the breakdown of tetramers into inactive subunits [Roth, R. A. & Rotman, B. (1975) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 67, 1382--1390]. Conditions are described under which AMEF loses the specific antigenic determinant(s) responsible for binding activating antibody, allowing its subsequent use as an absorption to obtain immunologically purified activating antibody,

  11. Antibody-mediated activation of a defective beta-D-galactosidase: dimeric form of the activatable mutant enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    de Macario, E C; Ellis, J; Guzman, R; Rotman, B

    1978-01-01

    Sedimentation analyses of AMEF, an activatable mutant beta-D-galactosidase (beta-D-galactoside galactohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.23), and the products of its reaction with Fab fragments of activating antibody show that this enzyme exists mainly as 10S dimers. Activation of AMEF by purified antibody resulted in formation of 16S tetramers. A unifying hypothesis postulating a dimer--tetramer equilibrium accounts for this observation as the counterpart of inactivation, which was shown to involve the breakdown of tetramers into inactive subunits [Roth, R. A. & Rotman, B. (1975) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 67, 1382--1390]. Conditions are described under which AMEF loses the specific antigenic determinant(s) responsible for binding activating antibody, allowing its subsequent use as an absorption to obtain immunologically purified activating antibody, PMID:416439

  12. Severity of infantile nystagmus syndrome-like ocular motor phenotype is linked to the extent of the underlying optic nerve projection defect in zebrafish belladonna mutant.

    PubMed

    Huber-Reggi, Sabina P; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Grimm, Lea; Straumann, Dominik; Neuhauss, Stephan C F; Huang, Melody Ying-Yu

    2012-12-12

    Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS), formerly known as congenital nystagmus, is an ocular motor disorder in humans characterized by spontaneous eye oscillations (SOs) and, in several cases, reversed optokinetic response (OKR). Its etiology and pathomechanism is largely unknown, but misrouting of the optic nerve has been observed in some patients. Likewise, optic nerve misrouting, a reversed OKR and SOs with INS-like waveforms are observed in zebrafish belladonna (bel) mutants. We aimed to investigate whether and how misrouting of the optic nerve correlates with the ocular motor behaviors in bel larvae. OKR and SOs were quantified and subsequently the optic nerve fibers were stained with fluorescent lipophilic dyes. Eye velocity during OKR was reduced in larvae with few misprojecting optic nerve fibers and reversed in larvae with a substantial fraction of misprojecting fibers. All larvae with reversed OKR also displayed SOs. A stronger reversed OKR correlated with more frequent SOs. Since we did not find a correlation between additional retinal defects and ocular motor behavior, we suggest that axon misrouting is in fact origin of INS in the zebrafish animal model. Depending on the ratio between misprojecting ipsilateral and correctly projecting contralateral fibers, the negative feedback loop normally regulating OKR can turn into a positive loop, resulting in an increase in retinal slip. Our data not only give new insights into the etiology of INS but may also be of interest for studies on how the brain deals with and adapts to conflicting inputs.

  13. An efficient deletion mutant packaging system for defective herpes simplex virus vectors: Potential applications to human gene therapy and neuronal physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, A.I.; Keyomarsi, K.; Bryan, J.; Pardee, A.B. )

    1990-11-01

    The authors have previously described a defective herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) vector system that permits that introduction of virtually any gene into nonmitotic cells. pHSVlac, the prototype vector, stably expresses Escherichia coli {beta}-galactosidase from a constitutive promoter in many human cell lines, in cultured rat neurons from throughout the nervous system, and in cells in the adult rat brain. HSV-1 vectors expressing other genes may prove useful for studying neuronal physiology or performing human gene therapy for neurological diseases, such as Parkinson disease or brain tumors. A HSV-1 temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant, ts K, has been used as helper virus; ts mutants revert to wild type. In contrast, HSV-1 deletion mutants essentially cannot revert to wild type; therefore, use of a deletion mutant as helper virus might permit human gene therapy with HSV-1 vectors. They now report an efficient packaging system for HSV-1 VECTORS USING A DELETION MUTANT, d30EBA, as helper virus; virus is grown on the complementing cell line M64A. pHSVlac virus prepared using the deletion mutant packaging system stably expresses {beta}-galactosidase in cultured rat sympathetic neurons and glia. Both D30EBA and ts K contain a mutation in the IE3 gene of HSV-1 strain 17 and have the same phenotype; therefore, changing the helper virus from ts K to D30EBA does not alter the host range or other properties of the HSV-1 vector system.

  14. Live attenuated herpes simplex virus 2 glycoprotein E deletion mutant as a vaccine candidate defective in neuronal spread.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Sita; Zumbrun, Elizabeth E; Si, Huaxin; Wang, Fushan; Shaw, Carolyn E; Cai, Michael; Lubinski, John M; Barrett, Shana M; Balliet, John W; Flynn, Jessica A; Casimiro, Danilo R; Bryan, Janine T; Friedman, Harvey M

    2012-04-01

    A herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein E deletion mutant (gE2-del virus) was evaluated as a replication-competent, attenuated live virus vaccine candidate. The gE2-del virus is defective in epithelial cell-to-axon spread and in anterograde transport from the neuron cell body to the axon terminus. In BALB/c and SCID mice, the gE2-del virus caused no death or disease after vaginal, intravascular, or intramuscular inoculation and was 5 orders of magnitude less virulent than wild-type virus when inoculated directly into the brain. No infectious gE2-del virus was recovered from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after multiple routes of inoculation; however, gE2-del DNA was detected by PCR in lumbosacral DRG at a low copy number in some mice. Importantly, no recurrent vaginal shedding of gE2-del DNA was detected in immunized guinea pigs. Intramuscular immunization outperformed subcutaneous immunization in all parameters evaluated, although individual differences were not significant, and two intramuscular immunizations were more protective than one. Immunized animals had reduced vaginal disease, vaginal titers, DRG infection, recurrent genital lesions, and recurrent vaginal shedding of HSV-2 DNA; however, protection was incomplete. A combined modality immunization using live virus and HSV-2 glycoprotein C and D subunit antigens in guinea pigs did not totally eliminate recurrent lesions or recurrent vaginal shedding of HSV-2 DNA. The gE2-del virus used as an immunotherapeutic vaccine in previously HSV-2-infected guinea pigs greatly reduced the frequency of recurrent genital lesions. Therefore, the gE2-del virus is safe, other than when injected at high titer into the brain, and is efficacious as a prophylactic and immunotherapeutic vaccine.

  15. Spermatogenesis-defective (spe) Mutants of the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Provide Clues to Solve the Puzzle of Male Germline Functions during Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Hitoshi; L’Hernault, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    In most species, each sex produces gametes, usually either sperm or oocytes, from its germline during gametogenesis. The sperm and oocyte subsequently fuse together during fertilization to create the next generation. This review focuses on spermatogenesis and the roles of sperm during fertilization in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, where suitable mutants are readily obtained. So far 186 mutants defective in the C. elegans male germline functions have been isolated, and many of these mutations are alleles for one of the ~60 spermatogenesis-defective (spe) genes. Many cloned spe genes are expressed specifically in the male germline, where they play roles during spermatogenesis (spermatid production), spermiogenesis (spermatid activation into spermatozoa), and/or fertilization. Moreover, several spe genes are orthologs of mammalian genes, suggesting that the reproductive processes of the C. elegans and the mammalian male germlines might share common pathways at the molecular level. PMID:20419782

  16. Reversion of lethality and growth defects in Fatiga oxygen-sensor mutant flies by loss of hypoxia-inducible factor-alpha/Sima.

    PubMed

    Centanin, Lázaro; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Wappner, Pablo

    2005-11-01

    Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase domains (PHDs) have been proposed to act as sensors that have an important role in oxygen homeostasis. In the presence of oxygen, they hydroxylate two specific prolyl residues in HIF-alpha polypeptides, thereby promoting their proteasomal degradation. So far, however, the developmental consequences of the inactivation of PHDs in higher metazoans have not been reported. Here, we describe novel loss-of-function mutants of fatiga, the gene encoding the Drosophila PHD oxygen sensor, which manifest growth defects and lethality. We also report a null mutation in dHIF-alpha/sima, which is unable to adapt to hypoxia but is fully viable in normoxic conditions. Strikingly, loss-of-function mutations of sima rescued the developmental defects observed in fatiga mutants and enabled survival to adulthood. These results indicate that the main functions of Fatiga in development, including control of cell size, involve the regulation of dHIF/Sima.

  17. Reversion of lethality and growth defects in Fatiga oxygen-sensor mutant flies by loss of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-α/Sima

    PubMed Central

    Centanin, Lázaro; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Wappner, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase domains (PHDs) have been proposed to act as sensors that have an important role in oxygen homeostasis. In the presence of oxygen, they hydroxylate two specific prolyl residues in HIF-α polypeptides, thereby promoting their proteasomal degradation. So far, however, the developmental consequences of the inactivation of PHDs in higher metazoans have not been reported. Here, we describe novel loss-of-function mutants of fatiga, the gene encoding the Drosophila PHD oxygen sensor, which manifest growth defects and lethality. We also report a null mutation in dHIF-α/sima, which is unable to adapt to hypoxia but is fully viable in normoxic conditions. Strikingly, loss-of-function mutations of sima rescued the developmental defects observed in fatiga mutants and enabled survival to adulthood. These results indicate that the main functions of Fatiga in development, including control of cell size, involve the regulation of dHIF/Sima. PMID:16179946

  18. Molecular Basis of the Defective Heat Stress Response in Mycobacterium leprae▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Diana L.; Pittman, Tana L.; Deshotel, Mike; Oby-Robinson, Sandra; Smith, Issar; Husson, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae, a major human pathogen, grows poorly at 37°C. The basis for its inability to survive at elevated temperatures was investigated. We determined that M. leprae lacks a protective heat shock response as a result of the lack of transcriptional induction of the alternative sigma factor genes sigE and sigB and the major heat shock operons, HSP70 and HSP60, even though heat shock promoters and regulatory circuits for these genes appear to be intact. M. leprae sigE was found to be capable of complementing the defective heat shock response of mycobacterial sigE knockout mutants only in the presence of a functional mycobacterial sigH, which orchestrates the mycobacterial heat shock response. Since the sigH of M. leprae is a pseudogene, these data support the conclusion that a key aspect of the defective heat shock response in M. leprae is the absence of a functional sigH. In addition, 68% of the genes induced during heat shock in M. tuberculosis were shown to be either absent from the M. leprae genome or were present as pseudogenes. Among these is the hsp/acr2 gene, whose product is essential for M. tuberculosis survival during heat shock. Taken together, these results suggest that the reduced ability of M. leprae to survive at elevated temperatures results from the lack of a functional transcriptional response to heat shock and the absence of a full repertoire of heat stress response genes, including sigH. PMID:17933896

  19. Pleiotropic aspartate taxis and serine taxis mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Reader, R W; Tso, W W; Springer, M S; Goy, M F; Adler, J

    1979-04-01

    Mutants that at one time were thought to be specifically defective in taxis toward aspartate and related amino acids (tar mutants) or specifically defective in taxis toward serine and related amino acids (tar mutants) are now shown to be pleiotropic in their defects. The tar mutants also lack taxis toward maltose and away from Co2+ and Ni2+. The tsr mutants are altered in their response to a variety of repellents. Double mutants (tar tsr) fail in nearly all chemotactic responses. The tar and tsr mutants provide evidence for two complementary, converging pathways of information flow: certain chemoreceptors feed information into the tar pathway and others into the tsr pathway. The tar and tsr products have been shown to be two different sets of methylated proteins.

  20. Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lpsi reveals impairment in the root responses to local phosphate availability.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Athikkattuvalasu S; Jain, Ajay; Nagarajan, Vinay K; Sinilal, Bhaskaran; Sahi, Shivendra V; Raghothama, Kashchandra G

    2014-04-01

    Phosphate (Pi) deficiency triggers local Pi sensing-mediated inhibition of primary root growth and development of root hairs in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Generation of activation-tagged T-DNA insertion pools of Arabidopsis expressing the luciferase gene (LUC) under high-affinity Pi transporter (Pht1;4) promoter, is an efficient approach for inducing genetic variations that are amenable for visual screening of aberrations in Pi deficiency responses. Putative mutants showing altered LUC expression during Pi deficiency were identified and screened for impairment in local Pi deficiency-mediated inhibition of primary root growth. An isolated mutant was analyzed for growth response, effects of Pi deprivation on Pi content, primary root growth, root hair development, and relative expression levels of Pi starvation-responsive (PSR) genes, and those implicated in starch metabolism and Fe and Zn homeostasis. Pi deprived local phosphate sensing impaired (lpsi) mutant showed impaired primary root growth and attenuated root hair development. Although relative expression levels of PSR genes were comparable, there were significant increases in relative expression levels of IRT1, BAM3 and BAM5 in Pi deprived roots of lpsi compared to those of the wild-type. Better understanding of molecular responses of plants to Pi deficiency or excess will help to develop suitable remediation strategies for soils with excess Pi, which has become an environmental concern. Hence, lpsi mutant will serve as a valuable tool in identifying molecular mechanisms governing adaptation of plants to Pi deficiency.

  1. Defective anti-listerial responses in deciduoma of pseudopregnant mice.

    PubMed Central

    Redline, R. W.; Shea, C. M.; Papaioannou, V. E.; Lu, C. Y.

    1988-01-01

    Two different hormonal regimens to induce pseudopregnancy resulted in a pronounced increase in the susceptibility of the murine uterus to intraluminal injections of Listeria monocytogenes. Preimmunization, which profoundly augments systemic listeria resistance, had no effect on this increased uterine susceptibility. Anti-listerial responses in other organs were unaffected by pseudopregnancy. Animals manifesting increased susceptibility formed distinct uterine swellings in response to the combination of hormones and uterine listeria. These swellings correspond to previously described deciduoma and closely mimic the decidualized endometrium of pregnancy. The nature of the defective response to listeria was investigated by immunocytochemistry. Increased bacterial titers were correlated with an inability of macrophages and T lymphocytes to reach tissue listeria in discrete regions of deciduoma-bearing uteri. Control uteri showed a normal granulomatous pattern of inflammation. These findings closely parallel previous findings in the murine decidua basalis and suggest that properties of decidualized endometrial stromal cells regulate local immune responsiveness. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3144175

  2. Construction and Characterization of Haemophilus ducreyi Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) Mutants Defective in Expression of Heptosyltransferase III and β1,4-Glucosyltransferase: Identification of LOS Glycoforms Containing Lactosamine Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Filiatrault, Melanie J.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Schilling, Birgit; Sun, Shuhua; Munson, Robert S.; Campagnari, Anthony A.

    2000-01-01

    To begin to understand the role of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) molecule in chancroid infections, we constructed mutants defective in expression of glycosyltransferase genes. Pyocin lysis and immunoscreening was used to identify a LOS mutant of Haemophilus ducreyi 35000. This mutant, HD35000R, produced a LOS molecule that lacked the monoclonal antibody 3F11 epitope and migrated with an increased mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Structural studies indicated that the principal LOS glycoform contains lipid A, Kdo, and two of the three core heptose residues. HD35000R was transformed with a plasmid library of H. ducreyi 35000 DNA, and a clone producing the wild-type LOS was identified. Sequence analysis of the plasmid insert revealed one open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a protein with homology to the WaaQ (heptosyltransferase III) of Escherichia coli. A second ORF had homology to the LgtF (glucosyltransferase) of Neisseria meningitidis. Individual isogenic mutants lacking expression of the putative H. ducreyi heptosyltransferase III, the putative glucosyltransferase, and both glycosyltransferases were constructed and characterized. Each mutant was complemented with the representative wild-type genes in trans to restore expression of parental LOS and confirm the function of each enzyme. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and SDS-PAGE analysis identified several unique LOS glycoforms containing di-, tri-, and poly-N-acetyllactosamine repeats added to the terminal region of the main LOS branch synthesized by the heptosyltransferase III mutant. These novel H. ducreyi mutants provide important tools for studying the regulation of LOS assembly and biosynthesis. PMID:10816485

  3. Two types of albino mutants in desert and migratory locusts are caused by gene defects in the same signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Ryohei; Tanaka, Seiji; Jouraku, Akiya; Shiotsuki, Takahiro

    2017-04-15

    Albinism is caused by mutations in the genes involved in melanin production. Albino nymphs of Locusta migratoria and Schistocerca gregaria reared under crowded conditions are uniformly creamy-white in color. However, nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon in locusts. The albino strain of L. migratoria is known to lack the dark-color-inducing neuropeptide corazonin (Crz). In this study, we report that this albino strain has a 10-base-pair deletion in the gene LmCRZ, which encodes Crz. This mutation was found to cause a frame-shift, resulting in a null mutation in Crz. On the other hand, the albino strain of S. gregaria is known to have an intact Crz. This strain was found to possess a single-nucleotide substitution in the middle of the Crz receptor-encoding gene, SgCRZR, which caused a nonsense mutation, resulting in a truncated receptor. Silencing of SgCRZR in wild-type S. gregaria nymphs greatly reduced the area and intensity of their black patterning, suggesting that the functional defect of SgCRZR likely causes the albinism. The expression level of SgCRZR in the albino S. gregaria was comparable to that in the wild type. Unlike the wild type, the albino strain of this locust did not show a phase-dependent shift in a morphometric trait controlled by Crz. From these results, we conclude that the mutations in LmCRZ and SgCRZR are responsible for the albinism in L. migratoria and S. gregaria, respectively, indicating that the two types of albinism are caused by different genetic defects in the same Crz signaling pathway.

  4. The Proteomic Response to Mutants of the Escherichia coli RNA Degradosome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    pathway of RNA degradation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE (SF298) (Continuation Sheet) Continuation for Block 13 ARO Report Number The proteomic response...of the bacterial proteome and provide the first large-scale proteomic description of the response to perturbation of this major pathway of RNA...truncation mutant11 (rightmost column). Significant function enrichments (adjusted P-value o 0.01, compared to entire E. coli genome) are indicated

  5. Dynamics of SOS-Response in UVR-Mutants of Escherichia Coli Cells under Ultraviolet Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchina, M. A.; Parkhomenko, A. Yu.; Belov, O. V.; Bugai, A. N.

    2010-01-01

    A mathematical model of the genetic regulatory system of the SOS-response induced by ultraviolet radiation in excision repair-deficient mutants of E. coli bacterial cells is developed. On the basis of the model, the dynamics of the SOS system regulatory proteins is analyzed. The influence of excision repair on the induction of the key gene products during the SOS-response is studied.

  6. An mRNA decapping mutant deficient in P body assembly limits mRNA stabilization in response to osmotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Huch, Susanne; Nissan, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    Yeast is exposed to changing environmental conditions and must adapt its genetic program to provide a homeostatic intracellular environment. An important stress for yeast in the wild is high osmolarity. A key response to this stress is increased mRNA stability primarily by the inhibition of deadenylation. We previously demonstrated that mutations in decapping activators (edc3∆ lsm4∆C), which result in defects in P body assembly, can destabilize mRNA under unstressed conditions. We wished to examine whether mRNA would be destabilized in the edc3∆ lsm4∆C mutant as compared to the wild-type in response to osmotic stress, when P bodies are intense and numerous. Our results show that the edc3∆ lsm4∆C mutant limits the mRNA stability in response to osmotic stress, while the magnitude of stabilization was similar as compared to the wild-type. The reduced mRNA stability in the edc3∆ lsm4∆C mutant was correlated with a shorter PGK1 poly(A) tail. Similarly, the MFA2 mRNA was more rapidly deadenylated as well as significantly stabilized in the ccr4∆ deadenylation mutant in the edc3∆ lsm4∆C background. These results suggest a role for these decapping factors in stabilizing mRNA and may implicate P bodies as sites of reduced mRNA degradation. PMID:28290514

  7. DNA damage response defect in Williams-Beuren syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Guenat, David; Merla, Giuseppe; Deconinck, Eric; Borg, Christophe; Rohrlich, Pierre-Simon

    2017-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS, no. OMIM 194050) is a rare multisystem genetic disorder caused by a microdeletion on chromosome 7q11.23 and characterized by cardiovascular malformations, mental retardation, and a specific facial dysmorphism. Recently, we reported that a series of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma occurs in children with WBS and thus hypothesized that a predisposition to cancer may be associated with this genetic disorder. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the role played by three genes hemizygously deleted in WBS (RFC2, GTF2I and BAZ1B) in DNA damage response pathways. Cell proliferation, cell cycle analysis, γ-H2A.X induction, and expression of DNA damage response proteins were investigated upon exposure to genotoxic treatments in WBS patient-derived primary fibroblasts and in the 293T cell line treated with specific siRNAs targeting RFC2, GTF2I and BAZ1B. An impaired hydroxyurea-induced phosphorylation of CHK1 was observed in the WBS cells. However, this defective DNA damage response was not associated with an increased sensitivity to genotoxic agents. In addition, depletion of RFC2, GTF2I and BAZ1B using specific siRNAs did not have a significant impact on the DNA damage response in 293T cells. Our results highlight that the ATR-dependent DNA damage response is impaired in WBS patient cells but is also dispensable for viability when these cells undergo a genotoxic stress. The mechanism by which the ATR pathway is impaired in WBS warrants elucidation through further investigation. PMID:28098859

  8. Enhanced use of backup pathways of NHEJ in G2 in Chinese hamster mutant cells with defects in the classical pathway of NHEJ.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenqi; Wang, Minli; Mussfeldt, Tamara; Iliakis, George

    2008-10-01

    In higher eukaryotes DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired by homologous recombination repair (HRR) or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). In addition to the DNA-PK dependent pathway of NHEJ (D-NHEJ), cells employ a backup pathway (B-NHEJ) using DNA ligase III and PARP1. We have reported previously that mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) defective in D-NHEJ show enhanced repair of DSBs in G2 not reflecting a contribution of HRR. Here we extend these studies to Chinese hamster mutant cells with defects in the DNA-PKcs, Ku80 or XRCC4 components of D-NHEJ or in the XRCC2 and XRCC3 components of HRR. Using cell sorting to separate cells at defined times after irradiation, we measure repair of DSBs with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in unperturbed G1- and G2-phase cells. Wild-type cells and mutants of XRCC2 and XRCC3 repair DSBs with similar efficiency in G1 and G2. Mutants of DNA-PKcs, Ku80 and XRCC4 show more pronounced repair in G2 than in G1. These and previously published results provide support for the notion that the increased efficacy of DSB repair in G2 reflects the enhanced function of B-NHEJ, which may be a general feature of rodent cells that also holds for human cells.

  9. Rad51-dependent DNA structures accumulate at damaged replication forks in sgs1 mutants defective in the yeast ortholog of BLM RecQ helicase.

    PubMed

    Liberi, Giordano; Maffioletti, Giulio; Lucca, Chiara; Chiolo, Irene; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Cotta-Ramusino, Cecilia; Lopes, Massimo; Pellicioli, Achille; Haber, James E; Foiani, Marco

    2005-02-01

    S-phase cells overcome chromosome lesions through replication-coupled recombination processes that seem to be assisted by recombination-dependent DNA structures and/or replication-related sister chromatid junctions. RecQ helicases, including yeast Sgs1 and human BLM, have been implicated in both replication and recombination and protect genome integrity by preventing unscheduled mitotic recombination events. We have studied the RecQ helicase-mediated mechanisms controlling genome stability by analyzing replication forks encountering a damaged template in sgs1 cells. We show that, in sgs1 mutants, recombination-dependent cruciform structures accumulate at damaged forks. Their accumulation requires Rad51 protein, is counteracted by Srs2 DNA helicase, and does not prevent fork movement. Sgs1, but not Srs2, promotes resolution of these recombination intermediates. A functional Rad53 checkpoint kinase that is known to protect the integrity of the sister chromatid junctions is required for the accumulation of recombination intermediates in sgs1 mutants. Finally, top3 and top3 sgs1 mutants accumulate the same structures as sgs1 cells. We suggest that, in sgs1 cells, the unscheduled accumulation of Rad51-dependent cruciform structures at damaged forks result from defective maturation of recombination-dependent intermediates that originate from the replication-related sister chromatid junctions. Our findings might contribute to explaining some of the recombination defects of BLM cells.

  10. Functional genomics screening utilizing mutant mouse embryonic stem cells identifies novel radiation-response genes.

    PubMed

    Loesch, Kimberly; Galaviz, Stacy; Hamoui, Zaher; Clanton, Ryan; Akabani, Gamal; Deveau, Michael; DeJesus, Michael; Ioerger, Thomas; Sacchettini, James C; Wallis, Deeann

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the genetic determinants of radiation response is crucial to optimizing and individualizing radiotherapy for cancer patients. In order to identify genes that are involved in enhanced sensitivity or resistance to radiation, a library of stable mutant murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs), each with a defined mutation, was screened for cell viability and gene expression in response to radiation exposure. We focused on a cancer-relevant subset of over 500 mutant ESC lines. We identified 13 genes; 7 genes that have been previously implicated in radiation response and 6 other genes that have never been implicated in radiation response. After screening, proteomic analysis showed enrichment for genes involved in cellular component disassembly (e.g. Dstn and Pex14) and regulation of growth (e.g. Adnp2, Epc1, and Ing4). Overall, the best targets with the highest potential for sensitizing cancer cells to radiation were Dstn and Map2k6, and the best targets for enhancing resistance to radiation were Iqgap and Vcan. Hence, we provide compelling evidence that screening mutant ESCs is a powerful approach to identify genes that alter radiation response. Ultimately, this knowledge can be used to define genetic variants or therapeutic targets that will enhance clinical therapy.

  11. Differential Impact of LPG-and PG-Deficient Leishmania major Mutants on the Immune Response of Human Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, Asha; Hickerson, Suzanne; Mostrom, Janet; Turco, Salvatore J.; Beverley, Stephen M.; McDowell, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background Leishmania major infection induces robust interleukin-12 (IL12) production in human dendritic cells (hDC), ultimately resulting in Th1-mediated immunity and clinical resolution. The surface of Leishmania parasites is covered in a dense glycocalyx consisting of primarily lipophosphoglycan (LPG) and other phosphoglycan-containing molecules (PGs), making these glycoconjugates the likely pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) responsible for IL12 induction. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we explored the role of parasite glycoconjugates on the hDC IL12 response by generating L. major Friedlin V1 mutants defective in LPG alone, (FV1 lpg1-), or generally deficient for all PGs, (FV1 lpg2-). Infection with metacyclic, infective stage, L. major or purified LPG induced high levels of IL12B subunit gene transcripts in hDCs, which was abrogated with FV1 lpg1- infections. In contrast, hDC infections with FV1 lpg2- displayed increased IL12B expression, suggesting other PG-related/LPG2 dependent molecules may act to dampen the immune response. Global transcriptional profiling comparing WT, FV1 lpg1-, FV1 lpg2- infections revealed that FV1 lpg1- mutants entered hDCs in a silent fashion as indicated by repression of gene expression. Transcription factor binding site analysis suggests that LPG recognition by hDCs induces IL-12 in a signaling cascade resulting in Nuclear Factor κ B (NFκB) and Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF) mediated transcription. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that L. major LPG is a major PAMP recognized by hDC to induce IL12-mediated protective immunity and that there is a complex interplay between PG-baring Leishmania surface glycoconjugates that result in modulation of host cellular IL12. PMID:26630499

  12. Characterizing and Targeting Replication Stress Response Defects in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    collaboration with our colleague Dr. Chun Li, an outstanding leader in nanotechnology , we aimed to develop nanoparticles that can carry in vivo imaging...Pɘ.001. Task 4b. To develop nanoparticles to kill RSR-defective breast cancer cells through their binding to the RSR-defect-specific membrane...proteins on cancer cells. We have created the nanoparticles that can specifically bind to RSR-defect breast cells. We will continue to optimize

  13. Isolation and characterization of type III group B streptococcal mutants defective in biosynthesis of the type-specific antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, M K; Mattingly, S J

    1983-01-01

    Four classes of mutants of type III group B streptococcus were isolated by serial subculture of the wild-type strain in the presence of type III-specific rabbit antiserum. Class I mutants no longer synthesized sialic acid but still elaborated the core antigen. Class II mutants maintained the ability to synthesize sialic acid but could not attach it to the core antigen. Class III mutants did not produce the core antigen but still synthesized intracellular sialic acid. Class IV mutants synthesized the complete antigen; however, only approximately 4% of the antigen synthesized was found associated with the cell wall peptidoglycan (in the wild-type strain greater than 85% of the antigen synthesized is covalently attached to the cell wall peptidoglycan), whereas greater than 90% of the antigen was secreted into the growth medium. Production of other components (CAMP factor, group B antigen, beta-hemolysin, neuraminidase) by these mutants appeared similar to those of the wild-type strain. Mouse lethality studies of these strains indicated that all four classes have greater than 3 log10-higher 50% lethal dose values than that of the wild-type strain. To understand the basis for this variation, the invasive ability of the wild-type strain and the sialic acid-deficient mutant strain M-10 (class I) was examined. Mice received 10(5) CFU of each organism; they were then sacrificed at various times postinoculation, and viable group B streptococci from different organs were enumerated. Mice were able to clear M-10 more efficiently, with greater than 80% of M-10 cells being phagocytized by macrophages within 1 h, whereas the wild-type strain was able to evade phagocytic killing and disseminate to other tissues. These data, therefore, strongly indicate that the sialic acid moiety greatly enhances the virulence of the type III antigen. In addition, the level of cell-associated type-specific antigen appears to contribute significantly to the pathogenicity of the organism. PMID

  14. Isolation and characterization of Pseudomonas putida PpF1 mutants defective in the toluene dioxygenase enzyme system.

    PubMed Central

    Finette, B A; Subramanian, V; Gibson, D T

    1984-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida PpF1 degraded toluene via a dihydrodiol pathway to tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. The initial reaction was catalyzed by a multicomponent enzyme, toluene dioxygenase, which oxidized toluene to (+)-cis-1(S),2(R)-dihydroxy-3-methylcyclohexa-3,5-diene (cis-toluene dihydrodiol). The enzyme consisted of three protein components: NADH-ferredoxintol oxidoreductase (reductasetol), ferredoxintol, and a terminal oxygenase which is an iron-sulfur protein (ISPtol). Mutants blocked in each of these components were isolated after mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine. Mutants occurred as colony morphology variants when grown in the presence of toluene on indicator plates containing agar, mineral salts, a growth-supporting nutrient (arginine), 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), and Nitro Blue Tetrazolium (NBT). Under these conditions, wild-type colonies appeared large and red as a result of TTC reduction. Colonies of reductasetol mutants were white or white with a light blue center, ferredoxintol strains were light blue with a dark blue center, and strains that lacked ISPtol gave dark blue colonies. Blue color differences in the mutant colonies were due to variations in the extent of NBT reduction. Strains lacking all three components appeared white. Toluene dioxygenase mutants were characterized by assaying toluene dioxygenase activity in crude cell extracts which were complemented with purified preparations of each protein component. Between 40 and 60% of the putative mutants selected from the NBT-TTC indicator plates were unable to grow with toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy. This method should prove extremely useful in isolating mutants in other multicomponent oxygenase enzyme systems. Images PMID:6501223

  15. Absence of Cajal-Retzius cells and subplate neurons associated with defects of tangential cell migration from ganglionic eminence in Emx1/2 double mutant cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Koji; Miyagi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Michio; Miyata, Takaki; Ogawa, Masaharu; Aizawa, Shinichi; Suda, Yoko

    2002-07-01

    Emx1 and Emx2, mouse orthologs of the Drosophila head gap gene, ems, are expressed during corticogenesis. Emx2 null mutants exhibit mild defects in cortical lamination. Segregation of differentiating neurons from proliferative cells is normal for the most part, however, reelin-positive Cajal-Retzius cells are lost by the late embryonic period. Additionally, late-born cortical plate neurons display abnormal position. These types of lamination defects are subtle in the Emx1 mutant cortex. In the present study we show that Emx1 and Emx2 double mutant neocortex is much more severely affected. Thickness of the cerebral wall was diminished with the decrease in cell number. Bromodeoxyuridine uptake in the germinal zone was nearly normal; moreover, no apparent increase in cell death or tetraploid cell number was observed. However, tangential migration of cells from the ganglionic eminence into the neocortex was greatly inhibited. The wild-type ganglionic eminence cells transplanted into Emx1/2-double mutant telencephalon did not move to the cortex. MAP2-positive neuronal bodies and RC2-positive radial glial cells emerged normally, but the laminar structure subsequently formed was completely abnormal. Furthermore, both corticofugal and corticopetal fibers were predominantly absent in the cortex. Most importantly, neither Cajal-Retzius cells nor subplate neurons were found throughout E11.5-E18.5. Thus, this investigation suggests that laminar organization in the cortex or the production of Cajal-Retzius cells and subplate neurons is interrelated to the tangential movement of cells from the ganglionic eminence under the control of Emx1 and Emx2.

  16. High temperature specifically affects the photoprotective responses of chlorophyll b-deficient wheat mutant lines.

    PubMed

    Brestic, Marian; Zivcak, Marek; Kunderlikova, Kristyna; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2016-12-01

    The effects of high temperature on CO2 assimilation rate, processes associated with photosynthetic electron and proton transport, as well as photoprotective responses, were studied in chlorophyll b-deficient mutant lines (ANK-32A and ANK-32B) and wild type (WT) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Despite the low chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a-to-b ratio, the non-stressed mutant plants had the similar level of CO2 assimilation and photosynthetic responses as WT. However, in ANK mutant plants exposed to prolonged high temperature episode (42 °C for ~10 h), we observed lower CO2 assimilation compared to WT, especially when a high CO2 supply was provided. In all heat-exposed plants, we found approximately the same level of PSII photoinhibition, but the decrease in content of photooxidizable PSI was higher in ANK mutant plants compared to WT. The PSI damage can be well explained by the level of overreduction of PSI acceptor side observed in plants exposed to high temperature, which was, in turn, the result of the insufficient transthylakoid proton gradient associated with low non-photochemical quenching and lack of ability to downregulate the linear electron transport to keep the reduction state of PSI acceptor side low enough. Compared to WT, the ANK mutant lines had lower capacity to drive the cyclic electron transport around PSI in moderate and high light; it confirms the protective role of cyclic electron transport for the protection of PSI against photoinhibition. Our results, however, also suggest that the inactivation of PSI in heat stress conditions can be the protective mechanism against photooxidative damage of chloroplast and cell structures.

  17. Recruitment of DNA replication and damage response proteins to viral replication centers during infection with NS2 mutants of Minute Virus of Mice (MVM).

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Zandra; Mihaylov, Ivailo S; Cotmore, Susan F; Tattersall, Peter

    2011-02-20

    MVM NS2 is essential for viral DNA amplification, but its mechanism of action is unknown. A classification scheme for autonomous parvovirus-associated replication (APAR) center development, based on NS1 distribution, was used to characterize abnormal APAR body maturation in NS2null mutant infections, and their organization examined for defects in host protein recruitment. Since acquisition of known replication factors appeared normal, we looked for differences in invoked DNA damage responses. We observed widespread association of H2AX/MDC1 damage response foci with viral replication centers, and sequestration and complex hyperphosphorylation of RPA(32), which occurred in wildtype and mutant infections. Quantifying these responses by western transfer indicated that both wildtype and NS2 mutant MVM elicited ATM activation, while phosphorylation of ATR, already basally activated in asynchronous A9 cells, was downregulated. We conclude that MVM infection invokes multiple damage responses that influence the APAR environment, but that NS2 does not modify the recruitment of cellular proteins.

  18. Host range and cell cycle activation properties of polyomavirus large T-antigen mutants defective in pRB binding

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, R.; Bauer, P.H.; Benjamin, T.L.; Crissman, H.A.; Bradbury, E.M. |

    1994-11-01

    The authors have examined the growth properties of polyomavirus large T-antigen mutants that ar unable to bind pRB, the product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. These mutants grow poorly on primary mouse cells yet grow well on NIH 3T3 and other established mouse cell lines. Preinfection of primary baby mouse kidney (BMK) epithelial cells with wild-type simian virus 40 renders these cells permissive to growth of pRB-binding polyomavirus mutants. Conversely, NIH 3T3 cells transfected by and expressing wild-type human pRB become nonpermissive. Primary fibroblasts for mouse embryos that carry a homozygous knockout of the RB gene are permissive, while those from normal littermates are nonpermissive. The host range of polyomavirus pRB-binding mutants is thus determined by expression or lack of expression of functional pRB by the host. These results demonstrate the importance of pRB binding by large T antigen for productive viral infection in primary cells. Failure of pRB-binding mutants to grow well in BMK cells correlates with their failure to induce progression from G{sub 0} or G{sub 1} through the S phase of the cell cycle. Time course studies show delayed synthesis and lower levels of accumulation of large T antigen, viral DNA, and VP1 in mutant compared with wild-type virus-infected BMK cells. These results support a model in which productive infection by polyomavirus in normal mouse cells is tightly coupled to the induction and progression of the cell cycle. 48 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Isolation and characterization of Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutants defective in cell wall (1-3)beta-D-glucan.

    PubMed Central

    Ribas, J C; Diaz, M; Duran, A; Perez, P

    1991-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe thermosensitive mutants requiring the presence of an osmotic stabilizer to survive and grow at a nonpermissive temperature were isolated. The mutants were genetically and biochemically characterized. In all of them, the phenotype segregated in Mendelian fashion as a single gene which coded for a recessive character. Fourteen loci were defined by complementation analysis. Studies of cell wall composition showed a reduction in the amount of cell wall beta-glucan in three strains (JCR1, JCR5, and JCR10) when growing at 37 degrees C. Galactomannan was diminished in two others. Strains JCR1 and JCR5, with mutant alleles cwg1-1 and cwg2-1, respectively, were further studied. The cwg1 locus was mapped on the right arm of chromosome III, 18.06 centimorgans (cM) to the left of the ade5 marker; cwg2 was located on the left arm of chromosome I, 34.6 cM away from the aro5 marker. (1-3)beta-D-Glucan synthase activities from cwg1-1 and cwg2-1 mutant strains grown at 37 degrees C were diminished, as measured in vitro, compared with the wild-type strain; however, Km values and activation by GTP were similar to the wild-type values. Mutant synthases behaved like the wild-type enzyme in terms of thermostability. Analyses of round shape, lytic behavior, and low (1-3)beta-D-glucan synthase activity in cultures derived from ascospores of the same tetrad showed cosegregation of all these characters. Detergent dissociation of (1-3)beta-D-glucan synthase into soluble and particulate fractions and subsequent reconstitution demonstrated that the cwg1-1 mutant was affected in the particulate fraction of the enzymatic activity while cwg2-1 was affected in the soluble component. The antifungal agents Papulacandin B and Aculeacin A had similar effects on the enzymatic activities of the wild type and the cwg2-1 mutant strain, whereas the cwg1-1 mutant, when growing at 37 degrees C, had a more inhibitor-resistant (1,3)beta-D-glucan synthase. It is concluded that the cwg1

  20. Cell-substrate interactions and locomotion of Dictyostelium wild-type and mutants defective in three cytoskeletal proteins: a study using quantitative reflection interference contrast microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Schindl, M; Wallraff, E; Deubzer, B; Witke, W; Gerisch, G; Sackmann, E

    1995-01-01

    Reflection interference contrast microscopy combined with digital image processing was applied to study the motion of Dictyostelium discoideum cells in their pre-aggregative state on substrata of different adhesiveness (glass, albumin-covered glass, and freshly cleaved mica). The temporal variations of the size and shape of the cell/substratum contact area and the time course of advancement of pseudopods protruding in contact with the substratum were analyzed. The major goal was to study differences between the locomotion of wild-type cells and strains of triple mutants deficient in two F-actin cross-linking proteins (alpha-actinin and the 120-kDa gelation factor) and one F-actin fragmenting protein (severin). The size of contact area, AC, of both wild-type and mutant cells fluctuates between minimum and maximum values on the order of minutes, pointing toward an intrinsic switching mechanism associated with the mechanochemical control system. The fluctuation amplitudes are much larger on freshly cleaved mica than on glass. Wild-type and mutant cells exhibit remarkable differences on mica but not on glass. These differences comprise the population median of AC and alterations in pseudopod protrusion. AC is smaller by a factor of two or more for all mutants. Pseudopods protrude slower and shorter in the mutants. It is concluded that cell shape and pseudopods are destabilized by defects in the actin-skeleton, which can be overcompensated by strongly adhesive substrata. Several features of amoeboid cell locomotion on substrata can be understood on the basis of the minimum bending energy concept of soft adhering shells and by assuming that adhesion induces local alterations of the composite membrane consisting of the protein/lipid bilayer on the cell surface and the underlying actin-cortex. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:7756537

  1. Thiamin-responsive maple-syrup-urine disease: decreased affinity of the mutant branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase for alpha-ketoisovalerate and thiamin pyrophosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, D T; Ku, L S; Cox, R P

    1982-01-01

    The biochemical basis for the therapeutic effects of thiamin in thiamin-responsive maple-syrup-urine disease (MSUD) was investigated in intact and disrupted fibroblast cultures from normals and patients with various forms of MSUD. Decarboxylation of alpha-keto[1-14C]isovalerate (KIV) by intact cells from a thiamin-responsive MSUD patient was at 30-40% of the normal rate with or without thiamin in the incubation medium. Under similar conditions, intact classical MSUD fibroblasts failed to decarboxylate KIV. Branched-chain alpha-keto acid (BCKA) dehydrogenase activity measured in disrupted cells from the thiamin-responsive subject showed sigmoidal kinetics in the absence of thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), with an increased concentration of substrate needed for half-maximal velocity (K0.5 for KIV = 7 mM vs. 0.05 mM in normal cells). When assayed with 0.2 mM TPP present, the mutant enzyme showed (i) a shift in kinetics to near Michaelis-Menten type as observed with the normal BCKA dehydrogenase and (ii) a lower K0.5 value of 4 mM for KIV, suggesting a TPP-mediated increase in the mutant enzyme's affinity for substrate. By contrast, TPP increased only the Vmax and was without effect on the apparent Km for KIV of the BCKA dehydrogenase from cells of normals and patients with classical MSUD and variant thiamin-responsive MSUD (grade 3). Measurement of the apparent Km for TPP of the BCKA dehydrogenase from thiamin-responsive mutant MSUd cells showed a 16-fold increase in the constant to 25 microM compared to enzymes from normal or classical MSUD cells. These findings demonstrate that the primary defect in the thiamin-responsive MSUD patient is a reduced affinity of the mutant BCKA dehydrogenase for TPP that results in impaired oxidative decarboxylation of BCKA. PMID:6954481

  2. Differential protein stability of EGFR mutants determines responsiveness to tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Paramita; Tan, Yee Sun; Somnay, Vishal; Mehta, Ranjit; Sitto, Merna; Ahsan, Aarif; Nyati, Shyam; Naughton, John P.; Bridges, Alexander; Zhao, Lili; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ray, Dipankar; Nyati, Mukesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients carrying specific EGFR kinase activating mutations (L858R, delE746-A750) respond well to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, drug resistance develops within a year. In about 50% of such patients, acquired drug resistance is attributed to the enrichment of a constitutively active point mutation within the EGFR kinase domain (T790M). To date, differential drug-binding and altered ATP affinities by EGFR mutants have been shown to be responsible for differential TKI response. As it has been reported that EGFR stability plays a role in the survival of EGFR driven cancers, we hypothesized that differential TKI-induced receptor degradation between the sensitive L858R and delE746-A750 and the resistant T790M may also play a role in drug responsiveness. To explore this, we have utilized an EGFR-null CHO overexpression system as well as NSCLC cell lines expressing various EGFR mutants and determined the effects of erlotinib treatment. We found that erlotinib inhibits EGFR phosphorylation in both TKI sensitive and resistant cells, but the protein half-lives of L858R and delE746-A750 were significantly shorter than L858R/T790M. Third generation EGFR kinase inhibitor (AZD9291) inhibits the growth of L858R/T790M-EGFR driven cells and also induces EGFR degradation. Erlotinib treatment induced polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, primarily in a c-CBL-independent manner, in TKI sensitive L858R and delE746-A750 mutants when compared to the L858R/T790M mutant, which correlated with drug sensitivity. These data suggest an additional mechanism of TKI resistance, and we postulate that agents that degrade L858R/T790M-EGFR protein may overcome TKI resistance. PMID:27612423

  3. A phenotype survey of 36 mutant mouse strains with gene-targeted defects in glycosyltransferases or glycan-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Sally L; Le, Dzung; Long, Jeffrey M; Sobieszczuk, Peter; Ma, Bo; Tian, Hua; Fang, Xiaoqun; Paulson, James C; Marth, Jamey D; Varki, Nissi

    2013-01-01

    The consortium for functional glycomics (CFG) was a large research initiative providing networking and resources for investigators studying the role of glycans and glycan-binding proteins in health and disease. Starting in 2001, six scientific cores were established to generate data, materials and new technologies. By the end of funding in 2011, the mouse phenotype core (MPC) submitted data to a website from the phenotype screen of 36 mutant mouse strains deficient in a gene for either a glycan-binding protein (GBP) or glycosyltransferase (GT). Each mutant strain was allotted three months for analysis and screened by standard phenotype assays used in the fields of immunology, histology, hematology, coagulation, serum chemistry, metabolism and behavior. Twenty of the deficient mouse strains had been studied in other laboratories, and additional tests were performed on these strains to confirm previous observations and discover new data. The CFG constructed 16 new homozygous mutant mouse strains and completed the initial phenotype screen of the majority of these new mutant strains. In total, >300 phenotype changes were observed, but considering the over 100 assays performed on each strain, most of the phenotypes were unchanged. Phenotype differences include abnormal testis morphology in GlcNAcT9- and Siglec-H-deficient mice and lethality in Pomgnt1-deficient mice. The numerous altered phenotypes discovered, along with the consideration of the significant findings of normality, will provide a platform for future characterization to understand the important roles of glycans and GBPs in the mechanisms of health and disease. PMID:23118208

  4. 49 CFR 210.7 - Responsibility for noise defective railroad equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Responsibility for noise defective railroad...) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD NOISE EMISSION COMPLIANCE REGULATIONS General Provisions § 210.7 Responsibility for noise defective railroad equipment. Any...

