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Sample records for resting memory pool

  1. Resting state EEG correlates of memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Brokaw, Kate; Tishler, Ward; Manceor, Stephanie; Hamilton, Kelly; Gaulden, Andrew; Parr, Elaine; Wamsley, Erin J

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate that post-training sleep benefits human memory. At the same time, emerging data suggest that other resting states may similarly facilitate consolidation. In order to identify the conditions under which non-sleep resting states benefit memory, we conducted an EEG (electroencephalographic) study of verbal memory retention across 15min of eyes-closed rest. Participants (n=26) listened to a short story and then either rested with their eyes closed, or else completed a distractor task for 15min. A delayed recall test was administered immediately following the rest period. We found, first, that quiet rest enhanced memory for the short story. Improved memory was associated with a particular EEG signature of increased slow oscillatory activity (<1Hz), in concert with reduced alpha (8-12Hz) activity. Mindwandering during the retention interval was also associated with improved memory. These observations suggest that a short period of quiet rest can facilitate memory, and that this may occur via an active process of consolidation supported by slow oscillatory EEG activity and characterized by decreased attention to the external environment. Slow oscillatory EEG rhythms are proposed to facilitate memory consolidation during sleep by promoting hippocampal-cortical communication. Our findings suggest that EEG slow oscillations could play a significant role in memory consolidation during other resting states as well. PMID:26802698

  2. Resting state networks and memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Albert, Neil B; Robertson, Edwin M; Mehta, Puja; Miall, R Chris

    2009-11-01

    Despite their name, resting state networks (RSNs) provide a clear indication that the human brain may be hard-working. Unlike the cardiac and respiratory systems, which greatly reduce their rate of function during periods of inactivity, the human brain may have additional responsibilities during rest. One particularly intriguing function performed by the resting brain is the consolidation of recent learned information, which is known to take place over a period of several hours after learning. We recently reported that resting state brain activity is modulated by recent learning. We measured the brain activity using functional MRI during periods of rest that preceded and followed learning of a sensorimotor task, and found a network of brain areas that changed their resting activity. These areas are known to be involved in the acquisition and memory of such sensorimotor tasks. Furthermore, the changes were specific to a task that required learning, and were not found after motor performance without learning. Here we discuss the implications and possible extensions of this work and its relevance to the study of memory consolidation. PMID:20195459

  3. Pet Rest Memorial: Is Eternity Running Out of Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegelman, Vivian; Kastenbaum, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Briefly explores the needs served by pet cemeteries, the difficulties that confront many of these facilities, and the larger implications for memorialization and the sense of loss. Includes photographic tour of Pet Rest Memorial Mortuary and Cemetery in Tempe, Arizona. (Author/NB)

  4. Memory Processing: Ripples in the Resting Brain.

    PubMed

    Walker, Matthew P; Robertson, Edwin M

    2016-03-21

    Recent work has shown that, during sleep, a functional circuit is created amidst a general breakdown in connectivity following fast-frequency bursts of brain activity. The findings question the unconscious nature of deep sleep, and provide an explanation for its contribution to memory processing.

  5. Induced venous pooling and cardiorespiratory responses to exercise after bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Sandler, H.; Webb, P.; Annis, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    Venous pooling induced by a specially constructed garment is investigated as a possible means for reversing the reduction in maximal oxygen uptake regularly observed following bed rest. Experiments involved a 15-day period of bed rest during which four healthy male subjects, while remaining recumbent in bed, received daily 210-min venous pooling treatments from a reverse gradient garment supplying counterpressure to the torso. Results of exercise testing indicate that while maximal oxygen uptake endurance time and plasma volume were reduced and maximal heart rate increased after bed rest in the control group, those parameters remained essentially unchanged for the group undergoing venous pooling treatment. Results demonstrate the importance of fluid shifts and venous pooling within the cardiovascular system in addition to physical activity to the maintenance of cardiovascular conditioning.

  6. Boosting long-term memory via wakeful rest: intentional rehearsal is not necessary, consolidation is sufficient.

    PubMed

    Dewar, Michaela; Alber, Jessica; Cowan, Nelson; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    People perform better on tests of delayed free recall if learning is followed immediately by a short wakeful rest than by a short period of sensory stimulation. Animal and human work suggests that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for the consolidation of recently acquired memories. However, an alternative account cannot be ruled out, namely that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for intentional rehearsal of recently acquired memories, thus driving superior memory. Here we utilised non-recallable words to examine whether wakeful rest boosts long-term memory, even when new memories could not be rehearsed intentionally during the wakeful rest delay. The probing of non-recallable words requires a recognition paradigm. Therefore, we first established, via Experiment 1, that the rest-induced boost in memory observed via free recall can be replicated in a recognition paradigm, using concrete nouns. In Experiment 2, participants heard 30 non-recallable non-words, presented as 'foreign names in a bridge club abroad' and then either rested wakefully or played a visual spot-the-difference game for 10 minutes. Retention was probed via recognition at two time points, 15 minutes and 7 days after presentation. As in Experiment 1, wakeful rest boosted recognition significantly, and this boost was maintained for at least 7 days. Our results indicate that the enhancement of memory via wakeful rest is not dependent upon intentional rehearsal of learned material during the rest period. We thus conclude that consolidation is sufficient for this rest-induced memory boost to emerge. We propose that wakeful resting allows for superior memory consolidation, resulting in stronger and/or more veridical representations of experienced events which can be detected via tests of free recall and recognition.

  7. Boosting Long-Term Memory via Wakeful Rest: Intentional Rehearsal Is Not Necessary, Consolidation Is Sufficient

    PubMed Central

    Dewar, Michaela; Alber, Jessica; Cowan, Nelson; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    People perform better on tests of delayed free recall if learning is followed immediately by a short wakeful rest than by a short period of sensory stimulation. Animal and human work suggests that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for the consolidation of recently acquired memories. However, an alternative account cannot be ruled out, namely that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for intentional rehearsal of recently acquired memories, thus driving superior memory. Here we utilised non-recallable words to examine whether wakeful rest boosts long-term memory, even when new memories could not be rehearsed intentionally during the wakeful rest delay. The probing of non-recallable words requires a recognition paradigm. Therefore, we first established, via Experiment 1, that the rest-induced boost in memory observed via free recall can be replicated in a recognition paradigm, using concrete nouns. In Experiment 2, participants heard 30 non-recallable non-words, presented as ‘foreign names in a bridge club abroad’ and then either rested wakefully or played a visual spot-the-difference game for 10 minutes. Retention was probed via recognition at two time points, 15 minutes and 7 days after presentation. As in Experiment 1, wakeful rest boosted recognition significantly, and this boost was maintained for at least 7 days. Our results indicate that the enhancement of memory via wakeful rest is not dependent upon intentional rehearsal of learned material during the rest period. We thus conclude that consolidation is sufficient for this rest-induced memory boost to emerge. We propose that wakeful resting allows for superior memory consolidation, resulting in stronger and/or more veridical representations of experienced events which can be detected via tests of free recall and recognition. PMID:25333957

  8. Is functional integration of resting state brain networks an unspecific biomarker for working memory performance?

    PubMed

    Alavash, Mohsen; Doebler, Philipp; Holling, Heinz; Thiel, Christiane M; Gießing, Carsten

    2015-03-01

    Is there one optimal topology of functional brain networks at rest from which our cognitive performance would profit? Previous studies suggest that functional integration of resting state brain networks is an important biomarker for cognitive performance. However, it is still unknown whether higher network integration is an unspecific predictor for good cognitive performance or, alternatively, whether specific network organization during rest predicts only specific cognitive abilities. Here, we investigated the relationship between network integration at rest and cognitive performance using two tasks that measured different aspects of working memory; one task assessed visual-spatial and the other numerical working memory. Network clustering, modularity and efficiency were computed to capture network integration on different levels of network organization, and to statistically compare their correlations with the performance in each working memory test. The results revealed that each working memory aspect profits from a different resting state topology, and the tests showed significantly different correlations with each of the measures of network integration. While higher global network integration and modularity predicted significantly better performance in visual-spatial working memory, both measures showed no significant correlation with numerical working memory performance. In contrast, numerical working memory was superior in subjects with highly clustered brain networks, predominantly in the intraparietal sulcus, a core brain region of the working memory network. Our findings suggest that a specific balance between local and global functional integration of resting state brain networks facilitates special aspects of cognitive performance. In the context of working memory, while visual-spatial performance is facilitated by globally integrated functional resting state brain networks, numerical working memory profits from increased capacities for local processing

  9. Effects of prolonged head-down bed rest on working memory

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Zhou, Renlai; Zhao, Xin; Oei, Tian Po S

    2015-01-01

    Background The weightlessness caused by prolonged bed rest results in changes in cerebral circulation and thus, brain functions, which is of interest. Methods We investigated the effects of 45-day, −6° head-down bed rest, which stimulated microgravity, on working memory in 16 healthy male participants. The 2-back task was used to test the working memory variations on the 2nd day before bed rest (R−2); on the 11th (R11), 20th (R20), 32nd (R32), and 40th (R40) days of bed rest; and on the eighth day after bed rest (R+8). The cognitive response and the physiological reactivity (such as galvanic skin response, heart rate, and heart rate variability) under the 2-back task were recorded simultaneously. Results The results showed that compared with R−2, on the R+8, the participants’ galvanic skin response increased significantly, and the high frequency of heart rate variability (HF), low frequency of heart rate variability (LF), and reaction time in the 2-back task decreased significantly. There were positive correlations between the participants’ reaction time of working memory and the LF/HF under head-down bed rest (at R11, R20, and R32). Conclusion The results suggested that the prolonged head-down bed rest may have a detrimental effect on individual physiology and working memory. Physiology indices, such as galvanic skin response and heart rate variability, were sensitive to the prolonged bed rest. PMID:25848281

  10. Enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between core memory-task activation peaks is associated with memory impairment in MCI.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifei; Simon-Vermot, Lee; Araque Caballero, Miguel Á; Gesierich, Benno; Taylor, Alexander N W; Duering, Marco; Dichgans, Martin; Ewers, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) is altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but its predictive value for episodic memory impairment is debated. Here, we aimed to assess whether resting-state FC in core brain regions activated during memory-task functional magnetic resonance imaging is altered and predictive of memory performance in AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Twenty-three elderly cognitively healthy controls (HC), 76 aMCI subjects, and 19 AD dementia patients were included. We computed resting-state FC between 18 meta-analytically determined peak coordinates of brain activation during successful memory retrieval. Higher FC between the parahippocampus, parietal cortex, and the middle frontal gyrus was observed in both AD and mild cognitive impairment compared to HC (false-discovery rate-corrected p < 0.05). The increase in FC between the parahippocampus and middle frontal gyrus was associated with reduced episodic memory in aMCI, independent of amyloid-beta positron emission tomography binding and apolipoprotein E ε4-carrier status. In conclusion, increased parahippocampal-prefrontal FC is predictive of impaired episodic memory in aMCI and may reflect a dysfunctional change within the episodic memory-related neural network. PMID:27459924

  11. Effects of prestudy and poststudy rest on memory: Support for temporal interference accounts of forgetting.

    PubMed

    Ecker, Ullrich K H; Tay, Jia-Xin; Brown, Gordon D A

    2015-06-01

    According to interference-based theories of memory, including temporal-distinctiveness theory, both prestudy and poststudy rest should have beneficial impacts on memory performance. Specifically, higher temporal isolation of a memorandum should reduce proactive and/or retroactive interference, and thus should result in better recall. In the present study, we investigated the effects of prestudy and poststudy rest in a free recall paradigm. Participants studied three lists of words, separated by either a short or a long period of low mental activity (a tone-detection task). Recall targeted the second list; this list was studied in one of four conditions, defined by the fully crossed factors of prestudy and poststudy rest duration. Two experiments revealed a beneficial effect of prestudy rest (and, to a lesser extent, of poststudy rest) on list recall. This result is in line with interference-based theories of memory. By contrast, a beneficial effect of prestudy rest is not predicted by consolidation accounts of memory and forgetting; our results thus require additional assumptions and/or a better specification of the consolidation process and its time course in order to be reconciled with consolidation theory.

