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Sample records for response stress response

  1. Response to Hyperosmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Haruo; Posas, Francesc

    2012-01-01

    An appropriate response and adaptation to hyperosmolarity, i.e., an external osmolarity that is higher than the physiological range, can be a matter of life or death for all cells. It is especially important for free-living organisms such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When exposed to hyperosmotic stress, the yeast initiates a complex adaptive program that includes temporary arrest of cell-cycle progression, adjustment of transcription and translation patterns, and the synthesis and retention of the compatible osmolyte glycerol. These adaptive responses are mostly governed by the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, which is composed of membrane-associated osmosensors, an intracellular signaling pathway whose core is the Hog1 MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade, and cytoplasmic and nuclear effector functions. The entire pathway is conserved in diverse fungal species, while the Hog1 MAPK cascade is conserved even in higher eukaryotes including humans. This conservation is illustrated by the fact that the mammalian stress-responsive p38 MAPK can rescue the osmosensitivity of hog1Δ mutations in response to hyperosmotic challenge. As the HOG pathway is one of the best-understood eukaryotic signal transduction pathways, it is useful not only as a model for analysis of osmostress responses, but also as a model for mathematical analysis of signal transduction pathways. In this review, we have summarized the current understanding of both the upstream signaling mechanism and the downstream adaptive responses to hyperosmotic stress in yeast. PMID:23028184

  2. Stress Responses of Shewanella

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jianhua; Gao, Haichun

    2011-01-01

    The shewanellae are ubiquitous in aquatic and sedimentary systems that are chemically stratified on a permanent or seasonal basis. In addition to their ability to utilize a diverse array of terminal electron acceptors, the microorganisms have evolved both common and unique responding mechanisms to cope with various stresses. This paper focuses on the response and adaptive mechanism of the shewanellae, largely based on transcriptional data. PMID:21912550

  3. Metabolomics for plant stress response.

    PubMed

    Shulaev, Vladimir; Cortes, Diego; Miller, Gad; Mittler, Ron

    2008-02-01

    Stress in plants could be defined as any change in growth condition(s) that disrupts metabolic homeostasis and requires an adjustment of metabolic pathways in a process that is usually referred to as acclimation. Metabolomics could contribute significantly to the study of stress biology in plants and other organisms by identifying different compounds, such as by-products of stress metabolism, stress signal transduction molecules or molecules that are part of the acclimation response of plants. These could be further tested by direct measurements, correlated with changes in transcriptome and proteome expression and confirmed by mutant analysis. In this review, we will discuss recent application of metabolomics and system biology to the area of plant stress response. We will describe approaches such as metabolic profiling and metabolic fingerprinting as well as combination of different 'omics' platforms to achieve a holistic view of the plant response stress and conduct detailed pathway analysis.

  4. Staphylococcal response to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Gaupp, Rosmarie; Ledala, Nagender; Somerville, Greg A.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococci are a versatile genus of bacteria that are capable of causing acute and chronic infections in diverse host species. The success of staphylococci as pathogens is due in part to their ability to mitigate endogenous and exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress. Endogenous oxidative stress is a consequence of life in an aerobic environment; whereas, exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress are often due to the bacteria's interaction with host immune systems. To overcome the deleterious effects of oxidative and nitrosative stress, staphylococci have evolved protection, detoxification, and repair mechanisms that are controlled by a network of regulators. In this review, we summarize the cellular targets of oxidative stress, the mechanisms by which staphylococci sense oxidative stress and damage, oxidative stress protection and repair mechanisms, and regulation of the oxidative stress response. When possible, special attention is given to how the oxidative stress defense mechanisms help staphylococci control oxidative stress in the host. PMID:22919625

  5. Plant Responses to Nanoparticle Stress.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Zahed; Mustafa, Ghazala; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-11-06

    With the rapid advancement in nanotechnology, release of nanoscale materials into the environment is inevitable. Such contamination may negatively influence the functioning of the ecosystems. Many manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) contain heavy metals, which can cause soil and water contamination. Proteomic techniques have contributed substantially in understanding the molecular mechanisms of plant responses against various stresses by providing a link between gene expression and cell metabolism. As the coding regions of genome are responsible for plant adaptation to adverse conditions, protein signatures provide insights into the phytotoxicity of NPs at proteome level. This review summarizes the recent contributions of plant proteomic research to elaborate the complex molecular pathways of plant response to NPs stress.

  6. Bruxism affects stress responses in stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Chikatoshi; Sato, Sadao; Takashina, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hidenori; Onozuka, Minoru; Sasaguri, Kenichi

    2010-04-01

    It has been proposed that suppression of stress-related emotional responses leads to the simultaneous activation of both sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and that the expression of these emotional states has a protective effect against ulcerogenesis. In the present study, we investigated whether stress-induced bruxism activity (SBA) has a physiological effect of on the stress-induced changes of the stomach, thymus, and spleen as well as blood leukocytes, cortisol, and adrenaline. This study demonstrated that SBA attenuated the stress-induced ulcer genesis as well as degenerative changes of thymus and spleen. SBA also attenuated increases of adrenaline, cortisol, and neutrophils in the blood. In conclusion, expression of aggression through SBA during stress exposure attenuates both stress-induced ANS response, including gastric ulcer formation.

  7. Plant responses to water stress

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Rup Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial plants most often encounter drought stress because of erratic rainfall which has become compounded due to present climatic changes.Responses of plants to water stress may be assigned as either injurious change or tolerance index. One of the primary and cardinal changes in response to drought stress is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is being considered as the cause of cellular damage. However, recently a signaling role of such ROS in triggering the ROS scavenging system that may confer protection or tolerance against stress is emerging. Such scavenging system consists of antioxidant enzymes like SOD, catalase and peroxidases, and antioxidant compounds like ascorbate, reduced glutathione; a balance between ROS generation and scavenging ultimately determines the oxidative load. As revealed in case of defence against pathogen, signaling via ROS is initiated by NADPH oxidase-catalyzed superoxide generation in the apoplastic space (cell wall) followed by conversion to hydrogen peroxide by the activity of cell wall-localized SOD. Wall peroxidase may also play role in ROS generation for signaling. Hydrogen peroxide may use Ca2+ and MAPK pathway as downstream signaling cascade. Plant hormones associated with stress responses like ABA and ethylene play their role possibly via a cross talk with ROS towards stress tolerance, thus projecting a dual role of ROS under drought stress. PMID:22057331

  8. Neuronal Responses to Physiological Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature, and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive, and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner chemistry during normal development. For example, conditions such as intrinsic hypoxia and oxidative stress, due to an increase in tissue mass, have to be confronted by developing embryos in order to complete their development. Finally, organisms face the challenge of stochastic accumulation of molecular damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses include changes in the expression of molecules such as transcription factors and microRNAs that regulate stress resistance and adaptation. Moreover, both intrinsic and extrinsic stresses have a tremendous impact on neuronal development and maintenance with implications in many diseases. Here, we review the responses of neurons to various physiological stressors at the molecular and cellular level. PMID:23112806

  9. Auxin response under osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Naser, Victoria; Shani, Eilon

    2016-08-01

    The phytohormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) is a small organic molecule that coordinates many of the key processes in plant development and adaptive growth. Plants regulate the auxin response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, transport and perception. One of the most striking aspects of plant plasticity is the modulation of development in response to changing growth environments. In this review, we explore recent findings correlating auxin response-dependent growth and development with osmotic stresses. Studies of water deficit, dehydration, salt, and other osmotic stresses point towards direct and indirect molecular perturbations in the auxin pathway. Osmotic stress stimuli modulate auxin responses by affecting auxin biosynthesis (YUC, TAA1), transport (PIN), perception (TIR/AFB, Aux/IAA), and inactivation/conjugation (GH3, miR167, IAR3) to coordinate growth and patterning. In turn, stress-modulated auxin gradients drive physiological and developmental mechanisms such as stomata aperture, aquaporin and lateral root positioning. We conclude by arguing that auxin-mediated growth inhibition under abiotic stress conditions is one of the developmental and physiological strategies to acclimate to the changing environment.

  10. Plant Responses to Nanoparticle Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Zahed; Mustafa, Ghazala; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid advancement in nanotechnology, release of nanoscale materials into the environment is inevitable. Such contamination may negatively influence the functioning of the ecosystems. Many manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) contain heavy metals, which can cause soil and water contamination. Proteomic techniques have contributed substantially in understanding the molecular mechanisms of plant responses against various stresses by providing a link between gene expression and cell metabolism. As the coding regions of genome are responsible for plant adaptation to adverse conditions, protein signatures provide insights into the phytotoxicity of NPs at proteome level. This review summarizes the recent contributions of plant proteomic research to elaborate the complex molecular pathways of plant response to NPs stress. PMID:26561803

  11. Stress response physiology of thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Ranawat, Preeti; Rawat, Seema

    2017-04-01

    Thermo (or hyperthermo) philic microorganisms are ubiquitous having a wide range of habitats from freshly fallen snow to pasteurized milk to geothermal areas like hot springs. The variations in physicochemical conditions, viz., temperature, pH, nutrient availability and light intensity in the habitats always pose stress conditions for the inhabitants leading to slow growth or cell death. The industrial processes used for harvesting secondary metabolites such as enzymes, toxins and organic acids also create stressed environments for thermophiles. The production of DNA-binding proteins, activation of reactive oxygen species detoxification system, compatible solute accumulation, expression of heat shock proteins and alterations in morphology are a few examples of physiological changes demonstrated by these microscopic lifeforms in stress. These microorganisms exhibit complex genetic and physiological changes to minimize, adapt to and repair damage caused by extreme environmental disturbances. These changes are termed as 'stress responses' which enable them to stabilize their homeostasis. The exploration of important thermophilic factors would pave the way in engineering the microbial strains for various biotechnological applications. This review article presents a picture of physiological responses of thermophiles against various stress conditions as their mechanisms to respond to stress make them model organisms to further explore them for basic and applied biology purposes.

  12. Stress disrupts response memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Guenzel, Friederike M; Wolf, Oliver T; Schwabe, Lars

    2013-08-01

    Stress effects on memory are well-known. Most studies, however, focused on the impact of stress on hippocampus-dependent 'declarative' memory processes. Less is known about whether stress influences also striatum-based memory processes, such as stimulus-response (S-R) memory. First evidence from rodent experiments shows that glucocorticoid stress hormones may enhance the consolidation of S-R memories. Whether stress affects also S-R memory retrieval remains largely elusive. Therefore, we tested in the present experiment in humans the effect of stress on the retrieval of S-R memories. Healthy men and women were trained to locate three objects in an S-R version of a virtual eight-arm radial maze. One week later, participants underwent a stressor or a control condition before their memory of the S-R task was tested. Our results showed that participants (n=43) who were exposed to the stressor before retention testing made significantly more errors in this test trial, suggesting that stress impaired S-R memory retrieval. Moreover, high cortisol concentrations were associated with reduced S-R memory. These findings indicate that stress may affect memory retrieval processes in humans beyond hippocampal 'declarative' memory.

  13. Stress Response of Granular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramola, Kabir; Chakraborty, Bulbul

    2017-10-01

    We develop a framework for stress response in two dimensional granular media, with and without friction, that respects vector force balance at the microscopic level. We introduce local gauge degrees of freedom that determine the response of contact forces between constituent grains on a given, disordered, contact network, to external perturbations. By mapping this response to the spectral properties of the graph Laplacian corresponding to the underlying contact network, we show that this naturally leads to spatial localization of forces. We present numerical evidence for localization using exact diagonalization studies of network Laplacians of soft disk packings. Finally, we discuss the role of other constraints, such as torque balance, in determining the stability of a granular packing to external perturbations.

  14. Stress Response of Granular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramola, Kabir; Chakraborty, Bulbul

    2017-08-01

    We develop a framework for stress response in two dimensional granular media, with and without friction, that respects vector force balance at the microscopic level. We introduce local gauge degrees of freedom that determine the response of contact forces between constituent grains on a given, disordered, contact network, to external perturbations. By mapping this response to the spectral properties of the graph Laplacian corresponding to the underlying contact network, we show that this naturally leads to spatial localization of forces. We present numerical evidence for localization using exact diagonalization studies of network Laplacians of soft disk packings. Finally, we discuss the role of other constraints, such as torque balance, in determining the stability of a granular packing to external perturbations.

  15. STRESS RESPONSE STUDIES USING ANIMAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide the evidence that ozone exposure in animal models induce neuroendocrine stress response and this stress response modulates lung injury and inflammation through adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors.

  16. Plant responses to flooding stress.

    PubMed

    Loreti, Elena; van Veen, Hans; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2016-10-01

    Most plant species cannot survive prolonged submergence or soil waterlogging. Crops are particularly intolerant to the lack of oxygen arising from submergence. Rice can instead germinate and grow even if submerged. The molecular basis for rice tolerance was recently unveiled and will contribute to the development of better rice varieties, well adapted to flooding. The oxygen sensing mechanism was also recently discovered. This system likely operates in all plant species and relies on the oxygen-dependent destabilization of the group VII ethylene response factors (ERFVIIs), a cluster of ethylene responsive transcription factors. An homeostatic mechanism that controls gene expression in plants subjected to hypoxia prevents excessive activation of the anaerobic metabolism that could be detrimental to surviving the stress.

  17. Responses to Fiscal Stress in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robert A., Ed.

    Proceedings of the 1981 University of Arizona conference on responses to fiscal stress in higher education are presented. Topics include the impact of the federal government on higher education, state and institutional responses to new federal policies, developing responses to fiscal stress, alternate perspectives on fiscal stress, and tactical…

  18. Responses to Fiscal Stress in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robert A., Ed.

    Proceedings of the 1981 University of Arizona conference on responses to fiscal stress in higher education are presented. Topics include the impact of the federal government on higher education, state and institutional responses to new federal policies, developing responses to fiscal stress, alternate perspectives on fiscal stress, and tactical…

  19. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Arabidopsis Roots

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yueh; Kanehara, Kazue

    2017-01-01

    Roots are the frontier of plant body to perceive underground environmental change. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response represents circumvention of cellular stress caused by various environmental changes; however, a limited number of studies are available on the ER stress responses in roots. Here, we report the tunicamycin (TM) -induced ER stress response in Arabidopsis roots by monitoring expression patterns of immunoglobulin-binding protein 3 (BiP3), a representative marker for the response. Roots promptly responded to the TM-induced ER stress through the induction of similar sets of ER stress-responsive genes. However, not all cells responded uniformly to the TM-induced ER stress in roots, as BiP3 was highly expressed in root tips, an outer layer in elongation zone, and an inner layer in mature zone of roots. We suggest that ER stress response in roots has tissue specificity. PMID:28298914

  20. [Endoplasmic reticulum stress response in osteogenesis].

    PubMed

    Saito, Atsushi; Imaizumi, Kazunori

    2013-11-01

    Various cellular conditions such as synthesis of abundant proteins, expressions of mutant proteins and oxidative stress lead to accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen. This type of stress is called ER stress. The excessive ER stress causes cellular damages followed by apoptosis. When ER stress occurs, cells are activated ER stress response (unfolded protein response) to avoid cellular damages. Recently, it has been clear that ER stress response plays crucial roles not only in cell survival after ER stress but also in regulating various cellular functions and tissue formations. In particular, ER stress and ER stress response regulate protein quality control, secretory protein production, and smooth secretion of proteins in the cells such as osteoblasts which synthesize and secrete enormous matrix proteins.

  1. Developmental Changes in Infants' Responses to Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Ramsay, Douglas S.

    1995-01-01

    Observed infants' stress responses to a well-baby examination and inoculation at two, four, and six months. Found an increase in salivary cortisol level over baseline in response to the procedures and that the cortisol response decreased with age, indicating a developmental shift in adrenocortical functioning between two and six months of age. (BC)

  2. General Stress Responses in the Honey Bee

    PubMed Central

    Even, Naïla; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Barron, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    The biological concept of stress originated in mammals, where a “General Adaptation Syndrome” describes a set of common integrated physiological responses to diverse noxious agents. Physiological mechanisms of stress in mammals have been extensively investigated through diverse behavioral and physiological studies. One of the main elements of the stress response pathway is the endocrine hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which underlies the “fight-or-flight” response via a hormonal cascade of catecholamines and corticoid hormones. Physiological responses to stress have been studied more recently in insects: they involve biogenic amines (octopamine, dopamine), neuropeptides (allatostatin, corazonin) and metabolic hormones (adipokinetic hormone, diuretic hormone). Here, we review elements of the physiological stress response that are or may be specific to honey bees, given the economical and ecological impact of this species. This review proposes a hypothetical integrated honey bee stress pathway somewhat analogous to the mammalian HPA, involving the brain and, particularly, the neurohemal organ corpora cardiaca and peripheral targets, including energy storage organs (fat body and crop). We discuss how this system can organize rapid coordinated changes in metabolic activity and arousal, in response to adverse environmental stimuli. We highlight physiological elements of the general stress responses that are specific to honey bees, and the areas in which we lack information to stimulate more research into how this fascinating and vital insect responds to stress. PMID:26466739

  3. Stress response to laparoscopic liver resection

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Kazuki; Turner, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Background: The magnitude of the systemic response is proportional to the degree of surgical trauma. Much has been reported in the literature comparing metabolic and immune responses, analgesia use, or length of hospital stay between laparoscopic and open procedures. In particular, metabolic and immune responses are represented by measuring various chemical mediators as stress responses. Laparoscopic procedures are associated with reduced operative trauma compared with open procedures, resulting in lower systemic response. As a result, laparoscopic procedures are now well accepted for both benign and malignant processes. Laparoscopic liver resection, specifically, is employed for symptomatic and some malignant tumors, following improvements in diagnostic accuracy, laparoscopic devices, and techniques. However, laparoscopic liver resection is still controversial in malignant disease because of complex anatomy, the technical difficulty of the procedure, and questionable indications. There are few reports describing the stress responses associated with laparoscopic liver resection, even though many studies reviewing stress responses have been performed recently in both humans and animal models comparing laparoscopic to conventional open surgery. Although this review examines stress response after laparoscopic liver resection in both an animal and human clinical model, further controlled randomized studies with additional investigations of immunologic parameters are needed to demonstrate the consequences of either minimally invasive surgery or open procedures on perioperative or postoperative stress responses for laparoscopic liver resection. PMID:18333082

  4. Process Control Minitoring by Stress Response

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry C.; Stahl, David A.

    2006-04-17

    Environmental contamination with a variety of pollutants hasprompted the development of effective bioremediation strategies. But howcan these processes be best monitored and controlled? One avenue underinvestigation is the development of stress response systems as tools foreffective and general process control. Although the microbial stressresponse has been the subject of intensive laboratory investigation, theenvironmental reflection of the laboratory response to specific stresseshas been little explored. However, it is only within an environmentalcontext, in which microorganisms are constantly exposed to multiplechanging environmental stresses, that there will be full understanding ofmicrobial adaptive resiliency. Knowledge of the stress response in theenvironment will facilitate the control of bioremediation and otherprocesses mediated by complex microbial communities.

  5. Pediatric Perioperative Stress Responses and Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Yuki, Koichi; Matsunami, Erika; Tazawa, Kazumasa; Wang, Wei; DiNardo, James A.; Koutsogiannaki, Sophia

    2017-01-01

    Summary Surgical stress responses cause an array of endocrinological, metabolic and immunological changes in patients. The landmark studies in the 1980s showed that adequate anesthesia dramatically improved the outcomes of pediatric surgical patients by attenuating stress hormonal responses, pointing out the harm of ‘inadequate’ anesthesia. Subsequent studies questioned the role of administering very high-dose anesthetics to further attenuate stress responses. Here we review the feature of surgical stress responses in pediatric patients including their difference from those in adult patients. Overall, pediatric patients show minimal or no resting energy expenditure change postoperatively. In adult patients, increased resting energy expenditure has been described. Pediatric patients demonstrated robust cortisol and catecholamine responses than adult patients. However, the duration of these surges is often short-lived. Systemic proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels have been measured. Pediatric patients showed less proinflammatory cytokine elevation, but had similar anti-antiinflamatory responses. We also review in detail the immunological changes in response to surgical stress. Based on our current knowledge, we attempted to understand the underlying mechanism how adequate anesthesia dramatically improved the outcome of patients. Although more work is needed to be done, understanding how pediatric patients respond to perioperative stress, and its mechanism and consequence will allow us to direct us into a better, perioperative management in this population. PMID:28217718

  6. The hyperosmotic stress response of Campylobacter jejuni

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The hyperosmotic stress response of Campylobacter jejuni: The diarrheal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni and other gastrointestinal bacteria encounter changes in osmolarity in the environment, through exposure to food processing, or upon entering host organisms, where osmotic adaptation can be associa...

  7. Delayed Stress Response Syndrome: Family Therapy Indications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figley, Charles R.; Sprenkle, Douglas H.

    1978-01-01

    The delayed stress response syndrome is a form of chronic catastrophic stress disorder. The theoretical nature of the syndrome and its most characteristic symptoms are delineated within the context of treating Vietnam combat veterans. The paper outlines treatment implications within a family therapy program. (Author)

  8. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to alkaline stress.

    PubMed

    Stolyar, Sergey; He, Qiang; Joachimiak, Marcin P; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin Koo; Borglin, Sharon E; Joyner, Dominique C; Huang, Katherine; Alm, Eric; Hazen, Terry C; Zhou, Jizhong; Wall, Judy D; Arkin, Adam P; Stahl, David A

    2007-12-01

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotide microarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarray data to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The data showed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generally similar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled by unique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma S and sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to be absent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E. coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPase genes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone and protease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) was also elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellum synthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identified regulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of a D. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system. Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated in alkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protective involvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, and two putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 and DVU2580).

  9. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  10. Epigenetic responses to stress: triple defense?

    PubMed

    Gutzat, Ruben; Mittelsten Scheid, Ortrun

    2012-11-01

    Stressful conditions for plants can originate from numerous physical, chemical and biological factors, and plants have developed a plethora of survival strategies including developmental and morphological adaptations, specific signaling and defense pathways as well as innate and acquired immunity. While it has become clear in recent years that many stress responses involve epigenetic components, we are far from understanding the mechanisms and molecular interactions. Extending our knowledge is fundamental, not least for plant breeding and conservation biology. This review will highlight recent insights into epigenetic stress responses at the level of signaling, chromatin modification, and potentially heritable consequences.

  11. Protein Degradation and the Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Flick, Karin; Kaiser, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Environmental stresses are manifold and so are the responses they elicit. This is particularly true for higher eukaryotes where various tissues and cell types are differentially affected by the insult. Type and scope of the stress response can therefore differ greatly among cell types. Given the importance of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) for most cellular processes, it comes as no surprise that the UPR plays a pivotal role in counteracting the effects of stressors. Here we outline contributions of the UPS to stress sensing, signaling, and response pathways. We make no claim to comprehensiveness but choose selected examples to illustrate concepts and mechanisms by which protein modification with ubiquitin and proteasomal degradation of key regulators ensures cellular integrity during stress situations. PMID:22414377

  12. Proteasome stress responses in Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Renato Graciano; de Magalhães Ornelas, Alice Maria; Morais, Enyara Rezende; de Souza Gomes, Matheus; de Paula Aguiar, Daniela; Magalhães, Lizandra Guidi; Rodrigues, Vanderlei

    2015-05-01

    The proteasome proteolytic system is the major ATP-dependent protease in eukaryotic cells responsible for intracellular protein turnover. Schistosoma mansoni has been reported to contain an ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway, and many studies have suggested a biological role of proteasomes in the development of this parasite. Additionally, evidence has suggested diversity in proteasome composition under several cellular conditions, and this might contribute to the regulation of its function in this parasite. The proteasomal system has been considered important to support the protein homeostasis during cellular stress. In this study, we described in vitro effects of oxidative stress, heat shock, and chemical stress on S. mansoni adults. Our findings showed that chemical stress induced with curcumin, IBMX, and MG132 modified the gene expression of the proteasomal enzymes SmHul5 and SmUbp6. Likewise, the expression of these genes was upregulated during oxidative stress and heat shock. Analyses of the S. mansoni life cycle showed differential gene expression in sporocysts, schistosomulae, and miracidia. These results suggested that proteasome accessory proteins participate in stress response during the parasite development. The expression level of SmHul5 and SmUbp6 was decreased by 16-fold and 9-fold, respectively, by the chemical stress induced with IBMX, which suggests proteasome disassembly. On the other hand, curcumin, MG132, oxidative stress, and heat shock increased the expression of these genes. Furthermore, the gene expression of maturation proteasome protein (SmPOMP) was increased in stress conditions induced by curcumin, MG132, and H₂O₂, which could be related to the synthesis of new proteasomes. S. mansoni adult worms were found to utilize similar mechanisms to respond to different conditions of stress. Our results demonstrated that oxidative stress, heat shock, and chemical stress modified the expression profile of genes related to the ubiquitin

  13. Proteomics studies on stress responses in diatoms.

    PubMed

    Muhseen, Ziyad Tariq; Xiong, Qian; Chen, Zhuo; Ge, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Diatoms are a highly diverse group of eukaryotic phytoplankton that are distributed throughout marine and freshwater environments and are believed to be responsible for approximately 40% of the total marine primary productivity. The ecological success of diatoms suggests that they have developed a range of strategies to cope with various biotic and abiotic stress factors. It is of great interest to understand the adaptive responses of diatoms to different stresses in the marine environment. Proteomic technologies have been applied to the adaptive responses of marine diatoms under different growth conditions in recent years such as nitrogen starvation, iron limitation and phosphorus deficiency. These studies have provided clues to elucidate the sophisticated sensing mechanisms that control their adaptive responses. Although only a very limited number of proteomic studies were conducted in diatoms, the obtained data have led to a better understanding of the biochemical processes that contribute to their ecological success. This review presents the current status of proteomic studies of diatom stress responses and discusses the novel developments and applications for the analysis of protein post-translational modification in diatoms. The potential future application of proteomics could contribute to a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying diatom acclimation to a given stress and the acquisition of an enhanced diatom stress tolerance. Future challenges and research opportunities in the proteomics studies of diatoms are also discussed.

  14. Biological responses of audiogenic stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, R.; Behari, J.; Sharma, K. N.

    1986-12-01

    Biological effects of prolonged exposure to sound waves (˜17 kHz) on developing female rats were examined. Rat pups of day 80 were grouped into two. Experimental group was exposed to sound waves and control group, who were not so exposed. Daily food, water intake were measured in developing animals and spontaneous motor activity, electrocardiogram and blood sugar were studied in adults. It was found that the experimental group of animals behaved differently from the control group. It is concluded that the sound waves produced changes in the animals which were within the physiological limits but were suggestive of development of stress.

  15. Stress responses in yeasts: what rules apply?

    PubMed

    González-Párraga, Pilar; Sánchez-Fresneda, Ruth; Martínez-Esparza, María; Argüelles, Juan-Carlos

    2008-04-01

    Living organisms have evolved a complex network of mechanisms to face the unforeseen nutritional and environmental circumstances imposed on their natural habitats, commonly termed "stress". To learn more about these mechanisms, several challenges are usually applied in the laboratory, namely nutrient starvation, heat shock, dehydration, oxidative exposures, etc. Yeasts are chosen as convenient models for studying stress phenomena because of their simple cellular organization and the amenability to genetic analysis. A vast scientific literature has recently appeared on the defensive cellular responses to stress. However, this plethora of studies covers quite different experimental conditions, making any conclusions open to dispute. In fact, the term "yeast stress" is rather confusing, since the same treatment may be very stressful or irrelevant, depending on the yeast. Customary expressions such as "gentle stress" (non-lethal) or "severe stress" (potentially lethal) should be precisely clarified. In turn, although prototypic yeasts share a common repertoire of signalling responsive pathways to stress, these are adapted to the specific ecological niche and biological activity of each particular species. What does "stress" really mean? Before we go any deeper, we have to define this uncertain meaning along with a proper explanation concerning the terms and conditions used in research on yeast stress.

  16. Thiol specific oxidative stress response in Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Dosanjh, Nirpjit S; Rawat, Mamta; Chung, Ji-Hae; Av-Gay, Yossef

    2005-08-01

    The cellular response of mycobacteria to thiol specific oxidative stress was studied in Mycobacterium bovis BCG cultures. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that upon diamide treatment at least 60 proteins were upregulated. Fourteen of these proteins were identified by MALDI-MS; four proteins, AhpC, Tpx, GroEL2, and GroEL1 are functionally related to oxidative stress response; eight proteins, LeuC, LeuD, Rv0224c, Rv3029c, AsnB, Rv2971, PheA and HisH are classified as part of the bacterial intermediary metabolism and respiration pathways; protein EchA14 belong to lipid metabolism, and NrdE, belongs to the mycobacterial information pathway category. Reverse transcription followed by quantitative real time PCR in response to diamide stress demonstrated that protein expression is directly proportional to the corresponding gene transcription.

  17. Cellular stress responses in protein misfolding diseases.

    PubMed

    Duennwald, Martin L

    2015-09-01

    Many human diseases, particularly neurodegenerative diseases, are associated with protein misfolding. Cellular protein quality control includes all processes that ensure proper protein folding and thus prevent the toxic consequences of protein misfolding. The heat shock response (HSR) and the unfolded protein response (UPR) are major stress response pathways within protein quality control that antagonize protein misfolding in the cytosol and the endoplasmic reticulum, respectively. Huntington's disease is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by the misfolding of an abnormally expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) region in the protein huntingtin (Htt), polyQHtt. Using Huntington's disease as a paradigm, I review here the central role of both the HSR and the UPR in defining the toxicity associated with polyQHtt in Huntington's disease. These findings may begin to unravel a previously unappreciated cooperation between different stress response pathways in cells expressing misfolded proteins and consequently in neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Stress Generation and Adolescent Depression: Contribution of Interpersonal Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the proposal that ineffective responses to common interpersonal problems disrupt youths’ relationships, which, in turn, contributes to depression during adolescence. Youth (86 girls, 81 boys; M age = 12.41, SD = 1.19) and their primary female caregivers participated in a three-wave longitudinal study. Youth completed a measure assessing interpersonal stress responses; youth and caregivers completed semi-structured interviews assessing youths’ life stress and psychopathology. Consistent with the hypothesized model, ineffective stress responses (low levels of effortful engagement, high levels of involuntary engagement and disengagement) predicted the generation of subsequent interpersonal stress, which partially accounted for the association between stress responses and depression over time. Moreover, results revealed that self-generated interpersonal, but not noninterpersonal stress, predicted depression, and that this explanatory model was specific to the prediction of depression but not anxiety. This research builds on interpersonal stress generation models of depression, and highlights the importance of implementing depression-focused intervention programs that promote effective stress responses and adaptive interpersonal relationships during adolescence. PMID:21647600

  19. Roadblock to recovery: the surgical stress response.

    PubMed

    Mertin, Susan; Sawatzky, Jo-Ann V; Diehl-Jones, William L; Lee, Trevor W R

    2007-01-01

    Inadequately managed post-operative pain and the resulting surgical stress response (SSR) negatively affect patient outcomes. Critical care nurses need to understand that adequate pain management is critical to enabling patient recovery. A review of the physiology and pathophysiology of the SSR provides concrete evidence to substantiate the need for critical care nurses to prioritize nursing care that focuses on the prevention, early detection, and management of pain and the surgical stress response. Critical care nurses equipped with this evidence are capable of improving patient outcomes.

  20. The Adaptive Calibration Model of stress responsivity

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Adaptive Calibration Model (ACM), an evolutionary-developmental theory of individual differences in the functioning of the stress response system. The stress response system has three main biological functions: (1) to coordinate the organism’s allostatic response to physical and psychosocial challenges; (2) to encode and filter information about the organism’s social and physical environment, mediating the organism’s openness to environmental inputs; and (3) to regulate the organism’s physiology and behavior in a broad range of fitness-relevant areas including defensive behaviors, competitive risk-taking, learning, attachment, affiliation and reproductive functioning. The information encoded by the system during development feeds back on the long-term calibration of the system itself, resulting in adaptive patterns of responsivity and individual differences in behavior. Drawing on evolutionary life history theory, we build a model of the development of stress responsivity across life stages, describe four prototypical responsivity patterns, and discuss the emergence and meaning of sex differences. The ACM extends the theory of biological sensitivity to context (BSC) and provides an integrative framework for future research in the field. PMID:21145350

  1. EATING BEHAVIOR IN RESPONSE TO ACUTE STRESS.

    PubMed

    Mocanu, Veronica; Bontea, Amalia; Anton-Păduraru, Dana-teodora

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a medical and social problem with a dramatically increasing prevalence. It is important to take action since childhood to prevent and treat obesity and metabolic syndrome. Infantile obesity affects all body systems starting in childhood and continuing to adulthood. Understanding the impact of stressors on weight status may be especially important for preventing obesity. The relationship between stress, eating behavior and obesity is not fully understood. However, there is evidence that stress causes disorders in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, system that regulates both stress and feeding responses. Also, the response is different depending on the type of stressors. Chronic stress, especially when people live in a palatable food environment, induces HPA stimulation, excess glucocorticoids, insulin resistance, which lead to inhibition of lipid mobilization, accumulation of triglyceride and retention of abdominal fat.

  2. Tonic immobility differentiates stress responses in PTSD.

    PubMed

    Fragkaki, Iro; Stins, John; Roelofs, Karin; Jongedijk, Ruud A; Hagenaars, Muriel A

    2016-11-01

    Tonic immobility (TI) is a state of physical immobility associated with extreme stress and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unknown whether TI is associated with a distinct actual stress response, i.e., objective immobility measured by a stabilometric platform. This study made a first step in exploring this as well as differences in body sway responses between PTSD patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that PTSD would be related to increased body sway under stress, whereas TI would be related to decreased body sway under stress. Eye closure was selected as a PTSD-relevant stress induction procedure. Body sway and heart rate (HR) were measured in 12 PTSD patients and 12 healthy controls in four conditions: (1) maintaining a stable stance with eyes open, (2) with eyes closed, (3) during a mental arithmetic task with eyes open, and (4) with eyes closed. As predicted, PTSD patients showed increased body sway from eyes open to eyes closed compared to controls and this effect was eliminated by executing the arithmetic task. Most importantly, retrospective self-reported TI was associated with lower body sway increases in PTSD and higher body sway decreases in controls from eyes-open to eyes-closed conditions. These preliminary findings suggest that eye closure has a different effect on PTSD patients than controls and that high self-reported TI might indicate a distinct stress response pattern, i.e., a proneness for immobility. It may be relevant to take such individual differences in stress-response into account in PTSD treatment.

  3. Dysfunctional stress responses in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Woda, Alain; Picard, Pascale; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    Many dysfunctional and chronic pain conditions overlap. This review describes the different modes of chronic deregulation of the adaptive response to stress which may be a common factor for these conditions. Several types of dysfunction can be identified within the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis: basal hypercortisolism, hyper-reactivity, basal hypocortisolism and hypo-reactivity. Neuroactive steroid synthesis is another component of the adaptive response to stress. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form DHEA-S, and progesterone and its derivatives are synthetized in cutaneous, nervous, and adipose cells. They are neuroactive factors that act locally. They may have a role in the localization of the symptoms and their levels can vary both in the central nervous system and in the periphery. Persistent changes in neuroactive steroid levels or precursors can induce localized neurodegeneration. The autonomic nervous system is another component of the stress response. Its dysfunction in chronic stress responses can be expressed by decreased basal parasympathethic activity, increased basal sympathetic activity or sympathetic hyporeactivity to a stressful stimulus. The immune and genetic systems also participate. The helper-T cells Th1 secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1-β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, whereas Th2 secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines: IL-4, IL-10, IGF-10, IL-13. Chronic deregulation of the Th1/Th2 balance can occur in favor of anti- or pro-inflammatory direction, locally or systemically. Individual vulnerability to stress can be due to environmental factors but can also be genetically influenced. Genetic polymorphisms and epigenetics are the main keys to understanding the influence of genetics on the response of individuals to constraints.

  4. Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…

  5. Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…

  6. Stress response to laparoscopic surgery: a review.

    PubMed

    Buunen, M; Gholghesaei, M; Veldkamp, R; Meijer, D W; Bonjer, H J; Bouvy, N D

    2004-07-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is associated with reduced surgical trauma, and therefore with a less acute phase response, as compared with open surgery. Impairment of the immune system may enhance surgical infections, port-site metastases, and sepsis. The objectives of this review was to assess immunologic consequences of benign laparoscopic surgery and to highlight controversial aspects. A literature search on stress response to nonmalignant laparoscopic and open surgery was conducted using the MEDLINE and Cochrane databases. Cross-references from the reference list of major articles on the subject were used, as well as manuscripts published between 1993 and 2002. Local (i.e., peritoneal) immune function is affected by carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum. The production of tumor necrosis factor and the phagocytotic capacity of peritoneal macrophages are less lowered. The systemic stress response, as determined by delayed-type hypersensitivity response and leukocyte antigen expression on lymphocytes, shows a preservation of immune function after laparoscopic surgery, as compared with conventional surgery. Intraperitoneal carbon dioxide insufflation attenuates peritoneal immunity, but laparoscopic surgery is associated with a lower systemic stress response than open surgery.

  7. A humoral stress response in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ekengren, S; Tryselius, Y; Dushay, M S; Liu, G; Steiner, H; Hultmark, D

    2001-05-01

    The ability to react to unfavorable environmental changes is crucial for survival and reproduction, and several adaptive responses to stress have been conserved during evolution [1-3]. Specific immune and heat shock responses mediate the elimination of invading pathogens and of damaged proteins or cells [4-6]. Furthermore, MAP kinases and other signaling factors mediate cellular responses to a very broad range of environmental insults [7-9]. Here we describe a novel systemic response to stress in Drosophila. The Turandot A (TotA) gene encodes a humoral factor, which is secreted from the fat body and accumulates in the body fluids. TotA is strongly induced upon bacterial challenge, as well as by other types of stress such as high temperature, mechanical pressure, dehydration, UV irradiation, and oxidative agents. It is also upregulated during metamorphosis and at high age. Strikingly, flies that overexpress TotA show prolonged survival and retain normal activity at otherwise lethal temperatures. Although TotA is only induced by severe stress, it responds to a much wider range of stimuli than heat shock genes such as hsp70 or immune genes such as Cecropin A1.

  8. Corticolimbic regulation of cardiovascular responses to stress.

    PubMed

    Myers, Brent

    2017-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of death worldwide, is frequently initiated or exacerbated by stress. In fact, chronic stress exposure and heightened reactions to acute psychological stress are both associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity. This brief review focuses on the mechanisms by which corticolimbic nuclei, critical for stress appraisal and emotional reactivity, regulate heart rate and blood pressure responses to psychological stress. Both human and rodent data are examined with a major emphasis on basic studies investigating prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus. A detailed literature review reveals substantial limitations in our understanding of this circuitry, as well as significant opportunities for future investigation that may ultimately reduce the burden of cardiovascular illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Stress responses in lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    van de Guchte, Maarten; Serror, Pascale; Chervaux, Christian; Smokvina, Tamara; Ehrlich, Stanislav D; Maguin, Emmanuelle

    2002-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constitute a heterogeneous group of bacteria that are traditionally used to produce fermented foods. The industrialization of food bio-transformations increased the economical importance of LAB, as they play a crucial role in the development of the organoleptique and hygienic quality of fermented products. Therefore, the reliability of starter strains in terms of quality and functional properties (important for the development of aroma and texture), but also in terms of growth performance and robustness has become essential. These strains should resist to adverse conditions encountered in industrial processes, for example during starter handling and storage (freeze-drying, freezing or spray-drying). The development of new applications such as life vaccines and probiotic foods reinforces the need for robust LAB since they may have to survive in the digestive tract, resist the intestinal flora, maybe colonize the digestive or uro-genital mucosa and express specific functions under conditions that are unfavorable to growth (for example, during stationary phase or storage). Also in nature, the ability to quickly respond to stress is essential for survival and it is now well established that LAB, like other bacteria, evolved defense mechanisms against stress that allow them to withstand harsh conditions and sudden environmental changes. While genes implicated in stress responses are numerous, in LAB the levels of characterization of their actual role and regulation differ widely between species. The functional conservation of several stress proteins (for example, HS proteins, Csp, etc) and of some of their regulators (for example, HrcA, CtsR) renders even more striking the differences that exist between LAB and the classical model micro-organisms. Among the differences observed between LAB species and B. subtilis, one of the most striking is the absence of a sigma B orthologue in L. lactis ssp. lactis as well as in at least two streptococci

  10. Antioxidant and cytoprotective responses to redox stress.

    PubMed

    Mathers, Joanne; Fraser, Jennifer A; McMahon, Michael; Saunders, Robert D C; Hayes, John D; McLellan, Lesley I

    2004-01-01

    Aerobic cells produce reactive oxygen species as a consequence of normal cellular metabolism, and an array of antioxidant systems are in place to maintain the redox balance. When the redox equilibrium of the cell is upset by pro-oxidant environmental stimuli, adaptive responses to the redox stress take place, which can result in up-regulation of antioxidant proteins and detoxification enzymes. Over the past few years, it has become apparent that members of the CNC (cap 'n' collar)-basic leucine zipper family of transcription factors are principal mediators of defensive responses to redox stress. In mammals, the CNC family members nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factors 1 and 2 (Nrf1 and Nrf2) have been shown to be involved in the transcriptional up-regulation of cytoprotective genes including those encoding glutamate cysteine ligase, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, glutathione S-transferases and aldo-keto reductases. An evolutionarily conserved system exists in Caenorhabditis elegans, and it is possible that Drosophila melanogaster may also utilize CNC transcription factors to induce antioxidant genes in response to pro-oxidant chemicals. The advent of microarray and proteomic technologies has advanced our understanding of the gene batteries regulated by oxidative insult, but has highlighted the complexity of gene regulation by environmental factors. This review focuses on the antioxidant response to environmental stress, and the impact that microarrays and proteomics have made in this field.

  11. Oxidative stress response in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Campos, Elida G; Jesuino, Rosália Santos Amorim; Dantas, Alessandra da Silva; Brígido, Marcelo de Macedo; Felipe, Maria Sueli S

    2005-06-30

    Survival of pathogenic fungi inside human hosts depends on evasion from the host immune system and adaptation to the host environment. Among different insults that Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has to handle are reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced by the human host cells, and by its own metabolism. Knowing how the parasite deals with reactive species is important to understand how it establishes infection and survives within humans. The initiative to describe the P. brasiliensis transcriptome fostered new approaches to study oxidative stress response in this organism. By examining genes related to oxidative stress response, one can evaluate the parasite's ability to face this condition and infer about possible ways to overcome this ability. We report the results of a search of the P. brasiliensis assembled expressed sequence tag database for homologous sequences involved in oxidative stress response. We described several genes coding proteins involved in antioxidant defense, for example, catalase and superoxide dismutase isoenzymes, peroxiredoxin, cytochrome c peroxidase, glutathione synthesis enzymes, thioredoxin, and the transcription factors Yap1 and Skn7. The transcriptome analysis of P. brasiliensis reveals a pathogen that has many resources to combat reactive species. Besides characterizing the antioxidant defense system in P. brasiliensis, we also compared the ways in which different fungi respond to oxidative damage, and we identified the basic features of this response.

  12. Responses of succulents to plant water stress.

    PubMed

    Hanscom, Z; Ting, I P

    1978-03-01

    Experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that succulents "shift" their method of photosynthetic metabolism in response to environmental change. Our data showed that there were at least three different responses of succulents to plant water status. When plant water status of Portulacaria afra (L.) Jacq. was lowered either by withholding water or by irrigating with 2% NaCl, a change from C(3)-photosynthesis to Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) occurred. Fluctuation of titratable acidity and nocturnal CO(2) uptake was induced in the stressed plants. Stressed Peperomia obtusifolia A. Dietr. plants showed a change from C(3)-photosynthesis to internal cycling of CO(2). Acid fluctuation commenced in response to stress but exogenous CO(2) uptake did not occur. Zygocactus truncatus Haworth plants showed a pattern of acid fluctuation and nocturnal CO(2) uptake typical of CAM even when well irrigated. The cacti converted from CAM to an internal CO(2) cycle similar to Peperomia when plants were water-stressed. Reverse phase gas exchange in succulents results in low water loss to carbon gain. Water is conserved and low levels of metabolic activity are maintained during drought periods by complete stomatal closure and continual fluctuation of organic acids.

  13. Human cardiovascular responses to passive heat stress.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Craig G; Wilson, Thad E

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress increases human morbidity and mortality compared to normothermic conditions. Many occupations, disease states, as well as stages of life are especially vulnerable to the stress imposed on the cardiovascular system during exposure to hot ambient conditions. This review focuses on the cardiovascular responses to heat stress that are necessary for heat dissipation. To accomplish this regulatory feat requires complex autonomic nervous system control of the heart and various vascular beds. For example, during heat stress cardiac output increases up to twofold, by increases in heart rate and an active maintenance of stroke volume via increases in inotropy in the presence of decreases in cardiac preload. Baroreflexes retain the ability to regulate blood pressure in many, but not all, heat stress conditions. Central hypovolemia is another cardiovascular challenge brought about by heat stress, which if added to a subsequent central volumetric stress, such as hemorrhage, can be problematic and potentially dangerous, as syncope and cardiovascular collapse may ensue. These combined stresses can compromise blood flow and oxygenation to important tissues such as the brain. It is notable that this compromised condition can occur at cardiac outputs that are adequate during normothermic conditions but are inadequate in heat because of the increased systemic vascular conductance associated with cutaneous vasodilation. Understanding the mechanisms within this complex regulatory system will allow for the development of treatment recommendations and countermeasures to reduce risks during the ever-increasing frequency of severe heat events that are predicted to occur. © 2015 American Physiological Society.

  14. Human Cardiovascular Responses to Passive Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, Craig G.; Wilson, Thad E.

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress increases human morbidity and mortality compared to normothermic conditions. Many occupations, disease states, as well as stages of life are especially vulnerable to the stress imposed on the cardiovascular system during exposure to hot ambient conditions. This review focuses on the cardiovascular responses to heat stress that are necessary for heat dissipation. To accomplish this regulatory feat requires complex autonomic nervous system control of the heart and various vascular beds. For example, during heat stress cardiac output increases up to twofold, by increases in heart rate and an active maintenance of stroke volume via increases in inotropy in the presence of decreases in cardiac preload. Baroreflexes retain the ability to regulate blood pressure in many, but not all, heat stress conditions. Central hypovolemia is another cardiovascular challenge brought about by heat stress, which if added to a subsequent central volumetric stress, such as hemorrhage, can be problematic and potentially dangerous, as syncope and cardiovascular collapse may ensue. These combined stresses can compromise blood flow and oxygenation to important tissues such as the brain. It is notable that this compromised condition can occur at cardiac outputs that are adequate during normothermic conditions but are inadequate in heat because of the increased systemic vascular conductance associated with cutaneous vasodilation. Understanding the mechanisms within this complex regulatory system will allow for the development of treatment recommendations and countermeasures to reduce risks during the ever-increasing frequency of severe heat events that are predicted to occur. PMID:25589263

  15. Sympathoneural and Adrenomedullary Responses to Mental Stress

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Jason R.; Goldstein, David S.

    2017-01-01

    This concept-based review provides historical perspectives and updates about sympathetic noradrenergic and sympathetic adrenergic responses to mental stress. The topic of this review has incited perennial debate, because of disagreements over definitions, controversial inferences, and limited availability of relevant measurement tools. The discussion begins appropriately with Cannon's "homeostasis" and his pioneering work in the area. This is followed by mental stress as a scientific idea and the relatively new notions of allostasis and allostatic load. Experimental models of mental stress in rodents and humans are discussed, with particular attention to ethical constraints in humans. Sections follow on sympathoneural to mental stress, reactivity of catecholamine systems, clinical pathophysiologic states, and the cardiovascular reactivity hypothesis. Future advancement of the field will require integrative approaches and coordinated efforts between physiologists and psychologists on this interdisciplinary topic. PMID:25589266

  16. Hyperosmotic Stress Response of Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Andrew; Frirdich, Emilisa; Huynh, Steven; Parker, Craig T.

    2012-01-01

    The diarrheal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni and other gastrointestinal bacteria encounter changes in osmolarity in the environment, through exposure to food processing, and upon entering host organisms, where osmotic adaptation can be associated with virulence. In this study, growth profiles, transcriptomics, and phenotypic, mutant, and single-cell analyses were used to explore the effects of hyperosmotic stress exposure on C. jejuni. Increased growth inhibition correlated with increased osmotic concentration, with both ionic and nonionic stressors inhibiting growth at 0.620 total osmol liter−1. C. jejuni adaptation to a range of osmotic stressors and concentrations was accompanied by severe filamentation in subpopulations, with microscopy indicating septum formation and phenotypic diversity between individual cells in a filament. Population heterogeneity was also exemplified by the bifurcation of colony morphology into small and large variants on salt stress plates. Flow cytometry of C. jejuni harboring green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the ATP synthase promoter likewise revealed bimodal subpopulations under hyperosmotic stress. We also identified frequent hyperosmotic stress-sensitive variants within the clonal wild-type population propagated on standard laboratory medium. Microarray analysis following hyperosmotic upshift revealed enhanced expression of heat shock genes and genes encoding enzymes for synthesis of potential osmoprotectants and cross-protective induction of oxidative stress genes. The capsule export gene kpsM was also upregulated, and an acapsular mutant was defective for growth under hyperosmotic stress. For C. jejuni, an organism lacking most conventional osmotic response factors, these data suggest an unusual hyperosmotic stress response, including likely “bet-hedging” survival strategies relying on the presence of stress-fit individuals in a heterogeneous population. PMID:22961853

  17. Biological stress response terminology: Integrating the concepts of adaptive response and preconditioning stress within a hormetic dose-response framework

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, Edward J. . E-mail: edwardc@schoolph.umass.edu; Bachmann, Kenneth A.; Bailer, A. John; Bolger, P. Michael; Borak, Jonathan; Cai, Lu; Cedergreen, Nina; Cherian, M. George; Chiueh, Chuang C.; Clarkson, Thomas W.; Cook, Ralph R.; Diamond, David M.; Doolittle, David J.; Dorato, Michael A.; Duke, Stephen O.; Feinendegen, Ludwig; Gardner, Donald E.; Hart, Ronald W.; Hastings, Kenneth L.; Hayes, A. Wallace; Hoffmann, George R.; Ives, John A.; Jaworowski, Zbigniew; Johnson, Thomas E.; Jonas, Wayne B.; Kaminski, Norbert E.

    2007-07-01

    Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to a moderate to severe level of stress. Due to a lack of frequent interaction among scientists in these many areas, there has emerged a broad range of terms that describe such dose-response relationships. This situation has become problematic because the different terms describe a family of similar biological responses (e.g., adaptive response, preconditioning, hormesis), adversely affecting interdisciplinary communication, and possibly even obscuring generalizable features and central biological concepts. With support from scientists in a broad range of disciplines, this article offers a set of recommendations we believe can achieve greater conceptual harmony in dose-response terminology, as well as better understanding and communication across the broad spectrum of biological disciplines.

  18. Biological stress response terminology: Integrating the concepts of adaptive response and preconditioning stress within a hormetic dose-response framework.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J; Bachmann, Kenneth A; Bailer, A John; Bolger, P Michael; Borak, Jonathan; Cai, Lu; Cedergreen, Nina; Cherian, M George; Chiueh, Chuang C; Clarkson, Thomas W; Cook, Ralph R; Diamond, David M; Doolittle, David J; Dorato, Michael A; Duke, Stephen O; Feinendegen, Ludwig; Gardner, Donald E; Hart, Ronald W; Hastings, Kenneth L; Hayes, A Wallace; Hoffmann, George R; Ives, John A; Jaworowski, Zbigniew; Johnson, Thomas E; Jonas, Wayne B; Kaminski, Norbert E; Keller, John G; Klaunig, James E; Knudsen, Thomas B; Kozumbo, Walter J; Lettieri, Teresa; Liu, Shu-Zheng; Maisseu, Andre; Maynard, Kenneth I; Masoro, Edward J; McClellan, Roger O; Mehendale, Harihara M; Mothersill, Carmel; Newlin, David B; Nigg, Herbert N; Oehme, Frederick W; Phalen, Robert F; Philbert, Martin A; Rattan, Suresh I S; Riviere, Jim E; Rodricks, Joseph; Sapolsky, Robert M; Scott, Bobby R; Seymour, Colin; Sinclair, David A; Smith-Sonneborn, Joan; Snow, Elizabeth T; Spear, Linda; Stevenson, Donald E; Thomas, Yolene; Tubiana, Maurice; Williams, Gary M; Mattson, Mark P

    2007-07-01

    Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to a moderate to severe level of stress. Due to a lack of frequent interaction among scientists in these many areas, there has emerged a broad range of terms that describe such dose-response relationships. This situation has become problematic because the different terms describe a family of similar biological responses (e.g., adaptive response, preconditioning, hormesis), adversely affecting interdisciplinary communication, and possibly even obscuring generalizable features and central biological concepts. With support from scientists in a broad range of disciplines, this article offers a set of recommendations we believe can achieve greater conceptual harmony in dose-response terminology, as well as better understanding and communication across the broad spectrum of biological disciplines.

  19. Physiological Responses to Thermal Stress and Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyota, Hiroyuki; Ohya, Akira; Yamagata, Junko; Suzuki, Takashi; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Kawabata, Takashi

    The simple and noninvasive measuring methods of bioinstrumentation in humans is required for optimization of air conditioning and management of thermal environments, taking into consideration the individual specificity of the human body as well as the stress conditions affecting each. Changes in human blood circulation were induced with environmental factors such as heat, cold, exercise, mental stress, and so on. In this study, the physiological responses of human body to heat stress and exercise were investigated in the initial phase of the developmental research. We measured the body core and skin temperatures, skin blood flow, and pulse wave as the indices of the adaptation of the cardiovascular system. A laser Doppler skin blood flowmetry using an optical-sensor with a small portable data logger was employed for the measurement. These results reveal the heat-stress and exercise-induced circulatory responses, which are under the control of the sympathetic nerve system. Furthermore, it was suggested that the activity of the sympathetic nervous system could be evaluated from the signals of the pulse wave included in the signals derived from skin blood flow by means of heart rate variability assessments and detecting peak heights of velocity-plethysmogram.

  20. Stress, stress-induced cortisol responses, and eyewitness identification performance.

    PubMed

    Sauerland, Melanie; Raymaekers, Linsey H C; Otgaar, Henry; Memon, Amina; Waltjen, Thijs T; Nivo, Maud; Slegers, Chiel; Broers, Nick J; Smeets, Tom

    2016-07-01

    In the eyewitness identification literature, stress and arousal at the time of encoding are considered to adversely influence identification performance. This assumption is in contrast with findings from the neurobiology field of learning and memory, showing that stress and stress hormones are critically involved in forming enduring memories. This discrepancy may be related to methodological differences between the two fields of research, such as the tendency for immediate testing or the use of very short (1-2 hours) retention intervals in eyewitness research, while neurobiology studies insert at least 24 hours. Other differences refer to the extent to which stress-responsive systems (i.e., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) are stimulated effectively under laboratory conditions. The aim of the current study was to conduct an experiment that accounts for the contemporary state of knowledge in both fields. In all, 123 participants witnessed a live staged theft while being exposed to a laboratory stressor that reliably elicits autonomic and glucocorticoid stress responses or while performing a control task. Salivary cortisol levels were measured to control for the effectiveness of the stress induction. One week later, participants attempted to identify the thief from target-present and target-absent line-ups. According to regression and receiver operating characteristic analyses, stress did not have robust detrimental effects on identification performance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 The Authors Behavioral Sciences & the Law Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Space flight, microgravity, stress, and immune responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1999-01-01

    Exposure of animals and humans to space flight conditions has resulted in numerous alterations in immunological parameters. Decreases in lymphocyte blastogenesis, cytokine production, and natural killer cell activity have all been reported after space flight. Alterations in leukocyte subset distribution have also been reported after flight of humans and animals in space. The relative contribution of microgravity conditions and stress to the observed results has not been established. Antiorthostatic, hypokinetic, hypodynamic, suspension of rodents and chronic head-down tilt bed-rest of humans have been used to model effects of microgravity on immune responses. After use of these models, some effects of space flight on immune responses, such as decreases in cytokine function, were observed, but others, such as alterations in leukocyte subset distribution, were not observed. These results suggest that stresses that occur during space flight could combine with microgravity conditions in inducing the changes seen in immune responses after space flight. The biological/biomedical significance of space flight induced changes in immune parameters remains to be established.

  2. Stress response and apoptosis in pro- and antiinflammatory macrophages.

    PubMed

    Malyshev, I Yu; Kruglov, S V; Bakhtina, L Yu; Malysheva, E V; Zubin, M; Norkin, M

    2004-08-01

    We showed that stress response and apoptosis in macrophages depend on the phenotype of their secretory activity and specific biological and physical characteristics of the factor inducing stress-response or apoptosis.

  3. Waterborne Risperidone Decreases Stress Response in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Idalencio, Renan; Kalichak, Fabiana; Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; de Oliveira, Tiago Acosta; Koakoski, Gessi; Gusso, Darlan; Abreu, Murilo Sander de; Giacomini, Ana Cristina Varrone; Barcellos, Heloísa Helena de Alcântara; Piato, Angelo L; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2015-01-01

    The presence of drugs and their metabolites in surface waters and municipal effluents has been reported in several studies, but its impacts on aquatic organisms are not yet well understood. This study investigated the effects of acute exposure to the antipsychotic risperidone on the stress and behavioral responses in zebrafish. It became clear that intermediate concentration of risperidone inhibited the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis and displayed anxiolytic-like effects in zebrafish. The data presented here suggest that the presence of this antipsychotic in aquatic environments can alter neuroendocrine and behavior profiles in zebrafish.

  4. Waterborne Risperidone Decreases Stress Response in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Kalichak, Fabiana; Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; de Oliveira, Tiago Acosta; Koakoski, Gessi; Gusso, Darlan; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Giacomini, Ana Cristina Varrone; Barcellos, Heloísa Helena de Alcântara

    2015-01-01

    The presence of drugs and their metabolites in surface waters and municipal effluents has been reported in several studies, but its impacts on aquatic organisms are not yet well understood. This study investigated the effects of acute exposure to the antipsychotic risperidone on the stress and behavioral responses in zebrafish. It became clear that intermediate concentration of risperidone inhibited the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis and displayed anxiolytic-like effects in zebrafish. The data presented here suggest that the presence of this antipsychotic in aquatic environments can alter neuroendocrine and behavior profiles in zebrafish. PMID:26473477

  5. Anomalous Stress Response of Ultrahard WBn Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Quan; Zhou, Dan; Zheng, Weitao; Ma, Yanming; Chen, Changfeng

    2015-10-01

    Boron-rich tungsten borides are premier prototypes of a new class of ultrahard compounds. Here, we show by first-principles calculations that their stress-strain relations display surprisingly diverse and anomalous behavior under a variety of loading conditions. Most remarkable is the dramatically changing bonding configurations and deformation modes with rising boron concentration in WBn (n =2 , 3, 4), resulting in significantly different stress responses and unexpected indentation strength variations. This novel phenomenon stems from the peculiar structural arrangements in tungsten borides driven by boron's ability to form unusually versatile bonding states. Our results elucidate the intriguing deformation mechanisms that define a distinct type of ultrahard material. These new insights underscore the need to explore unconventional structure-property relations in a broad range of transition-metal light-element compounds.

  6. Anomalous stress response of ultrahard WBn compounds

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Quan; Zhou, Dan; Zheng, Weitao; ...

    2015-10-29

    Boron-rich tungsten borides are premier prototypes of a new class of ultrahard compounds. Here, we show by first-principles calculations that their stress-strain relations display surprisingly diverse and anomalous behavior under a variety of loading conditions. Most remarkable is the dramatically changing bonding configurations and deformation modes with rising boron concentration in WBn (n=2, 3, 4), resulting in significantly different stress responses and unexpected indentation strength variations. This novel phenomenon stems from the peculiar structural arrangements in tungsten borides driven by boron’s ability to form unusually versatile bonding states. Our results elucidate the intriguing deformation mechanisms that define a distinct typemore » of ultrahard material. Here, these new insights underscore the need to explore unconventional structure-property relations in a broad range of transition-metal light-element compounds.« less

  7. Response to temperature stress in rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Ana; Oliveira, Solange

    2013-08-01

    It is well established that soil is a challenging environment for bacteria, where conditions may change rapidly and bacteria have to acclimate and adapt in order to survive. Rhizobia are an important group of soil bacteria due to their ability to establish atmospheric nitrogen-fixing symbioses with many legume species. Some of these legumes are used to feed either humans or cattle and therefore the use of rhizobia can reduce the need for synthetic N-fertilizers. Several environmental factors shape the composition and the activity of rhizobia populations in the rhizosphere. Soil pH and temperature are often considered to be the major abiotic factors in determining the bacterial community diversity. The present review focuses on the current knowledge on the molecular bases of temperature stress response in rhizobia. The effects of temperature stress in the legume-rhizobia symbioses are also addressed.