  5. 49 CFR 210.7 - Responsibility for noise defective railroad equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibility for noise defective railroad...) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD NOISE EMISSION COMPLIANCE REGULATIONS General Provisions § 210.7 Responsibility for noise defective railroad equipment. Any...

  6. Analysis of Candida albicans Mutants Defective in the Cdk8 Module of Mediator Reveal Links between Metabolism and Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Allia K.; Morales, Diana K.; Liu, Zhongle; Grahl, Nora; Zhang, Anda; Willger, Sven D.; Myers, Lawrence C.; Hogan, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans biofilm formation is a key virulence trait that involves hyphal growth and adhesin expression. Pyocyanin (PYO), a phenazine secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, inhibits both C. albicans biofilm formation and development of wrinkled colonies. Using a genetic screen, we identified two mutants, ssn3Δ/Δ and ssn8Δ/Δ, which continued to wrinkle in the presence of PYO. Ssn8 is a cyclin-like protein and Ssn3 is similar to cyclin-dependent kinases; both proteins are part of the heterotetrameric Cdk8 module that forms a complex with the transcriptional co-regulator, Mediator. Ssn3 kinase activity was also required for PYO sensitivity as a kinase dead mutant maintained a wrinkled colony morphology in the presence of PYO. Furthermore, similar phenotypes were observed in mutants lacking the other two components of the Cdk8 module—Srb8 and Srb9. Through metabolomics analyses and biochemical assays, we showed that a compromised Cdk8 module led to increases in glucose consumption, glycolysis-related transcripts, oxidative metabolism and ATP levels even in the presence of PYO. In the mutant, inhibition of respiration to levels comparable to the PYO-treated wild type inhibited wrinkled colony development. Several lines of evidence suggest that PYO does not act through Cdk8. Lastly, the ssn3 mutant was a hyperbiofilm former, and maintained higher biofilm formation in the presence of PYO than the wild type. Together these data provide novel insights into the role of the Cdk8 module of Mediator in regulation of C. albicans physiology and the links between respiratory activity and both wrinkled colony and biofilm development. PMID:25275466

  7. The Cell Wall Arabinose-Deficient Arabidopsis thaliana Mutant murus5 Encodes a Defective Allele of REVERSIBLY GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE21[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Dugard, Christopher K.; Olek, Anna T.; Cooper, Bruce R.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional marker-based mapping and next-generation sequencing was used to determine that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) low cell wall arabinose mutant murus5 (mur5) encodes a defective allele of REVERSIBLY GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE2 (RGP2). Marker analysis of 13 F2 confirmed mutant progeny from a recombinant mapping population gave a rough map position on the upper arm of chromosome 5, and deep sequencing of DNA from these 13 lines gave five candidate genes with G→A (C→T) transitions predicted to result in amino acid changes. Of these five, only insertional mutant alleles of RGP2, a gene that encodes a UDP-arabinose mutase that interconverts UDP-arabinopyranose and UDP-arabinofuranose, exhibited the low cell wall arabinose phenotype. The identities of mur5 and two SALK insertional alleles were confirmed by allelism tests and overexpression of wild-type RGP2 complementary DNA placed under the control of the 35S promoter in the three alleles. The mur5 mutation results in the conversion of cysteine-257 to tyrosine-257 within a conserved hydrophobic cluster predicted to be distal to the active site and essential for protein stability and possible heterodimerization with other isoforms of RGP. PMID:27217494

  8. Periodontal response after tooth movement into intrabony defects.

    PubMed

    Polson, A; Caton, J; Polson, A P; Nyman, S; Novak, J; Reed, B

    1984-04-01

    The present study was undertaken since conflicting evidence exists regarding the effect of such tooth movement on levels of connective tissue attachment. Localized intrabony pockets were produced around isolated incisors in four rhesus monkeys. The root surfaces were planned to the level of the bone at the base of the angular bony defects. An oral hygiene regime was begun and continued for the remainder of the study. The experimental teeth were moved orthodontically into, and through, the original area of the intrabony defect. Two months after cessation of active tooth movement, block specimens were removed for histologic analysis. Control specimens comprised those teeth with induced periodontal defects, but without tooth movement. In specimens not subjected to tooth movement, angular bony defects were present and epithelium lined the root surface to the apical extent of instrumentation. The alveolar bone adjacent to the orthodontically moved teeth no longer had angular defect morphology. On the pressure side, epithelium lined the root surface, was interposed between root surface and bone and terminated at the apical limit of root instrumentation. On the tension side, the crest of the bone was located apical to the level of root planing, and epithelium lined the instrumented portion of the root surface. It was concluded that orthodontic tooth movement into intrabony periodontal defects was without effect upon the levels of connective tissue attachment.

  9. Non-invasive, whole-plant imaging of chloroplast movement and chlorophyll fluorescence reveals photosynthetic phenotypes independent of chloroplast photorelocation defects in chloroplast division mutants.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Siddhartha; Cruz, Jeffrey A; Jiao, Yuhua; Chen, Jin; Kramer, David M; Osteryoung, Katherine W

    2015-10-01

    Leaf chloroplast movement is thought to optimize light capture and to minimize photodamage. To better understand the impact of chloroplast movement on photosynthesis, we developed a technique based on the imaging of reflectance from leaf surfaces that enables continuous, high-sensitivity, non-invasive measurements of chloroplast movement in multiple intact plants under white actinic light. We validated the method by measuring photorelocation responses in Arabidopsis chloroplast division mutants with drastically enlarged chloroplasts, and in phototropin mutants with impaired photorelocation but normal chloroplast morphology, under different light regimes. Additionally, we expanded our platform to permit simultaneous image-based measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and chloroplast movement. We show that chloroplast division mutants with enlarged, less-mobile chloroplasts exhibit greater photosystem II photodamage than is observed in the wild type, particularly under fluctuating high levels of light. Comparison between division mutants and the severe photorelocation mutant phot1-5 phot2-1 showed that these effects are not entirely attributable to diminished photorelocation responses, as previously hypothesized, implying that altered chloroplast morphology affects other photosynthetic processes. Our dual-imaging platform also allowed us to develop a straightforward approach to correct non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) calculations for interference from chloroplast movement. This correction method should be generally useful when fluorescence and reflectance are measured in the same experiments. The corrected data indicate that the energy-dependent (qE) and photoinhibitory (qI) components of NPQ contribute differentially to the NPQ phenotypes of the chloroplast division and photorelocation mutants. This imaging technology thus provides a platform for analyzing the contributions of chloroplast movement, chloroplast morphology and other phenotypic attributes to the

  10. Acidithiobacillus caldus Sulfur Oxidation Model Based on Transcriptome Analysis between the Wild Type and Sulfur Oxygenase Reductase Defective Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Linxu; Ren, Yilin; Lin, Jianqun; Liu, Xiangmei; Pang, Xin; Lin, Jianqiang

    2012-01-01

    Background Acidithiobacillus caldus (A. caldus) is widely used in bio-leaching. It gains energy and electrons from oxidation of elemental sulfur and reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (RISCs) for carbon dioxide fixation and growth. Genomic analyses suggest that its sulfur oxidation system involves a truncated sulfur oxidation (Sox) system (omitting SoxCD), non-Sox sulfur oxidation system similar to the sulfur oxidation in A. ferrooxidans, and sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR). The complexity of the sulfur oxidation system of A. caldus generates a big obstacle on the research of its sulfur oxidation mechanism. However, the development of genetic manipulation method for A. caldus in recent years provides powerful tools for constructing genetic mutants to study the sulfur oxidation system. Results An A. caldus mutant lacking the sulfur oxygenase reductase gene (sor) was created and its growth abilities were measured in media using elemental sulfur (S0) and tetrathionate (K2S4O6) as the substrates, respectively. Then, comparative transcriptome analysis (microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR) of the wild type and the Δsor mutant in S0 and K2S4O6 media were employed to detect the differentially expressed genes involved in sulfur oxidation. SOR was concluded to oxidize the cytoplasmic elemental sulfur, but could not couple the sulfur oxidation with the electron transfer chain or substrate-level phosphorylation. Other elemental sulfur oxidation pathways including sulfur diooxygenase (SDO) and heterodisulfide reductase (HDR), the truncated Sox pathway, and the S4I pathway for hydrolysis of tetrathionate and oxidation of thiosulfate in A. caldus are proposed according to expression patterns of sulfur oxidation genes and growth abilities of the wild type and the mutant in different substrates media. Conclusion An integrated sulfur oxidation model with various sulfur oxidation pathways of A. caldus is proposed and the features of this model are summarized. PMID:22984393

  11. Characterization of the defects in bacteriophage T7 DNA synthesis during growth in the Escherichia coli mutant tsnB.

    PubMed Central

    DeWyngaert, M A; Hinkle, D C

    1980-01-01

    The Escherichia coli mutant tsnB (M. Chamberlin, J. Virol. 14:509-516, 1974) is unable to support the growth of bacteriophage T7, although all classes of phage proteins are produced and the host is killed by the infection. During growth in this mutant host, the rate of phage DNA synthesis is reduced and the DNA is not packaged into stable, phagelike particles. The replicating DNA forms concatemers but the very large replicative intermediates (approximately 440S) identified by Paetkau et al. (J. Virol. 22:130-141, 1977) are not detected in T7+-infected tsnB cells. These large structures are formed in tsnB cells infected with a T7 gene 3 (endonuclease) mutant, where normal processing of the large intermediates into shorter concatemers is blocked. At later times during infection of tsnB cells, the replicating DNA accumulates in molecules about 30% shorter than unit length. Analysis of this DNA with a restriction endonuclease indicates that it is missing sequences from the ends (particularly the left end) of the genome. The loss of these specific sequences does not occur during infections with T7 gene 10 (head protein) or gene 19 (maturation protein) mutants. This suggests that the processing of concatemers into unit-length DNA molecules may occur normally in T7 -infected tsnB cells and that the shortened DNA arises from exonucleolytic degradation of the mature DNA molecules. These results are discussed in relation to our recent observation (M. A. DeWyngaert and D. C. Hinkle, J. Biol. Chem. 254:11247-11253, 1979) that E. coli tsnB produces an altered RNA polymerase which is resistance to inhibition by the T7 gene 2 protein. Images PMID:6997508

  12. Characterization of the defects in bacteriophage T7 DNA synthesis during growth in the Escherichia coli mutant tsnB.

    PubMed

    DeWyngaert, M A; Hinkle, D C

    1980-02-01

    The Escherichia coli mutant tsnB (M. Chamberlin, J. Virol. 14:509-516, 1974) is unable to support the growth of bacteriophage T7, although all classes of phage proteins are produced and the host is killed by the infection. During growth in this mutant host, the rate of phage DNA synthesis is reduced and the DNA is not packaged into stable, phagelike particles. The replicating DNA forms concatemers but the very large replicative intermediates (approximately 440S) identified by Paetkau et al. (J. Virol. 22:130-141, 1977) are not detected in T7+-infected tsnB cells. These large structures are formed in tsnB cells infected with a T7 gene 3 (endonuclease) mutant, where normal processing of the large intermediates into shorter concatemers is blocked. At later times during infection of tsnB cells, the replicating DNA accumulates in molecules about 30% shorter than unit length. Analysis of this DNA with a restriction endonuclease indicates that it is missing sequences from the ends (particularly the left end) of the genome. The loss of these specific sequences does not occur during infections with T7 gene 10 (head protein) or gene 19 (maturation protein) mutants. This suggests that the processing of concatemers into unit-length DNA molecules may occur normally in T7 -infected tsnB cells and that the shortened DNA arises from exonucleolytic degradation of the mature DNA molecules. These results are discussed in relation to our recent observation (M. A. DeWyngaert and D. C. Hinkle, J. Biol. Chem. 254:11247-11253, 1979) that E. coli tsnB produces an altered RNA polymerase which is resistance to inhibition by the T7 gene 2 protein.

  13. Identification of genes associated with copper tolerance in an adhesion-defective mutant of Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria.

    PubMed

    Francki, K T; Chang, B J; Mee, B J; Collignon, P J; Susai, V; Keese, P K

    2000-10-01

    TnphoA mutagenesis was used to identify adhesins of Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria 3767, a strain isolated from a diarrhoeal stool specimen. Six mutants, from a library of 154, exhibited significantly reduced levels of adhesion to HEp-2 cells. Primers to the terminal regions of TnphoA were used for inverse PCR and the product from one mutant was cloned into pBluescript and partial sequence data obtained. Scanning GenBank and EMBL data bases revealed DNA sequence similarity to the copA gene of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato which confers resistance to copper and other heavy metals. The transposon was located within the copA gene and the mutant exhibited a reduced tolerance to copper. Primer walking, using the inverse PCR product as a template, revealed three open reading frames (ORFs) copA, B and C in A. veronii biovar sobria 3767. The predicted amino acid sequences of ORFs A and B had significant homology (55 and 34% respectively) to the copA and B proteins of P. syringae. No amino acid or DNA sequence homology existed between ORF C of strain 3767 and any other gene in the data bases scanned. Further analysis of the nucleotide sequence failed to reveal the presence of typical copper regulatory genes within the vicinity of the Aeromonas sequence. The association between copper tolerance and adhesion in A. veronii biovar sobria requires further study.

  14. Cystic fibrosis-adapted Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing lasR mutants cause hyperinflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    LaFayette, Shantelle L; Houle, Daniel; Beaudoin, Trevor; Wojewodka, Gabriella; Radzioch, Danuta; Hoffman, Lucas R; Burns, Jane L; Dandekar, Ajai A; Smalley, Nicole E; Chandler, Josephine R; Zlosnik, James E; Speert, David P; Bernier, Joanie; Matouk, Elias; Brochiero, Emmanuelle; Rousseau, Simon; Nguyen, Dao

    2015-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis lung disease is characterized by chronic airway infections with the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and severe neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation. P. aeruginosa undergoes extensive genetic adaptation to the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung environment, and adaptive mutations in the quorum sensing regulator gene lasR commonly arise. We sought to define how mutations in lasR alter host-pathogen relationships. We demonstrate that lasR mutants induce exaggerated host inflammatory responses in respiratory epithelial cells, with increased accumulation of proinflammatory cytokines and neutrophil recruitment due to the loss of bacterial protease- dependent cytokine degradation. In subacute pulmonary infections, lasR mutant-infected mice show greater neutrophilic inflammation and immunopathology compared with wild-type infections. Finally, we observed that CF patients infected with lasR mutants have increased plasma interleukin-8 (IL-8), a marker of inflammation. These findings suggest that bacterial adaptive changes may worsen pulmonary inflammation and directly contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of chronic lung disease in CF patients.

  15. Genetic analysis of rice mutants responsible for narrow leaf phenotype and reduced vein number.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Fumika Clara; Yasui, Yukiko; Kumamaru, Toshihiro; Sato, Yutaka; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki

    2017-03-17

    Leaves are a major site for photosynthesis and a key determinant of plant architecture. Rice produces thin and slender leaves, which consist of the leaf blade and leaf sheath separated by the lamina joint. Two types of vasculature, the large and small vascular bundles, run in parallel, together with a strong structure, the midrib. In this paper, we examined the function of four genes that regulate the width of the leaf blade and the vein number: NARROW LEAF1 (NAL1), NAL2, NAL3 and NAL7. We backcrossed original mutants of these genes with the standard wild-type rice, Taichung 65. We then compared the effect of each mutation on similar genetic backgrounds and examined genetic interactions of these genes. The nal1 single mutation and the nal2 nal3 double mutation showed a severe effect on leaf width, resulting in very narrow leaves. Although vein number was also reduced in the nal1 and nal2 nal3 mutants, the small vein number was more strongly reduced than the large vein number. In contrast, the nal7 mutation showed a milder effect on leaf width and vein number, and both the large and small veins were similarly affected. Thus, the genes responsible for narrow leaf phenotype seem to play distinct roles. The nal7 mutation showed additive effects on both leaf width and vein number, when combined with the nal1 single or the nal2 nal3 double mutation. In addition, observations of inner tissues revealed that cell differentiation was partially compromised in the nal2 nal3 nal7 mutant, consistent with the severe reduction in leaf width in this triple mutant.

  16. Viral Escape Mutant Epitope Maintains TCR Affinity for Antigen yet Curtails CD8 T Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Shorter, Shayla K; Schnell, Frederick J; McMaster, Sean R; Pinelli, David F; Andargachew, Rakieb; Evavold, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    T cells have the remarkable ability to recognize antigen with great specificity and in turn mount an appropriate and robust immune response. Critical to this process is the initial T cell antigen recognition and subsequent signal transduction events. This antigen recognition can be modulated at the site of TCR interaction with peptide:major histocompatibility (pMHC) or peptide interaction with the MHC molecule. Both events could have a range of effects on T cell fate. Though responses to antigens that bind sub-optimally to TCR, known as altered peptide ligands (APL), have been studied extensively, the impact of disrupting antigen binding to MHC has been highlighted to a lesser extent and is usually considered to result in complete loss of epitope recognition. Here we present a model of viral evasion from CD8 T cell immuno-surveillance by a lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) escape mutant with an epitope for which TCR affinity for pMHC remains high but where the antigenic peptide binds sub optimally to MHC. Despite high TCR affinity for variant epitope, levels of interferon regulatory factor-4 (IRF4) are not sustained in response to the variant indicating differences in perceived TCR signal strength. The CD8+ T cell response to the variant epitope is characterized by early proliferation and up-regulation of activation markers. Interestingly, this response is not maintained and is characterized by a lack in IL-2 and IFNγ production, increased apoptosis and an abrogated glycolytic response. We show that disrupting the stability of peptide in MHC can effectively disrupt TCR signal strength despite unchanged affinity for TCR and can significantly impact the CD8+ T cell response to a viral escape mutant.

  17. Viral Escape Mutant Epitope Maintains TCR Affinity for Antigen yet Curtails CD8 T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, Shayla K.; Schnell, Frederick J.; McMaster, Sean R.; Pinelli, David F.; Andargachew, Rakieb; Evavold, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    T cells have the remarkable ability to recognize antigen with great specificity and in turn mount an appropriate and robust immune response. Critical to this process is the initial T cell antigen recognition and subsequent signal transduction events. This antigen recognition can be modulated at the site of TCR interaction with peptide:major histocompatibility (pMHC) or peptide interaction with the MHC molecule. Both events could have a range of effects on T cell fate. Though responses to antigens that bind sub-optimally to TCR, known as altered peptide ligands (APL), have been studied extensively, the impact of disrupting antigen binding to MHC has been highlighted to a lesser extent and is usually considered to result in complete loss of epitope recognition. Here we present a model of viral evasion from CD8 T cell immuno-surveillance by a lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) escape mutant with an epitope for which TCR affinity for pMHC remains high but where the antigenic peptide binds sub optimally to MHC. Despite high TCR affinity for variant epitope, levels of interferon regulatory factor-4 (IRF4) are not sustained in response to the variant indicating differences in perceived TCR signal strength. The CD8+ T cell response to the variant epitope is characterized by early proliferation and up-regulation of activation markers. Interestingly, this response is not maintained and is characterized by a lack in IL-2 and IFNγ production, increased apoptosis and an abrogated glycolytic response. We show that disrupting the stability of peptide in MHC can effectively disrupt TCR signal strength despite unchanged affinity for TCR and can significantly impact the CD8+ T cell response to a viral escape mutant. PMID:26915099

  18. Abscisic acid-deficient sit tomato mutant responses to cadmium-induced stress.

    PubMed

    Pompeu, Georgia B; Vilhena, Milca B; Gratão, Priscila L; Carvalho, Rogério F; Rossi, Mônica L; Martinelli, Adriana P; Azevedo, Ricardo A

    2017-03-01

    There is a very effective cross-talk between signals triggered by reactive oxygen species and hormonal responses in plants, activating proteins/enzymes likely to be involved in stress tolerance. Abscisic acid (ABA) is known as a stress hormone that takes part in the integration of signals. This work aimed to characterize the biochemical response and ultrastructural changes induced by cadmium (Cd) in the Micro-Tom (MT) sitiens ABA-deficient mutant (sit) and its wild-type (MT) counterpart. MT and sit plants were grown over a 96-h period in the presence of Cd (0, 10, and 100 μM CdCl2). The overall results indicated increases in lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide content and in the activities of the key antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase in both genotypes. On the other hand, no alteration was observed in chlorophyll content, while the activity of another antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase, remained constant or even decreased in the presence of Cd. Roots and shoots of the sit mutant and MT were analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy in order to characterize the structural changes caused by the exposure to this metal. Cd caused a decrease in intercellular spaces in shoots and a decrease in cell size in roots of both genotypes. In leaves, Cd affected organelle shape and internal organization of the thylakoid membranes, whereas noticeable increase in the number of mitochondria and vacuoles in MT and sit roots were observed. These results add new information that should help unravel the relative importance of ABA in regulating the cell responses to stressful conditions induced by Cd apart from providing the first characterization of this mutant to oxidative stress.

  19. Secretion defects that activate the phage shock response of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jones, Susan E; Lloyd, Louise J; Tan, Kum K; Buck, Martin

    2003-11-01

    The phage shock protein (psp) operon of Escherichia coli is induced by membrane-damaging cues. Earlier studies linked defects in secretion across the inner membrane to induction of the psp response. Here we show that defects in yidC and sec secretion induce psp but that defects in tat and srp have no effect. We have also determined the cellular location of PspB and PspD proteins.

  20. Secretion Defects That Activate the Phage Shock Response of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Susan E.; Lloyd, Louise J.; Tan, Kum K.; Buck, Martin

    2003-01-01

    The phage shock protein (psp) operon of Escherichia coli is induced by membrane-damaging cues. Earlier studies linked defects in secretion across the inner membrane to induction of the psp response. Here we show that defects in yidC and sec secretion induce psp but that defects in tat and srp have no effect. We have also determined the cellular location of PspB and PspD proteins. PMID:14594846

  1. Association of Constitutive Hyperphosphorylation of Hsf1p with a Defective Ethanol Stress Response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sake Yeast Strains

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Chiemi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zhou, Yan; Akao, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Modern sake yeast strains, which produce high concentrations of ethanol, are unexpectedly sensitive to environmental stress during sake brewing. To reveal the underlying mechanism, we investigated a well-characterized yeast stress response mediated by a heat shock element (HSE) and heat shock transcription factor Hsf1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae sake yeast. The HSE-lacZ activity of sake yeast during sake fermentation and under acute ethanol stress was severely impaired compared to that of laboratory yeast. Moreover, the Hsf1p of modern sake yeast was highly and constitutively hyperphosphorylated, irrespective of the extracellular stress. Since HSF1 allele replacement did not significantly affect the HSE-mediated ethanol stress response or Hsf1p phosphorylation patterns in either sake or laboratory yeast, the regulatory machinery of Hsf1p is presumed to function differently between these types of yeast. To identify phosphatases whose loss affected the control of Hsf1p, we screened a series of phosphatase gene deletion mutants in a laboratory strain background. Among the 29 mutants, a Δppt1 mutant exhibited constitutive hyperphosphorylation of Hsf1p, similarly to the modern sake yeast strains, which lack the entire PPT1 gene locus. We confirmed that the expression of laboratory yeast-derived functional PPT1 recovered the HSE-mediated stress response of sake yeast. In addition, deletion of PPT1 in laboratory yeast resulted in enhanced fermentation ability. Taken together, these data demonstrate that hyperphosphorylation of Hsf1p caused by loss of the PPT1 gene at least partly accounts for the defective stress response and high ethanol productivity of modern sake yeast strains. PMID:22057870

  2. Association of constitutive hyperphosphorylation of Hsf1p with a defective ethanol stress response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae sake yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Chiemi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zhou, Yan; Akao, Takeshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Modern sake yeast strains, which produce high concentrations of ethanol, are unexpectedly sensitive to environmental stress during sake brewing. To reveal the underlying mechanism, we investigated a well-characterized yeast stress response mediated by a heat shock element (HSE) and heat shock transcription factor Hsf1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae sake yeast. The HSE-lacZ activity of sake yeast during sake fermentation and under acute ethanol stress was severely impaired compared to that of laboratory yeast. Moreover, the Hsf1p of modern sake yeast was highly and constitutively hyperphosphorylated, irrespective of the extracellular stress. Since HSF1 allele replacement did not significantly affect the HSE-mediated ethanol stress response or Hsf1p phosphorylation patterns in either sake or laboratory yeast, the regulatory machinery of Hsf1p is presumed to function differently between these types of yeast. To identify phosphatases whose loss affected the control of Hsf1p, we screened a series of phosphatase gene deletion mutants in a laboratory strain background. Among the 29 mutants, a Δppt1 mutant exhibited constitutive hyperphosphorylation of Hsf1p, similarly to the modern sake yeast strains, which lack the entire PPT1 gene locus. We confirmed that the expression of laboratory yeast-derived functional PPT1 recovered the HSE-mediated stress response of sake yeast. In addition, deletion of PPT1 in laboratory yeast resulted in enhanced fermentation ability. Taken together, these data demonstrate that hyperphosphorylation of Hsf1p caused by loss of the PPT1 gene at least partly accounts for the defective stress response and high ethanol productivity of modern sake yeast strains.

  3. Mutagenesis of the potato ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase and characterization of an allosteric mutant defective in 3-phosphoglycerate activation

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, T.W.; Chantler, S.E.; Kahn, M.L.

    1996-02-20

    ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase (glucose-1-phosphate adenylytransferase; AD P:{alpha}-D-glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, EC 2.7.7.27) catalyzes a key regulatory step in {alpha}-glucan synthesis in bacteria and higher plants. We have previously shown that the expression of the cDNA sequences of the potato tuber large (LS) and small (SS) subunits yielded a functional heterotetrameric enzyme capable of complementing a mutation in the single AGP (glgC) structural gene of Escherichia coli. This heterologous complementation provides a powerful genetic approach to obtain biochemical information on the specific roles of LS and SS in enzyme function. By mutagenizing the LS cDNA with hydroxylamine and then coexpressing with wild-type SS in an E. coli glgC{sup {minus}} strain, >350 mutant colonies were identified that were impaired in glycogen production. One mutant exhibited enzymatic and antigen levels comparable to the wild-type recombinant enzyme but required 45-fold greater levels of the activator 3-phosphoglycerate for maximum activity. Sequence analysis identified a single nucleotide change that resulted in the change of Pro-52 to Leu. This heterologous genetic system provides and efficient means to identify residues important for catalysis and allosteric functioning and should lead to novel approaches to increase plant productivity. 31 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. The defective seed5 (des5) mutant: effects on barley seed development and HvDek1, HvCr4, and HvSal1 gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Lene T; Divon, Hege H; Al, Ronald; Fosnes, Kjetil; Lid, Stein Erik; Opsahl-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn

    2008-01-01

    Barley, one of the major small grain crops, is especially important in climatically demanding agricultural areas of the world, with multiple uses within food, feed, and beverage. The barley endosperm is further of special scientific interest due to its three aleurone cell layers, with the potential of bringing forward the molecular understanding of seed development and cell specification from Arabidopsis and maize. Work done in Arabidopsis and maize indicate the presence of conserved seed developmental pathways where Crinkly4 (Cr4), Defective kernel1 (Dek1), and Supernumerary aleurone layer1 (Sal1) are key players. With the use of microscopy, a comprehensive phenotypic characterization of the barley defective seed5 (des5) mutant is presented here. The analysis further extends to molecular quantification of gene expression changes in the des5 mutant by qRT-PCR. Moreover, full-length genomic sequences of the barley orthologues were generated and these were annotated as HvDek1, HvCr4, and HvSal1. The most striking results in this study are the patchy reduction in number of aleurone cells, rudimentary anticlinal aleurone cell walls, and the specific change of HvCr4 expression compared to HvDek1 and HvSal1. The data presented support the involvement of Hvdes5 in establishing aleurone cells. Finally, how these results might affect the current model of aleurone and epidermal cell identity and development is discussed with a speculation regarding a possible role of Des5 in regulating cell division/ secondary cell wall building.

  5. Mutations in Replicative Stress Response Pathways Are Associated with S Phase-specific Defects in Nucleotide Excision Repair*

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, François; Angers, Jean-Philippe; Fortier, Émile; Hammond-Martel, Ian; Costantino, Santiago; Drobetsky, Elliot; Wurtele, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a highly conserved pathway that removes helix-distorting DNA lesions induced by a plethora of mutagens, including UV light. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that human cells deficient in either ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase or translesion DNA polymerase η (i.e. key proteins that promote the completion of DNA replication in response to UV-induced replicative stress) are characterized by profound inhibition of NER exclusively during S phase. Toward elucidating the mechanistic basis of this phenomenon, we developed a novel assay to quantify NER kinetics as a function of cell cycle in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using this assay, we demonstrate that in yeast, deficiency of the ATR homologue Mec1 or of any among several other proteins involved in the cellular response to replicative stress significantly abrogates NER uniquely during S phase. Moreover, initiation of DNA replication is required for manifestation of this defect, and S phase NER proficiency is correlated with the capacity of individual mutants to respond to replicative stress. Importantly, we demonstrate that partial depletion of Rfa1 recapitulates defective S phase-specific NER in wild type yeast; moreover, ectopic RPA1–3 overexpression rescues such deficiency in either ATR- or polymerase η-deficient human cells. Our results strongly suggest that reduction of NER capacity during periods of enhanced replicative stress, ostensibly caused by inordinate sequestration of RPA at stalled DNA replication forks, represents a conserved feature of the multifaceted eukaryotic DNA damage response. PMID:26578521

  6. In vivo and in vitro analysis of ptl1, a yeast ts mutant with a membrane-associated defect in protein translocation.

    PubMed Central

    Toyn, J; Hibbs, A R; Sanz, P; Crowe, J; Meyer, D I

    1988-01-01

    Mutants defective in the ability to translocate proteins across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum were selected in Trp- Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the basis of their ability to retain a fusion protein in the cytosol. The fusion comprised the prepro region of prepro-alpha-factor (MF alpha 1) N-terminal to phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase (TRP1). The first of the protein translocation mutations, called ptl1, results in temperature-sensitivity of growth and protein translocation. At the non-permissive temperature, precursors to several secretory proteins accumulate in the cytosol. Using this mutant, we demonstrate that the prepro-carboxypeptidase Y that had been accumulated in the cytosol at the non-permissive temperature could be post-translationally translocated into the endoplasmic reticulum when cells were returned to the permissive temperature. This result indicates that post-translational translocation of preproteins across endoplasmic reticulum membranes can occur in vivo. We have also determined that the temperature-sensitive component is membrane-associated in ptl1, and that the membranes derived from this strain show a reversible temperature-sensitive translocation phenotype in vitro. Images PMID:3072198

  7. The altered gravitropic response of the lazy-2 mutant of tomato is phytochrome regulated.

    PubMed

    Gaiser, J C; Lomax, T L

    1993-06-01

    Shoots of the lazy-2 (lz-2) gravitropic mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) have a normal gravitropic response when grown in the dark, but grow downward in response to gravity when grown in the light. Experiments were undertaken to investigate the nature of the light induction of the downward growth of lz-2 shoots. Red light was effective at causing downward growth of hypocotyls of lz-2 seedlings, whereas treatment with blue light did not alter the dark-grown (wild-type) gravity response. Downward growth of lz-2 seedlings is greatest 16 h after a 1-h red light irradiation, after which the seedlings begin to revert to the dark-grown phenotype. lz-2 seedlings irradiated with a far-red light pulse immediately after a red light pulse exhibited no downward growth. However, continuous red or far-red light both resulted in downward growth of lz-2 seedlings. Thus, the light induction of downward growth of lz-2 appears to involve the photoreceptor phytochrome. Fluence-response experiments indicate that the induction of downward growth of lz-2 by red light is a low-fluence phytochrome response, with a possible high-irradiance response component.

  8. Alanine racemase mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis require D-alanine for growth and are defective for survival in macrophages and mice.

    PubMed

    Awasthy, Disha; Bharath, Sowmya; Subbulakshmi, Venkita; Sharma, Umender

    2012-02-01

    Alanine racemase (Alr) is an essential enzyme in most bacteria; however, some species (e.g. Listeria monocytogenes) can utilize d-amino acid transaminase (Dat) to generate d-alanine, which renders Alr non-essential. In addition to the conflicting reports on gene knockout of alr in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a recent study concluded that depletion of Alr does not affect the growth of M. smegmatis. In order to get an unambiguous answer on the essentiality of Alr in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and validate it as a drug target in vitro and in vivo, we have inactivated the alr gene of M. tuberculosis and found that it was not possible to generate an alr knockout in the absence of a complementing gene copy or d-alanine in the growth medium. The growth kinetics of the alr mutant revealed that M. tuberculosis requires very low amounts of d-alanine (5-10 µg ml(-1)) for optimum growth. Survival kinetics of the mutant in the absence of d-alanine indicated that depletion of this amino acid results in rapid loss of viability. The alr mutant was found to be defective for growth in macrophages. Analysis of phenotype in mice suggested that non-availability of d-alanine in mice leads to clearance of bacteria followed by stabilization of bacterial number in lungs and spleen. Additionally, reversal of d-cycloserine inhibition in the presence of d-alanine in M. tuberculosis suggested that Alr is the primary target of d-cycloserine. Thus, Alr of M. tuberculosis is a valid drug target and inhibition of Alr alone should result in loss of viability in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Characterizing and Targeting Replication Stress Response Defects in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Li, an outstanding leader in nanotechnology , we aimed to develop nanoparticles that can carry in vivo imaging agents to target breast cancer cells...and develop RSR-defect-targeting nanoparticles for diagnostic imaging, prevention, and treatment of breast cancer . As demonstrated in our first...antibody to hollow gold nanoparticles (HAuNP). REPORTABLE OUTCOMES Part of the our study has led to a publication in Cancer Research (7 and

  10. An altered hydrotropic response (ahr1) mutant of Arabidopsis recovers root hydrotropism with cytokinin

    PubMed Central

    Saucedo, Manuel; Ponce, Georgina; Campos, María Eugenia; Eapen, Delfeena; García, Edith; Luján, Rosario; Sánchez, Yoloxóchitl; Cassab, Gladys I.

    2012-01-01

    Roots are highly plastic and can acclimate to heterogeneous and stressful conditions. However, there is little knowledge of the effect of moisture gradients on the mechanisms controlling root growth orientation and branching, and how this mechanism may help plants to avoid drought responses. The aim of this study was to isolate mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with altered hydrotropic responses. Here, altered hydrotropic response 1 (ahr1), a semi-dominant allele segregating as a single gene mutation, was characterized. ahr1 directed the growth of its primary root towards the source of higher water availability and developed an extensive root system over time. This phenotype was intensified in the presence of abscisic acid and was not observed if ahr1 seedlings were grown in a water stress medium without a water potential gradient. In normal growth conditions, primary root growth and root branching of ahr1 were indistinguishable from those of the wild type (wt). The altered hydrotropic growth of ahr1 roots was confirmed when the water-rich source was placed at an angle of 45° from the gravity vector. In this system, roots of ahr1 seedlings grew downward and did not display hydrotropism; however, in the presence of cytokinins, they exhibited hydrotropism like those of the wt, indicating that cytokinins play a critical role in root hydrotropism. The ahr1 mutant represents a valuable genetic resource for the study of the effects of cytokinins in the differential growth of hydrotropism and control of lateral root formation during the hydrotropic response. PMID:22442413

  11. The Arabidopsis sickle Mutant Exhibits Altered Circadian Clock Responses to Cool Temperatures and Temperature-Dependent Alternative Splicing.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Carine M; Tartaglio, Virginia; Duarte, Maritza; Harmon, Frank G

    2016-10-01

    The circadian clock allows plants to anticipate and respond to daily changes in ambient temperature. Mechanisms establishing the timing of circadian rhythms in Arabidopsis thaliana through temperature entrainment remain unclear. Also incompletely understood is the temperature compensation mechanism that maintains consistent period length within a range of ambient temperatures. A genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants affecting temperature regulation of the PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR7 promoter yielded a novel allele of the SICKLE (SIC) gene. This mutant, sic-3, and the existing sic-1 mutant both exhibit low-amplitude or arrhythmic expression of core circadian clock genes under cool ambient temperature cycles, but not under light-dark entrainment. sic mutants also lengthen free running period in a manner consistent with impaired temperature compensation. sic mutant alleles accumulate LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) splice variants, among other alternatively spliced transcripts, which is exacerbated by cool temperatures. The cca1-1 lhy-20 double mutant is epistatic to sic-3, indicating the LHY and CCA1 splice variants are needed for sic-3 circadian clock phenotypes. It is not expected that SIC is directly involved in the circadian clock mechanism; instead, SIC likely contributes to pre-mRNA metabolism, and the splice variants that accumulate in sic mutants likely affect the circadian clock response to cool ambient temperature.

  12. Functional interaction of hybrid response elements with wild-type and mutant steroid hormone receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Truss, M; Chalepakis, G; Slater, E P; Mader, S; Beato, M

    1991-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors can be divided into two subfamilies according to the structure of their DNA binding domains and the nucleotide sequences which they recognize. The glucocorticoid receptor and the progesterone receptor (PR) recognize an imperfect palindrome (glucocorticoid responsive element/progesterone responsive element [GRE/PRE]) with the conserved half-sequence TGTYCY, whereas the estrogen receptor (ER) recognizes a palindrome (estrogen responsive element) with the half-sequence TGACC. A series of symmetric and asymmetric variants of these hormone responsive elements (HREs) have been tested for receptor binding and for the ability to mediate induction in vivo. High-resolution analysis demonstrates that the overall number and distribution of contacts with the N-7 position of guanines and with the phosphate backbone of various HREs are quite similar for PR and ER. However, PR and glucocorticoid receptor, but not ER, are able to contact the 5'-methyl group of thymines found in position 3 of HREs, as shown by potassium permanganate interference. The ER mutant HE84, which contains a single amino acid exchange, Glu-203 to Gly, in the knuckle of ER, creates a promiscuous ER that is able to bind to GRE/PREs by contacting this thymine. Elements with the sequence GGTCAcagTGTYCT that represent hybrids between an estrogen response element and a GRE/PRE respond to estrogens, glucocorticoids, and progestins in vivo and bind all three wild-type receptors in vitro. These hybrid HREs could serve to confer promiscuous gene regulation. Images PMID:2038329

  13. Physical and transcriptional map of a 3-Mb region of mouse chromosome 1 containing the gene for the neural tube defect mutant loop-tail (Lp).