  12. Effects of prestudy and poststudy rest on memory: Support for temporal interference accounts of forgetting.

    PubMed

    Ecker, Ullrich K H; Tay, Jia-Xin; Brown, Gordon D A

    2015-06-01

    According to interference-based theories of memory, including temporal-distinctiveness theory, both prestudy and poststudy rest should have beneficial impacts on memory performance. Specifically, higher temporal isolation of a memorandum should reduce proactive and/or retroactive interference, and thus should result in better recall. In the present study, we investigated the effects of prestudy and poststudy rest in a free recall paradigm. Participants studied three lists of words, separated by either a short or a long period of low mental activity (a tone-detection task). Recall targeted the second list; this list was studied in one of four conditions, defined by the fully crossed factors of prestudy and poststudy rest duration. Two experiments revealed a beneficial effect of prestudy rest (and, to a lesser extent, of poststudy rest) on list recall. This result is in line with interference-based theories of memory. By contrast, a beneficial effect of prestudy rest is not predicted by consolidation accounts of memory and forgetting; our results thus require additional assumptions and/or a better specification of the consolidation process and its time course in order to be reconciled with consolidation theory. PMID:25257711

  13. Resting state signatures of domain and demand-specific memory performance

    PubMed Central

    van Dam, Wessel O.; Decker, Scott; Durbin, Jeffery S.; Vendemia, Jennifer M. C.; Desai, Rutvik H.

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is one of the key constructs in understanding higher-level cognition. We examined whether patterns of activity in the resting state in individual subjects are correlated with their off-line working and short-term memory capabilities. Participants completed a resting-state fMRI scan and offline working and short-term memory (STM) tests with both verbal and visual materials. We calculated fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) from the resting state data, and also computed connectivity between seeds placed in frontal and parietal lobes. Correlating fALFF values with behavioral measures showed that the fALFF values in a widespread fronto-parietal network during rest were positively correlated with a combined memory measure. In addition, STM showed a significant correlation with fALFF within the right angular gyrus and left middle occipital gyrus, whereas WM was correlated with fALFF values within the right IPS and left dorsomedial cerebellar cortex. Furthermore, verbal and visuospatial memory capacities were associated with dissociable patterns of low-frequency fluctuations. Seed-based connectivity showed correlations with the verbal WM measure in the left hemisphere, and with the visual WM in the right hemisphere. These findings contribute to our understanding of how differences in spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations at rest are correlated with differences in cognitive performance. PMID:25980975

  14. Resting-state fMRI evidence for early episodic memory consolidation: effects of age.

    PubMed

    Kukolja, Juraj; Göreci, D Yasemin; Onur, Özgür A; Riedl, Valentin; Fink, Gereon R

    2016-09-01

    Aging-related episodic memory decline is often attributed to insufficient encoding of new information, although the underlying neural processes remain elusive. We here tested the hypothesis that impaired memory consolidation contributes to aging-related memory decline. To this end, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy young and older adults and investigated neural network connectivity underlying episodic memory consolidation and the effects of aging thereon. During postencoding rest, connectivity increased in subregions of temporobasal and temporo-occipital networks but decreased in a precuneal network. These connectivity changes predicted subsequent memory performance thereby constituting functional correlates of early memory consolidation. Furthermore, these consolidation-related regional connectivity changes partially overlapped with encoding-related neural activity changes, suggesting a close relationship between encoding- and consolidation-related activity. Older when compared to young participants failed to increase connectivity in the right lingual gyrus as part of an extended default mode network during consolidation, thereby providing a functional correlate for spatial contextual memory deficits. In conclusion, results are consistent with previous reports of persistent activity in regions mediating memory encoding as a core mechanism underlying episodic memory consolidation. Our data extend previous findings suggesting that aging-related memory decline results from a reduction of consolidation processes. PMID:27459940

  15. Wakeful rest promotes the integration of spatial memories into accurate cognitive maps.

    PubMed

    Craig, Michael; Dewar, Michaela; Harris, Mathew A; Della Sala, Sergio; Wolbers, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Flexible spatial navigation, e.g. the ability to take novel shortcuts, is contingent upon accurate mental representations of environments-cognitive maps. These cognitive maps critically depend on hippocampal place cells. In rodents, place cells replay recently travelled routes, especially during periods of behavioural inactivity (sleep/wakeful rest). This neural replay is hypothesised to promote not only the consolidation of specific experiences, but also their wider integration, e.g. into accurate cognitive maps. In humans, rest promotes the consolidation of specific experiences, but the effect of rest on the wider integration of memories remained unknown. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that cognitive map formation is supported by rest-related integration of new spatial memories. We predicted that if wakeful rest supports cognitive map formation, then rest should enhance knowledge of overarching spatial relations that were never experienced directly during recent navigation. Forty young participants learned a route through a virtual environment before either resting wakefully or engaging in an unrelated perceptual task for 10 min. Participants in the wakeful rest condition performed more accurately in a delayed cognitive map test, requiring the pointing to landmarks from a range of locations. Importantly, the benefit of rest could not be explained by active rehearsal, but can be attributed to the promotion of consolidation-related activity. These findings (i) resonate with the demonstration of hippocampal replay in rodents, and (ii) provide the first evidence that wakeful rest can improve the integration of new spatial memories in humans, a function that has, hitherto, been associated with sleep.

  16. Hippocampal-medial prefrontal circuit supports memory updating during learning and post-encoding rest.

    PubMed

    Schlichting, Margaret L; Preston, Alison R

    2016-10-01

    Learning occurs in the context of existing memories. Encountering new information that relates to prior knowledge may trigger integration, whereby established memories are updated to incorporate new content. Here, we provide a critical test of recent theories suggesting hippocampal (HPC) and medial prefrontal (MPFC) involvement in integration, both during and immediately following encoding. Human participants with established memories for a set of initial (AB) associations underwent fMRI scanning during passive rest and encoding of new related (BC) and unrelated (XY) pairs. We show that HPC-MPFC functional coupling during learning was more predictive of trial-by-trial memory for associations related to prior knowledge relative to unrelated associations. Moreover, the degree to which HPC-MPFC functional coupling was enhanced following overlapping encoding was related to memory integration behavior across participants. We observed a dissociation between anterior and posterior MPFC, with integration signatures during post-encoding rest specifically in the posterior subregion. These results highlight the persistence of integration signatures into post-encoding periods, indicating continued processing of interrelated memories during rest. We also interrogated the coherence of white matter tracts to assess the hypothesis that integration behavior would be related to the integrity of the underlying anatomical pathways. Consistent with our predictions, more coherent HPC-MPFC white matter structure was associated with better performance across participants. This HPC-MPFC circuit also interacted with content-sensitive visual cortex during learning and rest, consistent with reinstatement of prior knowledge to enable updating. These results show that the HPC-MPFC circuit supports on- and offline integration of new content into memory. PMID:26608407

  17. Hippocampal-medial prefrontal circuit supports memory updating during learning and post-encoding rest.

    PubMed

    Schlichting, Margaret L; Preston, Alison R

    2016-10-01

    Learning occurs in the context of existing memories. Encountering new information that relates to prior knowledge may trigger integration, whereby established memories are updated to incorporate new content. Here, we provide a critical test of recent theories suggesting hippocampal (HPC) and medial prefrontal (MPFC) involvement in integration, both during and immediately following encoding. Human participants with established memories for a set of initial (AB) associations underwent fMRI scanning during passive rest and encoding of new related (BC) and unrelated (XY) pairs. We show that HPC-MPFC functional coupling during learning was more predictive of trial-by-trial memory for associations related to prior knowledge relative to unrelated associations. Moreover, the degree to which HPC-MPFC functional coupling was enhanced following overlapping encoding was related to memory integration behavior across participants. We observed a dissociation between anterior and posterior MPFC, with integration signatures during post-encoding rest specifically in the posterior subregion. These results highlight the persistence of integration signatures into post-encoding periods, indicating continued processing of interrelated memories during rest. We also interrogated the coherence of white matter tracts to assess the hypothesis that integration behavior would be related to the integrity of the underlying anatomical pathways. Consistent with our predictions, more coherent HPC-MPFC white matter structure was associated with better performance across participants. This HPC-MPFC circuit also interacted with content-sensitive visual cortex during learning and rest, consistent with reinstatement of prior knowledge to enable updating. These results show that the HPC-MPFC circuit supports on- and offline integration of new content into memory.

  18. Do Dolphins Rehearse Show-Stimuli When at Rest? Delayed Matching of Auditory Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kremers, Dorothee; Jaramillo, Margarita Briseño; Böye, Martin; Lemasson, Alban; Hausberger, Martine

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying vocal mimicry in animals remain an open question. Delphinidae are able to copy sounds from their environment that are not produced by conspecifics. Usually, these mimicries occur associated with the context in which they were learned. No reports address the question of separation between auditory memory formation and spontaneous vocal copying although the sensory and motor phases of vocal learning are separated in a variety of songbirds. Here we show that captive bottlenose dolphins produce, during their nighttime resting periods, non-dolphin sounds that they heard during performance shows. Generally, in the middle of the night, these animals produced vocal copies of whale sounds that had been broadcast during daily public shows. As their life history was fully known, we know that these captive dolphins had never had the opportunity to hear whale sounds before then. Moreover, recordings made before the whale sounds started being broadcast revealed that they had never emitted such sounds before. This is to our knowledge the first evidence for a separation between formation of auditory memories and the process of learning to produce calls that match these memories in a marine mammal. One hypothesis is that dolphins may rehearse some special events heard during the daytime and that they then express vocally what could be conceived as a more global memory. These results open the way for broader views on how animals might rehearse life events while resting or maybe dreaming. PMID:22232611

  19. Persistent schema-dependent hippocampal-neocortical connectivity during memory encoding and postencoding rest in humans

    PubMed Central

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T. R.; Fernández, Guillén; Norris, David G.; Hermans, Erno J.