  8. Adrenergic Polymorphism and the Human Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Fangwen; Zhang, Lian; Wessel, Jennifer; Zhang, Kuixing; Wen, Gen; Kennedy, Brian P.; Rana, Brinda K.; Das, Madhusudan; Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L.; Smith, Douglas W.; Cadman, Peter E.; Salem, Rany M.; Mahata, Sushil K.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Taupenot, Laurent; Ziegler, Michael G.; O’Connor, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis. Does common genetic variation at human TH alter autonomic activity and predispose to cardiovascular disease? We undertook systematic polymorphism discovery at the TH locus, and then tested variants for contributions to sympathetic function and blood pressure. We resequenced 80 ethnically diverse individuals across the TH locus. One hundred seventy-two twin pairs were evaluated for sympathetic traits, including catecholamine production and environmental (cold) stress responses. To evaluate hypertension, we genotyped subjects selected from the most extreme diastolic blood pressure percentiles in the population. Human TH promoter haplotype/reporter plasmids were transfected into chromaffin cells. Forty-nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one tetranucleotide repeat were discovered, but coding region polymorphism did not account for common phenotypic variation. A block of linkage disequilibrium spanned four common variants in the proximal promoter. Catecholamine secretory traits were significantly heritable, as were stress-induced blood pressure changes. In the TH promoter, significant associations were found for urinary catecholamine excretion, as well as blood pressure response to stress. TH promoter haplotype #2 (TGGG) showed pleiotropy, increasing both norepinephrine excretion and blood pressure during stress. In hypertension, a case–control study (1266 subjects, 53% women) established the effect of C-824T in determination of blood pressure. We conclude that human catecholamine secretory traits are heritable, displaying joint genetic determination (pleiotropy) with autonomic activity and finally with blood pressure in the population. Catecholamine secretion is influenced by genetic variation in the adrenergic pathway encoding catecholamine synthesis, especially at the classically rate-limiting step, TH. The results suggest novel pathophysiological links between a key

  9. Hormonal modulation of the heat shock response: insights from fish with divergent cortisol stress responses.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Sacha; Höglund, Erik; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Currie, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Acute temperature stress in animals results in increases in heat shock proteins (HSPs) and stress hormones. There is evidence that stress hormones influence the magnitude of the heat shock response; however, their role is equivocal. To determine whether and how stress hormones may affect the heat shock response, we capitalized on two lines of rainbow trout specifically bred for their high (HR) and low (LR) cortisol response to stress. We predicted that LR fish, with a low cortisol but high catecholamine response to stress, would induce higher levels of HSPs after acute heat stress than HR trout. We found that HR fish have significantly higher increases in both catecholamines and cortisol compared with LR fish, and LR fish had no appreciable stress hormone response to heat shock. This unexpected finding prevented further interpretation of the hormonal modulation of the heat shock response but provided insight into stress-coping styles and environmental stress. HR fish also had a significantly greater and faster heat shock response and less oxidative protein damage than LR fish. Despite these clear differences in the physiological and cellular responses to heat shock, there were no differences in the thermal tolerance of HR and LR fish. Our results support the hypothesis that responsiveness to environmental change underpins the physiological differences in stress-coping styles. Here, we demonstrate that the heat shock response is a distinguishing feature of the HR and LR lines and suggest that it may have been coselected with the hormonal responses to stress.

  10. Cortisol stress responses and children's behavioral functioning at school

    PubMed Central

    Cillessen, Antonius H.N.; de Weerth, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether cortisol stress responses of 6‐year‐olds were associated with their behavioral functioning at school. Additionally, the moderating role of stress in the family environment was examined. To this end, 149 healthy children (M age = 6.09 years; 70 girls) participated in an age‐appropriate innovative social evaluative stress test. Saliva cortisol samples were collected six times during the stress test to calculate two indices of the cortisol stress response: cortisol stress reactivity and total stress cortisol. Teachers assessed children's internalizing, externalizing, and prosocial behaviors. Stress in the family environment was operationalized as maternally reported parenting stress. Results indicated a significant increase in cortisol concentrations in response to the stressor. No significant associations were found between cortisol stress responses and behavioral functioning at school and there was no evidence for moderation by maternal parenting stress. Potential theoretical and methodological explanations for these results are discussed. PMID:27774583

  11. Motivation, stress, and cortisol responses in skydiving.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Joanne; Reeves, Sue; Dorling, Debbie; Palmer, Anna

    2003-12-01

    This study examined metamotivational dominance, metamotivational states, and cortisol responses in skydiving participants. Data were obtained from 23 experienced skydivers 15 min. prior to and following a skydive. Respondents were mainly paratelic-conformist dominant and most occupied the conformist and arousal-seeking states prior to skydiving, assessed respectively, with Apter, et al.'s Motivational Style Profile and Cook, et al.'s measure of metamotivational states. Paratelic-conformist dominance indicates a predisposition towards conformity and a desire to be spontaneous, and the conformist and arousal seeking states reported prior to completing the skydive represent a desire to conform to expected norms but also to seek arousal. There was no significant change in scores for metamotivational state or stress following skydiving. Contrary to expectations, cortisol level prior to skydiving was negatively associated with external stress. These results support the paratelic, but not the negativistic, dominance found in previous samples of risk sport participants (no skydivers). The conformist dominance and pre-dive conformist metamotivational state scores of this sample may be fundamental for adhering to safety regulations imposed on skydivers. To obtain better understanding of this phenomenon, researchers should attempt to measure these variables during, rather than prior to and after, participation in risk sports.

  12. Hormonal, cardiovascular, and subjective responses to acute stress in smokers.

    PubMed

    Childs, Emma; de Wit, Harriet

    2009-03-01

    There are complex relationships between stress and smoking; smoking may reduce the emotional discomfort of stress, yet nicotine activates stress systems and may alter responses to acute stress. It is important to understand how smoking affects physiological and psychological outcomes after stress and how these may interact to motivate smoking. This study aimed to examine the magnitude and time course of hormonal, cardiovascular, and psychological responses to acute psychosocial stress in smokers and non-smokers to investigate whether responses to acute stress are altered in smokers. Healthy male non-smokers (n = 20) and smokers (n = 15) participated in two experimental sessions involving a standardized public speaking stress procedure and a control non-stressful task. The outcome measures included self-reported mood, cardiovascular measures (heart rate and blood pressure), and plasma hormone levels (noradrenaline, cortisol, progesterone, and allopregnanolone). Smokers exhibited blunted increases in cortisol after the Trier Social Stress Test, and they reported greater and more prolonged subjective agitation than non-smokers. Stress-induced changes in progesterone were similar between smokers and non-smokers, although responses overall were smaller among smokers. Stress did not significantly alter levels of allopregnanolone, but smokers exhibited lower plasma concentrations of this neurosteroid. These findings suggest that smoking dampens hormonal responses to stress and prolongs subjective discomfort. Dysregulated stress responses may represent a breakdown in the body's ability to cope efficiently and effectively with stress and may contribute to smokers' susceptibility to acute stress, especially during abstinence.

  13. Reactivity and Regulation in Cortisol and Behavioral Responses to Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Douglas; Lewis, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Examined relations between reactivity (peak response) and regulation (response dampening) in 6-month-olds' cortisol and behavioral responses to inoculation. Found that reactivity and regulation were unrelated for both cortisol and behavior, suggesting both measures are needed to characterize more accurately infant response to stress. Found…

  14. Effects of Cold Pressor Stress on the Human Startle Response

    PubMed Central

    Deuter, Christian E.; Kuehl, Linn K.; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Schulz, André; Oitzl, Melly S.; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    Both emotion and attention are known to influence the startle response. Stress influences emotion and attention, but the impact of stress on the human startle response remains unclear. We used an established physiological stressor, the Cold Pressor Test (CPT), to induce stress in a non-clinical human sample (24 student participants) in a within-subjects design. Autonomic (heart rate and skin conductance) and somatic (eye blink) responses to acoustic startle probes were measured during a pre-stress baseline, during a three minutes stress intervention, and during the subsequent recovery period. Startle skin conductance and heart rate responses were facilitated during stress. Compared to baseline, startle eye blink responses were not affected during the intervention but were diminished afterwards. These data describe a new and unique startle response pattern during stress: facilitation of autonomic stress responses but no such facilitation of somatic startle eye blink responses. The absence of an effect of stress on startle eye blink responsiveness may illustrate the importance of guaranteeing uninterrupted visual input during periods of stress. PMID:23166784

  15. Effects of cold pressor stress on the human startle response.

    PubMed

    Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schulz, André; Oitzl, Melly S; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    Both emotion and attention are known to influence the startle response. Stress influences emotion and attention, but the impact of stress on the human startle response remains unclear. We used an established physiological stressor, the Cold Pressor Test (CPT), to induce stress in a non-clinical human sample (24 student participants) in a within-subjects design. Autonomic (heart rate and skin conductance) and somatic (eye blink) responses to acoustic startle probes were measured during a pre-stress baseline, during a three minutes stress intervention, and during the subsequent recovery period. Startle skin conductance and heart rate responses were facilitated during stress. Compared to baseline, startle eye blink responses were not affected during the intervention but were diminished afterwards. These data describe a new and unique startle response pattern during stress: facilitation of autonomic stress responses but no such facilitation of somatic startle eye blink responses. The absence of an effect of stress on startle eye blink responsiveness may illustrate the importance of guaranteeing uninterrupted visual input during periods of stress.

  16. Proteomic response of mouse pituitary gland under heat stress revealed active regulation of stress responsive proteins.

    PubMed

    Memon, Shahar Bano; Lian, Li; Gadahi, Javaid Ali; Genlin, Wang

    2016-10-01

    The mapping of tissue proteomes can identify the molecular regulators and effectors of their physiological activity. However, proteomic response of a mammalian tissue against heat stress (HS) particularly of the pituitary gland has not yet been resolved. The proteomic response of the mouse pituitary gland against HS at 40(o)C was evaluated by iTRAQ. We found that, HS actively regulates stress-related proteins. Among 375 differentially expressed proteins, 26 up and 46 downregulated proteins were found as stress responsive proteins. Two proteins belonging to the HSP70 and one to HSP90 family were found upregulated. Meanwhile, the expression of HSP90α (Cytosolic), HSP60, and HSP84b were observed to be downregulated. A neuroprotective enzyme Nmnat3 was observed to be significantly upregulated. Three proteins related to the intermediate filament (IF) proteins (lamins, vimentin and keratins) were also found to be upregulated. We reported, an association between the IF proteins and HSPs as a biological marker of HS. The expression of Apo A-IV was upregulated and might be one explanation for low food intake during HS. Our findings indicated that, differentially expressed proteins might be played important roles in combating HS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Personality traits modulate emotional and physiological responses to stress

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Emma; White, Tara L.; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    An individual’s susceptibility to psychological and physical disorders associated with chronic stress exposure e.g., cardiovascular and infectious disease, may also be predicted by their reactivity to acute stress. One factor associated with both stress resilience and health outcomes is personality. An understanding of how personality influences responses to acute stress may shed light upon individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress-linked disease. This study examined relationships between personality and acute responses to stress in 125 healthy adults, using hierarchical linear regression. We assessed personality traits using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF), and responses to acute stress (cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure, mood) using a standardised laboratory psychosocial stress task, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Individuals with high Negative Emotionality exhibited greater emotional distress and lower blood pressure responses to the TSST. Individuals with high Agentic Positive Emotionality exhibited prolonged heart rate responses to stress, whereas those with high Communal Positive Emotionality exhibited smaller cortisol and blood pressure responses. Separate personality traits differentially predicted emotional, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in healthy volunteers. Future research investigating the association of personality with chronic stress-related disease may provide further clues to the relationship between acute stress reactivity and susceptibility to disease. PMID:25036730

  18. Waterborne aripiprazole blunts the stress response in zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcellos, Heloísa Helena De Alcantara; Kalichak, Fabiana; da Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; Oliveira, Thiago Acosta; Koakoski, Gessi; Idalencio, Renan; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Giacomini, Ana Cristina Varrone; Fagundes, Michele; Variani, Cristiane; Rossini, Mainara; Piato, Angelo L.; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2016-11-01

    Here we provide, at least to our knowledge, the first evidence that aripiprazole (APPZ) in the water blunts the stress response of exposed fish in a concentration ten times lower than the concentration detected in the environment. Although the mechanism of APPZ in the neuroendocrine axis is not yet determined, our results highlight that the presence of APPZ residues in the environment may interfere with the stress responses in fish. Since an adequate stress response is crucial to restore fish homeostasis after stressors, fish with impaired stress response may have trouble to cope with natural and/or imposed stressors with consequences to their welfare and survival.

  19. Waterborne aripiprazole blunts the stress response in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Barcellos, Heloísa Helena de Alcantara; Kalichak, Fabiana; da Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; Oliveira, Thiago Acosta; Koakoski, Gessi; Idalencio, Renan; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Giacomini, Ana Cristina Varrone; Fagundes, Michele; Variani, Cristiane; Rossini, Mainara; Piato, Angelo L; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2016-01-01

    Here we provide, at least to our knowledge, the first evidence that aripiprazole (APPZ) in the water blunts the stress response of exposed fish in a concentration ten times lower than the concentration detected in the environment. Although the mechanism of APPZ in the neuroendocrine axis is not yet determined, our results highlight that the presence of APPZ residues in the environment may interfere with the stress responses in fish. Since an adequate stress response is crucial to restore fish homeostasis after stressors, fish with impaired stress response may have trouble to cope with natural and/or imposed stressors with consequences to their welfare and survival. PMID:27874070

  20. [Individual behavioral and autonomic response to emotional stress in humans].

    PubMed

    Ukraintseva, Iu V; Berlov, D N; Rusalova, M N

    2006-01-01

    Healthy subjects (n = 53) performed a sound version of the proof-reading test under normal conditions and in the state of emotional stress. Stress resistance was evaluated by the overall number of errors. The propensity to active or passive response to stress was evaluated by the number of "false alarms" and signal omissions. The reaction pattern to emotional stress in stress-resistant subjects, irrespective of their behavioral features, consisted in an increase in sympathetic effects on the cardiac rhythm and a decrease in the reaction time to significant signals. In subjects with low stress resistance, no statistically significant changes in the level of sympathetic tone and reaction time were revealed in the state of stress. Subjects with active behavioral response to stress, irrespective of their level of stress resistance, were characterized by aggressiveness, boldness and independence. Subjects with passive response to stress were inclined to conformism, dependence, and passivity.

  1. The Role of the Transcriptional Response to DNA Replication Stress.

    PubMed

    Herlihy, Anna E; de Bruin, Robertus A M

    2017-03-02

    During DNA replication many factors can result in DNA replication stress. The DNA replication stress checkpoint prevents the accumulation of replication stress-induced DNA damage and the potential ensuing genome instability. A critical role for post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, in the replication stress checkpoint response has been well established. However, recent work has revealed an important role for transcription in the cellular response to DNA replication stress. In this review, we will provide an overview of current knowledge of the cellular response to DNA replication stress with a specific focus on the DNA replication stress checkpoint transcriptional response and its role in the prevention of replication stress-induced DNA damage.

  2. The Role of the Transcriptional Response to DNA Replication Stress

    PubMed Central

    Herlihy, Anna E.; de Bruin, Robertus A.M.

    2017-01-01

    During DNA replication many factors can result in DNA replication stress. The DNA replication stress checkpoint prevents the accumulation of replication stress-induced DNA damage and the potential ensuing genome instability. A critical role for post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, in the replication stress checkpoint response has been well established. However, recent work has revealed an important role for transcription in the cellular response to DNA replication stress. In this review, we will provide an overview of current knowledge of the cellular response to DNA replication stress with a specific focus on the DNA replication stress checkpoint transcriptional response and its role in the prevention of replication stress-induced DNA damage. PMID:28257104

  3. RNA-seq analysis of stress response in rainbow trout

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fish under intensive rearing conditions experience various stress conditions, which have negative impacts on survival, growth and fillet quality. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying stress responses will facilitate improvement of animal welfare and production efficiency. Our objective ...

  4. Affirmation of personal values buffers neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses.

    PubMed

    Creswell, J David; Welch, William T; Taylor, Shelley E; Sherman, David K; Gruenewald, Tara L; Mann, Traci

    2005-11-01

    Stress is implicated in the development and progression of a broad array of mental and physical health disorders. Theory and research on the self suggest that self-affirming activities may buffer these adverse effects. This study experimentally investigated whether affirmations of personal values attenuate physiological and psychological stress responses. Eighty-five participants completed either a value-affirmation task or a control task prior to participating in a laboratory stress challenge. Participants who affirmed their values had significantly lower cortisol responses to stress, compared with control participants. Dispositional self-resources (e.g., trait self-esteem and optimism) moderated the relation between value affirmation and psychological stress responses, such that participants who had high self-resources and had affirmed personal values reported the least stress. These findings suggest that reflecting on personal values can keep neuroendocrine and psychological responses to stress at low levels. Implications for research on the self, stress processes, health, and interventions are discussed.

  5. Stressors, Resources, and Stress Responses in Pregnant African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low stress responses (4 women). Patterns of stress responses were seen in psychological stress and cervical remodeling (attenuation or cervical length). All women in the high stress responses group had high depression and/or low psychological well-being and abnormal cervical remodeling at one or both data collection times. All but 1 woman had at least 3 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network). In contrast, 3 of the 4 women in the low stress responses group had only 2 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network) and 1 had none; these women also reported higher perceived support. The findings demonstrate the importance of periodically assessing stress in African American women during pregnancy, particularly related to their support network as well as the positive supports they receive. PMID:23360946

  6. The stress protein response: A potential indicator of general stress

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, B.M. )

    1988-09-01

    Organisms have evolved a carefully regulated system at the cellular level that increases their tolerance to sub-optimal conditions in their environment. This highly conserved system involves the coordinated synthesis of a suite of stress proteins and is referred to as the heat-shock or stress protein response (SPR). The SPR can be elicited by a wide variety of stressors and correlates with subsequent thermotolerance and tolerance to other environmental stressors. They are conducting a series of experiments in collaboration with the US EPA to determine if the SPR may provide a basis for a biomonitoring tool to diagnose the extent to which an organism is stressed. Thus their experiments are designed to determine if the SPR: (1) could be induced by a wide variety of stressors at environmentally relevant concentrations, (2) was correlated with important organismic and population parameters, and (3) could be demonstrated in organisms exposed to contaminants in the field. They will present an overview of the data sets generated from both in vitro and in vivo experiments to examine the kinetics of SPR induction and recovery upon exposure to heat-shock, trace metal and xenobiotic stressors and discuss the feasibility of this approach.

  7. Regulation of Stress Responses and Translational Control by Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Fung, To Sing; Liao, Ying; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Similar to other viruses, coronavirus infection triggers cellular stress responses in infected host cells. The close association of coronavirus replication with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in the ER stress responses, which impose a challenge to the viruses. Viruses, in turn, have come up with various mechanisms to block or subvert these responses. One of the ER stress responses is inhibition of the global protein synthesis to reduce the amount of unfolded proteins inside the ER lumen. Viruses have evolved the capacity to overcome the protein translation shutoff to ensure viral protein production. Here, we review the strategies exploited by coronavirus to modulate cellular stress response pathways. The involvement of coronavirus-induced stress responses and translational control in viral pathogenesis will also be briefly discussed. PMID:27384577

  8. Role of shame and body esteem in cortisol stress responses.

    PubMed

    Lupis, Sarah B; Sabik, Natalie J; Wolf, Jutta M

    2016-04-01

    Studies assessing the role of shame in HPA axis reactivity report mixed findings. Discrepancies may be due to methodological difficulties and inter-individual differences in the propensity to experience shame in a stressful situation. Hence, the current study combined self-report of shame and facial coding of shame expressions and assessed the role of body esteem as a moderator of the shame-stress link. For this, 44 healthy students (24F, age 20.5 ± 2.1 years) were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress paradigm (Trier Social Stress Test: TSST). Salivary cortisol levels were measured throughout the protocol. Trait shame was measured before the stress test, and state shame immediately afterwards. Video recordings of the TSST were coded to determine emotion expressions. State shame was neither associated with cortisol stress responses nor with body esteem (self-report: all ps ≥ .24; expression: all ps ≥ .31). In contrast, higher trait shame was associated with both negative body esteem (p = .049) and stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .013). Lastly, having lower body esteem predicted stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .022); however, it did not significantly moderate the association between shame indices and cortisol stress responses (all ps ≥ .94). These findings suggest that body esteem and trait shame independently contribute to strength of cortisol stress responses. Thus, in addition to trait shame, body esteem emerged as an important predictor of cortisol stress responses and as such, a potential contributor to stress-related negative health outcomes.

  9. Role of shame and body esteem in cortisol stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Lupis, Sarah B.; Sabik, Natalie J.

    2016-01-01

    Studies assessing the role of shame in HPA axis reactivity report mixed findings. Discrepancies may be due to methodological difficulties and inter-individual differences in the propensity to experience shame in a stressful situation. Hence, the current study combined self-report of shame and facial coding of shame expressions and assessed the role of body esteem as a moderator of the shame–stress link. For this, 44 healthy students (24F, age 20.5 ± 2.1 years) were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress paradigm (Trier Social Stress Test: TSST). Salivary cortisol levels were measured throughout the protocol. Trait shame was measured before the stress test, and state shame immediately afterwards. Video recordings of the TSST were coded to determine emotion expressions. State shame was neither associated with cortisol stress responses nor with body esteem (self-report: all ps ≥ .24; expression: all ps ≥ .31). In contrast, higher trait shame was associated with both negative body esteem (p = .049) and stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .013). Lastly, having lower body esteem predicted stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .022); however, it did not significantly moderate the association between shame indices and cortisol stress responses (all ps ≥ .94). These findings suggest that body esteem and trait shame independently contribute to strength of cortisol stress responses. Thus, in addition to trait shame, body esteem emerged as an important predictor of cortisol stress responses and as such, a potential contributor to stress-related negative health outcomes. PMID:26577952

  10. My stress, our stress: blunted cortisol response to stress in isolated housed zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Ana Cristina Vendrametto Varrone; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Koakoski, Gessi; Idalêncio, Renan; Kalichak, Fabiana; Oliveira, Thiago Acosta; da Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; Gusso, Darlan; Piato, Angelo Luis; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2015-02-01

    Here, we show that individually housed zebrafish presented a reduced cortisol response to an acute stressor (persecution with a pen net for 120 s) compared to zebrafish housed in groups of 10. We hypothesized that the cortisol response to stress was reduced in individually housed zebrafish because they depend solely on their own perceptions of the stressor, whereas among grouped zebrafish, the stress response might be augmented by chemical and/or behavioral cues from the other members of the shoal. This hypothesis was based on previous described chemical communication of stress in fish as well on individual variation in stressor perception and potential individual differences in fish personality.

  11. Measuring Physiological Stress Responses in Children: Lessons from a Novice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quas, Jodi A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author describes challenges associated with integrating physiological measures of stress into developmental research, especially in the domains of memory and cognition. An initial critical challenge concerns how to define stress, which can refer to one or a series of events, a response, the consequence of that response, an…

  12. Measuring Physiological Stress Responses in Children: Lessons from a Novice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quas, Jodi A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author describes challenges associated with integrating physiological measures of stress into developmental research, especially in the domains of memory and cognition. An initial critical challenge concerns how to define stress, which can refer to one or a series of events, a response, the consequence of that response, an…

  13. Effect of Maternal Soothing on Infant Stress Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Ramsay, Douglas S.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the effect of maternal soothing to infant inoculation as well as everyday distress on infant cortisol and behavioral responses to stress in two samples of infants between 2 and 6 months of age. Found no evidence that maternal soothing reduced cortisol or behavioral-stress responses, despite evidence for cross-time stability and…

  14. The response to inositol: regulation of glycerolipid metabolism and stress response signaling in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Susan A.; Gaspar, Maria L.; Jesch, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on discoveries of the mechanisms governing the regulation of glycerolipid metabolism and stress response signaling in response to the phospholipid precursor, inositol. The regulation of glycerolipid lipid metabolism in yeast in response to inositol is highly complex, but increasingly well understood, and the roles of individual lipids in stress response are also increasingly well characterized. Discoveries that have emerged over several decades of genetic, molecular and biochemical analyses of metabolic, regulatory and signaling responses of yeast cells, both mutant and wild type, to the availability of the phospholipid precursor, inositol are discussed. PMID:24418527

  15. Aging causes decreased resistance to multiple stresses and a failure to activate specific stress response pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bergsma, Alexis L.; Senchuk, Megan M.; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we examine the relationship between stress resistance and aging. We find that resistance to multiple types of stress peaks during early adulthood and then declines with age. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, we use C. elegans transcriptional reporter strains that measure the activation of different stress responses including: the heat shock response, mitochondrial unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, hypoxia response, SKN-1-mediated oxidative stress response, and the DAF-16-mediated stress response. We find that the decline in stress resistance with age is at least partially due to a decreased ability to activate protective mechanisms in response to stress. In contrast, we find that any baseline increase in stress caused by the advancing age is too mild to detectably upregulate any of the stress response pathways. Further exploration of how worms respond to stress with increasing age revealed that the ability to mount a hormetic response to heat stress is also lost with increasing age. Overall, this work demonstrates that resistance to all types of stress declines with age. Based on our data, we speculate that the decrease in stress resistance with advancing age results from a genetically-programmed inactivation of stress response pathways, not accumulation of damage. PMID:27053445

  16. Aging causes decreased resistance to multiple stresses and a failure to activate specific stress response pathways.

    PubMed

    Dues, Dylan J; Andrews, Emily K; Schaar, Claire E; Bergsma, Alexis L; Senchuk, Megan M; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we examine the relationship between stress resistance and aging. We find that resistance to multiple types of stress peaks during early adulthood and then declines with age. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, we use C. elegans transcriptional reporter strains that measure the activation of different stress responses including: the heat shock response, mitochondrial unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, hypoxia response, SKN-1-mediated oxidative stress response, and the DAF-16-mediated stress response. We find that the decline in stress resistance with age is at least partially due to a decreased ability to activate protective mechanisms in response to stress. In contrast, we find that any baseline increase in stress caused by the advancing age is too mild to detectably upregulate any of the stress response pathways. Further exploration of how worms respond to stress with increasing age revealed that the ability to mount a hormetic response to heat stress is also lost with increasing age. Overall, this work demonstrates that resistance to all types of stress declines with age. Based on our data, we speculate that the decrease in stress resistance with advancing age results from a genetically-programmed inactivation of stress response pathways, not accumulation of damage.

  17. Habitual Response to Stress in Recovering Adolescent Anorexic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Samantha P.; Erickson, Sarah J.; Branom, Christina; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Although previous research has investigated the stress response in acutely anorexic patients, there is currently little research addressing this response in recovering adolescent anorexic girls. Therefore, this study investigated partially and fully weight-restored anorexic adolescent girls' psychological and physiological response to a…

  18. Habitual Response to Stress in Recovering Adolescent Anorexic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Samantha P.; Erickson, Sarah J.; Branom, Christina; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Although previous research has investigated the stress response in acutely anorexic patients, there is currently little research addressing this response in recovering adolescent anorexic girls. Therefore, this study investigated partially and fully weight-restored anorexic adolescent girls' psychological and physiological response to a…

  19. Stress Response and Translation Control in Rotavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    López, Susana; Oceguera, Alfonso; Sandoval-Jaime, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The general stress and innate immune responses are closely linked and overlap at many levels. The outcomes of these responses serve to reprogram host expression patterns to prevent viral invasions. In turn, viruses counter attack these cell responses to ensure their replication. The mechanisms by which viruses attempt to control host cell responses are as varied as the number of different virus families. One of the most recurrent strategies used by viruses to control the antiviral response of the cell is to hijack the translation machinery of the host, such that viral proteins are preferentially synthesized, while the expression of the stress and antiviral responses of the cell are blocked at the translation level. Here, we will review how rotaviruses, an important agent of acute severe gastroenteritis in children, overcome the stress responses of the cell to establish a productive infectious cycle. PMID:27338442

  20. Associations between circadian and stress response cortisol in children.

    PubMed

    Simons, Sterre S H; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning is characterized by the baseline production of cortisol following a circadian rhythm, as well as by the superimposed production of cortisol in response to a stressor. However, it is relatively unknown whether the basal cortisol circadian rhythm is associated with the cortisol stress response in children. Since alterations in cortisol stress responses have been associated with mental and physical health, this study investigated whether the cortisol circadian rhythm is associated with cortisol stress responses in 6-year-old children. To this end, 149 normally developing children (Mage = 6.09 years; 70 girls) participated in an innovative social evaluative stress test that effectively provoked increases in cortisol. To determine the cortisol stress response, six cortisol saliva samples were collected and two cortisol stress response indices were calculated: total stress cortisol and cortisol stress reactivity. To determine children's cortisol circadian rhythm eight cortisol circadian samples were collected during two days. Total diurnal cortisol and diurnal cortisol decline scores were calculated as indices of the cortisol circadian rhythm. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that higher total diurnal cortisol as well as a smaller diurnal cortisol decline, were both uniquely associated with higher total stress cortisol. No associations were found between the cortisol circadian rhythm indices and cortisol stress reactivity. Possible explanations for the patterns found are links with children's self-regulatory capacities and parenting quality.

  1. The Stress Response Regulator AflSkn7 Influences Morphological Development, Stress Response, and Pathogenicity in the Fungus Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Xu, Gaopo; Geng, Longpo; Lu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Kunlong; Yuan, Jun; Nie, Xinyi; Zhuang, Zhenhong; Wang, Shihua

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on AflSkn7, which is a stress response regulator in the aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus. The ΔAflSkn7 mutants exhibited partially defective conidial formation and a complete inability to generate sclerotia, indicating AflSkn7 affects A. flavus asexual and sexual development. The mutants tolerated osmotic stress but were partially susceptible to the effects of cell wall stress. Additionally, the ΔAflSkn7 mutants were especially sensitive to oxidative stress. These observations confirmed that AflSkn7 influences oxidative stress responses rather than osmotic stress responses. Additionally, AflSkn7 was observed to increase aflatoxin biosynthesis and seed infection rates. These results indicate AflSkn7 affects A. flavus morphological development, stress response, aflatoxin production, and pathogenicity. The results of this study may facilitate the development of new methods to manage A. flavus infections. PMID:27399770

  2. Transcriptional 'memory' of a stress: transient chromatin and memory (epigenetic) marks at stress-response genes.

    PubMed

    Avramova, Zoya

    2015-07-01

    Drought, salinity, extreme temperature variations, pathogen and herbivory attacks are recurring environmental stresses experienced by plants throughout their life. To survive repeated stresses, plants provide responses that may be different from their response during the first encounter with the stress. A different response to a similar stress represents the concept of 'stress memory'. A coordinated reaction at the organismal, cellular and gene/genome levels is thought to increase survival chances by improving the plant's tolerance/avoidance abilities. Ultimately, stress memory may provide a mechanism for acclimation and adaptation. At the molecular level, the concept of stress memory indicates that the mechanisms responsible for memory-type transcription during repeated stresses are not based on repetitive activation of the same response pathways activated by the first stress. Some recent advances in the search for transcription 'memory factors' are discussed with an emphasis on super-induced dehydration stress memory response genes in Arabidopsis.

  3. Biotechnological Approaches to Study Plant Responses to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Clemente, Rosa M.; Vives, Vicente; Zandalinas, Sara I.; López-Climent, María F.; Muñoz, Valeria; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2013-01-01

    Multiple biotic and abiotic environmental stress factors affect negatively various aspects of plant growth, development, and crop productivity. Plants, as sessile organisms, have developed, in the course of their evolution, efficient strategies of response to avoid, tolerate, or adapt to different types of stress situations. The diverse stress factors that plants have to face often activate similar cell signaling pathways and cellular responses, such as the production of stress proteins, upregulation of the antioxidant machinery, and accumulation of compatible solutes. Over the last few decades advances in plant physiology, genetics, and molecular biology have greatly improved our understanding of plant responses to abiotic stress conditions. In this paper, recent progresses on systematic analyses of plant responses to stress including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and transgenic-based approaches are summarized. PMID:23509757

  4. Biotechnological approaches to study plant responses to stress.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Clemente, Rosa M; Vives, Vicente; Zandalinas, Sara I; López-Climent, María F; Muñoz, Valeria; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2013-01-01

    Multiple biotic and abiotic environmental stress factors affect negatively various aspects of plant growth, development, and crop productivity. Plants, as sessile organisms, have developed, in the course of their evolution, efficient strategies of response to avoid, tolerate, or adapt to different types of stress situations. The diverse stress factors that plants have to face often activate similar cell signaling pathways and cellular responses, such as the production of stress proteins, upregulation of the antioxidant machinery, and accumulation of compatible solutes. Over the last few decades advances in plant physiology, genetics, and molecular biology have greatly improved our understanding of plant responses to abiotic stress conditions. In this paper, recent progresses on systematic analyses of plant responses to stress including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and transgenic-based approaches are summarized.

  5. Molecular mechanisms of the plant heat stress response

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Ai-Li; Ding, Yan-Fei; Jiang, Qiong; Zhu, Cheng

    2013-03-08

    Highlights: ► This review elaborates the response networks of heat stress in plants. ► It elaborates proteins responding to heat stress in special physiological period. ► The proteins and pathways have formed a basic network of the heat stress response. ► Achievements of the various technologies are also combined. -- Abstract: High temperature has become a global concern, which seriously affects the growth and production of plants, particularly crops. Thus, the molecular mechanism of the heat stress response and breeding of heat-tolerant plants is necessary to protect food production and ensure crop safety. This review elaborates on the response networks of heat stress in plants, including the Hsf and Hsp response pathways, the response of ROS and the network of the hormones. In addition, the production of heat stress response elements during particular physiological periods of the plant is described. We also discuss the existing problems and future prospects concerning the molecular mechanisms of the heat stress response in plants.

  6. Cell-autonomous stress responses in innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Julien; Blander, J Magarian

    2017-01-01

    The innate immune response of phagocytes to microbes has long been known to depend on the core signaling cascades downstream of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which lead to expression and production of inflammatory cytokines that counteract infection and induce adaptive immunity. Cell-autonomous responses have recently emerged as important mechanisms of innate immunity. Either IFN-inducible or constitutive, these processes aim to guarantee cell homeostasis but have also been shown to modulate innate immune response to microbes and production of inflammatory cytokines. Among these constitutive cell-autonomous responses, autophagy is prominent and its role in innate immunity has been well characterized. Other stress responses, such as metabolic stress, the ER stress/unfolded protein response, mitochondrial stress, or the DNA damage response, seem to also be involved in innate immunity, although the precise mechanisms by which they regulate the innate immune response are not yet defined. Of importance, these distinct constitutive cell-autonomous responses appear to be interconnected and can also be modulated by microbes and PRRs, which add further complexity to the interplay between innate immune signaling and cell-autonomous responses in the mediation of an efficient innate immune response.

  7. Computations of uncertainty mediate acute stress responses in humans

    PubMed Central

    de Berker, Archy O.; Rutledge, Robb B.; Mathys, Christoph; Marshall, Louise; Cross, Gemma F.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The effects of stress are frequently studied, yet its proximal causes remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that subjective estimates of uncertainty predict the dynamics of subjective and physiological stress responses. Subjects learned a probabilistic mapping between visual stimuli and electric shocks. Salivary cortisol confirmed that our stressor elicited changes in endocrine activity. Using a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we quantified the relationship between the different forms of subjective task uncertainty and acute stress responses. Subjective stress, pupil diameter and skin conductance all tracked the evolution of irreducible uncertainty. We observed a coupling between emotional and somatic state, with subjective and physiological tuning to uncertainty tightly correlated. Furthermore, the uncertainty tuning of subjective and physiological stress predicted individual task performance, consistent with an adaptive role for stress in learning under uncertain threat. Our finding that stress responses are tuned to environmental uncertainty provides new insight into their generation and likely adaptive function. PMID:27020312

  8. Computations of uncertainty mediate acute stress responses in humans.

    PubMed

    de Berker, Archy O; Rutledge, Robb B; Mathys, Christoph; Marshall, Louise; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-03-29

    The effects of stress are frequently studied, yet its proximal causes remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that subjective estimates of uncertainty predict the dynamics of subjective and physiological stress responses. Subjects learned a probabilistic mapping between visual stimuli and electric shocks. Salivary cortisol confirmed that our stressor elicited changes in endocrine activity. Using a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we quantified the relationship between the different forms of subjective task uncertainty and acute stress responses. Subjective stress, pupil diameter and skin conductance all tracked the evolution of irreducible uncertainty. We observed a coupling between emotional and somatic state, with subjective and physiological tuning to uncertainty tightly correlated. Furthermore, the uncertainty tuning of subjective and physiological stress predicted individual task performance, consistent with an adaptive role for stress in learning under uncertain threat. Our finding that stress responses are tuned to environmental uncertainty provides new insight into their generation and likely adaptive function.

  9. Plant cell organelle proteomics in response to abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Zahed; Nouri, Mohammad-Zaman; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2012-01-01

    Proteomics is one of the finest molecular techniques extensively being used for the study of protein profiling of a given plant species experiencing stressed conditions. Plants respond to a stress by alteration in the pattern of protein expression, either by up-regulating of the existing protein pool or by the synthesizing novel proteins primarily associated with plants antioxidative defense mechanism. Improved protein extraction protocols and advance techniques for identification of novel proteins have been standardized in different plant species at both cellular and whole plant level for better understanding of abiotic stress sensing and intracellular stress signal transduction mechanisms. In contrast, an in-depth proteome study of subcellular organelles could generate much detail information about the intrinsic mechanism of stress response as it correlates the possible relationship between the protein abundance and plant stress tolerance. Although a wealth of reviews devoted to plant proteomics are available, review articles dedicated to plant cell organelle proteins response under abiotic stress are very scanty. In the present review, an attempt has been made to summarize all significant contributions related to abiotic stresses and their impacts on organelle proteomes for better understanding of plants abiotic stress tolerance mechanism at protein level. This review will not only provide new insights into the plants stress response mechanisms, which are necessary for future development of genetically engineered stress tolerant crop plants for the benefit of humankind, but will also highlight the importance of studying changes in protein abundance within the cell organelles in response to abiotic stress.

  10. Maternal Influences on Youth Responses to Peer Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abaied, Jamie L.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how youths develop particular styles of responding to stress is critical for promoting effective coping. This research examined the prospective, interactive contribution of maternal socialization of coping and peer stress to youth responses to peer stress. A sample of 144 early adolescents (mean age = 12.44 years, SD = 1.22) and…

  11. An overview of stress response proteomes in Listeria monocytogenes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Listeria monocytogenes adapts to diverse stress conditions including cold, osmotic, heat, acid, and alkali stresses encountered during food processing and preservation which is a serious food safety threat. In this review, we have presented the major findings on this bacterium’s stress response prot...

  12. Maternal Influences on Youth Responses to Peer Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abaied, Jamie L.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how youths develop particular styles of responding to stress is critical for promoting effective coping. This research examined the prospective, interactive contribution of maternal socialization of coping and peer stress to youth responses to peer stress. A sample of 144 early adolescents (mean age = 12.44 years, SD = 1.22) and…

  13. Extracytoplasmic Stress Responses Induced by Antimicrobial Cationic Polyethylenimines

    PubMed Central

    Lander, Blaine A.; Checchi, Kyle D.; Koplin, Stephen A.; Smith, Virginia F.; Domanski, Tammy L.; Isaac, Daniel D.; Lin, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    The ability of an antimicrobial, cationic polyethylenimine (PEI+) to induce the three known extracytoplasmic stress responses of Escherichia coli was quantified. Exposure of E. coli to PEI+ in solution revealed specific, concentration-dependent induction of the Cpx extracytoplasmic cellular stress response, ~2.0-2.5 fold at 320 μg/mL after 1.5 hours without significant induction of the σE or Bae stress responses. In comparison, exposure of E. coli to a non-antimicrobial polymer, polyethylene oxide (PEO), resulted in no induction of the three stress responses. The antimicrobial small molecule vanillin, a known membrane pore-forming compound, was observed to cause specific, concentration-dependent induction of the σE stress response, ~6-fold at 640 μg/mL after 1.5 hours, without significant induction of the Cpx or Bae stress responses. The different stress response induction profiles of PEI+ and vanillin suggest that although both are antimicrobial compounds, they interact with the bacterial membrane and extracytoplasmic area by unique mechanisms. EPR studies of liposomes containing spin-labeled lipids exposed to PEI+, vanillin, and PEO reveal that PEI+ and PEO increased membrane stability whereas vanillin was found to have no effect. PMID:22797865

  14. Endocrinological Responses to Exercise in Stressful Environments,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-16

    thyroid stimulating hormone and T3, deiodination of T4 to T3, and elevations in basal metabolic rate. Considering their thermogenic role (31), it is...Weiner (22) reviewed the effects of heat exposure on endocrinological responses, and concluded that thyroid hormones , corticosteroids, mineralocorticoids...distance from 21.7 km to 48.3 km effected a decrease in circulating triiodothyronine (T3 ), reverse T3 , and a greater thyroid t stimulating hormone

  15. Cortisol stress responses and children's behavioral functioning at school.

    PubMed

    Simons, Sterre S H; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigated whether cortisol stress responses of 6-year-olds were associated with their behavioral functioning at school. Additionally, the moderating role of stress in the family environment was examined. To this end, 149 healthy children (Mage  = 6.09 years; 70 girls) participated in an age-appropriate innovative social evaluative stress test. Saliva cortisol samples were collected six times during the stress test to calculate two indices of the cortisol stress response: cortisol stress reactivity and total stress cortisol. Teachers assessed children's internalizing, externalizing, and prosocial behaviors. Stress in the family environment was operationalized as maternally reported parenting stress. Results indicated a significant increase in cortisol concentrations in response to the stressor. No significant associations were found between cortisol stress responses and behavioral functioning at school and there was no evidence for moderation by maternal parenting stress. Potential theoretical and methodological explanations for these results are discussed. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Hypothalamic oxytocin mediates social buffering of the stress response

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adam S.; Wang, Zuoxin

    2013-01-01

    Background While stressful life events can enhance the risk of mental disorders, positive social interactions can propagate good mental health and normal behavioral routines. Still, the neural systems that promote these benefits are undetermined. Oxytocin is a hormone involved in social behavior and stress; thus, we focus on the impact that social buffering has on the stress response and the governing effects of oxytocin. Methods Female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) were exposed to 1 hr immobilization stress then recovered alone or with their male partner to characterize the effect of social contact on the behavioral, physiological, and neuroendocrine stress response. In addition, we treated immobilized females recovering alone with oxytocin, or vehicle, and females recovering with their male partner with a selective oxytocin receptor antagonist, or vehicle. Group sizes varied from 6 to 8 voles (n = 98 total). Results We found that 1 hr immobilization increased anxiety-like behaviors and circulating levels of corticosterone, a stress hormone, in females recovering alone, but not the females recovering with their male partner. This social buffering by the male partner on biobehavioral responses to stress was accompanied by increased oxytocin release in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Intra-PVN oxytocin injections reduced behavioral and corticosterone responses to immobilization whereas injections of an oxytocin receptor antagonist blocked the effects of the social buffering. Conclusions Together, our data demonstrate that PVN oxytocin mediates the social buffering effects on the stress response, and thus may be a target for treatment of stress-related disorders. PMID:24183103

  17. The stress response system of proteins: Implications for bioreactor scaleup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goochee, Charles F.

    1988-01-01

    Animal cells face a variety of environmental stresses in large scale bioreactors, including periodic variations in shear stress and dissolved oxygen concentration. Diagnostic techniques were developed for identifying the particular sources of environmental stresses for animal cells in a given bioreactor configuration. The mechanisms by which cells cope with such stresses was examined. The individual concentrations and synthesis rates of hundreds of intracellular proteins are affected by the extracellular environment (medium composition, dissolved oxygen concentration, ph, and level of surface shear stress). Techniques are currently being developed for quantifying the synthesis rates and concentrations of the intracellular proteins which are most sensitive to environmental stress. Previous research has demonstrated that a particular set of stress response proteins are synthesized by mammalian cells in response to temperature fluctuations, dissolved oxygen deprivation, and glucose deprivation. Recently, it was demonstrated that exposure of human kidney cells to high shear stress results in expression of a completely distinct set of intracellular proteins.

  18. Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical stress response

    PubMed Central

    Herman, James P.; McKlveen, Jessica M.; Ghosal, Sriparna; Kopp, Brittany; Wulsin, Aynara; Makinson, Ryan; Scheimann, Jessie; Myers, Brent

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis) is required for stress adaptation. Activation of the HPA axis causes secretion of glucocorticoids, which act on multiple organ systems to redirect energy resources to meet real or anticipated demand. The HPA stress response is driven primarily by neural mechanisms, invoking corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) release from hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons. Pathways activating CRH release are stressor dependent: reactive responses to homeostatic disruption frequently involve direct noradrenergic or peptidergic drive of PVN neurons by sensory relays, whereas anticipatory responses use oligosynaptic pathways originating in upstream limbic structures. Anticipatory responses are driven largely by disinhibition, mediated by trans-synaptic silencing of tonic PVN inhibition via GABAergic neurons in the amygdala. Stress responses are inhibited by negative feedback mechanisms, whereby glucocorticoids act to diminish drive (brainstem), promote trans-synaptic inhibition by limbic structures (e.g, hippocampus). Glucocorticoids also act at the PVN to rapidly inhibit CRH neuronal activity via membrane glucocorticoid receptors. Chronic stress-induced activation of the HPA axis takes many forms (chronic basal hypersecretion, sensitized stress responses, even adrenal exhaustion), with manifestation dependent upon factors such as stressor chronicity, intensity, frequency and modality. Neural mechanisms driving chronic stress responses can be distinct from those controlling acute reactions, including recruitment of novel limbic, hypothalamic and brainstem circuits. Importantly, an individual’s response to acute or chronic stress is determined by numerous factors, including genetics, early life experience, environmental conditions, sex and age. The context in which stressors occur will determine whether an individual’s acute or chronic stress responses are adaptive or maladaptive (pathological). PMID:27065163

  19. Phagocytosis as a biomarker for stress responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, K.; Krotz-Fahning, M.; Hock, B.

    2005-08-01

    An in vitro test has been developed for the detection of immunotoxic events. It will be used within the project "TRIPLE LUX" on the International Space Station to investigate the effects of single and combined space flight conditions on mammalian phagocytes. The intensity of the respiratory burst during phagocytosis can be followed by the luminol-based chemiluminescence response after stimulation with zymosan. We adapted this test system for polymorphonuclear leukocytes, purified from sheep blood and stored by cryoconservation. In this report we show the immunostimulating effect of hydrocortisone and the immunosuppressive impact of cadmium as an example for alterations that can be detected by this test.

  20. Morphologic effects of the stress response in fish.

    PubMed

    Harper, Claudia; Wolf, Jeffrey C

    2009-01-01

    Fish and other aquatic animals are subject to a broad variety of stressors because their homeostatic mechanisms are highly dependent on prevailing conditions in their immediate surroundings. Yet few studies have addressed stress as a potential confounding factor for bioassays that use fish as test subjects. Common stressors encountered by captive fish include physical and mental trauma associated with capture, transport, handling, and crowding; malnutrition; variations in water temperature, oxygen, and salinity; and peripheral effects of contaminant exposure or infectious disease. Some stress responses are detectable through gross or microscopic examination of various organs or tissues; as reported in the literature, stress responses are most consistently observed in the gills, liver, skin, and components of the urogenital tract. In addition to presenting examples of various stressors and corresponding morphologic effects, this review highlights certain challenges of evaluating stress in fish: (1) stress is an amorphous term that does not have a consistently applied definition; (2) procedures used to determine or measure stress can be inherently stressful; (3) interactions between stressors and stress responses are highly complex; and (4) morphologically, stress responses are often difficult to distinguish from tissue damage or compensatory adaptations induced specifically by the stressor. Further investigations are necessary to more precisely define the role of stress in the interpretation of fish research results.

  1. Stress Response and Perinatal Reprogramming: Unraveling (Mal)adaptive Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Musazzi, Laura; Marrocco, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stressors induce coping strategies in the majority of individuals. The stress response, involving the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and the consequent release of corticosteroid hormones, is indeed aimed at promoting metabolic, functional, and behavioral adaptations. However, behavioral stress is also associated with fast and long-lasting neurochemical, structural, and behavioral changes, leading to long-term remodeling of glutamate transmission, and increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders. Of note, early-life events, both in utero and during the early postnatal life, trigger reprogramming of the stress response, which is often associated with loss of stress resilience and ensuing neurobehavioral (mal)adaptations. Indeed, adverse experiences in early life are known to induce long-term stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals. Here, we discuss recent findings about stress remodeling of excitatory neurotransmission and brain morphology in animal models of behavioral stress. These changes are likely driven by epigenetic factors that lie at the core of the stress-response reprogramming in individuals with a history of perinatal stress. We propose that reprogramming mechanisms may underlie the reorganization of excitatory neurotransmission in the short- and long-term response to stressful stimuli. PMID:27057367

  2. Nitric oxide signaling in plant responses to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Weihua; Fan, Liu-Min

    2008-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays important roles in diverse physiological processes in plants. NO can provoke both beneficial and harmful effects, which depend on the concentration and location of NO in plant cells. This review is focused on NO synthesis and the functions of NO in plant responses to abiotic environmental stresses. Abiotic stresses mostly induce NO production in plants. NO alleviates the harmfulness of reactive oxygen species, and reacts with other target molecules, and regulates the expression of stress responsive genes under various stress conditions.

  3. Proteomic responses of fruits to environmental stresses

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Zhulong

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are extremely susceptible to decay and easily lose commercial value after harvest. Different strategies have been developed to control postharvest decay and prevent quality deterioration during postharvest storage, including cold storage, controlled atmosphere (CA), and application of biotic and abiotic stimulus. In this review, mechanisms related to protein level responses of host side and pathogen side were characterized. Protein extraction protocols have been successfully developed for recalcitrant, low protein content fruit tissues. Comparative proteome profiling and functional analysis revealed that defense related proteins, energy metabolism, and antioxidant pathway played important roles in fruits in response to storage conditions and exogenous elicitor treatments. Secretome of pathogenic fungi has been well-investigated and the results indicated that hydrolytic enzymes were the key virulent factors for the pathogen infection. These protein level changes shed new light on interaction among fruits, pathogens, and environmental conditions. Potential postharvest strategies to reduce risk of fruit decay were further proposed based on currently available proteomic data. PMID:23335934

  4. Association between neuroticism and amygdala responsivity emerges under stressful conditions.

    PubMed

    Everaerd, Daphne; Klumpers, Floris; van Wingen, Guido; Tendolkar, Indira; Fernández, Guillén

    2015-05-15

    Increased amygdala reactivity in response to salient stimuli is seen in patients with affective disorders, in healthy subjects at risk for these disorders, and in stressed individuals, making it a prime target for mechanistic studies into the pathophysiology of affective disorders. However, whereas individual differences in neuroticism are thought to modulate the effect of stress on mental health, the mechanistic link between stress, neuroticism and amygdala responsivity is unknown. Thus, we studied the relationship between experimentally induced stress, individual differences in neuroticism, and amygdala responsivity. To this end, fearful and happy faces were presented to a large cohort of young, healthy males (n=120) in two separate functional MRI sessions (stress versus control) in a randomized, controlled cross-over design. We revealed that amygdala reactivity was modulated by an interaction between the factors of stress, neuroticism, and the emotional valence of the facial stimuli. Follow-up analysis showed that neuroticism selectively enhanced amygdala responses to fearful faces in the stress condition. Thus, we show that stress unmasks an association between neuroticism and amygdala responsivity to potentially threatening stimuli. This effect constitutes a possible mechanistic link within the complex pathophysiology of affective disorders, and our novel approach appears suitable for further studies targeting the underlying mechanisms.

  5. Oxidative stress, radiation-adaptive responses, and aging.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yuri

    2004-09-01

    Organisms living in an aerobic environment were forced to evolve effective cellular strategies to detoxify reactive oxygen species. Besides diverse antioxidant enzymes and compounds, DNA repair enzymes, and disassembly systems, which remove damaged proteins, regulation systems that control transcription, translation, and activation have also been developed. The adaptive responses, especially those to radiation, are defensive regulation mechanisms by which oxidative stress (conditioning irradiation) elicits a response against damage because of subsequent stress (challenging irradiation). Although many researchers have investigated these molecular mechanisms, they remain obscure because of their complex signaling pathways and the involvement of various proteins. This article reviews the factors concerned with radiation-adaptive response, the signaling pathways activated by conditioning irradiation, and the effects of aging on radiation-adaptive response. The proteomics approach is also introduced, which is a useful method for studying stress response in cells.

  6. Psychological and hormonal stress response patterns during a blood donation.

    PubMed

    Hoogerwerf, M D; Veldhuizen, I J T; Merz, E-M; de Kort, W L A M; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2017-09-27

    Donating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal stress during the course of a blood donation, and whether responses differed between men and women, first-time and experienced donors and donors with high or low non-acute stress. In 363 donors, psychological (donation-stress and arousal) and hormonal (cortisol) stress were measured by questionnaire and salivary sample at seven key moments during a routine donation. Non-acute stress was assessed by a questionnaire. Repeated measurement analyses were performed, using the last measurement (leaving the donation center) as reference value. Levels of donation-stress, arousal and cortisol were significantly higher during donation than when leaving the donation center. When compared with men, women reported higher levels of donation-stress and cortisol in the first part of the visit. When compared with first-time donors, experienced donors reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and higher levels of arousal but less reactivity throughout the visit. When compared to donors high on non-acute stress, donors low on non-acute stress reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and showed less cortisol reactivity throughout the visit. Donating blood influences psychological and hormonal stress response patterns. The response patterns differ between women and men, first-time and experienced donors and between donors high and low on non-acute stress. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  7. Stress responses during ageing: molecular pathways regulating protein homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Kyriakakis, Emmanouil; Princz, Andrea; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2015-01-01

    The ageing process is characterized by deterioration of physiological function accompanied by frailty and ageing-associated diseases. The most broadly and well-studied pathways influencing ageing are the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling pathway and the dietary restriction pathway. Recent studies in diverse organisms have also delineated emerging pathways, which collectively or independently contribute to ageing. Among them the proteostatic-stress-response networks, inextricably affect normal ageing by maintaining or restoring protein homeostasis to preserve proper cellular and organismal function. In this chapter, we survey the involvement of heat stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the regulation of longevity, placing emphasis on the cross talk between different response mechanisms and their systemic effects. We further discuss novel insights relevant to the molecular pathways mediating these stress responses that may facilitate the development of innovative interventions targeting age-related pathologies such as diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Origins of asymmetric stress-strain response in phase transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Sehitoglu, H.; Gall, K.

    1997-12-31

    It has been determined that the transformation stress-strain behavior of CuZnAl and NiTi shape memory alloys is dependent on the applied stress state. The uniaxial compressive stress necessary to macroscopically trigger the transformation is approximately 34% (CuZnAl) and 26% (NiTi) larger than the required uniaxial tensile stress. For three dimensional stress states, the response of either alloy system is dependent on the directions of the dominant principal stresses along with the hydrostatic stress component of the stress state. The stress state effects are dominated by the favored growth and nucleation of more martensite plates in tension versus compression. The effect of different hydrostatic pressure levels between stress states on martensite plates volume change is considered small.

  9. Dynamical theory of active cellular response to external stress.

    PubMed

    De, Rumi; Safran, Samuel A

    2008-09-01

    We present a comprehensive, theoretical treatment of the orientational response to external stress of active, contractile cells embedded in a gel-like elastic medium. The theory includes both the forces that arise from the deformation of the matrix as well as forces due to the internal regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions of the cell. We calculate the time-dependent response of both the magnitude and the direction of the elastic dipole that characterizes the active forces exerted by the cell, for various situations. For static or quasistatic external stress, cells orient parallel to the stress while for high frequency dynamic external stress, cells orient nearly perpendicular. Both numerical and analytical calculations of these effects are presented. In addition we predict the relaxation time for the cellular response for both slowly and rapidly varying external stresses; several characteristic scaling regimes for the relaxation time as a function of applied frequency are predicted. We also treat the case of cells for which the regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions is controlled by strain (instead of stress) and show that the predicted dependence of the cellular orientation on the Poisson ratio of the matrix can differentiate strain vs stress regulation of cellular response.

  10. Habitat odor can alleviate innate stress responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Mutsumi; Imada, Masato; Aizawa, Shin; Sato, Takaaki

    2016-01-15

    Predatory odors, which can induce innate fear and stress responses in prey species, are frequently used in the development of animal models for several psychiatric diseases including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following a life-threatening event. We have previously shown that odors can be divided into at least three types; odors that act as (1) innate stressors, (2) as innate relaxants, or (3) have no innate effects on stress responses. Here, we attempted to verify whether an artificial odor, which had no innate effect on predatory odor-induced stress, could alleviate stress if experienced in early life as a habitat odor. In the current study, we demonstrated that the innate responses were changed to counteract stress following a postnatal experience. Moreover, we suggest that inhibitory circuits involved in stress-related neuronal networks and the concentrations of norepinephrine in the hippocampus may be crucial in alleviating stress induced by the predatory odor. Overall, these findings may be important for understanding the mechanisms involved in differential odor responses and also for the development of pharmacotherapeutic interventions that can alleviate stress in illnesses like PTSD.

  11. Crop and medicinal plants proteomics in response to salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Aghaei, Keyvan; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2013-01-01

    Increasing of world population marks a serious need to create new crop cultivars and medicinal plants with high growth and production at any environmental situations. Among the environmental unfavorable conditions, salinity is the most widespread in the world. Crop production and growth severely decreases under salt stress; however, some crop cultivars show significant tolerance against the negative effects of salinity. Among salt stress responses of crops, proteomic responses play a pivotal role in their ability to cope with it and have become the main center of notification. Many physiological responses are detectable in terms of protein increase and decrease even before physiological responses take place. Thus proteomic approach makes a short cut in the way of inferring how crops response to salt stress. Nowadays many salt-responsive proteins such as heat shock proteins, pathogen-related proteins, protein kinases, ascorbate peroxidase, osmotin, ornithine decarboxylase, and some transcription factors, have been detected in some major crops which are thought to give them the ability of withstanding against salt stress. Proteomic analysis of medicinal plants also revealed that alkaloid biosynthesis related proteins such as tryptophan synthase, codeinone reductase, strictosidine synthase, and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase might have major role in production of secondary metabolites. In this review we are comparing some different or similar proteomic responses of several crops and medicinal plants to salt stress and discuss about the future prospects. PMID:23386857

  12. Disrupted glucocorticoid--Immune interactions during stress response in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chiappelli, Joshua; Shi, Qiaoyun; Kodi, Priyadurga; Savransky, Anya; Kochunov, Peter; Rowland, Laura M; Nugent, Katie L; Hong, L Elliot

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid and immune pathways typically interact dynamically to optimize adaptation to stressful environmental challenges. We tested the hypothesis that a dysfunctional glucocorticoid-immune relationship contributes to abnormal stress response in schizophrenia. Saliva samples from 34 individuals with schizophrenia (20 male, 14 female) and 40 healthy controls (20 male, 20 female) were collected prior to and at 3 time points following completion of a computerized psychological challenge meant to be frustrating. Salivary concentrations of cortisol and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and their response to the challenge were examined. Both cortisol and IL-6 significantly increased in response to stress in the combined sample (both p<.05). In controls, the rise in cortisol following the challenge was negatively correlated to the subsequent changes in IL-6 (r=-.461, p=.003), such that rise of cortisol immediately after stress predicts subsequently lower IL-6 levels. In contrast, this relationship was positive in schizophrenia patients (r=.379, p=.027). The trends were significantly different (Z=3.7, p=.0002). This stress paradigm induces a rise in both cortisol and IL-6. In healthy controls, a more robust acute cortisol response was associated with a steeper decline of IL-6 levels following stress, corresponding to the expected anti-inflammatory effects of cortisol. Patients exhibited the opposite relationship, suggesting an inability to down-regulate inflammatory responses to psychological stress in schizophrenia; or even a paradoxical increase of IL-6 response. This finding may partially underlie abnormalities in inflammatory and stress pathways previously found in the illness, implicating dysregulated stress response in the chronic inflammatory state in schizophrenia.

  13. Prenatal cortisol exposure predicts infant cortisol response to acute stress.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Bergman, Kristin; Sarkar, Pampa; Glover, Vivette

    2013-03-01

    Experimental animal findings suggest that early stress and glucocorticoid exposure may program the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the offspring. The extension of these findings to human development is not yet clear. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted on 125 mothers and their normally developing children. Amniotic fluid was obtained at, on average, 17.2 weeks gestation; infant behavior and cortisol response to a separation-reunion stress was assessed at 17 months. Amniotic fluid cortisol predicted infant cortisol response to separation-reunion stress: infants who were exposed to higher levels of cortisol in utero showed higher pre-stress cortisol values and blunted response to stress exposure. The association was independent of prenatal, obstetric, and socioeconomic factors and child-parent attachment. The findings provide some of the strongest data in humans that HPA axis functioning in the child may be predicted from prenatal cortisol exposure.

  14. Formaldehyde Stress Responses in Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Nathan H.; Djoko, Karrera Y.; Veyrier, Frédéric J.; McEwan, Alastair G.

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde is the simplest of all aldehydes and is highly cytotoxic. Its use and associated dangers from environmental exposure have been well documented. Detoxification systems for formaldehyde are found throughout the biological world and they are especially important in methylotrophic bacteria, which generate this compound as part of their metabolism of methanol. Formaldehyde metabolizing systems can be divided into those dependent upon pterin cofactors, sugar phosphates and those dependent upon glutathione. The more prevalent thiol-dependent formaldehyde detoxification system is found in many bacterial pathogens, almost all of which do not metabolize methane or methanol. This review describes the endogenous and exogenous sources of formaldehyde, its toxic effects and mechanisms of detoxification. The methods of formaldehyde sensing are also described with a focus on the formaldehyde responsive transcription factors HxlR, FrmR, and NmlR. Finally, the physiological relevance of detoxification systems for formaldehyde in bacterial pathogens is discussed. PMID:26973631

  15. Psychophysiological Responses to Stress after Stress Management Training in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    de Brouwer, Sabine J. M.; Kraaimaat, Floris W.; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Donders, Rogier T.; Eijsbouts, Agnes; van Koulil, Saskia; van Riel, Piet L. C. M.; Evers, Andrea W. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Stress management interventions may prove useful in preventing the detrimental effects of stress on health. This study assessed the effects of a stress management intervention on the psychophysiological response to stress in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Seventy-four patients with RA, who were randomly assigned to either a control group or a group that received short-term stress management training, performed a standardized psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) 1 week after the stress management training and at a 9-week follow-up. Psychological and physical functioning, and the acute psychophysiological response to the stress test were assessed. Results Patients in the intervention group showed significantly lower psychological distress levels of anxiety after the training than did the controls. While there were no between-group differences in stress-induced tension levels, and autonomic (α-amylase) or endocrine (cortisol) responses to the stress test 1 week after the intervention, levels of stress-induced tension and cortisol were significantly lower in the intervention group at the 9-week follow-up. Overall, the response to the intervention was particularly evident in a subgroup of patients with a psychological risk profile. Conclusion A relatively short stress management intervention can improve psychological functioning and influences the psychophysiological response to stress in patients with RA, particularly those psychologically at risk. These findings might help understand how stress can affect health and the role of individual differences in stress responsiveness. Trial Registration TrialRegister.nl NTR1193 PMID:22162990

  16. Absence of neurogenic response following robust predator-induced stress response.

    PubMed

    Lau, Catherine; Hebert, Mark; Vani, Marc A; Walling, Sue; Hayley, Shawn; Lagace, Diane C; Blundell, Jacqueline

    2016-12-17

    Traumatic events contribute to a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Identifying the neural mechanisms that affect the stress response may improve treatment for stress-related disorders. Neurogenesis, the production of neurons, occurs within the adult brain and disturbances in neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus have been linked to mood and anxiety disorders. Chronic stress models have mainly suggested correlations with stress reducing adult SGZ neurogenesis, whereas acute stress models and those with a naturalistic component that are also associated with long-lasting behavioral changes have produced inconsistent results. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to examine the effects of acute predator stress on adult neurogenesis. Predator stress involved a single 10-min unprotected rat to cat exposure that has previously been shown to produce contextual fear, hyperarousal, and anxiety-like behavior lasting at least 3weeks. As expected, predator stress produced a stress response as detected by elevated corticosterone (CORT) levels immediately after stress. Despite this robust stress response, there was no significant difference between stressed and handled control rats in the number of proliferating or surviving cells as assessed by a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-immunoreactive (BrdU-IR) labeling 2h or 4weeks post-stress throughout the rostro-caudal axis of the SGZ, respectively. Additionally, 90% of 4-week-old BrdU-IR cells in both conditions expressed NeuN, suggesting no change in cell fate with stress exposure. Overall, these data give caution to the notion that acute predator stress can alter the production or survival of adult-generated cells.