    PubMed

    Eddleston, J; Murdoch, J N; Copp, A J; Stanier, P

    1999-03-01

    The Lp mouse mutant provides a model for the severe human neural tube defect (NTD), cranio-rachischisis. To identify the Lp gene, a positional cloning approach has been adopted. Previously, linkage analysis in a large intraspecific backcross was used to map the Lp locus to distal mouse chromosome 1. Here we report a detailed physical map of this region. The interval surrounding Lp has been cloned in a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig consisting of 63 clones spanning approximately 3.2 Mb. Fifty sequence tagged sites (STSs) have been used to construct the contig and establish marker order across the interval. Based on the high level of conserved synteny between distal mouse chromosome 1 and human 1q21-q24, many of these STSs were designed from expressed sequences identified by cross-screening human and mouse databases of expressed sequence tags. Added to other known genes in the region, a total of 29 genes were located and ordered within the contig. Seven novel polymorphisms were identified within the region, allowing refinement of the genetic map and a reduction in the size of the physical interval containing the Lp gene. The Lp interval, between D1Mit113 and Tagln2, can be spanned by two nonchimeric overlapping YACs that define a physical distance of approximately 1 Mb. Within this region, 10 potential candidate genes have been mapped. The materials and genes described here will provide a resource for the identification and further study of the mutated Lp gene that causes this severe neural tube defect and will provide candidates for other defects known to map to the homologous region on human chromosome 1q.

  14. Different mating-type-regulated genes affect the DNA repair defects of Saccharomyces RAD51, RAD52 and RAD55 mutants.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Burton, Maria; Oki, Masaya; Johnson, Jean; Seier, Tracey A; Kamakaka, Rohinton; Haber, James E

    2006-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells expressing both a- and alpha-mating-type (MAT) genes (termed mating-type heterozygosity) exhibit higher rates of spontaneous recombination and greater radiation resistance than cells expressing only MATa or MATalpha. MAT heterozygosity suppresses recombination defects of four mutations involved in homologous recombination: complete deletions of RAD55 or RAD57, an ATPase-defective Rad51 mutation (rad51-K191R), and a C-terminal truncation of Rad52, rad52-Delta327. We investigated the genetic basis of MAT-dependent suppression of these mutants by deleting genes whose expression is controlled by the Mata1-Matalpha2 repressor and scoring resistance to both campothecin (CPT) and phleomycin. Haploid rad55Delta strains became more damage resistant after deleting genes required for nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), a process that is repressed in MATa/MATalpha cells. Surprisingly, NHEJ mutations do not suppress CPT sensitivity of rad51-K191R or rad52-Delta327. However, rad51-K191R is uniquely suppressed by deleting the RME1 gene encoding a repressor of meiosis or its coregulator SIN4; this effect is independent of the meiosis-specific homolog, Dmc1. Sensitivity of rad52-Delta327 to CPT was unexpectedly increased by the MATa/MATalpha-repressed gene YGL193C, emphasizing the complex ways in which MAT regulates homologous recombination. The rad52-Delta327 mutation is suppressed by deleting the prolyl isomerase Fpr3, which is not MAT regulated. rad55Delta is also suppressed by deletion of PST2 and/or YBR052C (RFS1, rad55 suppressor), two members of a three-gene family of flavodoxin-fold proteins that associate in a nonrandom fashion with chromatin. All three recombination-defective mutations are made more sensitive by deletions of Rad6 and of the histone deacetylases Rpd3 and Ume6, although these mutations are not themselves CPT or phleomycin sensitive.

  15. Salmonella DNA Adenine Methylase Mutants Elicit Protective Immune Responses to Homologous and Heterologous Serovars in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Dueger, E. L.; House, J. K.; Heithoff, D. M.; Mahan, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    Salmonella DNA adenine methylase (Dam) mutants that lack or overproduce Dam are highly attenuated for virulence in mice and confer protection against murine typhoid fever. To determine whether vaccines based on Dam are efficacious in poultry, a Salmonella Dam− vaccine was evaluated in the protection of chicken broilers against oral challenge with homologous and heterologous Salmonella serovars. A Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Dam− vaccine strain was attenuated for virulence in day-of-hatch chicks more than 100,000-fold. Vaccination of chicks elicited cross-protective immune responses, as evidenced by reduced colonization (10- to 10,000-fold) of the gastrointestinal tract (ileum, cecum, and feces) and visceral organs (bursa and spleen) after challenge with homologous (Typhimurium F98) and heterologous (Enteritidis 4973 and S. enterica O6,14,24: e,h-monophasic) Salmonella serovars that are implicated in Salmonella infection of poultry. The protection conferred was observed for the organ or the maximum CFU/tissue/bird as a unit of analysis, suggesting that Dam mutant strains may serve as the basis for the development of efficacious poultry vaccines for the containment of Salmonella. PMID:11705984

  16. Suppressors of spindle checkpoint defect (such) mutants identify new mdf-1/MAD1 interactors in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Tarailo, Maja; Kitagawa, Risa; Rose, Ann M

    2007-04-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) governs the timing of metaphase-to-anaphase transition and is essential for genome stability. The Caenorhabditis elegans mutant strain gk2 carries a deletion within the mdf-1/MAD1 gene that results in death of the homozygous strain after two or three generations. Here we describe 11 suppressors of the mdf-1(gk2) lethality, 10 identified in an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis screen and 1 isolated using the dog-1(gk10) (deletions of guanine-rich DNA) mutator strain. Using time-lapse imaging of early embryonic cells and germline mitotic division, we demonstrate that there are two classes of suppressors. Eight suppressors compensate for the loss of the checkpoint by delaying mitotic progression, which coincides with securin (IFY-1/Pds1) accumulation; three suppressors have normal IFY-1/Pds1 levels and normal anaphase onset. Furthermore, in the class of suppressors with delayed mitotic progression, we have identified four alleles of known suppressors emb-30/APC4 and fzy-1/CDC20, which are components of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). In addition, we have identified another APC/C component capable of bypassing the checkpoint requirement that has not previously been described in C. elegans. The such-1/APC5-like mutation, h1960, significantly delays anaphase onset both in germline and in early embryonic cells.

  17. Construction of "Toxin Complex" in a Mutant Serotype C Strain of Clostridium botulinum Harboring a Defective Neurotoxin Gene.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomonori; Nagano, Thomas; Niwa, Koichi; Uchino, Masataka; Tomizawa, Motohiro; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Watanabe, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    A non-toxigenic mutant of the toxigenic serotype C Clostridium botulinum strain Stockholm (C-St), C-N71, does not produce the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). However, the original strain C-St produces botulinum toxin complex, in which BoNT is associated with non-toxic non-hemagglutinin (NTNHA) and three hemagglutinin proteins (HA-70, HA-33, and HA-17). Therefore, in this study, we aimed to elucidate the effects of bont gene knockout on the formation of the "toxin complex." Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that a premature stop codon was introduced in the bont gene, whereas other genes were not affected by this mutation. Moreover, we successfully purified the "toxin complex" produced by C-N71. The "toxin complex" was identified as a mixture of NTNHA/HA-70/HA-17/HA-33 complexes with intact NTNHA or C-terminally truncated NTNHA, without BoNT. These results indicated that knockout of the bont gene does not affect the formation of the "toxin complex." Since the botulinum toxin complex has been shown to play an important role in oral toxin transport in the human and animal body, a non-neurotoxic "toxin complex" of C-N71 may be valuable for the development of an oral drug delivery system.

  18. Analysis of the function of the 70-kilodalton cyclase-associated protein (CAP) by using mutants of yeast adenylyl cyclase defective in CAP binding.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Suzuki, N; Nishida, Y; Kataoka, T

    1993-07-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, adenylyl cyclase forms a complex with the 70-kDa cyclase-associated protein (CAP). By in vitro mutagenesis, we assigned a CAP-binding site of adenylyl cyclase to a small segment near its C terminus and created mutants which lost the ability to bind CAP. CAP binding was assessed first by observing the ability of the overproduced C-terminal 150 residues of adenylyl cyclase to sequester CAP, thereby suppressing the heat shock sensitivity of yeast cells bearing the activated RAS2 gene (RAS2Val-19), and then by immunoprecipitability of adenylyl cyclase activity with anti-CAP antibody and by direct measurement of the amount of CAP bound. Yeast cells whose chromosomal adenylyl cyclase genes were replaced by the CAP-nonbinding mutants possessed adenylyl cyclase activity fully responsive to RAS2 protein in vitro. However, they did not exhibit sensitivity to heat shock in the RAS2Val-19 background. When glucose-induced accumulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) was measured in these mutants carrying RAS2Val-19, a rapid transient rise indistinguishable from that of wild-type cells was observed and a high peak level and following persistent elevation of the cAMP concentration characteristic of RAS2Val-19 were abolished. In contrast, in the wild-type RAS2 background, similar cyclase gene replacement did not affect the glucose-induced cAMP response. These results suggest that the association with CAP, although not involved in the in vivo response to the wild-type RAS2 protein, is somehow required for the exaggerated response of adenylyl cyclase to activated RAS2.

  19. Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with decreased amplitude in their phototropic response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khurana, J. P.; Ren, Z.; Steinitz, B.; Parks, B.; Best, T. R.; Poff, K. L.

    1989-01-01

    Two mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana have been identified with decreased phototropism to 450-nanometer light. Fluence-response relationships for these strains (ZR8 and ZR19) to single and multiple flashes of light show thresholds, curve shapes, and fluence for maximum curvature in first positive' phototropism which are the same as those of the wild type. Similarly, there is no alteration from the wild type in the kinetics of curvature or in the optimum dark period separating sequential flashes in a multiple flash regimen. In addition, in both strains, gravitropism is decreased compared to the wild type by an amount which is comparable to the decrease in phototropism. Based on reciprocal backcrosses, it appears that the alteration is due to a recessive nuclear mutation. It is suggested that ZR8 and ZR19 represent alterations in some step analogous to an amplifier, downstream of the photoreceptor pigment, and common to both phototropism and gravitropism.

  20. Identification of a Maize Locus that Modulates the Hypersensitive Defense Response, Using Mutant-Assisted Gene Identification and Characterization (MAGIC)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hypersensitive response (HR) is the most visible and arguably the most important defense response in plants, although the details of how it is controlled and executed remain patchy. In this paper a novel genetic technique called MAGIC (Mutant-Assisted Gene Identification and Characterization) i...

  1. Production of 5,8,11-Eicosatrienoic Acid (Mead Acid) by a (Delta)6 Desaturation Activity-Enhanced Mutant Derived from a (Delta)12 Desaturase-Defective Mutant of an Arachidonic Acid-Producing Fungus, Mortierella alpina 1S-4.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, H; Nishihara, M; Hirano, Y; Kamada, N; Akimoto, K; Konishi, K; Shimizu, S

    1997-05-01

    Enhanced production of 5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid (Mead acid, 20:3(omega)9) was attained by a mutant fungus, Mortierella alpina M209-7, derived from (Delta)12 desaturase-defective M. alpina Mut48. The 20:3(omega)9 production by M209-7 was 1.3 times greater than that by its parent strain, Mut48. This is thought to be due to its enhanced (Delta)6 desaturation activity, which was 1.4 times higher than that of Mut48. In both strains, 87 to 88% of the total lipids comprised triacylglycerol (TG) and 85% of 20:3(omega)9 was contained in TG. On optimization of the culture conditions for M209-7, earlier glucose feeding and shifting of the growth temperature from 28 to 19(deg)C on the second day were shown to be effective. Under the optimal conditions with a 10-liter jar fermentor, 20:3(omega)9 production reached 1.65 g/liter of culture medium (corresponding to 118 mg/g of dry mycelia and 28.9% of total fatty acids), which is about twice that reported previously (0.8 g/liter).

  2. Energy conservation and dissipation in mitochondria isolated from developing tomato fruit of ethylene-defective mutants failing normal ripening: the effect of ethephon, a chemical precursor of ethylene.

    PubMed

    Navet, Rachel; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa; Almeida, Andrea Miyasaka; Sluse-Goffart, Claudine; Sluse, Francis E

    2003-04-01

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) and uncoupling protein (UCP) are present simultaneously in tomato fruit mitochondria. In a previous work, it has been shown that protein expression and activity of these two energy-dissipating systems exhibit large variations during tomato fruit development and ripening on the vine. It has been suggested that AOX and UCP could be responsible for the respiration increase at the end of ripening and that the cytochrome pathway could be implicated in the climacteric respiratory burst before the onset of ripening. In this study, the use of tomato mutants that fail normal ripening because of deficiencies in ethylene perception or production as well as the treatment of one selected mutant with a chemical precursor of ethylene have revealed that the bioenergetics of tomato fruit development and ripening is under the control of this plant hormone. Indeed, the evolution pattern of bioenergetic features changes with the type of mutation and with the introduction of ethylene into an ethylene-synthesis-deficient tomato fruit mutant during its induced ripening.

  3. Complementation of a defect in the asparagine-linked glycosylation of a mouse FM3A mutant G258 cell line by spheroplast fusion of a human mega YAC clone 923f5.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Takahisa; Moriya, Masayuki; Kataoka, Kensuke; Nishikawa, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    Mouse G258 mutant stopped both cell growth and the synthesis of lipid-linked oligosaccharide at the Man(3)GlcNAc(2)-P-P-Dolichol at a restricted temperature with a single gene mutation. To clarify the lesion in the G258 mutant, we isolated human genomic DNA transformants of the G258 mutant, which recovered from both defects by way of cell hybridization with X-ray irradiated HeLa cells. We detected a common 1.3-kb product by inter-human specific sequence in the L1 (L1Hs) PCR in the transformants (Kataoka et al., Somat. Cell Mol. Genet., 24, 235-243 (1998)). In the present study, we screened a human mega yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library by PCR with primers designed according to the 1.3-kb DNA, and selected YAC clone 923f5. Moreover, we found by spheroplast fusion that YAC clone 923f5 complemented both defects of the G258 mutant. Since the human counterpart of the yeast ALG11 gene is localized in the region, the G258 mutant might have a defect in the mouse ALG11 gene.

  4. Impaired auxin biosynthesis in the defective endosperm18 mutant is due to mutational loss of expression in the ZmYuc1 gene encoding endosperm-specific YUCCA1 protein in maize.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A seed-specific maize mutant, defective endosperm18 (de18), accumulates approximately 40% less dry mass and 10- to 15- fold less auxin (IAA) as compared to the De18; however, a causal basis of these changes is not known. Cellular analyses here showed that the de18 developing endosperm had lower tota...

  5. Immunogenic Response of Brucella canis virB10 and virB11 Mutants in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Palomares-Resendiz, E.; Arellano-Reynoso, B.; Hernández-Castro, R.; Tenorio-Gutiérrez, V.; Salas-Téllez, E.; Suárez-Güemes, F.; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén

    2012-01-01

    The virB locus, which encodes the type IV secretion system, is a major component of virulence in Brucella. A non-polar virB10 mutant and a virB11 deletion mutant were constructed in Brucella canis. In the mouse model, both mutants were cleared at day 21 post-infection, indicating reduced virulence in mice. After challenging with wild-type B. canis, the amounts of CFU recovered at day 15 were significantly lower in the group previously vaccinated with the virB10 mutant. Levels of IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgM, the induction of the cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and the production of IFN-γ were measured in lymphocyte cultures. All strains elicited similar levels of different antibody isotype profiles, and no significant differences were detected (P < 0.05). The wild-type strain induced a rapid and strong INF-γ response at 24 h, while both mutants induced mild INF-γ responses at 24 h, which remained constant over the course of sampling. Our results suggest that the virB mutants elicit a protective immunity and may be considered as candidates for studies to be conducted in dogs against canine brucellosis. PMID:22919627

  6. Immunogenic response of Brucella canis virB10 and virB11 mutants in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Palomares-Resendiz, E; Arellano-Reynoso, B; Hernández-Castro, R; Tenorio-Gutiérrez, V; Salas-Téllez, E; Suárez-Güemes, F; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén

    2012-01-01

    The virB locus, which encodes the type IV secretion system, is a major component of virulence in Brucella. A non-polar virB10 mutant and a virB11 deletion mutant were constructed in Brucella canis. In the mouse model, both mutants were cleared at day 21 post-infection, indicating reduced virulence in mice. After challenging with wild-type B. canis, the amounts of CFU recovered at day 15 were significantly lower in the group previously vaccinated with the virB10 mutant. Levels of IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgM, the induction of the cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and the production of IFN-γ were measured in lymphocyte cultures. All strains elicited similar levels of different antibody isotype profiles, and no significant differences were detected (P < 0.05). The wild-type strain induced a rapid and strong INF-γ response at 24 h, while both mutants induced mild INF-γ responses at 24 h, which remained constant over the course of sampling. Our results suggest that the virB mutants elicit a protective immunity and may be considered as candidates for studies to be conducted in dogs against canine brucellosis.

  7. Secretome analysis revealed adaptive and non-adaptive responses of the Staphylococcus carnosus femB mutant.

    PubMed

    Nega, Mulugeta; Dube, Linda; Kull, Melanie; Ziebandt, Anne-Kathrin; Ebner, Patrick; Albrecht, Dirk; Krismer, Bernhard; Rosenstein, Ralf; Hecker, Michael; Götz, Friedrich

    2015-04-01

    FemABX peptidyl transferases are involved in non-ribosomal pentaglycine interpeptide bridge biosynthesis. Here, we characterized the phenotype of a Staphylococcus carnosus femB deletion mutant, which was affected in growth and showed pleiotropic effects such as enhanced methicillin sensitivity, lysostaphin resistance, cell clustering, and decreased peptidoglycan cross-linking. However, comparative secretome analysis revealed a most striking difference in the massive secretion or release of proteins into the culture supernatant in the femB mutant than the wild type. The secreted proteins can be categorized into typical cytosolic proteins and various murein hydrolases. As the transcription of the murein hydrolase genes was up-regulated in the mutant, they most likely represent an adaption response to the life threatening mutation. Even though the transcription of the cytosolic protein genes was unaltered, their high abundance in the supernatant of the mutant is most likely due to membrane leakage triggered by the weakened murein sacculus and enhanced autolysins.

  8. Microarray analysis of Arabidopsis WRKY33 mutants in response to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Sham, Arjun; Moustafa, Khaled; Al-Shamisi, Shamma; Alyan, Sofyan; Iratni, Rabah

    2017-01-01

    The WRKY33 transcription factor was reported for resistance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Using microarray-based analysis, we compared Arabidopsis WRKY33 overexpressing lines and wrky33 mutant that showed altered susceptibility to B. cinerea with their corresponding wild-type plants. In the wild-type, about 1660 genes (7% of the transcriptome) were induced and 1054 genes (5% of the transcriptome) were repressed at least twofold at early stages of inoculation with B. cinerea, confirming previous data of the contribution of these genes in B. cinerea resistance. In Arabidopsis wild-type plant infected with B. cinerea, the expressions of the differentially expressed genes encoding for proteins and metabolites involved in pathogen defense and non-defense responses, seem to be dependent on a functional WRKY33 gene. The expression profile of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid- and phytoprostane A1-treated Arabidopsis plants in response to B. cinerea revealed that cyclopentenones can also modulate WRKY33 regulation upon inoculation with B. cinerea. These results support the role of electrophilic oxylipins in mediating plant responses to B. cinerea infection through the TGA transcription factor. Future directions toward the identification of the molecular components in cyclopentenone signaling will elucidate the novel oxylipin signal transduction pathways in plant defense. PMID:28207847

  9. Identification of rice ethylene-response mutants and characterization of MHZ7/OsEIN2 in distinct ethylene response and yield trait regulation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Biao; He, Si-Jie; Duan, Kai-Xuan; Yin, Cui-Cui; Chen, Hui; Yang, Chao; Xiong, Qing; Song, Qing-Xin; Lu, Xiang; Chen, Hao-Wei; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Lu, Tie-Gang; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2013-11-01

    Ethylene plays essential roles in adaptive growth of rice plants in water-saturating environment; however, ethylene signaling pathway in rice is largely unclear. In this study, we report identification and characterization of ethylene-response mutants based on the specific ethylene-response phenotypes of etiolated rice seedlings, including ethylene-inhibited root growth and ethylene-promoted coleoptile elongation, which is different from the ethylene triple-response phenotype in Arabidopsis. We establish an efficient system for screening and a set of rice mutants have been identified. Genetic analysis reveals that these mutants form eight complementation groups. All the mutants show insensitivity or reduced sensitivity to ethylene in root growth but exhibit differential responses in coleoptile growth. One mutant group mhz7 has insensitivity to ethylene in both root and coleoptile growth. We identified the corresponding gene by a map-based cloning method. MHZ7 encodes a membrane protein homologous to EIN2, a central component of ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. Upon ethylene treatment, etiolated MHZ7-overexpressing seedlings exhibit enhanced coleoptile elongation, increased mesocotyl growth and extremely twisted short roots, featuring enhanced ethylene-response phenotypes in rice. Grain length was promoted in MHZ7-transgenic plants and 1000-grain weight was reduced in mhz7 mutants. Leaf senescent process was also affected by MHZ7 expression. Manipulation of ethylene signaling may improve adaptive growth and yield-related traits in rice.

  10. Structural Studies of Lipopolysaccharide-defective Mutants from Brucella melitensis Identify a Core Oligosaccharide Critical in Virulence.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Carolina; Conde-Álvarez, Raquel; Ståhle, Jonas; Holst, Otto; Iriarte, Maite; Zhao, Yun; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; Hanniffy, Seán; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Moriyón, Ignacio; Widmalm, Göran

    2016-04-01

    The structures of the lipooligosaccharides fromBrucella melitensismutants affected in the WbkD and ManBcoreproteins have been fully characterized using NMR spectroscopy. The results revealed that disruption ofwbkDgives rise to a rough lipopolysaccharide (R-LPS) with a complete core structure (β-d-Glcp-(1→4)-α-Kdop-(2→4)[β-d-GlcpN-(1→6)-β-d-GlcpN-(1→4)[β-d-GlcpN-(1→6)]-β-d-GlcpN-(1→3)-α-d-Manp-(1→5)]-α-Kdop-(2→6)-β-d-GlcpN3N4P-(1→6)-α-d-GlcpN3N1P), in addition to components lacking one of the terminal β-d-GlcpN and/or the β-d-Glcpresidues (48 and 17%, respectively). These structures were identical to those of the R-LPS fromB. melitensisEP, a strain simultaneously expressing both smooth and R-LPS, also studied herein. In contrast, disruption ofmanBcoregives rise to a deep-rough pentasaccharide core (β-d-Glcp-(1→4)-α-Kdop-(2→4)-α-Kdop-(2→6)-β-d-GlcpN3N4P-(1→6)-α-d-GlcpN3N1P) as the major component (63%), as well as a minor tetrasaccharide component lacking the terminal β-d-Glcpresidue (37%). These results are in agreement with the predicted functions of the WbkD (glycosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of the O-antigen) and ManBcoreproteins (phosphomannomutase involved in the biosynthesis of a mannosyl precursor needed for the biosynthesis of the core and O-antigen). We also report that deletion ofB. melitensis wadCremoves the core oligosaccharide branch not linked to the O-antigen causing an increase in overall negative charge of the remaining LPS inner section. This is in agreement with the mannosyltransferase role predicted for WadC and the lack of GlcpN residues in the defective core oligosaccharide. Despite carrying the O-antigen essential inB. melitensisvirulence, the core deficiency in thewadCmutant structure resulted in a more efficient detection by innate immunity and attenuation, proving the role of the β-d-GlcpN-(1→6)-β-d-GlcpN-(1→4)[β-d-GlcpN-(1→6)]-β-d-GlcpN-(1→3)-α-d-Manp-(1→5) structure

  11. Increased behavioral and neuronal responses to a hallucinogenic drug in PACAP heterozygous mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Hazama, Keisuke; Hayata-Takano, Atsuko; Uetsuki, Kazuki; Kasai, Atsushi; Encho, Naoki; Shintani, Norihito; Nagayasu, Kazuki; Hashimoto, Ryota; Reglodi, Dora; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Baba, Akemichi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from human genetic studies implicates the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) gene as a risk factor for psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and stress-related diseases. Mice with homozygous disruption of the PACAP gene display profound behavioral and neurological abnormalities that are ameliorated with the atypical antipsychotic and dopamine D2 and serotonin (5-HT)2 antagonist risperidone and the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist ritanserin; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we investigated if PACAP heterozygous mutant (PACAP(+/-)) mice, which appear behaviorally normal, are vulnerable to aversive stimuli. PACAP(+/-) mice were administered a 5-HT2 receptor agonist, (±)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), a hallucinogenic drug, and their responses were compared with the littermate wild-type mice. After DOI injection, PACAP(+/-) mice showed increased head-twitch responses, while their behavior was normal after saline. DOI induced deficits in sensorimotor gating, as determined by prepulse inhibition, specifically in PACAP(+/-) mice. However, other 5-HT2 receptor-dependent responses, such as corticosterone release and hypothermia, were similarly observed in PACAP(+/-) and wild-type mice. c-Fos expression analysis, performed in various brain regions, revealed that the DOI-induced increase in the number of c-Fos-positive cells was more pronounced in 5-HT2A receptor-negative cells in the somatosensory cortex in PACAP(+/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. These results indicate that PACAP(+/-) mice exhibit specific vulnerability to DOI-induced deficits in cortical sensory function, such as exaggerated head-twitch responses and sensorimotor gating deficits. Our findings provide insight into the neural mechanisms underlying impaired behavioral responses in which 5-HT2 receptors are implicated.

  12. Increased Behavioral and Neuronal Responses to a Hallucinogenic Drug in PACAP Heterozygous Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Atsushi; Encho, Naoki; Shintani, Norihito; Nagayasu, Kazuki; Hashimoto, Ryota; Reglodi, Dora; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Baba, Akemichi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from human genetic studies implicates the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) gene as a risk factor for psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and stress-related diseases. Mice with homozygous disruption of the PACAP gene display profound behavioral and neurological abnormalities that are ameliorated with the atypical antipsychotic and dopamine D2 and serotonin (5-HT)2 antagonist risperidone and the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist ritanserin; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we investigated if PACAP heterozygous mutant (PACAP+/−) mice, which appear behaviorally normal, are vulnerable to aversive stimuli. PACAP+/− mice were administered a 5-HT2 receptor agonist, (±)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), a hallucinogenic drug, and their responses were compared with the littermate wild-type mice. After DOI injection, PACAP+/− mice showed increased head-twitch responses, while their behavior was normal after saline. DOI induced deficits in sensorimotor gating, as determined by prepulse inhibition, specifically in PACAP+/− mice. However, other 5-HT2 receptor-dependent responses, such as corticosterone release and hypothermia, were similarly observed in PACAP+/− and wild-type mice. c-Fos expression analysis, performed in various brain regions, revealed that the DOI-induced increase in the number of c-Fos-positive cells was more pronounced in 5-HT2A receptor-negative cells in the somatosensory cortex in PACAP+/− mice compared with wild-type mice. These results indicate that PACAP+/− mice exhibit specific vulnerability to DOI-induced deficits in cortical sensory function, such as exaggerated head-twitch responses and sensorimotor gating deficits. Our findings provide insight into the neural mechanisms underlying impaired behavioral responses in which 5-HT2 receptors are implicated. PMID:24586556

  13. A study of eukaryotic response mechanisms to atmospheric pressure cold plasma by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae single gene mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Hongqing; Wang Ruixue; Sun Peng; Wu Haiyan; Liu Qi; Li Fangting; Fang Jing; Zhang Jue; Zhu Weidong

    2010-09-27

    The mechanisms of eukaryotic cell response to cold plasma are studied. A series of single gene mutants of eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae are used to compare their sensitivity to plasma treatment with the wild type. We examined 12 mutants in the oxidative stress pathway and the cell cycle pathway, in which 8 are found to be hypersensitive to plasma processing. The mutated genes' roles in the two pathways are analyzed to understand the biological response mechanisms of plasma treatment. The results demonstrate that genes from both pathways are needed for the eukaryotic cells to survive the complex plasma treatment.

  14. Reduced Insulin/Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Mitigates Defective Dendrite Morphogenesis in Mutants of the ER Stress Sensor IRE-1

    PubMed Central

    Salzberg, Yehuda; Cohen-Berkman, Moran; Biederer, Thomas; Bülow, Hannes E.

    2017-01-01

    Neurons receive excitatory or sensory inputs through their dendrites, which often branch extensively to form unique neuron-specific structures. How neurons regulate the formation of their particular arbor is only partially understood. In genetic screens using the multidendritic arbor of PVD somatosensory neurons in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified a mutation in the ER stress sensor IRE-1/Ire1 (inositol requiring enzyme 1) as crucial for proper PVD dendrite arborization in vivo. We further found that regulation of dendrite growth in cultured rat hippocampal neurons depends on Ire1 function, showing an evolutionarily conserved role for IRE-1/Ire1 in dendrite patterning. PVD neurons of nematodes lacking ire-1 display reduced arbor complexity, whereas mutations in genes encoding other ER stress sensors displayed normal PVD dendrites, specifying IRE-1 as a selective ER stress sensor that is essential for PVD dendrite morphogenesis. Although structure function analyses indicated that IRE-1’s nuclease activity is necessary for its role in dendrite morphogenesis, mutations in xbp-1, the best-known target of non-canonical splicing by IRE-1/Ire1, do not exhibit PVD phenotypes. We further determined that secretion and distal localization to dendrites of the DMA-1/leucine rich transmembrane receptor (DMA-1/LRR-TM) is defective in ire-1 but not xbp-1 mutants, suggesting a block in the secretory pathway. Interestingly, reducing Insulin/IGF1 signaling can bypass the secretory block and restore normal targeting of DMA-1, and consequently normal PVD arborization even in the complete absence of functional IRE-1. This bypass of ire-1 requires the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. In sum, our work identifies a conserved role for ire-1 in neuronal branching, which is independent of xbp-1, and suggests that arborization defects associated with neuronal pathologies may be overcome by reducing Insulin/IGF signaling and improving ER homeostasis and function. PMID

  15. A Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 ORF50 deletion mutant is defective for reactivation of latent virus and DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yiyang; AuCoin, David P; Huete, Alicia Rodriguez; Cei, Sylvia A; Hanson, Lisa J; Pari, Gregory S

    2005-03-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (also called human herpesvirus type 8 [HHV8]) latently infects a number of cell types. Reactivation of latent virus can occur by treatment with the phorbol ester tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA) or with the transfection of plasmids expressing the lytic switch activator protein K-Rta, the gene product of ORF50. K-Rta expression is sufficient for the activation of the entire lytic cycle and the transactivation of viral genes necessary for DNA replication. In addition, recent evidence has suggested that K-Rta may participate directly in the initiation of lytic DNA synthesis. We have now generated a recombinant HHV8 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) with a large deletion within the ORF50 locus. This BAC, BAC36Delta50, failed to produce infectious virus upon treatment with TPA and was defective for DNA synthesis. Expression of K-Rta in trans in BAC36Delta50-containing cells was able to abolish both defects. Real-time PCR revealed that K-bZIP, ORF40/41, and K8.1 were not expressed when BAC36Delta50-containing cells were induced with TPA. However, the mRNA levels of ORF57 were over fivefold higher in TPA-treated BAC36Delta50-containing cells than those observed in similarly treated wild-type BAC-containing cells. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis showed that while the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) was expressed in the mutant BAC-containing cells, ORF59 and K8.1 expression was not detected in TPA-induced BAC36Delta50-containing cells. These results showed that K-Rta is essential for lytic viral reactivation and transactivation of viral genes contributing to DNA replication.

  16. Five components of the ethylene-response pathway identified in a screen for weak ethylene-insensitive mutants in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Jose M; Stepanova, Anna N; Solano, Roberto; Wisman, Ellen; Ferrari, Simone; Ausubel, Frederick M; Ecker, Joseph R

    2003-03-04

    Five ethylene-insensitive loci (wei1-wei5) were identified by using a low-dose screen for "weak" ethylene-insensitive mutants. wei1, wei2, and wei3 seedlings showed hormone insensitivity only in roots, whereas wei4 and wei5 displayed insensitivity in both roots and hypocotyls. The genes corresponding to wei1, wei4, and wei5 were isolated using a positional cloning approach. The wei1 mutant harbored a recessive mutation in TIR1, which encodes a component of the SCF protein ubiquitin ligase involved in the auxin response. wei4, a dominant mutant, resulted from a mutation in the ethylene receptor ERS, whereas wei5, a semidominant mutant, was caused by a mutation in the EIN3-related transcription factor gene EIL1. The simultaneous loss of functional WEI5EIL1 and EIN3 nearly completely abolished the ethylene response in etiolated seedlings, and adult plants were highly susceptible to infection by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Moreover, wei5eil1 ein3 double mutants were able to fully suppress constitutive signaling caused by ctr1, suggesting a synergistic interaction among these gene products. Unlike previously known root ethylene-insensitive mutants, wei2 and wei3 were not affected in their response to auxin and showed a normal response to gravity. Genetic mapping studies indicate that wei2 and wei3 correspond to previously unidentified ethylene pathway genes that may control cell-elongation processes functioning at the intersection of the ethylene and auxin response pathways.

  17. Deficiency of BrpB causes major defects in cell division, stress responses and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Bitoun, Jacob P; Liao, Sumei; Xie, Gary G; Beatty, Wandy L; Wen, Zezhang T

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, the primary aetiological agent of dental caries, possesses an YjeE-like protein that is encoded by locus SMU.409, herein designated brpB. In this study, a BrpB-deficient mutant, JB409, and a double mutant deficient of BrpB and BrpA (a paralogue of the LytR-CpsA-Psr family of cell wall-associated proteins), JB819, were constructed and characterized using function assays and microscopy analysis. Both JB409 and JB819 displayed extended lag phases and drastically slowed growth rates during growth in brain heart infusion medium as compared to the wild-type, UA159. Relative to UA159, JB409 and JB819 were more than 60- and 10-fold more susceptible to acid killing at pH 2.8, and more than 1 and 2 logs more susceptible to hydrogen peroxide, respectively. Complementation of the deficient mutants with a wild-type copy of the respective gene(s) partly restored the acid and oxidative stress responses to a level similar to the wild-type. As compared to UA159, biofilm formation by JB409 and JB819 was drastically reduced (P<0.001), especially during growth in medium containing sucrose. Under a scanning electron microscope, JB409 had significantly more giant cells with an elongated, rod-like morphology, and JB819 formed marble-like super cells with apparent defects in cell division. As revealed by transmission electron microscopy analysis, BrpB deficiency in both JB409 and JB819 resulted in the development of low electron density patches and formation of a loose nucleoid structure. Taken together, these results suggest that BrpB likely functions together with BrpA in regulating cell envelope biogenesis/homeostasis in Strep. mutans. Further studies are under way to elucidate the mechanism that underlies the BrpA- and BrpB-mediated regulation.

  18. Aberrant gene expression in the Arabidopsis SULTR1;2 mutants suggests a possible regulatory role for this sulfate transporter in response to sulfur nutrient status.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Pasini, Rita; Dan, Hanbin; Joshi, Naveen; Zhao, Yihong; Leustek, Thomas; Zheng, Zhi-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur is required for the biosynthesis of cysteine, methionine and numerous other metabolites, and thus is critical for cellular metabolism and various growth and developmental processes. Plants are able to sense their physiological state with respect to sulfur availability, but the sensor remains to be identified. Here we report the isolation and characterization of two novel allelic mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, sel1-15 and sel1-16, which show increased expression of a sulfur deficiency-activated gene β-glucosidase 28 (BGLU28). The mutants, which represent two different missense alleles of SULTR1;2, which encodes a high-affinity sulfate transporter, are defective in sulfate transport and as a result have a lower cellular sulfate level. However, when treated with a very high dose of sulfate, sel1-15 and sel1-16 accumulated similar amounts of internal sulfate and its metabolite glutathione (GSH) to wild-type, but showed higher expression of BGLU28 and other sulfur deficiency-activated genes than wild-type. Reduced sensitivity to inhibition of gene expression was also observed in the sel1 mutants when fed with the sulfate metabolites Cys and GSH. In addition, a SULTR1;2 knockout allele also exhibits reduced inhibition in response to sulfate, Cys and GSH, consistent with the phenotype of sel1-15 and sel1-16. Taken together, the genetic evidence suggests that, in addition to its known function as a high-affinity sulfate transporter, SULTR1;2 may have a regulatory role in response to sulfur nutrient status. The possibility that SULTR1;2 may function as a sensor of sulfur status or a component of a sulfur sensory mechanism is discussed.

  19. Defective etioplasts observed in variegation mutants may reveal the light-independent regulation of white/yellow sectors of Arabidopsis leaves.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenjuan; Elsheery, Nabil; Wei, Qing; Zhang, Lingang; Huang, Jirong

    2011-11-01

    Leaf variegation resulting from nuclear gene mutations has been used as a model system to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of chloroplast development. Since most variegation genes also function in photosynthesis, it remains unknown whether their roles in photosynthesis and chloroplast development are distinct. Here, using the variegation mutant thylakoid formation1 (thf1) we show that variegation formation is light independent. It was found that slow and uneven chloroplast development in thf1 can be attributed to defects in etioplast development in darkness. Ultrastructural analysis showed the coexistence of plastids with or without prolamellar bodies (PLB) in cells of thf1, but not of WT. Although THF1 mutation leads to significant decreases in the levels of Pchlide and Pchllide oxidoreductase (POR) expression, genetic and 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-feeding analysis did not reveal Pchlide or POR to be critical factors for etioplast formation in thf1. Northern blot analysis showed that plastid gene expression is dramatically reduced in thf1 compared with that in WT, particularly in the dark. Our results also indicate that chlorophyll biosynthesis and expression of plastidic genes are coordinately suppressed in thf1. Based on these results, we propose a model to explain leaf variegation formation from the plastid development perspective.

  20. Anisotropic compressive response of Stone-Thrower-Wales defects in graphene: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasekaran, G.; Parashar, Avinash

    2016-09-01

    The mechanical properties of graphene sheet can be tailored with the help of topological defects. In this research article, the effects of Stone-Thrower-Wales (STW) defects on the mechanical properties of graphene sheet was investigated with the help of molecular dynamics based simulations. Authors has made an attempt to analyse the stress field developed in and around the vicinity of defect due to bond reorientation and further systematic evaluation has been carried out to study the effect of these stress fields against the applied axial compressive load. The results obtained with the pristine graphene were made to compare with the available open literature and the results were reported to be in good agreement with theoretical and experimental data. It was predicted that graphene with STW defect cannot able to bear compressive strength in zigzag direction, whereas on the other hand it was predicted that graphene sheet containing STW defect can bear higher compressive load in armchair direction, which shows an anisotropic response of STW defects in graphene. From the obtained results it can be observed that orientation of STW defects and the loading direction plays an important role to alter the strength of graphene under axial compression.

  1. Correlation Between Bulk Material Defects and Spectroscopic Response in Cadmium Zinc Telluride Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Bradford H.; Stahle, C. M.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Parsons, A. M.; Tueller, J.; VanSant, J. T.; Munoz, B. F.; Snodgrass, S. J.; Mullinix, R. E.

    1999-01-01

    One of the critical challenges for large area cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) detector arrays is obtaining material capable of uniform imaging and spectroscopic response. Two complementary nondestructive techniques for characterizing bulk CdZnTe have been developed to identify material with a uniform response. The first technique, infrared transmission imaging, allows for rapid visualization of bulk defects. The second technique, x-ray spectral mapping, provides a map of the material spectroscopic response when it is configured as a planar detector. The two techniques have been used to develop a correlation between bulk defect type and detector performance. The correlation allows for the use of infrared imaging to rapidly develop wafer mining maps. The mining of material free of detrimental defects has the potential to dramatically increase the yield and quality of large area CdZnTe detector arrays.

  2. Principal component analysis of binding energies for single-point mutants of hT2R16 bound to an agonist correlate with experimental mutant cell response.

    PubMed

    Chen, Derek E; Willick, Darryl L; Ruckel, Joseph B; Floriano, Wely B

    2015-01-01

    Directed evolution is a technique that enables the identification of mutants of a particular protein that carry a desired property by successive rounds of random mutagenesis, screening, and selection. This technique has many applications, including the development of G protein-coupled receptor-based biosensors and designer drugs for personalized medicine. Although effective, directed evolution is not without challenges and can greatly benefit from the development of computational techniques to predict the functional outcome of single-point amino acid substitutions. In this article, we describe a molecular dynamics-based approach to predict the effects of single amino acid substitutions on agonist binding (salicin) to a human bitter taste receptor (hT2R16). An experimentally determined functional map of single-point amino acid substitutions was used to validate the whole-protein molecular dynamics-based predictive functions. Molecular docking was used to construct a wild-type agonist-receptor complex, providing a starting structure for single-point substitution simulations. The effects of each single amino acid substitution in the functional response of the receptor to its agonist were estimated using three binding energy schemes with increasing inclusion of solvation effects. We show that molecular docking combined with molecular mechanics simulations of single-point mutants of the agonist-receptor complex accurately predicts the functional outcome of single amino acid substitutions in a human bitter taste receptor.

  3. Five carboxin-resistant mutants exhibited various responses to carboxin and related fungicides.

    PubMed

    Shima, Yoko; Ito, Yasuhiro; Hatabayashi, Hidemi; Koma, Akemi; Yabe, Kimiko

    2011-01-01

    Five carboxin-resistant mutants from Aspergillus oryzae were characterized by the sensitivities of their mycelial growth and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity to carboxin and three related fungicides. Despite a significant resistance to carboxin, exhibited by all the mutants, their patterns of sensitivity to the other fungicides was distinct. This provides clues to the molecular interaction between SDH and these fungicides.

  4. Systems Analysis of Adaptive Responses to MAP Kinase Pathway Blockade in BRAF Mutant Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Capaldo, Brian J.; Roller, Devin; Axelrod, Mark J.; Koeppel, Alex F.; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Slingluff, Craig L.; Weber, Michael J.; Mackey, Aaron J.; Gioeli, Daniel; Bekiranov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Fifty percent of cutaneous melanomas are driven by activated BRAFV600E, but tumors treated with RAF inhibitors, even when they respond dramatically, rapidly adapt and develop resistance. Thus, there is a pressing need to identify the major mechanisms of intrinsic and adaptive resistance and develop drug combinations that target these resistance mechanisms. In a combinatorial drug screen on a panel of 12 treatment-naïve BRAFV600E mutant melanoma cell lines of varying levels of resistance to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway inhibition, we identified the combination of PLX4720, a targeted inhibitor of mutated BRaf, and lapatinib, an inhibitor of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases, as synergistically cytotoxic in the subset of cell lines that displayed the most resistance to PLX4720. To identify potential mechanisms of resistance to PLX4720 treatment and synergy with lapatinib treatment, we performed a multi-platform functional genomics analysis to profile the genome as well as the transcriptional and proteomic responses of these cell lines to treatment with PLX4720. We found modest levels of resistance correlated with the zygosity of the BRAF V600E allele and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) mutational status. Layered over base-line resistance was substantial upregulation of many ErbB pathway genes in response to BRaf inhibition, thus generating the vulnerability to combination with lapatinib. The transcriptional responses of ErbB pathway genes are associated with a number of transcription factors, including ETS2 and its associated cofactors that represent a convergent regulatory mechanism conferring synergistic drug susceptibility in the context of diverse mutational landscapes. PMID:26405815

  5. Temporal Treatment of a Thermal Response for Defect Depth Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotnikov, Y. A.; Winfree, W. P.