    2010-01-01

    The hippocampus is thought to promote gradual incorporation of novel information into long-term memory by binding, reactivating, and strengthening distributed cortical-cortical connections. Recent studies implicate a key role in this process for hippocampally driven crosstalk with the (ventro)medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), which is proposed to become a central node in such representational networks over time. The existence of a relevant prior associative network, or schema, may moreover facilitate this process. Thus, hippocampal-vmPFC crosstalk may support integration of new memories, particularly in the absence of a relevant prior schema. To address this issue, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and prior schema manipulation to track hippocampal-vmPFC connectivity during encoding and postencoding rest. We manipulated prior schema knowledge by exposing 30 participants to the first part of a movie that was temporally scrambled for 15 participants. The next day, participants underwent fMRI while encoding the movie's final 15 min in original order and, subsequently, while resting. Schema knowledge and item recognition performance show that prior schema was successfully and selectively manipulated. Intersubject synchronization (ISS) and interregional partial correlation analyses furthermore show that stronger prior schema was associated with more vmPFC ISS and less hippocampal-vmPFC interregional connectivity during encoding. Notably, this connectivity pattern persisted during postencoding rest. These findings suggest that additional crosstalk between hippocampus and vmPFC is required to compensate for difficulty integrating novel information during encoding and provide tentative support for the notion that functionally relevant hippocampal-neocortical crosstalk persists during off-line periods after learning. PMID:20363957

  20. Loss of Resting-State Posterior Cingulate Flexibility Is Associated with Memory Disturbance in Left Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Douw, Linda; Leveroni, Catherine L.; Tanaka, Naoaki; Emerton, Britt C.; Cole, Andrew C.; Reinsberger, Claus; Stufflebeam, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    The association between cognition and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) has been the focus of many recent studies, most of which use stationary connectivity. The dynamics or flexibility of connectivity, however, may be seminal for understanding cognitive functioning. In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), stationary connectomic correlates of impaired memory have been reported mainly for the hippocampus and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). We therefore investigate resting-state and task-based hippocampal and PCC flexibility in addition to stationary connectivity in left TLE (LTLE) patients. Sixteen LTLE patients were analyzed with respect to rs-fMRI and task-based fMRI (t-fMRI), and underwent clinical neuropsychological testing. Flexibility of connectivity was calculated using a sliding-window approach by determining the standard deviation of Fisher-transformed Pearson correlation coefficients over all windows. Stationary connectivity was also calculated. Disturbed memory was operationalized as having at least one memory subtest score equal to or below the 5th percentile compared to normative data. Lower PCC flexibility, particularly in the contralateral (i.e. right) hemisphere, was found in memory-disturbed LTLE patients, who had up to 22% less flexible connectivity. No significant group differences were found with respect to hippocampal flexibility, stationary connectivity during both rs-fMRI and t-fMRI, or flexibility during t-fMRI. Contralateral resting-state PCC flexibility was able to classify all but one patient with respect to their memory status (94% accuracy). Flexibility of the PCC during rest relates to memory functioning in LTLE patients. Loss of flexible connectivity to the rest of the brain originating from the PCC, particularly contralateral to the seizure focus, is able to discern memory disturbed patients from their preserved counterparts. This study indicates that the dynamics of resting-state connectivity are associated with cognitive status of LTLE

  1. Resting-State Anticorrelations Between Medial and Lateral Prefrontal Cortex: Association with Working Memory, Aging, and Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Joseph B.; Hedden, Trey; Thompson, Todd W.; Anteraper, Sheeba A.; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2014-01-01

    We examined how variation in working memory (WM) capacity due to aging or individual differences among young adults is associated with intrinsic or resting-state anticorrelations, particularly between (1) the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), a component of the default-mode network (DMN) that typically decreases in activation during external, attention-demanding tasks, and (2) the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a component of the fronto-parietal control network that supports executive functions and WM and typically increases in activation during attention-demanding tasks. We compared the magnitudes of MPFC-DLPFC anticorrelations between healthy younger and older participants (Experiment 1) and related the magnitudes of these anticorrelations to individual differences on two behavioral measures of working memory capacity in two independent groups of young adults (Experiments 1 and 2). Relative to younger adults, older adults exhibited reductions in working memory capacity and in MPFC-DLPFC anticorrelations. Within younger adults, greater MPFC-DLPFC anticorrelation at rest correlated with greater working memory capacity. These findings show that variation in MPFC-DLPFC anticorrelations, whether related to aging or to individual differences, may reflect an intrinsic functional brain architecture supportive of working memory capacity. PMID:25562175

  2. Differential effects of wakeful rest, music and video game playing on working memory performance in the n-back task.

    PubMed

    Kuschpel, Maxim S; Liu, Shuyan; Schad, Daniel J; Heinzel, Stephan; Heinz, Andreas; Rapp, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    The interruption of learning processes by breaks filled with diverse activities is common in everyday life. We investigated the effects of active computer gaming and passive relaxation (rest and music) breaks on working memory performance. Young adults were exposed to breaks involving (i) eyes-open resting, (ii) listening to music and (iii) playing the video game "Angry Birds" before performing the n-back working memory task. Based on linear mixed-effects modeling, we found that playing the "Angry Birds" video game during a short learning break led to a decline in task performance over the course of the task as compared to eyes-open resting and listening to music, although overall task performance was not impaired. This effect was associated with high levels of daily mind wandering and low self-reported ability to concentrate. These findings indicate that video games can negatively affect working memory performance over time when played in between learning tasks. We suggest further investigation of these effects because of their relevance to everyday activity. PMID:26579055

  3. Differential effects of wakeful rest, music and video game playing on working memory performance in the n-back task

    PubMed Central

    Kuschpel, Maxim S.; Liu, Shuyan; Schad, Daniel J.; Heinzel, Stephan; Heinz, Andreas; Rapp, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The interruption of learning processes by breaks filled with diverse activities is common in everyday life. We investigated the effects of active computer gaming and passive relaxation (rest and music) breaks on working memory performance. Young adults were exposed to breaks involving (i) eyes-open resting, (ii) listening to music and (iii) playing the video game “Angry Birds” before performing the n-back working memory task. Based on linear mixed-effects modeling, we found that playing the “Angry Birds” video game during a short learning break led to a decline in task performance over the course of the task as compared to eyes-open resting and listening to music, although overall task performance was not impaired. This effect was associated with high levels of daily mind wandering and low self-reported ability to concentrate. These findings indicate that video games can negatively affect working memory performance over time when played in between learning tasks. We suggest further investigation of these effects because of their relevance to everyday activity. PMID:26579055

  4. Differential effects of wakeful rest, music and video game playing on working memory performance in the n-back task.

    PubMed

    Kuschpel, Maxim S; Liu, Shuyan; Schad, Daniel J; Heinzel, Stephan; Heinz, Andreas; Rapp, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    The interruption of learning processes by breaks filled with diverse activities is common in everyday life. We investigated the effects of active computer gaming and passive relaxation (rest and music) breaks on working memory performance. Young adults were exposed to breaks involving (i) eyes-open resting, (ii) listening to music and (iii) playing the video game "Angry Birds" before performing the n-back working memory task. Based on linear mixed-effects modeling, we found that playing the "Angry Birds" video game during a short learning break led to a decline in task performance over the course of the task as compared to eyes-open resting and listening to music, although overall task performance was not impaired. This effect was associated with high levels of daily mind wandering and low self-reported ability to concentrate. These findings indicate that video games can negatively affect working memory performance over time when played in between learning tasks. We suggest further investigation of these effects because of their relevance to everyday activity.

  5. Neural Correlates of the Interactive Relationship between Memory Deficits and Depressive Symptoms in Nondemented Elderly: Resting fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Goveas, Joseph; Xie, Chunming; Wu, Zhilin; Ward, B. Douglas; Li, Wenjun; Franczak, Malgorzata B.; Jones, Jennifer L.; Antuono, Piero G.; Yang, Zheng; Li, Shi-Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Prospective studies have shown an association between depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment among older adults. However, the neural correlates of this relationship are poorly understood. Our aim was to examine whether interactive effects of memory deficits and depressive symptoms are present in the memory-associated functional networks, in nondemented elderly subjects. Fifteen subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and 20 age-matched normal (CN) elderly subjects participated in this cross-sectional study. Resting-state functional connectivity MRI (R-fMRI) measured the hippocampal functional connectivity (HFC) alterations between the two groups. Voxelwise linear regression analysis was performed to correlate hippocampal network strength with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test delayed recall and the Geriatric Depression Scale scores, after adjusting for age and group effects. Poorer memory performance was associated with decreased positively correlated HFC connectivity in the specific frontal lobe and default mode network (DMN) structures. Poorer memory performance also was associated with decreased anticorrelated HFC connectivity in the bilateral inferior parietal and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. In contrast, greater depressive symptom severity was associated with increased HFC connectivity in several frontal lobes and DMN regions. Depressive symptoms and memory functions had interactive effects on the HFC, in the frontal, temporal, and PCC structures. Our findings suggest that the R-fMRI technique can be used to examine the changes in functional neural networks where memory deficits and depressive symptoms coexist in the geriatric population. PMID:21238490

  6. Establishment of functional influenza virus-specific CD8(+) T cell memory pools after intramuscular immunization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongfang; Chua, Brendon Y; Ramos, Javier Vega; Parra, Sergio M Quiñones; Fairmaid, Emily; Brown, Lorena E; Jackson, David C; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2015-09-22

    The emergence of the avian-origin influenza H7N9 virus and its pandemic potential has highlighted the ever-present need to develop vaccination approaches to induce cross-protective immunity. In this study, we examined the establishment of cross-reactive CD8(+) T cell immunity in mice following immunization with live A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8; H1N1) influenza virus via two non-productive inoculation routes. We found that immunization via the intramuscular (IM) route established functional influenza-virus specific memory CD8(+) T cell pools capable of cross-reactive recall responses. Epitope-specific primary, memory and recall CD8(+) T-cell responses induced by the IM route, highly relevant to human influenza immunisations, were of comparable magnitude and quality to those elicited by the intraperitoneal (IP) priming, commonly used in mice. Furthermore, IM immunisation resulted in lower lung viral titres following heterologous challenge with A/Aichi/68 (X31; H3N2) compared to the IP route. Examining the ability of DCs from lymphoid organs to present viral antigen revealed that immune induction following IM immunization occurred in draining lymph nodes, while immunization via the IP route resulted in the priming of responses in distal lymphoid organs, indicative of a systemic distribution of antigen. No major differences in the pulmonary cytokine environment of immunized animals following X31 challenge were observed that could account for the improved heterologous protection induced by the IM route. However, while both routes induced similar levels of PR8-specific antibodies, higher levels of cross-reactive antibodies against X31 were induced following IM inoculation. Our data demonstrate how non-replicative routes of infection can induce efficient cross-reactive CD8(+) T cell responses and strong strain-specific antibody responses, with the additional benefit from IM priming of enhanced heterosubtypic antibody production. PMID:26277069

  7. Gray Matter Abnormalities in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Relationships with Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Episodic Memory Performance

    PubMed Central

    Doucet, Gaelle E.; He, Xiaosong; Sperling, Michael; Sharan, Ashwini; Tracy, Joseph I.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) affects multiple brain regions through evidence from both structural (gray matter; GM) and functional connectivity (FC) studies. We tested whether these structural abnormalities were associated with FC abnormalities, and assessed the ability of these measures to explain episodic memory impairments in this population. A resting-state and T1 sequences were acquired on 94 (45 with mesial temporal pathology) TLE patients and 50 controls, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. A voxel-based morphometry analysis was computed to determine the GM volume differences between groups (right, left TLE, controls). Resting-state FC between the abnormal GM volume regions was computed, and compared between groups. Finally, we investigated the relation between EM, GM and FC findings. Patients with and without temporal pathology were analyzed separately. The results revealed reduced GM volume in multiple regions in the patients relative to the controls. Using FC, we found the abnormal GM regions did not display abnormal functional connectivity. Lastly, we found in left TLE patients, verbal episodic memory was associated with abnormal left posterior hippocampus volume, while in right TLE, non-verbal episodic memory was better predicted by resting-state FC measures. This study investigated TLE abnormalities using a multi-modal approach combining GM, FC and neurocognitive measures. We did not find that the GM abnormalities were functionally or abnormally connected during an inter-ictal resting state, which may reflect a weak sensitivity of functional connectivity to the epileptic network. We provided evidence that verbal and non-verbal episodic memory in left and right TLE patients may have distinct relationships with structural and functional measures. Lastly, we provide data suggesting that in the setting of occult, non-lesional right TLE pathology, a coupling of structural and functional abnormalities in extra-temporal/non-ictal regions is

  8. Reliving lifelong episodic autobiographical memories via the hippocampus: a correlative resting PET study in healthy middle-aged subjects.