  17. Alternative oxidase: a target and regulator of stress responses.

    PubMed

    Van Aken, Olivier; Giraud, Estelle; Clifton, Rachel; Whelan, James

    2009-12-01

    The alternative oxidase (AOX) is found in all plants examined to date, fungi and lower invertebrates. We propose that AOX is not only part of the stress response in plants, but it also plays a central role in defining the stress response. Three lines of evidence support this proposal: (1) The absence of AOX leads to an alteration of stress defences in normal and stress conditions, (2) the expression of AOX is triggered by a variety of signals indicating that it is a common response and (3) AOX acts as a buffer that determines the threshold for the induction of programmed cell death. Therefore, AOX is not only one of many components involved in the defence response, its activity or lack of activity leads to a radical alteration of the defence equilibrium at a cellular level and thus it plays a central role in programming the stress response. This programming role of AOX can be achieved directly by its ability to suppress the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and indirectly by causing changes in the energy status of cells owing to the non-phosphorylating nature of the alternative respiratory pathway. The latter is likely achieved in combination with a variety of alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenases, that are co-regulated with AOX. Additionally, we explore the possible function of AOX as a component of the stress response beyond the plant frontier.

  18. Measuring the response of conifer seedlings to soil compaction stress

    Treesearch

    Howard G. Halverson; Robert P. Zisa

    1982-01-01

    A test of seedling growth response to several levels of soil compaction showed that root penetration depth was best correlated with soil compaction. Shoot biomass, root biomass, root elongation, and seedling height were not well correlated with compaction. The results reveal that most measurements of growth do not give a good indication of seedling response to stresses...

  19. Anger responses to psychosocial stress predict heart rate and cortisol stress responses in men but not women.

    PubMed

    Lupis, Sarah B; Lerman, Michelle; Wolf, Jutta M

    2014-11-01

    While previous research has suggested that anger and fear responses to stress are linked to distinct sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stress responses, little is known about how these emotions predict hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity. Further, earlier research primarily relied on retrospective self-report of emotion. The current study aimed at addressing both issues in male and female individuals by assessing the role of anger and fear in predicting heart rate and cortisol stress responses using both self-report and facial coding analysis to assess emotion responses. We exposed 32 healthy students (18 female; 19.6±1.7 yr) to an acute psychosocial stress paradigm (TSST) and measured heart rate and salivary cortisol levels throughout the protocol. Anger and fear before and after stress exposure was assessed by self-report, and video recordings of the TSST were assessed by a certified facial coder to determine emotion expression (FACS). Self-reported emotions and emotion expressions did not correlate (all p>.23). Increases in self-reported fear predicted blunted cortisol responses in men (β=0.41, p=.04). Also for men, longer durations of anger expression predicted exaggerated cortisol responses (β=0.67 p=.004), and more anger incidences predicted exaggerated cortisol and heart rate responses (β=0.51, p=.033; β=0.46, p=.066, resp.). Anger and fear did not predict SNS or HPA activity for females (all p>.23). The current differential self-report and facial coding findings support the use of multiple modes of emotion assessment. Particularly, FACS but not self-report revealed a robust anger-stress association that could have important downstream health effects for men. For women, future research may clarify the role of other emotions, such as self-conscious expressions of shame, for physiological stress responses. A better understanding of the emotion-stress link may contribute to behavioral interventions targeting health-promoting ways of

  20. Plant hormone-mediated regulation of stress responses.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vivek; Ravindran, Pratibha; Kumar, Prakash P

    2016-04-14

    Being sessile organisms, plants are often exposed to a wide array of abiotic and biotic stresses. Abiotic stress conditions include drought, heat, cold and salinity, whereas biotic stress arises mainly from bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes and insects. To adapt to such adverse situations, plants have evolved well-developed mechanisms that help to perceive the stress signal and enable optimal growth response. Phytohormones play critical roles in helping the plants to adapt to adverse environmental conditions. The elaborate hormone signaling networks and their ability to crosstalk make them ideal candidates for mediating defense responses. Recent research findings have helped to clarify the elaborate signaling networks and the sophisticated crosstalk occurring among the different hormone signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the roles of the major plant hormones in regulating abiotic and biotic stress responses with special focus on the significance of crosstalk between different hormones in generating a sophisticated and efficient stress response. We divided the discussion into the roles of ABA, salicylic acid, jasmonates and ethylene separately at the start of the review. Subsequently, we have discussed the crosstalk among them, followed by crosstalk with growth promoting hormones (gibberellins, auxins and cytokinins). These have been illustrated with examples drawn from selected abiotic and biotic stress responses. The discussion on seed dormancy and germination serves to illustrate the fine balance that can be enforced by the two key hormones ABA and GA in regulating plant responses to environmental signals. The intricate web of crosstalk among the often redundant multitudes of signaling intermediates is just beginning to be understood. Future research employing genome-scale systems biology approaches to solve problems of such magnitude will undoubtedly lead to a better understanding of plant development. Therefore, discovering additional crosstalk

  1. The Plant Heat Stress Transcription Factors (HSFs): Structure, Regulation, and Function in Response to Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Meng; Liu, Jin-Hong; Ma, Xiao; Luo, De-Xu; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Lu, Ming-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as high temperature, salinity, and drought adversely affect the survival, growth, and reproduction of plants. Plants respond to such unfavorable changes through developmental, physiological, and biochemical ways, and these responses require expression of stress-responsive genes, which are regulated by a network of transcription factors (TFs), including heat stress transcription factors (HSFs). HSFs play a crucial role in plants response to several abiotic stresses by regulating the expression of stress-responsive genes, such as heat shock proteins (Hsps). In this review, we describe the conserved structure of plant HSFs, the identification of HSF gene families from various plant species, their expression profiling under abiotic stress conditions, regulation at different levels and function in abiotic stresses. Despite plant HSFs share highly conserved structure, their remarkable diversification across plants reflects their numerous functions as well as their integration into the complex stress signaling and response networks, which can be employed in crop improvement strategies via biotechnological intervention. PMID:26904076

  2. The Plant Heat Stress Transcription Factors (HSFs): Structure, Regulation, and Function in Response to Abiotic Stresses.

    PubMed

    Guo, Meng; Liu, Jin-Hong; Ma, Xiao; Luo, De-Xu; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Lu, Ming-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as high temperature, salinity, and drought adversely affect the survival, growth, and reproduction of plants. Plants respond to such unfavorable changes through developmental, physiological, and biochemical ways, and these responses require expression of stress-responsive genes, which are regulated by a network of transcription factors (TFs), including heat stress transcription factors (HSFs). HSFs play a crucial role in plants response to several abiotic stresses by regulating the expression of stress-responsive genes, such as heat shock proteins (Hsps). In this review, we describe the conserved structure of plant HSFs, the identification of HSF gene families from various plant species, their expression profiling under abiotic stress conditions, regulation at different levels and function in abiotic stresses. Despite plant HSFs share highly conserved structure, their remarkable diversification across plants reflects their numerous functions as well as their integration into the complex stress signaling and response networks, which can be employed in crop improvement strategies via biotechnological intervention.

  3. Oxidative stress responses in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Farr, S B; Kogoma, T

    1991-01-01

    Oxidative stress is strongly implicated in a number of diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disorders, and atherosclerosis, and its emerging as one of the most important causative agents of mutagenesis, tumorigenesis, and aging. Recent progress on the genetics and molecular biology of the cellular responses to oxidative stress, primarily in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, is summarized. Bacteria respond to oxidative stress by invoking two distinct stress responses, the peroxide stimulon and the superoxide stimulon, depending on whether the stress is mediated by peroxides or the superoxide anion. The two stimulons each contain a set of more than 30 genes. The expression of a subset of genes in each stimulon is under the control of a positive regulatory element; these genes constitute the OxyR and SoxRS regulons. The schemes of regulation of the two regulons by their respective regulators are reviewed in detail, and the overlaps of these regulons with other stress responses such as the heat shock and SOS responses are discussed. The products of Oxy-R- and SoxRS-regulated genes, such as catalases and superoxide dismutases, are involved in the prevention of oxidative damage, whereas others, such as endonuclease IV, play a role in the repair of oxidative damage. The potential roles of these and other gene products in the defense against oxidative damage in DNA, proteins, and membranes are discussed in detail. A brief discussion of the similarities and differences between oxidative stress responses in bacteria and eukaryotic organisms concludes this review. PMID:1779927

  4. Temporal transcriptomic response during arsenic stress in Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Arsenic is present in numerous ecosystems and microorganisms have developed various mechanisms to live in such hostile environments. Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans, a bacterium isolated from arsenic contaminated sludge, has acquired remarkable capabilities to cope with arsenic. In particular our previous studies have suggested the existence of a temporal induction of arsenite oxidase, a key enzyme in arsenic metabolism, in the presence of As(III). Results Microarrays were designed to compare gene transcription profiles under a temporal As(III) exposure. Transcriptome kinetic analysis demonstrated the existence of two phases in arsenic response. The expression of approximatively 14% of the whole genome was significantly affected by an As(III) early stress and 4% by an As(III) late exposure. The early response was characterized by arsenic resistance, oxidative stress, chaperone synthesis and sulfur metabolism. The late response was characterized by arsenic metabolism and associated mechanisms such as phosphate transport and motility. The major metabolic changes were confirmed by chemical, transcriptional, physiological and biochemical experiments. These early and late responses were defined as general stress response and specific response to As(III), respectively. Conclusion Gene expression patterns suggest that the exposure to As(III) induces an acute response to rapidly minimize the immediate effects of As(III). Upon a longer arsenic exposure, a broad metabolic response was induced. These data allowed to propose for the first time a kinetic model of the As(III) response in bacteria. PMID:21167028

  5. Effect of prenatal stress on subsequent response to mixing stress and a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sows subjected to prenatal stress have been found to produce offspring that alter the manner in which they respond to stress. Our objective was to determine if exposing a sow to stress altered the response of the offspring to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 2 mo of age or their response to mixing stres...

  6. Acute Stress Reduces Reward Responsiveness: Implications for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan, Ryan; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Stress, one of the strongest risk factors for depression, has been linked to “anhedonic” behavior and dysfunctional reward-related neural circuitry in preclinical models. Methods To test if acute stress reduces reward responsiveness (i.e., the ability to modulate behavior as a function of past reward), a signal-detection task coupled with a differential reinforcement schedule was utilized. Eighty female participants completed the task under both a stress condition, either threat-of-shock (n = 38) or negative performance feedback (n = 42), and a no-stress condition. Results Stress increased negative affect and anxiety. As hypothesized based on preclinical findings, stress, particularly the threat-of-shock condition, impaired reward responsiveness. Regression analyses indicate that self-report measures of anhedonia predicted stress-induced hedonic deficits even after controlling for anxiety symptoms. Conclusions These findings indicate that acute stress reduces reward responsiveness, particularly in individuals with anhedonic symptoms. Stress-induced hedonic deficit is a promising candidate mechanism linking stressful experiences to depression. PMID:16806107

  7. Cellular Stress Responses Elicited by Engineered Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered nanomaterials are being incorporated continuously into consumer products, resulting in increased human exposures. The study of engineered nanomaterials has focused largely on oxidative stress and inflammation endpoints without further investigation of underlying pathwa...

  8. Cellular Stress Responses Elicited by Engineered Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered nanomaterials are being incorporated continuously into consumer products, resulting in increased human exposures. The study of engineered nanomaterials has focused largely on oxidative stress and inflammation endpoints without further investigation of underlying pathwa...

  9. Traumatic Experience in Infancy: How Responses to Stress Affect Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witten, Molly Romer

    2010-01-01

    Responses to traumatic stress during the earliest years of life can change quickly and can be difficult to identify because of the young child's rapid rate of development. The symptoms of traumatic stress will depend on the child's developmental level and individual coping styles, as well as the quality and nature of the child's most important…

  10. Personality, Stressful Life Events, and Treatment Response in Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulmash, Eric; Harkness, Kate L.; Stewart, Jeremy G.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined whether the personality traits of self-criticism or dependency moderated the effect of stressful life events on treatment response. Depressed outpatients (N = 113) were randomized to 16 weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, or antidepressant medication (ADM). Stressful life events were…

  11. Personality, Stressful Life Events, and Treatment Response in Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulmash, Eric; Harkness, Kate L.; Stewart, Jeremy G.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined whether the personality traits of self-criticism or dependency moderated the effect of stressful life events on treatment response. Depressed outpatients (N = 113) were randomized to 16 weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, or antidepressant medication (ADM). Stressful life events were…

  12. Adulthood stress responses in rats are variably altered as a factor of adolescent stress exposure.

    PubMed

    Moore, Nicole L T; Altman, Daniel E; Gauchan, Sangeeta; Genovese, Raymond F

    2016-05-01

    Stress exposure during development may influence adulthood stress response severity. The present study investigates persisting effects of two adolescent stressors upon adulthood response to predator exposure (PE). Rats were exposed to underwater trauma (UWT) or PE during adolescence, then to PE after reaching adulthood. Rats were then exposed to predator odor (PO) to test responses to predator cues alone. Behavioral and neuroendocrine assessments were conducted to determine acute effects of each stress experience. Adolescent stress altered behavioral response to adulthood PE. Acoustic startle response was blunted. Bidirectional changes in plus maze exploration were revealed as a factor of adolescent stress type. Neuroendocrine response magnitude did not predict severity of adolescent or adult stress response, suggesting that different adolescent stress events may differentially alter developmental outcomes regardless of acute behavioral or neuroendocrine response. We report that exposure to two different stressors in adolescence may differentially affect stress response outcomes in adulthood. Acute response to an adolescent stressor may not be consistent across all stressors or all dependent measures, and may not predict alterations in developmental outcomes pertaining to adulthood stress exposure. Further studies are needed to characterize factors underlying long-term effects of a developmental stressor.

  13. Respiratory Effects and Systemic Stress Response Following ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to the pulmonary irritant ozone causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects attributed to sympathetic and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically impaired models. We examined respiratory and systemic effects following exposure to a sensory irritant acrolein to elucidate the systemic and pulmonary consequences in healthy and diabetic rat models. Male Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a nonobese type II diabetic Wistar-derived model, were exposed by inhalation to 0, 2, or 4 ppm acrolein, 4 h/d for 1 or 2 days. Exposure at 4 ppm significantly increased pulmonary and nasal inflammation in both strains with vascular protein leakage occurring only in the nose. Acrolein exposure (4 ppm) also caused metabolic impairment by inducing hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance (GK > Wistar). Serum total cholesterol (GKs only), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (both strains), and free fatty acids (GK > Wistar) levels increased; however, no acrolein-induced changes were noted in branched-chain amino acid or insulin levels. These responses corresponded with a significant increase in corticosterone and modest but insignificant increases in adrenaline in both strains, suggesting activation of the HPA axis. Collectively, these data demonstrate that acrolein exposure has a profound effect on nasal and pulmonary inflammation, as well as glucose and lipid metabolis

  14. Stress Responses in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Gowri, Ganesan; Bugos, Robert C.; Campbell, Wilbur H.; Maxwell, Carl A.; Dixon, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    S-Adenosyl-l-methionine:caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT, EC 2.1.1.6) catalyzes the conversion of caffeic acid to ferulic acid, a key step in the biosynthesis of lignin monomers. We have isolated a functionally active cDNA clone (pCOMT1) encoding alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) COMT by immunoscreening a λZAPII cDNA expression library with anti-(aspen COMT) antibodies. The derived amino acid sequence of pCOMT1 is 86% identical to that of COMT from aspen. Southern blot analysis indicates that COMT in alfalfa is encoded by at least two genes. Addition of an elicitor preparation from bakers' yeast to alfalfa cell suspension cultures resulted in a rapid accumulation of COMT transcripts, which reached a maximum level around 19 hours postelicitation. Northern blot analysis of total RNA from different organs of alfalfa plants at various developmental stages showed that COMT transcripts are most abundant in roots and stems. Transcripts encoding ATP: i-methionine-S-adenosyl transferase (AdoMet synthetase, EC 2.5.1.6), the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the methyl donor for the COMT reaction, were coinduced with COMT transcripts in elicitor-treated cells and exhibited a similar pattern of expression to that of COMT in different organs of alfalfa plants at various stages of development. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 6 PMID:16668418

  15. Global Metabolic Responses to Salt Stress in Fifteen Species

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, Georg R.; Kuehne, Andreas; Sauer, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Cells constantly adapt to unpredictably changing extracellular solute concentrations. A cornerstone of the cellular osmotic stress response is the metabolic supply of energy and building blocks to mount appropriate defenses. Yet, the extent to which osmotic stress impinges on the metabolic network remains largely unknown. Moreover, it is mostly unclear which, if any, of the metabolic responses to osmotic stress are conserved among diverse organisms or confined to particular groups of species. Here we investigate the global metabolic responses of twelve bacteria, two yeasts and two human cell lines exposed to sustained hyperosmotic salt stress by measuring semiquantitative levels of hundreds of cellular metabolites using nontargeted metabolomics. Beyond the accumulation of osmoprotectants, we observed significant changes of numerous metabolites in all species. Global metabolic responses were predominantly species-specific, yet individual metabolites were characteristically affected depending on species’ taxonomy, natural habitat, envelope structure or salt tolerance. Exploiting the breadth of our dataset, the correlation of individual metabolite response magnitudes across all species implicated lower glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, branched-chain amino acid metabolism and heme biosynthesis to be generally important for salt tolerance. Thus, our findings place the global metabolic salt stress response into a phylogenetic context and provide insights into the cellular phenotype associated with salt tolerance. PMID:26848578

  16. Stretching the Stress Boundary: Linking Air Pollution Health Effects to a Neurohormonal Stress Response

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhaled pollutants produce effects in virtually all organ systems in our body and have been linked to chronic diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s and diabetes. A neurohormonal stress response (referred here as a systemic response produced by activ...

  17. Stretching the Stress Boundary: Linking Air Pollution Health Effects to a Neurohormonal Stress Response

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhaled pollutants produce effects in virtually all organ systems in our body and have been linked to chronic diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s and diabetes. A neurohormonal stress response (referred here as a systemic response produced by activ...

  18. Stress Responses from the Endoplasmic Reticulum in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hironori; Nishitoh, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a dynamic organelle that is essential for multiple cellular functions. During cellular stress conditions, including nutrient deprivation and dysregulation of protein synthesis, unfolded/misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER lumen, resulting in activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR also contributes to the regulation of various intracellular signaling pathways such as calcium signaling and lipid signaling. More recently, the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM), which is a site of close contact between the ER and mitochondria, has been shown to function as a platform for various intracellular stress responses including apoptotic signaling, inflammatory signaling, the autophagic response, and the UPR. Interestingly, in cancer, these signaling pathways from the ER are often dysregulated, contributing to cancer cell metabolism. Thus, the signaling pathway from the ER may be a novel therapeutic target for various cancers. In this review, we discuss recent research on the roles of stress responses from the ER, including the MAM. PMID:25941664

  19. Influence of surface stresses on indentation response.

    PubMed

    Buchwald, J; Mayr, S G

    2015-03-27

    Surface stresses lead to an effective change in the elastic constants of thin films and at surfaces. The development of modern scanning probe techniques like contact resonance atomic force microscopy empowers the experimenter to measure at scales where these effects become increasingly relevant. In this paper we employ a computational multiscale approach where we compare density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics simulations as tools to calculate the thin-film/surface elastic behavior for silicon and strontiumtitanate. From the surface elastic constants gained by DFT calculations we develop a continuum finite-element multilayer model to study the impact of surface stresses on indentation experiments. In general the stress field of an indenter and thus the impact of surface stresses on the indentation modulus depends on its contact radius and on its particular shape. We propose an analytical model that describes the behavior of the indentation modulus as a function of the contact radius. We show that this model fits well to simulation results gained for a spherical and a flat punch indenter. Our results demonstrate a surface-stress-induced reduction of the indentation modulus of about 5% for strontiumtitanate and 6% for silicon for a contact radius of [Formula: see text], irrespective of the indenter shape.

  20. Influence of surface stresses on indentation response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwald, J.; Mayr, S. G.

    2015-03-01

    Surface stresses lead to an effective change in the elastic constants of thin films and at surfaces. The development of modern scanning probe techniques like contact resonance atomic force microscopy empowers the experimenter to measure at scales where these effects become increasingly relevant. In this paper we employ a computational multiscale approach where we compare density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics simulations as tools to calculate the thin-film/surface elastic behavior for silicon and strontiumtitanate. From the surface elastic constants gained by DFT calculations we develop a continuum finite-element multilayer model to study the impact of surface stresses on indentation experiments. In general the stress field of an indenter and thus the impact of surface stresses on the indentation modulus depends on its contact radius and on its particular shape. We propose an analytical model that describes the behavior of the indentation modulus as a function of the contact radius. We show that this model fits well to simulation results gained for a spherical and a flat punch indenter. Our results demonstrate a surface-stress-induced reduction of the indentation modulus of about 5% for strontiumtitanate and 6% for silicon for a contact radius of {{r}c}=5 \\text{nm}, irrespective of the indenter shape.

  1. Stress response of OsETHE1 is altered in response to light and dark conditions.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Charanpreet; Singla-Pareek, Sneh Lata; Sopory, Sudhir K

    2014-01-01

    ETHYLMALONIC ENCEPHALOPATHY PROTEIN1 (ETHE1), encoding sulfur dioxygenase activity is believed to be an important candidate in sulfur metabolism, where it is involved in amino acid catabolism during carbohydrate starvation and embryo development as seen in Arabidopsis thaliana. OsETHE1, an ETHE1-encoding gene from rice, is in fact induced in response to abiotic stresses, condition which affects nutritional status of the plant, reflecting the need for nutrient remobilization. Sulfur reduction and assimilation are believed to be light-dependent processes and so the genes involved in sulfur oxidation must also be investigated for light-dependent regulatory effects. To this end, we show that the stress response of OsETHE1 is dependent on light and that darkness largely suppresses the stress response of this gene. However, the observed regulatory effect is intricate, varying according to the stress imposed; thereby suggesting the involvement of various aspects of signaling in this process.

  2. Diazepam and Fluoxetine Decrease the Stress Response in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Koakoski, Gessi; Ferreira, Daiane; Oliveira, Thiago Acosta; da Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; Gusso, Darlan; Giacomini, Ana Cristina Varrone; Piato, Angelo Luis; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2014-01-01

    The presence of pharmaceutical products in the aquatic environment has been reported in several studies. However, the impact of these drugs on living organisms is still uncharacterized. Here, we investigated the effects of acute exposure to either diazepam or fluoxetine on the stress response in Danio rerio. We showed that diazepam and fluoxetine inhibited the stress axis in zebrafish. Intermediate concentrations of diazepam suppressed the stress response as measured by cortisol levels, whereas fluoxetine inhibited cortisol increase at concentrations similar to those found in the environment. These data suggest that the presence of psychoactive drugs in aquatic ecosystems could cause neuroendocrine dysfunction in fish. PMID:25054216

  3. Disruption of GluA2 phosphorylation potentiates stress responsivity.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Alexandra S; Fosnocht, Anne Q; Lucerne, Kelsey E; Briand, Lisa A

    2017-08-30

    Cocaine addiction is characterized by persistent craving and addicts frequently relapse even after long periods of abstinence. Exposure to stress can precipitate relapse in humans and rodents. Stress and drug use can lead to common alterations in synaptic plasticity and these commonalities may contribute to the ability of stress to elicit relapse. These common changes in synaptic plasticity are mediated, in part, by alterations in the trafficking and stabilization of AMPA receptors. Exposure to both cocaine and stress can lead to alterations in protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of GluA2 AMPA subunits and thus alter the trafficking of GluA2-containing AMPARs. However, it is not clear what role AMPAR trafficking plays in the interactions between stress and cocaine. The current study utilized a mouse with a point mutation within the GluA2 subunit c-terminus resulting in a disruption of PKC-mediated GluA2 phosphorylation to examine stress responsivity. Although no differences were seen in the response to a forced swim stress in naïve mice, GluA2 K882A knock-in mice exhibited an increased stress response following cocaine self-administration. Furthermore, we demonstrated that disrupting GluA2 phosphorylation increases vulnerability to stress-induced reinstatement of both cocaine seeking and cocaine-conditioned reward. Finally, GluA2 K882A knock-in mice exhibit an increased vulnerability to social defeat as indicated by increased social avoidance. Taken together these results indicate that disrupting GluA2 phosphorylation leads to increased responsivity to acute stress following cocaine exposure and increased vulnerability to chronic stress. These results highlight the GluA2 phosphorylation site as a novel target for the stress-related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Stress Generation and Adolescent Depression: Contribution of Interpersonal Stress Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the proposal that ineffective responses to common interpersonal problems disrupt youths' relationships, which, in turn, contributes to depression during adolescence. Youth (86 girls, 81 boys; M age = 12.41, SD = 1.19) and their primary female caregivers participated in a three-wave longitudinal study. Youth completed a…

  5. Antioxidant responses of wheat plants under stress

    PubMed Central

    Caverzan, Andréia; Casassola, Alice; Brammer, Sandra Patussi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, food security depends on the increased production of cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which is an important source of calories and protein for humans. However, cells of the crop have suffered from the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause severe oxidative damage to the plants, due to environmental stresses. ROS are toxic molecules found in various subcellular compartments. The equilibrium between the production and detoxification of ROS is sustained by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. In the present review, we offer a brief summary of antioxidant defense and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) signaling in wheat plants. Wheat plants increase antioxidant defense mechanisms under abiotic stresses, such as drought, cold, heat, salinity and UV-B radiation, to alleviate oxidative damage. Moreover, H2O2 signaling is an important factor contributing to stress tolerance in cereals. PMID:27007891

  6. Characterization of the general stress response in Bartonella henselae

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Nhan; Lima, Amorce; Bandeali, Zahra; Anderson, Burt

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria utilize a general stress response system to combat stresses from their surrounding environments. In alpha-proteobacteria, the general stress response uses an alternate sigma factor as the main regulator and incorporates it with a two-component system into a unique regulatory circuit. This system has been described in several alpha-proteobacterial species, including the pathogens Bartonella quintana and Brucella abortus. Most of the studies have focused on characterizing the PhyR anti-anti-sigma factor, the NepR anti-sigma factor, and the alternate sigma factor. However, not enough attention is directed toward studying the role of histidine kinases in the general stress response. Our study identifies the general stress response system in Bartonella henselae, where the gene synteny is conserved and both the PhyR and alternate sigma factor have similar sequence and domain structures with other alpha-proteobacteria. Our data showed that the general stress response genes are up-regulated under conditions that mimic the cat flea vector. Furthermore, we showed that both RpoE and PhyR positively regulate this system and that RpoE also affects transcription of genes encoding heme-binding proteins and the gene encoding the BadA adhesin. Finally, we identified a histidine kinase, annotated as BH13820 that can potentially phosphorylate PhyR. PMID:26724735

  7. The influence of neuroticism, extraversion and openness on stress responses.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Tamera R; Rench, Tara A; Lyons, Joseph B; Riffle, Rebecca R

    2012-04-01

    The present research moved beyond focusing on negative dispositions to investigate the influence of positive aspects of personality, namely extraversion and openness, on stress responses including appraisals, affect and task performance. Challenge appraisals occur when stressor demands are deemed commensurate with coping resources, whereas threat appraisals occur when demands are believed to outweigh coping resources. We examined the unique influence of personality on stress responses and the mediating role of appraisals. Personality was assessed, and then participants (N = 152) were exposed to a validated math stressor. We found unique effects on stress responses for neuroticism (high threat and negative affect and low positive affect), extraversion (high positive and low negative affect) and openness (high positive and low negative effect and better performance). Mediation analyses revealed that neuroticism indirectly worsened performance, through threat appraisals, and that openness indirectly increased positive affect through lower threat. These findings highlight the importance of investigating multiple aspects of personality on stress responses and provide an avenue through which stress responses can be changed-appraisals. Only by more broad investigations can interventions be tailored appropriately for different individuals to foster stress resilience.

  8. Characterization of the general stress response in Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    Tu, Nhan; Lima, Amorce; Bandeali, Zahra; Anderson, Burt

    2016-03-01

    Bacteria utilize a general stress response system to combat stresses from their surrounding environments. In alpha-proteobacteria, the general stress response uses an alternate sigma factor as the main regulator and incorporates it with a two-component system into a unique regulatory circuit. This system has been described in several alpha-proteobacterial species, including the pathogens Bartonella quintana and Brucella abortus. Most of the studies have focused on characterizing the PhyR anti-anti-sigma factor, the NepR anti-sigma factor, and the alternate sigma factor. However, not enough attention is directed toward studying the role of histidine kinases in the general stress response. Our study identifies the general stress response system in Bartonella henselae, where the gene synteny is conserved and both the PhyR and alternate sigma factor have similar sequence and domain structures with other alpha-proteobacteria. Our data showed that the general stress response genes are up-regulated under conditions that mimic the cat flea vector. Furthermore, we showed that both RpoE and PhyR positively regulate this system and that RpoE also affects transcription of genes encoding heme-binding proteins and the gene encoding the BadA adhesin. Finally, we identified a histidine kinase, annotated as BH13820 that can potentially phosphorylate PhyR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chloroplast Retrograde Regulation of Heat Stress Responses in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ai-Zhen; Guo, Fang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that intracellular signaling from chloroplast to nucleus plays a vital role in stress responses to survive environmental perturbations. The chloroplasts were proposed as sensors to heat stress since components of the photosynthetic apparatus housed in the chloroplast are the major targets of thermal damage in plants. Thus, communicating subcellular perturbations to the nucleus is critical during exposure to extreme environmental conditions such as heat stress. By coordinating expression of stress specific nuclear genes essential for adaptive responses to hostile environment, plants optimize different cell functions and activate acclimation responses through retrograde signaling pathways. The efficient communication between plastids and the nucleus is highly required for such diverse metabolic and biosynthetic functions during adaptation processes to environmental stresses. In recent years, several putative retrograde signals released from plastids that regulate nuclear genes have been identified and signaling pathways have been proposed. In this review, we provide an update on retrograde signals derived from tetrapyrroles, carotenoids, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and organellar gene expression (OGE) in the context of heat stress responses and address their roles in retrograde regulation of heat-responsive gene expression, systemic acquired acclimation, and cellular coordination in plants. PMID:27066042

  10. Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress Responses in the Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Avloniti, Alexandra; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Deli, Chariklia K.; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Leontsini, Diamanda; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Mastorakos, George; Fatouros, Ioannis G.

    2017-01-01

    Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on oxidative stress responses to acute and chronic exercise in youth. It has been documented that acute exercise induces age-specific transient alterations in both oxidant and antioxidant markers in children and adolescents. However, these responses seem to be affected by factors such as training phase, training load, fitness level, mode of exercise etc. In relation to chronic adaptation, the role of training on oxidative stress adaptation has not been adequately investigated. The two studies performed so far indicate that children and adolescents exhibit positive adaptations of their antioxidant system, as adults do. More studies are needed in order to shed light on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses, following acute exercise and training adaptations in youth. Available evidence suggests that small amounts of oxidative stress may be necessary for growth whereas the transition to adolescence from childhood may promote maturation of pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms. Available evidence also suggests that obesity may negatively affect basal and exercise-related antioxidant responses in the peripubertal period during pre- and early-puberty. PMID:28106721

  11. Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress Responses in the Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Avloniti, Alexandra; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Deli, Chariklia K; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Leontsini, Diamanda; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Mastorakos, George; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2017-01-17

    Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on oxidative stress responses to acute and chronic exercise in youth. It has been documented that acute exercise induces age-specific transient alterations in both oxidant and antioxidant markers in children and adolescents. However, these responses seem to be affected by factors such as training phase, training load, fitness level, mode of exercise etc. In relation to chronic adaptation, the role of training on oxidative stress adaptation has not been adequately investigated. The two studies performed so far indicate that children and adolescents exhibit positive adaptations of their antioxidant system, as adults do. More studies are needed in order to shed light on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses, following acute exercise and training adaptations in youth. Available evidence suggests that small amounts of oxidative stress may be necessary for growth whereas the transition to adolescence from childhood may promote maturation of pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms. Available evidence also suggests that obesity may negatively affect basal and exercise-related antioxidant responses in the peripubertal period during pre- and early-puberty.

  12. Hormonal control of cold stress responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Eremina, Marina; Rozhon, Wilfried; Poppenberger, Brigitte

    2016-02-01

    Cold stress responses in plants are highly sophisticated events that alter the biochemical composition of cells for protection from damage caused by low temperatures. In addition, cold stress has a profound impact on plant morphologies, causing growth repression and reduced yields. Complex signalling cascades are utilised to induce changes in cold-responsive gene expression that enable plants to withstand chilling or even freezing temperatures. These cascades are governed by the activity of plant hormones, and recent research has provided a better understanding of how cold stress responses are integrated with developmental pathways that modulate growth and initiate other events that increase cold tolerance. Information on the hormonal control of cold stress signalling is summarised to highlight the significant progress that has been made and indicate gaps that still exist in our understanding.

  13. Exercise-induced stress response as an adaptive tolerance strategy.

    PubMed Central

    Sonneborn, J S; Barbee, S A

    1998-01-01

    Interaction between the quality of the environment and the health of the exposed population determines the survival response of living organisms. The phenomenon of induced tolerance by exposure to threshold levels of stressors to stimulate natural defense mechanisms has potential therapeutic value. The paucity of information on predictability of individual response and information on the operative fundamental mechanisms limit applicability of the adaptive tolerance strategy. A potential biomarker of the stress response includes members of the stress-inducible ubiquitin gene family. Transcript sizes detected with Northern blot analysis identify different classes of ubiquitin gene family members and the intensity of the radioactive signal allows abundance determinations. Using moderate exercise as the stressor, significant increase (p < 0.028) in abundance of inducible polyubiquitin genes was found in human blood. Both the potential of exercise as a model system of a natural stress inducer and polyubiquitin as a biomarker of stress were established in these studies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9539026

  14. A transcription factor hierarchy defines an environmental stress response network.

    PubMed

    Song, Liang; Huang, Shao-Shan Carol; Wise, Aaron; Castanon, Rosa; Nery, Joseph R; Chen, Huaming; Watanabe, Marina; Thomas, Jerushah; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Ecker, Joseph R

    2016-11-04

    Environmental stresses are universally encountered by microbes, plants, and animals. Yet systematic studies of stress-responsive transcription factor (TF) networks in multicellular organisms have been limited. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) influences the expression of thousands of genes, allowing us to characterize complex stress-responsive regulatory networks. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, we identified genome-wide targets of 21 ABA-related TFs to construct a comprehensive regulatory network in Arabidopsis thaliana Determinants of dynamic TF binding and a hierarchy among TFs were defined, illuminating the relationship between differential gene expression patterns and ABA pathway feedback regulation. By extrapolating regulatory characteristics of observed canonical ABA pathway components, we identified a new family of transcriptional regulators modulating ABA and salt responsiveness and demonstrated their utility to modulate plant resilience to osmotic stress. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Qualitative Development of the PROMIS® Pediatric Stress Response Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, William; Pajer, Kathleen; Riley, Anne W.; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the qualitative development of the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Pediatric Stress Response item banks. Methods Stress response concepts were specified through a literature review and interviews with content experts, children, and parents. A library comprising 2,677 items derived from 71 instruments was developed. Items were classified into conceptual categories; new items were written and redundant items were removed. Items were then revised based on cognitive interviews (n = 39 children), readability analyses, and translatability reviews. Results 2 pediatric Stress Response sub-domains were identified: somatic experiences (43 items) and psychological experiences (64 items). Final item pools cover the full range of children’s stress experiences. Items are comprehensible among children aged ≥8 years and ready for translation. Conclusions Child- and parent-report versions of the item banks assess children’s somatic and psychological states when demands tax their adaptive capabilities. PMID:23124904

  16. Cell Wall Metabolism in Response to Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gall, Hyacinthe Le; Philippe, Florian; Domon, Jean-Marc; Gillet, Françoise; Pelloux, Jérôme; Rayon, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the responses of the plant cell wall to several abiotic stresses including drought, flooding, heat, cold, salt, heavy metals, light, and air pollutants. The effects of stress on cell wall metabolism are discussed at the physiological (morphogenic), transcriptomic, proteomic and biochemical levels. The analysis of a large set of data shows that the plant response is highly complex. The overall effects of most abiotic stress are often dependent on the plant species, the genotype, the age of the plant, the timing of the stress application, and the intensity of this stress. This shows the difficulty of identifying a common pattern of stress response in cell wall architecture that could enable adaptation and/or resistance to abiotic stress. However, in most cases, two main mechanisms can be highlighted: (i) an increased level in xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) and expansin proteins, associated with an increase in the degree of rhamnogalacturonan I branching that maintains cell wall plasticity and (ii) an increased cell wall thickening by reinforcement of the secondary wall with hemicellulose and lignin deposition. Taken together, these results show the need to undertake large-scale analyses, using multidisciplinary approaches, to unravel the consequences of stress on the cell wall. This will help identify the key components that could be targeted to improve biomass production under stress conditions. PMID:27135320

  17. Cell Wall Metabolism in Response to Abiotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Hyacinthe; Philippe, Florian; Domon, Jean-Marc; Gillet, Françoise; Pelloux, Jérôme; Rayon, Catherine

    2015-02-16

    This review focuses on the responses of the plant cell wall to several abiotic stresses including drought, flooding, heat, cold, salt, heavy metals, light, and air pollutants. The effects of stress on cell wall metabolism are discussed at the physiological (morphogenic), transcriptomic, proteomic and biochemical levels. The analysis of a large set of data shows that the plant response is highly complex. The overall effects of most abiotic stress are often dependent on the plant species, the genotype, the age of the plant, the timing of the stress application, and the intensity of this stress. This shows the difficulty of identifying a common pattern of stress response in cell wall architecture that could enable adaptation and/or resistance to abiotic stress. However, in most cases, two main mechanisms can be highlighted: (i) an increased level in xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) and expansin proteins, associated with an increase in the degree of rhamnogalacturonan I branching that maintains cell wall plasticity and (ii) an increased cell wall thickening by reinforcement of the secondary wall with hemicellulose and lignin deposition. Taken together, these results show the need to undertake large-scale analyses, using multidisciplinary approaches, to unravel the consequences of stress on the cell wall. This will help identify the key components that could be targeted to improve biomass production under stress conditions.

  18. Seismic stress responses of soybean to different photosynthetic photon flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. S.; Coe, L. L.; Montgomery, L.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1990-01-01

    Physical agitation applied as periodic seismic stress (shaking) reduced stem elongation, leaf expansion, and biomass accumulation by vegetative soybeans. Level of photon flux (PPF) influenced the type and extent of plant response to mechanical stress. Plant parts responded differently as PPF varied between 135 and 592 micromoles m-2 s-1. Stem length was significantly reduced by seismic stress at 135 micromoles m-2 s-1 but this effect was insignificant at higher PPFs. Reduced stem length resulted from an inhibition of internode elongation. Stem diameter was unaffected by stress at the PPFs tested. In contrast to effects on stem elongation, leaf area was insensitive to stress treatments at 135 micromoles m-2 s-1 but was progressively inhibited by stress as PPF increased. Statistically significant reductions in shoot f. wt and d. wt by seismic stress occurred only at 295 micromoles m-2 s-1. Root biomass accumulation was not affected by seismic stress at any PPF used in this study.

  19. Seismic stress responses of soybean to different photosynthetic photon flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. S.; Coe, L. L.; Montgomery, L.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1990-01-01

    Physical agitation applied as periodic seismic stress (shaking) reduced stem elongation, leaf expansion, and biomass accumulation by vegetative soybeans. Level of photon flux (PPF) influenced the type and extent of plant response to mechanical stress. Plant parts responded differently as PPF varied between 135 and 592 micromoles m-2 s-1. Stem length was significantly reduced by seismic stress at 135 micromoles m-2 s-1 but this effect was insignificant at higher PPFs. Reduced stem length resulted from an inhibition of internode elongation. Stem diameter was unaffected by stress at the PPFs tested. In contrast to effects on stem elongation, leaf area was insensitive to stress treatments at 135 micromoles m-2 s-1 but was progressively inhibited by stress as PPF increased. Statistically significant reductions in shoot f. wt and d. wt by seismic stress occurred only at 295 micromoles m-2 s-1. Root biomass accumulation was not affected by seismic stress at any PPF used in this study.

  20. Vascular mechanobiology: endothelial cell responses to fluid shear stress.

    PubMed

    Ando, Joji; Yamamoto, Kimiko

    2009-11-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) lining blood vessel walls respond to shear stress, a fluid mechanical force generated by flowing blood, and the EC responses play an important role in the homeostasis of the circulatory system. Abnormal EC responses to shear stress impair various vascular functions and lead to vascular diseases, including hypertension, thrombosis, and atherosclerosis. Bioengineering approaches in which cultured ECs are subjected to shear stress in fluid-dynamically designed flow-loading devices have been widely used to analyze EC responses at the cellular and molecular levels. Remarkable progress has been made, and the results have shown that ECs alter their morphology, function, and gene expression in response to shear stress. Shear stress affects immature cells, as well as mature ECs, and promotes differentiation of bone-marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells and embryonic stem cells into ECs. Much research has been done on shear stress sensing and signal transduction, and their molecular mechanisms are gradually coming to be understood. However, much remains uncertain, and many candidates have been proposed for shear stress sensors. More extensive studies of vascular mechanobiology should increase our understanding of the molecular basis of the blood-flow-mediated control of vascular functions.

  1. Dynamics of telomerase activity in response to acute psychological stress

    PubMed Central

    Epel, Elissa S.; Lin, Jue; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Puterman, E; Karan, Lori; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase activity plays an essential role in cel0l survival, by lengthening telomeres and promoting cell growth and longevity. It is now possible to quantify the low levels of telomerase activity in human leukocytes. Low basal telomerase activity has been related to chronic stress in people and to chronic glucocorticoid exposure in vitro. Here we test whether leukocyte telomerase activity changes under acute psychological stress. We exposed 44 elderly women, including 22 high stress dementia caregivers and 22 matched low stress controls, to a brief laboratory psychological stressor, while examining changes in telomerase activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). At baseline, caregivers had lower telomerase activity levels than controls, but during stress telomerase activity increased similarly in both groups. Across the entire sample, subsequent telomerase activity increased by 18% one hour after the end of the stressor (p<0.01). The increase in telomerase activity was independent of changes in numbers or percentages of monocytes, lymphocytes, and specific T cell types, although we cannot fully rule out some potential contribution from immune cell redistribution in the change in telomerase activity. Telomerase activity increases were associated with greater cortisol increases in response to the stressor. Lastly, psychological response to the tasks (greater threat perception) was also related to greater telomerase activity increases in controls. These findings uncover novel relationships of dynamic telomerase activity with exposure to an acute stressor, and with two classic aspects of the stress response -- perceived psychological stress and neuroendocrine (cortisol) responses to the stressor. PMID:20018236

  2. Stress reactivity and corticolimbic response to emotional faces in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Chaplin, Tara M; Wang, Fei; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C; Blumberg, Hilary P

    2012-03-01

    Adolescence is a critical period in the development of lifelong patterns of responding to stress. Understanding underpinnings of variations in stress reactivity in adolescents is important, as adolescents with altered stress reactivity are vulnerable to negative risk-taking behaviors including substance use, and have increased lifelong risk for psychopathology. Although both endocrinological and corticolimbic neural system mechanisms are implicated in the development of stress reactivity patterns, the roles of these systems and interactions between the systems in reactivity to social stimuli in adolescents are not clear. We investigated the relationship between cortisol response to a laboratory-based social stressor and regional brain responses to emotional face stimuli in adolescents. Changes in cortisol levels following the Trier Social Stress Test-Child version (TSST-C) were measured in 23 disadvantaged and chronically stressed adolescents who also participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging during processing of emotional faces and structural magnetic resonance imaging. The relationships between changes in cortisol following the TSST-C with regional brain activation during face processing, as well as with regional brain morphology, were assessed. Cortisol change on the TSST-C showed a significant inverse relationship with left hippocampus response to fearful faces (p < .05, corrected); significant associations with volume were not observed. Increased cortisol response to the Trier social stressor was associated with diminished response of the left hippocampus to faces depicting fear. This suggests that HPA-corticolimbic system mechanisms may underlie vulnerability to maladaptive responses to stress in adolescents that may contribute to development of stress-related disorders. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of early plant stress responses in hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behmann, Jan; Steinrücken, Jörg; Plümer, Lutz

    2014-07-01

    Early stress detection in crop plants is highly relevant, but hard to achieve. We hypothesize that close range hyperspectral imaging is able to uncover stress related processes non-destructively in the early stages which are invisible to the human eye. We propose an approach which combines unsupervised and supervised methods in order to identify several stages of progressive stress development from series of hyperspectral images. Stress of an entire plant is detected by stress response levels at pixel scale. The focus is on drought stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Unsupervised learning is used to separate hyperspectral signatures into clusters related to different stages of stress response and progressive senescence. Whereas all such signatures may be found in both, well watered and drought stressed plants, their respective distributions differ. Ordinal classification with Support Vector Machines (SVM) is used to quantify and visualize the distribution of progressive stages of senescence and to separate well watered from drought stressed plants. For each senescence stage a distinctive set of most relevant Vegetation Indices (VIs) is identified. The method has been applied on two experiments involving potted barley plants under well watered and drought stress conditions in a greenhouse. Drought stress is detected up to ten days earlier than using NDVI. Furthermore, it is shown that some VIs have overall relevance, while others are specific to particular senescence stages. The transferability of the method to the field is illustrated by an experiment on maize (Zea mays).

  4. Responses of cariogenic streptococci to environmental stresses.

    PubMed

    Lemos, José A C; Abranches, Jacqueline; Burne, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    To persist in the oral cavity, bacteria must be able to tolerate rapid and substantial environmental fluctuations, particularly in pH and nutrient source and availability. Various species of Streptococcus, one of the most abundant genera in the mouth, are associated with oral health, as well as with dental caries. Cariogenic streptococci depend on a biofilm lifestyle for survival and persistence in the oral cavity and have developed sophisticated mechanisms to cope with environmental stresses. Here, we analyze the primary factors that allow these bacteria to emerge as significant members of tooth biofilms during adverse conditions. Our focus is on the molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation, stress tolerance and sugar metabolism by pathogenic oral streptococci, mainly Streptococcus mutans. Overlaps in the roles and regulation of these virulence attributes are highlighted and areas of research that deserve further investigation are proposed.

  5. [Autoregulation of stress response in microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, Iu A; Muliukin, A L; Stepanenko, I Iu; El'-Registan, G I

    2006-01-01

    Examples are considered of the involvement of low-molecular-weight autoregulators in the development of resistance of proliferating microbial cultures to unfavorable environmental impacts of various intensity, including impacts programmed to occur in the developmental cycle ("new medium stress," starvation stress) and nonprogrammed impacts. It was shown that extracellular adaptation factors control the reversible adhesion of cells in submerged cultures and the processes of cell reactivation in the poststress period and are involved in the stabilization of cellular biopolymers (proteins and DNA) and subcellular structures (membranes); the adaptogens of the phenolic type also act as efficient scavengers of reactive oxygen species. The protective effect of the adaptogenic autoregulators is manifested in the increase of resistance of microbial cells to stressors of various nature and in the preservation of the cell proliferative capacity.

  6. Responses to Fiscal Stress: A Comparative Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    retrenchment choices resemble those of a specific sector or are affected by the type of fiscal stress in general . The former suggests our findings reveal...as strict budget objectives and are generally limited to key fiscal aggregates such as total revenues and expenditures and the balance between the...or simply a “government’s ability to generate enough cash or liquidity to pay its bills” (Groves et al., 1981, p. 6). Budget solvency reflects a

  7. Alcohol, aging, and the stress response.

    PubMed

    Spencer, R L; Hutchison, K E

    1999-01-01

    The body responds to stress through a hormone system called the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Stimulation of this system results in the secretion of stress hormones (i.e., glucocorticoids). Chronic excessive glucocorticoid secretion can have adverse health effects, such as Cushing's syndrome. Alcohol intoxication activates the HPA axis and results in elevated glucocorticoid levels. Ironically, elevated levels of these stress hormones may contribute to alcohol's pleasurable effects. With chronic alcohol consumption, however, tolerance may develop to alcohol's HPA axis-activating effects. Chronic alcohol consumption, as well as chronic glucocorticoid exposure, can result in premature and/or exaggerated aging. Furthermore, the aging process affects a person's sensitivity to alcohol and HPA axis function. Thus, a three-way interaction exists among alcohol consumption, HPA axis activity, and the aging process. The aging process may impair the HPA axis' ability to adapt to chronic alcohol exposure. Furthermore, HPA axis activation may contribute to the premature or exaggerated aging associated with chronic alcohol consumption.

  8. miRNA modulation of the cellular stress response.

    PubMed

    Babar, Imran A; Slack, Frank J; Weidhaas, Joanne B

    2008-04-01

    Cellular stress responses are potent and dynamic, allowing cells to effectively counteract diverse stresses. These pathways are crucial not only for maintaining normal cellular homeostasis, but also for protecting cells from what would otherwise lead to their demise. A novel class of genes, termed miRNAs, has recently been implicated in the cellular stress response. For example, it has been demonstrated that a cardiac-specific miRNA that is not required for normal development is requisite for a normal cardiac stress response in mice. In addition, we have found that a miRNA family is able to modulate the cellular response to cytotoxic cancer treatment both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we will discuss these and other important developments in the field. In particular, we will focus on studies that have linked miRNAs to the genotoxic stress response and will suggest how this connection may be both important for our understanding of biology and pertinent for the development of novel cancer therapies.

  9. Modulation of immune responses in stress by Yoga.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sarika; Bhattacharjee, Jayashree

    2008-07-01

    Stress is a constant factor in today's fastpaced life that can jeopardize our health if left unchecked. It is only in the last half century that the role of stress in every ailment from the common cold to AIDS has been emphasized, and the mechanisms involved in this process have been studied. Stress influences the immune response presumably through the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, hypothalamic pituitary-gonadal axis, and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system. Various neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, hormones, and cytokines mediate these complex bidirectional interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system. The effects of stress on the immune responses result in alterations in the number of immune cells and cytokine dysregulation. Various stress management strategies such as meditation, yoga, hypnosis, and muscle relaxation have been shown to reduce the psychological and physiological effects of stress in cancers and HIV infection. This review aims to discuss the effect of stress on the immune system and examine how relaxation techniques such as Yoga and meditation could regulate the cytokine levels and hence, the immune responses during stress.

  10. ROS Regulation During Abiotic Stress Responses in Crop Plants

    PubMed Central

    You, Jun; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, salt and heat cause reduction of plant growth and loss of crop yield worldwide. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anions (O2•-), hydroxyl radical (OH•) and singlet oxygen (1O2) are by-products of physiological metabolisms, and are precisely controlled by enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. ROS are significantly accumulated under abiotic stress conditions, which cause oxidative damage and eventually resulting in cell death. Recently, ROS have been also recognized as key players in the complex signaling network of plants stress responses. The involvement of ROS in signal transduction implies that there must be coordinated function of regulation networks to maintain ROS at non-toxic levels in a delicate balancing act between ROS production, involving ROS generating enzymes and the unavoidable production of ROS during basic cellular metabolism, and ROS-scavenging pathways. Increasing evidence showed that ROS play crucial roles in abiotic stress responses of crop plants for the activation of stress-response and defense pathways. More importantly, manipulating ROS levels provides an opportunity to enhance stress tolerances of crop plants under a variety of unfavorable environmental conditions. This review presents an overview of current knowledge about homeostasis regulation of ROS in crop plants. In particular, we summarize the essential proteins that are involved in abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants through ROS regulation. Finally, the challenges toward the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance through ROS regulation in crops are discussed. PMID:26697045

  11. ROS Regulation During Abiotic Stress Responses in Crop Plants.

    PubMed

    You, Jun; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, salt and heat cause reduction of plant growth and loss of crop yield worldwide. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anions (O2 (•-)), hydroxyl radical (OH•) and singlet oxygen ((1)O2) are by-products of physiological metabolisms, and are precisely controlled by enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. ROS are significantly accumulated under abiotic stress conditions, which cause oxidative damage and eventually resulting in cell death. Recently, ROS have been also recognized as key players in the complex signaling network of plants stress responses. The involvement of ROS in signal transduction implies that there must be coordinated function of regulation networks to maintain ROS at non-toxic levels in a delicate balancing act between ROS production, involving ROS generating enzymes and the unavoidable production of ROS during basic cellular metabolism, and ROS-scavenging pathways. Increasing evidence showed that ROS play crucial roles in abiotic stress responses of crop plants for the activation of stress-response and defense pathways. More importantly, manipulating ROS levels provides an opportunity to enhance stress tolerances of crop plants under a variety of unfavorable environmental conditions. This review presents an overview of current knowledge about homeostasis regulation of ROS in crop plants. In particular, we summarize the essential proteins that are involved in abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants through ROS regulation. Finally, the challenges toward the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance through ROS regulation in crops are discussed.

  12. The Link between Psychological Stress and Autoimmune Response in Children.

    PubMed

    Faresjö, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Stress is defined as a state of threatened homeostasis or disharmony that is counteracted by a complex repertoire of physiological and behavioral adaptive responses in order to establish homeostasis. Confronted with a stressful condition, the nervous and immune systems initiate a coping process to maintain homeostasis in the body. Psychological stress, recognized as a public health issue in children and young adults, may be one mechanism to induce and maintain autoimmunity in children. It is necessary to increase our understanding of how psychological stress can affect the immune system at a young age because autoimmune diseases, especially type 1 diabetes, are alarmingly common in children. Psychological stress may be involved in other autoimmune diseases, such as celiac disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis, that frequently occur in children as well. This review summarizes the studies attempting to evaluate the link between psychological stress and autoimmune response in children. A number of them have observed that the autoimmune disease itself causes psychological stress. We are far from fully understanding how long-term psychological stress is linked to autoimmune response in children with a high risk of, or already diagnosed, autoimmune disease.

  13. Modulation of immune responses in stress by Yoga

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Sarika; Bhattacharjee, Jayashree

    2008-01-01

    Stress is a constant factor in today's fastpaced life that can jeopardize our health if left unchecked. It is only in the last half century that the role of stress in every ailment from the common cold to AIDS has been emphasized, and the mechanisms involved in this process have been studied. Stress influences the immune response presumably through the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, hypothalamic pituitary-gonadal axis, and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system. Various neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, hormones, and cytokines mediate these complex bidirectional interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system. The effects of stress on the immune responses result in alterations in the number of immune cells and cytokine dysregulation. Various stress management strategies such as meditation, yoga, hypnosis, and muscle relaxation have been shown to reduce the psychological and physiological effects of stress in cancers and HIV infection. This review aims to discuss the effect of stress on the immune system and examine how relaxation techniques such as Yoga and meditation could regulate the cytokine levels and hence, the immune responses during stress. PMID:21829284

  14. Cis-element of the rice PDIL2-3 promoter is responsible for inducing the endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hideyuki; Wang, Shuyi; Hayashi, Shimpei; Wakasa, Yuhya; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2014-05-01

    A protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family oxidoreductase, PDIL2-3, is involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses in rice. We identified a critical cis-element required for induction of the ER stress response. The activation of PDIL2-3 in response to ER stress strongly depends on the IRE1-OsbZIP50 signaling pathway.

  15. Seasonal variation in the degu (Octodon degus) endocrine stress response.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Carolyn M; Hayes, Loren D; Ebensperger, Luis A; Romero, L Michael

    2014-02-01

    Many wild animals show seasonal variation in circulating levels of stress hormones. Seasonal changes in the stress response may help animals better cope with the different challenges faced during each life history stage. We determined the seasonal stress profile of wild, free-living degus in Chile. Female degus were sampled during non-breeding (January), mating/early gestation (July), late gestation (August), and lactation (1st litter-September, 2nd litter-January). Male degus were sampled during the first three time-points. We measured baseline cortisol (CORT), stress-induced CORT, and negative feedback efficacy using a dexamethasone suppression test. While we found that neither males nor females showed seasonal variation in baseline CORT or negative feedback levels, we did find significant seasonal variation in stress-induced CORT levels of both sexes. Male stress-induced CORT was lowest during mating while female stress-induced CORT was highest during late gestation and lactation. Overall, females had higher stress-induced CORT compared to males. Our data suggest that stress-induced levels of CORT are highest during periods with increased chance of stressor exposure or times of positive energy balance. Consequently, CORT responses to stress appear to be regulated according to different life history needs.

  16. Lipolysis Response to Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Adipose Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jingna; Liu, Shangxin; Zou, Liangqiang; Xu, Chong; Geng, Bin; Xu, Guoheng

    2012-01-01

    In obesity and diabetes, adipocytes show significant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which triggers a series of responses. This study aimed to investigate the lipolysis response to ER stress in rat adipocytes. Thapsigargin, tunicamycin, and brefeldin A, which induce ER stress through different pathways, efficiently activated a time-dependent lipolytic reaction. The lipolytic effect of ER stress occurred with elevated cAMP production and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. Inhibition of PKA reduced PKA phosphosubstrates and attenuated the lipolysis. Although both ERK1/2 and JNK are activated during ER stress, lipolysis is partially suppressed by inhibiting ERK1/2 but not JNK and p38 MAPK and PKC. Thus, ER stress induces lipolysis by activating cAMP/PKA and ERK1/2. In the downstream lipolytic cascade, phosphorylation of lipid droplet-associated protein perilipin was significantly promoted during ER stress but attenuated on PKA inhibition. Furthermore, ER stress stimuli did not alter the levels of hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase but caused Ser-563 and Ser-660 phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase and moderately elevated its translocation from the cytosol to lipid droplets. Accompanying these changes, total activity of cellular lipases was promoted to confer the lipolysis. These findings suggest a novel pathway of the lipolysis response to ER stress in adipocytes. This lipolytic activation may be an adaptive response that regulates energy homeostasis but with sustained ER stress challenge could contribute to lipotoxicity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance because of persistently accelerated free fatty acid efflux from adipocytes to the bloodstream and other tissues. PMID:22223650

  17. Endocrine stress responses and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Azaz; Madhu, S V; Sharma, S B; Desai, N G

    2015-08-13

    This study was carried to ascertain whether stress responses are associated with abnormalities in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and pancreatic beta cell function and risk of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Salivary cortisol, a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and salivary α-amylase, a marker of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) were compared in 125 subjects of newly detected diabetes mellitus (NDDM) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects who were diagnosed on the basis of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Assessment of stress in them was done through stress scales - presumptive stressful life events scale (PSLES), perceived stress scale (PSS) and sense of coherence (SOC) and correlated with these and other stress response markers. Significantly higher 10 pm salivary cortisol and post dexamethasone salivary cortisol were found in NDDM subjects as compared to NGT. 10 pm salivary cortisol correlated significantly with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h plasma glucose (2h PG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) while post dex salivary cortisol correlated with 2h PG, HbA1c and salivary α-amylase with 2h PG. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that body mass index (OR: 1.840), SOC (OR: 0.688) and 10 pm salivary cortisol (OR: 1.427) were the strongest predictors of NDDM. The results of the present study indicate that NDDM subjects display significantly higher chronic stress and stress responses when compared to subjects with NGT. Chronic stress and endocrine stress responses are significantly associated with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus.

  18. Endocrine stress responses and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Azaz; Madhu, S V; Sharma, S B; Desai, N G

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried to ascertain whether stress responses are associated with abnormalities in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and pancreatic beta cell function and risk of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Salivary cortisol, a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and salivary α-amylase, a marker of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) were compared in 125 subjects of newly detected diabetes mellitus (NDDM) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects who were diagnosed on the basis of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Assessment of stress in them was done through stress scales - presumptive stressful life events scale (PSLES), perceived stress scale (PSS) and sense of coherence (SOC) and correlated with these and other stress response markers. Significantly higher 10 pm salivary cortisol and post dexamethasone salivary cortisol were found in NDDM subjects as compared to NGT. 10 pm salivary cortisol correlated significantly with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h plasma glucose (2h PG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) while post dex salivary cortisol correlated with 2h PG, HbA1c and salivary α-amylase with 2h PG. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that body mass index (OR: 1.840), SOC (OR: 0.688) and 10 pm salivary cortisol (OR: 1.427) were the strongest predictors of NDDM. The results of the present study indicate that NDDM subjects display significantly higher chronic stress and stress responses when compared to subjects with NGT. Chronic stress and endocrine stress responses are significantly associated with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus.