    2004-01-01

    Transient thermography, which employs pulse surface heating of an inspected component followed by acquisition of the thermal decay stage, is gaining wider acceptance as a result of its remoteness and rapidness. Flaws in the component s material may induce a thermal contrast in surface thermograms. An important issue in transient thermography is estimating the depth of a subsurface flaw from the thermal response. This improves the quantitative ability of the thermal evaluation: from one scan it is possible to locate regions of anomalies in thickness (caused by corrosion) and estimate the implications of the flaw on the integrity of the structure. Our research focuses on thick composite aircraft components. A long square heating pulse and several minutes observation period are required to receive an adequate thermal response from such a component. Application of various time-related informative parameters of the thermal response for depth estimation is discussed. A three-dimensional finite difference model of heat propagation in solids in Cartesian coordinates is used to simulate the thermographic process. Typical physical properties of polymer graphite composites are assumed for the model.

  6. A positively gravitropic mutant mirrors the wild-type protonemal response in the moss Ceratodon purpureus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, T. A.; Cove, D. J.; Sack, F. D.

    1997-01-01

    Wild-type Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid. protonemata grow up in the dark by negative gravitropism. When upright wild-type protonemata are reoriented 90 degrees, they temporarily grow down soon after reorientation ("initial reversal") and also prior to cytokinesis ("mitotic reversal"). A positively gravitropic mutant designated wrong- way response (wwr-1) has been isolated by screening ultraviolet light-mutagenized Ceratodon protonemata. Protonemata of wwr-l reoriented from the vertical to the horizontal grow down with kinetics comparable to those of the wild-type. Protonemata of wwr-1 also show initial and mitotic reversals where they temporarily grow up. Thus, the direction of gravitropism, initial reversal, and mitotic reversal are coordinated though each are opposite in wwr-1 compared to the wild-type. Normal plastid zonation is still maintained in dark-grown wwr-1 apical cells, but the plastids are more numerous and plastid sedimentation is more pronounced. In addition, wwr-1 apical cells are wider and the tips greener than in the wild-type. These data suggest that a functional WWR gene product is not necessary for the establishment of some gravitropic polarity, for gravitropism, or for the coordination of the reversals. Thus, the WWR protein may normally transduce information about cell orientation.

  7. Induction of the SOS response by hydrogen peroxide in various Escherichia coli mutants with altered protection against oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed Central

    Goerlich, O; Quillardet, P; Hofnung, M

    1989-01-01

    The induction of the SOS response by H2O2 was measured in Escherichia coli by means of a sfiA::lacZ operon fusion. The effects of mutations in genes involved in DNA repair or DNA metabolism on the SOS response were investigated. We found that in an uvrA mutant, H2O2 induced the SOS response at lower concentrations than in the uvr+ parent strain, indicating that some lesions induced by H2O2 may be repaired by the uvrABC-dependent excision repair system. A nth mutation, yielding deficiency in thymine glycol DNA glycosylase, had no detectable effect on SOS induction, indicating that thymine glycol, a DNA lesion expected to be induced by H2O2, does not participate detectably in the induction of the SOS response by this chemical under our conditions. H2O2 still induced the SOS response in a dnaC(Ts) uvrA double mutant under conditions in which no DNA replication proceeds, suggesting that this chemical induces DNA strand breaks. Induction of the SOS response by H2O2 was also assayed in various mutants affected in genes suspected to be important for protection against oxidative stress. Mutations in the catalase genes, katE and katG, had only minor effects. However, in an oxyR deletion mutant, in which the adaptative response to H2O2 does not occur, SOS induction occurred at much lower H2O2 concentrations than in the oxyR+ parent strain. These results indicate that some enzymes regulated by the oxyR gene are, under our conditions, more important than catalase for protection against the H2O2-induced DNA damages which trigger the SOS response. PMID:2681154

  8. DNA vaccine elicits an efficient antitumor response by targeting the mutant Kras in a transgenic mouse lung cancer model.

    PubMed

    Weng, T-Y; Yen, M-C; Huang, C-T; Hung, J-J; Chen, Y-L; Chen, W-C; Wang, C-Y; Chang, J-Y; Lai, M-D

    2014-10-01

    Mutant Kras (V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) is observed in more than 20% of non-small-cell lung cancers; however, no effective Kras target therapy is available at present. The Kras DNA vaccine may represent as a novel immunotherapeutic agent in lung cancer. In this study, we investigated the antitumor efficacy of the Kras DNA vaccine in a genetically engineered inducible mouse lung tumor model driven by Kras(G12D). Lung tumors were induced by doxycycline, and the therapeutic effects of Kras DNA vaccine were evaluated with delivery of Kras(G12D) plasmids. Mutant Kras(G12D) DNA vaccine significantly decreased the tumor nodules. A dominant-negative mutant Kras(G12D)N17, devoid of oncogenic activity, achieved similar therapeutic effects. The T-helper 1 immune response was enhanced in mice treated with Kras DNA vaccine. Splenocytes from mice receiving Kras DNA vaccine presented an antigen-specific response by treatment with peptides of Kras but not Hras or OVA. The number of tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells increased after Kras vaccination. In contrast, Kras DNA vaccine was not effective in the lung tumor in transgenic mice, which was induced by mutant L858R epidermal growth factor receptor. Overall, these results indicate that Kras DNA vaccine produces an effective antitumor response in transgenic mice, and may be useful in treating lung cancer-carrying Ras mutation.

  9. Müller Cell Reactivity in Response to Photoreceptor Degeneration in Rats with Defective Polycystin-2

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, Stefanie; Pannicke, Thomas; Hollborn, Margrit; Grosche, Antje; Busch, Stephanie; Hoffmann, Sigrid; Wiedemann, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Bringmann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background Retinal degeneration in transgenic rats that express a mutant cilia gene polycystin-2 (CMV-PKD2(1/703)HA) is characterized by initial photoreceptor degeneration and glial activation, followed by vasoregression and neuronal degeneration (Feng et al., 2009, PLoS One 4: e7328). It is unknown whether glial activation contributes to neurovascular degeneration after photoreceptor degeneration. We characterized the reactivity of Müller glial cells in retinas of rats that express defective polycystin-2. Methods Age-matched Sprague-Dawley rats served as control. Retinal slices were immunostained for intermediate filaments, the potassium channel Kir4.1, and aquaporins 1 and 4. The potassium conductance of isolated Müller cells was recorded by whole-cell patch clamping. The osmotic swelling characteristics of Müller cells were determined by superfusion of retinal slices with a hypoosmotic solution. Findings Müller cells in retinas of transgenic rats displayed upregulation of GFAP and nestin which was not observed in control cells. Whereas aquaporin-1 labeling of photoreceptor cells disappeared along with the degeneration of the cells, aquaporin-1 emerged in glial cells in the inner retina of transgenic rats. Aquaporin-4 was upregulated around degenerating photoreceptor cells. There was an age-dependent redistribution of Kir4.1 in retinas of transgenic rats, with a more even distribution along glial membranes and a downregulation of perivascular Kir4.1. Müller cells of transgenic rats displayed a slight decrease in their Kir conductance as compared to control. Müller cells in retinal tissues from transgenic rats swelled immediately under hypoosmotic stress; this was not observed in control cells. Osmotic swelling was induced by oxidative-nitrosative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammatory lipid mediators. Interpretation Cellular swelling suggests that the rapid water transport through Müller cells in response to osmotic stress is altered as

  10. Metabolite Profiling of adh1 Mutant Response to Cold Stress in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuan; Liu, Lijun; Wei, Yunzhu; Li, Gaopeng; Yue, Xiule; An, Lizhe

    2017-01-01

    As a result of global warming, vegetation suffers from repeated freeze-thaw cycles caused by more frequent short-term low temperatures induced by hail, snow, or night frost. Therefore, short-term freezing stress of plants should be investigated particularly in light of the current climatic conditions. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) plays a central role in the metabolism of alcohols and aldehydes and it is a key enzyme in anaerobic fermentation. ADH1 responds to plant growth and environmental stress; however, the function of ADH1 in the response to short-term freezing stress remains unknown. Using real-time quantitative fluorescence PCR, the expression level of ADH1 was analyzed at low temperature (4°C). The lethal temperature was calculated based on the electrolyte leakage tests for both ADH1 deletion mutants (adh1) and wild type (WT) plants. To further investigate the relationship between ADH1 and cold tolerance in plants, low-Mr polar metabolite analyses of Arabidopsis adh1 and WT were performed at cold temperatures using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This investigation focused on freezing treatments (cold acclimation group: −6°C for 2 h with prior 4°C for 7 d, cold shock group: −6°C for 2 h without cold acclimation) and recovery (23°C for 24 h) with respect to seedling growth at optimum temperature. The experimental results revealed a significant increase in ADH1 expression during low temperature treatment (4°C) and at a higher lethal temperature in adh1 compared to that in the WT. Retention time indices and specific mass fragments were used to monitor 263 variables and annotate 78 identified metabolites. From these analyses, differences in the degree of metabolite accumulation between adh1 and WT were detected, including soluble sugars (e.g., sucrose) and amino acids (e.g., asparagine). In addition, the correlation-based network analysis highlighted some metabolites, e.g., melibiose, fumaric acid, succinic acid, glycolic acid, and xylose, which

  11. Metabolite Profiling of adh1 Mutant Response to Cold Stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuan; Liu, Lijun; Wei, Yunzhu; Li, Gaopeng; Yue, Xiule; An, Lizhe

    2016-01-01

    As a result of global warming, vegetation suffers from repeated freeze-thaw cycles caused by more frequent short-term low temperatures induced by hail, snow, or night frost. Therefore, short-term freezing stress of plants should be investigated particularly in light of the current climatic conditions. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) plays a central role in the metabolism of alcohols and aldehydes and it is a key enzyme in anaerobic fermentation. ADH1 responds to plant growth and environmental stress; however, the function of ADH1 in the response to short-term freezing stress remains unknown. Using real-time quantitative fluorescence PCR, the expression level of ADH1 was analyzed at low temperature (4°C). The lethal temperature was calculated based on the electrolyte leakage tests for both ADH1 deletion mutants (adh1) and wild type (WT) plants. To further investigate the relationship between ADH1 and cold tolerance in plants, low-Mr polar metabolite analyses of Arabidopsis adh1 and WT were performed at cold temperatures using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This investigation focused on freezing treatments (cold acclimation group: -6°C for 2 h with prior 4°C for 7 d, cold shock group: -6°C for 2 h without cold acclimation) and recovery (23°C for 24 h) with respect to seedling growth at optimum temperature. The experimental results revealed a significant increase in ADH1 expression during low temperature treatment (4°C) and at a higher lethal temperature in adh1 compared to that in the WT. Retention time indices and specific mass fragments were used to monitor 263 variables and annotate 78 identified metabolites. From these analyses, differences in the degree of metabolite accumulation between adh1 and WT were detected, including soluble sugars (e.g., sucrose) and amino acids (e.g., asparagine). In addition, the correlation-based network analysis highlighted some metabolites, e.g., melibiose, fumaric acid, succinic acid, glycolic acid, and xylose, which

  12. DNA breakage and induction of DNA damage response proteins precede the appearance of visible mutant huntingtin aggregates.

    PubMed

    Illuzzi, Jennifer; Yerkes, Sarah; Parekh-Olmedo, Hetal; Kmiec, Eric B

    2009-02-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that follows an autosomal-dominant inheritance pattern. The pathogenesis of the disease depends on the degree of expansion of triplet (CAG) repeats located in the first exon on the gene. An expanded polyglutamine tract within the protein huntingtin (Htt) enables a gain-of-function phenotype that is often exhibited by a dysfunctional oligomerization process and the formation of protein aggregates. How this process leads to neurodegeneration remains undefined. We report that expression of a Htt-fragment containing an expanded glutamine tract induces DNA damage and activates the DNA damage response pathway. Both single-strand and double-strand breaks are observed as the mutant protein accumulates in the cell; these breaks precede the appearance of detectable protein aggregates containing mutant Htt. We also observe activation of H2AX, ATM, and p53 in cells expressing mutant Htt, a predictable response in cells containing chromosomal breakage. Expression of wild-type Htt does not affect the integrity of DNA, nor does it activate the same pathway. Furthermore, DNA damage and activated H2AX are present in HD transgenic mice before the formation of mutant Htt aggregates and HD pathogenesis. Taken together, our data suggest that the expression of mutant Htt causes an accumulation of DNA breaks that activates the DNA damage response pathway, a process that can disable cell function. Because these events can lead to apoptosis, it is possible that the DNA damage response pathway activated by single- and double-strand breaks that we found contributes to neurodegeneration.

  13. Association between Interferon Response and Protective Efficacy of NS1-Truncated Mutants as Influenza Vaccine Candidates in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyesun; Ngunjiri, John M.; Lee, Chang-Won

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus mutants that encode C-terminally truncated NS1 proteins (NS1-truncated mutants) are attractive candidates for avian live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) development because they are both attenuated and immunogenic in chickens. We previously showed that a high protective efficacy of NS1-truncated LAIV in chickens corresponds with induction of high levels of type I interferon (IFN) responses in chicken embryonic fibroblast cells. In this study, we investigated the relationship between induction of IFN and IFN-stimulated gene responses in vivo and the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of NS1-truncated LAIV. Our data demonstrates that accelerated antibody induction and protective efficacy of NS1-truncated LAIV correlates well with upregulation of IFN-stimulated genes. Further, through oral administration of recombinant chicken IFN alpha in drinking water, we provide direct evidence that type I IFN can promote rapid induction of adaptive immune responses and protective efficacy of influenza vaccine in chickens. PMID:27257989

  14. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiator VX-770 (ivacaftor) opens the defective channel gate of mutant CFTR in a phosphorylation-dependent but ATP-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Eckford, Paul D W; Li, Canhui; Ramjeesingh, Mohabir; Bear, Christine E

    2012-10-26

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) acts as a channel on the apical membrane of epithelia. Disease-causing mutations in the cystic fibrosis gene can lead to CFTR protein misfolding as in the case of the F508del mutation and/or channel dysfunction. Recently, a small molecule, VX-770 (ivacaftor), has shown efficacy in restoring lung function in patients bearing the G551D mutation, and this has been linked to repair of its channel gating defect. However, these studies did not reveal the mechanism of action of VX-770 in detail. Normally, CFTR channel activity is regulated by phosphorylation, ATP binding, and hydrolysis. Hence, it has been hypothesized that VX-770 modifies one or more of these metabolic events. In this study, we examined VX-770 activity using a reconstitution system for purified CFTR protein, a system that enables control of known regulatory factors. We studied the consequences of VX-770 interaction with CFTR incorporated in planar lipid bilayers and in proteoliposomes, using a novel flux-based assay. We found that purified and phosphorylated CFTR was potentiated in the presence of Mg-ATP, suggesting that VX-770 bound directly to the CFTR protein, rather than associated kinases or phosphatases. Interestingly, we also found that VX-770 enhanced the channel activity of purified and mutant CFTR in the nominal absence of Mg-ATP. These findings suggest that VX-770 can cause CFTR channel opening through a nonconventional ATP-independent mechanism. This work sets the stage for future studies of the structural properties that mediate CFTR gating using VX-770 as a probe.

  15. Photic entrainment of Period mutant mice is predicted from their phase response curves

    PubMed Central

    Pendergast, Julie S.; Friday, Rio C.; Yamazaki, Shin

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental property of circadian clocks is that they entrain to environmental cues. The circadian genes, Period1 and Period2, are involved in entrainment of the mammalian circadian system. To investigate the roles of the Period genes in photic entrainment, we constructed phase response curves (PRC) to light pulses for C57BL/6J wild-type, Per1−/−, Per2−/−, and Per3−/− mice and tested whether the PRCs accurately predict entrainment to non-24 light-dark cycles (T-cycles) and constant light (LL). The PRCs of wild-type and Per3−/− mice are similar in shape and amplitude and have relatively large delay zones and small advance zones, resulting in successful entrainment to T26, but not T21, with similar phase angles. Per1−/− mice have a high-amplitude PRC, resulting in entrainment to a broad range of T-cycles. Per2−/− mice also entrain to a wide range of T-cycles because the advance portion of their PRC is larger than wild-types. Period aftereffects following entrainment to T-cycles were similar among all genotypes. We found that the ratio of the advance portion to the delay portion of the PRC accurately predicts the lengthening of the period of the activity rhythm in LL. Wild-type, Per1−/−, and Per3−/− mice had larger delay zones than advance zones and lengthened (>24hrs) periods in LL, while Per2−/− mice had delay and advance zones that were equal in size and no period lengthening in LL. Together, these results demonstrate that PRCs are powerful tools for predicting and understanding photic entrainment of circadian mutant mice. PMID:20826680

  16. The Effect of RDX Crystal Defect Structure on Mechanical Response of a Polymer-Bonded Explosive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-09

    DOI: 10.1002/prep.201500222 The Effect of RDX Crystal Defect Structure on Mechanical Response of a Polymer -Bonded Explosive Richard H. B. Bouma[a...sensitivity of a polymer bonded explosive is generally accepted (Doherty and Watt, 2008). Here the response to a mechanical non-shock stimulus is studied using...distinct regarding the rate of diameter in- crease in the explosion-driven deformation test. Recovered polymer bonded explosive from the explosion-driven

  17. Possible Role of MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING 3 and B-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN 19 in Flowering Time Regulation of Arabidopsis Mutants with Defects in Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay

    PubMed Central

    Nasim, Zeeshan; Fahim, Muhammad; Ahn, Ji Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells use nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) to clear aberrant mRNAs from the cell, thus preventing the accumulation of truncated proteins. In Arabidopsis, two UP-Frameshift (UPF) proteins, UPF1 and UPF3, play a critical role in NMD. Although deficiency of UPF1 and UPF3 leads to various developmental defects, little is known about the mechanism underlying the regulation of flowering time by NMD. Here, we showed that the upf1-5 and upf3-1 mutants had a late-flowering phenotype under long-day conditions and the upf1-5 upf3-1 double mutants had an additive effect in delaying flowering time. RNA sequencing of the upf mutants revealed that UPF3 exerted a stronger effect than UPF1 in the UPF-mediated regulation of flowering time. Among genes known to regulate flowering time, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) mRNA levels increased (up to 8-fold) in upf mutants, as confirmed by qPCR. The upf1-5, upf3-1, and upf1-5 upf3-1 mutants responded to vernalization, suggesting a role of FLC in delayed flowering of upf mutants. Consistent with the high FLC transcript levels and delayed flowering in upf mutants, levels of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) mRNAs were reduced in the upf mutants. However, RNA-seq did not identify an aberrant FLC transcript containing a premature termination codon (PTC), suggesting that FLC is not a direct target in the regulation of flowering time by NMD. Among flowering time regulators that act in an FLC-dependent manner, we found that MAF3, NF-YA2, NF-YA5, and TAF14 showed increased transcript levels in upf mutants. We also found that BBX19 and ATC, which act in an FLC-independent manner, showed increased transcript levels in upf mutants. An aberrant transcript containing a PTC was identified from MAF3 and BBX19 and the levels of the aberrant transcripts increased in upf mutants. Taking these results together, we propose that the late-flowering phenotype of upf mutants is mediated by at least two different

  18. Possible Role of MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING 3 and B-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN 19 in Flowering Time Regulation of Arabidopsis Mutants with Defects in Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay.

    PubMed

    Nasim, Zeeshan; Fahim, Muhammad; Ahn, Ji Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells use nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) to clear aberrant mRNAs from the cell, thus preventing the accumulation of truncated proteins. In Arabidopsis, two UP-Frameshift (UPF) proteins, UPF1 and UPF3, play a critical role in NMD. Although deficiency of UPF1 and UPF3 leads to various developmental defects, little is known about the mechanism underlying the regulation of flowering time by NMD. Here, we showed that the upf1-5 and upf3-1 mutants had a late-flowering phenotype under long-day conditions and the upf1-5 upf3-1 double mutants had an additive effect in delaying flowering time. RNA sequencing of the upf mutants revealed that UPF3 exerted a stronger effect than UPF1 in the UPF-mediated regulation of flowering time. Among genes known to regulate flowering time, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) mRNA levels increased (up to 8-fold) in upf mutants, as confirmed by qPCR. The upf1-5, upf3-1, and upf1-5 upf3-1 mutants responded to vernalization, suggesting a role of FLC in delayed flowering of upf mutants. Consistent with the high FLC transcript levels and delayed flowering in upf mutants, levels of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) mRNAs were reduced in the upf mutants. However, RNA-seq did not identify an aberrant FLC transcript containing a premature termination codon (PTC), suggesting that FLC is not a direct target in the regulation of flowering time by NMD. Among flowering time regulators that act in an FLC-dependent manner, we found that MAF3, NF-YA2, NF-YA5, and TAF14 showed increased transcript levels in upf mutants. We also found that BBX19 and ATC, which act in an FLC-independent manner, showed increased transcript levels in upf mutants. An aberrant transcript containing a PTC was identified from MAF3 and BBX19 and the levels of the aberrant transcripts increased in upf mutants. Taking these results together, we propose that the late-flowering phenotype of upf mutants is mediated by at least two different

  19. Defective lipoprotein sorting induces lolA expression through the Rcs stress response phosphorelay system.

    PubMed

    Tao, Kazuyuki; Narita, Shin-Ichiro; Tokuda, Hajime

    2012-07-01

    The Escherichia coli LolA protein is a lipoprotein-specific chaperone that carries lipoproteins from the inner to the outer membrane. A dominant negative LolA mutant, LolA(I93C/F140C), in which both (93)Ile and (140)Phe are replaced by Cys, binds tightly to the lipoprotein-dedicated ABC transporter LolCDE complex on the inner membrane and therefore inhibits the detachment of outer membrane-specific lipoproteins from the inner membrane. We found that the expression of this mutant strongly induced lolA gene transcription. The depletion of the LolA or LolB protein also triggered lolA gene transcription, indicating that the inhibition of outer membrane lipoprotein transport triggers lolA transcription. To elucidate the mechanism, we isolated mutants that are unable to induce lolA transcription using the lacZ gene fused to the lolA promoter as a reporter and found that the Rcs phosphorelay system directly regulates lolA transcription. An outer membrane lipoprotein, RcsF, was essential for this activation, while the coactivator RcsA was dispensable. Taking the observation that an RcsF mutant localized in the inner membrane constitutively activated the Rcs phosphorelay system into consideration, the results shown here strongly suggest that correct lipoprotein sorting to the outer membrane is monitored by RcsF, which plays a key role in the Rcs stress response system.

  20. Defect-Induced Optoelectronic Response in Single-layer Group-VI Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Philippe K.

    The ever-evolving symbiosis between mankind and nanoelectronics-driven technology pushes the limits of its constituent materials, largely due to the dominance of undesirable hetero-interfacial physiochemical behavior at the few-nanometer length scale, which dominates over bulk material characteristics. Driven by such instabilities, research into two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals-layered materials (e.g. graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), boron nitride), which have characteristically inert surface chemistry, has virtually exploded over the past few years. The discovery of an indirect- to direct-gap conversion in semiconducting group-VI TMDCs (e.g. MoS2) upon thinning to a single atomic layer provided the critical link between metallic and insulating 2D materials. While proof-of-concept demonstrations of single-layer TMDC-based devices for visible-range photodetection, light-emission and solar energy conversion have showed promising results, the exciting qualities are downplayed by poorly-understood defectinduced photocarrier traps, limiting the best-achieved external quantum efficiencies to approximately ~1%. This thesis explores the behavior of defects in atomically-thin TMDC layers in response to optical stimuli using a combination of steady-state photoluminescence, reflectance and Raman spectroscopy at room-temperature. By systematically varying the defect density using plasma-irradiation techniques, an unprecedented room-temperature defect-induced monolayer PL feature was discovered. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy correlated the defect-induced PL with plasma-generation of sulfur vacancy defects while reflectance measurements indicate defect-induced sub-bandgap light absorption. Excitation intensity-dependent PL measurements and exciton rate modeling further help elucidate the origin of the defect-induced PL response and highlights the role of non-radiative recombination on exciton conversion processes. The results in this

  1. Isolation and characterization of mutant Sinorhizobium meliloti NodD1 proteins with altered responses to luteolin.

    PubMed

    Peck, Melicent C; Fisher, Robert F; Bliss, Robert; Long, Sharon R

    2013-08-01

    NodD1, a member of the NodD family of LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTRs), mediates nodulation (nod) gene expression in the soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti in response to the plant-secreted flavonoid luteolin. We used genetic screens and targeted approaches to identify NodD1 residues that show altered responses to luteolin during the activation of nod gene transcription. Here we report four types of NodD1 mutants. Type I (NodD1 L69F, S104L, D134N, and M193I mutants) displays reduced or no activation of nod gene expression. Type II (NodD1 K205N) is constitutively active but repressed by luteolin. Type III (NodD1 L280F) demonstrates enhanced activity with luteolin compared to that of wild-type NodD1. Type IV (NodD1 D284N) shows moderate constitutive activity yet can still be induced by luteolin. In the absence of luteolin, many mutants display a low binding affinity for nod gene promoter DNA in vitro. Several mutants also show, as does wild-type NodD1, increased affinity for nod gene promoters with added luteolin. All of the NodD1 mutant proteins can homodimerize and heterodimerize with wild-type NodD1. Based on these data and the crystal structures of several LTTRs, we present a structural model of wild-type NodD1, identifying residues important for inducer binding, protein multimerization, and interaction with RNA polymerase at nod gene promoters.

  2. Defective anti-polysaccharide antibody response in patients with ataxia-telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Sanal, Ozden; Ozbaş-Gerçeker, Filiz; Yel, Leman; Ersoy, Fügen; Tezcan, Ilhan; Berkel, A Izzet; Metin, Ayşe; Gatti, Richard A

    2004-01-01

    The immunodeficiency in ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) patients involves both cellular and humoral immunity; however, the specific antibody response is not well defined. Frequent respiratory infections are a prominent feature in A-T. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common pathogen responsible for these infections. Defective B cell membrane signaling has been reported in A-T cells. These observations prompted us to investigate the B cell response to six frequently encountered pneumococcal serotypes in A-T patients. We found defective IgG antibody production to all studied serotypes (3, 6B, 7F, 14, 19F, and 23F) in 22 of 31 A-T patients (71%) who were immunized with a polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine. The impaired antibody responses did not correlate with either history of infection or serum immunoglobulin isotype levels. In addition, we did not observe any correlation between the pneumococcal antibody production and a specific mutation or level of intracellular ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) protein in lysates of lymphoblastoid cell lines from these patients. Our results suggest that the extent and severity of the recurrent sinopulmonary infections may depend not only on the immunological defects but also on other ATM-dependent physiological responses.

  3. Diabetic pdx1-mutant zebrafish show conserved responses to nutrient overload and anti-glycemic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kimmel, Robin A.; Dobler, Stefan; Schmitner, Nicole; Walsen, Tanja; Freudenblum, Julia; Meyer, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by disrupted glucose homeostasis due to loss or dysfunction of insulin-producing beta cells. In this work, we characterize pancreatic islet development and function in zebrafish mutant for pdx1, a gene which in humans is linked to genetic forms of diabetes and is associated with increased susceptibility to Type 2 diabetes. Pdx1 mutant zebrafish have the key diabetic features of reduced beta cells, decreased insulin and elevated glucose. The hyperglycemia responds to pharmacologic anti-diabetic treatment and, as often seen in mammalian diabetes models, beta cells of pdx1 mutants show sensitivity to nutrient overload. This unique genetic model of diabetes provides a new tool for elucidating the mechanisms behind hyperglycemic pathologies and will allow the testing of novel therapeutic interventions in a model organism that is amenable to high-throughput approaches. PMID:26384018

  4. A huntingtin-mediated fast stress response halting endosomal trafficking is defective in Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Siddharth; Munsie, Lise N.; Truant, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Cellular stress is a normal part of the aging process and is especially relevant in neurodegenerative disease. Canonical stress responses, such as the heat shock response, activate following exposure to stress and restore proteostasis through the action of isomerases and chaperones within the cytosol. Through live-cell imaging, we demonstrate involvement of the Huntington's disease (HD) protein, huntingtin, in a rapid cell stress response that lies temporally upstream of canonical stress responses. This response is characterized by the formation of distinct cytosolic puncta and reversible localization of huntingtin to early endosomes. The formation of these puncta, which we have termed huntingtin stress bodies (HSBs), is associated with arrest of early-to-recycling and early-to-late endosomal trafficking. The critical domains for this response have been mapped to two regions of huntingtin flanking the polyglutamine tract, and we observe polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin-expressing cells to be defective in their ability to recover from this stress response. We propose that HSB formation rapidly diverts high ATP use from vesicular trafficking during stress, thus mobilizing canonical stress responses without relying on increased energy metabolism, and that restoration from this response is defective in HD. PMID:25205111

  5. Modeling pathogenic mutations of human twinkle in Drosophila suggests an apoptosis role in response to mitochondrial defects.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Martinez, Alvaro; Calleja, Manuel; Peralta, Susana; Matsushima, Yuichi; Hernandez-Sierra, Rosana; Whitworth, Alexander J; Kaguni, Laurie S; Garesse, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    The human gene C10orf2 encodes the mitochondrial replicative DNA helicase Twinkle, mutations of which are responsible for a significant fraction of cases of autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO), a human mitochondrial disease caused by defects in intergenomic communication. We report the analysis of orthologous mutations in the Drosophila melanogaster mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) helicase gene, d-mtDNA helicase. Increased expression of wild type d-mtDNA helicase using the UAS-GAL4 system leads to an increase in mtDNA copy number throughout adult life without any noteworthy phenotype, whereas overexpression of d-mtDNA helicase containing the K388A mutation in the helicase active site results in a severe depletion of mtDNA and a lethal phenotype. Overexpression of two d-mtDNA helicase variants equivalent to two human adPEO mutations shows differential effects. The A442P mutation exhibits a dominant negative effect similar to that of the active site mutant. In contrast, overexpression of d-mtDNA helicase containing the W441C mutation results in a slight decrease in mtDNA copy number during the third instar larval stage, and a moderate decrease in life span in the adult population. Overexpression of d-mtDNA helicase containing either the K388A or A442P mutations causes a mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) defect that significantly reduces cell proliferation. The mitochondrial impairment caused by these mutations promotes apoptosis, arguing that mitochondria regulate programmed cell death in Drosophila. Our study of d-mtDNA helicase overexpression provides a tractable Drosophila model for understanding the cellular and molecular effects of human adPEO mutations.

  6. Survival and SOS response induction in ultraviolet B irradiated Escherichia coli cells with defective repair mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Prada Medina, Cesar Augusto; Aristizabal Tessmer, Elke Tatjana; Quintero Ruiz, Nathalia; Serment-Guerrero, Jorge; Fuentes, Jorge Luis

    2016-06-01

    Purpose In this paper, the contribution of different genes involved in DNA repair for both survival and SOS induction in Escherichia coli mutants exposed to ultraviolet B radiation (UVB, [wavelength range 280-315 nm]) was evaluated. Materials and methods E. coli strains defective in uvrA, oxyR, recO, recN, recJ, exoX, recB, recD or xonA genes were used to determine cell survival. All strains also had the genetic sulA::lacZ fusion, which allowed for the quantification of SOS induction through the SOS Chromotest. Results Five gene products were particularly important for survival, as follows: UvrA > RecB > RecO > RecJ > XonA. Strains defective in uvrA and recJ genes showed elevated SOS induction compared with the wild type, which remained stable for up to 240 min after UVB-irradiation. In addition, E. coli strains carrying the recO or recN mutation showed no SOS induction. Conclusions The nucleotide excision and DNA recombination pathways were equally used to repair UVB-induced DNA damage in E. coli cells. The sulA gene was not turned off in strains defective in UvrA and RecJ. RecO protein was essential for processing DNA damage prior to SOS induction. In this study, the roles of DNA repair proteins and their contributions to the mechanisms that induce SOS genes in E. coli are proposed.

  7. Isolation and characterization of a spotted leaf 32 mutant with early leaf senescence and enhanced defense response in rice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liting; Wang, Yihua; Liu, Ling-long; Wang, Chunming; Gan, Ting; Zhang, Zhengyao; Wang, Yunlong; Wang, Di; Niu, Mei; Long, Wuhua; Li, Xiaohui; Zheng, Ming; Jiang, Ling; Wan, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    Leaf senescence is a complex biological process and defense responses play vital role for rice development, their molecular mechanisms, however, remain elusive in rice. We herein reported a rice mutant spotted leaf 32 (spl32) derived from a rice cultivar 9311 by radiation. The spl32 plants displayed early leaf senescence, identified by disintegration of chloroplasts as cellular evidence, dramatically decreased contents of chlorophyll, up-regulation of superoxide dismutase enzyme activity and malondialdehyde, as physiological characteristic, and both up-regulation of senescence-induced STAY GREEN gene and senescence-associated transcription factors, and down-regulation of photosynthesis-associated genes, as molecular indicators. Positional cloning revealed that SPL32 encodes a ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase (Fd-GOGAT). Compared to wild type, enzyme activity of GOGAT was significantly decreased, and free amino acid contents, particularly for glutamate and glutamine, were altered in spl32 leaves. Moreover, the mutant was subjected to uncontrolled oxidative stress due to over-produced reactive oxygen species and damaged scavenging pathways, in accordance with decreased photorespiration rate. Besides, the mutant showed higher resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae than its wild type, coupled with up-regulation of four pathogenesis-related marker genes. Taken together, our results highlight Fd-GOGAT is associated with the regulation of leaf senescence and defense responses in rice. PMID:28139777

  8. Mechanical touch responses of Arabidopsis TCH1-3 mutant roots on inclined hard-agar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Guodong; Wang, Bochu; Liu, Junyu; Yan, Jie; Zhu, Liqing; Yang, Xingyan

    2016-01-01

    The gravity-induced mechanical touch stimulus can affect plant root architecture. Mechanical touch responses of plant roots are an important aspect of plant root growth and development. Previous studies have reported that Arabidopsis TCH1-3 genes are involved in mechano-related events, how-ever, the physiological functions of TCH1-3 genes in Arabidopsis root mechanoresponses remain unclear. In the present study, we applied an inclined hard agar plate method to produce mechanical touch stimulus, and provided evidence that altered mechanical environment could influence root growth. Furthermore, tch1-3 Arabidopsis mutants were investigated on inclined agar surfaces to explore the functions of TCH1-3 genes on Arabidopsis root mechanoresponses. The results showed that two tch2 mutants, cml24-2 and cml24-4, exhibited significantly reduced root length, biased skewing, and decreased density of lateral root. In addition, primary root length and density of lateral root of tch3 (cml12-2) was significantly decreased on inclined agar surfaces. This study indicates that the tch2 and tch3 mutants are hypersensitive to mechanical touch stimulus, and TCH2 (CML24-2 and CML24-4) and TCH3 (CML12-2) genes may participate in the mechanical touch response of Arabidopsis roots.

  9. Growth and sporulation defects in Bacillus subtilis mutants with a single rrn operon can be suppressed by amplification of the rrn operon.

    PubMed

    Yano, Koichi; Masuda, Kenta; Akanuma, Genki; Wada, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Takashi; Shiwa, Yuh; Ishige, Taichiro; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Niki, Hironori; Inaoka, Takashi; Kawamura, Fujio

    2016-01-01

    The genome of Bacillus subtilis strain 168 encodes ten rRNA (rrn) operons. We previously reported that strains with only a single rrn operon had a decreased growth and sporulation frequency. We report here the isolation and characterization of suppressor mutants from seven strains that each have a single rrn operon (rrnO, A, J, I, E, D or B). The suppressor mutants for strain RIK656 with a single rrnO operon had a higher frequency of larger colonies. These suppressor mutants had not only increased growth rates, but also increased sporulation frequencies and ribosome levels compared to the parental mutant strain RIK656. Quantitative PCR analyses showed that all these suppressor mutants had an increased number of copies of the rrnO operon. Suppressor mutants were also isolated from the six other strains with single rrn operons (rrnA, J, I, E, D or B). Next generation and capillary sequencing showed that all of the suppressor mutants had tandem repeats of the chromosomal locus containing the remaining rrn operon (amplicon). These amplicons varied in size from approximately 9 to 179 kb. The amplifications were likely to be initiated by illegitimate recombination between non- or micro-homologous sequences, followed by unequal crossing-over during DNA replication. These results are consistent with our previous report that rrn operon copy number has a major role in cellular processes such as cell growth and sporulation.

  10. Immunogenic response induced by wzm and wzt gene deletion mutants from Brucella abortus S19.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu-Ran; Yan, Guang-Mou; Zhang, Rui; Lang, Xu-Long; Yang, Yan-Ling; Li, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Si; Qian, Jing; Wang, Xing-Long

    2014-02-01

    Brucellosis is an infectious disease affecting humans and animals worldwide. Effective methods of control include inducing immunity in animals by vaccination and elimination. Brucella abortus S19 is one of the popular vaccines for control of cattle brucellosis, as it has low virulence. In this paper, allelic exchange plasmids of wzm and wzt genes were constructed and partially knocked out to evaluate the effects on the induction of immunity to Brucella abortus S19 mutants. Cytokine secretion in vitro, INF-γ induction in vivo and antibody dynamics were evaluated. These data suggested that the immunity-eliciting ability of the wzm and wzt gene deletion mutants was similar, although reduced compared with the S19 strain. The results demonstrated that the wzt gene may be more important in the regulation of the induction of immunity than the wzm gene.

  11. Genome stability of Arabidopsis atm, ku80 and rad51b mutants: somatic and transgenerational responses to stress.

    PubMed

    Yao, Youli; Bilichak, Andriy; Titov, Viktor; Golubov, Andrey; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2013-06-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can be repaired via two main mechanisms: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). Our previous work showed that exposure to abiotic stresses resulted in an increase in point mutation frequency (PMF) and homologous recombination frequency (HRF), and these changes were heritable. We hypothesized that mutants impaired in DSB recognition and repair would also be deficient in somatic and transgenerational changes in PMF and HRF. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the genome stability of the Arabidopsis thaliana mutants deficient in ATM (communication between DNA strand break recognition and the repair machinery), KU80 (deficient in NHEJ) and RAD51B (deficient in HR repair) genes. We found that all three mutants exhibited higher levels of DSBs. Plants impaired in ATM had a lower spontaneous PMF and HRF, whereas ku80 plants had higher frequencies. Plants impaired in RAD51B had a lower HRF. HRF in wild-type, atm and rad51b plants increased in response to several abiotic stressors, whereas it did not increase in ku80 plants. The progeny of stressed wild-type and ku80 plants exhibited an increase in HRF in response to all stresses, and the increase was higher in ku80 plants. The progeny of atm plants showed an increase in HRF only when the parental generation was exposed to cold or flood, whereas the progeny of rad51b plants completely lacked a transgenerational increase in HRF. Our experiments showed that mutants impaired in the recognition and repair of DSBs exhibited changes in the efficiency of DNA repair as reflected by changes in strand breaks, point mutation and HRF. They also showed that the HR RAD51B protein and the protein ATM that recognized damaged DNA might play an important role in transgenerational changes in HRF.

  12. Identification of sonic hedgehog as a candidate gene responsible for the polydactylous mouse mutant Sasquatch.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, J; Lettice, L; Hecksher-Sorensen, J; Fox, M; Hill, R; Krumlauf, R

    1999-01-28

    The mouse mutants of the hemimelia-luxate group (lx, lu, lst, Dh, Xt, and the more recently identified Hx, Xpl and Rim4; [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]) have in common preaxial polydactyly and longbone abnormalities. Associated with the duplication of digits are changes in the regulation of development of the anterior limb bud resulting in ectopic expression of signalling components such as Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and fibroblast growth factor-4 (Fgf4), but little is known about the molecular causes of this misregulation. We generated, by a transgene insertion event, a new member of this group of mutants, Sasquatch (Ssq), which disrupted aspects of both anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) patterning. The mutant displayed preaxial polydactyly in the hindlimbs of heterozygous embryos, and in both hindlimbs and forelimbs of homozygotes. The Shh, Fgf4, Fgf8, Hoxd12 and Hoxd13 genes were all ectopically expressed in the anterior region of affected limb buds. The insertion site was found to lie close to the Shh locus. Furthermore, expression from the transgene reporter has come under the control of a regulatory element that directs a pattern mirroring the endogenous expression pattern of Shh in limbs. In abnormal limbs, both Shh and the reporter were ectopically induced in the anterior region, whereas in normal limbs the reporter and Shh were restricted to the zone of polarising activity (ZPA). These data strongly suggest that Ssq is caused by direct interference with the cis regulation of the Shh gene.

  13. AarF Domain Containing Kinase 3 (ADCK3) Mutant Cells Display Signs of Oxidative Stress, Defects in Mitochondrial Homeostasis and Lysosomal Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Jason K.; Abdul Murad, Norazian; Yeo, Abrey; McKenzie, Matthew; Ward, Micheal; Chong, Kok Leong; Schieber, Nicole L.; Parton, Robert G.; Lim, Yi Chieh; Wolvetang, Ernst; Maghzal, Ghassan J.; Stocker, Roland; Lavin, Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal recessive ataxias are a clinically diverse group of syndromes that in some cases are caused by mutations in genes with roles in the DNA damage response, transcriptional regulation or mitochondrial function. One of these ataxias, known as Autosomal Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia Type-2 (ARCA-2, also known as SCAR9/COQ10D4; OMIM: #612016), arises due to mutations in the ADCK3 gene. The product of this gene (ADCK3) is an atypical kinase that is thought to play a regulatory role in coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) biosynthesis. Although much work has been performed on the S. cerevisiae orthologue of ADCK3, the cellular and biochemical role of its mammalian counterpart, and why mutations in this gene lead to human disease is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that ADCK3 localises to mitochondrial cristae and is targeted to this organelle via the presence of an N-terminal localisation signal. Consistent with a role in CoQ10 biosynthesis, ADCK3 deficiency decreased cellular CoQ10 content. In addition, endogenous ADCK3 was found to associate in vitro with recombinant Coq3, Coq5, Coq7 and Coq9, components of the CoQ10 biosynthetic machinery. Furthermore, cell lines derived from ARCA-2 patients display signs of oxidative stress, defects in mitochondrial homeostasis and increases in lysosomal content. Together, these data shed light on the possible molecular role of ADCK3 and provide insight into the cellular pathways affected in ARCA-2 patients. PMID:26866375

  14. phoP, SPI1, SPI2 and aroA mutants of Salmonella Enteritidis induce a different immune response in chickens.