    PubMed

    Piolino, Pascale; Desgranges, Béatrice; Hubert, Valérie; Bernard, Frédéric A; Matuszewski, Vanessa; Chételat, Gaël; Baron, Jean-Claude; Eustache, Francis

    2008-01-01

    We aimed at identifying the cerebral structures whose synaptic function subserves the recollection of lifetime's episodic autobiographical memory (AM) via autonoetic consciousness. Twelve healthy middle-aged subjects (mean age: 59 years +/- 2.5) underwent a specially designed cognitive test to assess the ability to relive richly detailed episodic autobiographical memories from five time periods using the Remember/Know procedure. We computed an index of episodicity (number of Remember responses justified by the recall of specific events and details) and an index of retrieval spontaneity, and additionally an index of semanticized memories (number of Know responses). The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in the resting state, with H(2)O(15) as part of an activation PET study. The indexes were correlated with blood flow using volumes of interest in frontotemporal regions, including hippocampus and voxel-wise analyses in SPM. With both analyses, significant correlations were mainly found between the index of episodicity and rCBF in the medial temporal lobe, including hippocampus, across the five time periods (unlike the index of semanticized memories) and between the spontaneity index and rCBF in the prefrontal areas. These results highlight, in healthy subjects, the distinct role of these two structures in AM retrieval and support the view that the hippocampus is needed for reexperiencing detailed episodic memories no matter how old they are. PMID:18240320

  9. Resting-state fMRI activity predicts unsupervised learning and memory in an immersive virtual reality environment.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi Wah; Olafsson, Valur; Plank, Markus; Snider, Joseph; Halgren, Eric; Poizner, Howard; Liu, Thomas T

    2014-01-01

    In the real world, learning often proceeds in an unsupervised manner without explicit instructions or feedback. In this study, we employed an experimental paradigm in which subjects explored an immersive virtual reality environment on each of two days. On day 1, subjects implicitly learned the location of 39 objects in an unsupervised fashion. On day 2, the locations of some of the objects were changed, and object location recall performance was assessed and found to vary across subjects. As prior work had shown that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures of resting-state brain activity can predict various measures of brain performance across individuals, we examined whether resting-state fMRI measures could be used to predict object location recall performance. We found a significant correlation between performance and the variability of the resting-state fMRI signal in the basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, insula, and regions in the frontal and temporal lobes, regions important for spatial exploration, learning, memory, and decision making. In addition, performance was significantly correlated with resting-state fMRI connectivity between the left caudate and the right fusiform gyrus, lateral occipital complex, and superior temporal gyrus. Given the basal ganglia's role in exploration, these findings suggest that tighter integration of the brain systems responsible for exploration and visuospatial processing may be critical for learning in a complex environment. PMID:25286145

  10. Resting-State fMRI Activity Predicts Unsupervised Learning and Memory in an Immersive Virtual Reality Environment

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chi Wah; Olafsson, Valur; Plank, Markus; Snider, Joseph; Halgren, Eric; Poizner, Howard; Liu, Thomas T.

    2014-01-01

    In the real world, learning often proceeds in an unsupervised manner without explicit instructions or feedback. In this study, we employed an experimental paradigm in which subjects explored an immersive virtual reality environment on each of two days. On day 1, subjects implicitly learned the location of 39 objects in an unsupervised fashion. On day 2, the locations of some of the objects were changed, and object location recall performance was assessed and found to vary across subjects. As prior work had shown that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures of resting-state brain activity can predict various measures of brain performance across individuals, we examined whether resting-state fMRI measures could be used to predict object location recall performance. We found a significant correlation between performance and the variability of the resting-state fMRI signal in the basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, insula, and regions in the frontal and temporal lobes, regions important for spatial exploration, learning, memory, and decision making. In addition, performance was significantly correlated with resting-state fMRI connectivity between the left caudate and the right fusiform gyrus, lateral occipital complex, and superior temporal gyrus. Given the basal ganglia's role in exploration, these findings suggest that tighter integration of the brain systems responsible for exploration and visuospatial processing may be critical for learning in a complex environment. PMID:25286145

  11. Effects of early and late rest breaks during training on overnight memory consolidation of a keyboard melody.

    PubMed

    Duke, Robert A; Allen, Sarah E; Cash, Carla D; Simmons, Amy L

    2009-07-01

    In two experiments, we tested the extent to which overnight procedural memory consolidation is affected by extended rest breaks during training. In the first experiment, nonmusicians practiced a 5-element keypress sequence with their nondominant hand in 12 30-s practice intervals separated by 30-s pauses. In the second experiment, nonpianist musicians practiced a 13-note keyboard melody using the same procedures. In both experiments, approximately one-third of the subjects took a 5-min break after the first three blocks of practice; another third took a break after nine blocks of practice; the remaining participants did not take an extended break. All were trained in the evening and were retested the following morning. Participants in both experiments made dramatic improvements over the course of the training and retest sessions, and participants who took an extended rest break early in practice made the largest gains in performance between the end of training and the beginning of retest. PMID:19673774

  12. Phosphorylation of synapsin I by cyclin-dependent kinase-5 sets the ratio between the resting and recycling pools of synaptic vesicles at hippocampal synapses.

    PubMed

    Verstegen, Anne M J; Tagliatti, Erica; Lignani, Gabriele; Marte, Antonella; Stolero, Tamar; Atias, Merav; Corradi, Anna; Valtorta, Flavia; Gitler, Daniel; Onofri, Franco; Fassio, Anna; Benfenati, Fabio

    2014-05-21

    Cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5) was reported to downscale neurotransmission by sequestering synaptic vesicles (SVs) in the release-reluctant resting pool, but the molecular targets mediating this activity remain unknown. Synapsin I (SynI), a major SV phosphoprotein involved in the regulation of SV trafficking and neurotransmitter release, is one of the presynaptic substrates of Cdk5, which phosphorylates it in its C-terminal region at Ser(549) (site 6) and Ser(551) (site 7). Here we demonstrate that Cdk5 phosphorylation of SynI fine tunes the recruitment of SVs to the active recycling pool and contributes to the Cdk5-mediated homeostatic responses. Phosphorylation of SynI by Cdk5 is physiologically regulated and enhances its binding to F-actin. The effects of Cdk5 inhibition on the size and depletion kinetics of the recycling pool, as well as on SV distribution within the nerve terminal, are virtually abolished in mouse SynI knock-out (KO) neurons or in KO neurons expressing the dephosphomimetic SynI mutants at sites 6,7 or site 7 only. The observation that the single site-7 mutant phenocopies the effects of the deletion of SynI identifies this site as the central switch in mediating the synaptic effects of Cdk5 and demonstrates that SynI is necessary and sufficient for achieving the effects of the kinase on SV trafficking. The phosphorylation state of SynI by Cdk5 at site 7 is regulated during chronic modification of neuronal activity and is an essential downstream effector for the Cdk5-mediated homeostatic scaling. PMID:24849359

  13. Longitudinal Evidence for Dissociation of Anterior and Posterior MTL Resting-State Connectivity in Aging: Links to Perfusion and Memory.

    PubMed

    Salami, Alireza; Wåhlin, Anders; Kaboodvand, Neda; Lundquist, Anders; Nyberg, Lars

    2016-10-01

    Neuroimaging studies of spontaneous signal fluctuations as measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging have revealed age-related alterations in the functional architecture of brain networks. One such network is located in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), showing structural and functional variations along the anterior-posterior axis. Past cross-sectional studies of MTL functional connectivity (FC) have yielded discrepant findings, likely reflecting the fact that specific MTL subregions are differentially affected in aging. Here, using longitudinal resting-state data from 198 participants, we investigated 5-year changes in FC of the anterior and posterior MTL. We found an opposite pattern, such that the degree of FC within the anterior MTL declined after age 60, whereas elevated FC within the posterior MTL was observed along with attenuated posterior MTL-cortical connectivity. A significant negative change-change relation was observed between episodic-memory decline and elevated FC in the posterior MTL. Additional analyses revealed age-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) increases in posterior MTL at the follow-up session, along with a positive relation of elevated FC and CBF, suggesting that elevated FC is a metabolically demanding alteration. Collectively, our findings indicate that elevated FC in posterior MTL along with increased local perfusion is a sign of brain aging that underlie episodic-memory decline. PMID:27522073

  14. Longitudinal Evidence for Dissociation of Anterior and Posterior MTL Resting-State Connectivity in Aging: Links to Perfusion and Memory.

    PubMed

    Salami, Alireza; Wåhlin, Anders; Kaboodvand, Neda; Lundquist, Anders; Nyberg, Lars

    2016-10-01

    Neuroimaging studies of spontaneous signal fluctuations as measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging have revealed age-related alterations in the functional architecture of brain networks. One such network is located in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), showing structural and functional variations along the anterior-posterior axis. Past cross-sectional studies of MTL functional connectivity (FC) have yielded discrepant findings, likely reflecting the fact that specific MTL subregions are differentially affected in aging. Here, using longitudinal resting-state data from 198 participants, we investigated 5-year changes in FC of the anterior and posterior MTL. We found an opposite pattern, such that the degree of FC within the anterior MTL declined after age 60, whereas elevated FC within the posterior MTL was observed along with attenuated posterior MTL-cortical connectivity. A significant negative change-change relation was observed between episodic-memory decline and elevated FC in the posterior MTL. Additional analyses revealed age-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) increases in posterior MTL at the follow-up session, along with a positive relation of elevated FC and CBF, suggesting that elevated FC is a metabolically demanding alteration. Collectively, our findings indicate that elevated FC in posterior MTL along with increased local perfusion is a sign of brain aging that underlie episodic-memory decline.

  15. Longitudinal Evidence for Dissociation of Anterior and Posterior MTL Resting-State Connectivity in Aging: Links to Perfusion and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Salami, Alireza; Wåhlin, Anders; Kaboodvand, Neda; Lundquist, Anders; Nyberg, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of spontaneous signal fluctuations as measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging have revealed age-related alterations in the functional architecture of brain networks. One such network is located in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), showing structural and functional variations along the anterior–posterior axis. Past cross-sectional studies of MTL functional connectivity (FC) have yielded discrepant findings, likely reflecting the fact that specific MTL subregions are differentially affected in aging. Here, using longitudinal resting-state data from 198 participants, we investigated 5-year changes in FC of the anterior and posterior MTL. We found an opposite pattern, such that the degree of FC within the anterior MTL declined after age 60, whereas elevated FC within the posterior MTL was observed along with attenuated posterior MTL-cortical connectivity. A significant negative change–change relation was observed between episodic-memory decline and elevated FC in the posterior MTL. Additional analyses revealed age-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) increases in posterior MTL at the follow-up session, along with a positive relation of elevated FC and CBF, suggesting that elevated FC is a metabolically demanding alteration. Collectively, our findings indicate that elevated FC in posterior MTL along with increased local perfusion is a sign of brain aging that underlie episodic-memory decline. PMID:27522073

  16. Short term memory may be the depletion of the readily releasable pool of presynaptic neurotransmitter vesicles of a metastable long term memory trace pattern.