  19. Keratins Are Altered in Intestinal Disease-Related Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Helenius, Terhi O.; Antman, Cecilia A.; Asghar, Muhammad Nadeem; Nyström, Joel H.; Toivola, Diana M.

    2016-01-01

    Keratin (K) intermediate filaments can be divided into type I/type II proteins, which form obligate heteropolymers. Epithelial cells express type I-type II keratin pairs, and K7, K8 (type II) and K18, K19 and K20 (type I) are the primary keratins found in the single-layered intestinal epithelium. Keratins are upregulated during stress in liver, pancreas, lung, kidney and skin, however, little is known about their dynamics in the intestinal stress response. Here, keratin mRNA, protein and phosphorylation levels were studied in response to murine colonic stresses modeling human conditions, and in colorectal cancer HT29 cells. Dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-colitis was used as a model for intestinal inflammatory stress, which elicited a strong upregulation and widened crypt distribution of K7 and K20. K8 levels were slightly downregulated in acute DSS, while stress-responsive K8 serine-74 phosphorylation (K8 pS74) was increased. By eliminating colonic microflora using antibiotics, K8 pS74 in proliferating cells was significantly increased, together with an upregulation of K8 and K19. In the aging mouse colon, most colonic keratins were upregulated. In vitro, K8, K19 and K8 pS74 levels were increased in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in HT29 cells. In conclusion, intestinal keratins are differentially and dynamically upregulated and post-translationally modified during stress and recovery. PMID:27626448

  20. Cellular stress response pathways and ageing: intricate molecular relationships.

    PubMed

    Kourtis, Nikos; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2011-05-17

    Ageing is driven by the inexorable and stochastic accumulation of damage in biomolecules vital for proper cellular function. Although this process is fundamentally haphazard and uncontrollable, senescent decline and ageing is broadly influenced by genetic and extrinsic factors. Numerous gene mutations and treatments have been shown to extend the lifespan of diverse organisms ranging from the unicellular Saccharomyces cerevisiae to primates. It is becoming increasingly apparent that most such interventions ultimately interface with cellular stress response mechanisms, suggesting that longevity is intimately related to the ability of the organism to effectively cope with both intrinsic and extrinsic stress. Here, we survey the molecular mechanisms that link ageing to main stress response pathways, and mediate age-related changes in the effectiveness of the response to stress. We also discuss how each pathway contributes to modulate the ageing process. A better understanding of the dynamics and reciprocal interplay between stress responses and ageing is critical for the development of novel therapeutic strategies that exploit endogenous stress combat pathways against age-associated pathologies.

  1. Cellular stress response mechanisms as therapeutic targets of ginsenosides.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hong-Yi; Li, Li; Ma, Hui

    2017-06-06

    Ginseng, one of the most widely used traditional herbal medicines and dietary supplements, has historically been recognized as a tonic herb and adaptogen that can enhance the body's tolerance to various adversities. Ginsenosides are a diverse group of steroidal saponins that comprise the major secondary metabolites of ginseng and are responsible for its multiple pharmacological effects. Emerging evidence suggests that hormetic phytochemicals produced by environmentally stressed plants can activate the moderate cellular stress response mechanisms at a subtoxic level in humans, which may enhance tolerance against severe dysfunction or disease. In this review, we initially describe the role of ginsenosides in the chemical defense of plants from the genus Panax suffering from biotic and abiotic stress. Next, we summarize the diverse evolutionarily conserved cellular stress response pathways regulated by ginsenosides and the subsequent stress tolerance against various dysfunctions or diseases. Finally, the structure-activity relationship involved in the effect of ginsenosides is also analyzed. The evidence presented in this review implicates that ginseng as "the King of all herbs" could be regarded as a well-characterized example of the critical role of cellular stress response mechanisms in understanding the health benefits provided by herbal medicines from an evolutionary and ecological perspective. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The response of Paracoccidioides spp. to nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    Parente, Ana F A; Naves, Priscila E C; Pigosso, Laurine L; Casaletti, Luciana; McEwen, Juan G; Parente-Rocha, Juliana A; Soares, Célia M A

    2015-08-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an endemic disease in Latin America caused by species belonging to the genus Paracoccidioides. During infection, immune cells present a variety of defense mechanisms against pathogens. One of these defensive strategies is the production and release of nitric oxide (NO) and S-nitroso thiols (e.g., S-nitrosoglutathione, GSNO), which produce reactive nitrogen species (RNS). This results in damage to DNA and membranes, inhibition of respiration and inactivation of cellular enzymes. In response to nitrosative stress, human pathogenic fungi possess defense mechanisms to prevent the adverse effects of NO, which helps them survive during initial contact with the host immune system. To understand how Paracoccidioides spp. respond to nitrosative stress, we conducted this study to identify genes and proteins that might contribute to this response. The results of proteomic analysis demonstrated that nitrosative stress induced a reduction in the expression of proteins related to the mitochondrial electron transport chain. This hypothesis was supported by the reduced mitochondrial activity observed in the presence of GSNO. Additionally, lipids and branched chain amino acid metabolism enzymes were altered. The role played by enzymes acting in oxidative stress in the RNS response was remarkable. This interface among enzymes acting in both stress responses was confirmed by using a RNA approach to silence the ccp gene in Paracoccidioides. It was observed that mutants with low expression of the ccp gene were more sensitive to nitrosative stress. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of d-amphetamine upon psychosocial stress responses.

    PubMed

    Childs, Emma; Bershad, Anya K; de Wit, Harriet

    2016-07-01

    Psychostimulant drugs alter the salience of stimuli in both laboratory animals and humans. In animals, stimulants increase rates of responding to conditioned incentive stimuli, and in humans, amphetamine increases positive ratings of emotional images. However, the effects of stimulants on real-life emotional events have not been studied in humans. In this study, we examined the effect of d-amphetamine on responses to acute psychosocial stress using a public speaking task. Healthy volunteers (N=56) participated in two experimental sessions, one with a psychosocial stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test) and one with a non-stressful control task. They were randomly assigned to receive d-amphetamine (5 mg n=18, 10 mg n=20) or placebo (n=18) on both sessions under double blind conditions. Salivary cortisol, subjective mood, and vital signs were measured at regular intervals during the session. Subjects also provided cognitive appraisals of the tasks before and after their performances. Amphetamine produced its expected mood and physiological effects, and the Trier Social Stress Test produced its expected effects on cortisol and mood. Although neither dose of amphetamine altered cardiovascular or hormonal responses to stress, amphetamine (10 mg) increased participants' pre-task appraisals of how challenging the task would be, and it increased post-task ratings of self-efficacy. Paradoxically, it also increased ratings of how stressful the task was, and prolonged aversive emotional responses. These findings suggest that amphetamine differentially affects stress response components: it may increase participants' appraisals of self-efficacy without dampening the direct emotional or physiological responses to the stress. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Recent Molecular Advances on Downstream Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Sávio Pinho; Lima, Aline Medeiros; de Souza, Cláudia Regina Batista

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as extremes of temperature and pH, high salinity and drought, comprise some of the major factors causing extensive losses to crop production worldwide. Understanding how plants respond and adapt at cellular and molecular levels to continuous environmental changes is a pre-requisite for the generation of resistant or tolerant plants to abiotic stresses. In this review we aimed to present the recent advances on mechanisms of downstream plant responses to abiotic stresses and the use of stress-related genes in the development of genetically engineered crops. PMID:22942725

  5. The Stress Response of Escherichia coli under Microgravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, S.; Matin, A.

    At the onset of adverse environmental conditions, bacteria induce a controlled stress response to enable survival. Escherichia coli induces stress-specific reactions in response to a variety of environmental strains. A family of proteins termed sigma (s) factors is pivotal to the regulation of stress responses in bacteria. In particular Sigma S (ss) regulates several stress responses in E. coli and serves as an important global stress regulatory protein. Under optimal growth conditions, levels of ss are maintained at low cellular concentrations primarily via a proteolytic regulatory mechanism. At the onset of stress, ss levels increase due to increased stability of the molecule, facilitating transcriptional initiation and up regulation of specific stress related proteins. Concentrations of ss can therefore be indicative of cellular stress levels. Recent work by Kendrick et al demonstrated that Salmonella species grown under conditions of simulated microgravity display increased virulence - a stress-related phenotype. Using E. coli as a model system we aim to investigate the stress response elicited by the organism under conditions of simulated microgravity (SMG). SMG is generated in specially constructed rotary cell culture systems termed HARVs (High Aspect Ratio Vessels- Synthecon Inc.). By rotating at constant velocity around a vertical axis an environment is produced in which the gravitational vectors are randomized over the surface of the cell, resulting in an overall-time-averaged gravitational vector of 10-2 x g (4). E. coli cultures grown in HARVs under conditions of normal gravity (NG) and SMG repeatedly display slower growth kinetics under SMG. Western analysis of cells at exponential and stationary phase of growth from both cultures reveal similar levels of ss exist in exponential phase under both SMG and NG conditions. However, during stationary phase, levels of ss are at least 2-fold higher under conditions of SMG as compared to NG. Translational fusion

  6. Heterogeneity of psychophysiological stress responses in fibromyalgia syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Thieme, Kati; Turk, Dennis C

    2006-01-01

    Dysregulated psychophysiological responses have been observed in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), although the results are inconsistent. Surface electromyographic (EMG), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate (HR), and skin conductance levels (SCLs) were continuously recorded at baseline, and during a series of stress and relaxation tasks in 90 FMS patients and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls (HCs). The patient sample demonstrated lower baseline EMG levels compared to the HCs on all tasks. In contrast, the patients displayed elevated HR and SCL (sympathetic vasomotor and sudomotor indices, respectively) during both stress tasks. A cluster analysis identified four psychophysiological response patterns: 63.3% of HCs showed increased muscle tension and stable cardiovascular responses; 34.8% of FMS patients showed a pattern of increased sympathetic vasomotor reactivity with stable sudomotor and reduced muscular response; 12.2% of FMS patients showed a pattern of increased sympathetic sudomotor reactivity connected with increased sympathetic vasomotor response and reduced muscular response; and, in contrast, 46.7% of FMS patients showed a pattern of parasympathetic vasomotor reactivity and reduced sudomotor as well as muscular response. The identification of low baseline muscle tension in FMS is discrepant with other chronic pain syndromes and suggests that unique psychophysiological features may be associated with FMS. The different psychophysiological response patterns within the patient sample support the heterogeneity of FMS. PMID:16356200

  7. Plant responsiveness to root–root communication of stress cues

    PubMed Central

    Falik, Omer; Mordoch, Yonat; Ben-Natan, Daniel; Vanunu, Miriam; Goldstein, Oron; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Phenotypic plasticity is based on the organism's ability to perceive, integrate and respond to multiple signals and cues informative of environmental opportunities and perils. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that plants are able to adapt to imminent threats by perceiving cues emitted from their damaged neighbours. Here, the hypothesis was tested that unstressed plants are able to perceive and respond to stress cues emitted from their drought- and osmotically stressed neighbours and to induce stress responses in additional unstressed plants. Methods Split-root Pisum sativum, Cynodon dactylon, Digitaria sanguinalis and Stenotaphrum secundatum plants were subjected to osmotic stress or drought while sharing one of their rooting volumes with an unstressed neighbour, which in turn shared its other rooting volume with additional unstressed neighbours. Following the kinetics of stomatal aperture allowed testing for stress responses in both the stressed plants and their unstressed neighbours. Key Results In both P. sativum plants and the three wild clonal grasses, infliction of osmotic stress or drought caused stomatal closure in both the stressed plants and in their unstressed neighbours. While both continuous osmotic stress and drought induced prolonged stomatal closure and limited acclimation in stressed plants, their unstressed neighbours habituated to the stress cues and opened their stomata 3–24 h after the beginning of stress induction. Conclusions The results demonstrate a novel type of plant communication, by which plants might be able to increase their readiness to probable future osmotic and drought stresses. Further work is underway to decipher the identity and mode of operation of the involved communication vectors and to assess the potential ecological costs and benefits of emitting and perceiving drought and osmotic stress cues under various ecological scenarios. PMID:22408186

  8. Lipid Biosynthesis Coordinates a Mitochondrial-to-Cytosolic Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Eui; Grant, Ana Rodrigues; Simic, Milos S; Kohnz, Rebecca A; Nomura, Daniel K; Durieux, Jenni; Riera, Celine E; Sanchez, Melissa; Kapernick, Erik; Wolff, Suzanne; Dillin, Andrew

    2016-09-08

    Defects in mitochondrial metabolism have been increasingly linked with age-onset protein-misfolding diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's. In response to protein-folding stress, compartment-specific unfolded protein responses (UPRs) within the ER, mitochondria, and cytosol work in parallel to ensure cellular protein homeostasis. While perturbation of individual compartments can make other compartments more susceptible to protein stress, the cellular conditions that trigger cross-communication between the individual UPRs remain poorly understood. We have uncovered a conserved, robust mechanism linking mitochondrial protein homeostasis and the cytosolic folding environment through changes in lipid homeostasis. Metabolic restructuring caused by mitochondrial stress or small-molecule activators trigger changes in gene expression coordinated uniquely by both the mitochondrial and cytosolic UPRs, protecting the cell from disease-associated proteins. Our data suggest an intricate and unique system of communication between UPRs in response to metabolic changes that could unveil new targets for diseases of protein misfolding.

  9. Adaptive Patterns of Stress Responsivity: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Del Giudice, Marco; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Ellis, Bruce J.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive calibration model (ACM) is an evolutionary–developmental theory of individual differences in stress responsivity. In this article, we tested some key predictions of the ACM in a middle childhood sample (N = 256). Measures of autonomic nervous system activity across the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches validated the 4-pattern taxonomy of the ACM via finite mixture modeling. Moreover, the 4 patterns of responsivity showed the predicted associations with family stress levels but no association with measures of ecological stress. Our hypotheses concerning sex differences in responsivity were only partly confirmed. This preliminary study provides initial support for the key predictions of the ACM and highlights some of the methodological challenges that will need to be considered in future research on this topic. PMID:22148947

  10. Hormonal contraception use alters stress responses and emotional memory.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Segal, Sabrina K; Worden, Ian V; Yim, Ilona S; Cahill, Larry

    2013-02-01

    Emotionally arousing material is typically better remembered than neutral material. Since norepinephrine and cortisol interact to modulate emotional memory, sex-related influences on stress responses may be related to sex differences in emotional memory. Two groups of healthy women - one naturally cycling (NC women, n=42) and one using hormonal contraceptives (HC women, n=36) - viewed emotionally arousing and neutral images. Immediately after, they were assigned to Cold Pressor Stress (CPS) or a control procedure. One week later, participants received a surprise free recall test. Saliva samples were collected and later assayed for salivary alpha-amylase (biomarker for norepinephrine) and cortisol. Compared to NC women, HC women exhibited significantly blunted stress hormone responses to the images and CPS. Recall of emotional images differed between HC and NC women depending on noradrenergic and cortisol responses. These findings may have important implications for understanding the neurobiology of emotional memory disorders, especially those that disproportionately affect women.

  11. The Effect of Music on the Human Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Myriam V.; La Marca, Roberto; Brönnimann, Rebecca; Finkel, Linda; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Music listening has been suggested to beneficially impact health via stress-reducing effects. However, the existing literature presents itself with a limited number of investigations and with discrepancies in reported findings that may result from methodological shortcomings (e.g. small sample size, no valid stressor). It was the aim of the current study to address this gap in knowledge and overcome previous shortcomings by thoroughly examining music effects across endocrine, autonomic, cognitive, and emotional domains of the human stress response. Methods Sixty healthy female volunteers (mean age = 25 years) were exposed to a standardized psychosocial stress test after having been randomly assigned to one of three different conditions prior to the stress test: 1) relaxing music (‘Miserere’, Allegri) (RM), 2) sound of rippling water (SW), and 3) rest without acoustic stimulation (R). Salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), subjective stress perception and anxiety were repeatedly assessed in all subjects. We hypothesized that listening to RM prior to the stress test, compared to SW or R would result in a decreased stress response across all measured parameters. Results The three conditions significantly differed regarding cortisol response (p = 0.025) to the stressor, with highest concentrations in the RM and lowest in the SW condition. After the stressor, sAA (p=0.026) baseline values were reached considerably faster in the RM group than in the R group. HR and psychological measures did not significantly differ between groups. Conclusion Our findings indicate that music listening impacted the psychobiological stress system. Listening to music prior to a standardized stressor predominantly affected the autonomic nervous system (in terms of a faster recovery), and to a lesser degree the endocrine and psychological stress response. These findings may help better understanding the

  12. The effect of music on the human stress response.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Myriam V; La Marca, Roberto; Brönnimann, Rebecca; Finkel, Linda; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M

    2013-01-01

    Music listening has been suggested to beneficially impact health via stress-reducing effects. However, the existing literature presents itself with a limited number of investigations and with discrepancies in reported findings that may result from methodological shortcomings (e.g. small sample size, no valid stressor). It was the aim of the current study to address this gap in knowledge and overcome previous shortcomings by thoroughly examining music effects across endocrine, autonomic, cognitive, and emotional domains of the human stress response. Sixty healthy female volunteers (mean age = 25 years) were exposed to a standardized psychosocial stress test after having been randomly assigned to one of three different conditions prior to the stress test: 1) relaxing music ('Miserere', Allegri) (RM), 2) sound of rippling water (SW), and 3) rest without acoustic stimulation (R). Salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), subjective stress perception and anxiety were repeatedly assessed in all subjects. We hypothesized that listening to RM prior to the stress test, compared to SW or R would result in a decreased stress response across all measured parameters. The three conditions significantly differed regarding cortisol response (p = 0.025) to the stressor, with highest concentrations in the RM and lowest in the SW condition. After the stressor, sAA (p=0.026) baseline values were reached considerably faster in the RM group than in the R group. HR and psychological measures did not significantly differ between groups. Our findings indicate that music listening impacted the psychobiological stress system. Listening to music prior to a standardized stressor predominantly affected the autonomic nervous system (in terms of a faster recovery), and to a lesser degree the endocrine and psychological stress response. These findings may help better understanding the beneficial effects of music on the human body.

  13. Systems responses to progressive water stress in durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Habash, Dimah Z; Baudo, Marcela; Hindle, Matthew; Powers, Stephen J; Defoin-Platel, Michael; Mitchell, Rowan; Saqi, Mansoor; Rawlings, Chris; Latiri, Kawther; Araus, Jose L; Abdulkader, Ahmad; Tuberosa, Roberto; Lawlor, David W; Nachit, Miloudi M

    2014-01-01

    Durum wheat is susceptible to terminal drought which can greatly decrease grain yield. Breeding to improve crop yield is hampered by inadequate knowledge of how the physiological and metabolic changes caused by drought are related to gene expression. To gain better insight into mechanisms defining resistance to water stress we studied the physiological and transcriptome responses of three durum breeding lines varying for yield stability under drought. Parents of a mapping population (Lahn x Cham1) and a recombinant inbred line (RIL2219) showed lowered flag leaf relative water content, water potential and photosynthesis when subjected to controlled water stress time transient experiments over a six-day period. RIL2219 lost less water and showed constitutively higher stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration, abscisic acid content and enhanced osmotic adjustment at equivalent leaf water compared to parents, thus defining a physiological strategy for high yield stability under water stress. Parallel analysis of the flag leaf transcriptome under stress uncovered global trends of early changes in regulatory pathways, reconfiguration of primary and secondary metabolism and lowered expression of transcripts in photosynthesis in all three lines. Differences in the number of genes, magnitude and profile of their expression response were also established amongst the lines with a high number belonging to regulatory pathways. In addition, we documented a large number of genes showing constitutive differences in leaf transcript expression between the genotypes at control non-stress conditions. Principal Coordinates Analysis uncovered a high level of structure in the transcriptome response to water stress in each wheat line suggesting genome-wide co-ordination of transcription. Utilising a systems-based approach of analysing the integrated wheat's response to water stress, in terms of biological robustness theory, the findings suggest that each durum line transcriptome

  14. Systems Responses to Progressive Water Stress in Durum Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Habash, Dimah Z.; Baudo, Marcela; Hindle, Matthew; Powers, Stephen J.; Defoin-Platel, Michael; Mitchell, Rowan; Saqi, Mansoor; Rawlings, Chris; Latiri, Kawther; Araus, Jose L.; Abdulkader, Ahmad; Tuberosa, Roberto; Lawlor, David W.; Nachit, Miloudi M.

    2014-01-01

    Durum wheat is susceptible to terminal drought which can greatly decrease grain yield. Breeding to improve crop yield is hampered by inadequate knowledge of how the physiological and metabolic changes caused by drought are related to gene expression. To gain better insight into mechanisms defining resistance to water stress we studied the physiological and transcriptome responses of three durum breeding lines varying for yield stability under drought. Parents of a mapping population (Lahn x Cham1) and a recombinant inbred line (RIL2219) showed lowered flag leaf relative water content, water potential and photosynthesis when subjected to controlled water stress time transient experiments over a six-day period. RIL2219 lost less water and showed constitutively higher stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration, abscisic acid content and enhanced osmotic adjustment at equivalent leaf water compared to parents, thus defining a physiological strategy for high yield stability under water stress. Parallel analysis of the flag leaf transcriptome under stress uncovered global trends of early changes in regulatory pathways, reconfiguration of primary and secondary metabolism and lowered expression of transcripts in photosynthesis in all three lines. Differences in the number of genes, magnitude and profile of their expression response were also established amongst the lines with a high number belonging to regulatory pathways. In addition, we documented a large number of genes showing constitutive differences in leaf transcript expression between the genotypes at control non-stress conditions. Principal Coordinates Analysis uncovered a high level of structure in the transcriptome response to water stress in each wheat line suggesting genome-wide co-ordination of transcription. Utilising a systems-based approach of analysing the integrated wheat’s response to water stress, in terms of biological robustness theory, the findings suggest that each durum line

  15. Ontogeny of the stress response in chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feist, G.; Schreck, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    Whole body concentrations of cortisol were determined via radioimmunoassay in chinook salmon, Onchorynchus tshawytscha, during early development in both stressed and non-stressed fish to determine when the corticosteroidogenic stress response first appeared. Progeny from both pooled and individual females were examined to determine if differences existed in offspring from different females. Levels of cortisol were low in eyed eggs, increased at hatch, decreased 2 weeks later and then remained constant thereafter. Differences in cortisol between stressed and control fish were found 1 week after hatch and persisted for the remainder of the study. The magnitude of the stress response, or relative amount of cortisol produced, generally increased from the time when it was first detected, but a decrease in the ability to elicit cortisol was seen 4 weeks after hatching. Cortisol content of separate progeny from two individual females showed a similar pattern to that seen in pooled eggs. Our results indicate that chinook salmon are capable of producing cortisol following a stressful event approximately 1 week after the time of hatching. The decrease in endogenous cortisol content seen 2 weeks after hatching, and the decrease in the magnitude of the stress response seen 4 weeks after hatching may be comparable to developmental events documented in mammals where corticosteroid synthesis is inhibited to neutralize possible detrimental effects of these hormones during critical periods of development.

  16. Targeting oxidative stress response by green tea polyphenols: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Yiannakopoulou, Eugenia Ch

    2013-09-01

    Green tea polyphenols, the most interesting constituent of green tea leaves, have been shown to have both pro-oxidant and antioxidant properties. Both pro-oxidant and antioxidant properties are expected to contribute to modulation of oxidative stress response under ideal optimal dosage regimens. Exposure to a low concentration of a pro-oxidant prior to exposure to oxidative stress induces the expression of genes that code for proteins that induce adaptation in a subsequent oxidative stress. On the other hand, exposure to an antioxidant concurrently with exposure to the oxidative stress affords protection through free radical scavenging or through other indirect antioxidant mechanisms. In any case, the optimal conditions that afford protection from oxidative stress should be defined for any substance with redox properties. Green tea polyphenols, being naturally occurring substances, seem to be an ideal option for the modulation of oxidative stress response. This paper reviews available data on the pro-oxidant and antioxidant properties of green tea polyphenols focusing on their potential on the modulation of oxidative stress response.

  17. Molecular and biochemical responses of Volvox carteri to oxidative stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingappa, U.; Rankin-Gee, E. K.; Lera, M.; Bebour, B.; Marcu, O.

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the intracellular response to environmental stresses is a key aspect to understanding the limits of habitability for life as we know it. A wide range of relevant stressors, from heat shock to radiation, result in the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are used physiologically as signaling molecules to cause changes in gene expression and metabolism. However, ROS, including superoxide (O2-) and peroxides, are also highly reactive molecules that cause oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA. Here we studied stress response in the multicellular, eukaryotic green alga Volvox carteri, after exposure to heat shock conditions. We show that the ROS response to heat stress is paralleled by changes in photosynthetic metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression, and fluctuations in the elemental composition of cells. Metabolism, as measured by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry over two hours of heat stress, showed a linear decrease in the photosynthetic efficiency of Volvox. ROS quantification uncovered an increase in ROS in the culture medium, paralleled by a decrease in ROS within the Volvox colonies, suggesting an export mechanism is utilized to mitigate stress. Enzyme kinetics indicated an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity over the heat stress timecourse. Using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, we show that these changes coincide with cell-specific import/export and intracellular redistribution of transition elements and halides, suggesting that the cellular metallome is also engaged in mediating oxidative stress in Volvox.

  18. Thigmomorphogenetic responses of an aquatic macrophyte to hydrodynamic stress.

    PubMed

    Schoelynck, Jonas; Puijalon, Sara; Meire, Patrick; Struyf, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The response of aquatic plants to abiotic factors is a crucial study topic, because the diversity of aquatic vegetation is strongly related to specific adaptations to a variety of environments. This biodiversity ensures resilience of aquatic communities to new and changing ecological conditions. In running water, hydrodynamic disturbance is one of the key factors in this context. While plant adaptations to resource stress (nutrients, light…) are well documented, adaptations to mechanical stress, particularly flow, are largely unknown. The submerged species Egeria densa was used in an experiment to detect whether the presence or absence of hydrodynamic stress causes plant thigmomorphogenetic responses (i) in terms of plant biogenic silica (BSi), cellulose and lignin concentrations, and (ii) in terms of plant strength. Plant silica concentrations, as well as lignin concentrations were significantly higher in presence of hydrodynamic stress. These physiological changes are accompanied by some significant changes in stem biomechanical traits: stem resistance to tensile forces (breaking force and breaking strength) and stiffness were higher for plants exposed to hydrodynamic stress. We conclude that the response of this aquatic plant species to mechanical stress is likely the explaining factor for a higher capacity to tolerate stress through the production of mechanically hardened shoots.

  19. Role of chromatin in water stress responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Han, Soon-Ki; Wagner, Doris

    2014-06-01

    As sessile organisms, plants are exposed to environmental stresses throughout their life. They have developed survival strategies such as developmental and morphological adaptations, as well as physiological responses, to protect themselves from adverse environments. In addition, stress sensing triggers large-scale transcriptional reprogramming directed at minimizing the deleterious effect of water stress on plant cells. Here, we review recent findings that reveal a role of chromatin in water stress responses. In addition, we discuss data in support of the idea that chromatin remodelling and modifying enzymes may be direct targets of stress signalling pathways. Modulation of chromatin regulator activity by these signaling pathways may be critical in minimizing potential trade-offs between growth and stress responses. Alterations in the chromatin organization and/or in the activity of chromatin remodelling and modifying enzymes may furthermore contribute to stress memory. Mechanistic insight into these phenomena derived from studies in model plant systems should allow future engineering of broadly drought-tolerant crop plants that do not incur unnecessary losses in yield or growth. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Thigmomorphogenetic responses of an aquatic macrophyte to hydrodynamic stress

    PubMed Central

    Schoelynck, Jonas; Puijalon, Sara; Meire, Patrick; Struyf, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The response of aquatic plants to abiotic factors is a crucial study topic, because the diversity of aquatic vegetation is strongly related to specific adaptations to a variety of environments. This biodiversity ensures resilience of aquatic communities to new and changing ecological conditions. In running water, hydrodynamic disturbance is one of the key factors in this context. While plant adaptations to resource stress (nutrients, light…) are well documented, adaptations to mechanical stress, particularly flow, are largely unknown. The submerged species Egeria densa was used in an experiment to detect whether the presence or absence of hydrodynamic stress causes plant thigmomorphogenetic responses (i) in terms of plant biogenic silica (BSi), cellulose and lignin concentrations, and (ii) in terms of plant strength. Plant silica concentrations, as well as lignin concentrations were significantly higher in presence of hydrodynamic stress. These physiological changes are accompanied by some significant changes in stem biomechanical traits: stem resistance to tensile forces (breaking force and breaking strength) and stiffness were higher for plants exposed to hydrodynamic stress. We conclude that the response of this aquatic plant species to mechanical stress is likely the explaining factor for a higher capacity to tolerate stress through the production of mechanically hardened shoots. PMID:25699070

  1. Immune and stress responses in oysters with insights on adaptation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ximing; He, Yan; Zhang, Linlin; Lelong, Christophe; Jouaux, Aude

    2015-09-01

    Oysters are representative bivalve molluscs that are widely distributed in world oceans. As successful colonizers of estuaries and intertidal zones, oysters are remarkably resilient against harsh environmental conditions including wide fluctuations in temperature and salinity as well as prolonged air exposure. Oysters have no adaptive immunity but can thrive in microbe-rich estuaries as filter-feeders. These unique adaptations make oysters interesting models to study the evolution of host-defense systems. Recent advances in genomic studies including sequencing of the oyster genome have provided insights into oyster's immune and stress responses underlying their amazing resilience. Studies show that the oyster genomes are highly polymorphic and complex, which may be key to their resilience. The oyster genome has a large gene repertoire that is enriched for immune and stress response genes. Thousands of genes are involved in oyster's immune and stress responses, through complex interactions, with many gene families expanded showing high sequence, structural and functional diversity. The high diversity of immune receptors and effectors may provide oysters with enhanced specificity in immune recognition and response to cope with diverse pathogens in the absence of adaptive immunity. Some members of expanded immune gene families have diverged to function at different temperatures and salinities or assumed new roles in abiotic stress response. Most canonical innate immunity pathways are conserved in oysters and supported by a large number of diverse and often novel genes. The great diversity in immune and stress response genes exhibited by expanded gene families as well as high sequence and structural polymorphisms may be central to oyster's adaptation to highly stressful and widely changing environments.

  2. Glycerol stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Cellular responses and evolved adaptations.

    PubMed

    Mattenberger, Florian; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Hallsworth, John E; Fares, Mario A

    2017-03-01

    Glycerol synthesis is key to central metabolism and stress biology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yet the cellular adjustments needed to respond and adapt to glycerol stress are little understood. Here, we determined impacts of acute and chronic exposures to glycerol stress in S. cerevisiae. Glycerol stress can result from an increase of glycerol concentration in the medium due to the S. cerevisiae fermenting activity or other metabolic activities. Acute glycerol-stress led to a 50% decline in growth rate and altered transcription of more than 40% of genes. The increased genetic diversity in S. cerevisiae population, which had evolved in the standard nutrient medium for hundreds of generations, led to an increase in growth rate and altered transcriptome when such population was transferred to stressful media containing a high concentration of glycerol; 0.41 M (0.990 water activity). Evolution of S. cerevisiae populations during a 10-day period in the glycerol-containing medium led to transcriptome changes and readjustments to improve control of glycerol flux across the membrane, regulation of cell cycle, and more robust stress response; and a remarkable increase of growth rate under glycerol stress. Most of the observed regulatory changes arose in duplicated genes. These findings elucidate the physiological mechanisms, which underlie glycerol-stress response, and longer-term adaptations, in S. cerevisiae; they also have implications for enigmatic aspects of the ecology of this otherwise well-characterized yeast.

  3. Cohesive social behaviour shortens the stress response: the effects of conspecifics on the stress response in lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens.

    PubMed

    Allen, P J; Barth, C C; Peake, S J; Abrahams, M V; Anderson, W G

    2009-01-01

    An examination was made of whether social interactions can have a beneficial effect through the attenuation of the stress response in a social species. In the first experiment, one larger (mean +/-s.e. 194.0 +/- 12.5 g) and seven smaller (32.0 +/- 2.6 g) juvenile lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens were placed in tanks to determine whether a classic dominance effect would be established based on body size (n = 6). Large fish did not establish a territory or aggressively interact with smaller fish, as there were no significant differences in nearest-neighbour distances and an absence of aggressive behaviour (biting, chasing and pushing). In the second experiment, it was hypothesized that the presence of conspecifics would have a beneficial effect through an attenuation of the stress response. Fish in groups or isolation were stressed by a brief aerial exposure (30 s), and blood plasma was measured at regular time intervals (0, 20, 40, 60, 120 and 240 min) following the stressor via an implanted cannula (n = 9-11). The presence of conspecifics did not affect the peak cortisol response, however, the overall cortisol response was shorter in duration compared to fish in isolation. Furthermore, secondary stress variables (plasma ions and glucose) showed differences between fish in groups and isolation. The results of these experiments suggest that social interaction plays an important and beneficial role in regulating the stress response in cohesive social species such as A. fulvescens.

  4. Dysregulation of the stress response in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Priftis, K N; Papadimitriou, A; Nicolaidou, P; Chrousos, G P

    2009-01-01

    The stress system co-ordinates the adaptive responses of the organism to stressors of any kind. Inappropriate responsiveness may account for increased susceptibility to a variety of disorders, including asthma. Accumulated evidence from animal models suggests that exogenously applied stress enhances airway reactivity and increases allergen-induced airway inflammation. This is in agreement with the clinical observation that stressful life events increase the risk of a new asthma attack. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by specific cytokines increases the release of cortisol, which in turn feeds back and suppresses the immune reaction. Data from animal models suggest that inability to increase glucocorticoid production in response to stress is associated with increased airway inflammation with mechanical dysfunction of the lungs. Recently, a growing body of evidence shows that asthmatic subjects who are not treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are likely to have an attenuated activity and/or responsiveness of their HPA axis. In line with this concept, most asthmatic children demonstrate improved HPA axis responsiveness on conventional doses of ICS, as their airway inflammation subsides. Few patients may experience further deterioration of adrenal function, a phenomenon which may be genetically determined.

  5. Stress response of brown pelican nestlings to ectoparasite infestation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggert, L.M.F.; Jodice, P.G.R.; O'Reilly, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of corticosterone has become a useful tool for assessing the response of individuals to ecological stressors of interest. Enhanced corticosterone levels can promote survival of stressful events; however, in situations where a stressor persists and corticosterone levels remain elevated, the adrenocortical response can be detrimental. A potential ecological stressor for wild birds is parasitism by ectoparasites. We studied the stress response of 11-23-day-old brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) nestlings by measuring plasma corticosterone levels in relation to the presence of the soft tick Carios capensis at two colonies in South Carolina in 2005. We expected to see higher baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone for parasitized chicks compared to those nestlings with no ticks. Although nestlings mounted a response to capture stress, tick category was not associated with corticosterone levels at either colony. Our results appear to contrast those of previous studies and indicate that the adrenocortical response of the host is likely dependent on the type of ectoparasite and the degree of infestation. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  6. Oxidative stress response pathways: Fission yeast as archetype.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Manos A; Workman, Christopher T

    2015-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a popular model eukaryotic organism to study diverse aspects of mammalian biology, including responses to cellular stress triggered by redox imbalances within its compartments. The review considers the current knowledge on the signaling pathways that govern the transcriptional response of fission yeast cells to elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide. Particular attention is paid to the mechanisms that yeast cells employ to promote cell survival in conditions of intermediate and acute oxidative stress. The role of the Sty1/Spc1/Phh1 mitogen-activated protein kinase in regulating gene expression at multiple levels is discussed in detail.

  7. Epidemic spreading on networks based on stress response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nian, Fuzhong; Yao, Shuanglong

    2017-06-01

    Based on the stress responses of individuals, the susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model was improved on the small-world networks and BA scale-free networks and the simulations were implemented and analyzed. Results indicate that the behaviors of individual’s stress responses could induce the epidemic spreading resistance and adaptation at the network level. This phenomenon showed that networks were learning how to adapt to the disease and the evolution process could improve their immunization to future infectious diseases and would effectively prevent the spreading of infectious diseases.

  8. Maternal stress and fetal responses: evolutionary perspectives on preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Pike, Ivy L

    2005-01-01

    New epidemiological and neurohormonal evidence provides insights into the persistent public health issue of preterm delivery and its long-term health consequences for the newborn. Mechanisms linked to preterm delivery may originate early in gestation as a result of maternal cues signaling a stressful intrauterine environment. When these signals are present, the fetus responds with a series of facultative responses, including accelerated organ maturation. If these responses are unsuccessful and the environment remains insufficient, a series of feed-forward mechanisms initiate the hormonal cascade that leads to parturition, and thus, early expulsion from a stressful environment. The internal environmental cues are delivered via glucocorticoids (stress hormones) in the circulatory system, but fetal responses and the initiation of the final terminal pathway to parturition are regulated by placentally derived corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). The potential costs of early expulsion from a stressful intrauterine environment are high and include an increased likelihood of perinatal and infant mortality. Permanent alterations in organ and metabolic functioning may occur, suggesting considerable fitness trade-offs. There is some evidence that preterm parturition is a maternal adaptation to limit the energetic costs of individual pregnancies in the face of poor condition at the time of conception. Moreover, nutritional stress is not the only indicator that signals a stressful environment: maternal psychosocial stress, and thus her response to an assessment of the social environment, also signal an insufficient internal environment to the fetus. The epidemiological and neurohormonal evidence for these relationships and mechanisms responsible for regulating such delicate negotiations are explored. In turn, the implications of such findings are examined from life history and public health perspectives. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Paternal Experience and Stress Responses in California Mice (Peromyscus californicus)

    PubMed Central

    Bardi, Massimo; Franssen, Catherine L; Hampton, Joseph E; Shea, Eleanor A; Fanean, Amanda P; Lambert, Kelly G

    2011-01-01

    Paternal behavior greatly affects the survival, social development, and cognitive development of infants. Nevertheless, little research has been done to assess how paternal experience modifies the behavioral characteristics of fathers, including fear and stress responses to a novel environment. We investigated long-term behavioral and physiologic effects of parental experience in mice (Peromyscus californicus) and how this response activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (as measured by corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA] levels) and interacts with anxiety-related behaviors. Three groups of adult males were tested—fathers exposed to pups, virgins exposed to pups, and virgins never exposed to pups—in 2 environments designed to elicit anxiety response: an open field with a novel object placed in the center and a closed cage containing a sample of a component of fox feces. Behavioral responses were measured by using traditional methods (duration and frequency) and behavioral-chain sequences. Results indicated that paternal experience significantly modifies a male mouse's behavioral and physiologic responses to stress-provoking stimuli. Compared with inexperienced male mice, experienced male mice had a significant decrease in the occurrence of incomplete behavioral chains during the exposure to the novel object, an index of reduced stress. Further, even moderate pup exposure induced behavioral modifications in virgin male mice. These behavioral responses were correlated with changes in corticosterone and DHEA levels. Together, these data provide evidence that interactions between male mice and offspring may have mutually beneficial long-term behavioral and physiologic effects. PMID:21819678

  10. Thermodynamic Modeling and Analysis of Human Stress Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boregowda, S. C.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1999-01-01

    A novel approach based on the second law of thermodynamics is developed to investigate the psychophysiology and quantify human stress level. Two types of stresses (thermal and mental) are examined. A Unified Stress Response Theory (USRT) is developed under the new proposed field of study called Engineering Psychophysiology. The USRT is used to investigate both thermal and mental stresses from a holistic (human body as a whole) and thermodynamic viewpoint. The original concepts and definitions are established as postulates which form the basis for thermodynamic approach to quantify human stress level. An Objective Thermal Stress Index (OTSI) is developed by applying the second law of thermodynamics to the human thermal system to quantify thermal stress or dis- comfort in the human body. The human thermal model based on finite element method is implemented. It is utilized as a "Computational Environmental Chamber" to conduct series of simulations to examine the human thermal stress responses under different environmental conditions. An innovative hybrid technique is developed to analyze human thermal behavior based on series of human-environment interaction simulations. Continuous monitoring of thermal stress is demonstrated with the help of OTSI. It is well established that the human thermal system obeys the second law of thermodynamics. Further, the OTSI is validated against the experimental data. Regarding mental stress, an Objective Mental Stress Index (OMSI) is developed by applying the Maxwell relations of thermodynamics to the combined thermal and cardiovascular system in the human body. The OMSI is utilized to demonstrate the technique of monitoring mental stress continuously and is validated with the help of series of experimental studies. Although the OMSI indicates the level of mental stress, it provides a strong thermodynamic and mathematical relationship between activities of thermal and cardiovascular systems of the human body.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA Stress Primes the Antiviral Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    West, A. Phillip; Khoury-Hanold, William; Staron, Matthew; Tal, Michal C.; Pineda, Cristiana M.; Lang, Sabine M.; Bestwick, Megan; Duguay, Brett A.; Raimundo, Nuno; MacDuff, Donna A.; Kaech, Susan M.; Smiley, James R.; Means, Robert E.; Iwasaki, Akiko; Shadel, Gerald S.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is normally present at thousands of copies per cell and is packaged into several hundred higher-order structures termed nucleoids1. The abundant mtDNA-binding protein, transcription factor A mitochondrial (TFAM), regulates nucleoid architecture, abundance, and segregation2. Complete mtDNA depletion profoundly impairs oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), triggering calcium-dependent stress signaling and adaptive metabolic responses3. However, the cellular responses to mtDNA instability, a physiologically relevant stress observed in many human diseases and aging, remain ill-defined4. Here we show that moderate mtDNA stress elicited by TFAM deficiency engages cytosolic antiviral signaling to enhance the expression of a subset of interferon-stimulated genes (ISG). Mechanistically, we have found that aberrant mtDNA packaging promotes escape of mtDNA into the cytosol, where it engages the DNA sensor cGAS and promotes STING-IRF3-dependent signaling to elevate ISG expression, potentiate type I interferon responses, and confer broad viral resistance. Furthermore, we demonstrate that herpesviruses induce mtDNA stress, which potentiates antiviral signaling and type I interferon responses during infection. Our results further demonstrate that mitochondria are central participants in innate immunity, identify mtDNA stress as a cell-intrinsic trigger of antiviral signaling, and suggest that cellular monitoring of mtDNA homeostasis cooperates with canonical virus sensing mechanisms to fully license antiviral innate immunity. PMID:25642965

  12. Metabolic response to the stress of critical illness.

    PubMed

    Preiser, J-C; Ichai, C; Orban, J-C; Groeneveld, A B J

    2014-12-01

    The metabolic response to stress is part of the adaptive response to survive critical illness. Several mechanisms are well preserved during evolution, including the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, the release of pituitary hormones, a peripheral resistance to the effects of these and other anabolic factors, triggered to increase the provision of energy substrates to the vital tissues. The pathways of energy production are altered and alternative substrates are used as a result of the loss of control of energy substrate utilization by their availability. The clinical consequences of the metabolic response to stress include sequential changes in energy expenditure, stress hyperglycaemia, changes in body composition, and psychological and behavioural problems. The loss of muscle proteins and function is a major long-term consequence of stress metabolism. Specific therapeutic interventions, including hormone supplementation, enhanced protein intake, and early mobilization, are investigated. This review aims to summarize the pathophysiological mechanisms, the clinical consequences, and therapeutic implications of the metabolic response to stress. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to As (V) stress

    PubMed Central

    Abercrombie, Jason M; Halfhill, Matthew D; Ranjan, Priya; Rao, Murali R; Saxton, Arnold M; Yuan, Joshua S; Stewart, C Neal

    2008-01-01

    Background Arsenic is toxic to plants and a common environmental pollutant. There is a strong chemical similarity between arsenate [As (V)] and phosphate (Pi). Whole genome oligonucleotide microarrays were employed to investigate the transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to As (V) stress. Results Antioxidant-related genes (i.e. coding for superoxide dismutases and peroxidases) play prominent roles in response to arsenate. The microarray experiment revealed induction of chloroplast Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) (at2g28190), Cu/Zn SOD (at1g08830), as well as an SOD copper chaperone (at1g12520). On the other hand, Fe SODs were strongly repressed in response to As (V) stress. Non-parametric rank product statistics were used to detect differentially expressed genes. Arsenate stress resulted in the repression of numerous genes known to be induced by phosphate starvation. These observations were confirmed with qRT-PCR and SOD activity assays. Conclusion Microarray data suggest that As (V) induces genes involved in response to oxidative stress and represses transcription of genes induced by phosphate starvation. This study implicates As (V) as a phosphate mimic in the cell by repressing genes normally induced when available phosphate is scarce. Most importantly, these data reveal that arsenate stress affects the expression of several genes with little or unknown biological functions, thereby providing new putative gene targets for future research. PMID:18684332

  14. The behavioural effects of predator-induced stress responses in the cricket (Gryllus texensis): the upside of the stress response.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Shelley A; Kovalko, Ilya; Mosher, Brianna

    2013-12-15

    Predator-induced stress responses are thought to reduce an animal's risk of being eaten. Therefore, these stress responses should enhance anti-predator behaviour. We found that individual insects (the cricket Gryllus texensis) show reliable behavioural responses (i.e. behavioural types) in a plus-shaped maze. An individual's behaviour in the plus maze remained consistent for at least 1/2 of its adult life. However, after exposure to a model predator, both male and female crickets showed a reduced period of immobility and an increased amount of time spent under shelter compared with controls. These changes could be mimicked by injections of the insect stress neurohormone octopamine. These behavioural changes probably aid crickets in evading predators. Exposure to a model predator increased the ability of crickets to escape a live predator (a bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps). An injection of octopamine had the same effect, showing that stress hormones can reduce predation. Using crickets to study the fitness consequences of predator-induced stress responses will help integrate ecological and biomedical concepts of 'stress'.

  15. Metaplasticity of amygdalar responses to the stress hormone corticosterone

    PubMed Central

    Karst, Henk; Berger, Stefan; Erdmann, Gitta; Schütz, Günther; Joëls, Marian

    2010-01-01

    High levels of corticosteroids (as circulate after stress) quickly and reversibly enhance hippocampal glutamatergic transmission via nongenomic actions requiring mineralocorticoid receptors. Subsequently, the hormone slowly and long-lastingly normalizes hippocampal cell function, through nuclear glucocorticoid receptors. Here we describe a rapid mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent enhancement of glutamatergic transmission in basolateral amygdala neurons. Contrary to the hippocampus, this rapid enhancement is long-lasting, potentially allowing an extended window for encoding of emotional aspects during stressful events. Importantly, the long-lasting change in state of amygdala neurons greatly affects the responsiveness to subsequent surges of corticosterone, revealing a quick suppression of glutamatergic transmission, which requires the glucocorticoid receptor. Responses of basolateral amygdala neurons to the stress hormone corticosterone can thus switch from excitatory to inhibitory, depending on the recent stress history of the organism. PMID:20663957

  16. Proteomics Analysis of Alfalfa Response to Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weimin; Wei, Zhenwu; Qiao, Zhihong; Wu, Zinian; Cheng, Lixiang; Wang, Yuyang

    2013-01-01

    The proteome responses to heat stress have not been well understood. In this study, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Huaiyin) seedlings were exposed to 25°C (control) and 40°C (heat stress) in growth chambers, and leaves were collected at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment, respectively. The morphological, physiological and proteomic processes were negatively affected under heat stress. Proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and differentially expressed protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Totally, 81 differentially expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF. These proteins were categorized into nine classes: including metabolism, energy, protein synthesis, protein destination/storage, transporters, intracellular traffic, cell structure, signal transduction and disease/defence. Five proteins were further analyzed for mRNA levels. The results of the proteomics analyses provide a better understanding of the molecular basis of heat-stress responses in alfalfa. PMID:24324825

  17. Chronic Stress Decreases Cerebrovascular Responses During Rat Hindlimb Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sohee; Kang, Bok-Man; Shin, Min-Kyoo; Min, Jiwoong; Heo, Chaejeong; Lee, Yubu; Baeg, Eunha; Suh, Minah

    2015-01-01

    Repeated stress is one of the major risk factors for cerebrovascular disease, including stroke, and vascular dementia. However, the functional alterations in the cerebral hemodynamic response induced by chronic stress have not been clarified. Here, we investigated the in vivo cerebral hemodynamic changes and accompanying cellular and molecular changes in chronically stressed rats. After 3 weeks of restraint stress, the elicitation of stress was verified by behavioral despair in the forced swimming test and by physical indicators of stress. The evoked changes in the cerebral blood volume and pial artery responses following hindpaw electrical stimulation were measured using optical intrinsic signal imaging. We observed that, compared to the control group, animals under chronic restraint stress exhibited a decreased hemodynamic response, with a smaller pial arterial dilation in the somatosensory cortex during hindpaw electrical stimulation. The effect of chronic restraint stress on vasomodulator enzymes, including neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2), was assessed in the somatosensory cortex. Chronic restraint stress downregulated nNOS and HO-2 compared to the control group. In addition, we examined the subtypes of cells that can explain the environmental changes due to the decreased vasomodulators. The expression of parvalbumin in GABAergic interneurons and glutamate receptor-1 in neurons were decreased, whereas the microglial activation was increased. Our results suggest that the chronic stress-induced alterations in cerebral vascular function and the modulations of the cellular expression in the neuro-vasomodulatory system may be crucial contributing factors in the development of various vascular-induced conditions in the brain. PMID:26778944

  18. Plant Responses to Simultaneous Biotic and Abiotic Stress: Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ben Rejeb, Ines; Pastor, Victoria; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Plants are constantly confronted to both abiotic and biotic stresses that seriously reduce their productivity. Plant responses to these stresses are complex and involve numerous physiological, molecular, and cellular adaptations. Recent evidence shows that a combination of abiotic and biotic stress can have a positive effect on plant performance by reducing the susceptibility to biotic stress. Such an interaction between both types of stress points to a crosstalk between their respective signaling pathways. This crosstalk may be synergistic and/or antagonistic and include among others the involvement of phytohormones, transcription factors, kinase cascades, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In certain cases, such crosstalk can lead to a cross-tolerance and enhancement of a plant’s resistance against pathogens. This review aims at giving an insight into cross-tolerance between abiotic and biotic stress, focusing on the molecular level and regulatory pathways. PMID:27135514

  19. Plant Responses to Simultaneous Biotic and Abiotic Stress: Molecular Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Rejeb, Ines Ben; Pastor, Victoria; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte

    2014-10-15

    Plants are constantly confronted to both abiotic and biotic stresses that seriously reduce their productivity. Plant responses to these stresses are complex and involve numerous physiological, molecular, and cellular adaptations. Recent evidence shows that a combination of abiotic and biotic stress can have a positive effect on plant performance by reducing the susceptibility to biotic stress. Such an interaction between both types of stress points to a crosstalk between their respective signaling pathways. This crosstalk may be synergistic and/or antagonistic and include among others the involvement of phytohormones, transcription factors, kinase cascades, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In certain cases, such crosstalk can lead to a cross-tolerance and enhancement of a plant's resistance against pathogens. This review aims at giving an insight into cross-tolerance between abiotic and biotic stress, focusing on the molecular level and regulatory pathways.

  20. Anger responses to psychosocial stress predict heart rate and cortisol stress responses in men but not women

    PubMed Central

    Lupis, Sarah B.; Lerman, Michelle; Wolf, Jutta M.

    2014-01-01

    While previous research has suggested that anger and fear responses to stress are linked to distinct sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stress responses, little is known about how these emotions predict hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity. Further, earlier research primarily relied on retrospective self-report of emotion. The current study aimed at addressing both issues in male and female individuals by assessing the role of anger and fear in predicting heart rate and cortisol stress responses using both self-report and facial coding analysis to assess emotion responses. We exposed 32 healthy students (18 female; 19.6+/−1.7 yrs.) to an acute psychosocial stress paradigm (TSST) and measured heart rate and salivary cortisol levels throughout the protocol. Anger and fear before and after stress exposure was assessed by self-report, and video recordings of the TSST were assessed by a certified facial coder to determine emotion expression (FACS). Self-reported emotions and emotion expressions did not correlate (all p > .23). Increases in self-reported fear predicted blunted cortisol responses in men (β = 0.41, p = .04). Also for men, longer durations of anger expression predicted exaggerated cortisol responses (β = 0.67 p = .004), and more anger incidences predicted exaggerated cortisol and heart rate responses (β = 0.51, p = .033; β = 0.46, p = .066, resp.). Anger and fear did not predict SNS or HPA activity for females (all p > .23). The current differential self-report and facial coding findings support the use of multiple modes of emotion assessment. Particularly, FACS but not self-report revealed a robust anger-stress association that could have important downstream health effects for men. For women, future research may clarify the role of other emotions, such as self-conscious expressions of shame, for physiological stress responses. A better understanding of the emotion-stress link may contribute to behavioral interventions targeting health

  1. Endogenous nociceptin system involvement in stress responses and anxiety behavior.

    PubMed

    Fulford, Allison Jane

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms underpinning stress-related behavior and dysfunctional events leading to the expression of neuropsychiatric disorders remain incompletely understood. Novel candidates involved in the neuromodulation of stress, mediated both peripherally and centrally, provide opportunities for improved understanding of the neurobiological basis of stress disorders and may represent targets for novel therapeutic development. This chapter provides an overview of the mechanisms by which the opioid-related peptide, nociceptin, regulates the neuroendocrine stress response and stress-related behavior. In our research, we have employed nociceptin receptor antagonists to investigate endogenous nociceptin function in tonic control over stress-induced activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. Nociceptin demonstrates a wide range of functions, including modulation of psychological and inflammatory stress responses, modulation of neurotransmitter release, immune homeostasis, in addition to anxiety and cognitive behaviors. Greater appreciation of the complexity of limbic-hypothalamic neuronal networks, together with attention toward gender differences and the roles of steroid hormones, provides an opportunity for deeper understanding of the importance of the nociceptin system in the context of the neurobiology of stress and behavior. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mutation as a Stress Response and the Regulation of Evolvability

    PubMed Central

    Galhardo, Rodrigo S.; Hastings, P. J.; Rosenberg, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Our concept of a stable genome is evolving to one in which genomes are plastic and responsive to environmental changes. Growing evidence shows that a variety of environmental stresses induce genomic instability in bacteria, yeast, and human cancer cells, generating occasional fitter mutants and potentially accelerating adaptive evolution. The emerging molecular mechanisms of stress-induced mutagenesis vary but share telling common components that underscore two common themes. The first is the regulation of mutagenesis in time by cellular stress responses, which promote random mutations specifically when cells are poorly adapted to their environments, i.e., when they are stressed. A second theme is the possible restriction of random mutagenesis in genomic space, achieved via coupling of mutation-generating machinery to local events such as DNA-break repair or transcription. Such localization may minimize accumulation of deleterious mutations in the genomes of rare fitter mutants, and promote local concerted evolution. Although mutagenesis induced by stresses other than direct damage to DNA was previously controversial, evidence for the existence of various stress-induced mutagenesis programs is now overwhelming and widespread. Such mechanisms probably fuel evolution of microbial pathogenesis and antibiotic-resistance, and tumor progression and chemotherapy resistance, all of which occur under stress, driven by mutations. The emerging commonalities in stress-induced-mutation mechanisms provide hope for new therapeutic interventions for all of these processes. PMID:17917874

  3. Models and Methods to Investigate Acute Stress Responses in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Arsenault, Ryan; Napper, Scott; Griebel, Philip

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation within the livestock industry and throughout society that animal stress is an important issue that must be addressed. With implications for animal health, well-being, and productivity, minimizing animal stress through improved animal management procedures and/or selective breeding is becoming a priority. Effective management of stress, however, depends on the ability to identify and quantify the effects of various stressors and determine if individual or combined stressors have distinct biological effects. Furthermore, it is critical to determine the duration of stress-induced biological effects if we are to understand how stress alters animal production and disease susceptibility. Common stress models used to evaluate both psychological and physical stressors in cattle are reviewed. We identify some of the major gaps in our knowledge regarding responses to specific stressors and propose more integrated methodologies and approaches to measuring these responses. These approaches are based on an increased knowledge of both the metabolic and immune effects of stress. Finally, we speculate on how these findings may impact animal agriculture, as well as the potential application of large animal models to understanding human stress. PMID:26633525

  4. The ethanol stress response and ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Stanley, D; Bandara, A; Fraser, S; Chambers, P J; Stanley, G A

    2010-07-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is traditionally used for alcoholic beverage and bioethanol production; however, its performance during fermentation is compromised by the impact of ethanol accumulation on cell vitality. This article reviews studies into the molecular basis of the ethanol stress response and ethanol tolerance of S. cerevisiae; such knowledge can facilitate the development of genetic engineering strategies for improving cell performance during ethanol stress. Previous studies have used a variety of strains and conditions, which is problematic, because the impact of ethanol stress on gene expression is influenced by the environment. There is however some commonality in Gene Ontology categories affected by ethanol assault that suggests that the ethanol stress response of S. cerevisiae is compromised by constraints on energy production, leading to increased expression of genes associated with glycolysis and mitochondrial function, and decreased gene expression in energy-demanding growth-related processes. Studies using genome-wide screens suggest that the maintenance of vacuole function is important for ethanol tolerance, possibly because of the roles of this organelle in protein turnover and maintaining ion homoeostasis. Accumulation of Asr1 and Rat8 in the nucleus specifically during ethanol stress suggests S. cerevisiae has a specific response to ethanol stress although this supposition remains controversial.

  5. Endoplasmic reticulum stress response in yeast and humans

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haoxi; Ng, Benjamin S. H.; Thibault, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Stress pathways monitor intracellular systems and deploy a range of regulatory mechanisms in response to stress. One of the best-characterized pathways, the UPR (unfolded protein response), is an intracellular signal transduction pathway that monitors ER (endoplasmic reticulum) homoeostasis. Its activation is required to alleviate the effects of ER stress and is highly conserved from yeast to human. Although metazoans have three UPR outputs, yeast cells rely exclusively on the Ire1 (inositol-requiring enzyme-1) pathway, which is conserved in all Eukaryotes. In general, the UPR program activates hundreds of genes to alleviate ER stress but it can lead to apoptosis if the system fails to restore homoeostasis. In this review, we summarize the major advances in understanding the response to ER stress in Sc (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), Sp (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and humans. The contribution of solved protein structures to a better understanding of the UPR pathway is discussed. Finally, we cover the interplay of ER stress in the development of diseases. PMID:24909749

  6. Arterial stiffness and inflammatory response to psychophysiological stress.

    PubMed

    Ellins, Elizabeth; Halcox, Julian; Donald, Ann; Field, Bryony; Brydon, Lena; Deanfield, John; Steptoe, Andrew

    2008-08-01

    The processes through which psychological stress influences cardiovascular disease are poorly understood, but may involve activation of hemodynamic, neuroendocrine and inflammatory responses. We assessed the relationship between carotid arterial stiffness and inflammatory responses to acute psychophysiologic stress. Participants were 155 healthy men and women aged 55.3, SD 2.7 years. Blood samples for the assessment of plasma fibrinogen, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and interleukin (IL) 6 were drawn at baseline, immediately following standardized behavioral tasks, and 45 min later. Carotid artery stiffness was measured ultrasonically three years later, and blood pressure and heart rate responses were recorded. The tasks induced substantial increases in blood pressure and heart rate, together with increased fibrinogen, TNFalpha and IL-6 concentration. Carotid stiffness was positively associated with body mass, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and C-reactive protein, and inversely with high density lipoprotein and grade of employment. Baseline levels of inflammatory variables were not related to carotid artery stiffness. But carotid stiffness was greater in participants with larger fibrinogen (p=0.037) and TNFalpha (p=0.036) responses to psychophysiological stress. These effects were independent of age, gender, grade of employment, smoking, body mass, waist/hip ratio, systolic and diastolic pressure, high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and C-reactive protein. There were no associations between carotid stiffness and stress responses in IL-6, blood pressure, or heart rate. We conclude that individual differences in inflammatory responses to psychophysiological stress are independently related to structural changes in artery walls that reflect increased cardiovascular disease risk.

  7. Role of brain norepinephrine in the behavioral response to stress.

    PubMed

    Morilak, David A; Barrera, Gabe; Echevarria, David J; Garcia, April S; Hernandez, Angelica; Ma, Shuaike; Petre, Corina O

    2005-12-01

    The brain noradrenergic system is activated by acute stress. The post-synaptic effects of norepinephrine (NE), exerted at a cellular or neural circuit level, have been described as modulatory in nature, as NE facilitates responses evoked in target cells by both excitatory and inhibitory afferent input. Over the past few years, we have undertaken a series of studies to understand how these cellular modulatory effects of NE, elicited by acute stress, might translate into modulation of the behavioral-affective components of the whole-animal response to stress. Using microdialysis, we have demonstrated that acute immobilization stress activates NE release in a number of stress-related limbic forebrain target regions, such as the central and medial amygdala, lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial prefrontal cortex, and lateral septum. Using microinjections of adrenergic antagonist drugs directly into these regions, we have shown that this stress-induced release of NE facilitates a number of anxiety-like behavioral responses that are mediated in these regions, including stress-induced reduction of open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze, stress-induced reduction of social interaction behavior, and activation of defensive burying behavior by contact with an electrified probe. Dysregulation of the brain noradrenergic system may be a factor in determining vulnerability to stress-related pathology, or in the interaction of genetic vulnerability and environmental sensitization. Compared to outbred Sprague-Dawley rats, we have shown that the modulatory effect of NE is deficient in Wistar-Kyoto rats, which also exhibit attenuated behavioral reactivity to acute stress, as well as increased vulnerability to stress-induced gastric ulcers and exaggerated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis. Further, repeated exposure to mild intermittent cold stress resulted in a much greater sensitization of both the brain noradrenergic system and

  8. Stress and Bronchodilator Response in Children with Asthma.

    PubMed

    Brehm, John M; Ramratnam, Sima K; Tse, Sze Man; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Litonjua, Augusto A; Raby, Benjamin A; Boutaoui, Nadia; Han, Yueh-Ying; Chen, Wei; Forno, Erick; Marsland, Anna L; Nugent, Nicole R; Eng, Celeste; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Alvarez, María; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Spear, Melissa L; Martinez, Fernando D; Avila, Lydiana; Weiss, Scott T; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Ober, Carole; Nicolae, Dan L; Barnes, Kathleen C; Lemanske, Robert F; Strunk, Robert C; Liu, Andrew; London, Stephanie J; Gilliland, Frank; Sleiman, Patrick; March, Michael; Hakonarson, Hakon; Duan, Qing Ling; Kolls, Jay K; Fritz, Gregory K; Hu, Donglei; Fani, Negar; Stevens, Jennifer S; Almli, Lynn M; Burchard, Esteban G; Shin, Jaemin; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Ressler, Kerry; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-07-01

    Stress is associated with asthma morbidity in Puerto Ricans (PRs), who have reduced bronchodilator response (BDR). To examine whether stress and/or a gene regulating anxiety (ADCYAP1R1) is associated with BDR in PR and non-PR children with asthma. This was a cross-sectional study of stress and BDR (percent change in FEV1 after BD) in 234 PRs ages 9-14 years with asthma. We assessed child stress using the Checklist of Children's Distress Symptoms, and maternal stress using the Perceived Stress Scale. Replication analyses were conducted in two cohorts. Polymorphisms in ADCYAP1R1 were genotyped in our study and six replication studies. Multivariable models of stress and BDR were adjusted for age, sex, income, environmental tobacco smoke, and use of inhaled corticosteroids. High child stress was associated with reduced BDR in three cohorts. PR children who were highly stressed (upper quartile, Checklist of Children's Distress Symptoms) and whose mothers had high stress (upper quartile, Perceived Stress Scale) had a BDR that was 10.2% (95% confidence interval, 6.1-14.2%) lower than children who had neither high stress nor a highly stressed mother. A polymorphism in ADCYAP1R1 (rs34548976) was associated with reduced BDR. This single-nucleotide polymorphism is associated with reduced expression of the gene for the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) in CD4(+) lymphocytes of subjects with asthma, and it affects brain connectivity of the amygdala and the insula (a biomarker of anxiety). High child stress and an ADCYAP1R1 single-nucleotide polymorphism are associated with reduced BDR in children with asthma. This is likely caused by down-regulation of ADRB2 in highly stressed children.