    PubMed

    Elsheimer-Matulova, Marta; Varmuzova, Karolina; Kyrova, Kamila; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rahman, Masudur; Rychlik, Ivan

    2015-09-17

    Poultry is the most frequent reservoir of non-typhoid Salmonella enterica for humans. Understanding the interactions between chickens and S. enterica is therefore important for vaccine design and subsequent decrease in the incidence of human salmonellosis. In this study we therefore characterized the interactions between chickens and phoP, aroA, SPI1 and SPI2 mutants of S. Enteritidis. First we tested the response of HD11 chicken macrophage-like cell line to S. Enteritidis infection monitoring the transcription of 36 genes related to immune response. All the mutants and the wild type strain induced inflammatory signaling in the HD11 cell line though the response to SPI1 mutant infection was different from the rest of the mutants. When newly hatched chickens were inoculated, the phoP as well as the SPI1 mutant did not induce an expression of any of the tested genes in the cecum. Despite this, such chickens were protected against challenge with wild-type S. Enteritidis. On the other hand, inoculation of chickens with the aroA or SPI2 mutant induced expression of 27 and 18 genes, respectively, including genes encoding immunoglobulins. Challenge of chickens inoculated with these two mutants resulted in repeated induction of 11 and 13 tested genes, respectively, including the genes encoding immunoglobulins. In conclusion, SPI1 and phoP mutants induced protective immunity without inducing an inflammatory response and antibody production. Inoculation of chickens with the SPI2 and aroA mutants also led to protective immunity but was associated with inflammation and antibody production. The differences in interaction between the mutants and chicken host can be used for a more detailed understanding of the chicken immune system.

  15. ATP11C mutation is responsible for the defect in phosphatidylserine uptake in UPS-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Takada, Naoto; Takatsu, Hiroyuki; Miyano, Rie; Nakayama, Kazuhisa; Shin, Hye-Won

    2015-01-01

    Type IV P-type ATPases (P4-ATPases) translocate phospholipids from the exoplasmic to the cytoplasmic leaflets of cellular membranes. We and others previously showed that ATP11C, a member of the P4-ATPases, translocates phosphatidylserine (PS) at the plasma membrane. Twenty years ago, the UPS-1 (uptake of fluorescent PS analogs) cell line was isolated from mutagenized Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells with a defect in nonendocytic uptake of nitrobenzoxadiazole PS. Due to its defect in PS uptake, the UPS-1 cell line has been used in an assay for PS-flipping activity; however, the gene(s) responsible for the defect have not been identified to date. Here, we found that the mRNA level of ATP11C was dramatically reduced in UPS-1 cells relative to parental CHO-K1 cells. By contrast, the level of ATP11A, another PS-flipping P4-ATPase at the plasma membrane, or CDC50A, which is essential for delivery of most P4-ATPases to the plasma membrane, was not affected in UPS-1 cells. Importantly, we identified a nonsense mutation in the ATP11C gene in UPS-1 cells, indicating that the intact ATP11C protein is not expressed. Moreover, exogenous expression of ATP11C can restore PS uptake in UPS-1 cells. These results indicate that lack of the functional ATP11C protein is responsible for the defect in PS uptake in UPS-1 cells and ATP11C is crucial for PS flipping in CHO-K1 cells. PMID:26420878

  16. ATP11C mutation is responsible for the defect in phosphatidylserine uptake in UPS-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Takada, Naoto; Takatsu, Hiroyuki; Miyano, Rie; Nakayama, Kazuhisa; Shin, Hye-Won

    2015-11-01

    Type IV P-type ATPases (P4-ATPases) translocate phospholipids from the exoplasmic to the cytoplasmic leaflets of cellular membranes. We and others previously showed that ATP11C, a member of the P4-ATPases, translocates phosphatidylserine (PS) at the plasma membrane. Twenty years ago, the UPS-1 (uptake of fluorescent PS analogs) cell line was isolated from mutagenized Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells with a defect in nonendocytic uptake of nitrobenzoxadiazole PS. Due to its defect in PS uptake, the UPS-1 cell line has been used in an assay for PS-flipping activity; however, the gene(s) responsible for the defect have not been identified to date. Here, we found that the mRNA level of ATP11C was dramatically reduced in UPS-1 cells relative to parental CHO-K1 cells. By contrast, the level of ATP11A, another PS-flipping P4-ATPase at the plasma membrane, or CDC50A, which is essential for delivery of most P4-ATPases to the plasma membrane, was not affected in UPS-1 cells. Importantly, we identified a nonsense mutation in the ATP11C gene in UPS-1 cells, indicating that the intact ATP11C protein is not expressed. Moreover, exogenous expression of ATP11C can restore PS uptake in UPS-1 cells. These results indicate that lack of the functional ATP11C protein is responsible for the defect in PS uptake in UPS-1 cells and ATP11C is crucial for PS flipping in CHO-K1 cells.

  17. Characterization of Brucella suis clpB and clpAB Mutants and Participation of the Genes in Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Ekaza, Euloge; Teyssier, Jacques; Ouahrani-Bettache, Safia; Liautard, Jean-Pierre; Köhler, Stephan

    2001-01-01

    Pathogens often encounter stressful conditions inside their hosts. In the attempt to characterize the stress response in Brucella suis, a gene highly homologous to Escherichia coli clpB was isolated from Brucella suis, and the deduced amino acid sequence showed features typical of the ClpB ATPase family of stress response proteins. Under high-temperature stress conditions, ClpB of B. suis was induced, and an isogenic B. suis clpB mutant showed increased sensitivity to high temperature, but also to ethanol stress and acid pH. The effects were reversible by complementation. Simultaneous inactivation of clpA and clpB resulted in a mutant that was sensitive to oxidative stress. In B. suis expressing gfp, ClpA but not ClpB participated in degradation of the green fluorescent protein at 42°C. We concluded that ClpB was responsible for tolerance to several stresses and that the lethality caused by harsh environmental conditions may have similar molecular origins. PMID:11274130

  18. Non-AUG start codons responsible for ABO weak blood group alleles on initiation mutant backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Miyako; Yamamoto, Fumiichiro

    2017-01-01

    Histo-blood group ABO gene polymorphism is crucial in transfusion medicine. We studied the activity and subcellular distribution of ABO gene-encoded A glycosyltransferases with N-terminal truncation. We hypothesized that truncated enzymes starting at internal methionines drove the synthesis of oligosaccharide A antigen in those already described alleles that lack a proper translation initiation codon. Not only we tested the functionality of the mutant transferases by expressing them and assessing their capacity to drive the appearance of A antigen on the cell surface, but we also analyzed their subcellullar localization, which has not been described before. The results highlight the importance of the transmembrane domain because proteins deprived of it are not able to localize properly and deliver substantial amounts of antigen on the cell surface. Truncated proteins with their first amino acid well within the luminal domain are not properly localized and lose their enzymatic activity. Most importantly, we demonstrated that other codons than AUG might be used to start the protein synthesis rather than internal methionines in translation-initiation mutants, explaining the molecular mechanism by which transferases lacking a classical start codon are able to synthesize A/B antigens. PMID:28139731

  19. Anesthetic-resistant spontaneous mutant of Drosophila melanogaster: intensified response to /sup 60/Cobalt radiation damage

    SciTech Connect

    Gamo, S.; Nakashima-Tanaka, E.; Megumi, T.; Ueda, I.

    1985-02-25

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the extent of acute damage by ionizing irradiation is closely related to the state of membrane orderliness. Decreased orderliness apparently protects organisms from ionizing irradiation. Because anesthetics decrease membrane orderliness, anesthesia is expected to affect damages caused by ionizing irradiation. The present study compared the effects of /sup 60/Co irradiation on Drosophila melanogaster between an anesthetic-resistant spontaneous mutant and an anesthetic-sensitive strain. An anesthetic-resistant mutant strain, Eth-29, of Drosophila melanogaster has previously been established. Eth-29 is resistant to diethyl-ether, chloroform and halothane. The anesthetic-resistant strain was found to be radiosensitive when evaluated by survival at the eighth day after irradiation or by dyskinesia (knock-down) at the second day. The results indicate that anesthetic resistance may be related to an increase in orderliness. The findings in reciprocal crosses between Eth-29 and the control strain indicate that the mechanism of survival is different from that of knock-down. Presumably, knock-down is the direct sequela of irradiation, and the present result suggests that membrane damage may be involved in inducing knock-down. 18 references, 3 figures.

  20. Expression of gibberellin 3 beta-hydroxylase gene in a gravi-response mutant, weeping Japanese flowering cherry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugano, Mami; Nakagawa, Yuriko; Nyunoya, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Teruko

    2004-01-01

    Expressions of the gibberellin biosynthesis gene were investigated in a normal upright type and a gravi-response mutant, a weeping type of Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus spachiana), that is unable to support its own weight and elongates downward. A segment of the gibberellin 3 beta-hydroxylase cDNA of Prunus spachiana (Ps3ox), which is responsible for active gibberellin synthesis, was amplified by using real-time RT-PCR. The content of Ps3ox mRNA in the weeping type was much greater than that in the upright type, while the endogenous gibberellin level was much higher in the elongating zone of the weeping type. These results suggest that the amount and distribution of synthesized gibberellin regulate secondary xylem formation, and the unbalanced distribution of gibberellin affects the gravi-response of the Prunus tree.

  1. Genetic interactions and functional analyses of the fission yeast gsk3 and amk2 single and double mutants defective in TORC1-dependent processes

    PubMed Central

    Rallis, Charalampos; Townsend, StJohn; Bähler, Jürg

    2017-01-01

    The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signalling network plays important roles in aging and disease. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the Gsk3 kinase inhibit TOR during stress. We performed genetic interaction screens using synthetic genetic arrays (SGA) with gsk3 and amk2 as query mutants, the latter encoding the regulatory subunit of AMPK. We identified 69 negative and 82 positive common genetic interactors, with functions related to cellular growth and stress. The 120 gsk3-specific negative interactors included genes functioning in translation and ribosomes. The 215 amk2-specific negative interactors included genes functioning in chromatin silencing and DNA damage repair. Both amk2- and gsk3-specific interactors were enriched in phenotype categories related to abnormal cell size and shape. We also performed SGA screen with the amk2 gsk3 double mutant as a query. Mutants sensitive to 5-fluorouracil, an anticancer drug are under-represented within the 305 positive interactors specific for the amk2 gsk3 query. The triple-mutant SGA screen showed higher number of negative interactions than the double mutant SGA screens and uncovered additional genetic network information. These results reveal common and specialized roles of AMPK and Gsk3 in mediating TOR-dependent processes, indicating that AMPK and Gsk3 act in parallel to inhibit TOR function in fission yeast. PMID:28281664

  2. Arabidopsis mutants resistant to the auxin effects of indole-3-acetonitrile are defective in the nitrilase encoded by the NIT1 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Normanly, J; Grisafi, P; Fink, G R; Bartel, B

    1997-01-01

    Indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) is a candidate precursor of the plant growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). We demonstrated that IAN has auxinlike effects on Arabidopsis seedlings and that exogenous IAN is converted to IAA in vivo. We isolated mutants with reduced sensitivity to IAN that remained sensitive to IAA. These mutants were recessive and fell into a single complementation group that mapped to chromosome 3, within 0.5 centimorgans of a cluster of three nitrilase-encoding genes, NIT1, NIT2, and NIT3. Each of the three mutants contained a single base change in the coding region of the NIT1 gene, and the expression pattern of NIT1 is consistent with the IAN insensitivity observed in the nit1 mutant alleles. The half-life of IAN and levels of IAA and IAN were unchanged in the nit1 mutant, confirming that Arabidopsis has other functional nitrilases. Overexpressing NIT2 in transgenic Arabidopsis caused increased sensitivity to IAN and faster turnover of exogenous IAN in vivo. PMID:9368415

  3. 49 CFR 210.7 - Responsibility for noise defective railroad equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... that uses railroad equipment that is noise defective or engages in a car coupling operating that... defect; (b) Remove the noise defective railroad equipment from service; or (c) Modify the car...

  4. 49 CFR 210.7 - Responsibility for noise defective railroad equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... that uses railroad equipment that is noise defective or engages in a car coupling operating that... defect; (b) Remove the noise defective railroad equipment from service; or (c) Modify the car...

  5. 49 CFR 210.7 - Responsibility for noise defective railroad equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... that uses railroad equipment that is noise defective or engages in a car coupling operating that... defect; (b) Remove the noise defective railroad equipment from service; or (c) Modify the car...

  6. Developmental Defects Mediated by the P1/HC-Pro Potyviral Silencing Suppressor Are Not Due to Misregulation of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 81[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pruss, Gail J.; MacArthur, John L.; Vance, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Plant viral suppressors of RNA silencing induce developmental defects similar to those caused by mutations in genes involved in the microRNA pathway. A recent report has attributed viral suppressor-mediated developmental defects to up-regulation of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 8 (ARF8), a target of miR167. The key piece of evidence was that the developmental defects in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing viral suppressors were greatly alleviated in the F1 progeny of a cross with plants carrying the arf8-6 mutation. Arf8-6 is a SALK line T-DNA insertion mutant, a class of mutations prone to inducing transcriptional silencing of transgenes expressed from the 35S promoter. We have reinvestigated the role of ARF8 in viral suppressor-mediated developmental defects, using two independent arf8 mutations and the P1/HC-Pro potyviral suppressor of silencing. Progeny of a cross between P1/HC-Pro transgenic Arabidopsis and the arf8-6 T-DNA insertion mutant showed little effect on the P1/HC-Pro phenotype in the F1 generation, but almost all arf8-6/P1/HC-Pro progeny had lost the phenotype in the F2 generation. However, the loss of phenotype in the F2 generation was not correlated with the number of functional copies of the ARF8 gene. Instead, it reflected transcriptional silencing of the P1/HC-Pro transgene, as evidenced by a pronounced decrease in P1/HC-Pro mRNA and the appearance of 35S promoter small interfering RNAs. Furthermore, an independent loss-of-function point mutation, Arf8-8, had no detectable effects on P1/HC-Pro phenotype in either the F1 or F2 generations. Together, these data argue against the previously reported role of increased ARF8 expression in developmental defects caused by P1/HC-Pro. PMID:27688620

  7. Influence of surface defects in ZnO thin films on its biosensing response characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Shibu; Gupta, Vinay

    2011-09-01

    Highly c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited by rf magnetron sputtering under varying processing pressure (20-50 mT) in a reactive gas mixture of argon and oxygen were studied for biosensing application. The as-deposited ZnO thin films were in a state of compressive stress having defects related to interstitial Zn and antisite oxygen. Glucose oxidase has been chosen as the model enzyme in the present study and was immobilized on the surface of ZnO thin films deposited on indium tin oxide coated Corning Glass substrate. The studies reveal a correlation between the biosensing characteristic and the presence of defects in the ZnO films. The ZnO films deposited under high pressure (50 mT) are found to be more sensitive for biosensing application due to availability of more surface area for effective immobilization of biomolecules and exhibits a suitable microenvironment with good electron transfer characteristic. The obtained results highlight the importance of desired microstate besides availability of suitable native defects in the ZnO thin film for exhibiting enhanced biosensing response.

  8. Relationships of RNA polymerase II genetic interactors to transcription start site usage defects and growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Jin, Huiyan; Kaplan, Craig D

    2014-11-06

    Transcription initiation by RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) is an essential step in gene expression and regulation in all organisms. Initiation requires a great number of factors, and defects in this process can be apparent in the form of altered transcription start site (TSS) selection in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast). It has been shown previously that TSS selection in S. cerevisiae is altered in Pol II catalytic mutants defective in a conserved active site feature known as the trigger loop. Pol II trigger loop mutants show growth phenotypes in vivo that correlate with biochemical defects in vitro and exhibit wide-ranging genetic interactions. We assessed how Pol II mutant growth phenotypes and TSS selection in vivo are modified by Pol II genetic interactors to estimate the relationship between altered TSS selection in vivo and organismal fitness of Pol II mutants. We examined whether the magnitude of TSS selection defects could be correlated with Pol II mutant-transcription factor double mutant phenotypes. We observed broad genetic interactions among Pol II trigger loop mutants and General Transcription Factor (GTF) alleles, with reduced-activity Pol II mutants especially sensitive to defects in TFIIB. However, Pol II mutant growth defects could be uncoupled from TSS selection defects in some Pol II allele-GTF allele double mutants, whereas a number of other Pol II genetic interactors did not influence ADH1 start site selection alone or in combination with Pol II mutants. Initiation defects are likely only partially responsible for Pol II allele growth phenotypes, with some Pol II genetic interactors able to exacerbate Pol II mutant growth defects while leaving initiation at a model TSS selection promoter unaffected.

  9. Multifocal pupillary light response fields in normal subjects and patients with visual field defects.

    PubMed

    Tan, L; Kondo, M; Sato, M; Kondo, N; Miyake, Y

    2001-04-01

    The optimal conditions for recording focal pupillary light responses with a multifocal stimulation technique were determined, and the technique was applied to normal subjects and patients with visual field defects. Thirty-seven hexagonal stimuli were presented on a TV monitor with a visual field of 40 degrees diameter under a constant background illumination. Using a slow (4.7 Hz) m-sequence, reliable focal responses were obtained in both normal subjects and patients. The pupillary field and visual field were well correlated in patients with retinal diseases, but the correlation was not strong in patients with optic-nerve diseases. Pupillary light responses were reduced in the blind hemifield in patients with post-geniculate lesions. These results indicate that the multifocal stimulation technique can be used clinically to obtain a pupillary field for objective visual field testing.

  10. Defective chloroplast development inhibits maintenance of normal levels of abscisic acid in a mutant of the Arabidopsis RH3 DEAD-box protein during early post-germination growth.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Hee; Park, Jiyoung; Williams, Donna S; Xiong, Yuqing; Hwang, Inhwan; Kang, Byung-Ho

    2013-03-01

    The plastid has its own translation system, and its ribosomes are assembled through a complex process in which rRNA precursors are processed and ribosomal proteins are inserted into the rRNA backbone. DEAD-box proteins have been shown to play roles in multiple steps in ribosome biogenesis. To investigate the cellular and physiological roles of an Arabidopsis DEAD-box protein, RH3, we examined its expression and localization and the phenotypes of rh3-4, a T-DNA insertion mutant allele of RH3. The promoter activity of RH3 is strongest in the greening tissues of 3-day and 1-week-old seedlings but reduced afterwards. Cotyledons were pale and seedling growth was retarded in the mutant. The most obvious abnormality in the mutant chloroplasts was their lack of normal ribosomes. Electron tomography analysis indicated that ribosome density in the 3-day-old mutant chloroplasts is only 20% that of wild-type chloroplasts, and the ribosomes in the mutant are smaller. These chloroplast defects in rh3-4 were alleviated in 2-week-old cotyledons and true leaves. Interestingly, rh3-4 seedlings have lower amounts of abscisic acid prior to recovery of their chloroplasts, and were more sensitive to abiotic stresses. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that nuclear genes for chloroplast proteins are down-regulated, and proteins mediating chloroplast-localized steps of abscisic acid biosynthesis are expressed to a lower extent in 1-week-old rh3-4 seedlings. Taken together, these results suggest that conversion of eoplasts into chloroplasts in young seedlings is critical for the seedlings to start carbon fixation as well as for maintenance of abscisic acid levels for responding to environmental challenges.

  11. The content of mutant EGFR DNA correlates with response to EGFR-TKIs in lung adenocarcinoma patients with common EGFR mutations.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ming-Szu; Lung, Jr-Hau; Lin, Yu-Ching; Fang, Yu-Hung; Hsieh, Meng-Jer; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the association of the content of mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) with the treatment response to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) and survival in patients with lung cancer.This retrospective cohort study included 77 lung adenocarcinoma patients with common EGFR mutations from December 2012 to February 2015. The content of mutant EGFR DNA in lung cancer tissues was determined using an Amplification Refractory Mutation System. The association of the amount of mutant EGFR DNA with treatment response, the clinical variables, and the progression-free survival (PFS) after EGFR-TKI therapy were evaluated.Using the amount of mutant EGR DNA above 4.77% as the cut-off value, the sensitivity to predict EGFR-TKI responder is 82.0% and the specificity is 75.0% (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.734, P = 0.003). The high content of mutant EGFR DNA is an independent factor associated with the response to EGFR-TKIs (odds ratio: 13.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.23-52.11, P = 0.0003). A significantly longer PFS was observed in the group with the high content of mutant EGFR DNA (26.3 months, 95% CI: 12.2-26.3) compared with the low content of mutant EGFR DNA groups (12.3 months, 95% CI: 5.7-14.8, P = 0.0155). A better predictive value of the content of mutant EGFR DNA was noted in patients with exon 19 deletions (AUC: 0.892, P < 0.0001) than exon 21 L858R mutations (AUC: 0.675, P = 0.0856).Our results show that the content of mutant EGFR DNA is associated with the clinical response to EGFR-TKIs, especially in patients with exon 19 deletions mutation.

  12. Alteration of flavonoid accumulation patterns in transparent testa mutants disturbs auxin transport, gravity responses, and imparts long-term effects on root and shoot architecture.

    PubMed

    Buer, Charles S; Kordbacheh, Farzanah; Truong, Thy T; Hocart, Charles H; Djordjevic, Michael A

    2013-07-01

    Flavonoids have broad cross-kingdom biological activity. In Arabidopsis, flavonoid accumulation in specific tissues, notably the root elongation zone and root/shoot junction modulate auxin transport, affect root gravitropism, and influence overall plant architecture. The relative contribution made by aglycones and their glycosides remains undetermined, and the longer-term phenotypic effects of altered flavonoid accumulation are not fully assessed. We tested Arabidopsis thaliana mutants that accumulate different flavonoids to determine which flavonoids were causing these affects. Tandem mass spectrometry and in situ fluorescence localisation were used to determine the in vivo levels of aglycones in specific tissues of 11 transparent testa mutants. We measured rootward and shootward auxin transport, gravitropic responses, and identified the long-term changes to root and shoot architecture. Unexpected aglycone species accumulated in vivo in several flavonoid-pathway mutants, and lower aglycone levels occurred in transcription factor mutants. Mutants accumulating more quercetin and quercetin-glycosides changed the greatest in auxin transport, gravitropism, and aerial tissue growth. Early flavonoid-pathway mutants showed aberrant lateral root initiation patterns including clustered lateral root initiations at a single site. Transcription factor mutants had multiple phenotypes including shallow root systems. These results confirm that aglycones are present at very low levels, show that lateral root initiation is perturbed in early flavonoid-pathway mutants, and indicate that altered flavonoid accumulation affects multiple aspects of plant architecture.

  13. A quorum sensing-defective mutant of Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. brasiliense 1692 is attenuated in virulence and unable to occlude xylem tissue of susceptible potato plant stems.

    PubMed

    Moleleki, Lucy Novungayo; Pretorius, Rudolph Gustav; Tanui, Collins Kipngetich; Mosina, Gabolwelwe; Theron, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. brasiliense 1692 (Pcb1692) is an important emerging pathogen of potatoes causing blackleg in the field and soft rot during post-harvest storage. Blackleg diseases involve the bacterial colonization of vascular tissue and the formation of aggregates, also known as biofilms. To understand the role of quorum sensing in vascular colonization by Pcb1692, we generated a Pcb1692ΔexpI mutant strain. Inactivation of expI led to the reduced production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs), the inability to produce acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) and reduced virulence in potato tubers and stems. Complementation of the mutant strain with the wild-type expI gene in trans successfully restored AHL and PCWDE production as well as virulence. Transmission electron microscopy and in vitro motility assays demonstrated hyperpiliation and loss of flagella and swimming motility in the mutant strain compared with the wild-type Pcb1692. Furthermore, we noted that, in the early stages of infection, Pcb1692 wild-type cells had intact flagella which were shed at the later stages of infection. Confocal laser microscopy of PcbΔexpI-inoculated plants showed that the mutant strain tended to aggregate in intercellular spaces, but was unable to transit to xylem tissue. On the contrary, the wild-type strain was often observed forming aggregates within xylem tissue of potato stems. Gene expression analyses confirmed that flagella are part of the quorum sensing regulon, whereas fimbriae and pili appear to be negatively regulated by quorum sensing. The relative expression levels of other important putative virulence genes, such as those encoding different groups of PCWDEs, were down-regulated in the mutant compared with the wild-type strain.

  14. Genomic instability and DNA damage responses in progeria arising from defective maturation of prelamin A.

    PubMed

    Musich, Phillip R; Zou, Yue

    2009-01-01

    Progeria syndromes have in common a premature aging phenotype and increased genome instability. The susceptibility to DNA damage arises from a compromised repair system, either in the repair proteins themselves or in the DNA damage response pathways. The most severe progerias stem from mutations affecting lamin A production, a filamentous protein of the nuclear lamina. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) patients are heterozygous for aLMNA gene mutation while Restrictive Dermopathy (RD) individuals have a homozygous deficiency in the processing protease Zmpste24. These mutations generate the mutant lamin A proteins progerin and FC-lamina A, respectively, which cause nuclear deformations and chromatin perturbations. Genome instability is observed even though genome maintenance and repair genes appear normal. The unresolved question is what features of the DNA damage response pathways are deficient in HGPS and RD cells. Here we review and discuss recent findings which resolve some mechanistic details of how the accumulation of progerin/FC-lamin A proteins may disrupt DNA damage response pathways in HGPS and RD cells. As the mutant lamin proteins accumulate they sequester replication and repair factors, leading to stalled replication forks which collapse into DNA double-strand beaks (DSBs). In a reaction unique to HGPS and RD cells these accessible DSB termini bind Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) protein which excludes normal binding by DNA DSB repair proteins. The bound XPA also signals activation of ATM and ATR, arresting cell cycle progression, leading to arrested growth. In addition, the effective sequestration of XPA at these DSB damage sites makes HGPS and RD cells more sensitive to ultraviolet light and other mutagens normally repaired by the nucleotide excision repair pathway of which XPA is a necessary and specific component.

  15. Prolonged gene expression and cell survival after infection by a herpes simplex virus mutant defective in the immediate-early genes encoding ICP4, ICP27, and ICP22.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, N; Watkins, S C; Schaffer, P A; DeLuca, N A

    1996-01-01

    Very early in infection, herpes simplex virus (HSV) expresses four immediate-early (IE) regulatory proteins, ICP4, ICP0, ICP22, and ICP27. The systematic inactivation of sets of the IE proteins in cis, and the subsequent phenotypic analysis of the resulting mutants, should provide insights into how these proteins function in the HSV life cycle and also into the specific macromolecular events that are altered or perturbed in cells infected with virus strains blocked very early in infection. This approach may also provide a rational basis to assess the efficacy and safety of HSV mutants for use in gene transfer experiments. In this study, we generated and examined the phenotype of an HSV mutant simultaneously mutated in the ICP4, ICP27, and ICP22 genes of HSV. Unlike mutants deficient in ICP4 (d120), ICP4 and ICP27 (d92), and ICP4 and ICP22 (d96), mutants defective in ICP4, ICP27, and ICP22 (d95) were visually much less toxic to Vero and human embryonic lung cells. Cells infected with d95 at a multiplicity of infection of 10 PFU per cell retained a relatively normal morphology and expressed genes from the viral and cellular genomes for at least 3 days postinfection. The other mutant backgrounds were too toxic to allow examination of gene expression past 1 day postinfection. However, when cell survival was measured by the capacity of the infected cells to form colonies, d95 inhibited colony formation similarly to d92. This apparent paradox was reconciled by the observation that host cell DNA synthesis was inhibited in cells infected with d120, d92, d96, and d95. In addition, all of the mutants exhibited pronounced and distinctive alterations in nuclear morphology, as determined by electron microscopy. The appearance of d95-infected cells deviated from that of uninfected cells in that large circular structures formed in the nucleus. d95-infected cells abundantly expressed ICP0, which accumulated in fine punctate structures in the nucleus at early times postinfection

  16. Mutant alleles of small effect are primarily responsible for the loss of fitness with slow inbreeding in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Latter, B D

    1998-03-01

    Multilocus simulation is used to identify genetic models that can account for the observed rates of inbreeding and fitness decline in laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster. The experimental populations were maintained under crowded conditions for approximately 200 generations at a harmonic mean population size of Nh approximately 65-70. With a simulated population size of N = 50, and a mean selective disadvantage of homozygotes at individual loci approximately 1-2% or less, it is demonstrated that the mean effective population size over a 200-generation period may be considerably greater than N, with a ratio matching the experimental estimate of Ne/Nh approximately 1.4. The buildup of associative overdominance at electrophoretic marker loci is largely responsible for the stability of gene frequencies and the observed reduction in the rate of inbreeding, with apparent selection coefficients in favor of the heterozygote at neutral marker loci increasing rapidly over the first N generations of inbreeding to values approximately 5-10%. The observed decline in fitness under competitive conditions in populations of size approximately 50 in D. melanogaster therefore primarily results from mutant alleles with mean effects on fitness as homozygotes of sm < or = 0.02. Models with deleterious recessive mutants at the background loci require that the mean selection coefficient against heterozygotes is at most hsm approximately 0.002, with a minimum mutation rate for a single Drosophila autosome 100 cM in length estimated to be in the range 0.05-0.25, assuming an exponential distribution of s. A typical chromosome would be expected to carry at least 100-200 such mutant alleles contributing to the decline in competitive fitness with slow inbreeding.

  17. S-nitrosoglutathione promotes cell wall remodelling, alters the transcriptional profile and induces root hair formation in the hairless root hair defective 6 (rhd6) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Moro, Camila Fernandes; Gaspar, Marilia; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G; Salgado, Ione; Braga, Marcia Regina

    2017-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) exerts pleiotropic effects on plant development; however, its involvement in cell wall modification during root hair formation (RHF) has not yet been addressed. Here, mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with altered root hair phenotypes were used to assess the involvement of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), the primary NO source, in cell wall dynamics and gene expression in roots induced to form hairs. GSNO and auxin restored the root hair phenotype of the hairless root hair defective 6 (rhd6) mutant. A positive correlation was observed between increased NO production and RHF induced by auxin in rhd6 and transparent testa glabra (ttg) mutants. Deposition of an epitope within rhamnogalacturonan-I recognized by the CCRC-M2 antibody was delayed in root hair cells (trichoblasts) compared with nonhair cells (atrichoblasts). GSNO, but not auxin, restored the wild-type root glycome and transcriptome profiles in rhd6, modulating the expression of a large number of genes related to cell wall composition and metabolism, as well as those encoding ribosomal proteins, DNA and histone-modifying enzymes and proteins involved in post-translational modification. Our results demonstrate that NO plays a key role in cell wall remodelling in trichoblasts and suggest that it also participates in chromatin modification in root cells of A. thaliana.

  18. The symbiotic defect of Rhizobium meliloti exopolysaccharide mutants is suppressed by lpsZ sup + , a gene involved in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.N.V.; Klein, S.; Signer, E.R. ); Hollingsworth, R.I. )

    1990-05-01

    exo mutants of Rhizobium meliloti SU47, which fail to secrete acidic extracellular polysaccharide (EPS), induce Fix{sup {minus}} nodules on alfalfa. However, mutants of R. meliloti Rm41 carrying the same exo lesions induce normal Fix{sup +} nodules. The authors show that such induction is due to a gene from strain Rm41, which they call lpsZ{sup +}, that is missing in strain SU47. lpsZ{sup +} does not restore EPS production but instead alters the composition an structure of lipopolysaccharide. In both SU47 and Rm41, either lpsZ{sup +} or exo{sup +} is sufficient for normal nodulation. This suggests that in R. meliloti EPS and lipopolysaccharide can perform the same function in nodule development.

  19. The Salinity Responsive Mechanism of a Hydroxyproline-Tolerant Mutant of Peanut Based on Digital Gene Expression Profiling Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaojun; Wang, Jingshan; Zhao, Mingxia; Qiao, Lixian

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity seriously limits plant growth and yield. Strategies have been developed for plants to cope with various environmental stresses during evolution. To screen for the broad-spectrum genes and the molecular mechanism about a hydroxyproline-tolerant mutant of peanut with enhanced salinity resistance under salinity stress, digital gene expression (DGE) sequencing was performed in the leaves of salinity-resistant mutant (S2) and Huayu20 as control (S4) under salt stress. The results indicate that major transcription factor families linked to salinity stress responses (NAC, bHLH, WRKY, AP2/ERF) are differentially expressed in the leaves of peanut under salinity stress. In addition, genes related to cell wall loosening and stiffening (xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases, peroxidases, lipid transfer protein, expansin, extension), late embryogenesis abundant protein family, fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism (13-lipoxygenase omega-6 fatty acid desaturase, omega-3 fatty acid desaturase) and some previously reported stress-related genes encoding proteins such as defensin, universal stress protein, metallothionein, peroxidase etc, and some other known or unknown function stress related genes, have been identified. The information from this study will be useful for further research on the mechanism of salinity resistance and will provide a useful genomic resource for the breeding of salinity resistance variety in peanut. PMID:27661086

  20. Cox4i2, Ifit2, and Prdm11 Mutant Mice: Effective Selection of Genes Predisposing to an Altered Airway Inflammatory Response from a Large Compendium of Mutant Mouse Lines.

    PubMed

    Horsch, Marion; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Bönisch, Clemens; Côme, Christophe; Kolster-Fog, Cathrine; Jensen, Klaus T; Lund, Anders H; Lee, Icksoo; Grossman, Lawrence I; Sinkler, Christopher; Hüttemann, Maik; Bohn, Erwin; Fuchs, Helmut; Ollert, Markus; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; de Angelis, Martin Hrabĕ; Beckers, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    We established a selection strategy to identify new models for an altered airway inflammatory response from a large compendium of mutant mouse lines that were systemically phenotyped in the German Mouse Clinic (GMC). As selection criteria we included published gene functional data, as well as immunological and transcriptome data from GMC phenotyping screens under standard conditions. Applying these criteria we identified a few from several hundred mutant mouse lines and further characterized the Cox4i2tm1Hutt, Ifit2tm1.1Ebsb, and Prdm11tm1.1ahl lines following ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and repeated OVA airway challenge. Challenged Prdm11tm1.1ahl mice exhibited changes in B cell counts, CD4+ T cell counts, and in the number of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavages, whereas challenged Ifit2tm1.1Ebsb mice displayed alterations in plasma IgE, IgG1, IgG3, and IgM levels compared to the challenged wild type littermates. In contrast, challenged Cox4i2tm1Hutt mutant mice did not show alterations in the humoral or cellular immune response compared to challenged wild type mice. Transcriptome analyses from lungs of the challenged mutant mouse lines showed extensive changes in gene expression in Prdm11tm1.1ahl mice. Functional annotations of regulated genes of all three mutant mouse lines were primarily related to inflammation and airway smooth muscle (ASM) remodeling. We were thus able to define an effective selection strategy to identify new candidate genes for the predisposition to an altered airway inflammatory response under OVA challenge conditions. Similar selection strategies may be used for the analysis of additional genotype-envirotype interactions for other diseases.

  1. A Selaginella lepidophylla Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase Complements Growth and Stress-Tolerance Defects in a Yeast tps1 Mutant1

    PubMed Central

    Zentella, Rodolfo; Mascorro-Gallardo, José O.; Van Dijck, Patrick; Folch-Mallol, Jorge; Bonini, Beatriz; Van Vaeck, Christophe; Gaxiola, Roberto; Covarrubias, Alejandra A.; Nieto-Sotelo, Jorge; Thevelein, Johan M.; Iturriaga, Gabriel

    1999-01-01

    The accumulation of the disaccharide trehalose in anhydrobiotic organisms allows them to survive severe environmental stress. A plant cDNA, SlTPS1, encoding a 109-kD protein, was isolated from the resurrection plant Selaginella lepidophylla, which accumulates high levels of trehalose. Protein-sequence comparison showed that SlTPS1 shares high similarity to trehalose-6-phosphate synthase genes from prokaryotes and eukaryotes. SlTPS1 mRNA was constitutively expressed in S. lepidophylla. DNA gel-blot analysis indicated that SlTPS1 is present as a single-copy gene. Transformation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae tps1Δ mutant disrupted in the ScTPS1 gene with S. lepidophylla SlTPS1 restored growth on fermentable sugars and the synthesis of trehalose at high levels. Moreover, the SlTPS1 gene introduced into the tps1Δ mutant was able to complement both deficiencies: sensitivity to sublethal heat treatment at 39°C and induced thermotolerance at 50°C. The osmosensitive phenotype of the yeast tps1Δ mutant grown in NaCl and sorbitol was also restored by the SlTPS1 gene. Thus, SlTPS1 protein is a functional plant homolog capable of sustaining trehalose biosynthesis and could play a major role in stress tolerance in S. lepidophylla. PMID:10198107

  2. Partial suppression of the respiratory defect of qrs1/her2 glutamyl-tRNA amidotransferase mutants by overexpression of the mitochondrial pentatricopeptide Msc6p.

    PubMed

    Moda, Bruno S; Ferreira-Júnior, José Ribamar; Barros, Mario H

    2016-08-01

    Recently, a large body of evidences indicates the existence in the mitochondrial matrix of foci that contain different proteins involved in mitochondrial RNA metabolism. Some of these proteins have a pentatricopeptide repeat motif that constitutes their RNA-binding structures. Here we report that MSC6, a mitochondrial pentatricopeptide protein of unknown function, is a multi copy suppressor of mutations in QRS1/HER2 a component of the trimeric complex that catalyzes the transamidation of glutamyl-tRNAQ to glutaminyl-tRNAQ. This is an essential step in mitochondrial translation because of the lack of a specific mitochondrial aminoacyl glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase. MSC6 over-expression did not abolish translation of an aberrant variant form of Cox2p detected in QRS1/HER2 mutants, arguing against a suppression mechanism that bypasses Qrs1p function. A slight decrement of the mitochondrial translation capacity as well as diminished growth on respiratory carbon sources media for respiratory activity was observed in the msc6 null mutant. Additionally, the msc6 null mutant did not display any impairment in RNA transcription, processing or turnover. We concluded that Msc6p is a mitochondrial matrix protein and further studies are required to indicate the specific function of Msc6p in mitochondrial translation.

  3. [Salmonella typhi vaccination response study reveals defective antibody production selective IgA deficiency patient].

    PubMed

    Pleguezuelo, Daniel E; Gianelli, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD) is the most prevalent immunodeficiency worldwide, progressing to common variable immunodeficiency only in few reported cases. We report the case of a Spanish female aged 22 and diagnosed of selective IgA deficiency, a long history of bronchitis, several episodes of pneumonia, bilateral bronchiectasis, normal IgG, IgM, IgG subclasses, and detectable pre-vaccination IgG antibodies against tetanus toxoid and Streptococcus pneumoniae. She was evaluated in our clinic in order to rule out common variable immunodeficiency. We observed good antibody response to tetanus toxoid, absence of circulating switched memory B cells, decreased response to pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens and a lack of response to Salmonella typhi vaccine. Most SIgAD patients presents with upper respiratory tract infections or mild diarrhea. Those with lower tract infections, pneumonia or untreatable diarrhea should follow B-cell subpopulations' study and antibody response to vaccines. Absence of response to Salmonella typhi vaccine allowed us to expose the defective antibody production.

  4. Accumulation of mutant alpha1-antitrypsin Z in the endoplasmic reticulum activates caspases-4 and -12, NFkappaB, and BAP31 but not the unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Hidvegi, Tunda; Schmidt, Bela Z; Hale, Pamela; Perlmutter, David H

    2005-11-25

    In alpha(1)-antitrypsin (alpha1AT) deficiency, a polymerogenic mutant form of the secretory glycoprotein alpha1AT, alpha1ATZ, is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of liver cells. It is not yet known how this results in liver injury in a subgroup of deficient individuals and how the remainder of deficient individuals escapes liver disease. One possible explanation is that the "susceptible" subgroup is unable to mount the appropriate protective cellular responses. Here we examined the effect of mutant alpha1ATZ on several potential protective signaling pathways by using cell lines with inducible expression of mutant alpha1AT as well as liver from transgenic mice with liver-specific inducible expression of mutant alpha1AT. The results show that ER retention of polymerogenic mutant alpha1ATZ does not result in an unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR can be induced in the presence of alpha1ATZ by tunicamycin excluding the possibility that the pathway has been disabled. In striking contrast, ER retention of nonpolymerogenic alpha1AT mutants does induce the UPR. These results indicate that the machinery responsible for activation of the UPR can distinguish the physical characteristics of proteins that accumulate in the ER in such a way that it can respond to misfolded but not relatively ordered polymeric structures. Accumulation of mutant alpha1ATZ does activate specific signaling pathways, including caspase-12 in mouse, caspase-4 in human, NFkappaB, and BAP31, a profile that was distinct from that activated by nonpolymerogenic alpha1AT mutants.

  5. Differential response of the plant Medicago truncatula to its symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti or an exopolysaccharide-deficient mutant.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kathryn M; Sharopova, Natalya; Lohar, Dasharath P; Zhang, Jennifer Q; VandenBosch, Kathryn A; Walker, Graham C

    2008-01-15

    Sinorhizobium meliloti forms symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of Medicago truncatula. The bacteria invade and colonize the roots through structures called infection threads. S. meliloti unable to produce the exopolysaccharide succinoglycan are unable to establish a symbiosis because they are defective in initiating the production of infection threads and in invading the plant. Here, we use microarrays representing 16,000 M. truncatula genes to compare the differential transcriptional responses of this host plant to wild-type and succinoglycan-deficient S. meliloti at the early time point of 3 days postinoculation. This report describes an early divergence in global plant gene expression responses caused by a rhizobial defect in succinoglycan production, rather than in Nod factor production. The microarray data show that M. truncatula inoculated with wild-type, succinoglycan-producing S. meliloti more strongly express genes encoding translation components, protein degradation machinery, and some nodulins than plants inoculated with succinoglycan-deficient bacteria. This finding is consistent with wild-type-inoculated plants having received a signal, distinct from the well characterized Nod factor, to alter their metabolic activity and prepare for invasion. In contrast, M. truncatula inoculated with succinoglycan-deficient S. meliloti more strongly express an unexpectedly large number of genes in two categories: plant defense responses and unknown functions. One model consistent with our results is that appropriate symbiotically active exopolysaccharides act as signals to plant hosts to initiate infection thread formation and that, in the absence of this signal, plants terminate the infection process, perhaps via a defense response.