    PubMed

    Tarnow, Eugen

    2009-09-01

    The Tagging/Retagging model of short term memory was introduced earlier (Tarnow in Cogn Neurodyn 2(4):347-353, 2008) to explain the linear relationship between response time and correct response probability for word recall and recognition: At the initial stimulus presentation the words displayed tag the corresponding long term memory locations. The tagging process is linear in time and takes about one second to reach a tagging level of 100%. After stimulus presentation the tagging level decays logarithmically with time to 50% after 14 s and to 20% after 220 s. If a probe word is reintroduced the tagging level has to return to 100% for the word to be properly identified, which leads to a delay in response time. This delay is proportional to the tagging loss. The tagging level is directly related to the probability of correct word recall and recognition. Evidence presented suggests that the tagging level is the level of depletion of the Readily Releasable Pool (RRP) of neurotransmitter vesicles at presynaptic terminals. The evidence includes the initial linear relationship between tagging level and time as well as the subsequent logarithmic decay of the tagging level. The activation of a short term memory may thus be the depletion of RRP (exocytosis) and short term memory decay may be the ensuing recycling of the neurotransmitter vesicles (endocytosis). The pattern of depleted presynaptic terminals corresponds to the long term memory trace.

  17. Resting-State Coupling between Core Regions within the Central-Executive and Salience Networks Contributes to Working Memory Performance

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Yuanchao; Zhou, Yuan; Cheng, Luqi; Li, Jin; Wang, Yulin; Friston, Karl J.; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigated the distinct roles played by different cognitive regions and suggested that the patterns of connectivity of these regions are associated with working memory (WM). However, the specific causal mechanism through which the neuronal circuits that involve these brain regions contribute to WM is still unclear. Here, in a large sample of healthy young adults, we first identified the core WM regions by linking WM accuracy to resting-state functional connectivity with the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dLPFC; a principal region in the central-executive network, CEN). Then a spectral dynamic causal modeling (spDCM) analysis was performed to quantify the effective connectivity between these regions. Finally, the effective connectivity was correlated with WM accuracy to characterize the relationship between these connections and WM performance. We found that the functional connections between the bilateral dLPFC and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and between the right dLPFC and the left orbital fronto-insular cortex (FIC) were correlated with WM accuracy. Furthermore, the effective connectivity from the dACC to the bilateral dLPFC and from the right dLPFC to the left FIC could predict individual differences in WM. Because the dACC and FIC are core regions of the salience network (SN), we inferred that the inter- and causal-connectivity between core regions within the CEN and SN is functionally relevant for WM performance. In summary, the current study identified the dLPFC-related resting-state effective connectivity underlying WM and suggests that individual differences in cognitive ability could be characterized by resting-state effective connectivity. PMID:26941629

  18. B Cells Negatively Regulate the Establishment of CD49b+T-bet+ Resting Memory T Helper Cells in the Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Hojyo, Shintaro; Sarkander, Jana; Männe, Christian; Mursell, Mathias; Hanazawa, Asami; Zimmel, David; Zhu, Jinfang; Paul, William E.; Fillatreau, Simon; Löhning, Max; Radbruch, Andreas; Tokoyoda, Koji

    2016-01-01

    During an immune reaction, some antigen-experienced CD4 T cells relocate from secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) to the bone marrow (BM) in a CD49b-dependent manner and reside and rest there as professional memory CD4 T cells. However, it remains unclear how the precursors of BM memory CD4 T cells are generated in the SLOs. While several studies have so far shown that B cell depletion reduces the persistence of memory CD4 T cells in the spleen, we here show that B cell depletion enhances the establishment of memory CD4 T cells in the BM and that B cell transfer conversely suppresses it. Interestingly, the number of antigen-experienced CD4 T cells in the BM synchronizes the number of CD49b+T-bet+ antigen-experienced CD4 T cells in the spleen. CD49b+T-bet+ antigen-experienced CD4 T cells preferentially localize in the red pulp area of the spleen and the BM in a T-bet-independent manner. We suggest that B cells negatively control the generation of CD49b+T-bet+ precursors of resting memory CD4 T cells in the spleen and may play a role in bifurcation of activated effector and resting memory CD4 T cell lineages. PMID:26870041

  19. Increased Hippocampus–Medial Prefrontal Cortex Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Memory Function after Tai Chi Chuan Practice in Elder Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jing; Liu, Jiao; Egorova, Natalia; Chen, Xiangli; Sun, Sharon; Xue, Xiehua; Huang, Jia; Zheng, Guohua; Wang, Qin; Chen, Lidian; Kong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies provide evidence that aging is associated with the decline of memory function and alterations in the hippocampal (HPC) function, including functional connectivity to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In this study, we investigated if longitudinal (12-week) Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice can improve memory function and modulate HPC resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC). Memory function measurements and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) were applied at the beginning and the end of the experiment. The results showed that (1) the memory quotient (MQ) measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Chinese Revision significantly increased after Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice as compared with the control group, and no significant difference was observed in MQ between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups; (2) rs-FC between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC significantly increased in the Tai Chi Chuan group compared to the control group (also in the Baduanjin group compared to the control group, albeit at a lower threshold), and no significant difference between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups was observed; (3) rs-FC increases between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC were significantly associated with corresponding memory function improvement across all subjects. Similar results were observed using the left or right hippocampus as seeds. Our results suggest that both Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin may be effective exercises to prevent memory decline during aging. PMID:26909038

  20. Increased Hippocampus-Medial Prefrontal Cortex Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Memory Function after Tai Chi Chuan Practice in Elder Adults.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jing; Liu, Jiao; Egorova, Natalia; Chen, Xiangli; Sun, Sharon; Xue, Xiehua; Huang, Jia; Zheng, Guohua; Wang, Qin; Chen, Lidian; Kong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies provide evidence that aging is associated with the decline of memory function and alterations in the hippocampal (HPC) function, including functional connectivity to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In this study, we investigated if longitudinal (12-week) Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice can improve memory function and modulate HPC resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC). Memory function measurements and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) were applied at the beginning and the end of the experiment. The results showed that (1) the memory quotient (MQ) measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Chinese Revision significantly increased after Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice as compared with the control group, and no significant difference was observed in MQ between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups; (2) rs-FC between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC significantly increased in the Tai Chi Chuan group compared to the control group (also in the Baduanjin group compared to the control group, albeit at a lower threshold), and no significant difference between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups was observed; (3) rs-FC increases between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC were significantly associated with corresponding memory function improvement across all subjects. Similar results were observed using the left or right hippocampus as seeds. Our results suggest that both Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin may be effective exercises to prevent memory decline during aging.

  1. B7-H1 limits the entry of effector CD8+ T cells to the memory pool by upregulating Bim

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Rachel M.; Liu, Xin; Pulko, Vesna; Harrington, Susan M.; Krco, Christopher J.; Kwon, Eugene D.; Dong, Haidong

    2012-01-01

    Protective T‑cell immunity against cancer and infections is dependent on the generation of a durable effector and memory T‑cell pool. Studies from cancer and chronic infections reveal that B7-H1 (PD-L1) engagement with its receptor PD-1 promotes apoptosis of effector T cells. It is not clear how B7-H1 regulates T‑cell apoptosis and the subsequent impact of B7-H1 on the generation of memory T cells. In immunized B7-H1-deficient mice, we detected an increased expansion of effector CD8+ T cells and a delayed T‑cell contraction followed by the emergence of a protective CD8+ T‑cell memory capable of completely rejecting tumor metastases in the lung. Intracellular staining revealed that antigen-primed CD8+ T cells in B7-H1-deficient mice express lower levels of the pro-apoptotic molecule Bim. The engagement of activated CD8+ T cells by a plate-bound B7-H1 fusion protein led to the upregulation of Bim and increased cell death. Assays based on blocking antibodies determined that both PD-1 and CD80 are involved in the B7-H1-mediated regulation of Bim in activated CD8+ T cells. Our results suggest that B7-H1 may negatively regulate CD8+ T‑cell memory by enhancing the depletion of effector CD8+ T cells through the upregulation of Bim. Our findings may provide a new strategy for targeting B7-H1 signaling in effector CD8+ T cells to achieve protective antitumor memory responses. PMID:23170254

  2. Frequency-Dependent Brain Regional Homogeneity Alterations in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment during Working Memory State Relative to Resting State.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengyun; Li, Rui; Yu, Jing; Huang, Zirui; Li, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported working memory deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, previous studies investigating the neural mechanisms of MCI have primarily focused on brain activity alterations during working memory tasks. No study to date has compared brain network alterations in the working memory state between MCI patients and normal control (NC) subjects. Therefore, using the index of regional homogeneity (ReHo), we explored brain network impairments in MCI patients during a working memory task relative to the resting state, and identified frequency-dependent effects in separate frequency bands.Our results indicate that, in MCI patients, ReHo is altered in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in the slow-3 band (0.073-0.198 Hz), and in the bottom of the right occipital lobe and part of the right cerebellum, the right thalamus, a diffusing region in the bilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), the left and right parietal-occipital regions, and the right angular gyrus in the slow-5 band (0.01-0.027 Hz). Furthermore, in NCs, the value of ReHo in clusters belonging to the default mode network (DMN) decreased, while the value of ReHo in clusters belonging to the attentional network increased during the task state. However, this pattern was reversed in MCI patients, and was associated with decreased working memory performance. In addition, we identified altered functional connectivity of the abovementioned regions with other parts of the brain in MCI patients. This is the first study to compare frequency-dependent alterations of ReHo in MCI patients between resting and working memory states. The results provide a new perspective regarding the neural mechanisms of working memory deficits in MCI patients, and extend our knowledge of altered brain patterns in resting and task-evoked states. PMID:27047375

  3. Frequency-Dependent Brain Regional Homogeneity Alterations in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment during Working Memory State Relative to Resting State

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengyun; Li, Rui; Yu, Jing; Huang, Zirui; Li, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported working memory deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, previous studies investigating the neural mechanisms of MCI have primarily focused on brain activity alterations during working memory tasks. No study to date has compared brain network alterations in the working memory state between MCI patients and normal control (NC) subjects. Therefore, using the index of regional homogeneity (ReHo), we explored brain network impairments in MCI patients during a working memory task relative to the resting state, and identified frequency-dependent effects in separate frequency bands.Our results indicate that, in MCI patients, ReHo is altered in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in the slow-3 band (0.073–0.198 Hz), and in the bottom of the right occipital lobe and part of the right cerebellum, the right thalamus, a diffusing region in the bilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), the left and right parietal-occipital regions, and the right angular gyrus in the slow-5 band (0.01–0.027 Hz). Furthermore, in NCs, the value of ReHo in clusters belonging to the default mode network (DMN) decreased, while the value of ReHo in clusters belonging to the attentional network increased during the task state. However, this pattern was reversed in MCI patients, and was associated with decreased working memory performance. In addition, we identified altered functional connectivity of the abovementioned regions with other parts of the brain in MCI patients. This is the first study to compare frequency-dependent alterations of ReHo in MCI patients between resting and working memory states. The results provide a new perspective regarding the neural mechanisms of working memory deficits in MCI patients, and extend our knowledge of altered brain patterns in resting and task-evoked states. PMID:27047375

  4. Temporal variability and memory in sediment transport in an experimental step-pool channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saletti, Matteo; Molnar, Peter; Zimmermann, André; Hassan, Marwan A.; Church, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Temporal dynamics of sediment transport in steep channels using two experiments performed in a steep flume (8%) with natural sediment composed of 12 grain sizes are studied. High-resolution (1 s) time series of sediment transport were measured for individual grain-size classes at the outlet of the flume for different combinations of sediment input rates and flow discharges. Our aim in this paper is to quantify (a) the relation of discharge and sediment transport and (b) the nature and strength of memory in grain-size-dependent transport. None of the simple statistical descriptors of sediment transport (mean, extreme values, and quantiles) display a clear relation with water discharge, in fact a large variability between discharge and sediment transport is observed. Instantaneous transport rates have probability density functions with heavy tails. Bed load bursts have a coarser grain-size distribution than that of the entire experiment. We quantify the strength and nature of memory in sediment transport rates by estimating the Hurst exponent and the autocorrelation coefficient of the time series for different grain sizes. Our results show the presence of the Hurst phenomenon in transport rates, indicating long-term memory which is grain-size dependent. The short-term memory in coarse grain transport increases with temporal aggregation and this reveals the importance of the sampling duration of bed load transport rates in natural streams, especially for large fractions.