  9. Stress and Bronchodilator Response in Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Brehm, John M.; Ramratnam, Sima K.; Tse, Sze Man; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Raby, Benjamin A.; Boutaoui, Nadia; Han, Yueh-Ying; Chen, Wei; Forno, Erick; Marsland, Anna L.; Nugent, Nicole R.; Eng, Celeste; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Alvarez, María; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Spear, Melissa L.; Martinez, Fernando D.; Avila, Lydiana; Weiss, Scott T.; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Ober, Carole; Nicolae, Dan L.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Strunk, Robert C.; Liu, Andrew; London, Stephanie J.; Gilliland, Frank; Sleiman, Patrick; March, Michael; Hakonarson, Hakon; Duan, Qing Ling; Kolls, Jay K.; Fritz, Gregory K.; Hu, Donglei; Fani, Negar; Stevens, Jennifer S.; Almli, Lynn M.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Shin, Jaemin; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Ressler, Kerry; Canino, Glorisa

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Stress is associated with asthma morbidity in Puerto Ricans (PRs), who have reduced bronchodilator response (BDR). Objectives: To examine whether stress and/or a gene regulating anxiety (ADCYAP1R1) is associated with BDR in PR and non-PR children with asthma. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of stress and BDR (percent change in FEV1 after BD) in 234 PRs ages 9–14 years with asthma. We assessed child stress using the Checklist of Children’s Distress Symptoms, and maternal stress using the Perceived Stress Scale. Replication analyses were conducted in two cohorts. Polymorphisms in ADCYAP1R1 were genotyped in our study and six replication studies. Multivariable models of stress and BDR were adjusted for age, sex, income, environmental tobacco smoke, and use of inhaled corticosteroids. Measurements and Main Results: High child stress was associated with reduced BDR in three cohorts. PR children who were highly stressed (upper quartile, Checklist of Children’s Distress Symptoms) and whose mothers had high stress (upper quartile, Perceived Stress Scale) had a BDR that was 10.2% (95% confidence interval, 6.1–14.2%) lower than children who had neither high stress nor a highly stressed mother. A polymorphism in ADCYAP1R1 (rs34548976) was associated with reduced BDR. This single-nucleotide polymorphism is associated with reduced expression of the gene for the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) in CD4+ lymphocytes of subjects with asthma, and it affects brain connectivity of the amygdala and the insula (a biomarker of anxiety). Conclusions: High child stress and an ADCYAP1R1 single-nucleotide polymorphism are associated with reduced BDR in children with asthma. This is likely caused by down-regulation of ADRB2 in highly stressed children. PMID:25918834

  10. Modulation of Ethylene Responses Affects Plant Salt-Stress Responses1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wan-Hong; Liu, Jun; He, Xin-Jian; Mu, Rui-Ling; Zhou, Hua-Lin; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2007-01-01

    Ethylene signaling plays important roles in multiple aspects of plant growth and development. Its functions in abiotic stress responses remain largely unknown. Here, we report that alteration of ethylene signaling affected plant salt-stress responses. A type II ethylene receptor homolog gene NTHK1 (Nicotiana tabacum histidine kinase 1) from tobacco (N. tabacum) conferred salt sensitivity in NTHK1-transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants as judged from the phenotypic change, the relative electrolyte leakage, and the relative root growth under salt stress. Ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid suppressed the salt-sensitive phenotype. Analysis of Arabidopsis ethylene receptor gain-of-function mutants further suggests that receptor function may lead to salt-sensitive responses. Mutation of EIN2, a central component in ethylene signaling, also results in salt sensitivity, suggesting that EIN2-mediated signaling is beneficial for plant salt tolerance. Overexpression of the NTHK1 gene or the receptor gain-of-function activated expression of salt-responsive genes AtERF4 and Cor6.6. In addition, the transgene NTHK1 mRNA was accumulated under salt stress, suggesting a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism. These findings imply that ethylene signaling may be required for plant salt tolerance. PMID:17189334

  11. How plants handle multiple stresses: hormonal interactions underlying responses to abiotic stress and insect herbivory.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duy; Rieu, Ivo; Mariani, Celestina; van Dam, Nicole M

    2016-08-01

    Adaptive plant responses to specific abiotic stresses or biotic agents are fine-tuned by a network of hormonal signaling cascades, including abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid. Moreover, hormonal cross-talk modulates plant responses to abiotic stresses and defenses against insect herbivores when they occur simultaneously. How such interactions affect plant responses under multiple stresses, however, is less understood, even though this may frequently occur in natural environments. Here, we review our current knowledge on how hormonal signaling regulates abiotic stress responses and defenses against insects, and discuss the few recent studies that attempted to dissect hormonal interactions occurring under simultaneous abiotic stress and herbivory. Based on this we hypothesize that drought stress enhances insect resistance due to synergistic interactions between JA and ABA signaling. Responses to flooding or waterlogging involve ethylene signaling, which likely reduces plant resistance to chewing herbivores due to its negative cross-talk with JA. However, the outcome of interactions between biotic and abiotic stress signaling is often plant and/or insect species-dependent and cannot simply be predicted based on general knowledge on the involvement of signaling pathways in single stress responses. More experimental data on non-model plant and insect species are needed to reveal general patterns and better understand the molecular mechanisms allowing plants to optimize their responses in complex environments.

  12. Relation between stress-precipitated seizures and the stress response in childhood epilepsy.

    PubMed

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; Pet, Milou A; Otte, Willem M; Hillegers, Manon H J; Joels, Marian; Braun, Kees P J

    2015-08-01

    The majority of patients with epilepsy report that seizures are sometimes triggered or provoked. Stress is the most frequently self-reported seizure-precipitant. The mechanisms underlying stress-sensitivity of seizures are currently unresolved. We hypothesized that stress-sensitivity of seizures relates to alteration of the stress response, which could affect neuronal excitability and hence trigger seizures. To study this, children with epilepsy between 6 and 17 years of age and healthy controls, with similar age, sex and intelligence, were exposed to a standardized acute psychosocial stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test for Children), during which salivary cortisol and sympathetic parameters were measured. Beforehand, the relation between stress and seizures in children with epilepsy was assessed by (i) a retrospective questionnaire; and (ii) a prospective 6-week diary on stress and seizure occurrence. Sixty-four children with epilepsy and 40 control subjects were included in the study. Of all children with epilepsy, 49% reported that seizures were precipitated by acute stress. Diary analysis showed a positive association between acute stress and seizures in 62% of children who experienced at least one seizure during the diary period. The acute social stress test was completed by 56 children with epilepsy and 37 control subjects. Children with sensitivity of seizures for acute stress, either determined by the questionnaire or by the prospective diary, showed a blunted cortisol response to stress compared with patients without acute stress-precipitated seizures and healthy controls (questionnaire-based F = 2.74, P = 0.018; diary-based F = 4.40, P = 0.007). No baseline differences in cortisol were observed, nor differences in sympathetic stress response. The relation between acute stress-sensitivity of seizures and the cortisol response to stress remained significant in multivariable analysis (β = -0.30, P = 0.03). Other variables associated with the acute stress

  13. The role of thyroid hormones in stress response of fish.

    PubMed

    Peter, M C Subhash

    2011-06-01

    Thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)), the principal thyroid hormones (THs) secreted from the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, produce a plethora of physiologic actions in fish. The diverse actions of THs in fishes are primarily due to the sensitivity of thyroid axis to many physical, chemical and biological factors of both intrinsic and extrinsic origins. The regulation of THs homeostasis becomes more complex due to extrathyroidal deiodination pathways by which the delivery of biologically active T(3) to target cells has been controlled. As primary stress hormones and the end products of hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) and brain-sympathetic-chromaffin (BSC) axes, cortisol and adrenaline exert its actions on its target tissues where it promote and integrate osmotic and metabolic competence. Despite possessing specific osmoregulatory and metabolic actions at cellular and whole-body levels, THs may fine-tune these processes in accordance with the actions of hormones like cortisol and adrenaline. Evidences are presented that THs can modify the pattern and magnitude of stress response in fishes as it modifies either its own actions or the actions of stress hormones. In addition, multiple lines of evidence indicate that hypothalamic and pituitary hormones of thyroid and interrenal axes can interact with each other which in turn may regulate THs/cortisol-mediated actions. Even though it is hard to define these interactions, the magnitude of stress response in fish has been shown to be modified by the changes in the status of THs, pointing to its functional relationship with endocrine stress axes particularly with the interrenal axis. The fine-tuned mechanism that operates in fish during stressor-challenge drives the THs to play both fundamental and modulator roles in stress response by controlling osmoregulation and metabolic regulation. A major role of THs in stress response is thus evident in fish.

  14. Biotechnological impact of stress response on wine yeast.

    PubMed

    Matallana, E; Aranda, A

    2017-02-01

    Wine yeast deals with many stress conditions during its biotechnological use. Biomass production and its dehydration produce major oxidative stress, while hyperosmotic shock, ethanol toxicity and starvation are relevant during grape juice fermentation. Most stress response mechanisms described in laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are useful for understanding the molecular machinery devoted to deal with harsh conditions during industrial wine yeast uses. However, the particularities of these strains themselves, and the media and conditions employed, need to be specifically looked at when studying protection mechanisms. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Exposure to stressful environments - Strategy of adaptive responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhi, Leon E.

    1991-01-01

    Stresses such as hypoxia, water lack, and heat exposure can produce strains in more than a single organ system, in turn stimulating the body to adapt in multiple ways. Nevertheless, a general strategy of the various adaptive responses emerges when the challenges are divided into three groups: (1) conditions that affect the supply of essential molecules, (2) stresses that prevent the body from regulating properly the output of waste products such as CO2 and heat, and (3) environments that disrupt body transport systems. Problems may arise when there is a conflict between two stresses requiring conflicting adaptive changes. An alternative to adaptation, creation of microenvironment, is often favored by the animal.

  16. Exposure to stressful environments - Strategy of adaptive responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhi, Leon E.

    1991-01-01

    Stresses such as hypoxia, water lack, and heat exposure can produce strains in more than a single organ system, in turn stimulating the body to adapt in multiple ways. Nevertheless, a general strategy of the various adaptive responses emerges when the challenges are divided into three groups: (1) conditions that affect the supply of essential molecules, (2) stresses that prevent the body from regulating properly the output of waste products such as CO2 and heat, and (3) environments that disrupt body transport systems. Problems may arise when there is a conflict between two stresses requiring conflicting adaptive changes. An alternative to adaptation, creation of microenvironment, is often favored by the animal.

  17. Proteomic responses of sea urchin embryos to stressful ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Adams, N L; Campanale, J P; Foltz, K R

    2012-11-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 290-400 nm) penetrates into seawater and can harm shallow-dwelling and planktonic marine organisms. Studies dating back to the 1930s revealed that echinoids, especially sea urchin embryos, are powerful models for deciphering the effects of UVR on embryonic development and how embryos defend themselves against UV-induced damage. In addition to providing a large number of synchronously developing embryos amenable to cellular, biochemical, molecular, and single-cell analyses, the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, also offers an annotated genome. Together, these aspects allow for the in-depth study of molecular and biochemical signatures of UVR stress. Here, we review the effects of UVR on embryonic development, focusing on the early-cleavage stages, and begin to integrate data regarding single-protein responses with comprehensive proteomic assessments. Proteomic studies reveal changes in levels of post-translational modifications to proteins that respond to UVR, and identify proteins that can then be interrogated as putative targets or components of stress-response pathways. These responsive proteins are distributed among systems upon which targeted studies can now begin to be mapped. Post-transcriptional and translational controls may provide early embryos with a rapid, fine-tuned response to stress during early stages, especially during pre-blastula stages that rely primarily on maternally derived defenses rather than on responses through zygotic gene transcription.

  18. Cortisol response to social stress in parentally bereaved youth.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Laura J; Stoyak, Samuel; Melhem, Nadine; Porta, Giovanna; Matthews, Karen A; Walker Payne, Monica; Brent, David A

    2013-02-15

    Parental bereavement is associated with increased risk for psychiatric illness and functional impairment in youth. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning may be one pathway through which bereaved children experience increased risk for poor outcomes. However, few studies have prospectively examined the association between parental bereavement and cortisol response while accounting for psychiatric disorders in both youth and their caregivers. One-hundred and eighty-one bereaved and nonbereaved offspring and their caregivers were assessed at multiple time points over a 5-year period after parental death. Offspring participated in an adaptation of the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST), and salivary cortisol samples were collected before and after exposure to social stressors. Mixed models for repeated measures were used to analyze the effects of bereavement status, psychiatric disorder in both offspring and caregiver, and demographic indices on trajectories of cortisol response. After controlling for demographic variables and offspring depression, bereaved offspring demonstrated significantly different trajectories of cortisol response compared with nonbereaved offspring, characterized by higher total cortisol output and an absence of cortisol reactivity to acute social stress. Within the bereaved group, offspring of parents who died by sudden natural death demonstrated significant cortisol reactivity to social stress compared with offspring whose parents died by suicide, who demonstrated more blunted trajectory of cortisol response. Parentally bereaved youth demonstrate higher cortisol output than nonbereaved youth but are less able to mount an acute response in the face of social stressors. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Severe Injury Is Associated With Insulin Resistance, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response, and Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.; Song, Juquan; Boehning, Darren; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Baker, Henry V.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We determined whether postburn hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress/unfolded protein response (UPR) activation leading to impaired insulin receptor signaling. Background Inflammation and cellular stress, hallmarks of severely burned and critically ill patients, have been causally linked to insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes via induction of ER stress and the UPR. Methods Twenty severely burned pediatric patients were compared with 36 nonburned children. Clinical markers, protein, and GeneChip analysis were used to identify transcriptional changes in ER stress and UPR and insulin resistance–related signaling cascades in peripheral blood leukocytes, fat, and muscle at admission and up to 466 days postburn. Results Burn-induced inflammatory and stress responses are accompanied by profound insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Genomic and protein analysis revealed that burn injury was associated with alterations in the signaling pathways that affect insulin resistance, ER/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, and cell growth/apoptosis up to 466 days postburn. Conclusion Burn-induced insulin resistance is associated with persistent ER/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress/UPR and subsequent suppressed insulin receptor signaling over a prolonged period of time. PMID:22241293

  20. Adaptive Patterns of Stress Responsivity: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Giudice, Marco; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Ellis, Bruce J.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2012-01-01

    The adaptive calibration model (ACM) is an evolutionary-developmental theory of individual differences in stress responsivity. In this article, we tested some key predictions of the ACM in a middle childhood sample (N = 256). Measures of autonomic nervous system activity across the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches validated the 4-pattern…

  1. Stimuli-responsive electrodes detect oxidative stress and liver injury.

    PubMed

    Aran, Kiana; Parades, Jacobo; Rafi, Mohammad; Yau, Jennifer F; Acharya, Abhinav P; Zibinsky, Mikhail; Liepmann, Dorian; Murthy, Niren

    2015-02-25

    A digital point-of-care biosensor for measuring reactive oxygen species is presented based on novel reactive oxygen species responsive polymer-based electrodes. The biosensor is able to detect a drug-induced liver injury by monitoring the oxidative stress in the blood.

  2. The insect capa neuropeptides impact desiccation and cold stress responses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Insects are so successful because of great resistance to environmental stress, yet little is known about how such responses may be mediated by the neuroendocrine system. Results: We provide evidence that the capability (capa) neuropeptide gene and peptide are critical mediators of desic...

  3. Adaptive Patterns of Stress Responsivity: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Giudice, Marco; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Ellis, Bruce J.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2012-01-01

    The adaptive calibration model (ACM) is an evolutionary-developmental theory of individual differences in stress responsivity. In this article, we tested some key predictions of the ACM in a middle childhood sample (N = 256). Measures of autonomic nervous system activity across the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches validated the 4-pattern…

  4. Genetic mapping of abiotic stress responses in sorghum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to rich genetic diversity for tolerance to various abiotic stress conditions, sorghum is an ideal system for genetic mapping and elucidation of genome regions that confer such response among cereal crops. Coupled with the development of DNA marker technologies and most recently the sequencing o...

  5. Intracellular granule formation in response to oxidative stress in Bifidobacterium.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yilei; Borowski, William J; Calhoon, Walter D

    2011-01-31

    Bacteria in the genus Bifidobacterium are commonly known as beneficial colonizers in the human gastrointestinal tract. We found that, when these anaerobic organisms were grown in culture media without the reducing agent, cysteine, they produced intensely stained intracellular granules reminiscent of polyphosphate granules (poly P) produced by other bacteria in response to certain environmental signals, such as starvation and oxidative stress. The addition of cysteine led to a significant reduction in granule formation in bifidobacteria. Specific microscopic staining showed that the intracellular granules in Bifidobacterium scardovii were consistent with the poly P granules. In addition, the expression of the putative polyphosphate kinase gene responsible for poly P synthesis showed a 16-fold increase in the granule-forming cultures of B. scardovii compared with the nongranule-forming cultures, suggesting a role of poly P production in the oxidative stress response. Furthermore, the granule-forming cells exhibited a higher acid tolerance and a higher degree of cell surface hydrophobicity than the nongranule-forming cells. Therefore, we propose that Bifidobacterium cells produce poly P as a part of the oxidative stress response, which in turn allows the cells to better tolerate other environmental stresses such as acidic pH and perhaps allows better host colonization in vivo. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Contrasting urban and rural heat stress responses to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E. M.; Oleson, K. W.; Lawrence, D. M.

    2012-02-01

    Hot temperatures in combination with high humidity cause human discomfort and may increase morbidity and mortality. A global climate model with an embedded urban model is used to explore the urban-rural contrast in the wet-bulb globe temperature, a heat stress index accounting for temperature and humidity. Wet-bulb globe temperatures are calculated at each model time step to resolve the heat stress diurnal cycle. The model simulates substantially higher heat stress in urban areas compared to neighbouring rural areas. Urban humidity deficit only weakly offsets the enhanced heat stress due to the large night-time urban heat island. The urban-rural contrast in heat stress is most pronounced at night and over mid-latitudes and subtropics. During heatwaves, the urban heat stress amplification is particularly pronounced. Heat stress strongly increases with doubled CO2 concentrations over both urban and rural surfaces. The tropics experience the greatest increase in number of high-heat-stress nights, despite a relatively weak ˜2°C warming. Given the lack of a distinct annual cycle and high relative humidity, the modest tropical warming leads to exceedance of the present-day record levels during more than half of the year in tropical regions, where adaptive capacity is often low. While the absolute urban and rural heat stress response to 2 × CO2 is similar, the occurrence of nights with extremely high heat stress increases more in cities than surrounding rural areas.

  7. Hypoxia inducible factors and the response to hypoxic stress

    PubMed Central

    Majmundar, Amar J.; Wong, Waihay J.; Simon, M. Celeste

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen (O2) is an essential nutrient that serves as a key substrate in cellular metabolism and bioenergetics. In a variety of physiological and pathological states, organisms encounter insufficient O2 availability, or hypoxia. In order to cope with this stress, evolutionarily conserved responses are engaged. In mammals, the primary transcriptional response to hypoxic stress is mediated by the Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). While canonically regulated by prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing enzymes (PHDs), the HIFα subunits are intricately responsive to numerous other factors including Factor Inhibiting HIF-1α (FIH1), sirtuins, and metabolites. These transcription factors function in normal tissue homeostasis and impinge on critical aspects of disease progression and recovery. Insights from basic HIF biology are being translated into pharmaceuticals targeting the HIF pathway. PMID:20965423

  8. Daphnia response to biotic stress is modified by PCBs.

    PubMed

    Bernatowicz, Piotr; Pijanowska, Joanna

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of xenobiotics (PCBs) on the responses of Daphnia to biotic factors such as the presence of a predator (fish kairomone) or filamentous cyanobacteria. Both behaviour (depth selection) and life history (body size at first reproduction and fecundity) were affected by these stressors. Though there was no direct effect of PCBs, their influence resulted in disruption of the "natural" reaction to the presence of fish or cyanobacteria, leading to inadequate responses of Daphnia to these biotic threats. Examined clones of Daphnia showed significant diversity in their reaction to these stress factors, which was greater than that between Daphnia clones exposed to different environmental conditions. PCB pollution may change the frequency of Daphnia clones in favour of those whose responses to biotic stress are similar in both the absence and presence of these toxic chemicals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of calcitriol on endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

    PubMed

    Haddur, Ela; Ozkaya, Ali Burak; Ak, Handan; Aydin, Hikmet Hakan

    2015-06-01

    Calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, is known for its anticancer properties including induction of apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis, and metastasis. Calcitriol also increases intracellular calcium triggering apoptosis in a calpain-dependent manner. Since the main storage unit for cellular calcium is endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and a decrease in ER calcium levels might induce ER stress associated cell death, we hypothesized that the cellular actions of calcitriol occur via ER stress. We have evaluated induction of ER stress by assessing BIP expression and XBP-1 splicing in breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A. Our results suggest that cytotoxic concentrations of calcitriol induce an ER stress related response indicated as increased BIP levels and XBP-1 splicing not only in breast cancer cells but also in mammary epithelial cell line. However, vehicle treatment also induced a similar response de-emphasizing the importance of such effect. Calcitriol also failed to activate calpains, further weakening the idea of ER stress as the main mechanism for apoptotic effects of calcitriol. Taken together our results suggest an association between ER stress and vitamin D signaling. However present data indicates that ER stress by itself is not sufficient to explain anticancer properties of calcitriol.

  10. Response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Abolghasemi, Abass; Bakhshian, Fereshteh; Narimani, Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder, clients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and normal individuals. This was a comparative study. The sample consisted of 40 clients with acute stress disorder, 40 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and 40 normal individuals from Mazandaran province selected through convenience sampling method. Data were collected using Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Stroop Color-Word Test, Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory, and the Impact of Event Scale. Results showed that individuals with acute stress disorder are less able to inhibit inappropriate responses and have more impaired cognitive appraisals compared to those with posttraumatic stress disorder. Moreover, results showed that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal explain 75% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and 38% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. The findings suggest that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal are two variables that influence the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder symptoms. Also, these results have important implications for pathology, prevention, and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder.

  11. Rethinking stress: the role of mindsets in determining the stress response.

    PubMed

    Crum, Alia J; Salovey, Peter; Achor, Shawn

    2013-04-01

    This article describes 3 studies that explore the role of mindsets in the context of stress. In Study 1, we present data supporting the reliability and validity of an 8-item instrument, the Stress Mindset Measure (SMM), designed to assess the extent to which an individual believes that the effects of stress are either enhancing or debilitating. In Study 2, we demonstrate that stress mindsets can be altered by watching short, multimedia film clips presenting factual information biased toward defining the nature of stress in 1 of 2 ways (stress-is-enhancing vs. stress-is-debilitating). In Study 3, we demonstrate the effect of stress mindset on physiological and behavioral outcomes, showing that a stress-is-enhancing mindset is associated with moderate cortisol reactivity and high desire for feedback under stress. Together, these 3 studies suggest that stress mindset is a distinct and meaningful variable in determining the stress response.

  12. Exposure to Stressful Environments: Strategy of Adaptive Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhi, Leon E.

    1991-01-01

    Any new natural environment may generate a number of stresses (such as hypoxia, water lack, and heat exposure), each of which can produce strains in more than a single organ system. Every strain may in turn stimulate the body to adapt in multiple ways. Nevertheless, a general strategy of the various adaptive responses emerges when the challenges are divided into three groups. The first category includes conditions that affect the supply of essential molecules, while the second is made up by those stresses that prevent the body from regulating properly the output of waste products, such as CO2 and heat. In both classes, there is a small number of responses, similar in principle, regardless of the specific situation. The third unit is created by environments that disrupt body transport systems. Problems may arise when there is a conflict between two stresses requiring conflicting adaptive changes. An alternative to adaptation, creation of micro-environment, is often favored by the animal.

  13. Enterovirus Control of Translation and RNA Granule Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Richard E

    2016-03-30

    Enteroviruses such as poliovirus (PV) and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) have evolved several parallel strategies to regulate cellular gene expression and stress responses to ensure efficient expression of the viral genome. Enteroviruses utilize their encoded proteinases to take over the cellular translation apparatus and direct ribosomes to viral mRNAs. In addition, viral proteinases are used to control and repress the two main types of cytoplasmic RNA granules, stress granules (SGs) and processing bodies (P-bodies, PBs), which are stress-responsive dynamic structures involved in repression of gene expression. This review discusses these processes and the current understanding of the underlying mechanisms with respect to enterovirus infections. In addition, the review discusses accumulating data suggesting linkage exists between RNA granule formation and innate immune sensing and activation.

  14. Mitophagy, mitochondrial dynamics and the general stress response in yeast.

    PubMed

    Müller, Matthias; Reichert, Andreas S

    2011-10-01

    Autophagy is a fundamental cellular process promoting survival under various environmental stress conditions. Selective types of autophagy have gained much interest recently as they are involved in specific quality control mechanisms removing, for example, aggregated proteins or dysfunctional mitochondria. This is considered to counteract the development of a number of neurodegenerative disorders and aging. Here we review the role of mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics in ensuring quality control of mitochondria. In particular, we provide possible explanations why mitophagy in yeast, in contrast with the situation in mammals, was found to be independent of mitochondrial fission. We further discuss recent findings linking these processes to nutrient sensing pathways and the general stress response in yeast. In particular, we propose a model for how the stress response protein Whi2 and the Ras/PKA (protein kinase A) signalling pathway are possibly linked and thereby regulate mitophagy.

  15. Eye surface temperature detects stress response in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Ikkatai, Yuko; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2015-08-05

    Previous studies have suggested that stressors not only increase body core temperature but also body surface temperature in many animals. However, it remains unclear whether surface temperature could be used as an alternative to directly measure body core temperature, particularly in birds. We investigated whether surface temperature is perceived as a stress response in budgerigars. Budgerigars have been used as popular animal models to investigate various neural mechanisms such as visual perception, vocal learning, and imitation. Developing a new technique to understand the basic physiological mechanism would help neuroscience researchers. First, we found that cloacal temperature correlated with eye surface temperature. Second, eye surface temperature increased after handling stress. Our findings suggest that eye surface temperature is closely related to cloacal temperature and that the stress response can be measured by eye surface temperature in budgerigars.

  16. Plasticity in ploidy: a generalized response to stress.

    PubMed

    Scholes, Daniel R; Paige, Ken N

    2015-03-01

    Endoreduplication, the replication of the genome without mitosis, leads to an increase in the cellular ploidy of an organism over its lifetime, a condition termed 'endopolyploidy'. Endopolyploidy is thought to play significant roles in physiology and development through cellular, metabolic, and genetic effects. While the occurrence of endopolyploidy has been observed widely across taxa, studies have only recently begun to characterize and manipulate endopolyploidy with a focus on its ecological and evolutionary importance. No compilation of these examples implicating endoreduplication as a generalized response to stress has thus far been made, despite the growing evidence supporting this notion. We review here the recent literature of stress-induced endopolyploidy and suggest that plants employ endoreduplication as an adaptive, plastic response to mitigate the effects of stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enterovirus Control of Translation and RNA Granule Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Enteroviruses such as poliovirus (PV) and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) have evolved several parallel strategies to regulate cellular gene expression and stress responses to ensure efficient expression of the viral genome. Enteroviruses utilize their encoded proteinases to take over the cellular translation apparatus and direct ribosomes to viral mRNAs. In addition, viral proteinases are used to control and repress the two main types of cytoplasmic RNA granules, stress granules (SGs) and processing bodies (P-bodies, PBs), which are stress-responsive dynamic structures involved in repression of gene expression. This review discusses these processes and the current understanding of the underlying mechanisms with respect to enterovirus infections. In addition, the review discusses accumulating data suggesting linkage exists between RNA granule formation and innate immune sensing and activation. PMID:27043612

  18. Regional cutaneous microvascular flow responses during gravitational and LBNP stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breit, Gregory A.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Ballard, Richard E.; Murthy, Gita; Hargens, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    Due to the regional variability of local hydrostatic pressures, microvascular flow responses to gravitational stress probably vary along the length of the body. Although these differences in local autoregulation have been observed previously during whole-body tilting, they have not been investigated during application of artificial gravitational stresses, such as lower body negative pressure or high gravity centrifugation. Although these stresses can create equivalent G-levels at the feet, they result in distinct distributions of vascular transmural pressure along the length of the body, and should consequently elicit different magnitudes and distributions of microvascular response. In the present study, the effects of whole-body tilting and lower body negative pressure on the level and distribution of microvascular flows within skin along the length of the body were compared.

  19. Stress biomarker responses to different protocols of forced exercise in chronically stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Radahmadi, Maryam; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Nasrin

    2017-01-01

    Stress is one of the most significant causes of major health problems on a global scale. The beneficial effects of exercise on combating stress, however, are well-established. The present study investigated the stress biomarker responses, such as serum corticosterone, interlukin-1β, and glucose levels, to different (preventive, therapeutic, protective, and continuous) protocols of forced exercise under stress. Male rats were randomly allocated to the following five groups: stressed, preventive, therapeutic, protective, and continuous (and/or pre-stress, post-stress, stress-accompanied, and both pre-stress and stress-accompanied exercise respectively) exercise groups. Stress was applied 6 h/day for 21 days and the treadmill running was employed at a speed of 20-21 m/min for 21 and 42 days. The findings showed that the therapeutic, protective, and continuous exercises led to reduced corticosterone and glucose levels. Whereas, the preventive exercise did not reverse the stress responses, and that the therapeutic exercise led to a significant decline in serum interlukin-1β. It is concluded that protective, therapeutic, and, particularly, continuous exercises lead to significant reductions in serum corticosterone and the associated stress-induced hyperglycemia. Moreover, it appears that the timing and duration of exercise are the two factors contributing to changes in stress biomarker responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interaction between Nitrogen and Phosphate Stress Responses in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    SciTech Connect

    Hagberg, Kelly L.; Yurgel, Svetlana N.; Mulder, Monika; Kahn, Michael L.

    2016-11-30

    Bacteria have developed various stress response pathways to improve their assimilation and allocation of limited nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphate. While both the nitrogen stress response (NSR) and phosphate stress response (PSR) have been studied individually, there are few experiments reported that characterize effects of multiple stresses on one or more pathways in Sinorhizobium meliloti, a facultatively symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The PII proteins, GlnB and GlnK, regulate the NSR activity, but analysis of global transcription changes in a PII deficient mutant suggest that the S. meliloti PII proteins may also regulate the PSR. PII double deletion mutants grow very slowly and pseudoreversion of the slow growth phenotype is common. In order to understand this phenomenon better, transposon mutants were isolated that had a faster growing phenotype. One mutation was in phoB, the response regulator for a two component regulatory system that is important in the PSR. phoB::Tn5 mutants had different phenotypes in the wild type compared to a PII deficient background. This led to the hypothesis that phosphate stress affects the NSR and conversely, that nitrogen stress affects the PSR. These results show that phosphate availability affects glutamine synthetase activity and expression, which are often used as indicators of NSR activity, but that nitrogen availability did not affect alkaline phosphatase activity and expression, which are indicators of PSR activity. Finally, we conclude that the NSR is co-regulated by nitrogen and phosphate, whereas the PSR does not appear to be co-regulated by nitrogen in addition to its known phosphate regulation.

  1. Neuroendocrine responses to psychological stress in eumenorrheic and oligomenorrheic women.

    PubMed

    McComb, Jacalyn J Robert; Qian, Xu-Ping; Veldhuis, Johannes D; J McGlone, John; Norman, Reid L

    2006-03-01

    Neuroendocrine adaptive responses to psychological stress include activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sometimes suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. In women who experience chronic stress, these responses are probably responsible for disturbances in the menstrual cycle. In the present experiment, we investigated the effect of an acutely stressful situation on the physiological and neuroendocrine responses in college age women. We hypothesized that females who are experiencing some degree of abnormal menstrual function or women who have less-robust cycles (oligomenorrheic females) would exhibit differences in gonadotropin secretion from eumenorrheic females when exposed to psychological stressors. Fifteen women completed this study: eumenorrheic (n = 5) and oligomenorrheic women (n = 5) who experienced a series of psychological stressors, and eumenorrheic controls (n = 5). Blood samples were taken at 10 min intervals for 8 h (09:00-17:00) in each woman during the mid-follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. The psychological stressors were administered for 1 h beginning at 13:00 h. Luteinizing hormone (LH), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol were measured in each sample to assess the effect of stress on secretion of these hormones. Deconvolution analysis was used to analyze pulsatile hormone secretion and the approximate entropy (ApEn) statistic analyzed the regularity of release of each hormone. Although, there were significant changes in heart rate (HR), skin resistance (SR) and cortisol levels in the stressed women during the psychological stressor compared to resting baseline values but not in the controls, there was no difference in either LH or GH secretion between women who experienced stress and those who did not. Furthermore, there were no differences in the LH or GH secretion patterns in the oligomenorrheic and eumenorrheic women exposed to the psychological stressor.

  2. Interaction between Nitrogen and Phosphate Stress Responses in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    DOE PAGES

    Hagberg, Kelly L.; Yurgel, Svetlana N.; Mulder, Monika; ...

    2016-11-30

    Bacteria have developed various stress response pathways to improve their assimilation and allocation of limited nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphate. While both the nitrogen stress response (NSR) and phosphate stress response (PSR) have been studied individually, there are few experiments reported that characterize effects of multiple stresses on one or more pathways in Sinorhizobium meliloti, a facultatively symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The PII proteins, GlnB and GlnK, regulate the NSR activity, but analysis of global transcription changes in a PII deficient mutant suggest that the S. meliloti PII proteins may also regulate the PSR. PII double deletion mutants grow verymore » slowly and pseudoreversion of the slow growth phenotype is common. In order to understand this phenomenon better, transposon mutants were isolated that had a faster growing phenotype. One mutation was in phoB, the response regulator for a two component regulatory system that is important in the PSR. phoB::Tn5 mutants had different phenotypes in the wild type compared to a PII deficient background. This led to the hypothesis that phosphate stress affects the NSR and conversely, that nitrogen stress affects the PSR. These results show that phosphate availability affects glutamine synthetase activity and expression, which are often used as indicators of NSR activity, but that nitrogen availability did not affect alkaline phosphatase activity and expression, which are indicators of PSR activity. Finally, we conclude that the NSR is co-regulated by nitrogen and phosphate, whereas the PSR does not appear to be co-regulated by nitrogen in addition to its known phosphate regulation.« less

  3. Salivary Markers of Inflammation in Response to Acute Stress

    PubMed Central

    Slavish, Danica C.; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E.; Smyth, Joshua M.; Engeland, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the ability to detect inflammatory markers in response to stress within naturally occurring social contexts and/or across multiple time points per day within individuals. Salivary collection is a less invasive process than current methods of blood collection and enables intensive naturalistic methodologies, such as those involving extensive repeated measures per day over time. Yet the reliability and validity of saliva-based to blood-based inflammatory biomarkers in response to stress remains unclear. We review and synthesize the published studies that have examined salivary markers of inflammation following exposure to an acute laboratory stressor. Results from each study are reviewed by analyte (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, CRP) and stress type (social-cognitive and exercise-physical), after which methodological issues and limitations are addressed. Although the literature is limited, several inflammatory markers (including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6) have been reliably determined from saliva and have increased significantly in response to stress across multiple studies, with effect sizes ranging from very small to very large. Although CRP from saliva has been associated with CRP in circulating blood more consistently than other biomarkers have been associated with their counterparts in blood, evidence demonstrating it reliably responds to acute stress is absent. Although the current literature is presently too limited to allow broad assertion that inflammatory biomarkers determined from saliva are valuable for examining acute stress responses, this review suggests that specific targets may be valid and highlights specific areas of need for future research. PMID:25205395

  4. Melatonin attenuates the skin sympathetic nerve response to mental stress.

    PubMed

    Muller, Matthew D; Sauder, Charity L; Ray, Chester A

    2013-11-01

    Melatonin attenuates muscle sympathetic nerve responses to sympathoexcitatory stimuli, but it is unknown whether melatonin similarly attenuates reflex changes in skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, we tested the hypothesis that melatonin (3 mg) would attenuate the SSNA response to mental stress (mental arithmetic). Twelve healthy subjects underwent experimental testing on two separate days. Three minutes of mental stress occurred before and 45 min after ingestion of melatonin (3 mg) or placebo. Skin temperature was maintained at 34°C. Reflex increases in SSNA (peroneal nerve), mean arterial pressure, and heart rate (HR) to mental stress before and after melatonin were determined. Melatonin lowered HR (pre, 66 ± 3 beats/min; and post, 62 ± 3 beats/min, P = 0.046) and SSNA (pre, 14,282 ± 3,706 arbitrary units; and post, 9,571 ± 2,609 arbitrary units, P = 0.034) at rest. In response to mental stress, SSNA increases were significantly attenuated following melatonin ingestion (second minute, 114 ± 30 vs. 74 ± 14%; and third minute, 111 ± 29 vs. 54 ± 12%, both P < 0.05). The mean arterial pressure increase to mental stress was blunted in the third minute (20 ± 2 vs. 17 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.032), and the HR increase was blunted in the first minute (33 ± 3 vs. 29 ± 3 beats/min, P = 0.034) after melatonin. In summary, exogenous melatonin attenuates the SSNA response to mental stress.

  5. Forearm vascular responses to mental stress in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Matthew J; Patel, Hardikkumar M; Muller, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) increases in response to mental stress (verbal mental arithmetic) in young people. However, the effect of healthy aging and mental stress on FVC is unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that FVC and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) would be attenuated in older adults compared to young adults. In 13 young (27 ± 1 year) and 11 older (62 ± 1 year) subjects, we quantified heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), FVC (Doppler ultrasound), and CVC (laser Doppler flowmetry) in response to a 3-min bout of mental stress in the supine posture. Changes from baseline were compared between groups and physiological variables were also correlated. Older adults had a blunted HR response to mental stress (Δ = 7 ± 2 vs. 14 ± 2 beats/min) but ΔMAP was comparable between groups (Δ = 11 ± 2 mmHg vs. 9 ± 1). During the third minute of mental stress, the %ΔFVC (-2 ± 5 vs. 31 ± 12%) and %ΔCVC (2 ± 6 vs. 31 ± 15%) were both impaired in older adults compared to young subjects. There was no relationship between ΔHR and %ΔCVC in either group, but there was a positive relationship between ΔHR and %ΔFVC in both young subjects (R = 0.610, P < 0.027) and older subjects (R = 0.615, P < 0.044), such that larger tachycardia was associated with higher forearm vasodilation. These data indicate that older adults have impaired forearm vasodilation in response to mental stress.

  6. Interaction between Nitrogen and Phosphate Stress Responses in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    PubMed Central

    Hagberg, Kelly L.; Yurgel, Svetlana N.; Mulder, Monika; Kahn, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria have developed various stress response pathways to improve their assimilation and allocation of limited nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphate. While both the nitrogen stress response (NSR) and phosphate stress response (PSR) have been studied individually, there are few experiments reported that characterize effects of multiple stresses on one or more pathways in Sinorhizobium meliloti, a facultatively symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The PII proteins, GlnB and GlnK, regulate the NSR activity, but analysis of global transcription changes in a PII deficient mutant suggest that the S. meliloti PII proteins may also regulate the PSR. PII double deletion mutants grow very slowly and pseudoreversion of the slow growth phenotype is common. To understand this phenomenon better, transposon mutants were isolated that had a faster growing phenotype. One mutation was in phoB, the response regulator for a two component regulatory system that is important in the PSR. phoB::Tn5 mutants had different phenotypes in the wild type compared to a PII deficient background. This led to the hypothesis that phosphate stress affects the NSR and conversely, that nitrogen stress affects the PSR. Our results show that phosphate availability affects glutamine synthetase activity and expression, which are often used as indicators of NSR activity, but that nitrogen availability did not affect alkaline phosphatase activity and expression, which are indicators of PSR activity. We conclude that the NSR is co-regulated by nitrogen and phosphate, whereas the PSR does not appear to be co-regulated by nitrogen in addition to its known phosphate regulation. PMID:27965651

  7. Tolerant and Susceptible Sesame Genotypes Reveal Waterlogging Stress Response Patterns.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linhai; Li, Donghua; Zhang, Yanxin; Gao, Yuan; Yu, Jingyin; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Waterlogging is a common adverse environmental condition that limits plant growth. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is considered a drought-tolerant oil crop but is typically susceptible to harmful effects from waterlogging. The present study used comparative analysis to explore the waterlogging stress response associated with two sesame genotypes. The RNA-seq dataset generated during a time course of 0, 3, 9 and 15 h of waterlogging as well as 20 h post-drainage indicated that stress gradually suppressed the expression of sesame genes, with 9 h as the critical time point for the response of sesame to waterlogging stress. Of the 19,316 genes expressed during waterlogging, 72.1% were affected significantly. Sesame of both tolerant and susceptible genotypes showed decreased numbers of upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) but increased numbers of downregulated DEGs at the onset of waterlogging. However, the tolerant-genotype sesame exhibited 25.5% more upregulated DEGs and 29.7% fewer downregulated DEGs than those of the susceptible-genotype strain between 3 and 15 h. The results indicated that the tolerant sesame displayed a more positive gene response to waterlogging. A total of 1,379 genes were significantly induced and commonly expressed in sesame under waterlogging conditions from 3 to 15 h regardless of tolerance level; of these genes, 98 are known homologous stress responsive genes, while the remaining 1,281 are newly reported here. This gene set may represent the core genes that function in response to waterlogging, including those related mainly to energy metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, a set of 3,016 genes functioning in energy supply and cell repair or formation was activated in sesame recovery from waterlogging stress. A comparative analysis between sesame of the tolerant and susceptible genotypes revealed 66 genes that may be candidates for improving sesame tolerance to waterlogging. This study provided a comprehensive

  8. Tolerant and Susceptible Sesame Genotypes Reveal Waterlogging Stress Response Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Linhai; Li, Donghua; Zhang, Yanxin; Gao, Yuan; Yu, Jingyin; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-01-01

    Waterlogging is a common adverse environmental condition that limits plant growth. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is considered a drought-tolerant oil crop but is typically susceptible to harmful effects from waterlogging. The present study used comparative analysis to explore the waterlogging stress response associated with two sesame genotypes. The RNA-seq dataset generated during a time course of 0, 3, 9 and 15 h of waterlogging as well as 20 h post-drainage indicated that stress gradually suppressed the expression of sesame genes, with 9 h as the critical time point for the response of sesame to waterlogging stress. Of the 19,316 genes expressed during waterlogging, 72.1% were affected significantly. Sesame of both tolerant and susceptible genotypes showed decreased numbers of upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) but increased numbers of downregulated DEGs at the onset of waterlogging. However, the tolerant-genotype sesame exhibited 25.5% more upregulated DEGs and 29.7% fewer downregulated DEGs than those of the susceptible-genotype strain between 3 and 15 h. The results indicated that the tolerant sesame displayed a more positive gene response to waterlogging. A total of 1,379 genes were significantly induced and commonly expressed in sesame under waterlogging conditions from 3 to 15 h regardless of tolerance level; of these genes, 98 are known homologous stress responsive genes, while the remaining 1,281 are newly reported here. This gene set may represent the core genes that function in response to waterlogging, including those related mainly to energy metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, a set of 3,016 genes functioning in energy supply and cell repair or formation was activated in sesame recovery from waterlogging stress. A comparative analysis between sesame of the tolerant and susceptible genotypes revealed 66 genes that may be candidates for improving sesame tolerance to waterlogging. This study provided a comprehensive

  9. Brain and Adrenal Metabolic Responses to Stress (The Role of Brain Catecholamines in Regulation of Response to Stress).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-15

    Effects of Cold Water Stress and Hallucinogenics on Brain Amines The effects of cold water stress were compared to LSO, psilocybin , mescaline, and...A-AIS 552 STANFORD WNil CA -NANCY PRITZKER LAB OF BEHAVIORAL N-ETC F/6 6/19 BRAIN AND ADRENAL METABOLIC RESPONSES TO STRESS ( THE ROLE OF BR-fETC(U)1...STANDARDS- 1963-A 4 - FINAL REPORT ’-4 to the dOFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH for Contract N00014-75-C-0132 November 1974 - June 1980 SUBJECT: Brain and

  10. Chronic Heat Stress Induces Immune Response, Oxidative Stress Response, and Apoptosis of Finishing Pig Liver: A Proteomic Approach.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanjun; Hao, Yue; Li, Jielei; Bao, Weiguang; Li, Gan; Gao, Yanli; Gu, Xianhong

    2016-05-11

    Heat stress (HS) negatively affects human health, animal welfare, and livestock production. We analyzed the hepatic proteomes of finishing pigs subjected to chronic heat stress (HS), thermal neutral (TN), and restricted feed intake conditions, identifying differences between direct and indirect (via reduced feed intake) HS. Twenty-four castrated male pigs were randomly allocated to three treatments for three weeks: (1) thermal neutral (TN) (22 °C) with ad libitum feeding; (2) chronic HS (30 °C) with ad libitum feeding; and (3) TN, pair-fed to HS intake (PF). Hepatic proteome analysis was conducted using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Both HS and PF significantly reduced liver weight (p < 0.05). Forty-five hepatic proteins were differentially abundant when comparing HS with TN (37), PF with TN (29), and HS with PF (16). These proteins are involved in heat shock response and immune defense, oxidative stress response, cellular apoptosis, metabolism, signal transduction, and cytoskeleton. We also observed increased abundance of proteins and enzymes associated with heat shock response and immune defense, reduced the redox state, enhanced multiple antioxidant abilities, and increased apoptosis in HS liver. Heat-load, independent of reduced feed intake, induced an innate immune response, while food restriction caused stress and cellular apoptosis. Our results provide novel insights into the effects of chronic HS on liver.

  11. TRPV1 Regulates Stress Responses through HDAC2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sung Eun; Ko, Seung Yeon; Jo, Sungsin; Choi, Miyeon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Jo, Hye-Ryeong; Seo, Jee Young; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Yong-Seok; Jung, Sung Jun; Son, Hyeon

    2017-04-11

    Stress causes changes in neurotransmission in the brain, thereby influencing stress-induced behaviors. However, it is unclear how neurotransmission systems orchestrate stress responses at the molecular and cellular levels. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a non-selective cation channel involved mainly in pain sensation, affects mood and neuroplasticity in the brain, where its role is poorly understood. Here, we show that Trpv1-deficient (Trpv1(-/-)) mice are more stress resilient than control mice after chronic unpredictable stress. We also found that glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC) 2 expression and activity are reduced in the Trpv1(-/-) mice and that HDAC2-regulated, cell-cycle- and neuroplasticity-related molecules are altered. Hippocampal knockdown of TRPV1 had similar effects, and its behavioral effects were blocked by HDAC2 overexpression. Collectively, our findings indicate that HDAC2 is a molecular link between TRPV1 activity and stress responses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative transcriptome analysis of grapevine in response to copper stress

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Xiangpeng; Jia, Haifeng; Sun, Xin; Shangguan, Lingfei; Mu, Qian; Wang, Baoju; Fang, Jinggui

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine is one of the most economically important and widely cultivated fruit crop worldwide. With the industrialization and the popular application of cupric fungicides in grape industry, copper stress and copper pollution are also the factors affecting grape production and berry and wine quality. Here, 3,843 transcripts were significantly differently expressed genes in response to Cu stress by RNA-seq, which included 1,892 up-regulated and 1,951 down-regulated transcripts. During this study we found many known and novel Cu-induced and -repressed genes. Biological analysis of grape samples were indicated that exogenous Cu can influence chlorophylls metabolism and photosynthetic activities of grapevine. Most ROS detoxification systems, including antioxidant enzyme, stress-related proteins and secondary metabolites were strongly induced. Concomitantly, abscisic acid functioned as a negative regulator in Cu stress, in opposite action to ethylene, auxin, jasmonic acid, and brassinolide. This study also identified a set of Cu stress specifically activated genes coding copper transporter, P1B-type ATPase, multidrug transporters. Overall, this work was carried out to gain insights into the copper-regulated and stress-responsive mechanisms in grapevine at transcriptome level. This research can also provide some genetic information that can help us in better vinery management and breeding Cu-resistant grape cultivars. PMID:26673527

  13. Stress, stress‐induced cortisol responses, and eyewitness identification performance

    PubMed Central

    Raymaekers, Linsey H.C.; Otgaar, Henry; Memon, Amina; Waltjen, Thijs T.; Nivo, Maud; Slegers, Chiel; Broers, Nick J.; Smeets, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the eyewitness identification literature, stress and arousal at the time of encoding are considered to adversely influence identification performance. This assumption is in contrast with findings from the neurobiology field of learning and memory, showing that stress and stress hormones are critically involved in forming enduring memories. This discrepancy may be related to methodological differences between the two fields of research, such as the tendency for immediate testing or the use of very short (1–2 hours) retention intervals in eyewitness research, while neurobiology studies insert at least 24 hours. Other differences refer to the extent to which stress‐responsive systems (i.e., the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis) are stimulated effectively under laboratory conditions. The aim of the current study was to conduct an experiment that accounts for the contemporary state of knowledge in both fields. In all, 123 participants witnessed a live staged theft while being exposed to a laboratory stressor that reliably elicits autonomic and glucocorticoid stress responses or while performing a control task. Salivary cortisol levels were measured to control for the effectiveness of the stress induction. One week later, participants attempted to identify the thief from target‐present and target‐absent line‐ups. According to regression and receiver operating characteristic analyses, stress did not have robust detrimental effects on identification performance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 The Authors Behavioral Sciences & the Law Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd PMID:27417874

  14. Reactive oxygen species in response of plants to gravity stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadko, Sergiy

    2016-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) as second messengers can induce stress response of plants. Thioredoxins (Trx) and peroxiredoxins (Prx) can function as sensors and transmitters of the ROS in stress signaling and antioxidant response. 12-14 days old tissue culture of Arabidopsis thaliana have been investigated. Hypergravity stress was induced by centrifugation at 10 and 20 g during 30 and 90 min and than intensity of spontaneous chemiluminescence (SChL/ROS content), Trx and Prx activities were determined. All experiments were repeated from 3 to 5 times and the obtained data were statistically treated. In the tissue culture under development of the stress there were an increase in intensity of SChL and Trx and Prx activities. Thus, under hypergravity stress in the plant occurred early increase in the ROS level and the ROS induced the increase in the Trx and Prx activities. Prx and Trx can also participate in the formation of stress respons as acceptors and transducers of the redox signals. Increase in the activity of these enzymes primarily aimed at increasing of the total antioxidant activity in the cells to prevent of the plant to development of oxidative degradation by ROS.

  15. Untranslated regions (UTRs) orchestrate translation reprogramming in cellular stress responses.

    PubMed

    Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Deb, Rajib; Raina, Susheel Kumar; Pawar, Sachin; Brahmane, Manoj P; Nirmale, Avinash V; Kurade, Nitin P; Manjunathareddy, Gundallahalli B; Bal, Santanu Kumar; Singh, Narendra Pratap

    2017-04-01

    Stress is the result of an organism's interaction with environmental challenges. Regulations of gene expression including translation modulations are critical for adaptation and survival under stress. Untranslated regions (UTRs) of the transcripts play significant roles in translation regulation and continue to raise many intriguing questions in our understanding of cellular stress physiology. IRES (Internal ribosome entry site) and uORF (upstream open reading frame) mediated alternative translation initiations are emerging as unique mechanisms. Recent studies have revealed novel means of mRNAs stabilization in stress granules and their reversible modifications. Differential regulation of select transcripts is possible by the interplay between the adenine/uridine-rich elements (AREs) in 3'UTR with their binding proteins (AUBP) and by microRNA-mediated effects. Coordination of these various mechanisms control translation and thereby enables appropriate responses to environmental stress. In this review, we focus on the role of sequence signatures both at 5' and 3'UTRs in translation reprogramming during cellular stress responses.

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis of grapevine in response to copper stress.

    PubMed

    Leng, Xiangpeng; Jia, Haifeng; Sun, Xin; Shangguan, Lingfei; Mu, Qian; Wang, Baoju; Fang, Jinggui

    2015-12-17

    Grapevine is one of the most economically important and widely cultivated fruit crop worldwide. With the industrialization and the popular application of cupric fungicides in grape industry, copper stress and copper pollution are also the factors affecting grape production and berry and wine quality. Here, 3,843 transcripts were significantly differently expressed genes in response to Cu stress by RNA-seq, which included 1,892 up-regulated and 1,951 down-regulated transcripts. During this study we found many known and novel Cu-induced and -repressed genes. Biological analysis of grape samples were indicated that exogenous Cu can influence chlorophylls metabolism and photosynthetic activities of grapevine. Most ROS detoxification systems, including antioxidant enzyme, stress-related proteins and secondary metabolites were strongly induced. Concomitantly, abscisic acid functioned as a negative regulator in Cu stress, in opposite action to ethylene, auxin, jasmonic acid, and brassinolide. This study also identified a set of Cu stress specifically activated genes coding copper transporter, P1B-type ATPase, multidrug transporters. Overall, this work was carried out to gain insights into the copper-regulated and stress-responsive mechanisms in grapevine at transcriptome level. This research can also provide some genetic information that can help us in better vinery management and breeding Cu-resistant grape cultivars.

  17. Genetic erosion impedes adaptive responses to stressful environments

    PubMed Central

    Bijlsma, R; Loeschcke, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity is increasingly subjected to human-induced changes of the environment. To persist, populations continually have to adapt to these often stressful changes including pollution and climate change. Genetic erosion in small populations, owing to fragmentation of natural habitats, is expected to obstruct such adaptive responses: (i) genetic drift will cause a decrease in the level of adaptive genetic variation, thereby limiting evolutionary responses; (ii) inbreeding and the concomitant inbreeding depression will reduce individual fitness and, consequently, the tolerance of populations to environmental stress. Importantly, inbreeding generally increases the sensitivity of a population to stress, thereby increasing the amount of inbreeding depression. As adaptation to stress is most often accompanied by increased mortality (cost of selection), the increase in the ‘cost of inbreeding’ under stress is expected to severely hamper evolutionary adaptive processes. Inbreeding thus plays a pivotal role in this process and is expected to limit the probability of genetically eroded populations to successfully adapt to stressful environmental conditions. Consequently, the dynamics of small fragmented populations may differ considerably from large nonfragmented populations. The resilience of fragmented populations to changing and deteriorating environments is expected to be greatly decreased. Alleviating inbreeding depression, therefore, is crucial to ensure population persistence. PMID:25568035

  18. Neonatal handling alters maternal emotional response to stress.

    PubMed

    Reis, Adolfo R; Jacobs, Silvana; Menegotto, Pâmela R; Silveira, Patrícia P; Lucion, Aldo B

    2016-07-01

    Neonatal handling is an experimental procedure used to analyze the effects of environmental interventions during early postpartum days (PPD). Long-lasting effects of repeated stress exposure in the neonatal period on the maternal side are poorly studied in this model. The aim of this study was to verify if handling the pups induces enduring effects on damśstress responses, increasing their risk for depression. Dams were divided into two groups (NH-Non-handled and H-Handled) based on the handling procedure (pups were handled for 1 min/per day from PPD1-PPD10) and then subdivided into four groups (NH, NH + S, H, and H + S) based on the exposure or not to restraint stress after weaning (1 hr/per day for 7 days, PPD22-PPD28). We analyzed damśbehavior in the forced swimming test (FST PPD29-PPD30), plasma basal corticosterone and BDNF levels, as well as adrenal weight (PPD31). The results show that handling alters the stress response of dams to acute and chronic stress, as evidenced by dams of the H group having increased immobility in the first day of FST (p < .001), similar to NH + S (p < .01). Dams of the H and H + S groups show decreased levels of corticosterone when compared to NH and NH + S groups (p < .05), but the H + S group shows an increased adrenal weight, suggesting an increased sensibility of the maternal organism to the chronic stress applied after weaning (p < .05). We show that handling may induce a long-lasting effect on maternal stress response; these changes in the damśemotional reactivity increase their susceptibility for the development of psychiatric disorders such as depression. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 614-622, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Recovery of Stress Response Coincides with Responsiveness to Voluntary Exercise after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tio, Delia L.; Nair, Shyama; Hovda, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We have recently shown that there is a heightened stress response after a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) during the first 2 post-injury weeks. This corresponds to the same post-injury period when exercise does not increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and autonomic dysfunction becomes evident with exercise. Here we determined stress and autonomic responses to voluntary and forced exercise at a post-injury time window when exercise has been found to elicit beneficial effects. Rats underwent a mild fluid percussion injury and were exercised at post-injury days 28–32 and 35–39. Cardiac and temperature autonomic function were evaluated. Hippocampal tissue was obtained immediately after exercise for analysis of BDNF. In contrast to the sub-acute period, corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone responses to exercise were normalized in the TBI group. Irrespective of injury, forced exercise markedly stimulated the corticotrophic axis and did not increase BDNF. BDNF levels were increased with voluntary exercise in all animals. Rats exposed to forced exercise had lower activity levels during periods of non-exercise. This effect was more pronounced in the TBI rats. Cardiac and temperature autonomic responses to delayed exercise also recuperated. Rats with TBI that underwent forced exercise, however, had higher core body temperatures during experimental manipulations, thus suggesting that exposure to a potent stressor facilitates responsiveness to environmental stimulations. PMID:24151829

  20. HDAC6 regulates sensitivity to cell death in response to stress and post-stress recovery.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hyun-Wook; Won, Hye-Rim; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kwon, So Hee

    2017-01-23

    Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) plays an important role in stress responses such as misfolded protein-induced aggresomes, autophagy, and stress granules. However, precisely how HDAC6 manages response during and after cellular stress remains largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of HDAC6 on various stress and post-stress recovery responses. We showed that HIF-1α protein levels were reduced in HDAC6 knockout (KO) MEFs compared to wild-type (WT) MEFs in hypoxia. Furthermore, under hypoxia, HIF-1α levels were also reduced following rescue with either a catalytically inactive or a ubiqiutin-binding mutant HDAC6. HDAC6 deacetylated and upregulated the stability of HIF-1α, leading to activation of HIF-1α function under hypoxia. Notably, both the deacetylase and ubiquitin-binding activities of HDAC6 contributed to HIF-1α stabilization, but only deacetylase activity was required for HIF-1α transcriptional activity. Suppression of HDAC6 enhanced the interaction between HIF-1α and HSP70 under hypoxic conditions. In addition to hypoxia, depletion of HDAC6 caused hypersensitivity to cell death during oxidative stress and post-stress recovery. However, HDAC6 depletion had no effect on cell death in response to heat shock or ionizing radiation. Overall, our data suggest that HDAC6 may serve as a critical stress regulator in response to different cellular stresses.

  1. Ezrin Inhibition Up-regulates Stress Response Gene Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Haydar; Bulut, Gülay; Han, Jenny; Graham, Garrett T.; Minas, Tsion Z.; Conn, Erin J.; Hong, Sung-Hyeok; Pauly, Gary T.; Hayran, Mutlu; Li, Xin; Özdemirli, Metin; Ayhan, Ayşe; Rudek, Michelle A.; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.; Üren, Aykut

    2016-01-01

    Ezrin is a member of the ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) family of proteins that links cortical cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane. High expression of ezrin correlates with poor prognosis and metastasis in osteosarcoma. In this study, to uncover specific cellular responses evoked by ezrin inhibition that can be used as a specific pharmacodynamic marker(s), we profiled global gene expression in osteosarcoma cells after treatment with small molecule ezrin inhibitors, NSC305787 and NSC668394. We identified and validated several up-regulated integrated stress response genes including PTGS2, ATF3, DDIT3, DDIT4, TRIB3, and ATF4 as novel ezrin-regulated transcripts. Analysis of transcriptional response in skin and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from NSC305787-treated mice compared with a control group revealed that, among those genes, the stress gene DDIT4/REDD1 may be used as a surrogate pharmacodynamic marker of ezrin inhibitor compound activity. In addition, we validated the anti-metastatic effects of NSC305787 in reducing the incidence of lung metastasis in a genetically engineered mouse model of osteosarcoma and evaluated the pharmacokinetics of NSC305787 and NSC668394 in mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that cytoplasmic ezrin, previously considered a dormant and inactive protein, has important functions in regulating gene expression that may result in down-regulation of stress response genes. PMID:27137931

  2. Oxalic acid-mediated stress responses in Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yue; Strelkov, Stephen E; Kav, Nat N V

    2009-06-01

    Oxalic acid (OA) occurs extensively in nature and plays diverse roles, especially in pathogenic processes involving various plant pathogens. However, proteome changes and modifications of signaling and oxidative network of plants in response to OA are not well understood. In order to investigate the responses of Brassica napus toward OA, a proteome analysis was conducted employing 2-DE with MS/MS. A total of 37 proteins were identified as responding to OA stress, of which 13 were up-regulated and 24 were down-regulated. These proteins were categorized into several functional groups including protein processing, RNA processing, photosynthesis, signal transduction, stress response, and redox homeostasis. Investigation of the effect of OA on phytohormone signaling and oxidative responses revealed that jasmonic acid-, ethylene-, and abscisic acid-mediated signaling pathways appear to increase at later time points, whereas those pathways mediated by salicylic acid appear to be suppressed. Moreover, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and oxalic acid oxidase, but not NADPH oxidase, were suppressed by OA stress. Our findings are discussed within the context of the proposed role(s) of OA during infection by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and subsequent disease progression.