  6. Defective anti-polysaccharide response and splenic marginal zone disorganization in ALPS patients.

    PubMed

    Neven, Bénédicte; Bruneau, Julie; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Meyts, Isabelle; Magerus-Chatinet, Aude; Moens, Leen; Lanzarotti, Nina; Weller, Sandra; Amiranoff, Denise; Florkin, Benoit; Bader-Meunier, Brigitte; Leverger, Guy; Ferster, Alice; Chantrain, Christophe; Blanche, Stéphane; Picard, Capucine; Molina, Thierry Jo; Brousse, Nicole; Durandy, Anne; Rizzi, Marta; Bossuyt, Xavier; Fischer, Alain; Rieux-Laucat, Frederic

    2014-09-04

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) caused by impaired FAS-mediated apoptosis of lymphocytes is characterized by lymphoproliferation, autoimmunity, but also an increased risk of invasive bacterial infection, notably following splenectomy. We surveyed a cohort of 100 ALPS patients (including 33 splenectomized) and found that 12 (10 splenectomized) had experienced 23 invasive bacterial infections mainly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. This vulnerability was associated with evidence of defective B-cell function characterized by low serum immunoglobulin (Ig) M, low IgM antibody production in response to S pneumoniae following nonconjugated immunization, and low blood memory B-cells counts (including marginal zone [MZ] B-cell counts). This immunodeficiency strongly correlated with intensity of lymphoproliferation. Spleen sections from 9 ALPS patients revealed double-negative T-cell (DN-T) infiltration of the MZ, which was depleted of B cells. MZ in ALPS patients contained an abnormally thick layer of MAdCAM-1((+)) stromal cells and an excess of DN-Ts. DN-Ts were shown to express MAdCAM-1 ligand, the α4β7 integrin. These observations suggest that accumulating DN-Ts are trapped within stromal cell meshwork and interfere with correct localization of MZ B cells. Similar observations were made in spleens of fas-deficient mice. Our data revealed an unexpected mechanism by which ALPS results in anti-polysaccharide IgM antibody production-specific defect. Splenectomy should be avoided.

  7. An eceriferum locus, cer-zv, is associated with a defect in cutin responsible for water retention in barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Wang, Aidong; Ma, Xiaoying; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Sakuma, Shun; Wang, Ning; Ning, Shunzong; Nevo, Eviatar; Nawrath, Christiane; Komatsuda, Takao; Chen, Guoxiong

    2013-03-01

    Drought limits plant growth and threatens crop productivity. A barley (Hordeum vulgare) ethylene imine-induced monogenic recessive mutant cer-zv, which is sensitive to drought, was characterized and genetically mapped in the present study. Detached leaves of cer-zv lost 34.2 % of their initial weight after 1 h of dehydration. The transpiration was much higher in cer-zv leaves than in wild-type leaves under both light and dark conditions. The stomata of cer-zv leaves functioned normally, but the cuticle of cer-zv leaves showed increased permeability to ethanol and toluidine blue dye. There was a 50-90 % reduction in four major cutin monomers, but no reduction in wax loads was found in the cer-zv mutant as compared with the wild type. Two F(2) mapping populations were established by the crosses of 23-19 × cer-zv and cer-zv × OUH602. More polymorphisms were found in EST sequences between cer-zv and OUH602 than between cer-zv and 23-19. cer-zv was located in a pericentromeric region on chromosome 4H in a 10.8 cM interval in the 23-19 × cer-zv map based on 186 gametes tested and a 1.7 cM interval in the cer-zv × OUH602 map based on 176 gametes tested. It co-segregated with EST marker AK251484 in both maps. The results indicated that the cer-zv mutant is defective in cutin, which might be responsible for the increased transpiration rate and drought sensitivity, and that the F(2) of cer-zv × OUH602 might better facilitate high resolution mapping of cer-zv.

  8. Double helicase II (uvrD)-helicase IV (helD) deletion mutants are defective in the recombination pathways of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Mendonca, V M; Kaiser-Rogers, K; Matson, S W

    1993-01-01

    The Escherichia coli helD (encoding helicase IV) and uvrD (encoding helicase II) genes have been deleted, independently and in combination, from the chromosome and replaced with genes encoding antibiotic resistance. Each deletion was verified by Southern blots, and the location of each deletion was confirmed by P1-mediated transduction. Cell strains containing the single and double deletions were viable, indicating that helicases II and IV are not essential for viability. Cell strains lacking helicase IV (delta helD) exhibited no increase in sensitivity to UV irradiation but were slightly more resistant to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) than the isogenic wild-type cell strain. As expected, cell strains containing the helicase II deletion (delta uvrD) were sensitive to both UV irradiation and MMS. The introduction of the helicase IV deletion into a delta uvrD background had essentially no effect on the UV and MMS sensitivity of the cell strains analyzed. The double deletions, however, conferred a Rec- mutant phenotype for conjugational and transductional recombination in both recBC sbcB(C) and recBC sbcA backgrounds. The Rec- mutant phenotype was more profound in the recBC sbcB(C) background than in the recBC sbcA background. The recombination-deficient phenotype indicates the direct involvement of helicase II and/or helicase IV in the RecF pathway [recBC sbcB(C) background] and RecE pathway (recBC sbcA background) of recombination. The modest decrease in the recombination frequency observed in single-deletion mutants in the recBC sbcB(C) background suggests that either helicase is sufficient. In addition, helicase IV has been overexpressed in a tightly regulated system. The data suggest that even modest overexpression of helicase IV is lethal to the cell. Images PMID:8335623

  9. The dark-adaptation response of the de-etiolated pea mutant lip1 is modulated by external signals and endogenous programs.

    PubMed Central

    Frances, S; Thompson, W F

    1997-01-01

    The lip1 mutant of pea (Pisum sativum L.) exhibits a de-etiolated phenotype. When grown in darkness, lip1 plants have several characteristics normally associated only with light-grown plants. Young wild-type (WT) seedlings accumulate high levels of transcripts from plastid-related genes (such as those encoding chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins, ferredoxin, and the small subunit of Rubisco) only in the light. In contrast, regardless of the light conditions under which the plants are grown, young mutant seedlings accumulate transcript levels equal to or greater than those seen in light-grown WT seedlings of the same age. Under some conditions, light-grown lip1 seedlings failed to respond to dark treatment. The largest response to darkness observed in the mutant occurred when older seedlings were first grown under low-light conditions before transfer to darkness. The mutant's inability to respond to darkness is not due to a gross disturbance in the circadian clock. We conclude that environmental signals (light) and endogenous programs (developmental and circadian) regulate gene expression in both WT and mutant plants. However, mutant seedlings exhibit a developmentally regulated and exaggerated response to light. In addition, the effect of the mutation may be greatest during a brief period early in development. PMID:9306689

  10. A mutant pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 subunit allows survival of Escherichia coli strains defective in 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase.

    PubMed

    Sauret-Güeto, Susanna; Urós, Eva María; Ibáñez, Ester; Boronat, Albert; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel

    2006-02-06

    The 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway has been proposed as a promising target to develop new antimicrobial agents. However, spontaneous mutations in Escherichia coli were observed to rescue the otherwise lethal loss of the first two enzymes of the pathway, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) synthase (DXS) and DXP reductoisomerase (DXR), with a relatively high frequency. A mutation in the gene encoding the E1 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was shown to be sufficient to rescue the lack of DXS but not DXR in vivo, suggesting that the mutant enzyme likely allows the synthesis of DXP or an alternative substrate for DXR.

  11. Integrative proteomics, genomics, and translational immunology approaches reveal mutated forms of Proteolipid Protein 1 (PLP1) and mutant-specific immune response in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Qendro, Veneta; Bugos, Grace A; Lundgren, Debbie H; Glynn, John; Han, May H; Han, David K

    2017-03-01

    In order to gain mechanistic insights into multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis, we utilized a multi-dimensional approach to test the hypothesis that mutations in myelin proteins lead to immune activation and central nervous system autoimmunity in MS. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of human MS brain lesions revealed seven unique mutations of PLP1; a key myelin protein that is known to be destroyed in MS. Surprisingly, in-depth genomic analysis of two MS patients at the genomic DNA and mRNA confirmed mutated PLP1 in RNA, but not in the genomic DNA. Quantification of wild type and mutant PLP RNA levels by qPCR further validated the presence of mutant PLP RNA in the MS patients. To seek evidence linking mutations in abundant myelin proteins and immune-mediated destruction of myelin, specific immune response against mutant PLP1 in MS patients was examined. Thus, we have designed paired, wild type and mutant peptide microarrays, and examined antibody response to multiple mutated PLP1 in sera from MS patients. Consistent with the idea of different patients exhibiting unique mutation profiles, we found that 13 out of 20 MS patients showed antibody responses against specific but not against all the mutant-PLP1 peptides. Interestingly, we found mutant PLP-directed antibody response against specific mutant peptides in the sera of pre-MS controls. The results from integrative proteomic, genomic, and immune analyses reveal a possible mechanism of mutation-driven pathogenesis in human MS. The study also highlights the need for integrative genomic and proteomic analyses for uncovering pathogenic mechanisms of human diseases.

  12. Admittance spectroscopy in kesterite solar cells: Defect signal or circuit response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul Weiss, Thomas; Redinger, Alex; Luckas, Jennifer; Mousel, Marina; Siebentritt, Susanne

    2013-05-01

    Unlike Cu(In,Ga)Se2 based solar cells, Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells show a strong increase in series resistance with decreasing temperature. In this study we deduce the series resistance from temperature dependent current-voltage measurements on a 5.5% efficient Cu2ZnSnSe4 solar cell. By applying a simple circuit model an increasing series resistance with decreasing temperature alone results in a capacitance step within the C-f profile. We show that this step needs to be distinguished from a step caused by a defect state or a carrier freeze-out. Consequently, the deduced activation energy is strongly distorted by the circuit response.

  13. Characterization of deep defects responsible for the quenching behavior in undoped GaN layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, H.; Schrenk, E.; Flügge, K.; Krost, A.; Christen, J.; Kuhn, B.; Scholz, F.

    2005-03-01

    In undoped semi-insulating GaN samples grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy on sapphire, the recombination and quenching processes were investigated for the main deep traps responsible for quenching. A comprehensive picture is obtained by using different complementary techniques of thermally stimulated current spectroscopy (TSC). Three traps— Q1 , Q2 , and Q3 —were separated in the temperature region between 200 and 300K . Variations of the excitation and the cleaning temperature suggest a two-step trapping process of the defects Q2 and Q3 . Quenching experiments evidence the involvement of these traps in the quenching process and the existence of two metastable states. These results are summarized in a model involving two metastable states and a complex two-step recharging trapping process.

  14. Armc5 deletion causes developmental defects and compromises T-cell immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yan; Lao, Linjiang; Mao, Jianning; Jin, Wei; Luo, Hongyu; Charpentier, Tania; Qi, Shijie; Peng, Junzheng; Hu, Bing; Marcinkiewicz, Mieczyslaw Martin; Lamarre, Alain; Wu, Jiangping

    2017-01-01

    Armadillo repeat containing 5 (ARMC5) is a cytosolic protein with no enzymatic activities. Little is known about its function and mechanisms of action, except that gene mutations are associated with risks of primary macronodular adrenal gland hyperplasia. Here we map Armc5 expression by in situ hybridization, and generate Armc5 knockout mice, which are small in body size. Armc5 knockout mice have compromised T-cell proliferation and differentiation into Th1 and Th17 cells, increased T-cell apoptosis, reduced severity of experimental autoimmune encephalitis, and defective immune responses to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. These mice also develop adrenal gland hyperplasia in old age. Yeast 2-hybrid assays identify 16 ARMC5-binding partners. Together these data indicate that ARMC5 is crucial in fetal development, T-cell function and adrenal gland growth homeostasis, and that the functions of ARMC5 probably depend on interaction with multiple signalling pathways. PMID:28169274

  15. Congenital hypoventilation and impaired hypoxic response in Nurr1 mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Nsegbe, Elise; Wallén-Mackenzie, Åsa; Dauger, Stephane; Roux, Jean-Christophe; Shvarev, Yuri; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Perlmann, Thomas; Herlenius, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Nurr1, a transcription factor belonging to the family of nuclear receptors, is expressed at high levels immediately after birth. Gene-targeted mice lacking Nurr1 fail to develop midbrain dopaminergic neurones and do not survive beyond 24 h after birth. Dopamine (DA) levels may be regulated by Nurr1, and as DA is involved in both central and peripheral respiratory control, we hypothesized that lack of Nurr1 may impair breathing and cause death by respiratory failure. We demonstrate herein that Nurr1 newborn knockout mice have a severely disturbed breathing pattern characterized by hypoventilation, numerous apnoeas and failure to increase breathing when challenged with hypoxia. In heterozygote Nurr1 mice the response to hypoxia is also altered. Furthermore, the central respiratory rhythm, generated from isolated brainstem–spinal cord preparations, exhibits impaired response to hypoxia in mice lacking Nurr1. Moreover, Nurr1 is expressed in several respiratory-related regions of the nervous system, including the nucleus of the solitary tract, the nucleus ambiguus and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, and in the carotid bodies. The prominent Nurr1 expression in these areas, involved in respiratory control, along with the severe respiratory phenotype, indicates that Nurr1 plays a major role in the extrauterine adaption of respiratory control and the response to hypoxia. PMID:14742729

  16. Immune activation and response to pembrolizumab in POLE-mutant endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mehnert, Janice M.; Panda, Anshuman; Zhong, Hua; Hirshfield, Kim; Damare, Sherri; Lane, Katherine; Sokol, Levi; Stein, Mark N.; Rodriguez-Rodriquez, Lorna; Kaufman, Howard L.; Ali, Siraj; Ross, Jeffrey S.; Pavlick, Dean C.; Bhanot, Gyan; White, Eileen P.; DiPaola, Robert S.; Lovell, Ann; Cheng, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies that target the immune checkpoint receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) have resulted in prolonged and beneficial responses toward a variety of human cancers. However, anti–PD-1 therapy in some patients provides no benefit and/or results in adverse side effects. The factors that determine whether patients will be drug sensitive or resistant are not fully understood; therefore, genomic assessment of exceptional responders can provide important insight into patient response. Here, we identified a patient with endometrial cancer who had an exceptional response to the anti–PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab. Clinical grade targeted genomic profiling of a pretreatment tumor sample from this individual identified a mutation in DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE) that associated with an ultramutator phenotype. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) revealed that the presence of POLE mutation associates with high mutational burden and elevated expression of several immune checkpoint genes. Together, these data suggest that cancers harboring POLE mutations are good candidates for immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. PMID:27159395

  17. Stem-end chip defect in response to high temperature stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem-end chip defect is a serious quality concern for the potato chip industry. Chips with stem-end chip defect are unacceptably dark along the vasculature at the tuber stem end and in adjacent tissues. Tubers that produce stem-end defect chips are undesirable to processors and increase financial ri...

  18. The disease-linked Glu-26-Lys mutant version of Coronin 1A exhibits pleiotropic and pathway-specific signaling defects

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Virginia; Robles-Valero, Javier; Barreira, María; Bustelo, Xosé R.

    2015-01-01

    Coronin 1A (Coro1A) is involved in cytoskeletal and signaling events, including the regulation of Rac1 GTPase– and myosin II–dependent pathways. Mutations that generate truncated or unstable Coro1A proteins cause immunodeficiencies in both humans and rodents. However, in the case of the peripheral T-cell–deficient (Ptcd) mouse strain, the immunodeficiency is caused by a Glu-26-Lys mutation that targets a surface-exposed residue unlikely to affect the intramolecular architecture and stability of the protein. Here we report that this mutation induces pleiotropic effects in Coro1A protein, including the exacerbation of Coro1A-dependent actin-binding and -bundling activities; the formation of large meshworks of Coro1AE26K-decorated filaments endowed with unusual organizational, functional, and staining properties; and the elimination of Coro1A functions associated with both Rac1 and myosin II signaling. By contrast, it does not affect the ability of Coro1A to stimulate the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NF-AT). Coro1AE26K is not a dominant-negative mutant, indicating that its pathological effects are derived from the inability to rescue the complete loss of the wild-type counterpart in cells. These results indicate that Coro1AE26K behaves as either a recessive gain-of-function or loss-of-function mutant protein, depending on signaling context and presence of the wild-type counterpart in cells. PMID:26108624

  19. Evolved osmotolerant Escherichia coli mutants frequently exhibit defective N-acetylglucosamine catabolism and point mutations in cell shape-regulating protein MreB.

    PubMed

    Winkler, James D; Garcia, Carlos; Olson, Michelle; Callaway, Emily; Kao, Katy C

    2014-06-01

    Biocatalyst robustness toward stresses imposed during fermentation is important for efficient bio-based production. Osmotic stress, imposed by high osmolyte concentrations or dense populations, can significantly impact growth and productivity. In order to better understand the osmotic stress tolerance phenotype, we evolved sexual (capable of in situ DNA exchange) and asexual Escherichia coli strains under sodium chloride (NaCl) stress. All isolates had significantly improved growth under selection and could grow in up to 0.80 M (47 g/liter) NaCl, a concentration that completely inhibits the growth of the unevolved parental strains. Whole genome resequencing revealed frequent mutations in genes controlling N-acetylglucosamine catabolism (nagC, nagA), cell shape (mrdA, mreB), osmoprotectant uptake (proV), and motility (fimA). Possible epistatic interactions between nagC, nagA, fimA, and proV deletions were also detected when reconstructed as defined mutations. Biofilm formation under osmotic stress was found to be decreased in most mutant isolates, coupled with perturbations in indole secretion. Transcriptional analysis also revealed significant changes in ompACGL porin expression and increased transcription of sulfonate uptake systems in the evolved mutants. These findings expand our current knowledge of the osmotic stress phenotype and will be useful for the rational engineering of osmotic tolerance into industrial strains in the future.

  20. Phenotypic Screens Identify Parasite Genetic Factors Associated with Malarial Fever Response in Plasmodium falciparum piggyBac Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Phaedra; Sedillo, Jennifer; Oberstaller, Jenna; Li, Suzanne; Zhang, Min; Singh, Naresh; Wang, Chengqi C. Q.; Udenze, Kenneth; Jiang, Rays H. Y.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Malaria remains one of the most devastating parasitic diseases worldwide, with 90% of the malaria deaths in Africa in 2013 attributable to Plasmodium falciparum. The clinical symptoms of malaria include cycles of fever, corresponding to parasite rupture from red blood cells every 48 h. Parasite pathways involved in the parasite’s ability to survive the host fever response, and indeed, the functions of ~40% of P. falciparum genes as a whole, are still largely unknown. Here, we evaluated the potential of scalable forward-genetic screening methods to identify genes involved in the host fever response. We performed a phenotypic screen for genes linked to the parasite response to febrile temperatures by utilizing a selection of single-disruption P. falciparum mutants generated via random piggyBac transposon mutagenesis in a previous study. We identified several mutants presenting significant phenotypes in febrile response screens compared to the wild type, indicating possible roles for the disrupted genes in this process. We present these initial studies as proof that forward genetics can be used to gain insight into critical factors associated with parasite biology. IMPORTANCE Though the P. falciparum genome sequence has been available for many years, ~40% of its genes do not have informative annotations, as they show no detectable homology to those of studied organisms. More still have not been evaluated via genetic methods. Scalable forward-genetic approaches that allow interrogation of gene function without any pre-existing knowledge are needed to hasten understanding of parasite biology, which will expedite the identification of drug targets and the development of future interventions in the face of spreading resistance to existing frontline drugs. In this work, we describe a new approach to pursue forward-genetic phenotypic screens for P. falciparum to identify factors associated with virulence. Future large-scale phenotypic screens developed to

  1. The Pch2 AAA+ ATPase promotes phosphorylation of the Hop1 meiotic checkpoint adaptor in response to synaptonemal complex defects

    PubMed Central

    Herruzo, Esther; Ontoso, David; González-Arranz, Sara; Cavero, Santiago; Lechuga, Ana; San-Segundo, Pedro A.

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic cells possess surveillance mechanisms that monitor critical events such as recombination and chromosome synapsis. Meiotic defects resulting from the absence of the synaptonemal complex component Zip1 activate a meiosis-specific checkpoint network resulting in delayed or arrested meiotic progression. Pch2 is an evolutionarily conserved AAA+ ATPase required for the checkpoint-induced meiotic block in the zip1 mutant, where Pch2 is only detectable at the ribosomal DNA array (nucleolus). We describe here that high levels of the Hop1 protein, a checkpoint adaptor that localizes to chromosome axes, suppress the checkpoint defect of a zip1 pch2 mutant restoring Mek1 activity and meiotic cell cycle delay. We demonstrate that the critical role of Pch2 in this synapsis checkpoint is to sustain Mec1-dependent phosphorylation of Hop1 at threonine 318. We also show that the ATPase activity of Pch2 is essential for its checkpoint function and that ATP binding to Pch2 is required for its localization. Previous work has shown that Pch2 negatively regulates Hop1 chromosome abundance during unchallenged meiosis. Based on our results, we propose that, under checkpoint-inducing conditions, Pch2 also possesses a positive action on Hop1 promoting its phosphorylation and its proper distribution on unsynapsed chromosome axes. PMID:27257060

  2. Elements that Regulate the DNA Damage Response of Proteins Defective in Cockayne Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Iyama, Teruaki; Wilson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a premature aging disorder characterized by developmental defects, multisystem progressive degeneration, and sensitivity to ultraviolet light. CS is divided into two primary complementation groups, A and B, with the CSA and CSB proteins presumably functioning in DNA repair and transcription. Using laser microirradiation and confocal microscopy, we characterized the nature and regulation of the CS protein response to oxidative DNA damage, double-strand breaks (DSBs), angelicin monoadducts, and trioxsalen interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). Our data indicate that CSB recruitment is influenced by the type of DNA damage, and is most rapid and robust as follows: ICLs > DSBs > monoadducts > oxidative lesions. Transcription inhibition reduced accumulation of CSB at sites of monoadducts and ICLs, but did not affect recruitment to (although slightly affected retention at) oxidative damage. Inhibition of histone deacetylation altered the dynamics of CSB assembly, suggesting a role for chromatin status in the response to DNA damage, whereas the proteasome inhibitor MG132 had no effect. The C-terminus of CSB, and in particular its ubiquitin-binding domain, were critical to recruitment, while the N-terminus and a functional ATPase domain played a minor role at best in facilitating protein accumulation. Although the absence of CSA had no effect on CSB recruitment, CSA itself localized at sites of ICLs, DSBs and monoadducts, but not oxidative lesions. Our results reveal molecular components of the CS protein response and point to a major involvement of complex lesions in the pathology of CS. PMID:26616585

  3. AC response of 2H-NbSe2 single crystals with electron-irradiation-induced defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolomé, E.; Bartolomé, J.; Arauzo, A.; Eremenko, V. V.; Sirenko, V. A.

    2010-07-01

    The generation of defects in NbSe2 single crystals by electron irradiation has been investigated by a combination of ac susceptibility and structural measurements. Remarkably, thanks to the layered structure of NbSe2, we show that electronic irradiation cannot only create point defects but also in-plane extended defects, which modify anisotropically the ac response. Indeed, the analysis of the onset of the nonlinear susceptibility response, Hacl(T), as a function of irradiation dose and field orientation shows a correlated increase in the density of anisotropic defects induced by electron irradiation. Also, we measured a decrease in the strength of the pinning (Labusch) constant αL accounting for elastic vortex oscillations within the linear Campbell regime for high-dose-irradiated samples in a transverse field, again compatible with the presence of planar defects hindering vortex pinning. X-ray powder diffraction and TEM electron diffraction measurements suggest these in-plane defects may result from the rupture of Se-Se bonds and the formation of nanorods and nanowires by NbSe2 sheet rolling.

  4. Mutants of circadian-associated PRR genes display a novel and visible phenotype as to light responses during de-etiolation of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takahiko; Murakami, Masaya; Nakamura, Yuko; Ito, Shogo; Nakamichi, Norihito; Yamashino, Takafumi; Mizuno, Takeshi

    2007-03-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, it is currently accepted that certain mutants with lesions in clock-associated genes commonly display hallmarked phenotypes with regard to three characteristic biological events: (i) altered rhythmic expression of circadian-controlled genes, (ii) changes in flowering time, and (iii) altered sensitivity to red light in elongation of hypocotyls. During the course of examination of the clock-associated mutants of PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATORS, PRRs, including TOC1 (PRR1), we found that they commonly show another visible phenotype of anomalous greening responses upon the onset to light exposure of etiolated seedlings. These findings are indicative of a novel link between circadian rhythms and chloroplast development.

  5. Effect of alternative NAD+-regenerating pathways on the formation of primary and secondary aroma compounds in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycerol-defective mutant.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vishist K; Divol, Benoit; Prior, Bernard A; Bauer, Florian F

    2012-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae maintains a redox balance under fermentative growth conditions by re-oxidizing NADH formed during glycolysis through ethanol formation. Excess NADH stimulates the synthesis of mainly glycerol, but also of other compounds. Here, we investigated the production of primary and secondary metabolites in S. cerevisiae strains where the glycerol production pathway was inactivated through deletion of the two glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenases genes (GPD1/GPD2) and replaced with alternative NAD(+)-generating pathways. While these modifications decreased fermentative ability compared to the wild-type strain, all improved growth and/or fermentative ability of the gpd1Δgpd2Δ strain in self-generated anaerobic high sugar medium. The partial NAD(+) regeneration ability of the mutants resulted in significant amounts of alternative products, but at lower yields than glycerol. Compared to the wild-type strain, pyruvate production increased in most genetically manipulated strains, whereas acetate and succinate production decreased in all strains. Malate production was similar in all strains. Isobutanol production increased substantially in all genetically manipulated strains compared to the wild-type strain, whereas only mutant strains expressing the sorbitol producing SOR1 and srlD genes showed increases in isoamyl alcohol and 2-phenyl alcohol. A marked reduction in ethyl acetate concentration was observed in the genetically manipulated strains, while isobutyric acid increased. The synthesis of some primary and secondary metabolites appears more readily influenced by the NAD(+)/NADH availability. The data provide an initial assessment of the impact of redox balance on the production of primary and secondary metabolites which play an essential role in the flavour and aroma character of beverages.

  6. A rhamnose-deficient lipopolysaccharide mutant of Rhizobium sp. IRBG74 is defective in root colonization and beneficial interactions with its flooding-tolerant hosts Sesbania cannabina and wetland rice.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Shubhajit; Mukherjee, Arijit; Wiley-Kalil, Audrey; Das, Seema; Owen, Heather; Reddy, Pallavolu M; Ané, Jean-Michel; James, Euan K; Gyaneshwar, Prasad

    2016-10-01

    Rhizobium sp. IRBG74 develops a classical nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the aquatic legume Sesbania cannabina (Retz.). It also promotes the growth of wetland rice (Oryza sativa L.), but little is known about the rhizobial determinants important for these interactions. In this study, we analyzed the colonization of S. cannabina and rice using a strain of Rhizobium sp. IRBG74 dually marked with β-glucuronidase and the green fluorescent protein. This bacterium colonized S. cannabina by crack entry and through root hair infection under flooded and non-flooded conditions, respectively. Rhizobium sp. IRBG74 colonized the surfaces of wetland rice roots, but also entered them at the base of lateral roots. It became endophytically established within intercellular spaces in the rice cortex, and intracellularly within epidermal and hypodermal cells. A mutant of Rhizobium sp. IRBG74 altered in the synthesis of the rhamnose-containing O-antigen exhibited significant defects, not only in nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation with S. cannabina, but also in rice colonization and plant growth promotion. Supplementation with purified lipopolysaccharides from the wild-type strain, but not from the mutant, restored the beneficial colonization of rice roots, but not fully effective nodulation of S. cannabina Commonalities and differences in the rhizobial colonization of the roots of wetland legume and rice hosts are discussed.

  7. Suppression of IRAK1 or IRAK4 Catalytic Activity, but Not Type 1 IFN Signaling, Prevents Lupus Nephritis in Mice Expressing a Ubiquitin Binding–Defective Mutant of ABIN1

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Pelaez, Marta; Arthur, J. Simon C.; Marchesi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the TNIP1 gene encoding A20-binding inhibitor of NF-κB1 (ABIN1) predispose to lupus and other autoimmune diseases in at least eight human populations. We found previously that knock-in mice expressing a ubiquitin-binding–defective mutant of ABIN1 (ABIN1[D485N]) develop autoimmunity as they age and succumb to a disease resembling lupus nephritis in humans. In this article, we report that Flt3-derived dendritic cells from these mice overproduced type 1 IFNs upon stimulation with ligands that activate TLR7 or TLR9. However, crossing ABIN1[D485N] mice to IFNAR1-knockout mice that do not express the α-subunit of the type 1 IFNR did not prevent splenomegaly, the appearance of high serum levels of autoantibodies and other Igs, or liver inflammation and only reduced kidney inflammation modestly. In contrast, crossing ABIN1[D485N] mice to knock-in mice expressing catalytically inactive mutants of IRAK1 or IRAK4 prevented splenomegaly, autoimmunity, and liver and kidney inflammation. Our results support the notion that IRAK1 and/or IRAK4 are attractive targets for the development of drugs to prevent, and perhaps treat, lupus nephritis and other autoinflammatory diseases caused by the decreased ability of ABIN1 or other proteins to restrict the strength of MyD88 signaling. PMID:27807192

  8. Suppression of IRAK1 or IRAK4 Catalytic Activity, but Not Type 1 IFN Signaling, Prevents Lupus Nephritis in Mice Expressing a Ubiquitin Binding-Defective Mutant of ABIN1.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Sambit K; Lopez-Pelaez, Marta; Arthur, J Simon C; Marchesi, Francesco; Cohen, Philip

    2016-12-01

    Polymorphisms in the TNIP1 gene encoding A20-binding inhibitor of NF-κB1 (ABIN1) predispose to lupus and other autoimmune diseases in at least eight human populations. We found previously that knock-in mice expressing a ubiquitin-binding-defective mutant of ABIN1 (ABIN1[D485N]) develop autoimmunity as they age and succumb to a disease resembling lupus nephritis in humans. In this article, we report that Flt3-derived dendritic cells from these mice overproduced type 1 IFNs upon stimulation with ligands that activate TLR7 or TLR9. However, crossing ABIN1[D485N] mice to IFNAR1-knockout mice that do not express the α-subunit of the type 1 IFNR did not prevent splenomegaly, the appearance of high serum levels of autoantibodies and other Igs, or liver inflammation and only reduced kidney inflammation modestly. In contrast, crossing ABIN1[D485N] mice to knock-in mice expressing catalytically inactive mutants of IRAK1 or IRAK4 prevented splenomegaly, autoimmunity, and liver and kidney inflammation. Our results support the notion that IRAK1 and/or IRAK4 are attractive targets for the development of drugs to prevent, and perhaps treat, lupus nephritis and other autoinflammatory diseases caused by the decreased ability of ABIN1 or other proteins to restrict the strength of MyD88 signaling.

  9. Effects of natural and synthetic auxins on the gravitropic growth habit of roots in two auxin-resistant mutants of Arabidopsis, axr1 and axr4: evidence for defects in the auxin influx mechanism of axr4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, M.; Yamamoto, K. T.

    1999-01-01

    The partially agravitropic growth habit of roots of an auxin-resistant mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, axr4, was restored by the addition of 30-300 nM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to the growth medium. Neither indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) nor 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) showed such an effect. Growth of axr4 roots was resistant to IAA and 2,4-D, but not at all to NAA. The differential effects of the three auxins suggest that the defects of axr4 result from a lower auxin influx into its cells. The partially agravitropic growth habit of axr1 roots, which was less severe than that of axr4 roots, was only slightly affected by the three auxins in the growth medium at concentrations up to 300 nM; growth of axr1 roots was resistant to all three of the auxins. These results suggest that the lesion of axrl mutants is different from that of axr4.

  10. Rapid selection of escape mutants by the first CD8 T cell responses in acute HIV-1 infection

    SciTech Connect

    Korber, Bette Tina Marie

    2008-01-01

    The recent failure of a vaccine that primes T cell responses to control primary HIV-1 infection has raised doubts about the role of CD8+ T cells in early HIV-1 infection. We studied four patients who were identified shortly after HIV-1 infection and before seroconversion. In each patient there was very rapid selection of multiple HIV-1 escape mutants in the transmitted virus by CD8 T cells, including examples of complete fixation of non-synonymous substitutions within 2 weeks. Sequencing by single genome amplification suggested that the high rate of virus replication in acute infection gave a selective advantage to virus molecules that contained simultaneous and gained sequential T cell escape mutations. These observations show that whilst early HIV-1 specific CD8 T cells can act against virus, rapid escape means that these T cell responses are unlikely to benefit the patient and may in part explain why current HIV-1 T cell vaccines may not be protective.

  11. Physiological and biochemical responses of fruit exocarp of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) mutants to natural photo-oxidative conditions.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carolina A; Andrews, Preston K; Davies, Neal M

    2006-01-01

    Photo-oxidative stress was imposed under natural solar radiation on exposed and shaded sections of detached fruit of immature green tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller = Solanum lycopersicum L.) mutants (anthocyanin absent, beta-carotene, Delta, and high pigment-1) and their nearly isogenic parents ('Ailsa Craig' and 'Rutgers'). After 5 h exposure to high solar irradiance, either with or without ultraviolet (UV) radiation, surface colour changes, pigment composition, photosynthetic efficiency, antioxidant metabolites and enzyme activities, and selected flavonoids and antioxidant proteins in exocarp tissue were evaluated. The imposed photo-oxidative stress reproduced the symptoms observed on attached fruit. Both high temperature and solar irradiance caused fruit surface discoloration with faster degradation of chlorophyll (Chl) than carotenoids (Car), leading to an increase in the Car/Chl ratio. Surface bleaching was mostly caused by visible light, whereas elevated temperatures were mostly responsible for the inactivation of photosynthesis, measured as decreased F(v)/F(m). Ascorbate, glutathione, and total soluble protein concentrations decreased in the exocarp as the duration of exposure increased. Specific activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase increased with exposure, suggesting that these proteins were conserved during the imposed stress. GR protein expression remained stable during the imposed stress, whereas, MDHAR protein expression increased. Quercetin and kaempferol concentrations increased rapidly upon exposure, but not to UV radiation, suggesting rapid photo-protection in response to visible light; however, naringenin synthesis was not induced. The apparent increased tolerance of hp-1 fruit is discussed.

  12. Reversible and Irreversible Responses of Defect-Engineered Graphene-Based Electrolyte-Gated pH Sensors.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sun Sang; Yi, Jaeseok; Lee, Won Woo; Shin, Jae Hyeok; Kim, Su Han; Cho, Seunghee H; Nam, SungWoo; Park, Won Il

    2016-01-13

    We have studied the role of defects in electrolyte-gated graphene mesh (GM) field-effect transistors (FETs) by introducing engineered edge defects in graphene (Gr) channels. Compared with Gr-FETs, GM-FETs were characterized as having large increments of Dirac point shift (∼30-100 mV/pH) that even sometimes exceeded the Nernst limit (59 mV/pH) by means of electrostatic gating of H(+) ions. This feature was attributed to the defect-mediated chemisorptions of H(+) ions to the graphene edge, as supported by Raman measurements and observed cycling characteristics of the GM FETs. Although the H(+) ion binding to the defects increased the device response to pH change, this binding was found to be irreversible. However, the irreversible component showed relatively fast decay, almost disappearing after 5 cycles of exposure to solutions of decreasing pH value from 8.25 to 6.55. Similar behavior could be found in the Gr-FET, but the irreversible component of the response was much smaller. Finally, after complete passivation of the defects, both Gr-FETs and GM-FETs exhibited only reversible response to pH change, with similar magnitude in the range of 6-8 mV/pH.

  13. Unravelling molecular responses to moderate dehydration in harvested fruit of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) using a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Paco; Rodrigo, María J.; Alférez, Fernando; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Lafuente, María T.

    2012-01-01

    Water stress affects many agronomic traits that may be regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Within these traits, loss of fruit quality becomes important in many citrus cultivars that develop peel damage in response to dehydration. To study peel dehydration transcriptional responsiveness in harvested citrus fruit and the putative role of ABA in this process, this study performed a comparative large-scale transcriptional analysis of water-stressed fruits of the wild-type Navelate orange (Citrus sinesis L. Osbeck) and its spontaneous ABA-deficient mutant Pinalate, which is more prone to dehydration and to developing peel damage. Major changes in gene expression occurring in the wild-type line were impaired in the mutant fruit. Gene ontology analysis revealed the ability of Navelate fruits to induce the response to water deprivation and di-, tri-valent inorganic cation transport biological processes, as well as repression of the carbohydrate biosynthesis process in the mutant. Exogenous ABA triggered relevant transcriptional changes and repressed the protein ubiquitination process, although it could not fully rescue the physiological behaviour of the mutant. Overall, the results indicated that dehydration responsiveness requires ABA-dependent and -independent signals, and highlight that the ability of citrus fruits to trigger molecular responses against dehydration is an important factor in reducing their susceptibility to developing peel damage. PMID:22315241

  14. Unravelling molecular responses to moderate dehydration in harvested fruit of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) using a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant.

    PubMed

    Romero, Paco; Rodrigo, María J; Alférez, Fernando; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Lafuente, María T

    2012-04-01

    Water stress affects many agronomic traits that may be regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Within these traits, loss of fruit quality becomes important in many citrus cultivars that develop peel damage in response to dehydration. To study peel dehydration transcriptional responsiveness in harvested citrus fruit and the putative role of ABA in this process, this study performed a comparative large-scale transcriptional analysis of water-stressed fruits of the wild-type Navelate orange (Citrus sinesis L. Osbeck) and its spontaneous ABA-deficient mutant Pinalate, which is more prone to dehydration and to developing peel damage. Major changes in gene expression occurring in the wild-type line were impaired in the mutant fruit. Gene ontology analysis revealed the ability of Navelate fruits to induce the response to water deprivation and di-, tri-valent inorganic cation transport biological processes, as well as repression of the carbohydrate biosynthesis process in the mutant. Exogenous ABA triggered relevant transcriptional changes and repressed the protein ubiquitination process, although it could not fully rescue the physiological behaviour of the mutant. Overall, the results indicated that dehydration responsiveness requires ABA-dependent and -independent signals, and highlight that the ability of citrus fruits to trigger molecular responses against dehydration is an important factor in reducing their susceptibility to developing peel damage.

  15. Mutant MHC class II epitopes drive therapeutic immune responses to cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kreiter, Sebastian; Vormehr, Mathias; van de Roemer, Niels; Diken, Mustafa; Löwer, Martin; Diekmann, Jan; Boegel, Sebastian; Schrörs, Barbara; Vascotto, Fulvia; Castle, John C.; Tadmor, Arbel D.; Schoenberger, Stephen P.; Huber, Christoph; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Tumour-specific mutations are ideal targets for cancer immunotherapy as they lack expression in healthy tissues and can potentially be recognized as neo-antigens by the mature T-cell repertoire. Their systematic targeting by vaccine approaches, however, has been hampered by the fact that every patient’s tumour possesses a unique set of mutations (‘the mutanome’) that must first be identified. Recently, we proposed a personalized immunotherapy approach to target the full spectrum of a patient’s individual tumour-specific mutations1. Here we show in three independent murine tumour models that a considerable fraction of non-synonymous cancer mutations is immunogenic and that, unexpectedly, the majority of the immunogenic mutanome is recognized by CD4+ T cells. Vaccination with such CD4+ immunogenic mutations confers strong antitumour activity. Encouraged by these findings, we established a process by which mutations identified by exome sequencing could be selected as vaccine targets solely through bioinformatic prioritization on the basis of their expression levels and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-binding capacity for rapid production as synthetic poly-neo-epitope messenger RNA vaccines. We show that vaccination with such polytope mRNA vaccines induces potent tumour control and complete rejection of established aggressively growing tumours in mice. Moreover, we demonstrate that CD4+ T cell neo-epitope vaccination reshapes the tumour microenvironment and induces cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against an independent immunodominant antigen in mice, indicating orchestration of antigen spread. Finally, we demonstrate an abundance of mutations predicted to bind to MHC class II in human cancers as well by employing the same predictive algorithm on corresponding human cancer types. Thus, the tailored immunotherapy approach introduced here may be regarded as a universally applicable blueprint for comprehensive exploitation of the substantial neo

  16. Mutant huntingtin impairs immune cell migration in Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Wanda; Träger, Ulrike; Davalos, Dimitrios; Chou, Austin; Bouchard, Jill; Andre, Ralph; Miller, Aaron; Weiss, Andreas; Giorgini, Flaviano; Cheah, Christine; Möller, Thomas; Stella, Nephi; Akassoglou, Katerina; Tabrizi, Sarah J.; Muchowski, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    In Huntington disease (HD), immune cells are activated before symptoms arise; however, it is unclear how the expression of mutant huntingtin (htt) compromises the normal functions of immune cells. Here we report that primary microglia from early postnatal HD mice were profoundly impaired in their migration to chemotactic stimuli, and expression of a mutant htt fragment in microglial cell lines was sufficient to reproduce these deficits. Microglia expressing mutant htt had a retarded response to a laser-induced brain injury in vivo. Leukocyte recruitment was defective upon induction of peritonitis in HD mice at early disease stages and was normalized upon genetic deletion of mutant htt in immune cells. Migration was also strongly impaired in peripheral immune cells from pre-manifest human HD patients. Defective actin remodeling in immune cells expressing mutant htt likely contributed to their migration deficit. Our results suggest that these functional changes may contribute to immune dysfunction and neurodegeneration in HD, and may have implications for other polyglutamine expansion diseases in which mutant proteins are ubiquitously expressed. PMID:23160193

  17. The zebrafish early arrest mutants.

    PubMed

    Kane, D A; Maischein, H M; Brand, M; van Eeden, F J; Furutani-Seiki, M; Granato, M; Haffter, P; Hammerschmidt, M; Heisenberg, C P; Jiang, Y J; Kelsh, R N; Mullins, M C; Odenthal, J; Warga, R M; Nüsslein-Volhard, C

    1996-12-01

    This report describes mutants of the zebrafish having phenotypes causing a general arrest in early morphogenesis. These mutants identify a group of loci making up about 20% of the loci identified by mutants with visible morphological phenotypes within the first day of development. There are 12 Class I mutants, which fall into 5 complementation groups and have cells that lyse before morphological defects are observed. Mutants at three loci, speed bump, ogre and zombie, display abnormal nuclei. The 8 Class II mutants, which fall into 6 complementation groups, arrest development before cell lysis is observed. These mutants seemingly stop development in the late segmentation stages, and maintain a body shape similar to a 20 hour embryo. Mutations in speed bump, ogre, zombie, specter, poltergeist and troll were tested for cell lethality by transplanting mutant cells into wild-type hosts. With poltergeist, transplanted mutant cells all survive. The remainder of the mutants tested were autonomously but conditionally lethal: mutant cells, most of which lyse, sometimes survive to become notochord, muscles, or, in rare cases, large neurons, all cell types which become postmitotic in the gastrula. Some of the genes of the early arrest group may be necessary for progression though the cell cycle; if so, the survival of early differentiating cells may be based on having their terminal mitosis before the zygotic requirement for these genes.