  5. Low power zinc-oxide based charge trapping memory with embedded silicon nanoparticles via poole-frenkel hole emission

    SciTech Connect

    El-Atab, Nazek; Nayfeh, Ammar; Ozcan, Ayse; Alkis, Sabri; Okyay, Ali K.

    2014-01-06

    A low power zinc-oxide (ZnO) charge trapping memory with embedded silicon (Si) nanoparticles is demonstrated. The charge trapping layer is formed by spin coating 2 nm silicon nanoparticles between Atomic Layer Deposited ZnO steps. The threshold voltage shift (ΔV{sub t}) vs. programming voltage is studied with and without the silicon nanoparticles. Applying −1 V for 5 s at the gate of the memory with nanoparticles results in a ΔV{sub t} of 3.4 V, and the memory window can be up to 8 V with an excellent retention characteristic (>10 yr). Without nanoparticles, at −1 V programming voltage, the ΔV{sub t} is negligible. In order to get ΔV{sub t} of 3.4 V without nanoparticles, programming voltage in excess of 10 V is required. The negative voltage on the gate programs the memory indicating that holes are being trapped in the charge trapping layer. In addition, at 1 V the electric field across the 3.6 nm tunnel oxide is calculated to be 0.36 MV/cm, which is too small for significant tunneling. Moreover, the ΔV{sub t} vs. electric field across the tunnel oxide shows square root dependence at low fields (E < 1 MV/cm) and a square dependence at higher fields (E > 2.7 MV/cm). This indicates that Poole-Frenkel Effect is the main mechanism for holes emission at low fields and Phonon Assisted Tunneling at higher fields.

  6. Temporal pattern and memory in sediment transport in an experimental step-pool channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saletti, Matteo; Molnar, Peter; Zimmermann, André; Hassan, Marwan A.; Church, Michael; Burlando, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    In this work we study the complex dynamics of sediment transport and bed morphology in steep streams, using a dataset of experiments performed in a steep flume with natural sediment. High-resolution (1 sec) time series of sediment transport were measured for individual size classes at the outlet of the flume for different combinations of sediment input rates, discharges, and flume slopes. The data show that the relation between instantaneous discharge and sediment transport exhibits large variability on different levels. After dividing the time series into segments of constant water discharge, we quantify the statistical properties of transport rates by fitting the data with a Generalized Extreme Value distribution, whose 3 parameters are related to the average sediment flux. We analyze separately extreme events of transport rate in terms of their fractional composition; if only events of high magnitude are considered, coarse grains become the predominant component of the total sediment yield. We quantify the memory in grain size dependent sediment transport with variance scaling and autocorrelation analyses; more specifically, we study how the variance changes with different aggregation scales and how the autocorrelation coefficient changes with different time lags. Our results show that there is a tendency to an infinite memory regime in transport rate signals, which is limited by the intermittency of the largest fractions. Moreover, the structure of memory is both grain size-dependent and magnitude-dependent: temporal autocorrelation is stronger for small grain size fractions and when the average sediment transport rate is large. The short-term memory in coarse grain transport increases with temporal aggregation and this reveals the importance of the sampling frequency of bedload transport rates in natural streams, especially for large fractions.

  7. Control of Viremia Enables Acquisition of Resting Memory B Cells with Age and Normalization of Activated B Cell Phenotypes in HIV-Infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Muema, Daniel M.; Macharia, Gladys N.; Hassan, Amin S.; Mwaringa, Shalton M.; Fegan, Greg W.; Berkley, James A.; Urban, Britta C.

    2015-01-01

    HIV affects the function of all lymphocyte populations, including B cells. Phenotypic and functional defects of B cells in HIV-infected adults have been well characterized, but defects in children have not been studied to the same extent. We determined the proportion of B cell subsets and frequencies of Ag-specific memory B cells in peripheral blood from HIV-infected children and healthy controls, using flow cytometry and B cell ELISPOT, respectively. In addition, we measured the quantities and avidities of plasma Abs against various Ags by ELISA. We also determined plasma levels of BAFF and expression of BAFF receptors on B cells. Children with high HIV viremia had increased proportions of activated mature B cells, tissue-like memory B cells and plasmablasts, and low proportions of naive B cells when compared with community controls and children with low HIV viremia, similar to adults infected with HIV. HIV-infected groups had lower proportions of resting memory B cells than did community controls. Notably, high HIV viremia prevented the age-dependent accumulation of class-switched resting memory B cells. HIV-infected children, regardless of the level of viremia, showed lower quantities and avidities of IgG and lower frequencies of memory B cells against Expanded Program on Immunization vaccines. The HIV-infected children had an altered BAFF profile that could have affected their B cell compartment. Therefore, B cell defects in HIV-infected children are similar to those seen in HIV-infected adults. However, control of HIV viremia is associated with normalization of activated B cell subsets and allows age-dependent accumulation of resting memory B cells. PMID:26116511

  8. Control of Viremia Enables Acquisition of Resting Memory B Cells with Age and Normalization of Activated B Cell Phenotypes in HIV-Infected Children.

    PubMed

    Muema, Daniel M; Macharia, Gladys N; Hassan, Amin S; Mwaringa, Shalton M; Fegan, Greg W; Berkley, James A; Nduati, Eunice W; Urban, Britta C

    2015-08-01

    HIV affects the function of all lymphocyte populations, including B cells. Phenotypic and functional defects of B cells in HIV-infected adults have been well characterized, but defects in children have not been studied to the same extent. We determined the proportion of B cell subsets and frequencies of Ag-specific memory B cells in peripheral blood from HIV-infected children and healthy controls, using flow cytometry and B cell ELISPOT, respectively. In addition, we measured the quantities and avidities of plasma Abs against various Ags by ELISA. We also determined plasma levels of BAFF and expression of BAFF receptors on B cells. Children with high HIV viremia had increased proportions of activated mature B cells, tissue-like memory B cells and plasmablasts, and low proportions of naive B cells when compared with community controls and children with low HIV viremia, similar to adults infected with HIV. HIV-infected groups had lower proportions of resting memory B cells than did community controls. Notably, high HIV viremia prevented the age-dependent accumulation of class-switched resting memory B cells. HIV-infected children, regardless of the level of viremia, showed lower quantities and avidities of IgG and lower frequencies of memory B cells against Expanded Program on Immunization vaccines. The HIV-infected children had an altered BAFF profile that could have affected their B cell compartment. Therefore, B cell defects in HIV-infected children are similar to those seen in HIV-infected adults. However, control of HIV viremia is associated with normalization of activated B cell subsets and allows age-dependent accumulation of resting memory B cells.

  9. Identification of a common variant affecting human episodic memory performance using a pooled genome-wide association approach: a case study of disease gene identification.

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, Traci L; Huentelman, Matthew J

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are an important tool for discovering novel genes associated with disease or traits. Careful design of case-control groups greatly facilitates the efficacy of these studies. Here we describe a pooled GWAS study undertaken to find novel genes associated with human episodic memory performance. A genomic locus for the WW and C2 domain-containing 1 protein, KIBRA (also known as WWC1), was found to be associated with memory performance in three cognitively normal cohorts from Switzerland and the USA. This result was further supported by correlation of KIBRA genotype and differences in hippocampal activation as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). These findings provide an excellent example of the application of GWAS using a pooled genomic DNA approach to successfully identify a locus with strong effects on human memory.

  10. High avidity cytotoxic T lymphocytes can be selected into the memory pool but they are exquisitely sensitive to functional impairment.

    PubMed

    Brentville, Victoria A; Metheringham, Rachael L; Gunn, Barbara; Durrant, Lindy G

    2012-01-01

    High avidity cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are important in viral clearance and anti-tumor immunity, however, mechanisms for their optimal generation and maintenance in vivo remain unclear. Immunizing mice with an antibody-DNA vaccine encoding a single CTL epitope, induces a 100 fold higher avidity response than peptide vaccination with the identical epitope. The high avidity response is retained into memory and can be efficiently reactivated with an antibody-DNA boost. In contrast, reactivation of high avidity CTL with peptide, stimulated responses with a significant drop in avidity, suggesting loss or conversion of the high avidity CTL to lower avidity. Similarly, high avidity T cells maintained ex vivo were exquisitely sensitive to signaling with low doses of peptide (1 ng/ml) giving optimal TCR stimulation and resulting in retained avidity, proliferation and ability to kill specific targets. In contrast, high avidity T cells maintained ex vivo with supraoptimal TCR stimulation (10 µg/ml peptide) resulted in reduced avidity and failure to kill tumor cells. They also failed to proliferate, showed a significant increase in apoptosis and expressed high levels of the exhaustion marker programmed death-1 (PD-1) and low levels of the lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3). This suggests high avidity T cells are recruited to the memory pool but can be lost by supraoptimal stimulation in vitro and in vivo. This is characterized by loss of function and an increase in cell death. The remaining CTL, exhibit low functional avidity that is reflected in reduced anti-tumor activity. This could contribute to failure of the immune system to control the growth of tumors and has implications for vaccination strategies and adoptive transfer of T cells. PMID:22829916

  11. The neural pathway underlying a numerical working memory task in abacus-trained children and associated functional connectivity in the resting brain.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongxin; Hu, Yuzheng; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Yunqi; Huang, Jian; Chen, Feiyan

    2013-11-20

    Training can induce significant changes in brain functioning and behavioral performance. One consequence of training is changing the pattern of brain activation. Abacus training is of interest because abacus experts gain the ability to handle digits with unusual speed and accuracy. However, the neural correlates of numerical memory in abacus-trained children remain unknown. In the current study, we aimed to detect a training effect of abacus-based mental calculations on numerical working memory in children. We measured brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation patterns in 17 abacus-trained children and 17 control children as they performed two numerical working memory tasks (digits and beads). Functional MRI results revealed higher activation in abacus-trained children than in the controls in the right posterior superior parietal lobule/superior occipital gyrus (PSPL/SOG) and the right supplementary motor area (SMA) in both tasks. When these regions were used as seeds in a functional connectivity analysis of the resting brain, the abacus-trained children showed significantly enhanced integration between the right SMA and the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). The IFG is considered to be the key region for the control of attention. These findings demonstrate that extensive engagement of the fronto-parietal network occurs during numerical memory tasks in the abacus-trained group. Furthermore, abacus training may increase the functional integration of visuospatial-attention circuitry, which and thus enhances high-level cognitive process. PMID:24080400

  12. The neural pathway underlying a numerical working memory task in abacus-trained children and associated functional connectivity in the resting brain.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongxin; Hu, Yuzheng; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Yunqi; Huang, Jian; Chen, Feiyan

    2013-11-20

    Training can induce significant changes in brain functioning and behavioral performance. One consequence of training is changing the pattern of brain activation. Abacus training is of interest because abacus experts gain the ability to handle digits with unusual speed and accuracy. However, the neural correlates of numerical memory in abacus-trained children remain unknown. In the current study, we aimed to detect a training effect of abacus-based mental calculations on numerical working memory in children. We measured brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation patterns in 17 abacus-trained children and 17 control children as they performed two numerical working memory tasks (digits and beads). Functional MRI results revealed higher activation in abacus-trained children than in the controls in the right posterior superior parietal lobule/superior occipital gyrus (PSPL/SOG) and the right supplementary motor area (SMA) in both tasks. When these regions were used as seeds in a functional connectivity analysis of the resting brain, the abacus-trained children showed significantly enhanced integration between the right SMA and the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). The IFG is considered to be the key region for the control of attention. These findings demonstrate that extensive engagement of the fronto-parietal network occurs during numerical memory tasks in the abacus-trained group. Furthermore, abacus training may increase the functional integration of visuospatial-attention circuitry, which and thus enhances high-level cognitive process.