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of Spartina pectinata in Response to Freezing Stress.

    PubMed

    Nah, Gyoungju; Lee, Moonsub; Kim, Do-Soon; Rayburn, A Lane; Voigt, Thomas; Lee, D K

    2016-01-01

    Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata), a perennial C4 grass native to the North American prairie, has several distinctive characteristics that potentially make it a model crop for production in stressful environments. However, little is known about the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass despite its unique freezing stress tolerance. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to explore the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass in response to freezing stress at -5°C for 5 min and 30 min. We used a RNA-sequencing method to assemble the S. pectinata leaf transcriptome and performed gene-expression profiling of the transcripts under freezing treatment. Six differentially expressed gene (DEG) groups were categorized from the profiling. In addition, two major consecutive orders of gene expression were observed in response to freezing; the first being the acute up-regulation of genes involved in plasma membrane modification, calcium-mediated signaling, proteasome-related proteins, and transcription regulators (e.g., MYB and WRKY). The follow-up and second response was of genes involved in encoding the putative anti-freezing protein and the previously known DNA and cell-damage-repair proteins. Moreover, we identified the genes involved in epigenetic regulation and circadian-clock expression. Our results indicate that freezing response in S. pectinata reflects dynamic changes in rapid-time duration, as well as in metabolic, transcriptional, post-translational, and epigenetic regulation.

  4. Ezrin Inhibition Up-regulates Stress Response Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Haydar; Bulut, Gülay; Han, Jenny; Graham, Garrett T; Minas, Tsion Z; Conn, Erin J; Hong, Sung-Hyeok; Pauly, Gary T; Hayran, Mutlu; Li, Xin; Özdemirli, Metin; Ayhan, Ayşe; Rudek, Michelle A; Toretsky, Jeffrey A; Üren, Aykut

    2016-06-17

    Ezrin is a member of the ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) family of proteins that links cortical cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane. High expression of ezrin correlates with poor prognosis and metastasis in osteosarcoma. In this study, to uncover specific cellular responses evoked by ezrin inhibition that can be used as a specific pharmacodynamic marker(s), we profiled global gene expression in osteosarcoma cells after treatment with small molecule ezrin inhibitors, NSC305787 and NSC668394. We identified and validated several up-regulated integrated stress response genes including PTGS2, ATF3, DDIT3, DDIT4, TRIB3, and ATF4 as novel ezrin-regulated transcripts. Analysis of transcriptional response in skin and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from NSC305787-treated mice compared with a control group revealed that, among those genes, the stress gene DDIT4/REDD1 may be used as a surrogate pharmacodynamic marker of ezrin inhibitor compound activity. In addition, we validated the anti-metastatic effects of NSC305787 in reducing the incidence of lung metastasis in a genetically engineered mouse model of osteosarcoma and evaluated the pharmacokinetics of NSC305787 and NSC668394 in mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that cytoplasmic ezrin, previously considered a dormant and inactive protein, has important functions in regulating gene expression that may result in down-regulation of stress response genes.

  5. Transcriptome Analysis of Spartina pectinata in Response to Freezing Stress

    PubMed Central

    Nah, Gyoungju; Lee, Moonsub; Kim, Do-Soon; Rayburn, A. Lane; Voigt, Thomas; Lee, D. K.

    2016-01-01

    Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata), a perennial C4 grass native to the North American prairie, has several distinctive characteristics that potentially make it a model crop for production in stressful environments. However, little is known about the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass despite its unique freezing stress tolerance. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to explore the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass in response to freezing stress at -5°C for 5 min and 30 min. We used a RNA-sequencing method to assemble the S. pectinata leaf transcriptome and performed gene-expression profiling of the transcripts under freezing treatment. Six differentially expressed gene (DEG) groups were categorized from the profiling. In addition, two major consecutive orders of gene expression were observed in response to freezing; the first being the acute up-regulation of genes involved in plasma membrane modification, calcium-mediated signaling, proteasome-related proteins, and transcription regulators (e.g., MYB and WRKY). The follow-up and second response was of genes involved in encoding the putative anti-freezing protein and the previously known DNA and cell-damage-repair proteins. Moreover, we identified the genes involved in epigenetic regulation and circadian-clock expression. Our results indicate that freezing response in S. pectinata reflects dynamic changes in rapid-time duration, as well as in metabolic, transcriptional, post-translational, and epigenetic regulation. PMID:27032112

  6. Psychological stress during exercise: immunoendocrine and oxidative responses.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Webb, Heather E; Evans, Ronald K; McCleod, Kelly A; Tangsilsat, Supatchara E; Kamimori, Gary H; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in catecholamines (epinephrine [EPI] and norepinephrine [NE]), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and a biomarker of oxidative stress (8-isoprostane) in healthy individuals who were exposed to a dual challenge (physical and psychological stress). Furthermore, this study also examined the possible relationships between catecholamines (NE and EPI) and 8-isoprostane and between IL-2 and 8-isoprostane following a combined physical and psychological challenge. Seven healthy male subjects completed two experimental conditions. The exercise-alone condition (EAC) consisted of cycling at 60% VO(2max) for 37 min, while the dual-stress condition (DSC) included 20 min of a mental challenge while cycling. DSC showed greater EPI and 8-isoprostane levels (significant condition by time interaction). NE and IL-2 revealed significant change across time in both conditions. In addition, following dual stress, EPI area-under-the-curve (AUC) demonstrated a positive correlation with NE AUC and IL-2 AUC. NE AUC was positively correlated with IL-2 AUC and peak 8-isoprostane, and peak IL-2 was positively correlated with peak 8-isoprostane in response to a dual stress. The potential explanation for elevated oxidative stress during dual stress may be through the effects of the release of catecholamines and IL-2. These findings may further provide the potential explanation that dual stress alters physiological homeostasis in many occupations including firefighting, military operations and law enforcement. A greater understanding of these responses to stress can assist in finding strategies (e.g. exercise training) to overcome the inherent psychobiological challenges associated with physically and mentally demanding professions.

  7. Characterization of the physiological stress response in lingcod

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milston, R.H.; Davis, M.W.; Parker, S.J.; Olla, B.L.; Clements, S.; Schreck, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the duration and magnitude of the physiological stress response in lingcod Ophiodon elongatus after exposure to brief handling and sublethal air stressors. The response to these stressors was determined during a 24-h recovery period by measuring concentrations of plasma cortisol, lactate, glucose, sodium, and potassium. Lingcod were subjected to brief handling followed by either a 15-min or a 45-min air stressor in the laboratory. After the 15-min stressor, an increase in cortisol or glucose could not be detected until after 5 min of recovery. Peak concentrations were measured after 30 min for cortisol and after 60 min for glucose and lactate. Glucose and lactate had returned to basal levels after 12 h, whereas cortisol did not return to basal levels until after 24 h of recovery. Immediately following a 45-min air stressor, all measured parameters were significantly elevated over levels in prestressor control fish. Cortisol concentrations tended to increase and reached a measured peak after 8 h of recovery, whereas glucose and lactate reached a measured peak after 1 h of recovery. Cortisol and lactate returned to basal levels within 24 h. Glucose, however, remained elevated even after 24 h of recovery. Plasma ions initially increased during the first hour of recovery, and the concentrations then declined to a level below that measured in control fish for the remainder of the 24-h recovery period. In addition, we evaluated the effect of fish size on the stress response. There was no significant difference between the stress response of smaller (41-49-cm [total length] and larger (50-67-cm) lingcod after 45 min air exposure. In general, both the magnitude and duration of the primary and secondary stress responses in lingcod are comparable to those of salmonids. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  8. General stress response to conventional and laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, F; Sannwald, G A; Buhr, H J; Kuntz, C; Mayer, H; Klee, F; Herfarth, C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In many retrospective and prospective observational studies, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) compares favorably with conventional cholecystectomy (CC), with respect to length of hospital stay, postoperative pain, and pulmonary function, indicating a diminished operative trauma. Comparison of laboratory findings (stress hormones, blood glucose, interleukins) are a possibility to objectify stress and tissue trauma of laparoscopic and conventional cholecystectomy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Major body injury, surgical or accidental, evokes reproducible hormonal and immunologic responses. The magnitude of many of these changes essentially is proportional to the extent of the injury. METHODS: In a prospective study, biochemical stress parameters were measured in the blood of patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy because of symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. Patients with acute cholecystitis, pancreatitis, choledocholithiasis, or malignant disease were excluded. Values from 40 patients after LC and from 18 patients after CC were compared. Both groups had similar patient characteristics, baseline values, and perioperative care, except for deeper anesthesia during CC. RESULTS: On postoperative day 1, epinephrine (p = 0,05), norepinephrine (p = 0.02), and glucose (p = 0.02) responses were higher after CC. Two days postoperatively, norepinephrine remained higher after CC (p < 0.01). Interleukin-1 beta responses were higher during (p < 0.01) and 6 hours after CC (p = 0.03). Interleukin-6 responses were higher 6 hours (p = 0.03), 1 day (p = 0.02), and 2 days (p < 0.01) after CC. CONCLUSIONS: The results show significant lower values of intraoperatively and postoperatively measured epinephrine, norepinephrine, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-6 in patients with laparoscopic cholecystectomy, indicating a minor stress response and tissue trauma in this group of patients. The results correspond to the favorable results of most other trials evaluating clinical

  9. Sleep Disturbance and Older Adults' Inflammatory Responses to Acute Stress

    PubMed Central

    Heffner, Kathi L.; Ng, H. Mei; Suhr, Julie A.; France, Christopher R.; Marshall, Gailen D.; Pigeon, Wilfred R.; Moynihan, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Poor sleep diminishes mental and physical health. The objective of this study was to examine associations between sleep disturbance and interleukin-6 (IL-6) responses to acute mental stress in older adults. Design Observational study of community-dwelling, healthy older adults. Setting Participants completed the study in a clinical research laboratory of a mid-sized university. Participants Generally healthy, community-dwelling men and women 50 years of age and older. Measurements IL-6 and negative affect at rest and following a series of challenging cognitive tests; sleep quality; depressive symptoms; perceived stress; loneliness. Results Participants categorized as poor sleepers based on Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores had significantly larger IL-6 responses to the cognitive stressors compared to good sleepers. The association between poor sleep and heightened IL-6 response to acute stress was not explained by other psychosocial factors previously linked to immune dysregulation, including depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and loneliness. Conclusions Findings add to the growing evidence for poor sleep as an independent risk factor for poor mental and physical health. Older adults may be particularly vulnerable to effects of sleep disturbance due to significant age-related changes in both sleep and inflammatory regulation. PMID:22327621

  10. Responses of Succulents to Plant Water Stress 1

    PubMed Central

    Hanscom, Zac; Ting, Irwin P.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that succulents “shift” their method of photosynthetic metabolism in response to environmental change. Our data showed that there were at least three different responses of succulents to plant water status. When plant water status of Portulacaria afra (L.) Jacq. was lowered either by withholding water or by irrigating with 2% NaCl, a change from C3-photosynthesis to Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) occurred. Fluctuation of titratable acidity and nocturnal CO2 uptake was induced in the stressed plants. Stressed Peperomia obtusifolia A. Dietr. plants showed a change from C3-photosynthesis to internal cycling of CO2. Acid fluctuation commenced in response to stress but exogenous CO2 uptake did not occur. Zygocactus truncatus Haworth plants showed a pattern of acid fluctuation and nocturnal CO2 uptake typical of CAM even when well irrigated. The cacti converted from CAM to an internal CO2 cycle similar to Peperomia when plants were water-stressed. Reverse phase gas exchange in succulents results in low water loss to carbon gain. Water is conserved and low levels of metabolic activity are maintained during drought periods by complete stomatal closure and continual fluctuation of organic acids. PMID:16660285

  11. Cytokinin cross-talking during biotic and abiotic stress responses

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, José A.; Benková, Eva

    2013-01-01

    As sessile organisms, plants have to be able to adapt to a continuously changing environment. Plants that perceive some of these changes as stress signals activate signaling pathways to modulate their development and to enable them to survive. The complex responses to environmental cues are to a large extent mediated by plant hormones that together orchestrate the final plant response. The phytohormone cytokinin is involved in many plant developmental processes. Recently, it has been established that cytokinin plays an important role in stress responses, but does not act alone. Indeed, the hormonal control of plant development and stress adaptation is the outcome of a complex network of multiple synergistic and antagonistic interactions between various hormones. Here, we review the recent findings on the cytokinin function as part of this hormonal network. We focus on the importance of the crosstalk between cytokinin and other hormones, such as abscisic acid, jasmonate, salicylic acid, ethylene, and auxin in the modulation of plant development and stress adaptation. Finally, the impact of the current research in the biotechnological industry will be discussed. PMID:24312105

  12. Sleep disturbance and older adults' inflammatory responses to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Kathi L; Ng, H Mei; Suhr, Julie A; France, Christopher R; Marshall, Gailen D; Pigeon, Wilfred R; Moynihan, Jan A

    2012-09-01

    Poor sleep diminishes mental and physical health. The objective of this study was to examine associations between sleep disturbance and interleukin-6 (IL-6) responses to acute mental stress in older adults. Observational study of community-dwelling, healthy older adults. Participants completed the study in a clinical research laboratory of a mid-sized university. Generally healthy, community-dwelling men and women age 50 and older. IL-6 and negative affect at rest and following a series of challenging cognitive tests; sleep quality; depressive symptoms; perceived stress; loneliness. Participants categorized as poor sleepers on the basis of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores had significantly larger IL-6 responses to the cognitive stressors than good sleepers. The association between poor sleep and heightened IL-6 response to acute stress was not explained by other psychosocial factors previously linked to immune dysregulation, including depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and loneliness. Findings add to the growing evidence for poor sleep as an independent risk factor for poor mental and physical health. Older adults may be particularly vulnerable to effects of sleep disturbance due to significant age-related changes in both sleep and inflammatory regulation.

  13. Silver nanoparticles induce endoplasmatic reticulum stress response in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Verena; Capelle, Martinus; Fent, Karl

    2013-10-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) find increasing applications, and therefore humans and the environment are increasingly exposed to them. However, potential toxicological implications are not sufficiently known. Here we investigate effects of AgNPs (average size 120 nm) on zebrafish in vitro and in vivo, and compare them to human hepatoma cells (Huh7). AgNPs are incorporated in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL) and Huh7, and in zebrafish embryos. In ZFL cells AgNPs lead to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress response, and TNF-α. Transcriptional alterations also occur in pro-apoptotic genes p53 and Bax. The transcriptional profile differed in ZFL and Huh7 cells. In ZFL cells, the ER stress marker BiP is induced, concomitant with the ER stress marker ATF-6 and spliced XBP-1 after 6 h and 24 h exposure to 0.5 g/L and 0.05 g/L AgNPs, respectively. This indicates the induction of different pathways of the ER stress response. Moreover, AgNPs induce TNF-α. In zebrafish embryos exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 5 mg/L AgNPs hatching was affected and morphological defects occurred at high concentrations. ER stress related gene transcripts BiP and Synv are significantly up-regulated after 24 h at 0.1 and 5 mg/L AgNPs. Furthermore, transcriptional alterations occurred in the pro-apoptotic genes Noxa and p21. The ER stress response was strong in ZFL cells and occurred in zebrafish embryos as well. Our data demonstrate for the first time that AgNPs lead to induction of ER stress in zebrafish. The induction of ER stress can have several consequences including the activation of apoptotic and inflammatory pathways. - Highlights: • Effects of silver nanoparticles (120 nm AgNPs) are investigated in zebrafish. • AgNPs induce all ER stress reponses in vitro in zebrafish liver cells. • AgNPs induce weak ER stress in zebrafish embryos. • AgNPs induce oxidative stress and transcripts of pro-apoptosis genes.

  14. Acute psychological stress induces short-term variable immune response.

    PubMed

    Breen, Michael S; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Carlson, Joshua M; Ensign, Wayne Y; Woelk, Christopher H; Rana, Brinda K

    2016-03-01

    In spite of advances in understanding the cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid adaptation of the immune system to an acute psychological stressor remain largely unknown. Conventional approaches to classify molecular factors mediating these responses have targeted relatively few biological measurements or explored cross-sectional study designs, and therefore have restricted characterization of stress-immune interactions. This exploratory study analyzed transcriptional profiles and flow cytometric data of peripheral blood leukocytes with physiological (endocrine, autonomic) measurements collected throughout the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after short-term exposure to physical danger in humans. Immediate immunomodulation to acute psychological stress was defined as a short-term selective up-regulation of natural killer (NK) cell-associated cytotoxic and IL-12 mediated signaling genes that correlated with increased cortisol, catecholamines and NK cells into the periphery. In parallel, we observed down-regulation of innate immune toll-like receptor genes and genes of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Correcting gene expression for an influx of NK cells revealed a molecular signature specific to the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, focusing analyses on discrete groups of coordinately expressed genes (modules) throughout the time-series revealed immune stress responses in modules associated to immune/defense response, response to wounding, cytokine production, TCR signaling and NK cell cytotoxicity which differed between males and females. These results offer a spring-board for future research towards improved treatment of stress-related disease including the impact of stress on cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, and identifies an immune mechanism by which vulnerabilities to these diseases may be gender-specific.

  15. Responses of women to orthostatic and exercise stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffler, G. W.; Jackson, M. M.; Johnson, R. L.; Baker, J. T.; Tatro, D.

    1990-01-01

    The results are presented from a special physiological study of women at the Johnson Space Center in 1976 to 1977. Its purpose was to establish a large (98 subjects) database from normal working women. The data sets are medical historical, clinical, anthropometric, and stress response statistics useful for establishing medical criteria for selecting women astronauts. Stressors were lower body negative pressure and static standing (both orthostatic) and treadmill exercise (ergometric). Data shown are original individual values with analyses and subsets, and statistical summaries and correlations relating to human responses to microgravity. Similarities appear between the characteristics of women in this study and those of women astronauts currently flying in Shuttle crews.

  16. Aneuploidy triggers a TFEB-mediated lysosomal stress response.

    PubMed

    Santaguida, Stefano; Amon, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    Aneuploidy, defined as an alteration in chromosome number that is not a multiple of the haploid complement, severely affects cellular physiology. Changes in chromosome number lead to imbalances in cellular protein composition, thus disrupting cellular processes and causing proteins to misfold and aggregate. We recently reported that in mammalian cells protein aggregates are readily encapsulated within autophagosomes but are not degraded by lysosomes. This leads to a lysosomal stress response in which the transcription factor TFEB induces expression of factors needed for macroautophagy-mediated protein degradation. Our studies uncover lysosomal degradation defects as a feature of the aneuploid state, and a role for the transcription factor TFEB in the response thereto.

  17. Stress-strain response of plastic waste mixed soil.

    PubMed

    Babu, G L Sivakumar; Chouksey, Sandeep Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Recycling plastic waste from water bottles has become one of the major challenges worldwide. The present study provides an approach for the use plastic waste as reinforcement material in soil. The experimental results in the form of stress-strain-pore water pressure response are presented. Based on experimental test results, it is observed that the strength of soil is improved and compressibility reduced significantly with addition of a small percentage of plastic waste to the soil. The use of the improvement in strength and compressibility response due to inclusion of plastic waste can be advantageously used in bearing capacity improvement and settlement reduction in the design of shallow foundations.

  18. Integrated metabolomics for abiotic stress responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Nakabayashi, Ryo; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-04-01

    Plants are considered to biosynthesize specialized (traditionally called secondary) metabolites to adapt to environmental stresses such as biotic and abiotic stresses. The majority of specialized metabolites induced by abiotic stress characteristically exhibit antioxidative activity in vitro, but their function in vivo is largely yet to be experimentally confirmed. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the identification of the role of abiotic stress-responsive specialized metabolites with an emphasis on flavonoids. Integrated 'omics' analysis, centered on metabolomics with a series of plant resources differing in their flavonoid accumulation, showed experimentally that flavonoids play a major role in antioxidation in vivo. In addition, the results also suggest the role of flavonoids in the vacuole. To obtain more in-depth insights, chemical and biological challenges need to be addressed for the identification of unknown specialized metabolites and their in vivo functions.

  19. Abiotic stress responses in plant roots: a proteomics perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Dipanjana; Xu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stress conditions adversely affect plant growth, resulting in significant decline in crop productivity. To mitigate and recover from the damaging effects of such adverse environmental conditions, plants have evolved various adaptive strategies at cellular and metabolic levels. Most of these strategies involve dynamic changes in protein abundance that can be best explored through proteomics. This review summarizes comparative proteomic studies conducted with roots of various plant species subjected to different abiotic stresses especially drought, salinity, flood, and cold. The main purpose of this article is to highlight and classify the protein level changes in abiotic stress response pathways specifically in plant roots. Shared as well as stressor-specific proteome signatures and adaptive mechanism(s) are simultaneously described. Such a comprehensive account will facilitate the design of genetic engineering strategies that enable the development of broad-spectrum abiotic stress-tolerant crops. PMID:24478786

  20. Sleep duration and cardiovascular responses to stress in undergraduate men.

    PubMed

    Mezick, Elizabeth J; Matthews, Karen A; Hall, Martica H; Richard Jennings, J; Kamarck, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    Short sleep has been related to incident cardiovascular disease, but physiological mechanisms accounting for this relationship are largely unknown. This study examines sleep duration and cardiovascular stress responses in 79 healthy, young men. Sleep duration was assessed by wrist actigraphy for seven nights. Participants then completed a series of laboratory stress tasks while heart rate and blood pressure were monitored. Shorter total sleep time was related to a greater reduction in high-frequency heart rate variability during stress tasks, and to prolonged elevations in heart rate and diastolic pressure following tasks. Associations were independent of age, race, body mass index, caffeine intake, and smoking status. In sum, healthy young men with shorter actigraphy-assessed sleep exhibit less cardiac vagal activity, and poorer heart rate and diastolic blood pressure recovery, upon encountering stressful stimuli, than those with longer sleep.

  1. Perceived stress at work is associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2013-09-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) have been suggested to play a protective role during acute psychosocial stress, because they act as antagonists to the effects of the stress hormone cortisol. This study aims to investigate whether prolonged psychosocial stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, is related to the capacity to produce DHEA and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. It also aims to investigate whether prolonged perceived stress affects the balance between production of cortisol and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. Thirty-six healthy subjects (19 men and 17 women, mean age 37 years, SD 5 years), were included. Perceived stress at work during the past week was measured by using the Stress-Energy (SE) Questionnaire. The participants were divided into three groups based on their mean scores; Low stress, Medium stress and High stress. The participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and blood samples were collected before, directly after the stress test, and after 30 min of recovery. General Linear Models were used to investigate if the Medium stress group and the High stress group differ regarding stress response compared to the Low stress group. Higher perceived stress at work was associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress. Furthermore, the ratio between the cortisol production and the DHEA-S production during the acute stress test were higher in individuals reporting higher perceived stress at work compared to individuals reporting low perceived stress at work. There was no statistical difference in DHEA response between the groups. This study shows that prolonged stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, seems to negatively affect the capacity to produce DHEA-S during acute stress. Given the protective functions of DHEA-S, attenuated DHEA-S production during acute stress may lead to higher risk for adverse

  2. Stress-responsive microRNAs in Populus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shanfa; Sun, Ying-Hsuan; Chiang, Vincent L

    2008-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a group of small non-coding RNAs, have recently become the subject of intense study. They are a class of post-transcriptional negative regulators playing vital roles in plant development and growth. However, little is known about their regulatory roles in the responses of trees to the stressful environments incurred over their long-term growth. Here, we report the cloning of small RNAs from abiotic stressed tissues of Populus trichocarpa (Ptc) and the identification of 68 putative miRNA sequences that can be classified into 27 families based on sequence homology. Among them, nine families are novel, increasing the number of the known Ptc-miRNA families from 33 to 42. A total of 346 targets was predicted for the cloned Ptc-miRNAs using penalty scores of response to cold, heat, salt, dehydration, and mechanical stresses. Microarray analysis of known Ptc-miRNAs identified 19 additional cold stress-responsive Ptc-miRNAs from 14 miRNA gene families. Interestingly, we found that individual miRNAs of a family responded differentially to stress, which suggests that the members of a family may have different functions. These results reveal possible roles for miRNAs in the regulatory networks associated with the long-term growth of tree species and provide useful information for developing trees with a greater level of stress resistance.

  3. Ethanol-induced stress response of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Pando, Jasmine M; Pfeltz, Richard F; Cuaron, Jesus A; Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Mishra, Mukti N; Torres, Nathanial J; Elasri, Mohamed O; Wilkinson, Brian J; Gustafson, John E

    2017-09-01

    Transcriptional profiles of 2 unrelated clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates were analyzed following 10% (v/v) ethanol challenge (15 min), which arrested growth but did not reduce viability. Ethanol-induced stress (EIS) resulted in differential gene expression of 1091 genes, 600 common to both strains, of which 291 were upregulated. With the exception of the downregulation of genes involved with osmotic stress functions, EIS resulted in the upregulation of genes that contribute to stress response networks, notably those altered by oxidative stress, protein quality control in general, and heat shock in particular. In addition, genes involved with transcription, translation, and nucleotide biosynthesis were downregulated. relP, which encodes a small alarmone synthetase (RelP), was highly upregulated in both MRSA strains following ethanol challenge, and relP inactivation experiments indicated that this gene contributed to EIS growth arrest. A number of persistence-associated genes were also upregulated during EIS, including those that encode toxin-antitoxin systems. Overall, transcriptional profiling indicated that the MRSA investigated responded to EIS by entering a state of dormancy and by altering the expression of elements from cross protective stress response systems in an effort to protect preexisting proteins.

  4. Transcriptional regulation of the stress response by mTOR.

    PubMed

    Aramburu, Jose; Ortells, M Carmen; Tejedor, Sonia; Buxadé, Maria; López-Rodríguez, Cristina

    2014-07-01

    The kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cell growth and proliferation that integrates inputs from growth factor receptors, nutrient availability, intracellular ATP (adenosine 5'-triphosphate), and a variety of stressors. Since early works in the mid-1990s uncovered the role of mTOR in stimulating protein translation, this kinase has emerged as a rather multifaceted regulator of numerous processes. Whereas mTOR is generally activated by growth- and proliferation-stimulating signals, its activity can be reduced and even suppressed when cells are exposed to a variety of stress conditions. However, cells can also adapt to stress while maintaining their growth capacity and mTOR function. Despite knowledge accumulated on how stress represses mTOR, less is known about mTOR influencing stress responses. In this review, we discuss the capability of mTOR, in particular mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), to activate stress-responsive transcription factors, and we outline open questions for future investigation.

  5. Lichen growth responses to stress induced by automobile exhaust pollution.

    PubMed

    Lawrey, J D; Hale, M E

    1979-04-27

    Growth rates were significantly suppressed in juvenile thalli (less than 0.1 square millimeter in initial size) of the saxicolous lichen Pseudoparmelia baltimorensis from a Potomac River island with high atmospheric lead burden as compared to the case for a similar island with a lower lead burden. However, larger thalli showed no significant changes in growth response as a result of atmospheric pollution stress. Disruptions in lichen growth thus appear to affect life stages when growth is most rapid andfood reserves are low. Once a minimnum thallus size is attained, the stress tolerance of the lichen increases.

  6. Specificity in stress response: epidermal keratinocytes exhibit specialized UV-responsive signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Makoto; Gazel, Alix; Pintucci, Giuseppe; Shuck, Alyssa; Shifteh, Shiva; Ginsburg, Dov; Rao, Laxmi S; Kaneko, Takehiko; Freedberg, Irwin M; Tamaki, Kunihiko; Blumenberg, Miroslav

    2003-10-01

    UV light, a paradigmatic initiator of cell stress, invokes responses that include signal transduction, activation of transcription factors, and changes in gene expression. Consequently, in epidermal keratinocytes, its principal and frequent natural target, UV regulates transcription of a distinctive set of genes. Hypothesizing that UV activates distinctive epidermal signal transduction pathways, we compared the UV-responsive activation of the JNK and NFkappaB pathways in keratinocytes, with the activation of the same pathways by other agents and in other cell types. Using of inhibitors and antisense oligonucleotides, we found that in keratinocytes only UVB/UVC activate JNK, while in other cell types UVA, heat shock, and oxidative stress do as well. Keratinocytes express JNK-1 and JNK-3, which is unexpected because JNK-3 expression is considered brain-specific. In keratinocytes, ERK1, ERK2, and p38 are activated by growth factors, but not by UV. UVB/UVC in keratinocytes activates Elk1 and AP1 exclusively through the JNK pathway. JNKK1 is essential for UVB/UVC activation of JNK in keratinocytes in vitro and in human skin in vivo. In contrast, in HeLa cells, used as a control, crosstalk among signal transduction pathways allows considerable laxity. In parallel, UVB/UVC and TNFalpha activate the NFkappaB pathway via distinct mechanisms, as shown using antisense oligonucleotides targeted against IKKbeta, the active subunit of IKK. This implies a specific UVB/UVC responsive signal transduction pathway independent from other pathways. Our results suggest that in epidermal keratinocytes specific signal transduction pathways respond to UV light. Based on these findings, we propose that the UV light is not a genetic stress response inducer in these cells, but a specific agent to which epidermis developed highly specialized responses.

  7. Ethylene signaling and regulation in plant growth and stress responses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feifei; Cui, Xiankui; Sun, Yue; Dong, Chun-Hai

    2013-07-01

    Gaseous phytohormone ethylene affects many aspects of plant growth and development. The ethylene signaling pathway starts when ethylene binds to its receptors. Since the cloning of the first ethylene receptor ETR1 from Arabidopsis, a large number of studies have steadily improved our understanding of the receptors and downstream components in ethylene signal transduction pathway. This article reviews the regulation of ethylene receptors, signal transduction, and the posttranscriptional modulation of downstream components. Functional roles and importance of the ethylene signaling components in plant growth and stress responses are also discussed. Cross-reactions of ethylene with auxin and other phytohormones in plant organ growth will be analyzed. The studies of ethylene signaling in plant growth, development, and stress responses in the past decade greatly advanced our knowledge of how plants respond to endogenous signals and environmental factors.

  8. Enhanced cortisol response to stress in children in autism.

    PubMed

    Spratt, Eve G; Nicholas, Joyce S; Brady, Kathleen T; Carpenter, Laura A; Hatcher, Charles R; Meekins, Kirk A; Furlanetto, Richard W; Charles, Jane M

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results. This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a novel environment; and (3) in response to a blood draw stressor. A significantly higher serum cortisol response was found in the group of children with autism. Analysis showed significantly higher peak cortisol levels and prolonged duration and recovery of cortisol elevation following the blood-stick stressor in children with autism. This study suggests increased reactivity of the HPA axis to stress and novel stimuli in children with autism.

  9. Systemic corazonin signalling modulates stress responses and metabolism in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kubrak, Olga I.; Lushchak, Oleh V.; Zandawala, Meet

    2016-01-01

    Stress triggers cellular and systemic reactions in organisms to restore homeostasis. For instance, metabolic stress, experienced during starvation, elicits a hormonal response that reallocates resources to enable food search and readjustment of physiology. Mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its insect orthologue, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), are known for their roles in modulating stress-related behaviour. Here we show that corazonin (Crz), a peptide homologous to AKH/GnRH, also alters stress physiology in Drosophila. The Crz receptor (CrzR) is expressed in salivary glands and adipocytes of the liver-like fat body, and CrzR knockdown targeted simultaneously to both these tissues increases the fly's resistance to starvation, desiccation and oxidative stress, reduces feeding, alters expression of transcripts of Drosophila insulin-like peptides (DILPs), and affects gene expression in the fat body. Furthermore, in starved flies, CrzR-knockdown increases circulating and stored carbohydrates. Thus, our findings indicate that elevated systemic Crz signalling during stress coordinates increased food intake and diminished energy stores to regain metabolic homeostasis. Our study suggests that an ancient stress-peptide in Urbilateria evolved to give rise to present-day GnRH, AKH and Crz signalling systems. PMID:27810969

  10. REM Sleep Rebound as an Adaptive Response to Stressful Situations

    PubMed Central

    Suchecki, Deborah; Tiba, Paula Ayako; Machado, Ricardo Borges

    2011-01-01

    Stress and sleep are related to each other in a bidirectional way. If on one hand poor or inadequate sleep exacerbates emotional, behavioral, and stress-related responses, on the other hand acute stress induces sleep rebound, most likely as a way to cope with the adverse stimuli. Chronic, as opposed to acute, stress impairs sleep and has been claimed to be one of the triggering factors of emotional-related sleep disorders, such as insomnia, depressive- and anxiety-disorders. These outcomes are dependent on individual psychobiological characteristics, conferring even more complexity to the stress-sleep relationship. Its neurobiology has only recently begun to be explored, through animal models, which are also valuable for the development of potential therapeutic agents and preventive actions. This review seeks to present data on the effects of stress on sleep and the different approaches used to study this relationship as well as possible neurobiological underpinnings and mechanisms involved. The results of numerous studies in humans and animals indicate that increased sleep, especially the rapid eye movement phase, following a stressful situation is an important adaptive behavior for recovery. However, this endogenous advantage appears to be impaired in human beings and rodent strains that exhibit high levels of anxiety and anxiety-like behavior. PMID:22485105

  11. New Insights Into Cellular Stress Responses to Environmental Metal Toxicants.

    PubMed

    Park, H-R; Oh, R; Wagner, P; Panganiban, R; Lu, Q

    2017-01-01

    Exposures to metal toxicants in the environment disrupt normal physiological functions and have been linked to the development of a myriad of human diseases. While the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying metal toxicities remain to be fully understood, it is well appreciated that metal toxicants induce cellular stresses and that how cells respond to the stresses plays an important role in metal toxicity. In this review, we focus on how metal exposures induce stresses in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to elicit the unfolded protein response (UPR). We document the emerging evidence that induction of ER stress and UPR in the development of human diseases is associated with metal exposures. We also discuss the role of the interplay between ER stress and oxidative stress in metal toxicity. Finally, we review recent advances in functional genomics approaches and discuss how applications of these new tools could help elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular stresses induced by environmental metal toxicants. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Carotid baroreflex responsiveness in heat-stressed humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of whole body heating on human baroreflex function are relatively unknown. The purpose of this project was to identify whether whole body heating reduces the maximal slope of the carotid baroreflex. In 12 subjects, carotid-vasomotor and carotid-cardiac baroreflex responsiveness were assessed in normothermia and during whole body heating. Whole body heating increased sublingual temperature (from 36.4 +/- 0.1 to 37.4 +/- 0.1 degrees C, P < 0.01) and increased heart rate (from 59 +/- 3 to 83 +/- 3 beats/min, P < 0. 01), whereas mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was slightly decreased (from 88 +/- 2 to 83 +/- 2 mmHg, P < 0.01). Carotid-vasomotor and carotid-cardiac responsiveness were assessed by identifying the maximal gain of MAP and heart rate to R wave-triggered changes in carotid sinus transmural pressure. Whole body heating significantly decreased the responsiveness of the carotid-vasomotor baroreflex (from -0.20 +/- 0.02 to -0.13 +/- 0.02 mmHg/mmHg, P < 0.01) without altering the responsiveness of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex (from -0.40 +/- 0.05 to -0.36 +/- 0.02 beats x min(-1) x mmHg(-1), P = 0.21). Carotid-vasomotor and carotid-cardiac baroreflex curves were shifted downward and upward, respectively, to accommodate the decrease in blood pressure and increase in heart rate that accompanied the heat stress. Moreover, the operating point of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex was shifted closer to threshold (P = 0.02) by the heat stress. Reduced carotid-vasomotor baroreflex responsiveness, coupled with a reduction in the functional reserve for the carotid baroreflex to increase heart rate during a hypotensive challenge, may contribute to increased susceptibility to orthostatic intolerance during a heat stress.

  13. Carotid baroreflex responsiveness in heat-stressed humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of whole body heating on human baroreflex function are relatively unknown. The purpose of this project was to identify whether whole body heating reduces the maximal slope of the carotid baroreflex. In 12 subjects, carotid-vasomotor and carotid-cardiac baroreflex responsiveness were assessed in normothermia and during whole body heating. Whole body heating increased sublingual temperature (from 36.4 +/- 0.1 to 37.4 +/- 0.1 degrees C, P < 0.01) and increased heart rate (from 59 +/- 3 to 83 +/- 3 beats/min, P < 0. 01), whereas mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was slightly decreased (from 88 +/- 2 to 83 +/- 2 mmHg, P < 0.01). Carotid-vasomotor and carotid-cardiac responsiveness were assessed by identifying the maximal gain of MAP and heart rate to R wave-triggered changes in carotid sinus transmural pressure. Whole body heating significantly decreased the responsiveness of the carotid-vasomotor baroreflex (from -0.20 +/- 0.02 to -0.13 +/- 0.02 mmHg/mmHg, P < 0.01) without altering the responsiveness of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex (from -0.40 +/- 0.05 to -0.36 +/- 0.02 beats x min(-1) x mmHg(-1), P = 0.21). Carotid-vasomotor and carotid-cardiac baroreflex curves were shifted downward and upward, respectively, to accommodate the decrease in blood pressure and increase in heart rate that accompanied the heat stress. Moreover, the operating point of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex was shifted closer to threshold (P = 0.02) by the heat stress. Reduced carotid-vasomotor baroreflex responsiveness, coupled with a reduction in the functional reserve for the carotid baroreflex to increase heart rate during a hypotensive challenge, may contribute to increased susceptibility to orthostatic intolerance during a heat stress.

  14. Forearm Neurovascular Responses During Mental Stress and Vestibular Activation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    demonstrating that nitric oxide (7, 9, 10) and circulating epinephrine (13) contrib- ute to the forearm vasodilation during MS, but neural mecha- nisms remain... vestibular afferents , other visceral afferents , and anxiety signals from the central amygdaloid nucleus. Jacob et al. (11) present data that the autonomic...AA, Cannon RO III, and Panza JA. Role of nitric oxide in the vasodilator response to mental stress in normal subjects. Am J Cardiol 80: 1070–1074

  15. Adaptations in endocannabinoid signaling in response to repeated homotypic stress: a novel mechanism for stress habituation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sachin; Hillard, Cecilia J

    2008-06-01

    Daily life stressors are a major environmental factor contributing to precipitation and exacerbation of mental illness. Animal models using repeated homotypic stress induce anxious and depressive phenotypes and are used to study the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Here we discuss data demonstrating that repeated homotypic stress produces temporally and anatomically distinct changes in endocannabinoid signaling components within stress-responsive brain regions. We also present evidence describing the neural and behavioral correlates of these adaptations in endocannabinoid signaling. These data support a role for endocannabinoid signaling in the central nervous system response to chronic, homotypic stress, and specifically in the process of stress-response habituation. The clinical implications of these findings for the pathophysiology and treatment of affective disorders are discussed.

  16. Aldehyde Dehydrogenases in Cellular Responses to Oxidative/electrophilic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surendra; Brocker, Chad; Koppaka, Vindhya; Ying, Chen; Jackson, Brian; Matsumoto, Akiko; Thompson, David C.; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continuously generated within living systems and the inability to manage ROS load leads to elevated oxidative stress and cell damage. Oxidative stress is coupled to the oxidative degradation of lipid membranes, also known as lipid peroxidation. This process generates over 200 types of aldehydes, many of which are highly reactive and toxic. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) metabolize endogenous and exogenous aldehydes and thereby mitigate oxidative/electrophilic stress in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. ALDHs are found throughout the evolutionary gamut, from single celled organisms to complex multicellular species. Not surprisingly, many ALDHs in evolutionarily distant, and seemingly unrelated, species perform similar functions, including protection against a variety of environmental stressors like dehydration and ultraviolet radiation. The ability to act as an ‘aldehyde scavenger’ during lipid peroxidation is another ostensibly universal ALDH function found across species. Up-regulation of ALDHs is a stress response in bacteria (environmental and chemical stress), plants (dehydration, salinity and oxidative stress), yeast (ethanol exposure and oxidative stress), Caenorhabditis elegans (lipid peroxidation) and mammals (oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation). Recent studies have also identified ALDH activity as an important feature of cancer stem cells. In these cells, ALDH expression helps abrogate oxidative stress and imparts resistance against chemotherapeutic agents such as oxazaphosphorine, taxane and platinum drugs. The ALDH superfamily represents a fundamentally important class of enzymes that significantly contributes to the management of electrophilic/oxidative stress within living systems. Mutations in various ALDHs are associated with a variety of pathological conditions in humans, underscoring the fundamental importance of these enzymes in physiological and pathological processes. PMID:23195683

  17. Mig-6, signal transduction, stress response and cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Wen; Vande Woude, George F

    2007-03-01

    The mitogen-inducible gene-6 (Mig-6) is an immediate early response gene encoding a nonkinase scaffolding adaptor protein. Mig-6 gene expression can be rapidly and robustly induced under both normal and pathological scenarios by factors including hormones, growth factors, and stresses. However, the precise role of Mig-6 has virtually been a mystery until recently, when we and others discovered that Mig-6 may play important roles in regulating stress response, maintaining homeostasis in tissues like joints or cardiac muscle, and functioning as a tumor suppressor. The discovery that Mig-6 acts as a negative feedback inhibitor of EGF receptor signaling through a direct, physical interaction with the EGF receptor opens a door for understanding the mechanism underlying Mig-6 function. Yet how Mig-6 fine tunes or integrates signal transduction in many pathophysiological situations remains to be determined. Here we will highlight recent discoveries on the role of Mig-6 in stress response, tissue homeostasis, and cancer development; review the transcriptional regulation of Mig-6 expression; share insight into its mechanism in regulating signal transduction; and discuss the paradox of its action modes under different pathophysiological conditions.

  18. MOF maintains transcriptional programs regulating cellular stress response.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, B N; Bechtel-Walz, W; Lucci, J; Karpiuk, O; Hild, I; Hartleben, B; Vornweg, J; Helmstädter, M; Sahyoun, A H; Bhardwaj, V; Stehle, T; Diehl, S; Kretz, O; Voss, A K; Thomas, T; Manke, T; Huber, T B; Akhtar, A

    2016-05-01

    MOF (MYST1, KAT8) is the major H4K16 lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) in Drosophila and mammals and is essential for embryonic development. However, little is known regarding the role of MOF in specific cell lineages. Here we analyze the differential role of MOF in proliferating and terminally differentiated tissues at steady state and under stress conditions. In proliferating cells, MOF directly binds and maintains the expression of genes required for cell cycle progression. In contrast, MOF is dispensable for terminally differentiated, postmitotic glomerular podocytes under physiological conditions. However, in response to injury, MOF is absolutely critical for podocyte maintenance in vivo. Consistently, we detect defective nuclear, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi structures, as well as presence of multivesicular bodies in vivo in podocytes lacking Mof following injury. Undertaking genome-wide expression analysis of podocytes, we uncover several MOF-regulated pathways required for stress response. We find that MOF, along with the members of the non-specific lethal but not the male-specific lethal complex, directly binds to genes encoding the lysosome, endocytosis and vacuole pathways, which are known regulators of podocyte maintenance. Thus, our work identifies MOF as a key regulator of cellular stress response in glomerular podocytes.

  19. MOF maintains transcriptional programs regulating cellular stress response

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, B N; Bechtel-Walz, W; Lucci, J; Karpiuk, O; Hild, I; Hartleben, B; Vornweg, J; Helmstädter, M; Sahyoun, A H; Bhardwaj, V; Stehle, T; Diehl, S; Kretz, O; Voss, A K; Thomas, T; Manke, T; Huber, T B; Akhtar, A

    2016-01-01

    MOF (MYST1, KAT8) is the major H4K16 lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) in Drosophila and mammals and is essential for embryonic development. However, little is known regarding the role of MOF in specific cell lineages. Here we analyze the differential role of MOF in proliferating and terminally differentiated tissues at steady state and under stress conditions. In proliferating cells, MOF directly binds and maintains the expression of genes required for cell cycle progression. In contrast, MOF is dispensable for terminally differentiated, postmitotic glomerular podocytes under physiological conditions. However, in response to injury, MOF is absolutely critical for podocyte maintenance in vivo. Consistently, we detect defective nuclear, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi structures, as well as presence of multivesicular bodies in vivo in podocytes lacking Mof following injury. Undertaking genome-wide expression analysis of podocytes, we uncover several MOF-regulated pathways required for stress response. We find that MOF, along with the members of the non-specific lethal but not the male-specific lethal complex, directly binds to genes encoding the lysosome, endocytosis and vacuole pathways, which are known regulators of podocyte maintenance. Thus, our work identifies MOF as a key regulator of cellular stress response in glomerular podocytes. PMID:26387537

  20. WRKY Transcription Factors: Molecular Regulation and Stress Responses in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Phukan, Ujjal J.; Jeena, Gajendra S.; Shukla, Rakesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Plants in their natural habitat have to face multiple stresses simultaneously. Evolutionary adaptation of developmental, physiological, and biochemical parameters give advantage over a single window of stress but not multiple. On the other hand transcription factors like WRKY can regulate diverse responses through a complicated network of genes. So molecular orchestration of WRKYs in plant may provide the most anticipated outcome of simultaneous multiple responses. Activation or repression through W-box and W-box like sequences is regulated at transcriptional, translational, and domain level. Because of the tight regulation involved in specific recognition and binding of WRKYs to downstream promoters, they have become promising candidate for crop improvement. Epigenetic, retrograde and proteasome mediated regulation enable WRKYs to attain the dynamic cellular homeostatic reprograming. Overexpression of several WRKYs face the paradox of having several beneficial affects but with some unwanted traits. These overexpression-associated undesirable phenotypes need to be identified and removed for proper growth, development and yeild. Taken together, we have highlighted the diverse regulation and multiple stress response of WRKYs in plants along with the future prospects in this field of research. PMID:27375634

  1. Cyclophilins and their possible role in the stress response

    PubMed Central

    Andreeva, Larisa; Heads, Richard; Green, Colin J

    1999-01-01

    Cyclophilins are proteins which are remarkably conserved through evolution; moreover they have been found in every possible existing organism, which indicates their fundamental importance. Due to their enzymatic properties, multiplicity, cellular localization and role in protein folding they belong to the group of proteins termed molecular chaperones. All the proteins of the cyclophilin family possess enzymatic peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity (PPI-ase), which is essential to protein folding in vivo. Recently PPI-ase activity was suggested as playing a role in regulation of transcription and differentiation. However, not all cyclophilin functions are explained by PPI-ase activity. For instance, one of the cyclophilins plays a regulatory role in the heat shock response and the mitochondrial cyclophilin (Cyclophilin D) is an integral part of the mitochondrial permeability transition complex, which is regarded as having a crucial role in mechanisms of cell death. In support of a role in the stress response, the expression of certain cyclophilins has recently been shown to be up-regulated under various stressful conditions. Current evidence of functional involvement of cyclophilins in various intracellular pathways is reviewed along with the indications that cyclophilin D (Cyp D) represents a crucial part of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, which is detrimental in apoptotic and necrotic cell death. This review does not attempt to cover all the existing information related to cyclophilin family of proteins, but focus on the existing evidence of the involvement of these proteins in the intracellular stress response. PMID:10632780

  2. Gender affects sympathetic and hemodynamic response to postural stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, J. K.; Hogeman, C. S.; Khan, M.; Kimmerly, D. S.; Sinoway, L. I.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that differences in sympathetic reflex responses to head-up tilt (HUT) between males (n = 9) and females (n = 8) were associated with decrements in postural vasomotor responses in women. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; microneurography), heart rate, stroke volume (SV; Doppler), and blood pressure (Finapres) were measured during a progressive HUT protocol (5 min at each of supine, 20 degrees, 40 degrees, and 60 degrees ). MSNA and hemodynamic responses were also measured during the cold pressor test (CPT) to examine nonbaroreflex neurovascular control. SV was normalized to body surface area (SV(i)) to calculate the index of cardiac output (Q(i)), and total peripheral resistance (TPR). During HUT, heart rate increased more in females versus males (P < 0.001) and SV(i) and Q(i) decreased similarly in both groups. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased to a lesser extent in females versus males in the HUT (P < 0.01) but increases in TPR during HUT were similar. MSNA burst frequency was lower in females versus males in supine (P < 0.03) but increased similarly during HUT. Average amplitude/burst increased in 60 degrees HUT for males but not females. Both males and females demonstrated an increase in MAP as well as MSNA burst frequency, mean burst amplitude, and total MSNA during the CPT. However, compared with females, males demonstrated a greater neural response (DeltaTotal MSNA) due to a larger increase in mean burst amplitude (P < 0.05). Therefore, these data point to gender-specific autonomic responses to cardiovascular stress. The different MSNA response to postural stress between genders may contribute importantly to decrements in blood pressure control during HUT in females.

  3. Gender affects sympathetic and hemodynamic response to postural stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, J. K.; Hogeman, C. S.; Khan, M.; Kimmerly, D. S.; Sinoway, L. I.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that differences in sympathetic reflex responses to head-up tilt (HUT) between males (n = 9) and females (n = 8) were associated with decrements in postural vasomotor responses in women. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; microneurography), heart rate, stroke volume (SV; Doppler), and blood pressure (Finapres) were measured during a progressive HUT protocol (5 min at each of supine, 20 degrees, 40 degrees, and 60 degrees ). MSNA and hemodynamic responses were also measured during the cold pressor test (CPT) to examine nonbaroreflex neurovascular control. SV was normalized to body surface area (SV(i)) to calculate the index of cardiac output (Q(i)), and total peripheral resistance (TPR). During HUT, heart rate increased more in females versus males (P < 0.001) and SV(i) and Q(i) decreased similarly in both groups. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased to a lesser extent in females versus males in the HUT (P < 0.01) but increases in TPR during HUT were similar. MSNA burst frequency was lower in females versus males in supine (P < 0.03) but increased similarly during HUT. Average amplitude/burst increased in 60 degrees HUT for males but not females. Both males and females demonstrated an increase in MAP as well as MSNA burst frequency, mean burst amplitude, and total MSNA during the CPT. However, compared with females, males demonstrated a greater neural response (DeltaTotal MSNA) due to a larger increase in mean burst amplitude (P < 0.05). Therefore, these data point to gender-specific autonomic responses to cardiovascular stress. The different MSNA response to postural stress between genders may contribute importantly to decrements in blood pressure control during HUT in females.

  4. Stress responses of human dermal fibroblasts exposed to zinc pyrithione.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Emil; Cervinka, Miroslav

    2011-07-28

    Zinc pyrithione is used as a topical agent in a range of medicinal and cosmetic applications. Despite its extensive use and reported beneficial effects in treatment of various dermal problems, its potential toxicity towards skin cells remains relatively underexplored. In this work we investigated effects of nM zinc pyrithione on cell stress response pathways of primary human skin fibroblasts during 24h of exposure. We demonstrate that zinc pyrithione-induced cytotoxity in dermal fibroblasts is dose-dependent and it associates with increased intracellular zinc concentrations and activated stress response pathways including p53 and stress kinase p38. Higher zinc pyrithione concentrations (500nM and above) stimulate oxidative stress and moderate DNA damage which occur in the presence of activated p38 kinase. Cells further upregulate the expression of p53 which increases its transcriptional activity while mitogenic signaling exemplified by mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) expression is suppressed and these steps lead to mitochondrial, caspase-dependent apoptosis. Conversely, lower zinc concentrations (125nM) fail to induce oxidative stress and significant DNA damage; however, treated cells still activate p38 and upregulate the expression and transcriptional activity of p53 and its target gene p21 as well as the expression of p16 in the presence of active mTOR pathway and a changed DNA methylation pattern. The end result is premature senescence phenotype. Specific pharmacological inhibitors as well as gene knockdown technology prove that an interaction between p38, p53 and mTOR might be responsible for these observed endpoints. Taken together, exposure of dermal fibroblasts to varying concentrations of zinc pyrithione may result in either cell death-apoptosis or cellular premature senescence which attests to the ability of this compound to affect this type of cells in an in vitro model system.

  5. The unfolded protein response regulates an angiogenic response by the kidney epithelium during ischemic stress.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Nicolas; Fougeray, Sophie; Beaune, Philippe; Thervet, Eric; Pallet, Nicolas

    2012-04-27

    Ischemic injuries permanently affect kidney tissue and challenge cell viability, promoting inflammation and fibrogenesis. Ischemia results in nutrient deprivation, which triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress, ultimately resulting in the unfolded protein response (UPR). The aim of this study was to test whether the UPR could promote an angiogenic response independently of the HIF-1α pathway during ischemic stress in the human kidney epithelium. Glucose deprivation induced the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and angiogenin (ANG) in human kidney epithelial cells independently of HIF-1α. Glucose deprivation, but not hypoxia, triggered endoplasmic reticulum stress and activated the UPR. RNA interference-mediated inhibition of the gene encoding the kinase PERK decreased VEGFA and bFGF expression, but neither gene was affected by the inhibition of IRE1α or ATF6. Furthermore, we show that the expression of angiogenin, which inhibits protein synthesis, is regulated by both IRE1α and PERK, which could constitute a complementary function of the UPR in the repression of translation. In a rat model of acute ischemic stress, we show that the UPR is activated in parallel with VEGFA, bFGF, and ANG expression and independently of HIF-1α.

  6. Gene Expression Dynamics Accompanying the Sponge Thermal Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Christine; Conaco, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Marine sponges are important members of coral reef ecosystems. Thus, their responses to changes in ocean chemistry and environmental conditions, particularly to higher seawater temperatures, will have potential impacts on the future of these reefs. To better understand the sponge thermal stress response, we investigated gene expression dynamics in the shallow water sponge, Haliclona tubifera (order Haplosclerida, class Demospongiae), subjected to elevated temperature. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we show that these conditions result in the activation of various processes that interact to maintain cellular homeostasis. Short-term thermal stress resulted in the induction of heat shock proteins, antioxidants, and genes involved in signal transduction and innate immunity pathways. Prolonged exposure to thermal stress affected the expression of genes involved in cellular damage repair, apoptosis, signaling and transcription. Interestingly, exposure to sublethal temperatures may improve the ability of the sponge to mitigate cellular damage under more extreme stress conditions. These insights into the potential mechanisms of adaptation and resilience of sponges contribute to a better understanding of sponge conservation status and the prediction of ecosystem trajectories under future climate conditions. PMID:27788197

  7. Flavivirus Infection Uncouples Translation Suppression from Cellular Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Hanna; Magg, Vera; Uch, Fabian; Mutz, Pascal; Klein, Philipp; Haneke, Katharina; Lohmann, Volker; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Fackler, Oliver T.; Locker, Nicolas; Stoecklin, Georg

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT As obligate parasites, viruses strictly depend on host cell translation for the production of new progeny, yet infected cells also synthesize antiviral proteins to limit virus infection. Modulation of host cell translation therefore represents a frequent strategy by which viruses optimize their replication and spread. Here we sought to define how host cell translation is regulated during infection of human cells with dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), two positive-strand RNA flaviviruses. Polysome profiling and analysis of de novo protein synthesis revealed that flavivirus infection causes potent repression of host cell translation, while synthesis of viral proteins remains efficient. Selective repression of host cell translation was mediated by the DENV polyprotein at the level of translation initiation. In addition, DENV and ZIKV infection suppressed host cell stress responses such as the formation of stress granules and phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α (α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2). Mechanistic analyses revealed that translation repression was uncoupled from the disruption of stress granule formation and eIF2α signaling. Rather, DENV infection induced p38-Mnk1 signaling that resulted in the phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E and was essential for the efficient production of virus particles. Together, these results identify the uncoupling of translation suppression from the cellular stress responses as a conserved strategy by which flaviviruses ensure efficient replication in human cells. PMID:28074025

  8. Roles of horseradish peroxidase in response to terbium stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing

    2014-10-01

    The pollution of the environment by rare earth elements (REEs) causes deleterious effects on plants. Peroxidase plays important roles in plant response to various environmental stresses. Here, to further understand the overall roles of peroxidase in response to REE stress, the effects of the REE terbium ion (Tb(3+)) on the peroxidase activity and H2O2 and lignin contents in the leaves and roots of horseradish during different growth stages were simultaneously investigated. The results showed that after 24 and 48 h of Tb(3+) treatment, the peroxidase activity in horseradish leaves decreased, while the H2O2 and lignin contents increased. After a long-term (8 and 16 days) treatment with Tb(3+), these effects were also observed in the roots. The analysis of the changes in peroxidase activity and H2O2 and lignin contents revealed that peroxidase plays important roles in not only reactive oxygen species scavenging but also cell wall lignification in horseradish under Tb(3+) stress. These roles were closely related to the dose of Tb(3+), duration of stress, and growth stages of horseradish.

  9. Circadian control of β-cell function and stress responses.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Liu, R; de Jesus, D; Kim, B S; Ma, K; Moulik, M; Yechoor, V

    2015-09-01

    Circadian disruption is the bane of modern existence and its deleterious effects on health; in particular, diabetes and metabolic syndrome have been well recognized in shift workers. Recent human studies strongly implicate a 'dose-dependent' relationship between circadian disruption and diabetes. Genetic and environmental disruption of the circadian clock in rodents leads to diabetes secondary to β-cell failure. Deletion of Bmal1, a non-redundant core clock gene, leads to defects in β-cell stimulus-secretion coupling, decreased glucose-stimulated ATP production, uncoupling of OXPHOS and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Both genetic and environmental circadian disruptions are sufficient to induce oxidative stress and this is mediated by a disruption of the direct transcriptional control of the core molecular clock and Bmal1 on Nrf2, the master antioxidant transcription factor in the β-cell. In addition, circadian disruption also leads to a dysregulation of the unfolded protein response and leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress in β-cells. Both the oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contribute to an impairment of mitochondrial function and β-cell failure. Understanding the basis of the circadian control of these adaptive stress responses offers hope to target them for pharmacological modulation to prevent and mitigate the deleterious metabolic consequences of circadian disruption.

  10. Peripheral vascular responses to heat stress after hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Looft-Wilson, Robin C.; Gisolfi, Carl V.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether hindlimb suspension (which simulates the effects of microgravity) results in impaired hemodynamic responses to heat stress or alterations in mesenteric small artery sympathetic nerve innervation. METHODS: Over 28 d, 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats were hindlimb-suspended, and 13 control rats were housed in the same type of cage. After the treatment, mean arterial pressure (MAP), colonic temperature (Tcol), and superior mesenteric and iliac artery resistances (using Doppler flowmetry) were measured during heat stress [exposure to 42 degrees C until the endpoint of 80 mm Hg blood pressure was reached (75 +/- 9 min); endpoint Tcore = 43.6 +/- 0.2] while rats were anesthetized (sodium pentobarbital, 50 mg x kg(-1) BW). RESULTS: Hindlimb-suspended and control rats exhibited similar increases in Tcol, MAP, and superior mesenteric artery resistance, and similar decreases in iliac resistance during heat stress (endpoint was a fall in MAP below 80 mm Hg). Tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining indicated similar sympathetic nerve innervation in small mesenteric arteries from both groups. CONCLUSION: Hindlimb suspension does not alter the hemodynamic or thermoregulatory responses to heat stress in the anesthetized rat or mesenteric sympathetic nerve innervation, suggesting that this sympathetic pathway is intact.

  11. Peripheral vascular responses to heat stress after hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Looft-Wilson, Robin C.; Gisolfi, Carl V.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether hindlimb suspension (which simulates the effects of microgravity) results in impaired hemodynamic responses to heat stress or alterations in mesenteric small artery sympathetic nerve innervation. METHODS: Over 28 d, 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats were hindlimb-suspended, and 13 control rats were housed in the same type of cage. After the treatment, mean arterial pressure (MAP), colonic temperature (Tcol), and superior mesenteric and iliac artery resistances (using Doppler flowmetry) were measured during heat stress [exposure to 42 degrees C until the endpoint of 80 mm Hg blood pressure was reached (75 +/- 9 min); endpoint Tcore = 43.6 +/- 0.2] while rats were anesthetized (sodium pentobarbital, 50 mg x kg(-1) BW). RESULTS: Hindlimb-suspended and control rats exhibited similar increases in Tcol, MAP, and superior mesenteric artery resistance, and similar decreases in iliac resistance during heat stress (endpoint was a fall in MAP below 80 mm Hg). Tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining indicated similar sympathetic nerve innervation in small mesenteric arteries from both groups. CONCLUSION: Hindlimb suspension does not alter the hemodynamic or thermoregulatory responses to heat stress in the anesthetized rat or mesenteric sympathetic nerve innervation, suggesting that this sympathetic pathway is intact.

  12. Convergent Induction of Osmotic Stress-Responses 1

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, John C.; McElwain, Elizabeth F.; Bohnert, Hans J.