  18. Response of the pearly eye melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae) mutant to host-associated visual cues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on a pearly eye mutant (PEM) line generated from a single male Bactrocera cucurbitae collected in Kapoho, Hawaii. Crossing experiments with colony wild-type flies indicate that the locus controlling this trait is autosomal and the mutant allele is recessive. Experiments with females to ass...

  19. Isolation of ABA-responsive mutants in allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Drawing connections to grain dormancy, preharvest sprouting, and drought tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the isolation of Wheat ABA-responsive mutants (Warm) in Chinese spring background of allohexaploid Triticum aestivum. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is required for the induction of seed dormancy, the induction of stomatal closure and drought tolerance, and is associated...

  20. The Tomato odorless-2 Mutant Is Defective in Trichome-Based Production of Diverse Specialized Metabolites and Broad-Spectrum Resistance to Insect Herbivores1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jin-Ho; Liu, Guanghui; Shi, Feng; Jones, A. Daniel; Beaudry, Randolph M.; Howe, Gregg A.

    2010-01-01

    Glandular secreting trichomes of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) produce a wide array of volatile and nonvolatile specialized metabolites. Many of these compounds contribute to the characteristic aroma of tomato foliage and constitute a key part of the language by which plants communicate with other organisms in natural environments. Here, we describe a novel recessive mutation called odorless-2 (od-2) that was identified on the basis of an altered leaf-aroma phenotype. od-2 plants exhibit pleiotrophic phenotypes, including alterations in the morphology, density, and chemical composition of glandular trichomes. Type VI glandular trichomes isolated from od-2 leaves accumulate only trace levels of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and flavonoids. Other foliar defensive compounds, including acyl sugars, glycoalkaloids, and jasmonate-regulated proteinase inhibitors, are produced in od-2 leaves. Growth of od-2 plants under natural field conditions showed that the mutant is highly susceptible to attack by an indigenous flea beetle, Epitrix cucumeris, and the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. The increased susceptibility of od-2 plants to Colorado potato beetle larvae and to the solanaceous specialist Manduca sexta was verified in no-choice bioassays. These findings indicate that Od-2 is essential for the synthesis of diverse trichome-borne compounds and further suggest that these compounds influence host plant selection and herbivore community composition under natural conditions. PMID:20668059

  1. The tomato odorless-2 mutant is defective in trichome-based production of diverse specialized metabolites and broad-spectrum resistance to insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jin-Ho; Liu, Guanghui; Shi, Feng; Jones, A Daniel; Beaudry, Randolph M; Howe, Gregg A

    2010-09-01

    Glandular secreting trichomes of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) produce a wide array of volatile and nonvolatile specialized metabolites. Many of these compounds contribute to the characteristic aroma of tomato foliage and constitute a key part of the language by which plants communicate with other organisms in natural environments. Here, we describe a novel recessive mutation called odorless-2 (od-2) that was identified on the basis of an altered leaf-aroma phenotype. od-2 plants exhibit pleiotrophic phenotypes, including alterations in the morphology, density, and chemical composition of glandular trichomes. Type VI glandular trichomes isolated from od-2 leaves accumulate only trace levels of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and flavonoids. Other foliar defensive compounds, including acyl sugars, glycoalkaloids, and jasmonate-regulated proteinase inhibitors, are produced in od-2 leaves. Growth of od-2 plants under natural field conditions showed that the mutant is highly susceptible to attack by an indigenous flea beetle, Epitrix cucumeris, and the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. The increased susceptibility of od-2 plants to Colorado potato beetle larvae and to the solanaceous specialist Manduca sexta was verified in no-choice bioassays. These findings indicate that Od-2 is essential for the synthesis of diverse trichome-borne compounds and further suggest that these compounds influence host plant selection and herbivore community composition under natural conditions.

  2. VAP-1-deficient mice display defects in mucosal immunity and antimicrobial responses: implications for antiadhesive applications.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Kaisa; Nevalainen, Suvi; Karikoski, Marika; Hänninen, Arno; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Salmi, Marko

    2007-11-01

    VAP-1, an ecto-enzyme expressed on the surface of endothelial cells, is involved in leukocyte trafficking between the blood and tissues under physiological and pathological conditions. In this study, we used VAP-1-deficient mice to elucidate whether absence of VAP-1 alters the immune system under normal conditions and upon immunization and microbial challenge. We found that VAP-1-deficient mice display age-dependent paucity of lymphocytes, in the Peyer's patches of the gut. IgA concentration in serum was also found to be lower in VAP-1(-/-) animals than in wild-type mice. Although there were slightly less CD11a on B and T cells isolated from VAP-1-deficient mice than on those from wild-type mice, there were no differences in the expression of gut-homing-associated adhesion molecules or chemokine receptors. Because anti-VAP-1 therapies are being developed for clinical use to treat inflammation, we determined the effect of VAP-1 deletion on useful immune responses. Oral immunization with OVA showed defective T and B cell responses in VAP-1-deficient mice. Antimicrobial immune responses against Staphylococcus aureus and coxsackie B4 virus were also affected by the absence of VAP-1. Importantly, when the function of VAP-1 was acutely neutralized using small molecule enzyme inhibitors and anti-VAP-1 Abs rather than by gene deletion, no significant impairment in antimicrobial control was detected. In conclusion, VAP-1-deficient mice have mild deviations in the mucosal immune system and therapeutic targeting of VAP-1 does not appear to cause a generalized increase in the risk of infection.

  3. Method for vibration response simulation and sensor placement optimization of a machine tool spindle system with a bearing defect.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongrui; Niu, Linkai; He, Zhengjia

    2012-01-01

    Bearing defects are one of the most important mechanical sources for vibration and noise generation in machine tool spindles. In this study, an integrated finite element (FE) model is proposed to predict the vibration responses of a spindle bearing system with localized bearing defects and then the sensor placement for better detection of bearing faults is optimized. A nonlinear bearing model is developed based on Jones' bearing theory, while the drawbar, shaft and housing are modeled as Timoshenko's beam. The bearing model is then integrated into the FE model of drawbar/shaft/housing by assembling equations of motion. The Newmark time integration method is used to solve the vibration responses numerically. The FE model of the spindle-bearing system was verified by conducting dynamic tests. Then, the localized bearing defects were modeled and vibration responses generated by the outer ring defect were simulated as an illustration. The optimization scheme of the sensor placement was carried out on the test spindle. The results proved that, the optimal sensor placement depends on the vibration modes under different boundary conditions and the transfer path between the excitation and the response.

  4. Method for Vibration Response Simulation and Sensor Placement Optimization of a Machine Tool Spindle System with a Bearing Defect

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hongrui; Niu, Linkai; He, Zhengjia

    2012-01-01

    Bearing defects are one of the most important mechanical sources for vibration and noise generation in machine tool spindles. In this study, an integrated finite element (FE) model is proposed to predict the vibration responses of a spindle bearing system with localized bearing defects and then the sensor placement for better detection of bearing faults is optimized. A nonlinear bearing model is developed based on Jones' bearing theory, while the drawbar, shaft and housing are modeled as Timoshenko's beam. The bearing model is then integrated into the FE model of drawbar/shaft/housing by assembling equations of motion. The Newmark time integration method is used to solve the vibration responses numerically. The FE model of the spindle-bearing system was verified by conducting dynamic tests. Then, the localized bearing defects were modeled and vibration responses generated by the outer ring defect were simulated as an illustration. The optimization scheme of the sensor placement was carried out on the test spindle. The results proved that, the optimal sensor placement depends on the vibration modes under different boundary conditions and the transfer path between the excitation and the response. PMID:23012514

  5. Leptin resistance is a secondary consequence of the obesity in ciliopathy mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Berbari, Nicolas F; Pasek, Raymond C; Malarkey, Erik B; Yazdi, S M Zaki; McNair, Andrew D; Lewis, Wesley R; Nagy, Tim R; Kesterson, Robert A; Yoder, Bradley K

    2013-05-07

    Although primary cilia are well established as important sensory and signaling structures, their function in most tissues remains unknown. Obesity is a feature associated with some syndromes of cilia dysfunction, such as Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) and Alström syndrome, as well as in several cilia mutant mouse models. Recent data indicate that obesity in BBS mutant mice is due to defects in leptin receptor trafficking and leptin resistance. Furthermore, induction of cilia loss in leptin-responsive proopiomelanocortin neurons results in obesity, implicating cilia on hypothalamic neurons in regulating feeding behavior. Here, we directly test the importance of the cilium as a mediator of the leptin response. In contrast to the current dogma, a longitudinal study of conditional Ift88 cilia mutant mice under different states of adiposity indicates that leptin resistance is present only when mutants are obese. Our studies show that caloric restriction leads to an altered anticipatory feeding behavior that temporarily abrogates the anorectic actions of leptin despite normalized circulating leptin levels. Interestingly, preobese Bbs4 mutant mice responded to the anorectic effects of leptin and did not display other phenotypes associated with defective leptin signaling. Furthermore, thermoregulation and activity measurements in cilia mutant mice are inconsistent with phenotypes previously observed in leptin deficient ob/ob mice. Collectively, these data indicate that cilia are not directly involved in leptin responses and that a defect in the leptin signaling axis is not the initiating event leading to hyperphagia and obesity associated with cilia dysfunction.

  6. DNA damage response and prostate cancer: defects, regulation and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Karanika, S; Karantanos, T; Li, L; Corn, P G; Thompson, T C

    2015-05-28

    DNA damage response (DDR) includes the activation of numerous cellular activities that prevent duplication of DNA lesions and maintain genomic integrity, which is critical for the survival of normal and cancer cells. Specific genes involved in the DDR such as BRCA1/2 and P53 are mutated during prostate cancer progression, while various oncogenic signaling such as Akt and c-Myc are activated, enhancing the replication stress and increasing the genomic instability of cancer cells. These events may render prostate cancer cells particularly sensitive to inhibition of specific DDR pathways, such as PARP in homologous recombination DNA repair and Chk1 in cell cycle checkpoint and DNA repair, creating opportunities for synthetic lethality or synergistic cytotoxicity. Recent reports highlight the critical role of androgen receptor (AR) as a regulator of DDR genes, providing a rationale for combining DNA-damaging agents or targeted DDR inhibitors with hormonal manipulation or AR inhibition as treatment for aggressive disease. The aims of this review are to discuss specific DDR defects in prostate cancer that occur during disease progression, to summarize recent advances in understanding the regulation of DDR in prostate cancer, and to present potential therapeutic opportunities through combinational targeting of the intact components of DDR signaling pathways.

  7. Myeloid decidual dendritic cells and immunoregulation of pregnancy: defective responsiveness to Coxiella burnetii and Brucella abortus

    PubMed Central

    Gorvel, Laurent; Ben Amara, Amira; Ka, Mignane B.; Textoris, Julien; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Mege, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are a component of the placental immune system, but their role in pregnancy is still poorly understood. Decidual DCs (dDCs) were selected from at-term pregnancy on the basis of CD14 and CD11c expression. A phenotypic analysis revealed that dDCs are characterized by the expression of monocyte-derived DC (moDCs) markers and specific markers such as HLA-G and its ligand ILT4. As demonstrated by whole-genome microarray, dDCs expressed a specific gene program markedly distinct from that of moDCs; it included estrogen- and progesterone-regulated genes and genes encoding immunoregulatory cytokines, which is consistent with the context of foeto-maternal tolerance. A functional analysis of dDCs showed that they were unable to mature in response to bacterial ligands such as lipopolysaccharide or peptidoglycan, as assessed by the expression of HLA-DR, CD80, CD83, and CD86. When dDCs were incubated with bacteria known for their placenta tropism, Coxiella burnetii and Brucella abortus, they were also unable to mature and to produce inflammatory cytokines. It is likely that the defective maturation of dDCs and their inability to produce inflammatory cytokines is related to the spontaneous release of IL-10 by these cells. Taken together, these results suggest that dDCs exhibit an immunoregulatory program, which may favor the pathogenicity of C. burnetii or B. abortus. PMID:25566514

  8. Symmetry, strain, defects, and the nonlinear optical response of crystalline BaTiO3/silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormondy, Kristy; Abel, Stefan; Popoff, Youri; Sousa, Marilyne; Caimi, Daniele; Siegwart, Heinz; Marchiori, Chiara; Rossell, Marta; Demkov, Alex; Fompeyrine, Jean

    Recent progress has been made towards exploiting the linear electro-optic or Pockels effect in ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BTO) for novel integrated silicon photonics devices. In such structures, the crystalline symmetry and domain structure of BTO determine which electro-optic tensor elements are accessible under application of an external electric field. For epitaxial thin films of BTO on Si (001), the role of defects in strain relaxation can lead to very different crystalline symmetry even for films of identical thickness. Indeed, through geometric phase analysis of high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images, we map changes of the in-plane and out-of-plane lattice parameters across two 80-nm-thick BTO films. A corresponding 20% difference in the effective electro-optic response was measured by analyzing induced rotation of the polarization of a laser beam (λ = 1550 nm) transmitted through lithographically defined electrodes. Understanding, controlling, and modelling the role of BTO symmetry in nonlinear optics is of fundamental importance for the development of a hybrid BTO/Si photonics platform.. Work supported by the NSF (IRES-1358111), AFOSR (FA9550-12-10494), and European Commission (FP7-ICT-2013-11-619456-SITOGA).

  9. Lipopolysaccharides with acylation defects potentiate TLR4 signaling and shape T cell responses.

    PubMed

    Martirosyan, Anna; Ohne, Yoichiro; Degos, Clara; Gorvel, Laurent; Moriyón, Ignacio; Oh, Sangkon; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides or endotoxins are components of Gram-negative enterobacteria that cause septic shock in mammals. However, a LPS carrying hexa-acyl lipid A moieties is highly endotoxic compared to a tetra-acyl LPS and the latter has been considered as an antagonist of hexa-acyl LPS-mediated TLR4 signaling. We investigated the relationship between the structure and the function of bacterial LPS in the context of human and mouse dendritic cell activation. Strikingly, LPS with acylation defects were capable of triggering a strong and early TLR4-dependent DC activation, which in turn led to the activation of the proteasome machinery dampening the pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Upon activation with tetra-acyl LPS both mouse and human dendritic cells triggered CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cell responses and, importantly, human myeloid dendritic cells favored the induction of regulatory T cells. Altogether, our data suggest that LPS acylation controlled by pathogenic bacteria might be an important strategy to subvert adaptive immunity.

  10. Constitutive expression of the tzs gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens virG mutant strains is responsible for improved transgenic plant regeneration in cotton meristem transformation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xudong; Chen, Yurong; Wan, Yuechun; Hong, Yun-Jeong; Ruebelt, Martin C; Gilbertson, Larry A

    2016-03-01

    KEY MESSAGE : virG mutant strains of a nopaline type of Agrobacterium tumefaciens increase the transformation frequency in cotton meristem transformation. Constitutive cytokinin expression from the tzs gene in the virG mutant strains is responsible for the improvement. Strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens were tested for their ability to improve cotton meristem transformation frequency. Two disarmed A. tumefaciens nopaline strains with either a virGN54D constitutively active mutation or virGI77V hypersensitive induction mutation significantly increased the transformation frequency in a cotton meristem transformation system. The virG mutant strains resulted in greener explants after three days of co-culture in the presence of light, which could be attributed to a cytokinin effect of the mutants. A tzs knockout strain of virGI77V mutant showed more elongated, less green explants and decreased cotton transformation frequency, as compared to a wild type parental strain, suggesting that expression of the tzs gene is required for transformation frequency improvement in cotton meristem transformation. In vitro cytokinin levels in culture media were tenfold higher in the virGN54D strain, and approximately 30-fold higher in the virGI77V strain, in the absence of acetosyringone induction, compared to the wild type strain. The cytokinin level in the virGN54D strain is further increased upon acetosyringone induction, while the cytokinin level in the virGI77V mutant is decreased by induction, suggesting that different tzs gene expression regulation mechanisms are present in the two virG mutant strains. Based on these data, we suggest that the increased cytokinin levels play a major role in increasing Agrobacterium attachment and stimulating localized division of the attached plant cells.

  11. Transcriptomic Profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana Mutant pad2.1 in Response to Combined Cold and Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Datta, Riddhi; Hazra, Saptarshi; Sultana, Asma; Mukhopadhyay, Ria; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of glutathione (GSH) in stress tolerance, defense response and antioxidant signaling is an established fact. In this study transcriptome analysis of pad2.1, an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, after combined osmotic and cold stress treatment has been performed to explore the intricate position of GSH in the stress and defense signaling network in planta. Microarray data revealed the differential regulation of about 1674 genes in pad2.1 amongst which 973 and 701 were significantly up- and down-regulated respectively. Gene enrichment, functional pathway analysis by DAVID and MapMan analysis identified various stress and defense related genes viz. members of heat shock protein family, peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PPIase), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPX2), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), NBS-LRR type resistance protein etc. as down-regulated. The expression pattern of the above mentioned stress and defense related genes and APETALA were also validated by comparative proteomic analysis of combined stress treated Col-0 and pad2.1. Functional annotation noted down-regulation of UDP-glycosyl transferase, 4-coumarate CoA ligase 8, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 4 (CAD4), ACC synthase and ACC oxidase which are the important enzymes of phenylpropanoid, lignin and ethylene (ET) biosynthetic pathway respectively. Since the only difference between Col-0 (Wild type) and pad2.1 is the content of GSH, so, this study suggested that in addition to its association with specific stress responsive genes and proteins, GSH provides tolerance to plants by its involvement with phenylpropanoid, lignin and ET biosynthesis under stress conditions. PMID:25822199

  12. Leukocyte TLR5 deficiency inhibits atherosclerosis by reduced macrophage recruitment and defective T-cell responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Ellenbroek, Guilielmus H.J.M.; van Puijvelde, Gijs H.M.; Anas, Adam A.; Bot, Martine; Asbach, Miriam; Schoneveld, Arjan; van Santbrink, Peter J.; Foks, Amanda C.; Timmers, Leo; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Hoefer, Imo E.; van der Poll, Tom; Kuiper, Johan; de Jager, Saskia C.A.

    2017-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) provide a critical link between innate and adaptive immunity, both important players in atherosclerosis. Since evidence for the role of TLR5 is lacking, we aimed to establish this in the immune axis of atherosclerosis. We assessed the effect of the TLR5-specific ligand Flagellin on macrophage maturation and T-cell polarisation. Next, we generated TLR5−/−LDLr−/− chimeras to study the effect of hematopoietic TLR5 deficiency on atherosclerosis formation. Flagellin stimulation did not influence wildtype or TLR5−/− macrophage maturation. Only in wildtype macrophages, Flagellin exposure increased MCP-1 and IL6 expression. Flagellin alone reduced T-helper 1 proliferation, which was completely overruled in the presence of T-cell receptor activation. In vivo, hematopoietic TLR5 deficiency attenuated atherosclerotic lesion formation by ≈25% (1030*103 ± 63*103 vs. 792*103 ± 61*103 μm2; p = 0.013) and decreased macrophage area (81.3 ± 12.0 vs. 44.2 ± 6.6 μm2; p = 0.011). In TLR5−/− chimeric mice, we observed lower IL6 plasma levels (36.4 ± 5.6 vs. 15.1 ± 2.2 pg/mL; p = 0.003), lower (activated) splenic CD4+ T-cell content (32.3 ± 2.1 vs. 21.0 ± 1.2%; p = 0.0018), accompanied by impaired T-cell proliferative responses. In conclusion, hematopoietic TLR5 deficiency inhibits atherosclerotic lesion formation by attenuated macrophage accumulation and defective T-cell responsiveness. PMID:28202909

  13. Transcriptome and proteome analysis of nitrogen starvation responses in Synechocystis 6803 ΔglgC, a mutant incapable of glycogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Carrieri, Damian; Lombardi, Thomas; Paddock, Troy; Cano, Melissa; Goodney, Gabriel A.; Nag, Ambarish; Old, William; Maness, Pin -Ching; Seibert, Michael; Ghirardi, Maria; Yu, Jianping

    2016-11-17

    Molecular mechanisms that regulate carbon flux are poorly understood in algae. The ΔglgC mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is incapable of glycogen storage and displays an array of physiological responses under nitrogen starvation that are different from wild-type (WT). These include non-bleaching phenotype and the redirection of photosynthetically fixed carbon towards excreted organic acids (overflow metabolism) without biomass growth. To understand the role of gene/protein expression in these responses, we followed the time course of transcripts by genome-scale microarrays and proteins by shotgun proteomics in ΔglgC and WT cells upon nitrogen starvation. Compared to WT, the degradation of phycobilisome rod proteins was delayed and attenuated in the mutant, and the core proteins were less degraded; both contributed to the non-bleaching appearance despite the induction of nblA genes, suggesting the presence of a break in regulation of the phycobilisome degradation pathway downstream of nblA induction. The mutant displayed NtcA-mediated transcriptional response to nitrogen starvation, indicating that it is able to sense nitrogen status. Furthermore, some responses to nitrogen starvation appear to be stronger in the mutant, as shown by the increases in transcripts for the transcriptional regulator, rre37, which regulates central carbon metabolism. Accordingly, multiple proteins involved in photosynthesis, central carbon metabolism, and carbon storage and utilization showed lower abundance in the mutant. Furthermore, these results indicate that the transition in the central carbon metabolism from growth to overflow metabolism in ΔglgC does not require increases in expression of the overflow pathway enzymes; the transition and non-bleaching phenotype are likely regulated instead at the metabolite level.

  14. Transcriptome and proteome analysis of nitrogen starvation responses in Synechocystis 6803 ΔglgC, a mutant incapable of glycogen storage

    DOE PAGES

    Carrieri, Damian; Lombardi, Thomas; Paddock, Troy; ...

    2016-11-17

    Molecular mechanisms that regulate carbon flux are poorly understood in algae. The ΔglgC mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is incapable of glycogen storage and displays an array of physiological responses under nitrogen starvation that are different from wild-type (WT). These include non-bleaching phenotype and the redirection of photosynthetically fixed carbon towards excreted organic acids (overflow metabolism) without biomass growth. To understand the role of gene/protein expression in these responses, we followed the time course of transcripts by genome-scale microarrays and proteins by shotgun proteomics in ΔglgC and WT cells upon nitrogen starvation. Compared to WT, the degradationmore » of phycobilisome rod proteins was delayed and attenuated in the mutant, and the core proteins were less degraded; both contributed to the non-bleaching appearance despite the induction of nblA genes, suggesting the presence of a break in regulation of the phycobilisome degradation pathway downstream of nblA induction. The mutant displayed NtcA-mediated transcriptional response to nitrogen starvation, indicating that it is able to sense nitrogen status. Furthermore, some responses to nitrogen starvation appear to be stronger in the mutant, as shown by the increases in transcripts for the transcriptional regulator, rre37, which regulates central carbon metabolism. Accordingly, multiple proteins involved in photosynthesis, central carbon metabolism, and carbon storage and utilization showed lower abundance in the mutant. Furthermore, these results indicate that the transition in the central carbon metabolism from growth to overflow metabolism in ΔglgC does not require increases in expression of the overflow pathway enzymes; the transition and non-bleaching phenotype are likely regulated instead at the metabolite level.« less

  15. Molecular heterogeneity assessment by next-generation sequencing and response to gefitinib of EGFR mutant advanced lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Eliana; Fassan, Matteo; Novello, Silvia; Peretti, Umberto; Vavalà, Tiziana; Kinspergher, Stefania; Righi, Luisella; Santo, Antonio; Brunelli, Matteo; Corbo, Vincenzo; Giglioli, Eliana; Sperduti, Isabella; Milella, Michele; Chilosi, Marco; Scarpa, Aldo; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2015-01-01

    Cancer molecular heterogeneity might explain the variable response of EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinomas to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). We assessed the mutational status of 22 cancer genes by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in poor, intermediate or good responders to first-line gefitinib. Clinical outcome was correlated with Additional Coexisting Mutations (ACMs) and the EGFR Proportion of Mutated Alleles (PMA). Thirteen ACMs were found in 10/17 patients: TP53 (n=6), KRAS (n=2), CTNNB1 (n=2), PIK3CA, SMAD4 and MET (n=1 each). TP53 mutations were exclusive of poor/intermediate responders (66.7% versus 0, p=0.009). Presence of ACMs significantly affected both PFS (median 3.0 versus 12.3 months, p=0.03) and survival (3.6 months versus not reached, p=0.03). TP53 mutation was the strongest negative modifier (median PFS 4.0 versus 14.0 months). Higher EGFR PMA was present in good versus poor/intermediate responders. Median PFS and survival were longer in patients with EGFR PMA ≥0.36 (12.0 versus 4.0 months, p=0.31; not reached versus 18.0 months, p=0.59). Patients with an EGFR PMA ≥0.36 and no ACMs fared significantly better (p=0.03), with a trend towards increased survival (p=0.06). Our exploratory data suggest that a quantitative (PMA) and qualitative (ACMs) molecular heterogeneity assessment using NGS might be useful for a better selection of patients. PMID:25904052

  16. Molecular heterogeneity assessment by next-generation sequencing and response to gefitinib of EGFR mutant advanced lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bria, Emilio; Pilotto, Sara; Amato, Eliana; Fassan, Matteo; Novello, Silvia; Peretti, Umberto; Vavalà, Tiziana; Kinspergher, Stefania; Righi, Luisella; Santo, Antonio; Brunelli, Matteo; Corbo, Vincenzo; Giglioli, Eliana; Sperduti, Isabella; Milella, Michele; Chilosi, Marco; Scarpa, Aldo; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2015-05-20

    Cancer molecular heterogeneity might explain the variable response of EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinomas to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). We assessed the mutational status of 22 cancer genes by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in poor, intermediate or good responders to first-line gefitinib. Clinical outcome was correlated with Additional Coexisting Mutations (ACMs) and the EGFR Proportion of Mutated Alleles (PMA). Thirteen ACMs were found in 10/17 patients: TP53 (n=6), KRAS (n=2), CTNNB1 (n=2), PIK3CA, SMAD4 and MET (n=1 each). TP53 mutations were exclusive of poor/intermediate responders (66.7% versus 0, p=0.009). Presence of ACMs significantly affected both PFS (median 3.0 versus 12.3 months, p=0.03) and survival (3.6 months versus not reached, p=0.03). TP53 mutation was the strongest negative modifier (median PFS 4.0 versus 14.0 months). Higher EGFR PMA was present in good versus poor/intermediate responders. Median PFS and survival were longer in patients with EGFR PMA ≥0.36 (12.0 versus 4.0 months, p=0.31; not reached versus 18.0 months, p=0.59). Patients with an EGFR PMA ≥0.36 and no ACMs fared significantly better (p=0.03), with a trend towards increased survival (p=0.06). Our exploratory data suggest that a quantitative (PMA) and qualitative (ACMs) molecular heterogeneity assessment using NGS might be useful for a better selection of patients.

  17. Immunological responses induced by asd and wzy/asd mutant strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Piao, Hong Hua; Tam, Vo Thi Minh; Na, Hee Sam; Kim, Hyun Ju; Ryu, Phil Youl; Kim, Soo Young; Rhee, Joon Haeng; Choy, Hyon E; Kim, Suhng Wook; Hong, Yeongjin

    2010-08-01

    Attenuated bacteria have long been developed as vaccine candidates but can have some disadvantages, such as the potential for damage to immune organs due to insufficient clearance. To minimize these disadvantages, we generated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutants SHJ2104 (asd::cm) and HTSaYA (wzy::km, asd::cm). The wzy gene codes for the O-antigen polymerase, which is involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis, and asd codes for aspartate beta-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, which participates in cell wall formation. The strains synthesized LPS with a short-chain length, and showed lower cytotoxicity and reduced intracellular proliferation in animal cells compared to wild-type bacteria. After oral infection, the mutants were cleared in immune tissues, including the Peyer's patch, mesenteric lymph node, and spleen, within 5 days. The LD50 of the mutants in Balb/c mice was estimated to be 10(6) higher than wild-type bacteria when administered either via an oral or i.p. route, indicating that the two strains are highly attenuated. To compare the immune response to and protective effects of the mutants against wild-type bacterial infection, we inoculated the mutants into mice via an oral (1x10(10)CFU) or i.p. (1x10(7) CFU) route once or twice at a two week interval. All immune responses, such as serum IgG and secretory IgA levels, cytokine production, and delayed hypersensitivity, were highly induced by two rounds of immunization. HTSaYA and SHJ2104 induced similar immune responses, and mice immunized with HTSaYA or SHJ2104 via an i.p. route were protected against wild-type Salmonella infection even at 100-fold of the LD(50) (5x10(6) CFU). Taken together, these data indicate that HTSaYA and SHJ2104 could be developed as live attenuated Salmonella vaccine candidates.

  18. The Transcriptional Response of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM 20451T and Its tcyB Mutant Lacking a Functional Cystine Transporter to Diamide Stress

    PubMed Central

    Stetina, Mandy; Behr, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    As a result of its strong adaptation to wheat and rye sourdoughs, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis has the smallest genome within the genus Lactobacillus. The concomitant absence of some important antioxidative enzymes and the inability to synthesize glutathione suggest a role of cystine transport in maintenance of an intracellular thiol balance. Diamide [synonym 1,1′-azobis(N,N-dimethylformamide)] disturbs intracellular and membrane thiol levels in oxidizing protein thiols depending on its initial concentration. In this study, RNA sequencing was used to reveal the transcriptional response of L. sanfranciscensis DSM 20451T (wild type [WT]) and its ΔtcyB mutant with a nonfunctional cystine transporter after thiol stress caused by diamide. Along with the different expression of genes involved in amino acid starvation, pyrimidine synthesis, and energy production, our results show that thiol stress in the wild type can be compensated through activation of diverse chaperones and proteases whereas the ΔtcyB mutant shifts its metabolism in the direction of survival. Only a small set of genes are significantly differentially expressed between the wild type and the mutant. In the WT, mainly genes which are associated with a heat shock response are upregulated whereas glutamine import and synthesis genes are downregulated. In the ΔtcyB mutant, the whole opp operon was more highly expressed, as well as a protein which probably includes enzymes for methionine transport. The two proteins encoded by spxA and nrdH, which are involved in direct or indirect oxidative stress responses, are also upregulated in the mutant. This work emphasizes that even in the absence of definitive antioxidative enzymes, bacteria with a small genome and a high frequency of gene inactivation and elimination use small molecules such as the cysteine/cystine couple to overcome potential cell damage resulting from oxidative stress. PMID:24795368

  19. Radionuclide analysis of right and left ventricular response to exercise in patients with atrial and ventricular septal defects

    SciTech Connect

    Peter, C.A.; Bowyer, K.; Jones, R.H.

    1983-03-01

    In patients with ventricular or atrial septal defect, the ventricle which is chronically volume overloaded might not appropriately respond to increased demand for an augmentation in output and thereby might limit total cardiac function. In this study we simultaneously measured right and left ventricular response to exercise in 10 normal individuals, 10 patients with ventricular septal defect (VSD), and 10 patients with atrial septal defect (ASD). The normal subjects increased both right and left ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, and stroke volume to achieve a higher cardiac output during exercise. Patients with VSD failed to increase right ventricular ejection fraction, but increased right ventricular end-diastolic volume and stroke volume. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume did not increase in these patients but ejection fraction, stroke volume, and forward left ventricular output achieved during exercise were comparable to the response observed in healthy subjects. In the patients with ASD, no rest-to-exercise change occurred in either right ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, or stroke volume. In addition, left ventricular end-diastolic volume failed to increase, and despite an increase in ejection fraction, left ventricular stroke volume remained unchanged from rest to exercise. Therefore, cardiac output was augmented only by the heart rate increase in these patients. Right ventricular function appeared to be the major determinant of total cardiac output during exercise in patients with cardiac septal defects and left-to-right shunt.

  20. High Serum Estradiol and Heavy Metals Responsible for Human Spermiation Defect-A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Manish; Kalsi, Amanpreet Kaur; Srivastava, Amita; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Spermiation is a process of releasing sperm into the lumen of seminiferous tubules. Failure in releasing sperm into the lumen is designated as spermiation defect. Spermiation defect cases present as oligo-azoospermia or azoospermia despite normal gonadotropins and testicular histology/cytology. Human spermiation defect never got attention to investigate infertility practice. Most of the information on spermiation defect, so far is from animal experiments. We assume some cases of non-obstructive azoospermia with normal gonadotropins and testicular histology/cytology could be due to spermiation defect. Aim The aim of the study was to find out the underlying aetiology in cases of human spermiation defect. Materials and Methods A total of 13 cases of spermiation defect and 20 fertile men as control constituted study material. Cases were studied for chromosomal abnormalities by conventional karyotyping, sex chromosome mosaicism by interphase XY FISH, Yq microdeletion by STS PCR, sertoli cell quality (function) and quantity (numbers) by serum Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) and inhibin B besides other hormones like Follicular Stimulating Hormone (FSH), prolactin, testosterone and estradiol. Vitamin A concentration in serum was also measured. Presence of heavy metal was investigated by elemental electron microscopy in seminal cells (eight cases) & by spectrometry in serum as well as seminal plasma. Results Chromosomal and Yq microdeletion study failed to detect any abnormalities. AMH, inhibin B and vitamin A were also normal. Estradiol level was high in 6 out of 13 cases (46%) while platinum in seminal cells was high in 4 cases (50%). High (four times or more) serum level of lead and nickel was observed in 11 (85%) and 6 (46%) cases, respectively. Conclusion High serum concentration of heavy metals like lead & nickel or high platinum accumulation in seminal cells or high serum estradiol alone or in combinations may be underlying aetiologic factors in human

  1. Isolation of New Gravitropic Mutants under Hypergravity Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Akiko; Toyota, Masatsugu; Shimada, Masayoshi; Mekata, Mika; Kurata, Tetsuya; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo T.

    2016-01-01

    Forward genetics is a powerful approach used to link genotypes and phenotypes, and mutant screening/analysis has provided deep insights into many aspects of plant physiology. Gravitropism is a tropistic response in plants, in which hypocotyls and stems sense the direction of gravity and grow upward. Previous studies of gravitropic mutants have suggested that shoot endodermal cells in Arabidopsis stems and hypocotyls are capable of sensing gravity (i.e., statocytes). In the present study, we report a new screening system using hypergravity conditions to isolate enhancers of gravitropism mutants, and we also describe a rapid and efficient genome mapping method, using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based markers. Using the endodermal-amyloplast less 1 (eal1) mutant, which exhibits defective development of endodermal cells and gravitropism, we found that hypergravity (10 g) restored the reduced gravity responsiveness in eal1 hypocotyls and could, therefore, be used to obtain mutants with further reduction in gravitropism in the eal1 background. Using the new screening system, we successfully isolated six ene (enhancer of eal1) mutants that exhibited little or no gravitropism under hypergravity conditions, and using NGS and map-based cloning with SNP markers, we narrowed down the potential causative genes, which revealed a new genetic network for shoot gravitropism in Arabidopsis. PMID:27746791

  2. Mouse mutants for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ß2 subunit display changes in cell adhesion and neurodegeneration response genes.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Carol M; van der List, Deborah A; Ballesteros, Jose M; Goloshchapov, Andrey V; Chalupa, Leo M; Chapman, Barbara

    2011-04-25

    Mice lacking expression of the ß2 subunit of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRNB2) display abnormal retinal waves and a dispersed projection of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons to their dorsal lateral geniculate nuclei (dLGNs). Transcriptomes of LGN tissue from two independently generated Chrnb2-/- mutants and from wildtype mice were obtained at postnatal day 4 (P4), during the normal period of segregation of eye-specific afferents to the LGN. Microarray analysis reveals reduced expression of genes located on the cell membrane or in extracellular space, and of genes active in cell adhesion and calcium signaling. In particular, mRNA for cadherin 1 (Cdh1), a known axon growth regulator, is reduced to nearly undetectable levels in the LGN of P4 mutant mice and Lypd2 mRNA is similarly suppressed. Similar analysis of retinal tissue shows increased expression of crumbs 1 (Crb1) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (Ccl21) mRNAs in Chrnb2-/- mutant animals. Mutations in these genes are associated with retinal neuronal degeneration. The retinas of Chrnb2-/- mutants are normal in appearance, but the increased expression of these genes may also be involved in the abnormal projection patterns of RGC to the LGN. These data may provide the tools to distinguish the interplay between neural activity and molecular expression. Finally, comparison of the transcriptomes of the two different Chrnb2-/- mutant strains reveals the effects of genetic background upon gene expression.

  3. Identification of genes potentially involved in solute stress response in Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 by transposon mutant recovery

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, Edith; Roggo, Clémence; van der Meer, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    The term water stress refers to the effects of low water availability on microbial growth and physiology. Water availability has been proposed as a major constraint for the use of microorganisms in contaminated sites with the purpose of bioremediation. Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 is a bacterium capable of degrading the xenobiotic compounds dibenzofuran and dibenzo-p-dioxin, and has potential to be used for targeted bioremediation. The aim of the current work was to identify genes implicated in water stress in RW1 by means of transposon mutagenesis and mutant growth experiments. Conditions of low water potential were mimicked by adding NaCl to the growth media. Three different mutant selection or separation method were tested which, however recovered different mutants. Recovered transposon mutants with poorer growth under salt-induced water stress carried insertions in genes involved in proline and glutamate biosynthesis, and further in a gene putatively involved in aromatic compound catabolism. Transposon mutants growing poorer on medium with lowered water potential also included ones that had insertions in genes involved in more general functions such as transcriptional regulation, elongation factor, cell division protein, RNA polymerase β or an aconitase. PMID:25408691

  4. Defects in Protein Folding Machinery Affect Cell Wall Integrity and Reduce Ethanol Tolerance in S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Aswathy; Pullepu, Dileep; Reddy, Praveen Kumar; Uddin, Wasim; Kabir, M Anaul

    2016-07-01

    The chaperonin complex CCT/TRiC (chaperonin containing TCP-1/TCP-1 ring complex) participates in the folding of many crucial proteins including actin and tubulin in eukaryotes. Mutations in genes encoding its subunits can affect protein folding and in turn, the physiology of the organism. Stress response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important in fermentation reactions and operates through overexpression and underexpression of genes, thus altering the protein profile. Defective protein folding machinery can disturb this process. In this study, the response of cct mutants to stress conditions in general and ethanol in specific was investigated. CCT1 mutants showed decreased resistance to different conditions tested including osmotic stress, metal ions, surfactants, reducing and oxidising agents. Cct1-3 mutant with the mutation in the conserved ATP-binding region showed irreversible defects than other mutants. These mutants were found to have inherent cell wall defects and showed decreased ethanol tolerance. This study reveals that cell wall defects and ethanol sensitivity are linked. Genetic and proteomic analyses showed that the yeast genes RPS6A (ribosomal protein), SCL1 (proteasomal subunit) and TDH3 (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) on overexpression, improved the growth of cct1-3 mutant on ethanol. We propose the breakdown of common stress response pathways caused by mutations in CCT complex and the resulting scarcity of functional stress-responsive proteins, affecting the cell's defence against different stress agents in cct mutants. Defective cytoskeleton and perturbed cell wall integrity reduce the ethanol tolerance in the mutants which are rescued by the extragenic suppressors.

  5. A Forward Genetic Screen and Whole Genome Sequencing Identify Deflagellation Defective Mutants in Chlamydomonas, Including Assignment of ADF1 as a TRP Channel

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Laura K.; Meili, Fabian; Buckoll, Paul D.; Rodriguez-Pike, Julie C.; Choutka, Courtney P.; Kirschner, Jaime A.; Warner, Freda; Lethan, Mette; Garces, Fabian A.; Qi, Jingnan; Quarmby, Lynne M.

    2016-01-01

    With rare exception, ciliated cells entering mitosis lose their cilia, thereby freeing basal bodies to serve as centrosomes in the formation of high-fidelity mitotic spindles. Cilia can be lost by shedding or disassembly, but either way, it appears that the final release may be via a coordinated severing of the nine axonemal outer doublet microtubules linking the basal body to the ciliary transition zone. Little is known about the mechanism or regulation of this important process. The stress-induced deflagellation response of Chlamydomonas provides a basis to identifying key players in axonemal severing. In an earlier screen we uncovered multiple alleles for each of three deflagellation genes, ADF1, FA1, and FA2. Products of the two FA genes localize to the site of axonemal severing and encode a scaffolding protein and a member of the NIMA-related family of ciliary-cell cycle kinases. The identity of the ADF1 gene remained elusive. Here, we report a new screen using a mutagenesis that yields point mutations in Chlamydomonas, an enhanced screening methodology, and whole genome sequencing. We isolated numerous new alleles of the three known genes, and one or two alleles each of at least four new genes. We identify ADF1 as a TRP ion channel, which we suggest may reside at the flagellar transition zone. PMID:27520959

  6. Robust root growth in altered hydrotropic response1 (ahr1) mutant of Arabidopsis is maintained by high rate of cell production at low water potential gradient.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Blas, Amed; Noriega-Calixto, Laura; Campos, María E; Eapen, Delfeena; Cruz-Vázquez, Tania; Castillo-Olamendi, Luis; Sepulveda-Jiménez, Gabriela; Porta, Helena; Dubrovsky, Joseph G; Cassab, Gladys I

    2017-01-01

    Hydrotropism is the directional root growth response determined by water stimulus. In a water potential gradient system (WPGS) the roots of the Arabidopsis wild type have a diminished root growth compared to normal medium (NM). In contrast, the altered hydrotropic response1 (ahr1) mutant roots maintain their robust growth in the same WPGS. The aims of this work were to ascertain how ahr1 roots could sustain growth in the WPGS, with a special focus on the integration of cellular processes involved in the signaling that determines root growth during abiotic stress and their relation to hydrotropism. Cellular analysis of the root apical meristem of ahr1 mutant contrary to the wild type showed an absence of changes in the meristem length, the elongation zone length, the length of fully elongated cells, and the cell cycle duration. The robust and steady root growth of ahr1 seedlings in the WPGS is explained by the mutant capacity to maintain cell production and cell elongation at the same level as in the NM. Analysis of auxin response at a transcriptional level showed that roots of the ahr1 mutant had a lower auxin response when grown in the WPGS, compared to wild type, indicating that auxin signaling participates in attenuation of root growth under water stress conditions. Also, wild type plants exhibited a high increase in proline content while ahr1 mutants showed minimum changes in the Normal Medium→Water Stress Medium (NM→WSM), a lower water potential gradient system than the WPGS. Accordingly, in this condition, gene expression of Δ1-6 Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthetase1 (P5CS1) involved in proline synthesis strongly increased in wild type but not in ahr1 seedlings. The ahr1 phenotype shows unique features since the mutant root cells continue to proliferate and grow in the presence of a progressively negative water potential gradient at a level comparable to wild type growing in the NM. As such, it represents an exceptional resource for understanding

  7. Insights into metabolic mechanisms underlying folate-responsive neural tube defects: a minireview.

    PubMed

    Beaudin, Anna E; Stover, Patrick J

    2009-04-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), including anencephaly and spina bifida, arise from the failure of neurulation during early embryonic development. Neural tube defects are common birth defects with a heterogenous and multifactorial etiology with interacting genetic and environmental risk factors. Although the mechanisms resulting in failure of neural tube closure are unknown, up to 70% of NTDs can be prevented by maternal folic acid supplementation. However, the metabolic mechanisms underlying the association between folic acid and NTD pathogenesis have not been identified. This review summarizes our current understanding of the mechanisms by which impairments in folate metabolism might ultimately lead to failure of neural tube closure, with an emphasis on untangling the relative contributions of nutritional deficiency and genetic risk factors to NTD pathogenesis.