  13. Errors on interrupter tasks presented during spatial and verbal working memory performance are linearly linked to large-scale functional network connectivity in high temporal resolution resting state fMRI.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, Matthew Evan; Thompson, Garth John; Schwarb, Hillary; Pan, Wen-Ju; McKinley, Andy; Schumacher, Eric H; Keilholz, Shella Dawn

    2015-12-01

    The brain is organized into networks composed of spatially separated anatomical regions exhibiting coherent functional activity over time. Two of these networks (the default mode network, DMN, and the task positive network, TPN) have been implicated in the performance of a number of cognitive tasks. To directly examine the stable relationship between network connectivity and behavioral performance, high temporal resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected during the resting state, and behavioral data were collected from 15 subjects on different days, exploring verbal working memory, spatial working memory, and fluid intelligence. Sustained attention performance was also evaluated in a task interleaved between resting state scans. Functional connectivity within and between the DMN and TPN was related to performance on these tasks. Decreased TPN resting state connectivity was found to significantly correlate with fewer errors on an interrupter task presented during a spatial working memory paradigm and decreased DMN/TPN anti-correlation was significantly correlated with fewer errors on an interrupter task presented during a verbal working memory paradigm. A trend for increased DMN resting state connectivity to correlate to measures of fluid intelligence was also observed. These results provide additional evidence of the relationship between resting state networks and behavioral performance, and show that such results can be observed with high temporal resolution fMRI. Because cognitive scores and functional connectivity were collected on nonconsecutive days, these results highlight the stability of functional connectivity/cognitive performance coupling. PMID:25563228

  14. Memory

    MedlinePlus

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  15. Combined shared and distributed memory ab-initio computations of molecular-hydrogen systems in the correlated state: Process pool solution and two-level parallelism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biborski, Andrzej; Kądzielawa, Andrzej P.; Spałek, Józef

    2015-12-01

    An efficient computational scheme devised for investigations of ground state properties of the electronically correlated systems is presented. As an example, (H2)n chain is considered with the long-range electron-electron interactions taken into account. The implemented procedure covers: (i) single-particle Wannier wave-function basis construction in the correlated state, (ii) microscopic parameters calculation, and (iii) ground state energy optimization. The optimization loop is based on highly effective process-pool solution - specific root-workers approach. The hierarchical, two-level parallelism was applied: both shared (by use of Open Multi-Processing) and distributed (by use of Message Passing Interface) memory models were utilized. We discuss in detail the feature that such approach results in a substantial increase of the calculation speed reaching factor of 300 for the fully parallelized solution. The scheme elaborated in detail reflects the situation in which the most demanding task is the single-particle basis optimization.

  16. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  17. Swimming Pools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Housing and Local Government, London (England).

    Technical and engineering data are set forth on the design and construction of swimming pools. Consideration is given to site selection, pool construction, the comparative merits of combining open air and enclosed pools, and alternative uses of the pool. Guidelines are presented regarding--(1) pool size and use, (2) locker and changing rooms, (3)…

  18. The impact of 6-month training preparation for an Ironman triathlon on the proportions of naïve, memory and senescent T cells in resting blood.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Cormac; Galloway, Stuart D R; Neal, Craig; Hunter, Angus M; McFarlin, Brian K; Spielmann, Guilllaume; Simpson, Richard J

    2012-08-01

    Athletes appear to be at a greater risk of illness while undertaking arduous training regimens in preparation for endurance events. As infection susceptibility has been linked with increased proportions of differentiated and senescent T cells in the periphery, changes in the proportions of these cell types due to long-term high-volume exercise training could have important implications for athlete infection risk. This study examined the effects of 6-month training preparation for an Ironman triathlon on the proportions of naïve, memory and senescent T cells in resting blood. Ten club-level triathletes (9 males; 1 female: 43 ± 3 years) were sampled at 27 (December), 21 (January), 15 (March), 9 (May) and 3 (June) weeks before an Ironman Triathlon. An additional sample was collected 2-week post-competition (August). Four-colour flow cytometry was used for the phenotypic analysis of CD4+ and CD8+ blood T cells. Proportions of differentiated (KLRG1+/CD57-) CD8+ T cells and "transitional" (CD45RA+/CD45RO+) CD4+ and CD8+ T cells increased with training, as the values in June were elevated 37, 142 and 116%, respectively, from those observed in December. Proportions of senescent (KLRG1+/CD57+) CD4+ or CD8+ T cells did not change during the training phase. Two weeks post-race, proportions of differentiated CD8+ T cells had returned to baseline values, while the proportions of senescent CD4+ T cells increased 192% alongside a 31% reduction in naïve (CD45RA+/CD45RO-) cells. In conclusion, increases in differentiated and "transitional" T cells due to arduous exercise training could compromise host protection to novel pathogens and increase athlete infection risk, although whether or not the composition of naïve and differentiated T cells in blood can serve as prognostic biomarkers in athletes remains to be established.

  19. Pool Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Caribbean Clear, Inc. used NASA's silver ion technology as a basis for its automatic pool purifier. System offers alternative approach to conventional purification chemicals. Caribbean Clear's principal markets are swimming pool owners who want to eliminate chlorine and bromine. Purifiers in Caribbean Clear System are same silver ions used in Apollo System to kill bacteria, plus copper ions to kill algae. They produce spa or pool water that exceeds EPA Standards for drinking water.

  20. Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  1. Uneven distributions of naïve and memory T cells in the CD4 and CD8 T-cell populations derived from a single stem cell in an atomic bomb survivor: implications for the origins of the memory T-cell pools in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Hirai, Yuko; Hakoda, Masayuki; Kyoizumi, Seishi

    2002-05-01

    The processes that lead to the establishment and maintenance of memory T-cell pools in humans are not well understood. In this study, we examined the emergence of naïve and memory T cells in an adult male who was exposed to an atomic bomb radiation dose of approximately 2 Gy in 1945 at the age of 17. The analysis presented here was made possible by our earlier observation that this particular individual carries a hematopoietic stem cell mutation at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) locus that is almost certainly a result of his exposure to A-bomb radiation. Our key finding is that we detected a very much higher HPRT mutant frequency in the naive (CD45RA(+)) cell component of this individual's CD4 and CD8 T-cell populations than in the memory (CD45RA(-)) cell component of his CD4 and CD8 T-cell populations. This stands in marked contrast to our finding that HPRT mutant frequencies are fairly similar in the naïve CD45RA(+) and memory CD45RA(-) components of the CD4 and CD8 T-cell populations of three unexposed individuals examined concurrently. In addition we found that the HPRT mutant frequencies were about 30-fold higher in the naïve (CD45RA(+)) CD4 T cells of the exposed individual than in his memory (CD45RA(-)) cell populations, but that the effect was a little less striking in his CD8 cell populations, where the HPRT mutant frequencies were only about 15-fold higher in his naïve T-cell pools than in his memory T-cell pools. We further found that 100% of the HPRT mutant cells in both his CD4 and CD8 naïve cell subsets appeared to have originated from repeated divisions of the initial HPRT mutant stem cell, whereas only 4 of 24 and 5 of 6 mutant cells in his CD4 and CD8 memory cell subsets appeared to have originated from that same stem cell. The most straightforward conclusion may be that the great majority of the T cells produced by this individual since he was 17 years old have remained as naïve-type T cells, rather than having become

  2. Swimming Pool Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... insist that the following rules are followed: Keep toys away from the pool when the pool is ... after each use. No tricycles or other riding toys at poolside. No electrical appliances near the pool. ...

  3. THE OUTDOOR POOL

    PubMed Central

    Craster, Charles V.

    1919-01-01

    That almost any bit of water will serve for a wading pool seems to be the idea in practice. Dr. Craster has tested such pools and finds that they need to be as well constructed as bathing pools and as well cared for. Chlorination is necessary when they can not otherwise be controlled. ImagesPOOL I.POOL II.POOL III.p826-a PMID:18010192

  4. Bed rest in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Catherine; Stone, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    The use of bed rest in medicine dates back to Hippocrates, who first recommended bed rest as a restorative measure for pain. With the formalization of prenatal care in the early 1900s, maternal bed rest became a standard of care, especially toward the end of pregnancy. Antepartum bed rest is a common obstetric management tool, with up to 95% of obstetricians utilizing maternal activity restriction in some way in their practice. Bed rest is prescribed for a variety of complications of pregnancy, from threatened abortion and multiple gestations to preeclampsia and preterm labor. Although the use of bed rest is pervasive, there is a paucity of data to support its use. Additionally, many well-documented adverse physical, psychological, familial, societal, and financial effects have been discussed in the literature. There have been no complications of pregnancy for which the literature consistently demonstrates a benefit to antepartum bed rest. Given the well-documented adverse effects of bed rest, disruption of social relationships, and financial implications of this intervention, there is a real need for scientific investigation to establish whether this is an appropriate therapeutic modality. Well-designed randomized, controlled trials of bed rest versus normal activity for various complications of pregnancy are required to lay this debate to rest once and for all. PMID:21425272

  5. Rest boosts the long-term retention of spatial associative and temporal order information.

    PubMed

    Craig, Michael; Dewar, Michaela; Della Sala, Sergio; Wolbers, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    People retain more new verbal episodic information for at least 7 days if they rest for a few minutes after learning than if they attend to new information. It is hypothesized that rest allows for superior consolidation of new memories. In rodents, rest periods promote hippocampal replay of a recently travelled route, and this replay is thought to be critical for memory consolidation and subsequent spatial navigation. If rest boosts human memory by promoting hippocampal replay/consolidation, then the beneficial effect of rest should extend to complex (hippocampal) memory tasks, for example, tasks probing associations and sequences. We investigated this question via a virtual reality route memory task. Healthy young participants learned two routes to a 100% criterion. One route was followed by a 10-min rest and the other by a 10-min spot the difference game. For each learned route, participants performed four delayed spatial memory tests probing: (i) associative (landmark-direction) memory, (ii) cognitive map formation, (iii) temporal (landmark) order memory, and (iv) route memory. Tests were repeated after 7 days to determine any long-term effects. No effect of rest was detected in the route memory or cognitive map tests, most likely due to ceiling and floor effects, respectively. Rest did, however, boost retention in the associative memory and temporal order memory tests, and this boost remained for at least 7 days. We therefore demonstrate that the benefit of rest extends to (spatial) associative and temporal order memory in humans. We hypothesise that rest allows superior consolidation/hippocampal replay of novel information pertaining to a recently learned route, thus boosting new memories over the long term. PMID:25620400

  6. Wakeful rest alleviates interference-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Retroactive interference (RI)--the disruptive influence of events occurring after the formation of a new memory--is one of the primary causes of forgetting. Placing individuals within an environment that postpones interference should, therefore, greatly reduce the likelihood of information being lost from memory. For example, a short period of wakeful rest should diminish interference-based forgetting. To test this hypothesis, participants took part in a foreign language learning activity and were shown English translations of 20 Icelandic words for immediate recall. Half of the participants were then given an 8-min rest before completing a similar or dissimilar interfering distractor task. The other half did not receive a rest until after the distractor task, at which point interference had already taken place. All participants were then asked to translate the Icelandic words for a second time. Results revealed that retention was significantly worse at the second recall test, but being allowed a brief rest before completing the distractor task helped reduce the amount of forgetting. Taking a short, passive break can shield new memories from RI and alleviate forgetting. PMID:24410154

  7. A single HIV-1 cluster and a skewed immune homeostasis drive the early spread of HIV among resting CD4+ cell subsets within one month post-infection.