    1992-01-01

    In Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, salt stress induces the accumulation of proline and a specific isoform of the enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) prior to the switch from C3 to Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). To determine whether plant growth regulators initiate or imitate these responses, we have compared the effects elicited by NaCl, abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinins using PEPCase and proline levels as diagnostic tools. Exogenously applied ABA is a poor substitute for NaCl in inducing proline and CAM-specific PEPCase accumulation. Even though ABA levels increase 8- to 10-fold in leaves during salt stress, inhibition of ABA accumulation does not affect these salt-induced responses. In contrast, the addition of cytokinins (6-benzylaminopurine, zeatin, 2-isopentyladenine) mimic salt by greatly increasing proline and PEPCase amounts. Endogenous zeatin levels remain unchanged during salt stress. We conclude: (a) The salt-induced accumulation of proline and PEPCase is coincident with, but is not attributable to, the rise in ABA or zeatin concentration. (b) For the first time, cytokinins and NaCl are implicated as independent initiators of a sensing pathway that signals leaves to alter PEPCase gene expression. (c) During stress, the sensing of osmotic imbalances leading to ABA, proline, and CAM-specific PEPCase accumulation may be mediated directly by NaCl. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:16652978

  13. Osmotic stress response in the wine yeast Dekkera bruxellensis.

    PubMed

    Galafassi, Silvia; Toscano, Marco; Vigentini, Ileana; Piškur, Jure; Compagno, Concetta

    2013-12-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis is mainly associated with lambic beer fermentation and wine production and may contribute in a positive or negative manner to the flavor development. This yeast is able to produce phenolic compounds, such as 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-ethylphenol which could spoil the wine, depending on their concentration. In this work we have investigated how this yeast responds when exposed to conditions causing osmotic stress, as high sorbitol or salt concentrations. We observed that osmotic stress determined the production and accumulation of intracellular glycerol, and the expression of NADH-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) activity was elevated. The involvement of the HOG MAPK pathway in response to this stress condition was also investigated. We show that in D. bruxellensis Hog1 protein is activated by phosphorylation under hyperosmotic conditions, highlighting the conserved role of HOG MAP kinase signaling pathway in the osmotic stress response. Gene Accession numbers in GenBank: DbHOG1: JX65361, DbSTL1: JX965362. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxidative stress and antioxidant response in a thermotolerant yeast.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Barajas, Jorge A; Montoya-Pérez, Rocío; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; Cortés-Rojo, Christian; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo; Arellano-Plaza, Melchor; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo

    Stress tolerance is a key attribute that must be considered when using yeast cells for industrial applications. High temperature is one factor that can cause stress in yeast. High environmental temperature in particular may exert a natural selection pressure to evolve yeasts into thermotolerant strains. In the present study, three yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, MC4, and Kluyveromyces marxianus, OFF1 and SLP1) isolated from hot environments were exposed to increased temperatures and were then compared with a laboratory yeast strain. Their resistance to high temperature, oxidative stress, and antioxidant response were evaluated, along with the fatty acid composition of their cell membranes. The SLP1 strain showed a higher specific growth rate, biomass yield, and biomass volumetric productivity while also showing lower duplication time, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and lipid peroxidation. In addition, the SLP1 strain demonstrated more catalase activity after temperature was increased, and this strain also showed membranes enriched in saturated fatty acids. It is concluded that the SLP1 yeast strain is a thermotolerant yeast with less oxidative stress and a greater antioxidant response. Therefore, this strain could be used for fermentation at high temperatures.

  15. Oxidative Stress Responses in the Human Fungal Pathogen, Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Dantas, Alessandra; Day, Alison; Ikeh, Mélanie; Kos, Iaroslava; Achan, Beatrice; Quinn, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans, causing approximately 400,000 life-threatening systemic infections world-wide each year in severely immunocompromised patients. An important fungicidal mechanism employed by innate immune cells involves the generation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Consequently, there is much interest in the strategies employed by C. albicans to evade the oxidative killing by macrophages and neutrophils. Our understanding of how C. albicans senses and responds to ROS has significantly increased in recent years. Key findings include the observations that hydrogen peroxide triggers the filamentation of this polymorphic fungus and that a superoxide dismutase enzyme with a novel mode of action is expressed at the cell surface of C. albicans. Furthermore, recent studies have indicated that combinations of the chemical stresses generated by phagocytes can actively prevent C. albicans oxidative stress responses through a mechanism termed the stress pathway interference. In this review, we present an up-date of our current understanding of the role and regulation of oxidative stress responses in this important human fungal pathogen. PMID:25723552

  16. Oxidative stress contributes to autophagy induction in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martín, Marta; Pérez-Pérez, María Esther; Lemaire, Stéphane D; Crespo, José L

    2014-10-01

    The accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in the activation of stress responses, such as the unfolded protein response or the catabolic process of autophagy to ultimately recover cellular homeostasis. ER stress also promotes the production of reactive oxygen species, which play an important role in autophagy regulation. However, it remains unknown whether reactive oxygen species are involved in ER stress-induced autophagy. In this study, we provide evidence connecting redox imbalance caused by ER stress and autophagy activation in the model unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Treatment of C. reinhardtii cells with the ER stressors tunicamycin or dithiothreitol resulted in up-regulation of the expression of genes encoding ER resident endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin1 oxidoreductase and protein disulfide isomerases. ER stress also triggered autophagy in C. reinhardtii based on the protein abundance, lipidation, cellular distribution, and mRNA levels of the autophagy marker ATG8. Moreover, increases in the oxidation of the glutathione pool and the expression of oxidative stress-related genes were detected in tunicamycin-treated cells. Our results revealed that the antioxidant glutathione partially suppressed ER stress-induced autophagy and decreased the toxicity of tunicamycin, suggesting that oxidative stress participates in the control of autophagy in response to ER stress in C. reinhardtii In close agreement, we also found that autophagy activation by tunicamycin was more pronounced in the C. reinhardtii sor1 mutant, which shows increased expression of oxidative stress-related genes.

  17. Understanding the adaptive response in vertebrates: the phenomenon of ease and ease response during post-stress acclimation.

    PubMed

    Subhash Peter, M C

    2013-01-15

    Vertebrates have evolved mechanisms to perceive stressors that arise either from their body or from the environment. Consequently, a state of stress and stress response occur in fish which is characterized by a disturbed physiological homeostasis. The pattern of stress response becomes complex as a result of neuroendocrine involvement and shows varied magnitudes in fishes depending on the nature and the severity of stressors. The integrated and compensatory physiological modifications in fishes during their early phase of adaptive response favor them to accommodate the imposed stressor through the process of stress acclimation. In contrast, with the direction of neuroendocrine signals, a phase of recovery often called post-stress acclimation occurs if the animal gets away from the stressor exposure. During this late phase of adaptive response, physiological modifications operate in favor of the animal that reduces the magnitude of stress response and finally to a phase of normality as animals possess the urge to correct its disrupted homeostasis. The phenomenon of ease and its response thus reduces the allostatic load, resets the homeostatic state through physiologic processes and corrects the stress-induced homeostatic disturbance with the aid of neuroendocrine signals. Ample evidences are now available to support this novel concept of ease and ease response where mitigation of the intensity of stress response occurs physiologically. Treatment of fish with melatonin or serotonin precursor tryptophan can modify the magnitude of stress response as evident in the pattern of tested physiological indices. In addition to cortisol, thyroid hormone as a major stress modifier hormone is involved in the regulation of ease response in fish probably due to the mechanisms involving inter-hormonal interference. Understanding the mechanisms of adaptive responses in vertebrates thus warranties more studies on the physiology of ease and its response.

  18. Dose response relationship in anti-stress gene regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Andersen, Melvin E

    2007-03-02

    To maintain a stable intracellular environment, cells utilize complex and specialized defense systems against a variety of external perturbations, such as electrophilic stress, heat shock, and hypoxia, etc. Irrespective of the type of stress, many adaptive mechanisms contributing to cellular homeostasis appear to operate through gene regulatory networks that are organized into negative feedback loops. In general, the degree of deviation of the controlled variables, such as electrophiles, misfolded proteins, and O2, is first detected by specialized sensor molecules, then the signal is transduced to specific transcription factors. Transcription factors can regulate the expression of a suite of anti-stress genes, many of which encode enzymes functioning to counteract the perturbed variables. The objective of this study was to explore, using control theory and computational approaches, the theoretical basis that underlies the steady-state dose response relationship between cellular stressors and intracellular biochemical species (controlled variables, transcription factors, and gene products) in these gene regulatory networks. Our work indicated that the shape of dose response curves (linear, superlinear, or sublinear) depends on changes in the specific values of local response coefficients (gains) distributed in the feedback loop. Multimerization of anti-stress enzymes and transcription factors into homodimers, homotrimers, or even higher-order multimers, play a significant role in maintaining robust homeostasis. Moreover, our simulation noted that dose response curves for the controlled variables can transition sequentially through four distinct phases as stressor level increases: initial superlinear with lesser control, superlinear more highly controlled, linear uncontrolled, and sublinear catastrophic. Each phase relies on specific gain-changing events that come into play as stressor level increases. The low-dose region is intrinsically nonlinear, and depending on

  19. Extensive Translatome Remodeling during ER Stress Response in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ventoso, Iván; Kochetov, Alex; Montaner, David; Dopazo, Joaquín; Santoyo, Javier

    2012-01-01

    In this work we have described the translatome of two mammalian cell lines, NIH3T3 and Jurkat, by scoring the relative polysome association of ∼10,000 mRNA under normal and ER stress conditions. We have found that translation efficiencies of mRNA correlated poorly with transcript abundance, although a general tendency was observed so that the highest translation efficiencies were found in abundant mRNA. Despite the differences found between mouse (NIH3T3) and human (Jurkat) cells, both cell types share a common translatome composed by ∼800–900 mRNA that encode proteins involved in basic cellular functions. Upon stress, an extensive remodeling in translatomes was observed so that translation of ∼50% of mRNA was inhibited in both cell types, this effect being more dramatic for those mRNA that accounted for most of the cell translation. Interestingly, we found two subsets comprising 1000–1500 mRNA whose translation resisted or was induced by stress. Translation arrest resistant class includes many mRNA encoding aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, ATPases and enzymes involved in DNA replication and stress response such as BiP. This class of mRNA is characterized by high translation rates in both control and stress conditions. Translation inducible class includes mRNA whose translation was relieved after stress, showing a high enrichment in early response transcription factors of bZIP and zinc finger C2H2 classes. Unlike yeast, a general coordination between changes in translation and transcription upon stress (potentiation) was not observed in mammalian cells. Among the different features of mRNA analyzed, we found a relevant association of translation efficiency with the presence of upstream ATG in the 5′UTR and with the length of coding sequence of mRNA, and a looser association with other parameters such as the length and the G+C content of 5′UTR. A model for translatome remodeling during the acute phase of stress response in mammalian cells is proposed. PMID

  20. The transcriptional regulatory network in the drought response and its crosstalk in abiotic stress responses including drought, cold, and heat

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops around the world. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in the drought response is important for improvement of drought tolerance using molecular techniques. In plants, abscisic acid (ABA) is accumulated under osmotic stress conditions caused by drought, and has a key role in stress responses and tolerance. Comprehensive molecular analyses have shown that ABA regulates the expression of many genes under osmotic stress conditions, and the ABA-responsive element (ABRE) is the major cis-element for ABA-responsive gene expression. Transcription factors (TFs) are master regulators of gene expression. ABRE-binding protein and ABRE-binding factor TFs control gene expression in an ABA-dependent manner. SNF1-related protein kinases 2, group A 2C-type protein phosphatases, and ABA receptors were shown to control the ABA signaling pathway. ABA-independent signaling pathways such as dehydration-responsive element-binding protein TFs and NAC TFs are also involved in stress responses including drought, heat, and cold. Recent studies have suggested that there are interactions between the major ABA signaling pathway and other signaling factors in stress responses. The important roles of these TFs in crosstalk among abiotic stress responses will be discussed. Control of ABA or stress signaling factor expression can improve tolerance to environmental stresses. Recent studies using crops have shown that stress-specific overexpression of TFs improves drought tolerance and grain yield compared with controls in the field. PMID:24904597

  1. Energetic stress: The reciprocal relationship between energy availability and the stress response.

    PubMed

    Harrell, C S; Gillespie, C F; Neigh, G N

    2016-11-01

    The worldwide epidemic of metabolic syndromes and the recognized burden of mental health disorders have driven increased research into the relationship between the two. A maladaptive stress response is implicated in both mental health disorders and metabolic disorders, implicating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis as a key mediator of this relationship. This review explores how an altered energetic state, such as hyper- or hypoglycemia, as may be manifested in obesity or diabetes, affects the stress response and the HPA axis in particular. We propose that changes in energetic state or energetic demands can result in "energetic stress" that can, if prolonged, lead to a dysfunctional stress response. In this review, we summarize the role of the hypothalamus in modulating energy homeostasis and then briefly discuss the relationship between metabolism and stress-induced activation of the HPA axis. Next, we examine seven mechanisms whereby energetic stress interacts with neuroendocrine stress response systems, including by glucocorticoid signaling both within and beyond the HPA axis; by nutrient-induced changes in glucocorticoid signaling; by impacting the sympathetic nervous system; through changes in other neuroendocrine factors; by inducing inflammatory changes; and by altering the gut-brain axis. Recognizing these effects of energetic stress can drive novel therapies and prevention strategies for mental health disorders, including dietary intervention, probiotics, and even fecal transplant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Sensing in the Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Brooke M.; Pincus, David; Gotthardt, Katja; Gallagher, Ciara M.; Walter, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Secretory and transmembrane proteins enter the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as unfolded proteins and exit as either folded proteins in transit to their target organelles or as misfolded proteins targeted for degradation. The unfolded protein response (UPR) maintains the protein-folding homeostasis within the ER, ensuring that the protein-folding capacity of the ER meets the load of client proteins. Activation of the UPR depends on three ER stress sensor proteins, Ire1, PERK, and ATF6. Although the consequences of activation are well understood, how these sensors detect ER stress remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that yeast Ire1 directly binds to unfolded proteins, which induces its oligomerization and activation. BiP dissociation from Ire1 regulates this oligomeric equilibrium, ultimately modulating Ire1’s sensitivity and duration of activation. The mechanistic principles of ER stress sensing are the focus of this review. PMID:23388626

  3. Stress response in female veterans: an allostatic perspective.

    PubMed

    Groër, Maureen Wimberly; Burns, Candace

    2009-01-01

    Women serving in the military face many sources of stress, such as separation from home and family, sexual harassment and assault, and deployment to traumatic war zones. Some women are vulnerable to the effects of these stressors, resulting in deleterious mental and physical health outcomes. Understanding these risks through the theoretical model of allostasis can help identify those who will be most vulnerable and help healthcare providers prevent some negative outcomes and improve rehabilitation for some women when they return stateside. Women may be more likely than men to present with mental health problems such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression after military service. They also may be at increased risk, based on their war-zone stress response, for disparate illness such as medically unexplained illness, cancer, and heart disease. The need for care for these women is expected to increase as more women are deployed to conflicts.

  4. Cotranslational response to proteotoxic stress by elongation pausing of ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Botao; Han, Yan; Qian, Shu-Bing

    2013-02-07

    Translational control permits cells to respond swiftly to a changing environment. Rapid attenuation of global protein synthesis under stress conditions has been largely ascribed to the inhibition of translation initiation. Here we report that intracellular proteotoxic stress reduces global protein synthesis by halting ribosomes on transcripts during elongation. Deep sequencing of ribosome-protected messenger RNA (mRNA) fragments reveals an early elongation pausing, roughly at the site where nascent polypeptide chains emerge from the ribosomal exit tunnel. Inhibiting endogenous chaperone molecules by a dominant-negative mutant or chemical inhibitors recapitulates the early elongation pausing, suggesting a dual role of molecular chaperones in facilitating polypeptide elongation and cotranslational folding. Our results further support the chaperone "trapping" mechanism in promoting the passage of nascent chains. Our study reveals that translating ribosomes fine tune the elongation rate by sensing the intracellular folding environment. The early elongation pausing represents a cotranslational stress response to maintain the intracellular protein homeostasis.

  5. Mitochondria, Energetics, Epigenetics, and Cellular Responses to Stress

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Kimberly; Worth, Leroy; Haugen, Astrid C.; Meyer, Joel N.; Domann, Frederick E.; Van Houten, Bennett; Mostoslavsky, Raul; Bultman, Scott J.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Begley, Thomas J.; Sobol, Robert W.; Hirschey, Matthew D.; Ideker, Trey; Santos, Janine H.; Copeland, William C.; Tice, Raymond R.; Balshaw, David M.; Tyson, Frederick L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cells respond to environmental stressors through several key pathways, including response to reactive oxygen species (ROS), nutrient and ATP sensing, DNA damage response (DDR), and epigenetic alterations. Mitochondria play a central role in these pathways not only through energetics and ATP production but also through metabolites generated in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, as well as mitochondria–nuclear signaling related to mitochondria morphology, biogenesis, fission/fusion, mitophagy, apoptosis, and epigenetic regulation. Objectives: We investigated the concept of bidirectional interactions between mitochondria and cellular pathways in response to environmental stress with a focus on epigenetic regulation, and we examined DNA repair and DDR pathways as examples of biological processes that respond to exogenous insults through changes in homeostasis and altered mitochondrial function. Methods: The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences sponsored the Workshop on Mitochondria, Energetics, Epigenetics, Environment, and DNA Damage Response on 25–26 March 2013. Here, we summarize key points and ideas emerging from this meeting. Discussion: A more comprehensive understanding of signaling mechanisms (cross-talk) between the mitochondria and nucleus is central to elucidating the integration of mitochondrial functions with other cellular response pathways in modulating the effects of environmental agents. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of mitochondrial functions in epigenetic regulation and DDR with environmental stress. Development and application of novel technologies, enhanced experimental models, and a systems-type research approach will help to discern how environmentally induced mitochondrial dysfunction affects key mechanistic pathways. Conclusions: Understanding mitochondria–cell signaling will provide insight into individual responses to environmental hazards, improving prediction of hazard and susceptibility to

  6. Responses of Yeast Biocontrol Agents to Environmental Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Yuan; Wisniewski, Michael; Droby, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Biological control of postharvest diseases, utilizing wild species and strains of antagonistic yeast species, is a research topic that has received considerable attention in the literature over the past 30 years. In principle, it represents a promising alternative to chemical fungicides for the management of postharvest decay of fruits, vegetables, and grains. A yeast-based biocontrol system is composed of a tritrophic interaction between a host (commodity), a pathogen, and a yeast species, all of which are affected by environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and UV light as well as osmotic and oxidative stresses. Additionally, during the production process, biocontrol agents encounter various severe abiotic stresses that also impact their viability. Therefore, understanding the ecological fitness of the potential yeast biocontrol agents and developing strategies to enhance their stress tolerance are essential to their efficacy and commercial application. The current review provides an overview of the responses of antagonistic yeast species to various environmental stresses, the methods that can be used to improve stress tolerance and efficacy, and the related mechanisms associated with improved stress tolerance. PMID:25710368

  7. Playing a rigged game: Inequality's effect on physiological stress responses.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Martin S; Rylant, Rhanda; de Lima, Amanda; Vidaurri, Andrea; van de Werfhorst, Herman

    2017-08-14

    High income and wealth inequality corresponds with high rates of various health and social problems. One possible factor that could be contributing to this correlation is stress experienced by those being treated unfairly in an unequal society. The present experiment attempted to simulate aspects of income inequality in a lab setting while recording several measures of stress. Participants (n=96) were assigned to one of four groups and played a memory game against a confederate opponent to earn "money" to spend in a lab market. The four groups depended on the difficulty of the problems and the fairness of the game that they and their opponents experienced. Stress attitudes were assessed with the Short Stress State Questionnaire (SSSQ) and four physiological measures: salivary cortisol, medial frontalis and corrugator facial muscle EMG, heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), and skin conductance levels (SCL). Cortisol levels and HRV scores were the highest in groups that competed in an unfair game regardless of the difficulty of the problem compared to the groups playing a fair game. The group playing an unfair game with hard problems (disadvantaged) also had elevated facial muscle activity indicating negative affect and reported higher distress on the stress questionnaire. The results of this experiment showed that experiencing inequality even for a short time elicited several stress responses even if the participant benefited from the inequality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Hostility, sodium consumption, and cardiovascular response to interpersonal stress.

    PubMed

    Miller, S B; Friese, M; Dolgoy, L; Sita, A; Lavoie, K; Campbell, T

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies have reported poorer health behaviors in high vs. low hostile subjects. The role of stress in these observed differences has not been explored although interpersonal stress does increase cardiovascular response in high hostiles. Given evidence that stress may induce increased salt-intake, this study examined the role of hostility and interpersonal stress in increasing sodium consumption in addition to cardiovascular reactivity. Sixty-nine male undergraduates were categorized into high (HiHo) and low hostile (LoHo) groups based on Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory scores. Subjects engaged in either a math task with harassment, math task without harassment, or a control/rest condition. Sodium intake was assessed posttask by having subjects ingest a sodium-free soup that was presented with a saltshaker without any comments. Cardiovascular measures were also recorded. HiHo subjects consumed more salt than LoHo subjects irrespective of experimental condition. HiHo subjects who were harassed also exhibited greater cardiac output, systolic blood pressure, and forearm blood flow than did HiHo nonharassed, HiHo control, or LoHo subjects. HiHo subjects exhibited increased salt-intake, although evidence for stress-induced salt-intake was not obtained. Nonetheless, the combination of salt and stress may contribute to the cardiovascular hyperreactivity and risk for cardiovascular disease in hostile individuals.

  9. Low-stress and high-stress singing have contrasting effects on glucocorticoid response

    PubMed Central

    Fancourt, Daisy; Aufegger, Lisa; Williamon, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Performing music in public is widely recognized as a potentially stress-inducing activity. However, despite the interest in music performance as an acute psychosocial stressor, there has been relatively little research on the effects of public performance on the endocrine system. This study examined the impact of singing in a low-stress performance situation and a high-stress live concert on levels of glucocorticoids (cortisol and cortisone) in 15 professional singers. The results showed a significant decrease in both cortisol and cortisone across the low-stress condition, suggesting that singing in itself is a stress-reducing (and possibly health-promoting) activity, but significant increases across the high-stress condition. This is the first study to demonstrate that singing affects cortisol as well as cortisone responses and that these responses are modulated by the conditions of performance. PMID:26388794

  10. Response of human cells to desiccation: comparison with hyperosmotic stress response

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zebo; Tunnacliffe, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Increasing interest in anhydrobiosis (‘life without water’) has prompted the use of mammalian cells as a model in which candidate adaptations suspected of conferring desiccation tolerance can be tested. Despite this, there is no information on whether mammalian cells are able to sense and respond to desiccation. We have therefore examined the effect of desiccation on stress signalling pathways and on genes which are proposed to be expressed in response to water loss through osmotic stress. Depending on the severity of the drying regime, human cells survived for at least 24 h. Both SAPK/JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were activated within 30 min by desiccation as well as by all osmotica tested, and therefore MAPK pathways probably play an important role in both responses. Gene induction profiles differed under the two stress conditions, however: quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments showed that AR, BGT-1 and SMIT, which encode proteins governing organic osmolyte accumulation, were induced by hypersalinity but not by desiccation. This was surprising, since these genes have been proposed to be regulated by ionic strength and cell volume, both of which should be significantly affected in drying cells. Further investigation demonstrated that AR, BGT-1 and SMIT expression was dependent on the nature of the osmolyte. This suggests that their regulation involves factors other than intracellular ionic strength and cell volume changes, consistent with the lack of induction by desiccation. Our results show for the first time that human cells react rapidly to desiccation by MAPK activation, and that the response partially overlaps with that to hyperosmotic stress. PMID:15146043

  11. Biology and therapy of fibromyalgia. Stress, the stress response system, and fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Lavin, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Stress is a state of disharmony, or threatened homeostasis. A stressor could have a psychological origin or a biological origin. Societies have become more intricate with industrialization, and modern individuals try to adapt to the new defiance by forcing their stress response system. The main component of the stress response network is the autonomic nervous system. The present article reviews current knowledge on autonomic dysfunction in fibromyalgia. Sympathetic hyperactivity has been consistently described by diverse groups of investigators. Fibromyalgia is proposed to be a sympathetically maintained neuropathic pain syndrome, and genomic data support this contention. Autonomic dysfunction may also explain other fibromyalgia features not related to pain. PMID:17626613

  12. Transcriptomic Characterization of Temperature Stress Responses in Larval Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Long, Yong; Li, Linchun; Li, Qing; He, Xiaozhen; Cui, Zongbin

    2012-01-01

    Temperature influences nearly all biochemical, physiological and life history activities of fish, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the temperature acclimation remains largely unknown. Previous studies have identified many temperature-regulated genes in adult tissues; however, the transcriptional responses of fish larvae to temperature stress are not well understood. In this study, we characterized the transcriptional responses in larval zebrafish exposed to cold or heat stress using microarray analysis. In comparison with genes expressed in the control at 28°C, a total of 2680 genes were found to be affected in 96 hpf larvae exposed to cold (16°C) or heat (34°C) for 2 and 48h and most of these genes were expressed in a temperature-specific and temporally regulated manner. Bioinformatic analysis identified multiple temperature-regulated biological processes and pathways. Biological processes overrepresented among the earliest genes induced by temperature stress include regulation of transcription, nucleosome assembly, chromatin organization and protein folding. However, processes such as RNA processing, cellular metal ion homeostasis and protein transport and were enriched in genes up-regulated under cold exposure for 48 h. Pathways such as mTOR signalling, p53 signalling and circadian rhythm were enriched among cold-induced genes, while adipocytokine signalling, protein export and arginine and praline metabolism were enriched among heat-induced genes. Although most of these biological processes and pathways were specifically regulated by cold or heat, common responses to both cold and heat stresses were also found. Thus, these findings provide new interesting clues for elucidation of mechanisms underlying the temperature acclimation in fish. PMID:22666345

  13. Transcriptomic characterization of temperature stress responses in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Long, Yong; Li, Linchun; Li, Qing; He, Xiaozhen; Cui, Zongbin

    2012-01-01

    Temperature influences nearly all biochemical, physiological and life history activities of fish, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the temperature acclimation remains largely unknown. Previous studies have identified many temperature-regulated genes in adult tissues; however, the transcriptional responses of fish larvae to temperature stress are not well understood. In this study, we characterized the transcriptional responses in larval zebrafish exposed to cold or heat stress using microarray analysis. In comparison with genes expressed in the control at 28 °C, a total of 2680 genes were found to be affected in 96 hpf larvae exposed to cold (16 °C) or heat (34 °C) for 2 and 48h and most of these genes were expressed in a temperature-specific and temporally regulated manner. Bioinformatic analysis identified multiple temperature-regulated biological processes and pathways. Biological processes overrepresented among the earliest genes induced by temperature stress include regulation of transcription, nucleosome assembly, chromatin organization and protein folding. However, processes such as RNA processing, cellular metal ion homeostasis and protein transport and were enriched in genes up-regulated under cold exposure for 48 h. Pathways such as mTOR signalling, p53 signalling and circadian rhythm were enriched among cold-induced genes, while adipocytokine signalling, protein export and arginine and praline metabolism were enriched among heat-induced genes. Although most of these biological processes and pathways were specifically regulated by cold or heat, common responses to both cold and heat stresses were also found. Thus, these findings provide new interesting clues for elucidation of mechanisms underlying the temperature acclimation in fish.

  14. Autonomic mechanisms underpinning the stress response in borderline hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Šarenac, Olivera; Lozić, Maja; Drakulić, Srdja; Bajić, Dragana; Paton, Julian F; Murphy, David; Japundžić-Žigon, Nina

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) short-term variability and spontaneous baroreflex functioning in adult borderline hypertensive rats and normotensive control animals kept on normal-salt diet. Arterial pulse pressure was recorded by radio telemetry. Systolic BP, diastolic BP and HR variabilities and baroreflex were assessed by spectral analysis and the sequence method, respectively. In all experimental conditions (baseline and stress), borderline hypertensive rats exhibited higher BP, increased baroreflex sensitivity and resetting, relative to control animals. Acute shaker stress (single exposure to 200 cycles min-1 shaking platform) increased BP in both strains, while chronic shaker stress (3-day exposure to shaking platform) increased systolic BP in borderline hypertensive rats alone. Low- and high-frequency HR variability increased only in control animals in response to acute and chronic shaker (single exposure to restrainer) stress. Acute restraint stress increased BP, HR, low- and high-frequency variability of BP and HR in both strains to a greater extent than acute shaker stress. Only normotensive rats exhibited a reduced ratio of low- to high-frequency HR variability, pointing to domination of vagal cardiac control. In borderline hypertensive rats, but not in control animals, chronic restraint stress (9-day exposure to restrainer) increased low- and high-frequency BP and HR variability and their ratio, indicating a shift towards sympathetic cardiovascular control. It is concluded that maintenance of BP in borderline hypertensive rats in basal conditions and during stress is associated with enhanced baroreflex sensitivity and resetting. Imbalance in sympathovagal control was evident only during exposure of borderline hypertensive rats to stressors. PMID:21421701

  15. Autonomic mechanisms underpinning the stress response in borderline hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Šarenac, Olivera; Lozić, Maja; Drakulić, Srdja; Bajić, Dragana; Paton, Julian F; Murphy, David; Japundžić-Žigon, Nina

    2011-06-01

    This study investigates blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) short-term variability and spontaneous baroreflex functioning in adult borderline hypertensive rats and normotensive control animals kept on normal-salt diet. Arterial pulse pressure was recorded by radio telemetry. Systolic BP, diastolic BP and HR variabilities and baroreflex were assessed by spectral analysis and the sequence method, respectively. In all experimental conditions (baseline and stress), borderline hypertensive rats exhibited higher BP, increased baroreflex sensitivity and resetting, relative to control animals. Acute shaker stress (single exposure to 200 cycles min-1 shaking platform) increased BP in both strains, while chronic shaker stress (3-day exposure to shaking platform) increased systolic BP in borderline hypertensive rats alone. Low- and high-frequency HR variability increased only in control animals in response to acute and chronic shaker (single exposure to restrainer) stress. Acute restraint stress increased BP, HR, low- and high-frequency variability of BP and HR in both strains to a greater extent than acute shaker stress. Only normotensive rats exhibited a reduced ratio of low- to high-frequency HR variability, pointing to domination of vagal cardiac control. In borderline hypertensive rats, but not in control animals, chronic restraint stress (9-day exposure to restrainer) increased low- and high-frequency BP and HR variability and their ratio, indicating a shift towards sympathetic cardiovascular control. It is concluded that maintenance of BP in borderline hypertensive rats in basal conditions and during stress is associated with enhanced baroreflex sensitivity and resetting. Imbalance in sympathovagal control was evident only during exposure of borderline hypertensive rats to stressors.

  16. The Unfolded Protein Response Supports Plant Development and Defense as well as Responses to Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yan; Howell, Stephen H.

    2017-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a stress response conserved in eukaryotic organisms and activated by the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Adverse environmental conditions disrupt protein folding in the ER and trigger the UPR. Recently, it was found that the UPR can be elicited in the course of plant development and defense. During vegetative plant development, the UPR is involved in normal root growth and development, the effect of which can be largely attributed to the influence of the UPR on plant hormone biology. The UPR also functions in plant reproductive development by protecting male gametophyte development from heat stress. In terms of defense, the UPR has been implicated in virus and microbial defense. Viral defense represents a double edge sword in that various virus infections activate the UPR, however, in a number of cases, the UPR actually supports viral infections. The UPR also plays a role in plant immunity to bacterial infections, again through the action of plant hormones in regulating basal immunity responses. PMID:28360918

  17. The yeast environmental stress response regulates mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Shor, Erika; Fox, Catherine A; Broach, James R

    2013-01-01

    Conditions of chronic stress are associated with genetic instability in many organisms, but the roles of stress responses in mutagenesis have so far been elucidated only in bacteria. Here, we present data demonstrating that the environmental stress response (ESR) in yeast functions in mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress. We show that the drug canavanine causes proteotoxic stress, activates the ESR, and induces mutagenesis at several loci in an ESR-dependent manner. Canavanine-induced mutagenesis also involves translesion DNA polymerases Rev1 and Polζ and non-homologous end joining factor Ku. Furthermore, under conditions of chronic sub-lethal canavanine stress, deletions of Rev1, Polζ, and Ku-encoding genes exhibit genetic interactions with ESR mutants indicative of ESR regulating these mutagenic DNA repair processes. Analyses of mutagenesis induced by several different stresses showed that the ESR specifically modulates mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress. Together, these results document the first known example of an involvement of a eukaryotic stress response pathway in mutagenesis and have important implications for mechanisms of evolution, carcinogenesis, and emergence of drug-resistant pathogens and chemotherapy-resistant tumors.

  18. The Yeast Environmental Stress Response Regulates Mutagenesis Induced by Proteotoxic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shor, Erika; Fox, Catherine A.; Broach, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Conditions of chronic stress are associated with genetic instability in many organisms, but the roles of stress responses in mutagenesis have so far been elucidated only in bacteria. Here, we present data demonstrating that the environmental stress response (ESR) in yeast functions in mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress. We show that the drug canavanine causes proteotoxic stress, activates the ESR, and induces mutagenesis at several loci in an ESR-dependent manner. Canavanine-induced mutagenesis also involves translesion DNA polymerases Rev1 and Polζ and non-homologous end joining factor Ku. Furthermore, under conditions of chronic sub-lethal canavanine stress, deletions of Rev1, Polζ, and Ku-encoding genes exhibit genetic interactions with ESR mutants indicative of ESR regulating these mutagenic DNA repair processes. Analyses of mutagenesis induced by several different stresses showed that the ESR specifically modulates mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress. Together, these results document the first known example of an involvement of a eukaryotic stress response pathway in mutagenesis and have important implications for mechanisms of evolution, carcinogenesis, and emergence of drug-resistant pathogens and chemotherapy-resistant tumors. PMID:23935537

  19. Is pressure stressful? The impact of pressure on the stress response and category learning.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Shannon K; Hutchinson, Steven; Hawthorne, Lauren; Cosley, Brandon J; Ell, Shawn W

    2014-06-01

    We examined the basic question of whether pressure is stressful. We proposed that when examining the role of stress or pressure in cognitive performance, it is important to consider the type of pressure, the stress response, and the aspect of cognition assessed. In Experiment 1, outcome pressure was not experienced as stressful but did lead to impaired performance on a rule-based (RB) category-learning task, but not on a more procedural information-integration (II) task. In Experiment 2, the addition of monitoring pressure resulted in a modest stress response to combined pressure and impairment on both tasks. Across experiments, higher stress appraisals were associated with decreased performance on the RB, but not on the II, task. In turn, higher stress reactivity (i.e., heart rate) was associated with enhanced performance on the II, but not on the RB, task. This work represents an initial step toward integrating the stress cognition and pressure cognition literatures and suggests that integrating these fields may require consideration of the type of pressure, the stress response, and the cognitive system mediating performance.

  20. Transactional Associations between Youths' Responses to Peer Stress and Depression: The Moderating Roles of Sex and Stress Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined transactional associations between responses to peer stress and depression in youth. Specifically, it tested the hypotheses that (a) depression would predict fewer effortful responses and more involuntary, dysregulated responses to peer stress over time; and (b) fewer adaptive and more maladaptive responses would predict…

  1. Interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism, the generation of oxidative stress and the mitigative oxidative stress response

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Andrea W.U.; Montgomery, Beronda L.

    2015-01-01

    Tetrapyrroles are involved in light harvesting and light perception, electron-transfer reactions, and as co-factors for key enzymes and sensory proteins. Under conditions in which cells exhibit stress-induced imbalances of photosynthetic reactions, or light absorption exceeds the ability of the cell to use photoexcitation energy in synthesis reactions, redox imbalance can occur in photosynthetic cells. Such conditions can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with alterations in tetrapyrrole homeostasis. ROS accumulation can result in cellular damage and detrimental effects on organismal fitness, or ROS molecules can serve as signals to induce a protective or damage-mitigating oxidative stress signaling response in cells. Induced oxidative stress responses include tetrapyrrole-dependent and -independent mechanisms for mitigating ROS generation and/or accumulation. Thus, tetrapyrroles can be contributors to oxidative stress, but are also essential in the oxidative stress response to protect cells by contributing to detoxification of ROS. In this review, we highlight the interconnection and interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism with the occurrence of oxidative stress and protective oxidative stress signaling responses in photosynthetic organisms. PMID:25618582

  2. Interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism, the generation of oxidative stress and the mitigative oxidative stress response.

    PubMed

    Busch, Andrea W U; Montgomery, Beronda L

    2015-01-01

    Tetrapyrroles are involved in light harvesting and light perception, electron-transfer reactions, and as co-factors for key enzymes and sensory proteins. Under conditions in which cells exhibit stress-induced imbalances of photosynthetic reactions, or light absorption exceeds the ability of the cell to use photoexcitation energy in synthesis reactions, redox imbalance can occur in photosynthetic cells. Such conditions can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with alterations in tetrapyrrole homeostasis. ROS accumulation can result in cellular damage and detrimental effects on organismal fitness, or ROS molecules can serve as signals to induce a protective or damage-mitigating oxidative stress signaling response in cells. Induced oxidative stress responses include tetrapyrrole-dependent and -independent mechanisms for mitigating ROS generation and/or accumulation. Thus, tetrapyrroles can be contributors to oxidative stress, but are also essential in the oxidative stress response to protect cells by contributing to detoxification of ROS. In this review, we highlight the interconnection and interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism with the occurrence of oxidative stress and protective oxidative stress signaling responses in photosynthetic organisms.

  3. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to stress-free acidification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Allen Kuan-Liang; Gelling, Cristy; Rogers, Peter L; Dawes, Ian W; Rosche, Bettina

    2009-02-01

    Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae batch culture revealed that more than 829 genes were regulated in response to an environmental shift from pH 6 to pH 3 by added sulfuric acid. This shift in pH was not detrimental to the rate of growth compared to a control culture that was maintained at pH 6 and the transcriptional changes most strikingly implicated not up- but down-regulation of stress responses. In addition, the transcriptional changes upon acid addition indicated remodeling of the cell wall and central carbon metabolism. The overall trend of changes was similar for the pH-shift experiment and the pH 6 control. However, the changes in the pH 6 control were much weaker and occurred 2.5 h later than in the pH-shift experiment. Thus, the reaction to the steep pH decrease was an immediate response within the normal repertoire of adaptation shown in later stages of fermentation at pH 6. Artificially preventing the yeast from acidifying the medium may be considered physiologically stressful under the tested conditions.

  4. Oxidative and nitrosative stress in trichloroethene-mediated autoimmune response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gangduo; Cai, Ping; Ansari, G A S; Khan, M Firoze

    2007-01-18

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. Also, increased lipid peroxidation and protein nitration are reported in systemic autoimmune diseases. Lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes (LPDAs) such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) are highly reactive and bind proteins covalently, but their potential to elicit an autoimmune response and contribution to disease pathogenesis remain unclear. Similarly, nitration of protein could also contribute to disease pathogenesis. To assess the status of lipid peroxidation and/or RONS, autoimmune-prone female MRL+/+ mice (5-week old) were treated with trichloroethene (TCE), an environmental contaminant known to induce autoimmune response, for 48 weeks (0.5mg/ml via drinking water), and formation of antibodies to LPDA-protein adducts was followed in the sera of control and TCE-treated mice. TCE treatment led to greater formation of both anti-MDA- and -HNE-protein adduct antibodies and higher serum iNOS and nitrotyrosine levels. The increase in TCE-induced oxidative stress was associated with increases in anti-nuclear-, anti-ssDNA- and anti-dsDNA-antibodies. These findings suggest that TCE exposure not only leads to oxidative/nitrosative stress, but is also associated with induction/exacerbation of autoimmune response in MRL+/+ mice. Further interventional studies are needed to establish a causal role of RONS in TCE-mediated autoimmunity.

  5. Plant Flavonoids—Biosynthesis, Transport and Involvement in Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Petrussa, Elisa; Braidot, Enrico; Zancani, Marco; Peresson, Carlo; Bertolini, Alberto; Patui, Sonia; Vianello, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at analysing the synthesis of flavonoids, their import and export in plant cell compartments, as well as their involvement in the response to stress, with particular reference to grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). A multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) as well as ABC transporters have been demonstrated in the tonoplast of grape berry, where they perform a flavonoid transport. The involvement of a glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene has also been inferred. Recently, a putative flavonoid carrier, similar to mammalian bilitranslocase (BTL), has been identified in both grape berry skin and pulp. In skin the pattern of BTL expression increases from véraison to harvest, while in the pulp its expression reaches the maximum at the early ripening stage. Moreover, the presence of BTL in vascular bundles suggests its participation in long distance transport of flavonoids. In addition, the presence of a vesicular trafficking in plants responsible for flavonoid transport is discussed. Finally, the involvement of flavonoids in the response to stress is described. PMID:23867610

  6. Mcm2 phosphorylation and the response to replicative stress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The replicative helicase in eukaryotic cells is comprised of minichromosome maintenance (Mcm) proteins 2 through 7 (Mcm2-7) and is a key target for regulation of cell proliferation. In addition, it is regulated in response to replicative stress. One of the protein kinases that targets Mcm2-7 is the Dbf4-dependent kinase Cdc7 (DDK). In a previous study, we showed that alanine mutations of the DDK phosphorylation sites at S164 and S170 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm2 result in sensitivity to caffeine and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) leading us to suggest that DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2 is required in response to replicative stress. Results We show here that a strain with the mcm2 allele lacking DDK phosphorylation sites (mcm2AA) is also sensitive to the ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor, hydroxyurea (HU) and to the base analogue 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) but not the radiomimetic drug, phleomycin. We screened the budding yeast non-essential deletion collection for synthetic lethal interactions with mcm2AA and isolated deletions that include genes involved in the control of genome integrity and oxidative stress. In addition, the spontaneous mutation rate, as measured by mutations in CAN1, was increased in the mcm2AA strain compared to wild type, whereas with a phosphomimetic allele (mcm2EE) the mutation rate was decreased. These results led to the idea that the mcm2AA strain is unable to respond properly to DNA damage. We examined this by screening the deletion collection for suppressors of the caffeine sensitivity of mcm2AA. Deletions that decrease spontaneous DNA damage, increase homologous recombination or slow replication forks were isolated. Many of the suppressors of caffeine sensitivity suppressed other phenotypes of mcm2AA including sensitivity to genotoxic drugs, the increased frequency of cells with RPA foci and the increased mutation rate. Conclusions Together these observations point to a role for DDK-mediated phosphorylation of Mcm2 in the

  7. Human endothelial cell responses to cardiovascular inspired pulsatile shear stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Matthew; Baugh, Lauren; Black, Lauren, III; Kemmerling, Erica

    2016-11-01

    It is well established that hemodynamic shear stress regulates blood vessel structure and the development of vascular pathology. This process can be studied via in vitro models of endothelial cell responses to pulsatile shear stress. In this study, a macro-scale cone and plate viscometer was designed to mimic various shear stress waveforms found in the body and apply these stresses to human endothelial cells. The device was actuated by a PID-controlled DC gear-motor. Cells were exposed to 24 hours of pulsatile shear and then imaged and stained to track their morphology and secretions. These measurements were compared with control groups of cells exposed to constant shear and no shear. The results showed that flow pulsatility influenced levels of secreted proteins such as VE-cadherin and neuroregulin IHC. Cell morphology was also influenced by flow pulsatility; in general cells exposed to pulsatile shear stress developed a higher aspect ratio than cells exposed to no flow but a lower aspect ratio than cells exposed to steady flow.

  8. Magnitude-dependent response of osteoblasts regulated by compressive stress

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiao-qing; Geng, Yuan-ming; Liu, Ping; Huang, Xiang-yu; Li, Shu-yi; Liu, Chun-dong; Zhou, Zheng; Xu, Ping-ping

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of magnitude in adaptive response of osteoblasts exposed to compressive stress. Murine primary osteoblasts and MC3T3-E1 cells were exposed to compressive stress (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 g/cm2) in 3D culture. Cell viability was evaluated, and expression levels of Runx2, Alp, Ocn, Rankl, and Opg were examined. ALP activity in osteoblasts and TRAP activity in RAW264.7 cells co-cultured with MC3T3-E1 cells were assayed. Results showed that compressive stress within 5.0 g/cm2 did not influence cell viability. Both osteoblastic and osteoblast-regulated osteoclastic differentiation were enhanced at 2 g/cm2. An increase in stress above 2 g/cm2 did not enhance osteoblastic differentiation further but significantly inhibited osteoblast-regualted osteoclastic differentiation. This study suggested that compressive stress regulates osteoblastic and osteoclastic differentiation through osteoblasts in a magnitude-dependent manner. PMID:28317941

  9. Transcriptome analysis of Enterococcus faecalis in response to alkaline stress

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Shujun; Liu, Bin; Jiang, Wei; Sun, Zhe; Liang, Jingping

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly isolated species from endodontic failure root canals; its persistence in treated root canals has been attributed to its ability to resist high pH stress. The goal of this study was to characterize the E. faecalis transcriptome and to identify candidate genes for response and resistance to alkaline stress using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing. We found that E. faecalis could survive and form biofilms in a pH 10 environment and that alkaline stress had a great impact on the transcription of many genes in the E. faecalis genome. The transcriptome sequencing results revealed that 613 genes were differentially expressed (DEGs) for E. faecalis grown in pH 10 medium; 211 genes were found to be differentially up-regulated and 402 genes differentially down-regulated. Many of the down-regulated genes found are involved in cell energy production and metabolism and carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and the up-regulated genes are mostly related to nucleotide transport and metabolism. The results presented here reveal that cultivation of E. faecalis in alkaline stress has a profound impact on its transcriptome. The observed regulation of genes and pathways revealed that E. faecalis reduced its carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and increased nucleotide synthesis to adapt and grow in alkaline stress. A number of the regulated genes may be useful candidates for the development of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of E. faecalis infections. PMID:26300863

  10. Enterobactin as Part of the Oxidative Stress Response Repertoire.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Daiana R; Adler, Conrado; Corbalán, Natalia S; Paz García, Enrique Carlos; Pomares, María Fernanda; Vincent, Paula A

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms produce siderophores to facilitate iron uptake and even though this trait has been extensively studied, there is growing evidence suggesting that siderophores may have other physiological roles aside from iron acquisition. In support of this notion, we previously linked the archetypal siderophore enterobactin with oxidative stress alleviation. To further characterize this association, we studied the sensitivity of Escherichia coli strains lacking different components of the enterobactin system to the classical oxidative stressors hydrogen peroxide and paraquat. We observed that strains impaired in enterobactin production, uptake and hydrolysis were more susceptible to the oxidative damage caused by both compounds than the wild-type strain. In addition, meanwhile iron supplementation had little impact on the sensitivity, the reducing agent ascorbic acid alleviated the oxidative stress and therefore significantly decreased the sensitivity to the stressors. This indicated that the enterobactin-mediated protection is independent of its ability to scavenge iron. Furthermore, enterobactin supplementation conferred resistance to the entE mutant but did not have any protective effect on the fepG and fes mutants. Thus, we inferred that only after enterobactin is hydrolysed by Fes in the cell cytoplasm and iron is released, the free hydroxyl groups are available for radical stabilization. This hypothesis was validated testing the ability of enterobactin to scavenge radicals in vitro. Given the strong connection between enterobactin and oxidative stress, we studied the transcription of the entE gene and the concomitant production of the siderophore in response to such kind of stress. Interestingly, we observed that meanwhile iron represses the expression and production of the siderophore, hydrogen peroxide and paraquat favour these events even if iron is present. Our results support the involvement of enterobactin as part of the oxidative stress response and

  11. Parents' responses to stress in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Busse, Morgan; Stromgren, Kayleigh; Thorngate, Lauren; Thomas, Karen A

    2013-08-01

    Background Parents' stress resulting from hospitalization of their infant in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) produces emotional and behavioral responses. The National Institutes of Health-sponsored Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) offers a valid and efficient means of assessing parents' responses. Objective To examine the relationship of stress to anxiety, depression, fatigue, and sleep disruption among parents of infants hospitalized in the NICU. Methods Thirty parents completed the Parental Stressor Scale (PSS:NICU) containing subscales for NICU Sights and Sounds, Infant Behavior and Appearance, and Parental Role Alteration, and the PROMIS anxiety, depression, fatigue, and sleep disturbance short-form instruments. Results PSS total score was significantly correlated with anxiety (r = 0.61), depression (r = 0.36), and sleep disturbance (r = 0.60). Scores for NICU Sights and Sounds were not significantly correlated with parents' outcomes; however, scores for Alteration in Parenting Role were correlated with all 4 outcomes, and scores for Infant Appearance were correlated with all except fatigue. Conclusion Stress experienced by parents of NICU infants is associated with a concerning constellation of physical and emotional outcomes comprising anxiety, depression, fatigue, and sleep disruption.

  12. Motivation, stress, anxiety, and cortisol responses in elite paragliders.

    PubMed

    Filaire, Edith; Alix, Deborah; Rouveix, Matthieu; Le Scanff, Christine

    2007-06-01

    In this study metamotivational dominance (measured with the Telic Dominance Scale), precompetition anxiety (evaluated with the CSAI-2), perceived stress (measured with the Perceived Stress Scale), and cortisol responses by 10 paragliding competitors prior to and following a paragliding competition were examined. Saliva was collected for each subject for cortisol analysis on eight occasions: during a resting day (baseline values) and prior to and after competition. Analysis indicated subjects were all paratelic-dominant (characterized by a desire for high arousal, a focus on the present). Scores were high on the Perceived Stress Scale and cognitive nxiety (a telic emotion). Cortisol values showed a significant increase early on the day of the competition and remained elevated all the day, with highest concentrations at the start. Participants' cognitive anxiety and cortisol responses were significantly correlated .79 just before the jump and the direction of the cognitive anxiety was rated as facilitative of performance. These results may suggest that the more frequently the subject is playful in life, the more cortisol they produce when aroused in a less frequent telic state.

  13. Time kinetics of the endocrine response to acute psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Richter, S D; Schürmeyer, T H; Schedlowski, M; Hädicke, A; Tewes, U; Schmidt, R E; Wagner, T O

    1996-05-01

    A first-time parachute jump was chosen as a model to evaluate the endocrine response to acute psychological stress. In 43 inexperienced tandem parachutists, blood was drawn continuously from 2 h before to 1 h after the jump and analyzed at 10-min intervals for plasma concentrations of epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), cortisol, GH, PRL, and TSH. In addition, heart rate was recorded throughout the experiment. There was a significant increase in heart rate and E concentrations during the jump itself. NE, cortisol, GH, PRL, and TSH peaked with a latency of 10-20 min. Apart from cortisol and TSH concentrations, which were still elevated 1 h after the stress event, plasma levels of the other endocrine variables normalized within 1 h following the jump. Statistically significant cross-correlations could be observed between E and NE (r = 0.60, no time lag) and between E and PRL (r = 0.58, 10-min time lag) only. Even in a very homogenous group of subjects and under well-controlled conditions, endocrine responses to acute psychological stress show considerable variations.

  14. Pairing of heterochromatin in response to cellular stress

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Halim, H.I.; Mullenders, L.H.F. . E-mail: L.Mullenders@lumc.nl; Boei, J.J.W.A.

    2006-07-01

    We previously reported that exposure of human cells to DNA-damaging agents (X-rays and mitomycin C (MMC)) induces pairing of the homologous paracentromeric heterochromatin of chromosome 9 (9q12-13). Here, we show that UV irradiation and also heat shock treatment of human cells lead to similar effects. Since the various agents induce very different types and frequencies of damage to cellular constituents, the data suggest a general stress response as the underlying mechanism. Moreover, local UV irradiation experiments revealed that pairing of heterochromatin is an event that can be triggered without induction of DNA damage in the heterochromatic sequences. The repair deficient xeroderma pigmentosum cells (group F) previously shown to fail pairing after MMC displayed elevated pairing after heat shock treatment but not after UV exposure. Taken together, the present results indicate that pairing of heterochromatin following exposure to DNA-damaging agents is initiated by a general stress response and that the sensing of stress or the maintenance of the paired status of the heterochromatin might be dependent on DNA repair.

  15. Yeast responses to stresses associated with industrial brewery handling.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Brian R; Lawrence, Stephen J; Leclaire, Jessica P R; Powell, Chris D; Smart, Katherine A

    2007-09-01

    During brewery handling, production strains of yeast must respond to fluctuations in dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, osmolarity, ethanol concentration, nutrient supply and temperature. Fermentation performance of brewing yeast strains is dependent on their ability to adapt to these changes, particularly during batch brewery fermentation which involves the recycling (repitching) of a single yeast culture (slurry) over a number of fermentations (generations). Modern practices, such as the use of high-gravity worts and preparation of dried yeast for use as an inoculum, have increased the magnitude of the stresses to which the cell is subjected. The ability of yeast to respond effectively to these conditions is essential not only for beer production but also for maintaining the fermentation fitness of yeast for use in subsequent fermentations. During brewery handling, cells inhabit a complex environment and our understanding of stress responses under such conditions is limited. The advent of techniques capable of determining genomic and proteomic changes within the cell is likely vastly to improve our knowledge of yeast stress responses during industrial brewery handling.

  16. Ancestry trumps experience: Transgenerational but not early life stress affects the adult physiological stress response.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Gail L; Robbins, Travis R; Cavigelli, Sonia A; Langkilde, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to stressors can affect an organism's physiology and behavior as well as that of its descendants (e.g. through maternal effects, epigenetics, and/or selection). We examined the relative influence of early life vs. transgenerational stress exposure on adult stress physiology in a species that has populations with and without ancestral exposure to an invasive predator. We raised offspring of eastern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus) from sites historically invaded (high stress) or uninvaded (low stress) by predatory fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) and determined how this different transgenerational exposure to stress interacted with the effects of early life stress exposure to influence the physiological stress response in adulthood. Offspring from these high- and low-stress populations were exposed weekly to either sub-lethal attack by fire ants (an ecologically relevant stressor), topical treatment with a physiologically-appropriate dose of the stress-relevant hormone, corticosterone (CORT), or a control treatment from 2 to 43weeks of age. Several months after treatments ended, we quantified plasma CORT concentrations at baseline and following restraint, exposure to fire ants, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) injection. Exposure to fire ants or CORT during early life did not affect lizard stress physiology in adulthood. However, offspring of lizards from populations that had experienced multiple generations of fire ant-invasion exhibited more robust adult CORT responses to restraint and ACTH-injection compared to offspring from uninvaded populations. Together, these results indicate that transgenerational stress history may be at least as important, if not more important, than early life stress in affecting adult physiological stress responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Juvenile stress impairs body temperature regulation and augments anticipatory stress-induced hyperthermia responses in rats.

    PubMed

    Yee, Nicole; Plassmann, Kerstin; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2011-09-01

    Clinical studies have implicated adolescence as an important and vulnerable period during which traumatic experiences can predispose individuals to anxiety and mood disorders. As such, a stress model in juvenile rats (age 27-29 d) was previously developed to investigate the long-term effects of stress exposure during adolescence on behavior and physiology. This paradigm involves exposing rats to different stressors on consecutive days over a 3-day period. Here, we studied the effects of juvenile stress on long-term core body temperature regulation and acute stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) responses using telemetry. We found no differences between control and juvenile stress rats in anxiety-related behavior on the elevated plus maze, which we attribute to stress associated with surgical implantation of telemetry devices. This highlights the severe impact of surgical stress on the results of subsequent behavioral measurements. Nonetheless, juvenile stress disrupted the circadian rhythmicity of body temperature and decreased circadian amplitude. It also induced chronic hypothermia during the dark phase of the day, when rats are most active. When subjected to acute social defeat stress as adults, juvenile stress had no impact on the SIH response relative to controls. However, 24 h later, juvenile stress rats displayed an elevated SIH response in anticipation of social defeat when re-exposed to the social defeat environment. Taken together, our findings indicate that juvenile stress can induce long-term alterations in body temperature regulation and heighten the increase in temperature associated with anticipation of social defeat. The outcomes of behavioral measurements in these experiments, however, are severely affected by surgical stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Genetic Architecture of the Genome-Wide Transcriptional Response to ER Stress in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Clement Y; Wang, Xu; Riccardi, David; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Clark, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER. The cellular response to ER stress involves complex transcriptional and translational changes, important to the survival of the cell. ER stress is a primary cause and a modifier of many human diseases. A first step to understanding how the ER stress response impacts human disease is to determine how the transcriptional response to ER stress varies among individuals. The genetic diversity of the eight mouse Collaborative Cross (CC) founder strains allowed us to determine how genetic variation impacts the ER stress transcriptional response. We used tunicamycin, a drug commonly used to induce ER stress, to elicit an ER stress response in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from the CC founder strains and measured their transcriptional responses. We identified hundreds of genes that differed in response to ER stress across these genetically diverse strains. Strikingly, inflammatory response genes differed most between strains; major canonical ER stress response genes showed relatively invariant responses across strains. To uncover the genetic architecture underlying these strain differences in ER stress response, we measured the transcriptional response to ER stress in MEFs derived from a subset of F1 crosses between the CC founder strains. We found a unique layer of regulatory variation that is only detectable under ER stress conditions. Over 80% of the regulatory variation under ER stress derives from cis-regulatory differences. This is the first study to characterize the genetic variation in ER stress transcriptional response in the laboratory mouse. Our findings indicate that the ER stress transcriptional response is highly variable among strains and arises from genetic variation in individual downstream response genes, rather than major signaling transcription factors. These results have important implications for understanding how genetic variation impacts the ER stress

  19. Antioxidant responses and cellular adjustments to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Diez, Cristina; Miguel, Verónica; Mennerich, Daniela; Kietzmann, Thomas; Sánchez-Pérez, Patricia; Cadenas, Susana; Lamas, Santiago

    2015-12-01

    Redox biological reactions are now accepted to bear the Janus faceted feature of promoting both physiological signaling responses and pathophysiological cues. Endogenous antioxidant molecules participate in both scenarios. This review focuses on the role of crucial cellular nucleophiles, such as glutathione, and their capacity to interact with oxidants and to establish networks with other critical enzymes such as peroxiredoxins. We discuss the importance of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway as an example of a transcriptional antioxidant response and we summarize transcriptional routes related to redox activation. As examples of pathophysiological cellular and tissular settings where antioxidant responses are major players we highlight endoplasmic reticulum stress and ischemia reperfusion. Topologically confined redox-mediated post-translational modifications of thiols are considered important molecular mechanisms mediating many antioxidant responses, whereas redox-sensitive microRNAs have emerged as key players in the posttranscriptional regulation of redox-mediated gene expression. Understanding such mechanisms may provide the basis for antioxidant-based therapeutic interventions in redox-related diseases.

  20. Antioxidant responses and cellular adjustments to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa-Diez, Cristina; Miguel, Verónica; Mennerich, Daniela; Kietzmann, Thomas; Sánchez-Pérez, Patricia; Cadenas, Susana; Lamas, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Redox biological reactions are now accepted to bear the Janus faceted feature of promoting both physiological signaling responses and pathophysiological cues. Endogenous antioxidant molecules participate in both scenarios. This review focuses on the role of crucial cellular nucleophiles, such as glutathione, and their capacity to interact with oxidants and to establish networks with other critical enzymes such as peroxiredoxins. We discuss the importance of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway as an example of a transcriptional antioxidant response and we summarize transcriptional routes related to redox activation. As examples of pathophysiological cellular and tissular settings where antioxidant responses are major players we highlight endoplasmic reticulum stress and ischemia reperfusion. Topologically confined redox-mediated post-translational modifications of thiols are considered important molecular mechanisms mediating many antioxidant responses, whereas redox-sensitive microRNAs have emerged as key players in the posttranscriptional regulation of redox-mediated gene expression. Understanding such mechanisms may provide the basis for antioxidant-based therapeutic interventions in redox-related diseases. PMID:26233704

  1. Spheroid growth in ovarian cancer alters transcriptome responses for stress pathways and epigenetic responses.

    PubMed

    Paullin, Trillitye; Powell, Chase; Menzie, Christopher; Hill, Robert; Cheng, Feng; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Westerheide, Sandy D

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological cancer, with over 200,000 women diagnosed each year and over half of those cases leading to death. These poor statistics are related to a lack of early symptoms and inadequate screening techniques. This results in the cancer going undetected until later stages when the tumor has metastasized through a process that requires the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). In lieu of traditional monolayer cell culture, EMT and cancer progression in general is best characterized through the use of 3D spheroid models. In this study, we examine gene expression changes through microarray analysis in spheroid versus monolayer ovarian cancer cells treated with TGFβ to induce EMT. Transcripts that included Coiled-Coil Domain Containing 80 (CCDC80), Solute Carrier Family 6 (Neutral Amino Acid Transporter), Member 15 (SLC6A15), Semaphorin 3E (SEMA3E) and PIF1 5'-To-3' DNA Helicase (PIF1) were downregulated more than 10-fold in the 3D cells while Inhibitor Of DNA Binding 2, HLH Protein (ID2), Regulator Of Cell Cycle (RGCC), Protease, Serine 35 (PRSS35), and Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1, Member C1 (AKR1C1) were increased more than 50-fold. Interestingly, EMT factors, stress responses and epigenetic processes were significantly affected by 3D growth. The heat shock response and the oxidative stress response were also identified as transcriptome responses that showed significant changes upon 3D growth. Subnetwork enrichment analysis revealed that DNA integrity (e.g. DNA damage, genetic instability, nucleotide excision repair, and the DNA damage checkpoint pathway) were altered in the 3D spheroid model. In addition, two epigenetic processes, DNA methylation and histone acetylation, were increased with 3D growth. These findings support the hypothesis that three dimensional ovarian cell culturing is physiologically different from its monolayer counterpart.