  8. Calculated strain response of vibrational modes for H-containing point defects in diamond.

    PubMed

    Goss, Jonathan P; Briddon, Patrick R

    2011-06-28

    The low mass of hydrogen leads to highly localised, high-frequency vibrational modes associated with H-containing defects in crystalline materials. In addition to vibrational spectroscopy, the presence of hydrogen in diamond has been identified from several experimental techniques. In particular, paramagnetic resonance shows that H is often associated with lattice vacancies, but in many cases the microscopic structure of the defects remains to be determined. We present the results of first-principles density-functional modelling of selected H-containing point defects, reporting both the calculated frequencies and the change in frequencies with applied strain. We show that more constrained environments lead to significantly larger strain-related shifts in frequency than more open environments, such as where the H is associated with lattice vacancies.

  9. Natural selection of K13 mutants of Plasmodium falciparum in response to artemisinin combination therapies in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Putaporntip, C; Kuamsab, N; Kosuwin, R; Tantiwattanasub, W; Vejakama, P; Sueblinvong, T; Seethamchai, S; Jongwutiwes, S; Hughes, A L

    2016-03-01

    Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) in Southeast Asia can have a devastating impact on chemotherapy and control measures. In this study, the evolution of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum in Thailand was assessed by exploring mutations in the K13 locus believed to confer drug resistance phenotype. P. falciparum-infected blood samples were obtained from patients in eight provinces of Thailand over two decades (1991-2014; n = 904). Analysis of the K13 gene was performed by either sequencing the complete coding region (n = 259) or mutation-specific PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (n = 645). K13 mutations related to artesunate resistance were detected in isolates from Trat province bordering Cambodia in 1991, about 4 years preceding widespread deployment of ACT in Thailand and increased in frequency over time. Nonsynonymous nucleotide diversity exceeded synonymous nucleotide diversity in the propeller region of the K13 gene, supporting the hypothesis that this diversity was driven by natural selection. No single mutant appeared to be favoured in every population, and propeller-region mutants were rarely observed in linkage with each other in the same haplotype. On the other hand, there was a highly significant association between the occurrence of a propeller mutant and the insertion of two or three asparagines after residue 139 of K13. Whether this insertion plays a compensatory role for deleterious effects of propeller mutants on the function of the K13 protein requires further investigation. However, modification of duration of ACT from 2-day to 3-day regimens in 2008 throughout the country does not halt the increase in frequency of mutants conferring artemisinin resistance phenotype.

  10. Mouse Mutants for the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor ß2 Subunit Display Changes in Cell Adhesion and Neurodegeneration Response Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Carol M.; van der List, Deborah A.; Ballesteros, Jose M.; Goloshchapov, Andrey V.; Chalupa, Leo M.; Chapman, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Mice lacking expression of the ß2 subunit of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRNB2) display abnormal retinal waves and a dispersed projection of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons to their dorsal lateral geniculate nuclei (dLGNs). Transcriptomes of LGN tissue from two independently generated Chrnb2−/− mutants and from wildtype mice were obtained at postnatal day 4 (P4), during the normal period of segregation of eye-specific afferents to the LGN. Microarray analysis reveals reduced expression of genes located on the cell membrane or in extracellular space, and of genes active in cell adhesion and calcium signaling. In particular, mRNA for cadherin 1 (Cdh1), a known axon growth regulator, is reduced to nearly undetectable levels in the LGN of P4 mutant mice and Lypd2 mRNA is similarly suppressed. Similar analysis of retinal tissue shows increased expression of crumbs 1 (Crb1) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (Ccl21) mRNAs in Chrnb2−/− mutant animals. Mutations in these genes are associated with retinal neuronal degeneration. The retinas of Chrnb2−/− mutants are normal in appearance, but the increased expression of these genes may also be involved in the abnormal projection patterns of RGC to the LGN. These data may provide the tools to distinguish the interplay between neural activity and molecular expression. Finally, comparison of the transcriptomes of the two different Chrnb2−/− mutant strains reveals the effects of genetic background upon gene expression. PMID:21547082

  11. Activity-Based Proteomics Reveals Heterogeneous Kinome and ATP-Binding Proteome Responses to MEK Inhibition in KRAS Mutant Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Young; Stewart, Paul A; Borne, Adam L; Fang, Bin; Welsh, Eric A; Chen, Yian Ann; Eschrich, Steven A; Koomen, John M; Haura, Eric B

    2016-06-01

    One way cancer cells can escape from targeted agents is through their ability to evade drug effects by rapidly rewiring signaling networks. Many protein classes, such as kinases and metabolic enzymes, are regulated by ATP binding and hydrolysis. We hypothesized that a system-level profiling of drug-induced alterations in ATP-binding proteomes could offer novel insights into adaptive responses. Here, we mapped global ATP-binding proteomes perturbed by two clinical MEK inhibitors, AZD6244 and MEK162, in KRAS mutant lung cancer cells as a model system harnessing a desthiobiotin-ATP probe coupled with LC-MS/MS. We observed strikingly unique ATP-binding proteome responses to MEK inhibition, which revealed heterogeneous drug-induced pathway signatures in each cell line. We also identified diverse kinome responses, indicating each cell adapts to MEK inhibition in unique ways. Despite the heterogeneity of kinome responses, decreased probe labeling of mitotic kinases and an increase of kinases linked to autophagy were identified to be common responses. Taken together, our study revealed a diversity of adaptive ATP-binding proteome and kinome responses to MEK inhibition in KRAS mutant lung cancer cells, and our study further demonstrated the utility of our approach to identify potential candidates of targetable ATP-binding enzymes involved in adaptive resistance and to develop rational drug combinations.

  12. Rhizobium phaseoli symbiotic mutants with transposon Tn5 insertions.

    PubMed Central

    Noel, K D; Sanchez, A; Fernandez, L; Leemans, J; Cevallos, M A

    1984-01-01

    Rhizobium phaseoli CFN42 DNA was mutated by random insertion of Tn5 from suicide plasmid pJB4JI to obtain independently arising strains that were defective in symbiosis with Phaseolus vulgaris but grew normally outside the plant. When these mutants were incubated with the plant, one did not initiate visible nodule tissue (Nod-), seven led to slow nodule development (Ndv), and two led to superficially normal early nodule development but lacked symbiotic nitrogenase activity (Sna-). The Nod- mutant lacked the large transmissible indigenous plasmid pCFN42d that has homology to Klebsiella pneumoniae nitrogenase (nif) genes. The other mutants had normal plasmid content. In the two Sna- mutants and one Ndv mutant, Tn5 had inserted into plasmid pCFN42d outside the region of nif homology. The insertions of the other Ndv mutants were apparently in the chromosome. They were not in plasmids detected on agarose gels, and, in contrast to insertions on indigenous plasmids, they were transmitted in crosses to wild-type strain CFN42 at the same frequency as auxotrophic markers and with the same enhancement of transmission by conjugation plasmid R68.45. In these Ndv mutants the Tn5 insertions were the same as or very closely linked to mutations causing the Ndv phenotype. However, in two mutants with Tn5 insertions on plasmid pCFN42d, an additional mutation on the same plasmid, rather than Tn5, was responsible for the Sna- or Ndv phenotype. When plasmid pJB4JI was transferred to two other R. phaseoli strains, analysis of symbiotic mutants was complicated by Tn5-containing deleted forms of pJB4JI that were stably maintained. Images PMID:6325385

  13. Frequency-specific electric response audiometry (ERA) and its clinical application in the diagnosis of hearing defects in the dog.

    PubMed

    Schacks, S; Rohn, K; Hauschild, G

    2006-03-01

    Reference values were established for frequency-specific electric response audiometry (ERA) in dogs on the basis of the results of ERA examinations of 200 animals with normal hearing. Air-conducting acoustic tubes with foam stoppers were used in the determination of the following: the latencies of waves I, III and V; interpeak latencies (IPL) I-III, III-V and I-V; amplitudes I and V; and the amplitude difference I-V. A frequency-specific stimulus (tone pip) was used for frequency-specific examination (1 to 4 kHz) over the entire frequency range indicated. These reference values were then used for the clinical examination of 50 dogs with hearing defects. A frequency-specific ERA was conducted and the results evaluated. These findings made it possible to draw objective conclusions about the degree, type and site of the hearing defects. Frequency-specific electric response audiometry was shown to be an important diagnostic tool for the detection of partial high- and low-frequency hearing loss and for the characterisation of hearing defects of otological, otoneurological and neurological origin.

  14. Replication-defective viruses as vaccines and vaccine vectors.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Tim; Knipe, David M

    2006-01-05

    The classical viral vaccine approaches using inactivated virus or live-attenuated virus have not been successful for some viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus or herpes simplex virus. Therefore, new types of vaccines are needed to combat these infections. Replication-defective mutant viruses are defective for one or more functions that are essential for viral genome replication or synthesis and assembly of viral particles. These viruses are propagated in complementing cell lines expressing the missing gene product; however, in normal cells, they express viral gene products but do not replicate to form progeny virions. As vaccines, these mutant viruses have advantages of both classical types of viral vaccines in being as safe as inactivated virus but expressing viral antigens inside infected cells so that MHC class I and class II presentation can occur efficiently. Replication-defective viruses have served both as vaccines for the virus itself and as a vector for the expression of heterologous antigens. The potential advantages and disadvantages of these vaccines are discussed as well as contrasting them with single-cycle mutant virus vaccines and replicon/amplicon versions of vaccines. Replication-defective viruses have also served as important probes of the host immune response in helping to define the importance of the first round of infected cells in the host immune response, the mechanisms of activation of innate immune response, and the role of the complement pathway in humoral immune responses to viruses.

  15. Transcriptional profiling of an Fd-GOGAT1/GLU1 mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana reveals a multiple stress response and extensive reprogramming of the transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Glutamate plays a central position in the synthesis of a variety of organic molecules in plants and is synthesised from nitrate through a series of enzymatic reactions. Glutamate synthases catalyse the last step in this pathway and two types are present in plants: NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent. Here we report a genome wide microarray analysis of the transcriptional reprogramming that occurs in leaves and roots of the A. thaliana mutant glu1-2 knocked-down in the expression of Fd-GOGAT1 (GLU1; At5g04140), one of the two genes of A. thaliana encoding ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase. Results Transcriptional profiling of glu1-2 revealed extensive changes with the expression of more than 5500 genes significantly affected in leaves and nearly 700 in roots. Both genes involved in glutamate biosynthesis and transformation are affected, leading to changes in amino acid compositions as revealed by NMR metabolome analysis. An elevated glutamine level in the glu1-2 mutant was the most prominent of these changes. An unbiased analysis of the gene expression datasets allowed us to identify the pathways that constitute the secondary response of an FdGOGAT1/GLU1 knock-down. Among the most significantly affected pathways, photosynthesis, photorespiratory cycle and chlorophyll biosynthesis show an overall downregulation in glu1-2 leaves. This is in accordance with their slight chlorotic phenotype. Another characteristic of the glu1-2 transcriptional profile is the activation of multiple stress responses, mimicking cold, heat, drought and oxidative stress. The change in expression of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis is also revealed. The expression of a substantial number of genes encoding stress-related transcription factors, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, glutathione S-transferases and UDP-glycosyltransferases is affected in the glu1-2 mutant. This may indicate an induction of the detoxification of secondary metabolites in the mutant. Conclusions Analysis

  16. The Aspergillus fumigatus pkcA G579R Mutant Is Defective in the Activation of the Cell Wall Integrity Pathway but Is Dispensable for Virulence in a Neutropenic Mouse Infection Model.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Marina Campos; Godoy, Krissia Franco de; de Castro, Patrícia Alves; Hori, Juliana Issa; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; Brown, Neil Andrew; Cunha, Anderson Ferreira da; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Malavazi, Iran

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic human pathogen, which causes the life-threatening disease, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. In fungi, cell wall homeostasis is controlled by the conserved Cell Wall Integrity (CWI) pathway. In A. fumigatus this signaling cascade is partially characterized, but the mechanisms by which it is activated are not fully elucidated. In this study we investigated the role of protein kinase C (PkcA) in this signaling cascade. Our results suggest that pkcA is an essential gene and is activated in response to cell wall stress. Subsequently, we constructed and analyzed a non-essential A. fumigatus pkcAG579R mutant, carrying a Gly579Arg substitution in the PkcA C1B regulatory domain. The pkcAG579R mutation has a reduced activation of the downstream Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase, MpkA, resulting in the altered expression of genes encoding cell wall-related proteins, markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response. Furthermore, PkcAG579R is involved in the formation of proper conidial architecture and protection to oxidative damage. The pkcAG579R mutant elicits increased production of TNF-α and phagocytosis but it has no impact on virulence in a murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. These results highlight the importance of PkcA to the CWI pathway but also indicated that additional regulatory circuits may be involved in the biosynthesis and/or reinforcement of the A. fumigatus cell wall during infection.

  17. The Aspergillus fumigatus pkcAG579R Mutant Is Defective in the Activation of the Cell Wall Integrity Pathway but Is Dispensable for Virulence in a Neutropenic Mouse Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Marina Campos; de Godoy, Krissia Franco; de Castro, Patrícia Alves; Hori, Juliana Issa; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; Brown, Neil Andrew; da Cunha, Anderson Ferreira; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Malavazi, Iran

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic human pathogen, which causes the life-threatening disease, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. In fungi, cell wall homeostasis is controlled by the conserved Cell Wall Integrity (CWI) pathway. In A. fumigatus this signaling cascade is partially characterized, but the mechanisms by which it is activated are not fully elucidated. In this study we investigated the role of protein kinase C (PkcA) in this signaling cascade. Our results suggest that pkcA is an essential gene and is activated in response to cell wall stress. Subsequently, we constructed and analyzed a non-essential A. fumigatus pkcAG579R mutant, carrying a Gly579Arg substitution in the PkcA C1B regulatory domain. The pkcAG579R mutation has a reduced activation of the downstream Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase, MpkA, resulting in the altered expression of genes encoding cell wall-related proteins, markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response. Furthermore, PkcAG579R is involved in the formation of proper conidial architecture and protection to oxidative damage. The pkcAG579R mutant elicits increased production of TNF-α and phagocytosis but it has no impact on virulence in a murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. These results highlight the importance of PkcA to the CWI pathway but also indicated that additional regulatory circuits may be involved in the biosynthesis and/or reinforcement of the A. fumigatus cell wall during infection. PMID:26295576

  18. Genetic Screening for Arabidopsis Mutants Defective in STA1 Regulation under Thermal Stress Implicates the Existence of Regulators of Its Specific Expression, and the Genetic Interactions in the Stress Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Si-In; Han, Jin-Hee; Chhoeun, Chanvotey; Lee, Byeong-Ha

    2016-01-01

    To cope with environmental stresses, plants have developed various stress tolerance mechanisms that involve the induction of many stress responsive genes through stress-specific and common signaling pathways. Stress-specific/common transcription factors, rather than general basal factors, were considered important in this stress tolerance. The Arabidopsis STABILIZED1 (STA1) gene encodes a putative pre-mRNA splicing factor that is similar to the human U5 snRNP-associated 102-kDa protein and the yeast pre-mRNA splicing factors, PRP1p and Prp6p. As pre-mRNA splicing is a necessary process for proper gene expression in eukaryotes, STA1 is expected to be constantly functional in all conditions. Interestingly, STA1 expression is induced by temperature stresses, and STA1 recessive mutation (sta1-1) resulted in temperature stress-specific hypersensitivity. This suggests STA1's stress specific function in addition to its presumed "housekeeping" role. In order to establish the genetic system to understand the regulation of STA1 expression in temperature stresses, we generated a bioluminescent Arabidopsis plant harboring the STA1 promoter fused to the firefly luciferase coding sequence (STA1p-LUC). Through genetic analysis, the bioluminescent Arabidopsis homozygous for one-copy STA1p-LUC was isolated and characterized. In this STA1p-LUC line, the expression patterns of STA1p-LUC were similar to those of the endogenous STA1 gene under cold and heat stresses. The STA1p-LUC line was then chemically mutagenized and screened to isolate the genetic loci of STA1 regulators under cold or heat stresses. Mutants with altered STA1p-LUC luminescence were identified and further confirmed through luminescence imaging in the next generation and analysis of endogenous STA1 expression. The categorization of STA1p-LUC deregulated mutants implicated the existence of cold or heat stress-specific as well as common genetic regulators for STA1 expression. Interestingly, some mutants showed opposite

  19. Heat shock transcriptional responses in an MC-Producing Cyanobacterium (Planktothrix agardhii) and its MC-deficient mutant under high light conditions.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thi Du Chi; Bernard, Cecile; Ammar, Myriam; Chaouch, Soraya; Comte, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are the most commonly-reported hepatotoxins produced by various cyanobacterial taxa in fresh waters to constitute a potential threat to human and animal health. The biological role of MCs in the producer organisms is not known, and it would be very useful to understand the driving force behind the toxin production. Recent studies have suggested that MCs may have a protective function in cells facing environmental stress. Following this starting premise, we speculate that under adverse conditions the expression of stress-related genes coding for Heat Shock Proteins (Hsp) might be different in an MC-producing strain and its MC-deficient mutant. We therefore used RT-qPCR to compare the expression of 13 hsp genes of an MC-producing strain of Planktothrix agardhii (CYA126/8) and its MC-deficient ΔmcyD mutant over different periods of exposure to high light stress (HL). Three reference genes (RGs) were selected from six candidates to normalize the RT-qPCR data. Of these three RGs (rsh, rpoD, and gltA), gltA is used here for the first time as an RG in prokaryotes. Under HL stress, five genes were found to be strongly up-regulated in both strains (htpG, dnaK, hspA, groES, and groEL). Unexpectedly, we found that the MC-producing wild type strain accumulated higher levels of htpG and dnaK transcripts in response to HL stress than the MC-deficient mutant. In addition, a significant increase in the mcyE transcript was detected in the mutant, suggesting that MCs are required under HL conditions. We discuss several possible roles of MCs in the response to HL stress through their possible involvement in the protective mechanisms of the cells.

  20. Sensitivity of human pleural mesothelioma to oncolytic measles virus depends on defects of the type I interferon response

    PubMed Central

    Achard, Carole; Boisgerault, Nicolas; Delaunay, Tiphaine; Roulois, David; Nedellec, Steven; Royer, Pierre-Joseph; Pain, Mallory; Combredet, Chantal; Mesel-Lemoine, Mariana; Cellerin, Laurent; Magnan, Antoine; Tangy, Frédéric; Grégoire, Marc; Fonteneau, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Attenuated measles virus (MV) is currently being evaluated as an oncolytic virus in clinical trials and could represent a new therapeutic approach for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Herein, we screened the sensitivity to MV infection and replication of twenty-two human MPM cell lines and some healthy primary cells. We show that MV replicates in fifteen of the twenty-two MPM cell lines. Despite overexpression of CD46 by a majority of MPM cell lines compared to healthy cells, we found that the sensitivity to MV replication did not correlate with this overexpression. We then evaluated the antiviral type I interferon (IFN) responses of MPM cell lines and healthy cells. We found that healthy cells and the seven insensitive MPM cell lines developed a type I IFN response in presence of the virus, thereby inhibiting replication. In contrast, eleven of the fifteen sensitive MPM cell lines were unable to develop a complete type I IFN response in presence of MV. Finally, we show that addition of type I IFN onto MV sensitive tumor cell lines inhibits replication. These results demonstrate that defects in type I IFN response are frequent in MPM and that MV takes advantage of these defects to exert oncolytic activity. PMID:26539644

  1. Identification of Drosophila mutants altering defense of and endurance to Listeria monocytogenes infection.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Janelle S; Freitag, Nancy; Schneider, David S

    2008-03-01

    We extended the use of Drosophila beyond being a model for signaling pathways required for pattern recognition immune signaling and show that the fly can be used to identify genes required for pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions. We performed a forward genetic screen to identify Drosophila mutations altering sensitivity to the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. We recovered 18 mutants with increased susceptibility to infection, none of which were previously shown to function in a Drosophila immune response. Using secondary screens, we divided these mutants into two groups: In the first group, mutants have reduced endurance to infections but show no change in bacterial growth. This is a new fly immunity phenotype that is not commonly studied. In the second group, mutants have a typical defense defect in which bacterial growth is increased and survival is decreased. By further challenging mutant flies with L. monocytogenes mutants, we identified subgroups of fly mutants that affect specific stages of the L. monocytogenes life cycle, exit from the vacuole, or actin-based movement. There is no overlap between our genes and the hundreds of genes identified in Drosophila S2 cells fighting L. monocytogenes infection, using genomewide RNAi screens in vitro. By using a whole-animal model and screening for host survival, we revealed genes involved in physiologies different from those that were found in previous screens, which all had defects in defensive immune signaling.

  2. Assessment of development and chemotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum mutants.

    PubMed

    Artemenko, Yulia; Swaney, Kristen F; Devreotes, Peter N

    2011-01-01

    Studies using the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum have greatly contributed to the current understanding of the signaling network that underlies chemotaxis. Since directed migration is essential for normal D. discoideum multicellular development, mutants with chemotactic impairments are likely to have abnormal developmental morphologies. We have used multicellular development as a readout in a screen of mutants to identify new potential regulators of chemotaxis. In this chapter, we describe how mutants generated by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) are analyzed, from assessment of development to detailed characterization of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-induced responses. Two complementary approaches, plating cells either clonally on a bacterial lawn or as a population on non-nutrient agar, are used to evaluate multicellular development. Once mutants with aberrant developmental phenotypes are identified, their chemotaxis toward cAMP is assessed by both small population and micropipette assays. Furthermore, mutants are tested for defects in both general and specific signaling pathways by examining the recruitment of actin-binding LimE(Δcoil) or PIP3-binding PH domains to the plasma membrane in response to cAMP stimulation.

  3. An Arabidopsis brassinosteroid-dependent mutant is blocked in cell elongation.

    PubMed Central

    Azpiroz, R; Wu, Y; LoCascio, J C; Feldmann, K A

    1998-01-01

    Cell elongation is a developmental process that is regulated by light and phytohormones and is of critical importance for plant growth. Mutants defective in their response to light and various hormones are often dwarfs. The dwarfed phenotype results because of a failure in normal cell elongation. Little is known, however, about the basis of dwarfism as a common element in these diverse signaling pathways and the nature of the cellular functions responsible for cell elongation. Here, we describe an Arabidopsis mutant, dwarf4 (dwf4), whose phenotype can be rescued with exogenously supplied brassinolide. dwf4 mutants display features of light-regulatory mutants, but the dwarfed phenotype is entirely and specifically brassinosteroid dependent; no other hormone can rescue dwf4 to a wild-type phenotype. Therefore, an intact brassinosteroid system is an absolute requirement for cell elongation. PMID:9490745

  4. Outer membrane vesicles derived from Salmonella Typhimurium mutants with truncated LPS induce cross-protective immune responses against infection of Salmonella enterica serovars in the mouse model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiong; Liu, Qing; Yi, Jie; Liang, Kang; Liu, Tian; Roland, Kenneth L; Jiang, Yanlong; Kong, Qingke

    2016-12-01

    Salmonella enterica cause diarrheal and systemic diseases and are of considerable concern worldwide. Vaccines that are cross-protective against multiple serovars could provide effective control of Salmonella-mediated diseases. Bacteria-derived outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are highly immunogenic and are capable of eliciting protective immune responses. Alterations in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) length can result in outer membrane remodeling and composition of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) changing. In this study, we investigated the impact of truncated LPS on both the production and immunogenicity of Salmonella OMVs, including the ability of OMVs to elicit cross-protection against challenge by heterologous Salmonella strains. We found that mutations in waaJ and rfbP enhanced vesiculation, while mutations in waaC, waaF and waaG inhibited this process. Animal experiments indicated that OMVs from waaC, rfaH and rfbP mutants induced stronger serum immune responses compared to OMVs from the parent strain, while all elicited protective responses against the wild-type S. Typhimurium challenge. Furthermore, intranasal or intraperitoneal immunization with OMVs derived from the waaC and rfbP mutants elicited significantly higher cross-reactive IgG responses and provided enhanced cross-protection against S. Choleraesuis and S. Enteritidis challenge than the wild-type OMVs. These results indicate that truncated-LPS OMVs are capable of conferring cross protection against multiple serotypes of Salmonella infection.

  5. Celf1 regulates cell cycle and is partially responsible for defective myoblast differentiation in myotonic dystrophy RNA toxicity.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaoping; Shen, Xiaopeng; Chen, Xuanying; Liang, Rui; Azares, Alon R; Liu, Yu

    2015-07-01

    Myotonic dystrophy is a neuromuscular disease of RNA toxicity. The disease gene DMPK harbors expanded CTG trinucleotide repeats on its 3'-UTR. The transcripts of this mutant DMPK led to misregulation of RNA-binding proteins including MBNL1 and Celf1. In myoblasts, CUG-expansion impaired terminal differentiation. In this study, we formally tested how the abundance of Celf1 regulates normal myocyte differentiation, and how Celf1 expression level mediates CUG-expansion RNA toxicity-triggered impairment of myocyte differentiation. As the results, overexpression of Celf1 largely recapitulated the defects of myocytes with CUG-expansion, by increasing myocyte cycling. Knockdown of endogenous Celf1 level led to precocious myotube formation, supporting a negative connection between Celf1 abundance and myocyte terminal differentiation. Finally, knockdown of Celf1 in myocyte with CUG-expansion led to partial rescue, by promoting cell cycle exit. Our results suggest that Celf1 plays a distinctive and negative role in terminal myocyte differentiation, which partially contribute to DM1 RNA toxicity. Targeting Celf1 may be a valid strategy in correcting DM1 muscle phenotypes, especially for congenital cases.

  6. Inflammatory response and bone healing capacity of two porous calcium phosphate ceramics in critical size cortical bone defects.

    PubMed

    Chatterjea, Anindita; van der Stok, Johan; Danoux, Charlène B; Yuan, Huipin; Habibovic, Pamela; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Weinans, Harrie; de Boer, Jan

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, two open porous calcium phosphate ceramics, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), and hydroxyapatite (HA) were compared in a critical-sized femoral defect in rats. Previous comparisons of these two ceramics showed significantly greater osteoinductive potential of β-TCP upon intramuscular implantation and a better performance in a spinal fusion model in dogs. Results of the current study also showed significantly more bone formation in defects grafted with β-TCP compared to HA; however, both the ceramics were not capable of increasing bone formation to such extend that it bridges the defect. Furthermore, a more pronounced degradation of β-TCP was observed as compared to HA. Progression of inflammation and initiation of new bone formation were assessed for both materials at multiple time points by histological and fluorochrome-based analyses. Until 12 days postimplantation, a strong inflammatory response in absence of new bone formation was observed in both ceramics, without obvious differences between the two materials. Four weeks postimplantation, signs of new bone formation were found in both β-TCP and HA. At 6 weeks, inflammation had subsided in both ceramics while bone deposition continued. In conclusion, the two ceramics differed in the amount of bone formed after 8 weeks of implantation, whereas no differences were found in the duration of the inflammatory phase after implantation or initiation of new bone formation.

  7. Photoionization Spectroscopy of Deep Defects Responsible for Current Collapse in Nitride-Based Field Effect Transistors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-24

    are quite similar to the results of photocapacitance measurements of MOCVD-grown p+–n and n-type GaN Schottky diodes reported by Hierro et al [28...defect by Hierro et al, while the 3.22 eV threshold was identified as an unintentional shallow acceptor, such as Mg or C, in agreement with the...transition is associated with the photoneutralization of residual ionized shallow acceptors in the GaN layer, as explained in section 4.1. Hierro et

  8. Whole Genome Pathway Analysis Identifies an Association of Cadmium Response Gene Loss with Copy Number Variation in Mutant p53 Bearing Uterine Endometrial Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Stupack, Dwayne G

    2016-01-01

    Background Massive chromosomal aberrations are a signature of advanced cancer, although the factors promoting the pervasive incidence of these copy number alterations (CNAs) are poorly understood. Gatekeeper mutations, such as p53, contribute to aneuploidy, yet p53 mutant tumors do not always display CNAs. Uterine Corpus Endometrial Carcinoma (UCEC) offers a unique system to begin to evaluate why some cancers acquire high CNAs while others evolve another route to oncogenesis, since about half of p53 mutant UCEC tumors have a relatively flat CNA landscape and half have 20–90% of their genome altered in copy number. Methods We extracted copy number information from 68 UCEC genomes mutant in p53 by the GISTIC2 algorithm. GO term pathway analysis, via GOrilla, was used to identify suppressed pathways. Genes within these pathways were mapped for focal or wide distribution. Deletion hotspots were evaluated for temporal incidence. Results Multiple pathways contributed to the development of pervasive CNAs, including developmental, metabolic, immunological, cell adhesion and cadmium response pathways. Surprisingly, cadmium response pathway genes are predicted as the earliest loss events within these tumors: in particular, the metallothionein genes involved in heavy metal sequestration. Loss of cadmium response genes were associated with copy number changes and poorer prognosis, contrasting with 'copy number flat' tumors which instead exhibited substantive mutation. Conclusion Metallothioneins are lost early in the development of high CNA endometrial cancer, providing a potential mechanism and biological rationale for increased incidence of endometrial cancer with cadmium exposure. Developmental and metabolic pathways are altered later in tumor progression. PMID:27391266

  9. Gibberellin biosynthetic deficiency is responsible for maize dominant Dwarf11 (D11) mutant phenotype: physiological and transcriptomic evidence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yijun; Deng, Dexiang; Ding, Haidong; Xu, Xiangming; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Suxin; Bian, Yunlong; Yin, Zhitong; Chen, Yao

    2013-01-01

    Dwarf stature is introduced to improve lodging resistance and harvest index in crop production. In many crops including maize, mining and application of novel dwarf genes are urgent to overcome genetic bottleneck and vulnerability during breeding improvement. Here we report the characterization and expression profiling analysis of a newly identified maize dwarf mutant Dwarf11 (D11). The D11 displays severely developmental abnormalities and is controlled by a dominant Mendelian factor. The D11 seedlings responds to both GA3 and paclobutrazol (PAC) application, suggesting that dwarf phenotype of D11 is caused by GA biosynthesis instead of GA signaling deficiency. In contrast, two well-characterized maize dominant dwarf plants D8 and D9 are all insensitive to exogenous GA3 stimulation. Additionally, sequence variation of D8 and D9 genes was not identified in the D11 mutant. Microarray and qRT-PCR analysis results demonstrated that transcripts encoding GA biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO), GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) are up-regulated in D11. Our results lay a foundation for the following D11 gene cloning and functional characterization. Moreover, results presented here may aid in crops molecular improvement and breeding, especially breeding of crops with plant height ideotypes.

  10. Characterization of Sugar Insensitive (sis) Mutants of Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Susan I.

    2009-06-08

    Despite the fact that soluble sugar levels have been postulated to play an important role in the control of a wide variety of plant metabolic and developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which plants respond to soluble sugar levels remain poorly understood. Plant responses to soluble sugar levels are also important in bioenergy production, as plant sugar responses are believed to help regulate both carbon fixation and carbon partitioning. For example, accumulation of soluble sugars, such as sucrose and glucose, in source tissues leads to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, thereby decreasing rates of carbon fixation. Soluble sugar levels can also affect sink strengths, affecting the rates of accumulation of carbon-based compounds into both particular molecular forms (e.g. carbohydrates versus lipids versus proteins) and particular plant organs and tissues. Mutants of Arabidopsis that are defective in the ability to respond to soluble sugar levels were isolated and used as tools to identify some of the factors involved in plant sugar response. These sugar insensitive (sis) mutants were isolated by screening mutagenized seeds for those that were able to germinate and develop relatively normal shoot systems on media containing 0.3 M glucose or 0.3 M sucrose. At these sugar concentrations, wild-type Arabidopsis germinate and produce substantial root systems, but show little to no shoot development. Twenty-eight sis mutants were isolated during the course of four independent mutant screens. Based on a preliminary characterization of all of these mutants, sis3 and sis6 were chosen for further study. Both of these mutations appear to lie in previously uncharacterized loci. Unlike many other sugar-response mutants, sis3 mutants exhibit a wild-type or near wild-type response in all phytohormone-response assays conducted to date. The sis6-1 mutation is unusual in that it appears to be due to overexpression of a gene, rather than representing a loss of function mutation

  11. A Novel Lamin A Mutant Responsible for Congenital Muscular Dystrophy Causes Distinct Abnormalities of the Cell Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Barateau, Alice; Vadrot, Nathalie; Vicart, Patrick; Ferreiro, Ana; Mayer, Michèle; Héron, Delphine; Vigouroux, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    A-type lamins, the intermediate filament proteins participating in nuclear structure and function, are encoded by LMNA. LMNA mutations can lead to laminopathies such as lipodystrophies, premature aging syndromes (progeria) and muscular dystrophies. Here, we identified a novel heterozygous LMNA p.R388P de novo mutation in a patient with a non-previously described severe phenotype comprising congenital muscular dystrophy (L-CMD) and lipodystrophy. In culture, the patient’s skin fibroblasts entered prematurely into senescence, and some nuclei showed a lamina honeycomb pattern. C2C12 myoblasts were transfected with a construct carrying the patient’s mutation; R388P-lamin A (LA) predominantly accumulated within the nucleoplasm and was depleted at the nuclear periphery, altering the anchorage of the inner nuclear membrane protein emerin and the nucleoplasmic protein LAP2-alpha. The mutant LA triggered a frequent and severe nuclear dysmorphy that occurred independently of prelamin A processing, as well as increased histone H3K9 acetylation. Nuclear dysmorphy was not significantly improved when transfected cells were treated with drugs disrupting microtubules or actin filaments or modifying the global histone acetylation pattern. Therefore, releasing any force exerted at the nuclear envelope by the cytoskeleton or chromatin did not rescue nuclear shape, in contrast to what was previously shown in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria due to other LMNA mutations. Our results point to the specific cytotoxic effect of the R388P-lamin A mutant, which is clinically related to a rare and severe multisystemic laminopathy phenotype. PMID:28125586

  12. Control of carbohydrate processing: increased beta-1,6 branching in N-linked carbohydrates of Lec9 CHO mutants appears to arise from a defect in oligosaccharide-dolichol biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenwald, A G; Stanley, P; Krag, S S

    1989-01-01

    A correlation between increased beta-1,6 branching of N-linked carbohydrates and the ability of a cell to metastasize or to form a tumor has been observed in several experimental models. Lec9 Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutants exhibit a drastic reduction in tumorigenicity in nude mice, and this phenotype directly correlates with their ability to attach an increased proportion of beta-1,6-branched carbohydrates to the G glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus (J. Ripka, S. Shin, and P. Stanley, Mol. Cell. Biol. 6:1268-1275, 1986). In this paper we provide evidence that cellular carbohydrates from Lec9 cells also contain an increased proportion of beta-1,6-branched carbohydrates, although they do not possess significantly increased activity of the beta-1,6 branching enzyme (GlcNAc-transferase V). Biosynthetic labeling experiments show that a substantial degree of underglycosylation occurs in Lec9 cells and that this affects several classes of glycoproteins. Lec9 cells synthesize ca. 40-fold less Glc3Man9GlcNAc2-P-P-lipid and ca. 2-fold less Man5GlcNAc2-P-P-lipid than parental cells do. In addition, Lec9 cells possess ca. fivefold less protein-bound oligosaccharide intermediates, and one major species is resistant to release by endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H (endo H). Membranes of Lec9 cells exhibit normal mannosylphosphoryldolichol synthase, glucosylphosphoryldolichol synthase, and N-acetylglucosaminylphosphate transferase activities in the presence of exogenous dolichyl phosphate. However, in the absence of exogenous dolichyl phosphate, mannosylphosphoryldolichol synthase and glucosylphosphoryldolichol synthase activities are reduced in membranes of Lec9 cells, indicating that membranes of Lec9 cells are deficient in lipid phosphate. This was confirmed by analysis of lipids labeled by [3H]mevalonate, which showed that Lec9 cells have less lipid phosphate than parental CHO cells. Mechanisms by which a defect in the synthesis of dolichol

  13. Identification of intrinsic deep level defects responsible for electret behavior in TlGaSe2 layered semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyidov, MirHasan Yu.; Mikailzade, Faik A.; Uzun, Talip; Odrinsky, Andrei P.; Yakar, Emin; Aliyeva, Vafa B.; Babayev, Sardar S.; Mammadov, Tofig G.

    2016-02-01

    Unusual behavior of pyroelectric current signal polarity near the Curie point (Tc) was observed for TlGaSe2 a ferroelectric-semiconductor. It has been revealed that the polarity of the spontaneous polarization near Tc depends on the sample poling prehistory. In particular, applying an external electric field only in the temperature range of the paraelectric state during cooling regime in darkness brought to the depolarization current at Tc with the sign opposite to the external field polarity. Otherwise, if the sample was poled in the temperature interval of the incommensurate phase, pyroelectric current exhibits a peak at Tc with the polarity that is the same as for the external poling electric field. These observations indicate that internal electric field is present in the bulk and near-surface layer regions of the electrically poled single crystal TlGaSe2. Possible mechanisms and origins responsible for the internal electric fields in TlGaSe2 are discussed. It is shown that the formation of internal electric fields in TlGaSe2 is due to charging of intrinsic native defects during the poling process. Characteristics of electrically active intrinsic defects in TlGaSe2 were investigated by using of Photo-Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy (PICTS) technique. Six deep defect levels in the band gap of TlGaSe2 were determined, which were localized both in the bulk and on the surface of the sample and could be electrically charged. The correlation between polarization effects and PICTS results has been established. It was shown that native deep defects (A3-A6) localized in the bulk of crystal are responsible for hetero-charge formation and negative sign of the pyroelectric current peak observed around the Curie temperature after poling the sample in the temperature intervals well above Tc. It was also shown that the positive sign pyrocurrent observed near the Curie point is attributed to the homo-charge formed by native A2-trapping centers which are localized near

  14. Phenotypic and Transcriptomic Characterization of Bacillus subtilis Mutants with Grossly Altered Membrane Composition▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Salzberg, Letal I.; Helmann, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis membrane contains diacylglycerol-based lipids with at least five distinct headgroups that together help to define the physical and chemical properties of the lipid bilayer. Here, we describe the phenotypic characterization of mutant strains lacking one or more of the following lipids: glycolipids (ugtP mutants), phosphatidylethanolamine (pssA and psd mutants), lysylphosphatidylglycerol (mprF), and cardiolipin (ywnE and ywjE). Alterations of membrane lipid headgroup composition are generally well-tolerated by the cell, and even severe alterations lead to only modest effects on growth proficiency. Mutants with decreased levels of positively charged lipids display an increased sensitivity to cationic antimicrobial compounds, and cells lacking glycolipids are more sensitive to the peptide antibiotic sublancin and are defective in swarming motility. A quadruple mutant strain (ugtP pssA mprF ywnE), with a membrane comprised predominantly of phosphatidylglycerol, is viable and grows at near-wild-type rates, although it forms long, coiled filaments. Transcriptome comparisons identified numerous regulons with altered expression in cells of the ugtP mutant, the pssA mprF ywnE triple mutant, and the ugtP pssA mprF ywnE quadruple mutant. These effects included a general decrease in expression of the SigD and FapR regulons and increased expression of cell envelope stress responses mediated by σM and the YvrGHb two-component system. PMID:18820022

  15. Increased expression of the maize immunoglobulin binding protein homolog b-70 in three zein regulatory mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Boston, R S; Fontes, E B; Shank, B B; Wrobel, R L

    1991-01-01

    Plants carrying floury-2, Defective endosperm-B30, or Mucronate mutations overproduce b-70, a maize homolog of the mammalian immunoglobulin binding protein. During endosperm development in these mutants, levels of both b-70 protein and RNA increase dramatically between 14 days and 20 days after pollination. At later stages, b-70 RNA levels decline while protein levels remain high. The increase in b-70 RNA levels is endosperm specific and dependent on gene dosage in the floury-2 mutant. In all three mutants, the increases in b-70 RNA and protein levels are inversely proportional to changes in zein synthesis. Although b-70 polypeptides can be extracted from purified protein bodies, they carry a carboxy-terminal endoplasmic reticulum retention signal, HDEL. We propose that induction of b-70 in these mutants is a cellular response to abnormally folded or improperly assembled storage proteins and probably reflects its role as a polypeptide chain binding protein. PMID:1840924

  16. Success rates and immunologic responses of autogenic, allogenic, and xenogenic treatments to repair articular cartilage defects.

    PubMed

    Revell, Christopher M; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2009-03-01

    This review examines current approaches available for articular cartilage repair, not only in terms of their regeneration potential, but also as a function of immunologic response. Autogenic repair techniques, including osteochondral plug transplantation, chondrocyte implantation, and microfracture, are the most widely accepted clinical treatment options due to the lack of immunogenic reactions, but only moderate graft success rates have been reported. Although suspended allogenic chondrocytes are shown to evoke an immune response upon implantation, allogenic osteochondral plugs and tissue-engineered grafts using allogenic chondrocytes exhibit a tolerable immunogenic response. Additionally, these repair techniques produce neotissue with success rates approaching those of curren