  2. Spheroid growth in ovarian cancer alters transcriptome responses for stress pathways and epigenetic responses

    PubMed Central

    Paullin, Trillitye; Powell, Chase; Menzie, Christopher; Hill, Robert; Cheng, Feng; Martyniuk, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological cancer, with over 200,000 women diagnosed each year and over half of those cases leading to death. These poor statistics are related to a lack of early symptoms and inadequate screening techniques. This results in the cancer going undetected until later stages when the tumor has metastasized through a process that requires the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). In lieu of traditional monolayer cell culture, EMT and cancer progression in general is best characterized through the use of 3D spheroid models. In this study, we examine gene expression changes through microarray analysis in spheroid versus monolayer ovarian cancer cells treated with TGFβ to induce EMT. Transcripts that included Coiled-Coil Domain Containing 80 (CCDC80), Solute Carrier Family 6 (Neutral Amino Acid Transporter), Member 15 (SLC6A15), Semaphorin 3E (SEMA3E) and PIF1 5'-To-3' DNA Helicase (PIF1) were downregulated more than 10-fold in the 3D cells while Inhibitor Of DNA Binding 2, HLH Protein (ID2), Regulator Of Cell Cycle (RGCC), Protease, Serine 35 (PRSS35), and Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1, Member C1 (AKR1C1) were increased more than 50-fold. Interestingly, EMT factors, stress responses and epigenetic processes were significantly affected by 3D growth. The heat shock response and the oxidative stress response were also identified as transcriptome responses that showed significant changes upon 3D growth. Subnetwork enrichment analysis revealed that DNA integrity (e.g. DNA damage, genetic instability, nucleotide excision repair, and the DNA damage checkpoint pathway) were altered in the 3D spheroid model. In addition, two epigenetic processes, DNA methylation and histone acetylation, were increased with 3D growth. These findings support the hypothesis that three dimensional ovarian cell culturing is physiologically different from its monolayer counterpart. PMID:28793334

  3. Stress responses in the opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Fiester, Steven E; Actis, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii causes a wide range of severe infections among compromised and injured patients worldwide. The relevance of these infections are, in part, due to the ability of this pathogen to sense and react to environmental and host stress signals, allowing it to persist and disseminate in medical settings and the human host. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles that environmental and cellular stressors play in the ability of A. baumannii to resist nutrient deprivation, oxidative and nitrosative injury, and even the presence of the commonly used antiseptic ethanol, which could serve as a nutrient- and virulence-enhancing signal rather than just being a convenient disinfectant. Emerging experimental evidence supports the role of some of these responses in the pathogenesis of the infections A. baumannii causes in humans and its capacity to resist antibiotics and host response effectors. PMID:23464372

  4. Aneuploidy triggers a TFEB-mediated lysosomal stress response

    PubMed Central

    Santaguida, Stefano; Amon, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    Aneuploidy, defined as an alteration in chromosome number that is not a multiple of the haploid complement, severely affects cellular physiology. Changes in chromosome number lead to imbalances in cellular protein composition, thus disrupting cellular processes and causing proteins to misfold and aggregate. We recently reported that in mammalian cells protein aggregates are readily encapsulated within autophagosomes but are not degraded by lysosomes. This leads to a lysosomal stress response in which the transcription factor TFEB induces expression of factors needed for macroautophagy-mediated protein degradation. Our studies uncover lysosomal degradation defects as a feature of the aneuploid state, and a role for the transcription factor TFEB in the response thereto. PMID:26571033

  5. The endoplasmic reticulum stress response: A link with tuberculosis?

    PubMed

    Cui, Yongyong; Zhao, Deming; Barrow, Paul Andrew; Zhou, Xiangmei

    2016-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the worldwide. The endoplasmic-reticulum stress (ERS) response constitutes a cellular process that is triggered by mycobacterial infection that disturbs the folding of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The unfolded protein response (UPR) is induced to suspend the synthesis of early proteins and reduce the accumulation of unfolded- or misfolded proteins in the ER restoring normal physiological cell function. Prolonged or uncontrolled ERS leads to the activation of three signaling pathways (IRE1, PERK and ATF6) which directs the cell towards apoptosis. The absence of this process facilitates spread of the mycobacteria within the body. We summarize here recent advances in understanding the signaling pathway diversity governing ERS in relation to TB.

  6. Response to stress in Drosophila is mediated by gender, age and stress paradigm.

    PubMed

    Neckameyer, Wendi S; Nieto-Romero, Andres R

    2015-01-01

    All living organisms must maintain equilibrium in response to internal and external challenges within their environment. Changes in neural plasticity (alterations in neuronal populations, dendritic remodeling, and synaptic turnover) are critical components of the homeostatic response to stress, which has been strongly implicated in the onset of affective disorders. However, stress is differentially perceived depending on the type of stress and its context, as well as genetic background, age and sex; therefore, an individual's maintenance of neuronal homeostasis must differ depending upon these variables. We established Drosophila as a model to analyze homeostatic responses to stress. Sexually immature and mature females and males from an isogenic wild-type strain raised under controlled environmental conditions were exposed to four reproducible and high-throughput translatable stressors to facilitate the analysis of a large number of animals for direct comparisons. These animals were assessed in an open-field arena, in a light-dark box, and in a forced swim test, as well as for sensitivity to the sedative effects of ethanol. These studies establish that immature and mature females and males represent behaviorally distinct populations under control conditions as well as after exposure to different stressors. Therefore, the neural substrates mediating the stress response must be differentially expressed depending upon the hormonal status of the brain. In addition, an adaptive response to a given stressor in one paradigm was not predictive for outcomes in other paradigms.

  7. Response to stress in Drosophila is mediated by gender, age and stress paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Neckameyer, Wendi S.; Nieto, Andres

    2016-01-01

    All living organisms must maintain equilibrium in response to internal and external challenges within their environment. Changes in neural plasticity (alterations in neuronal populations, dendritic remodeling, and synaptic turnover) are critical components of the homeostatic response to stress, which has been strongly implicated in the onset of affective disorders. However, stress is differentially perceived depending on the type of stress and its context, as well as genetic background, age and sex; therefore, an individual’s maintenance of neuronal homeostasis must differ depending upon these variables. We established Drosophila as a model to analyze homeostatic responses to stress. Sexually immature and mature females and males from an isogenic wild-type strain raised under controlled environmental conditions were exposed to four reproducible and high-throughput translatable stressors to facilitate the analysis of a large number of animals for direct comparisons. These animals were assessed in an open-field arena, in a Light-Dark Box, and in a Forced Swim Test, as well as for sensitivity to the sedative effects of ethanol. These studies establish that immature and mature females and males represent behaviorally distinct populations under control conditions as well as after exposure to different stressors. Therefore, the neural substrates mediating the stress response must be differentially expressed depending upon the hormonal status of the brain. In addition, an adaptive response to a given stressor in one paradigm was not predictive for outcomes in other paradigms. PMID:25783197

  8. Stress-responsive hydroxycinnamate glycosyltransferase modulates phenylpropanoid metabolism in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Babst, Benjamin A.; Chen, Han-Yi; Wang, Hong-Qiang; Payyavula, Raja S.; Thomas, Tina P.; Harding, Scott A.; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of phenylpropanoids offers a rich inventory of bioactive chemicals that can be exploited for plant improvement and human health. Recent evidence suggests that glycosylation may play a role in the partitioning of phenylpropanoid precursors for a variety of downstream uses. This work reports the functional characterization of a stress-responsive glycosyltransferase, GT1-316 in Populus. GT1-316 belongs to the UGT84A subfamily of plant glycosyltransferase family 1 and is designated UGT84A17. Recombinant protein analysis showed that UGT84A17 is a hydroxycinnamate glycosyltransferase and able to accept a range of unsubstituted and substituted cinnamic and benzoic acids as substrates in vitro. Overexpression of GT1-316 in transgenic Populus led to plant-wide increases of hydroxycinnamoyl-glucose esters, which were further elevated under N-limiting conditions. Levels of the two most abundant flavonoid glycosides, rutin and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, decreased, while levels of other less abundant flavonoid and phenylpropanoid conjugates increased in leaves of the GT1-316-overexpressing plants. Transcript levels of representative phenylpropanoid pathway genes were unchanged in transgenic plants, supporting a glycosylation-mediated redirection of phenylpropanoid carbon flow as opposed to enhanced phenylpropanoid pathway flux. The metabolic response of N-replete transgenic plants overlapped with that of N-stressed wild types, as the majority of phenylpropanoid derivatives significantly affected by GT1-316 overexpression were also significantly changed by N stress in the wild types. These results suggest that UGT84A17 plays an important role in phenylpropanoid metabolism by modulating biosynthesis of hydroxycinnamoyl-glucose esters and their derivatives in response to developmental and environmental cues. PMID:24803501

  9. Differential stress response mechanisms in right and left ventricles.

    PubMed

    Zungu-Edmondson, Makhosazane; Suzuki, Yuichiro J

    2016-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) failure is the major cause of death among patients with pulmonary hypertension. However, differences between the RV and left ventricle (LV) of the adult heart have not been defined, despite myocytes from these two ventricles originate from different progenitor cells. The lack of such knowledge interferes with developing therapeutic strategies to protect the RV. The goal of this study was to identify possible differences between stress responses in the RV and LV free walls of adult rats. We found that levels of angiogenesis and autophagy/mitophagy proteins are higher in the LV than in the RV. Thus, the LV may be more resistant to stress-induced damage. To test this, isolated rat hearts were subjected to biventricular working heart perfusion and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, I/R was found to cause apoptosis in both LV and RV to a similar extent. One mechanism of cardiac apoptosis involves downregulation of GATA4 transcription factor that controls gene transcription of anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL. Interestingly, only in the RV, I/R caused downregulation of GATA4 and Bcl-xL, suggesting that mechanisms of apoptosis may be different between the two ventricles. Levels of tropomyosin and troponin T were also found to be decreased in response to I/R only in the RV, but not in the LV. Downregulation of the GATA4/Bcl-xL axis and the reduction of tropomyosin and troponin T are RV-specific events that occur in response to stress. This information may be useful for designing RV-specific therapeutic strategies to treat RV failure in pulmonary hypertension patients.

  10. Transcriptional profiling of Giardia intestinalis in response to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ma'ayeh, Showgy Y; Knörr, Livia; Svärd, Staffan G

    2015-12-01

    Giardia intestinalis is a microaerophilic parasite that infects the human upper small intestine, an environment that is fairly aerobic with reactive oxygen species being produced to fight off the parasite. It is quite perplexing how Giardia, lacking conventional eukaryotic antioxidant machinery (e.g. catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase), can cope with the oxidative stress in this environment. We used transcriptomics (RNA sequencing and quantitative PCR) to study giardial gene expression changes in response to oxygen (O2; 1h) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 150 μM, 500 μM and 1mM for 1h). The results showed phenotypic and transcriptional differences between Giardia isolates of different genotypes (WB, assemblage A and GS, assemblage B), with GS being more tolerant to H2O2 and exhibiting higher basic transcript levels of antioxidant genes (e.g. NADH oxidase lateral transfer candidate, peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1) and thioredoxin (Trx)-like proteins). Cysteine is a major antioxidant in Giardia and its role in oxidative defense could be highlighted here by the up-regulation of gene transcripts encoding the cysteine-rich variable surface proteins (VSPs) and high cysteine membrane proteins (HCMPs). Genes in the thioredoxin system (Prx1, Trx and Trx reductase) occupied a central role in the gene expression response to oxidative stress, together with genes encoding metabolic (NADPH-producing enzymes, glutathione and glycerol biosynthetic enzymes) and O2-consuming nitric oxide detoxification enzymes (e.g. nitroreductase, flavohemoprotein and a flavodiiron protein). This study reveals the intricate network of genes associated with the oxidative stress response in Giardia, and provides a stepping-stone towards future studies at the protein level.

  11. Stress response induced by carbon nanoparticles in Paracentrotus lividus

    PubMed Central

    Carata, Elisabetta; Anna Tenuzzo, Bernardetta; Arnò, Federica; Buccolieri, Alessandro; Serra, Antonio; Manno, Daniela; Dini, Luciana

    2012-01-01

    Members of the 14-3-3 protein family are involved in many important cellular events, including stress response, survival and apoptosis. Genes of the 14-3-3 family are conserved from plants to humans, and some members are responsive to UV radiation. Despite the high rate of pollution generated by nano-pollutants, up to now their toxic effect on development is totally obscure. Embryos treated with carbon nanoparticles, RNA preparation, retro-transcription and quantitative real-time PCR. In response to carbon nano-particles exposure, the embryos collected 24 h later showed a 3,07-fold at 5x1012 p and a 1,58-fold at 2.5x1013 p and a 1,92-fold at 2.5x1014 p increase in Pl14-3-3ε transcript levels compared with controls. The Pl14-3-3ε mRNA delocalization parallels the failure in archenteron elongation observed morphologically, as well as the lack of specific endoderm markers. Here, we report the isolation of the complete cDNA encoding the 14-3-3 epsilon isoform from Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos, referred to as Pl14-3-3ε. Pl14-3-3ε mRNA levels were measured by RT-PCR during development and found to increase from the mesenchyme blastula to the prism stage. Our results confirm the involvement of 14-3-3ε in the stress response elicited by carbon nano-particles. PMID:24551756

  12. Stress response induced by carbon nanoparticles in Paracentrotus lividus.

    PubMed

    Carata, Elisabetta; Anna Tenuzzo, Bernardetta; Arnò, Federica; Buccolieri, Alessandro; Serra, Antonio; Manno, Daniela; Dini, Luciana

    2012-01-01

    Members of the 14-3-3 protein family are involved in many important cellular events, including stress response, survival and apoptosis. Genes of the 14-3-3 family are conserved from plants to humans, and some members are responsive to UV radiation. Despite the high rate of pollution generated by nano-pollutants, up to now their toxic effect on development is totally obscure. Embryos treated with carbon nanoparticles, RNA preparation, retro-transcription and quantitative real-time PCR. In response to carbon nano-particles exposure, the embryos collected 24 h later showed a 3,07-fold at 5x10(12) p and a 1,58-fold at 2.5x10(13) p and a 1,92-fold at 2.5x10(14) p increase in Pl14-3-3ε transcript levels compared with controls. The Pl14-3-3ε mRNA delocalization parallels the failure in archenteron elongation observed morphologically, as well as the lack of specific endoderm markers. Here, we report the isolation of the complete cDNA encoding the 14-3-3 epsilon isoform from Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos, referred to as Pl14-3-3ε. Pl14-3-3ε mRNA levels were measured by RT-PCR during development and found to increase from the mesenchyme blastula to the prism stage. Our results confirm the involvement of 14-3-3ε in the stress response elicited by carbon nano-particles.

  13. Stretching the stress boundary: Linking air pollution health effects to a neurohormonal stress response.

    PubMed

    Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2016-12-01

    Inhaled pollutants produce effects in virtually all organ systems in our body and have been linked to chronic diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's and diabetes. A neurohormonal stress response (referred to here as a systemic response produced by activation of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis) has been implicated in a variety of psychological and physical stresses, which involves immune and metabolic homeostatic mechanisms affecting all organs in the body. In this review, we provide new evidence for the involvement of this well-characterized neurohormonal stress response in mediating systemic and pulmonary effects of a prototypic air pollutant - ozone. A plethora of systemic metabolic and immune effects are induced in animals exposed to inhaled pollutants, which could result from increased circulating stress hormones. The release of adrenal-derived stress hormones in response to ozone exposure not only mediates systemic immune and metabolic responses, but by doing so, also modulates pulmonary injury and inflammation. With recurring pollutant exposures, these effects can contribute to multi-organ chronic conditions associated with air pollution. This review will cover, 1) the potential mechanisms by which air pollutants can initiate the relay of signals from respiratory tract to brain through trigeminal and vagus nerves, and activate stress responsive regions including hypothalamus; and 2) the contribution of sympathetic and HPA-axis activation in mediating systemic homeostatic metabolic and immune effects of ozone in various organs. The potential contribution of chronic environmental stress in cardiovascular, neurological, reproductive and metabolic diseases, and the knowledge gaps are also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Air Pollution, edited by Wenjun Ding, Andrew J. Ghio and Weidong Wu. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Cell identity regulators link development and stress responses in the Arabidopsis root.

    PubMed

    Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S; Jackson, Terry; Cui, Hongchang; Petricka, Jalean J; Busch, Wolfgang; Tsukagoshi, Hironaka; Benfey, Philip N

    2011-10-18

    Stress responses in plants are tightly coordinated with developmental processes, but interaction of these pathways is poorly understood. We used genome-wide assays at high spatiotemporal resolution to understand the processes that link development and stress in the Arabidopsis root. Our meta-analysis finds little evidence for a universal stress response. However, common stress responses appear to exist with many showing cell type specificity. Common stress responses may be mediated by cell identity regulators because mutations in these genes resulted in altered responses to stress. Evidence for a direct role for cell identity regulators came from genome-wide binding profiling of the key regulator SCARECROW, which showed binding to regulatory regions of stress-responsive genes. Coexpression in response to stress was used to identify genes involved in specific developmental processes. These results reveal surprising linkages between stress and development at cellular resolution, and show the power of multiple genome-wide data sets to elucidate biological processes.

  15. Stress, and pathogen response gene expression in modeled microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, Alamelu; Pellis, Neal R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Immune suppression in microgravity has been well documented. With the advent of human exploration and long-term space travel, the immune system of the astronaut must be optimally maintained. It is important to investigate the expression patterns of cytokine genes, because they are directly related to immune response. Heat shock proteins (HSPs), also called stress proteins, are a group of proteins that are present in the cells of every life form. These proteins are induced when a cell responds to stressors such as heat, cold and oxygen deprivation. Microgravity is another stressor that may regulate HSPs. Heat shock proteins trigger immune response through activities that occur both inside the cell (intracellular) and outside the cell (extracellular). Knowledge about these two gene groups could lead to establishment of a blueprint of the immune response and adaptation-related genes in the microgravity environment. Methods: Human peripheral blood cells were cultured in 1g (T flask) and modeled microgravity (MMG, rotating-wall vessel) for 24 and 72 hours. Cell samples were collected and subjected to gene array analysis using the Affymetrix HG_U95 array. Data was collected and subjected to a two-way analysis of variance. The genes related to immune and stress responses were analyzed. Results and Conclusions: HSP70 was up-regulated by more than two fold in microgravity culture, while HSP90 was significantly down-regulated. HSP70 is not typically expressed in all kinds of cells, but it is expressed at high levels in stress conditions. HSP70 participates in translation, protein translocation, proteolysis and protein folding, suppressing aggregation and reactivating denatured proteins. Increased serum HSP70 levels correlate with a better outcome for heat-stroke or severe trauma patients. At the same time, elevated serum levels of HSP70 have been detected in patients with peripheral or renal vascular disease. HSP90 has been identified in the cytosol, nucleus and

  16. Stress, and pathogen response gene expression in modeled microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, Alamelu; Pellis, Neal R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Immune suppression in microgravity has been well documented. With the advent of human exploration and long-term space travel, the immune system of the astronaut must be optimally maintained. It is important to investigate the expression patterns of cytokine genes, because they are directly related to immune response. Heat shock proteins (HSPs), also called stress proteins, are a group of proteins that are present in the cells of every life form. These proteins are induced when a cell responds to stressors such as heat, cold and oxygen deprivation. Microgravity is another stressor that may regulate HSPs. Heat shock proteins trigger immune response through activities that occur both inside the cell (intracellular) and outside the cell (extracellular). Knowledge about these two gene groups could lead to establishment of a blueprint of the immune response and adaptation-related genes in the microgravity environment. Methods: Human peripheral blood cells were cultured in 1g (T flask) and modeled microgravity (MMG, rotating-wall vessel) for 24 and 72 hours. Cell samples were collected and subjected to gene array analysis using the Affymetrix HG_U95 array. Data was collected and subjected to a two-way analysis of variance. The genes related to immune and stress responses were analyzed. Results and Conclusions: HSP70 was up-regulated by more than two fold in microgravity culture, while HSP90 was significantly down-regulated. HSP70 is not typically expressed in all kinds of cells, but it is expressed at high levels in stress conditions. HSP70 participates in translation, protein translocation, proteolysis and protein folding, suppressing aggregation and reactivating denatured proteins. Increased serum HSP70 levels correlate with a better outcome for heat-stroke or severe trauma patients. At the same time, elevated serum levels of HSP70 have been detected in patients with peripheral or renal vascular disease. HSP90 has been identified in the cytosol, nucleus and

  17. Modulating the pituitary-adrenal response to stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.

    1975-01-01

    Serotonin is believed to be a transmitter or regulator of neuronal function. A possible relationship between the pituitary-adrenal secretion of steroids and brain serotonin in the rat was investigated by evaluating the effects of altering brain 5-hydroxy tryptamine (HT) levels on the daily fluctuation of plasma corticosterone and on the response of the pituitary-adrenal system to a stressful or noxious stimulus in the rat. The approach was either to inhibit brain 5-HT synthesis with para-chlorophenyl alanine or to raise its level with precursors such as tryptophan or 5-hydroxy tryptophan.

  18. Modulating the pituitary-adrenal response to stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.

    1975-01-01

    Serotonin is believed to be a transmitter or regulator of neuronal function. A possible relationship between the pituitary-adrenal secretion of steroids and brain serotonin in the rat was investigated by evaluating the effects of altering brain 5-hydroxy tryptamine (HT) levels on the daily fluctuation of plasma corticosterone and on the response of the pituitary-adrenal system to a stressful or noxious stimulus in the rat. The approach was either to inhibit brain 5-HT synthesis with para-chlorophenyl alanine or to raise its level with precursors such as tryptophan or 5-hydroxy tryptophan.

  19. Integrated Stress Response as a Therapeutic Target for CNS Injuries.

    PubMed

    Romero-Ramírez, Lorenzo; Nieto-Sampedro, Manuel; Barreda-Manso, M Asunción

    2017-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) injuries, caused by cerebrovascular pathologies or mechanical contusions (e.g., traumatic brain injury, TBI) comprise a diverse group of disorders that share the activation of the integrated stress response (ISR). This pathway is an innate protective mechanism, with encouraging potential as therapeutic target for CNS injury repair. In this review, we will focus on the progress in understanding the role of the ISR and we will discuss the effects of various small molecules that target the ISR on different animal models of CNS injury.

  20. Cardiovascular responses to heat stress in chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jian; Sinoway, Lawrence I.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical reports have suggested that patients with heart diseases may be particularly vulnerable to heat injury. This review examines the effects of heat stress on cardiovascular and autonomic functions in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Laboratory investigations have shown that cutaneous vasodilator responses to heating are impaired in patients, whereas activation of skin sympathetic nerve activation is not attenuated in CHF as compared to controls. Attenuated cutaneous vasodilation may increase the risk of a heat related illness when CHF subjects are exposed to hyperthermic conditions. PMID:24599558

  1. Quantifying livestock responses for heat stress management: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienaber, J. A.; Hahn, G. L.; Eigenberg, R. A.

    Hot weather challenges livestock production but technology exists to offset the challenge if producers have made appropriate strategic decisions. Key issues include understanding the hazards of heat stress, being prepared to offer relief from the heat, recognizing when an animal is in danger, and taking appropriate action. This paper describes our efforts to develop biological response functions; assesses climatic probabilities and performs associated risk analyses; provides inputs for computer models used to make environmental management decisions; and evaluates threshold temperatures as estimates of critical temperature limits for swine, cattle and sheep.

  2. Transcriptional regulatory networks in cellular responses and tolerance to dehydration and cold stresses.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    Plant growth and productivity are greatly affected by environmental stresses such as drought, high salinity, and low temperature. Expression of a variety of genes is induced by these stresses in various plants. The products of these genes function not only in stress tolerance but also in stress response. In the signal transduction network from perception of stress signals to stress-responsive gene expression, various transcription factors and cis-acting elements in the stress-responsive promoters function for plant adaptation to environmental stresses. Recent progress has been made in analyzing the complex cascades of gene expression in drought and cold stress responses, especially in identifying specificity and cross talk in stress signaling. In this review article, we highlight transcriptional regulation of gene expression in response to drought and cold stresses, with particular emphasis on the role of transcription factors and cis-acting elements in stress-inducible promoters.

  3. Simulation of cardiovascular response to acceleration stress following weightless exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Leonard, J. I.

    1983-01-01

    Physiological adjustments taking place during space flight tend to reduce the tolerance of the crew to headward (+Gz) acceleration experienced during the reentry phase of the flight. This reduced tolerance to acceleration stress apparently arises from an adaptation to the microgravity environment of space, including a decrease in the total circulating blood volume. Countermeasures such as anti-g garments have long been known to improve the tolerance to headward g-force, but their effectiveness in space flight has not been fully evaluated. The simulation study presented in this paper is concerned with the response of the cardiovascular system to g-stress following cardiovascular deconditioning, resulting from exposure to weightlessness, or any of its ground-based experimental analogs. The results serve to demonstrate the utility of mathematical modeling and computer simulation for studying the causes of orthostatic intolerance and the remedial measures to lessen it.

  4. Microtubules self-repair in response to mechanical stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaedel, Laura; John, Karin; Gaillard, Jérémie; Nachury, Maxence V.; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Microtubules--which define the shape of axons, cilia and flagella, and provide tracks for intracellular transport--can be highly bent by intracellular forces, and microtubule structure and stiffness are thought to be affected by physical constraints. Yet how microtubules tolerate the vast forces exerted on them remains unknown. Here, by using a microfluidic device, we show that microtubule stiffness decreases incrementally with each cycle of bending and release. Similar to other cases of material fatigue, the concentration of mechanical stresses on pre-existing defects in the microtubule lattice is responsible for the generation of more extensive damage, which further decreases microtubule stiffness. Strikingly, damaged microtubules were able to incorporate new tubulin dimers into their lattice and recover their initial stiffness. Our findings demonstrate that microtubules are ductile materials with self-healing properties, that their dynamics does not exclusively occur at their ends, and that their lattice plasticity enables the microtubules' adaptation to mechanical stresses.

  5. The cortisol response to social stress in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Vaccarino, Oriana; Levitan, Robert; Ravindran, Arun

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the cortisol stress response (CSR) following the Trier Social Stress Test in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and control participants, to determine whether individual differences in CSR associate more with SAD diagnosis or dimensional characteristics [i.e. childhood trauma (CT)]. Twenty-one participants (11 with SAD) had full data available for both CT-scores and cortisol area-under-the-curve (AUC). Linear regression produced significant results: predicting AUCG with study group, emotional abuse (EA) scores and their interaction (F=3.14, df=5,15; p=.039); of note, the study group by EA interaction was significant at p=.015, driven by a strong positive association between EA and cortisol AUCG in the control group, and a negative association between these variables in the SAD group (standardized-beta=1.56, t=2.75, p=.015). This suggests that EA in SAD patients is associated with altered CSR, highlighting need to measure dimensional characteristics.

  6. Oxidative stress, unfolded protein response, and apoptosis in developmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kupsco, Allison; Schlenk, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Physiological development requires precise spatiotemporal regulation of cellular and molecular processes. Disruption of these key events can generate developmental toxicity in the form of teratogenesis or mortality. The mechanism behind many developmental toxicants remains unknown. While recent work has focused on the unfolded protein response (UPR), oxidative stress, and apoptosis in the pathogenesis of disease, few studies have addressed their relationship in developmental toxicity. Redox regulation, UPR, and apoptosis are essential for physiological development and can be disturbed by a variety of endogenous and exogenous toxicants to generate lethality and diverse malformations. This review examines the current knowledge of the role of oxidative stress, UPR, and apoptosis in physiological development as well as in developmental toxicity, focusing on studies and advances in vertebrates model systems.

  7. Oxidative stress response and Nrf2 signaling in aging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongqiao; Davies, Kelvin J. A.; Forman, Henry Jay

    2015-01-01

    Increasing oxidative stress, a major characteristic of aging, has been implicated in variety of age-related pathologies. In aging, oxidant production from several sources is increased while antioxidant enzymes, the primary lines of defense, are decreased. Repair systems, including the proteasomal degradation of damaged proteins also declines. Importantly, the adaptive response to oxidative stress declines with aging. Nrf2/EpRE signaling regulates the basal and inducible expression of many antioxidant enzymes and the proteasome. Nrf2/EpRE activity is regulated at several levels including transcription, post-translation, and interaction with other proteins. This review summarizes current studies on age-related impairment of Nrf2/EpRE function and discusses the change of Nrf2 regulatory mechanisms with aging. PMID:26066302

  8. Oxidative Stress, Unfolded Protein Response, and Apoptosis in Developmental Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kupsco, Allison; Schlenk, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Physiological development requires precise spatiotemporal regulation of cellular and molecular processes. Disruption of these key events can generate developmental toxicity in the form of teratogenesis or mortality. The mechanism behind many developmental toxicants remains unknown. While recent work has focused on the unfolded protein response (UPR), oxidative stress, and apoptosis in the pathogenesis of disease, few studies have addressed their relationship in developmental toxicity. Redox regulation, UPR, and apoptosis are essential for physiological development and can be disturbed by a variety of endogenous and exogenous toxicants to generate lethality and diverse malformations. This review examines the current knowledge of the role of oxidative stress, UPR, and apoptosis in physiological development as well as in developmental toxicity, focusing on studies and advances in vertebrates model systems. PMID:26008783

  9. Microtubules self-repair in response to mechanical stress

    PubMed Central

    Schaedel, Laura; John, Karin; Gaillard, Jérémie; Nachury, Maxence V.; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules - which define the shape of axons, cilia and flagella, and provide tracks for intracellular transport - can be highly bent by intracellular forces, and microtubule structure and stiffness are thought to be affected by physical constraints. Yet how microtubules tolerate the vast forces exerted on them remains unknown. Here, by using a microfluidic device, we show that microtubule stiffness decreases incrementally with each cycle of bending and release. Similar to other cases of material fatigue, the concentration of mechanical stresses on pre-existing defects in the microtubule lattice is responsible for the generation of larger damages, which further decrease microtubule stiffness. Strikingly, damaged microtubules were able to incorporate new tubulin dimers into their lattice and recover their initial stiffness. Our findings demonstrate that microtubules are ductile materials with self-healing properties, that their dynamics does not exclusively occur at their ends, and that their lattice plasticity enables the microtubules' adaptation to mechanical stresses. PMID:26343914

  10. Microtubules self-repair in response to mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Schaedel, Laura; John, Karin; Gaillard, Jérémie; Nachury, Maxence V; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Microtubules--which define the shape of axons, cilia and flagella, and provide tracks for intracellular transport--can be highly bent by intracellular forces, and microtubule structure and stiffness are thought to be affected by physical constraints. Yet how microtubules tolerate the vast forces exerted on them remains unknown. Here, by using a microfluidic device, we show that microtubule stiffness decreases incrementally with each cycle of bending and release. Similar to other cases of material fatigue, the concentration of mechanical stresses on pre-existing defects in the microtubule lattice is responsible for the generation of more extensive damage, which further decreases microtubule stiffness. Strikingly, damaged microtubules were able to incorporate new tubulin dimers into their lattice and recover their initial stiffness. Our findings demonstrate that microtubules are ductile materials with self-healing properties, that their dynamics does not exclusively occur at their ends, and that their lattice plasticity enables the microtubules' adaptation to mechanical stresses.

  11. Adrenal cortical response to stress at Three Mile Island.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, M A; Baum, A

    1984-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between biochemical, psychologic, and behavioral components of chronic stress associated with living near the damaged nuclear power plant at Three Mile Island (TMI). Relative to control subjects, TMI subjects had higher levels of urinary cortisol, which correlated significantly with urinary catecholamines, self-report of physical and mental symptoms, and decrements in task performance. Further, it was found that males had higher urinary cortisol levels than females at TMI, while at the control sites, levels of cortisol were comparable between males and females. Finally, no significant relationship between coping style and urinary cortisol was detected. Levels of stress response among TMI are residents, though significantly greater than control subjects, were within normal ranges and thus should be considered subclinical in intensity. Their persistence over 17 months, however, suggests some cause for concern.

  12. Histone variants and chromatin assembly in plant abiotic stress responses.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Dong, Aiwu; Shen, Wen-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Genome organization into nucleosomes and higher-order chromatin structures has profound implications for the regulation of gene expression, DNA replication and repair. The structure of chromatin can be remodeled by several mechanisms; among others, nucleosome assembly/disassembly and replacement of canonical histones with histone variants constitute important ones. In this review, we provide a brief description on the current knowledge about histone chaperones involved in nucleosome assembly/disassembly and histone variants in Arabidopsis thaliana. We discuss recent advances in revealing crucial functions of histone chaperones, nucleosome assembly/disassembly and histone variants in plant response to abiotic stresses. It appears that chromatin structure remodeling may provide a flexible, global and stable means for the regulation of gene transcription to help plants more effectively cope with environmental stresses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Histone chaperones and chromatin assembly.

  13. Stress response in Candida glabrata: pieces of a fragmented picture.

    PubMed

    Jandric, Zeljkica; Schüller, Christoph

    2011-12-01

    Candida glabrata is closely related to yeast but obviously adapted to human commensalism. Communication with the environment is important to adjust allocation of resources between protection and proliferation in order to adapt to different situations in and outside of the host. Gene transcription regulated by environmental conditions is a major response strategy of simple fungal organisms. Differences to yeast include an extended repertoire of adhesive genes, and high drug, starvation and stress resistance. These properties largely do not originate from novel virulence genes but rather from adaptations of the transcriptional wiring. C. glabrata signaling pathways providing stress protection are adopted to meet conditions possibly encountered in a host-pathogen confrontation. The view on C. glabrata is getting clearer and points to a simple strategy combining resilience and a few adaptations.

  14. Stress-controlled viscoelastic tensile response of bovine cornea.

    PubMed

    Boyce, B L; Jones, R E; Nguyen, T D; Grazier, J M

    2007-01-01

    The viscoelastic response of bovine corneas was characterized using in vitro load-controlled uniaxial tension experiments. Specifically, two types of tests were employed: cycled ramp tests over a range of loading rates and creep tests over a range of hold stresses. Multiple replicates of each were used to quantify natural variability as well as mean trends. A preconditioning protocol was used to obtain a unique reference state before testing and to overcome the effects of non-physiological loading. A quasi-linear viscoelastic model incorporating a representation of the microstructure of the cornea was compared to the experimental results. For low stresses and moderate durations this model compares favorably, but overall the material displays non-linearities that cannot be represented within the quasi-linear framework.

  15. Husbandry of zebrafish, Danio rerio, and the cortisol stress response.

    PubMed

    Pavlidis, Michail; Digka, Nikoletta; Theodoridi, Antonia; Campo, Aurora; Barsakis, Konstantinos; Skouradakis, Gregoris; Samaras, Athanasios; Tsalafouta, Alexandra

    2013-12-01

    The effect of common husbandry conditions (crowding, social environment, water quality, handling, and background color) on the cortisol stress response in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio, was investigated to check the usefulness of zebrafish as a model organism in aquaculture research. In addition, a noninvasive methodology for assessing stress was evaluated. Zebrafish showed a fast cortisol response with high values at 30 min that returned to basal levels within 2 h of poststress. There was a significant positive correlation between trunk cortisol concentrations and the free water cortisol rate (r(2)=0.829-0.850, p<0.001), indicating that measurement of the water-borne cortisol release rate may serve as a noninvasive and reliable stress indicator at the population level. Crowding resulted in 13- to 21-fold greater mean trunk cortisol concentrations compared with controls. However, even at low stocking density (2-5 fish/L), the maintenance cost was higher than the one at higher densities (10 fish/L) due to the formation of dominance hierarchies. The background color affected trunk cortisol concentrations, with fish exposed to brighter backgrounds (green and white) showing 3- to 8-fold greater mean trunk cortisol concentrations than fish exposed to a black background or transparent aquaria. Fish exposed to high stocking densities for 2 h or 5 days had similar high mean trunk cortisol levels, indicating that exposure of fish for the period of 2 h to a specific stressor may represent a chronic situation in zebrafish. It is concluded that adult laboratory zebrafish had a preference for a transparent or black background aquarium, at a number of 10 individuals per 2 L of available water volume, to express their normal behavior and avoid increased cortisol stress reaction.

  16. Factors Predicting the Ocular Surface Response to Desiccating Environmental Stress

    PubMed Central

    Alex, Anastasia; Edwards, Austin; Hays, J. Daniel; Kerkstra, Michelle; Shih, Amanda; de Paiva, Cintia S.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To identify factors predicting the ocular surface response to experimental desiccating stress. Methods. The ocular surfaces of both eyes of 15 normal and 10 dry eye subjects wearing goggles were exposed to a controlled desiccating environment (15%–25% relative humidity and 2–5 L/min airflow) for 90 minutes. Eye irritation symptoms, blink rate, tear meniscus dimensions, noninvasive (RBUT) and invasive tear break-up time, and corneal fluorescein and conjunctival lissamine green-dye staining were recorded before and after desiccating stress. Pre- and postexposure measurements were compared, and Pearson correlations between clinical parameters before and after desiccating stress were calculated. Results. Corneal and conjunctival dye staining significantly increased in all subjects following 90-minute exposure to desiccating environment, and the magnitude of change was similar in normal and dry eye subjects; except superior cornea staining was greater in dry eye. Irritation severity in the desiccating environment was associated with baseline dye staining, baseline tear meniscus height, and blink rate after 45 minutes. Desiccation-induced change in corneal fluorescein staining was inversely correlated to baseline tear meniscus width, whereas change in total ocular surface dye staining was inversely correlated to baseline dye staining, RBUT, and tear meniscus height and width. Blink rate from 30 to 90 minutes in desiccating environment was higher in the dry eye than normal group. Blink rate significantly correlated to baseline corneal fluorescein staining and environmental-induced change in corneal fluorescein staining. Conclusions. Ocular surface dye staining increases in response to desiccating stress. Baseline ocular surface dye staining, tear meniscus height, and blink rate predict severity of ocular surface dye staining following exposure to a desiccating environment. PMID:23572103

  17. Cortisol stress response in post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and major depressive disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Böhme, Carsten; Petrowski, Katja

    2017-09-01

    Previous research has focussed extensively on the distinction of HPA-axis functioning between patient groups and healthy volunteers, with relatively little emphasis on a direct comparison of patient groups. The current study's aim was to analyse differences in the cortisol stress response as a function of primary diagnosis of panic disorder (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). A total of n=30 PD (mean age±SD: 36.07±12.56), n=23 PTSD (41.22±10.17), n=18 MDD patients (39.00±14.93) and n=47 healthy control (HC) individuals (35.51±13.15) participated in this study. All the study participants were female. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was used for reliable laboratory stress induction. Blood sampling accompanied the TSST for cortisol and ACTH assessment. Panic-related, PTSD-specific questionnaires and the Beck Depression Inventory II were handed out for the characterisation of the study groups. Repeated measure ANCOVAs were conducted to test for main effects of time or group and for interaction effects. Regression analyses were conducted to take comorbid depression into account. 26.7% of the PD patients, 43.5% of the PTSD patients, 72.2% of the MDD patients and 80.6% of the HC participants showed a cortisol stress response upon the TSST. ANCOVA revealed a cortisol hypo-responsiveness both in PD and PTSD patients, while no significant group differences were seen in the ACTH concentrations. Additional analyses showed no impact of comorbid depressiveness on the cortisol stress response. MDD patients did not differ in the hormonal stress response neither compared to the HC participants nor to the PD and PTSD patients. Our main findings provide evidence of a dissociation between the cortisol and ACTH concentrations in response to the TSST in PTSD and in PD patients, independent of comorbid depression. Our results further support overall research findings of a cortisol hypo-responsiveness in PD patients. A hypo-response

  18. Differential genetic interactions of yeast stress response MAPK pathways

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Humberto; Shales, Michael; Fernandez-Piñar, Pablo; Wei, Ping; Molina, Maria; Fiedler, Dorothea; Shokat, Kevan M; Beltrao, Pedro; Lim, Wendell; Krogan, Nevan J

    2015-01-01

    Genetic interaction screens have been applied with great success in several organisms to study gene function and the genetic architecture of the cell. However, most studies have been performed under optimal growth conditions even though many functional interactions are known to occur under specific cellular conditions. In this study, we have performed a large-scale genetic interaction analysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involving approximately 49 × 1,200 double mutants in the presence of five different stress conditions, including osmotic, oxidative and cell wall-altering stresses. This resulted in the generation of a differential E-MAP (or dE-MAP) comprising over 250,000 measurements of conditional interactions. We found an extensive number of conditional genetic interactions that recapitulate known stress-specific functional associations. Furthermore, we have also uncovered previously unrecognized roles involving the phosphatase regulator Bud14, the histone methylation complex COMPASS and membrane trafficking complexes in modulating the cell wall integrity pathway. Finally, the osmotic stress differential genetic interactions showed enrichment for genes coding for proteins with conditional changes in phosphorylation but not for genes with conditional changes in gene expression. This suggests that conditional genetic interactions are a powerful tool to dissect the functional importance of the different response mechanisms of the cell. PMID:25888283

  19. Transcriptome Response Mediated by Cold Stress in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Calzadilla, Pablo I.; Maiale, Santiago J.; Ruiz, Oscar A.; Escaray, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Lotus genus are important as agricultural forage sources under marginal environmental conditions given their high nutritional value and tolerance of various abiotic stresses. However, their dry matter production is drastically reduced in cooler seasons, while their response to such conditions is not well studied. This paper analyzes cold acclimation of the genus by studying Lotus japonicus over a stress period of 24 h. High-throughput RNA sequencing was used to identify and classify 1077 differentially expressed genes, of which 713 were up-regulated and 364 were down-regulated. Up-regulated genes were principally related to lipid, cell wall, phenylpropanoid, sugar, and proline regulation, while down-regulated genes affected the photosynthetic process and chloroplast development. Together, a total of 41 cold-inducible transcription factors were identified, including members of the AP2/ERF, NAC, MYB, and WRKY families; two of them were described as putative novel transcription factors. Finally, DREB1/CBFs were described with respect to their cold stress expression profiles. This is the first transcriptome profiling of the model legume L. japonicus under cold stress. Data obtained may be useful in identifying candidate genes for breeding modified species of forage legumes that more readily acclimate to low temperatures. PMID:27066029

  20. Oxidative stress responses and NRF2 in human leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Aziz, Amina; MacEwan, David J; Bowles, Kristian M; Rushworth, Stuart A

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress as a result of elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been observed in almost all cancers, including leukaemia, where they contribute to disease development and progression. However, cancer cells also express increased levels of antioxidant proteins which detoxify ROS. This includes glutathione, the major antioxidant in human cells, which has recently been identified to have dysregulated metabolism in human leukaemia. This suggests that critical balance of intracellular ROS levels is required for cancer cell function, growth, and survival. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) transcription factor plays a dual role in cancer. Primarily, NRF2 is a transcription factor functioning to protect nonmalignant cells from malignant transformation and oxidative stress through transcriptional activation of detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes. However, once malignant transformation has occurred within a cell, NRF2 functions to protect the tumour from oxidative stress and chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, inhibition of the NRF2 oxidative stress pathway in leukaemia cells renders them more sensitive to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Our improved understanding of NRF2 biology in human leukaemia may permit mechanisms by which we could potentially improve future cancer therapies. This review highlights the mechanisms by which leukaemic cells exploit the NRF2/ROS response to promote their growth and survival.

  1. Epigenetic memory for stress response and adaptation in plants.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Tetsu; Seki, Motoaki

    2014-11-01

    In contrast to the majority of animal species, plants are sessile organisms and are, therefore, constantly challenged by environmental perturbations. Over the past few decades, our knowledge of how plants perceive environmental stimuli has increased considerably, e.g. the mechanisms for transducing environmental stress stimuli into cellular signaling cascades and gene transcription networks. In addition, it has recently been shown that plants can remember past environmental events and can use these memories to aid responses when these events recur. In this mini review, we focus on recent progress in determination of the epigenetic mechanisms used by plants under various environmental stresses. Epigenetic mechanisms are now known to play a vital role in the control of gene expression through small RNAs, histone modifications and DNA methylation. These are inherited through mitotic cell divisions and, in some cases, can be transmitted to the next generation. They therefore offer a possible mechanism for stress memories in plants. Recent studies have yielded evidence indicating that epigenetic mechanisms are indeed essential for stress memories and adaptation in plants.

  2. Lipid signalling in plant responses to abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Hou, Quancan; Ufer, Guido; Bartels, Dorothea

    2016-05-01

    Lipids are one of the major components of biological membranes including the plasma membrane, which is the interface between the cell and the environment. It has become clear that membrane lipids also serve as substrates for the generation of numerous signalling lipids such as phosphatidic acid, phosphoinositides, sphingolipids, lysophospholipids, oxylipins, N-acylethanolamines, free fatty acids and others. The enzymatic production and metabolism of these signalling molecules are tightly regulated and can rapidly be activated upon abiotic stress signals. Abiotic stress like water deficit and temperature stress triggers lipid-dependent signalling cascades, which control the expression of gene clusters and activate plant adaptation processes. Signalling lipids are able to recruit protein targets transiently to the membrane and thus affect conformation and activity of intracellular proteins and metabolites. In plants, knowledge is still scarce of lipid signalling targets and their physiological consequences. This review focuses on the generation of signalling lipids and their involvement in response to abiotic stress. We describe lipid-binding proteins in the context of changing environmental conditions and compare different approaches to determine lipid-protein interactions, crucial for deciphering the signalling cascades. © 2016 JohnWiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Unfolded Protein Response, and Cancer Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Corazzari, Marco; Gagliardi, Mara; Fimia, Gian Maria; Piacentini, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Perturbation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis results in a stress condition termed “ER stress” determining the activation of a finely regulated program defined as unfolded protein response (UPR) and whose primary aim is to restore this organelle’s physiological activity. Several physiological and pathological stimuli deregulate normal ER activity causing UPR activation, such as hypoxia, glucose shortage, genome instability, and cytotoxic compounds administration. Some of these stimuli are frequently observed during uncontrolled proliferation of transformed cells, resulting in tumor core formation and stage progression. Therefore, it is not surprising that ER stress is usually induced during solid tumor development and stage progression, becoming an hallmark of such malignancies. Several UPR components are in fact deregulated in different tumor types, and accumulating data indicate their active involvement in tumor development/progression. However, although the UPR program is primarily a pro-survival process, sustained and/or prolonged stress may result in cell death induction. Therefore, understanding the mechanism(s) regulating the cell survival/death decision under ER stress condition may be crucial in order to specifically target tumor cells and possibly circumvent or overcome tumor resistance to therapies. In this review, we discuss the role played by the UPR program in tumor initiation, progression and resistance to therapy, highlighting the recent advances that have improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the survival/death switch. PMID:28491820

  4. "Stress entropic load" as a transgenerational epigenetic response trigger.

    PubMed

    Bienertová-Vašků, Julie; Nečesánek, Ivo; Novák, Jan; Vinklárek, Jan; Zlámal, Filip

    2014-03-01

    Epigenetic changes are generally based on the switching of alternative functional or structural states and result in the adaptation of cellular expression patterns during proliferation, differentiation or plastic changes in the adult organism, whereas some epigenetic information can be passed on other generations while other is not. Hence, the principal question is: why is some information reset or resolved during the meiosis process and other is passed from one generation to another, or, in other words: what "adaptation trigger" level initiates transgenerationally transmitted epigenome change? Hereto, we propose a theory which states that stress, or, more specifically, the energy cost of an individual's adaptation to stress, represents a viable candidate for the transgenerational transmission trigger of a given acquired trait. It has been reported recently that the higher lifetime entropy generation of a unit's body mass, the higher the entropy stress level (which is a measure of energy released by a unit's organ mass) and the irreversibility within the organ, resulting in faster organ degradation and consequent health problems for the entire biological system. We therefore suggest a new term: "stress entropic load" will reflect the actual energetic cost of an individual's adaptation and may be used to estimate the probability of inducing transgenerational response once characterized or measured.

  5. Stressed stem cells: Temperature response in aged mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Stolzing, Alexandra; Sethe, Sebastian; Scutt, Andrew M

    2006-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from young (6 week) and aged (56 week) Wistar rats were cultured at standard (37 degrees C) and reduced (32 degrees C) temperature and compared for age markers and stress levels. (ROS, NO, TBARS, carbonyls, lipofuscin, SOD, GPx, apoptosis, proteasome activity) and heat shock proteins (HSP27, -60, -70, -90). Aged MSCs display many of the stress markers associated with aging in other cell types, but results vary across marker categories and are temperature dependant. In young MSCs, culturing at reduced temperature had a generally beneficial effect: the anti-apoptotic heat shock proteins HSP 27, HSP70, and HSP90 were up-regulated; pro-apoptotic HSP60 was downregulated; SOD, GPx increased; and levels in ROS, NO, TBARS, carbonyl, and lipofuscin were diminished. Apoptosis was reduced, but also proteasome activity. In contrast, in aged MSCs, culturing at reduced temperature generally produced no 'beneficial' changes in these parameters, and can even have detrimental effects. Implications for tissue engineering and for stem cell gerontology are discussed. The results suggest that a 'hormesis' theory of stress response can be extended to MSCs, but that cooling cultivation temperature stress produces positive effects in young cells only.

  6. Differential genetic interactions of yeast stress response MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Martin, Humberto; Shales, Michael; Fernandez-Piñar, Pablo; Wei, Ping; Molina, Maria; Fiedler, Dorothea; Shokat, Kevan M; Beltrao, Pedro; Lim, Wendell; Krogan, Nevan J

    2015-04-17

    Genetic interaction screens have been applied with great success in several organisms to study gene function and the genetic architecture of the cell. However, most studies have been performed under optimal growth conditions even though many functional interactions are known to occur under specific cellular conditions. In this study, we have performed a large-scale genetic interaction analysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involving approximately 49 × 1,200 double mutants in the presence of five different stress conditions, including osmotic, oxidative and cell wall-altering stresses. This resulted in the generation of a differential E-MAP (or dE-MAP) comprising over 250,000 measurements of conditional interactions. We found an extensive number of conditional genetic interactions that recapitulate known stress-specific functional associations. Furthermore, we have also uncovered previously unrecognized roles involving the phosphatase regulator Bud14, the histone methylation complex COMPASS and membrane trafficking complexes in modulating the cell wall integrity pathway. Finally, the osmotic stress differential genetic interactions showed enrichment for genes coding for proteins with conditional changes in phosphorylation but not for genes with conditional changes in gene expression. This suggests that conditional genetic interactions are a powerful tool to dissect the functional importance of the different response mechanisms of the cell.

  7. The starvation-stress response (SSR) of Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Spector, M P

    1998-01-01

    Salmonella serovars are common etiologic agents of intestinal-based disease of animals and humans. As a result of their lifestyle, salmonellae occupy and survive in a wide range of niches where they can encounter an even broader range of environmental stresses. One of the most common stresses is starvation for an essential nutrient such as a carbon/energy (C)-source. The genetic and physiologic changes that the bacterium undergoes in response to starvation-stress are referred to as the starvation-stress response or SSR. The genetic loci whose expression increases in response to the starvation-stress compose the SSR stimulon. Several loci of the SSR stimulon have been identified in Salmonella typhimurium and grouped, based on putative or known functions or products, into transport systems, C-compound catabolic enzymes, known protective enzymes, respiratory enzyme systems, regulatory proteins, virulence loci and unclassified products. The majority of loci identified are under positive control by the rpoS-encoded sigma factor, sigma S. However, a few are under (indirect) negative control by sigma S, but only during starvation-induced stationary phase. Most of the loci identified are also under either positive or negative control by the cAMP:CRP complex. For many, additional regulatory proteins (e.g. FadR, OxyR, and RelA and others) play a role in their regulation as well. Furthermore, most of the SSR loci identified are induced during other stresses or environmental conditions. For example, some are induced during P- or N-starvation, in addition to C-starvation; some are induced by extremes in pH or osmolarity; and some are induced in the intracellular environment of epithelial cells, and/or macrophages, and/or medium designed to mimic the intracellular milieu of mammalian cells (ISM). Several SSR loci are required for long-term starvation-survival (core SSR loci), e.g. narZ, dadA, stiC and rpoS. In addition, a few of the core SSR loci are also required for stress

  8. Individual differences in cortisol stress response predict increases in voice pitch during exam stress.

    PubMed

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Nowak, Judyta; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    Despite a long history of empirical research, the potential vocal markers of stress remain unclear. Previous studies examining speech under stress most consistently report an increase in voice pitch (the acoustic correlate of fundamental frequency, F0), however numerous studies have failed to replicate this finding. In the present study we tested the prediction that these inconsistencies are tied to variation in the severity of the stress response, wherein voice changes may be observed predominantly among individuals who show a cortisol stress response (i.e., an increase in free cortisol levels) above a critical threshold. Voice recordings and saliva samples were collected from university psychology students at baseline and again immediately prior to an oral examination. Voice recordings included both read and spontaneous speech, from which we measured mean, minimum, maximum, and the standard deviation in F0. We observed an increase in mean and minimum F0 under stress in both read and spontaneous speech, whereas maximum F0 and its standard deviation showed no systematic changes under stress. Our results confirmed that free cortisol levels increased by an average of 74% (ranging from 0 to 270%) under stress. Critically, increases in cortisol concentrations significantly predicted increases in mean F0 under stress for both speech types, but did not predict variation in F0 at baseline. On average, stress-induced increases in voice pitch occurred only when free cortisol levels more than doubled their baseline concentrations. Our results suggest that researchers examining speech under stress should control for individual differences in the magnitude of the stress response.

  9. Underlying inflammation has no impact on the oxidative stress response to acute mental stress.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Alex J; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Jet J C S; Paine, Nicola J; Drayson, Mark T; Aldred, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    Mental stress is considered to be a trigger for acute myocardial infarction (MI), with inflammation thought to provide a mechanism. Inflammation is reciprocally linked to oxidative stress, which has also been implicated in MI. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of experimentally-induced inflammation on the oxidative stress response to mental stress in healthy participants. Healthy males undertook one of two inflammatory stimuli: typhoid vaccination (Vaccination paradigm, N=17) or eccentric exercise (Eccentric exercise paradigm, N=17). All participants completed a mental arithmetic stress task twice (within-subject design): 6h after the inflammatory stimulus, and during a control non-inflammation condition. Blood samples were taken before, immediately and 30min after the stress task. Plasma was assessed for interleukin-6 (IL-6), protein carbonyls (PC), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and nitric oxide metabolites (NOx). Vaccination paradigm: IL-6, PC and NOx were significantly higher in the vaccination condition, relative to the control condition (p<.05). PC, TAC, LOOH and NOx were unchanged in response to mental stress in both the vaccination and control conditions. Eccentric Exercise paradigm: IL-6 and TAC were significantly higher in the eccentric exercise condition (p<.05), relative to the control condition. PC, TAC and NOx were unchanged in response to mental stress in both the eccentric exercise and control conditions. Two different inflammatory paradigms were successful in increasing selective plasma markers of inflammation and oxidative stress prior to a mental stress task. However, experimentally induced transient inflammation had no impact on mental stress-induced changes in plasma LOOH, PC, TAC or NOx in young healthy participants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Embryonic exposure to corticosterone modifies the juvenile stress response, oxidative stress and telomere length

    PubMed Central

    Haussmann, Mark F.; Longenecker, Andrew S.; Marchetto, Nicole M.; Juliano, Steven A.; Bowden, Rachel M.

    2012-01-01

    Early embryonic exposure to maternal glucocorticoids can broadly impact physiology and behaviour across phylogenetically diverse taxa. The transfer of maternal glucocorticoids to offspring may be an inevitable cost associated with poor environmental conditions, or serve as a maternal effect that alters offspring phenotype in preparation for a stressful environment. Regardless, maternal glucocorticoids are likely to have both costs and benefits that are paid and collected over different developmental time periods. We manipulated yolk corticosterone (cort) in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus) to examine the potential impacts of embryonic exposure to maternal stress on the juvenile stress response and cellular ageing. Here, we report that juveniles exposed to experimentally increased cort in ovo had a protracted decline in cort during the recovery phase of the stress response. All birds, regardless of treatment group, shifted to oxidative stress during an acute stress response. In addition, embryonic exposure to cort resulted in higher levels of reactive oxygen metabolites and an over-representation of short telomeres compared with the control birds. In many species, individuals with higher levels of oxidative stress and shorter telomeres have the poorest survival prospects. Given this, long-term costs of glucocorticoid-induced phenotypes may include accelerated ageing and increased mortality. PMID:22072607

  11. Moving through the Stressed Genome: Emerging Regulatory Roles for Transposons in Plant Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Negi, Pooja; Rai, Archana N.; Suprasanna, Penna

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of a positive correlation between organism genome size with its transposable element (TE) content, represents a key discovery of the field of genome biology. Considerable evidence accumulated since then suggests the involvement of TEs in genome structure, evolution and function. The global genome reorganization brought about by transposon activity might play an adaptive/regulatory role in the host response to environmental challenges, reminiscent of McClintock's original ‘Controlling Element’ hypothesis. This regulatory aspect of TEs is also garnering support in light of the recent evidences, which project TEs as “distributed genomic control modules.” According to this view, TEs are capable of actively reprogramming host genes circuits and ultimately fine-tuning the host response to specific environmental stimuli. Moreover, the stress-induced changes in epigenetic status of TE activity may allow TEs to propagate their stress responsive elements to host genes; the resulting genome fluidity can permit phenotypic plasticity and adaptation to stress. Given their predominating presence in the plant genomes, nested organization in the genic regions and potential regulatory role in stress response, TEs hold unexplored potential for crop improvement programs. This review intends to present the current information about the roles played by TEs in plant genome organization, evolution, and function and highlight the regulatory mechanisms in plant stress responses. We will also briefly discuss the connection between TE activity, host epigenetic response and phenotypic plasticity as a critical link for traversing the translational bridge from a purely basic study of TEs, to the applied field of stress adaptation and crop improvement. PMID:27777577

  12. Hierarchical responses of soil invertebrates (earthworms) to toxic metal stress.

    PubMed

    Spurgeon, David J; Ricketts, Huw; Svendsen, Claus; Morgan, A John; Kille, Peter

    2005-07-15

    The concept of a hierarchical cascade of biological responses to stress occurring across different levels of biological organization is an underlying principle of both theoretical and regulatory ecology/ecotoxicology. This study investigates the reality of this cascade for earthworms exposed to toxic metal stress. Gene expression was the most sensitive endpoint (EC50 = 616 microg Zn g(-1)) followed by the integrity of coelomocyte lysosomal membrane (EC50 = 645 microg Zn g(-1)). This confirms that, in accordance with the cascade concept, suborganism level endpoints respond at lower metal concentrations than higher organization endpoints. The relative sensitivity of the higher organization parameters was not as predicted by the cascade. Organic material removal was more sensitive (EC50 = 997 microg Zn g(-1)) than L. rubellus reproduction (EC50 = 3236 microg Zn g(-1)), L. rubellus population size (EC50 = 5000-11500 microg Zn g(-1)), and earthworm community diversity (EC50 = 1737 microg Zn g(-1)). This can be attributed to (1) the relative insensitivity of L. rubellus to metals and (2) general toxic effects of metals on the earthworm energy budget (and thus feeding). On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that predictive assessments of the consequences of environmental stressors needs to include approaches that respect the relative sensitivities of different taxa, while retrospective appraisals should exploit the sensitivity of low organization level responses.

  13. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress

    PubMed Central

    Negrão, S.; Schmöckel, S. M.; Tester, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant’s physiology, making it difficult to study in toto. Instead, it is more tractable to dissect the plant’s response into traits that are hypothesized to be involved in the overall tolerance of the plant to salinity. Scope and conclusions We discuss how to quantify the impact of salinity on different traits, such as relative growth rate, water relations, transpiration, transpiration use efficiency, ionic relations, photosynthesis, senescence, yield and yield components. We also suggest some guidelines to assist with the selection of appropriate experimental systems, imposition of salinity stress, and obtaining and analysing relevant physiological data using appropriate indices. We illustrate how these indices can be used to identify relationships amongst the proposed traits to identify which traits are the most important contributors to salinity tolerance. Salinity tolerance is complex and involves many genes, but progress has been made in studying the mechanisms underlying a plant’s response to salinity. Nevertheless, several previous studies on salinity tolerance could have benefited from improved experimental design. We hope that this paper will provide pertinent information to researchers on performing proficient assays and interpreting results from salinity tolerance experiments. PMID:27707746

  14. Oxidative stress response in the opportunistic oral pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum.

    PubMed

    Steeves, Craig H; Potrykus, Joanna; Barnett, David A; Bearne, Stephen L

    2011-05-01

    The anaerobic, Gram-negative bacillus Fusobacterium nucleatum plays a vital role in oral biofilm formation and the development of periodontal disease. The organism plays a central bridging role between early and late colonizers within dental plaque and plays a protective role against reactive oxygen species. Using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry approach, we have annotated 78 proteins within the proteome of F. nucleatum subsp. nucleatum and identified those proteins whose apparent intracellular concentrations change in response to either O(2)- or H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress. Three major protein systems were altered in response to oxidative stress: (i) proteins of the alkyl hydroperoxide reductase/thioredoxin reductase system were increased in intracellular concentration; (ii) glycolytic enzymes were modified by oxidation (i.e. D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and fructose 6-phosphate aldolase) or increased in intracellular concentration, with an accompanying decrease in ATP production; and (iii) the intracellular concentrations of molecular chaperone proteins and related proteins (i.e. ClpB, DnaK, HtpG, and HrcA) were increased. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Computational modeling of cardiovascular response to orthostatic stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldt, Thomas; Shim, Eun B.; Kamm, Roger D.; Mark, Roger G.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a model of the cardiovascular system capable of simulating the short-term (< or = 5 min) transient and steady-state hemodynamic responses to head-up tilt and lower body negative pressure. The model consists of a closed-loop lumped-parameter representation of the circulation connected to set-point models of the arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflexes. Model parameters are largely based on literature values. Model verification was performed by comparing the simulation output under baseline conditions and at different levels of orthostatic stress to sets of population-averaged hemodynamic data reported in the literature. On the basis of experimental evidence, we adjusted some model parameters to simulate experimental data. Orthostatic stress simulations are not statistically different from experimental data (two-sided test of significance with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons). Transient response characteristics of heart rate to tilt also compare well with reported data. A case study is presented on how the model is intended to be used in the future to investigate the effects of post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance.

  16. Assessing Cd-induced stress from plant spectral response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kancheva, Rumiana; Georgiev, Georgi

    2014-10-01

    Remote sensing plays a significant role in local, regional and global monitoring of land covers. Ecological concerns worldwide determine the importance of remote sensing applications for the assessment of soil conditions, vegetation health and identification of stress-induced changes. The extensive industrial growth and intensive agricultural land-use arise the serious ecological problem of environmental pollution associated with the increasing anthropogenic pressure on the environment. Soil contamination is a reason for degradation processes and temporary or permanent decrease of the productive capacity of land. Heavy metals are among the most dangerous pollutants because of their toxic