    PubMed

    Bacchus, Charline; Cheret, Antoine; Avettand-Fenoël, Véronique; Nembot, Georges; Mélard, Adeline; Blanc, Catherine; Lascoux-Combe, Caroline; Slama, Laurence; Allegre, Thierry; Allavena, Clotilde; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Duvivier, Claudine; Katlama, Christine; Goujard, Cécile; Seksik, Bao Chau Phung; Leplatois, Anne; Molina, Jean-Michel; Meyer, Laurence; Autran, Brigitte; Rouzioux, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing therapeutic strategies for an HIV cure requires better understanding the characteristics of early HIV-1 spread among resting CD4+ cells within the first month of primary HIV-1 infection (PHI). We studied the immune distribution, diversity, and inducibility of total HIV-DNA among the following cell subsets: monocytes, peripheral blood activated and resting CD4 T cells, long-lived (naive [TN] and central-memory [TCM]) and short-lived (transitional-memory [TTM] and effector-memory cells [TEM]) resting CD4+T cells from 12 acutely-infected individuals recruited at a median 36 days from infection. Cells were sorted for total HIV-DNA quantification, phylogenetic analysis and inducibility, all studied in relation to activation status and cell signaling. One month post-infection, a single CCR5-restricted viral cluster was massively distributed in all resting CD4+ subsets from 88% subjects, while one subject showed a slight diversity. High levels of total HIV-DNA were measured among TN (median 3.4 log copies/million cells), although 10-fold less (p = 0.0005) than in equally infected TCM (4.5), TTM (4.7) and TEM (4.6) cells. CD3-CD4+ monocytes harbored a low viral burden (median 2.3 log copies/million cells), unlike equally infected resting and activated CD4+ T cells (4.5 log copies/million cells). The skewed repartition of resting CD4 subsets influenced their contribution to the pool of resting infected CD4+T cells, two thirds of which consisted of short-lived TTM and TEM subsets, whereas long-lived TN and TCM subsets contributed the balance. Each resting CD4 subset produced HIV in vitro after stimulation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28+IL-2 with kinetics and magnitude varying according to subset differentiation, while IL-7 preferentially induced virus production from long-lived resting TN cells. In conclusion, within a month of infection, a clonal HIV-1 cluster is massively distributed among resting CD4 T-cell subsets with a flexible inducibility, suggesting that

  8. 4. LOWER TERRACE LOOKING EAST, SHOWING POOL AND PRESIDENT BUCHANAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. LOWER TERRACE LOOKING EAST, SHOWING POOL AND PRESIDENT BUCHANAN MEMORIAL, February 1976 - Meridian Hill Park, Bounded by Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Euclid & W Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. Verbal memory and menopause.

    PubMed

    Maki, Pauline M

    2015-11-01

    Midlife women frequently report memory problems during the menopausal transition. Recent studies validate those complaints by showing significant correlations between memory complaints and performance on validated memory tasks. Longitudinal studies demonstrate modest declines in verbal memory during the menopausal transition and a likely rebound during the postmenopausal stage. Clinical studies that examine changes in memory following hormonal withdrawal and add-back hormone therapy (HT) demonstrate that estradiol plays a critical role in memory. Although memory changes are frequently attributed to menopausal symptoms, studies show that the memory problems occur during the transition even after controlling for menopausal symptoms. It is well established that self-reported vasomotor symptoms (VMS) are unrelated to objective memory performance. However, emerging evidence suggests that objectively measured VMS significantly correlate with memory performance, brain activity during rest, and white matter hyperintensities. This evidence raises important questions about whether VMS and VMS treatments might affect memory during the menopausal transition. Unfortunately, there are no clinical trials to inform our understanding of how HT affects both memory and objectively measured VMS in women in whom HT is indicated for treatment of moderate to severe VMS. In clinical practice, it is helpful to normalize memory complaints, to note that evidence suggests that memory problems are temporary, and to counsel women with significant VMS that memory might improve with treatment.

  10. Bed rest and immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Aviles, Hernan; Butel, Janet S.; Shearer, William T.; Niesel, David; Pandya, Utpal; Allen, Christopher; Ochs, Hans D.; Blancher, Antoine; Abbal, Michel

    2007-02-01

    Space flight has been shown to result in altered immune responses. The current study was designed to investigate this possibility by using the bed rest model of some space flight conditions. A large number of women are included as subjects in the study. The hypothesis being tested is: 60 days head-down tilt bed rest of humans will affect the immune system and resistance to infection. Blood, urine and saliva samples will be obtained from bed rest subjects prior to, at intervals during, and after completion of 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest. Leukocyte blastogenesis, cytokine production and virus reactivation will be assessed. The ability of the subjects to respond appropriately to immunization with the neoantigen bacteriophage φX-174 will also be determined. Bed rest is being carried out at MEDES, Toulouse France, and the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX. The studies to be carried out in France will also allow assessment of the effects of muscle/bone exercise and nutritional countermeasures on the immune system in addition to the effects of bed rest.

  11. The science of pooling

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.

    1995-10-01

    The pooling of data from radon studies is described. Pooling refers to the analysis of original data from several studies, not meta-analysis in which summary measures from published data are analyzed. A main objective for pooling is to reduce uncertainty and to obtain more precise estimates of risk than would be available from any single study.

  12. REST and the RESTless

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, Vidya

    2009-01-01

    Since its original discovery as a negative regulator of neuronal differentiation, the repressor element (RE)-1 silencing transcription factor (REST), also known as the neuron-restrictive silencer factor, has been implicated in novel processes such as maintenance of embryonic stem cell pluripotency and self-renewal and regulation of mitotic fidelity in non-neural cells. REST expression and activity is tightly controlled by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms in a cell and developmental stage-specific manner and perturbations in its levels or function are associated with various pathological states. REST differentially influences target-gene expression through interaction with a wide variety of cellular cofactors in a context-dependent manner. However, the influence of the microenvironment on REST-mediated regulation of gene expression is poorly understood. This review will present our current understanding of REST signaling with a greater focus on its emerging ties with noncoding RNAs and novel interacting partners, as well as its roles in embryonic stem cell self-renewal, cellular plasticity and oncogenesis/tumor suppression. PMID:19885378

  13. 13 CFR 120.611 - Pools backing Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pools backing Pool Certificates... Secondary Market Certificates § 120.611 Pools backing Pool Certificates. (a) Pool characteristics. As set forth in the Program Guide, each Pool must have: (1) A minimum number of guaranteed portions of...

  14. 13 CFR 120.611 - Pools backing Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pools backing Pool Certificates... Secondary Market Certificates § 120.611 Pools backing Pool Certificates. (a) Pool characteristics. As set forth in the Program Guide, each Pool must have: (1) A minimum number of guaranteed portions of...

  15. 13 CFR 120.611 - Pools backing Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pools backing Pool Certificates... Secondary Market Certificates § 120.611 Pools backing Pool Certificates. (a) Pool characteristics. As set forth in the Program Guide, each Pool must have: (1) A minimum number of guaranteed portions of...

  16. 13 CFR 120.611 - Pools backing Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pools backing Pool Certificates... Secondary Market Certificates § 120.611 Pools backing Pool Certificates. (a) Pool characteristics. As set forth in the Program Guide, each Pool must have: (1) A minimum number of guaranteed portions of...

  17. 13 CFR 120.611 - Pools backing Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pools backing Pool Certificates... Secondary Market Certificates § 120.611 Pools backing Pool Certificates. (a) Pool characteristics. As set forth in the Program Guide, each Pool must have: (1) A minimum number of guaranteed portions of...

  18. Influenza Virus-Specific Immunological Memory Is Enhanced by Repeated Social Defeat

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Jacqueline W.; Bailey, Michael T.; Hunzeker, John T.; Powell, Nicole D.; Papenfuss, Tracey; Karlsson, Erik A; Padgett, David A.; Sheridan, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Immunological memory (MEM) development is affected by stress-induced neuroendocrine mediators. Current knowledge about how a behavioral interaction, such as social defeat, alters the development of adaptive immunity, and MEM is incomplete. In this study, the experience of social disruption stress (SDR) prior to a primary influenza viral infection enhanced the frequency and function of the T cell memory pool. Socially stressed mice had a significantly enlarged population of CD8+ T cells specific for the immunodominant NP366–74 epitope of A/PR/8/34 virus in lung and spleen tissues at 6–12 wk after primary infection (resting memory). Moreover, during resting memory, SDR-MEM mice responded with an enhanced footpad delayed-type hypersensitivity response, and more IFN-γ–producing CD4+ T cells were detected after ex vivo stimulation. When mice were rechallenged with A/PR/8/34 virus, SDR-MEM mice terminated viral gene expression significantly earlier than MEM mice and generated a greater DbNP366–74CD8+ T cell response in the lung parenchyma and airways. This enhancement was specific to the T cell response. SDR-MEM mice had significantly attenuated anti-influenza IgG titers during resting memory. Similar experiments in which mice were primed with X-31 influenza and challenged with A/PR/8/34 virus elicited similar enhancements in the splenic and lung airway Db NP366–74CD8+ T cell populations in SDR-MEM mice. This study demonstrates that the experience of repeated social defeat prior to a primary viral infection significantly enhances virus-specific memory via augmentation of memory T cell populations and suggests that social stressors should be carefully considered in the design and analysis of future studies on antiviral immunity. PMID:20083672

  19. Bed rest during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... for support groups, bulletin boards, and chat rooms online for moms-to-be who are also on bed rest. Expect emotional ups and downs. Share your hopes and worries with your partner. Let each other vent if needed. If sex is not allowed, look for other ways to ...

  20. Cold pool dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Leah D.; Heever, Susan C.

    2016-02-01

    The mechanisms by which sensible heat fluxes (SHFs) alter cold pool characteristics and dissipation rates are investigated in this study using idealized two-dimensional numerical simulations and an environment representative of daytime, dry, continental conditions. Simulations are performed with no SHFs, SHFs calculated using a bulk formula, and constant SHFs for model resolutions with horizontal (vertical) grid spacings ranging from 50 m (25 m) to 400 m (200 m). In the highest resolution simulations, turbulent entrainment of environmental air into the cold pool is an important mechanism for dissipation in the absence of SHFs. Including SHFs enhances cold pool dissipation rates, but the processes responsible for the enhanced dissipation differ depending on the SHF formulation. The bulk SHFs increase the near-surface cold pool temperatures, but their effects on the overall cold pool characteristics are small, while the constant SHFs influence the near-surface environmental stability and the turbulent entrainment rates into the cold pool. The changes to the entrainment rates are found to be the most significant of the SHF effects on cold pool dissipation. SHFs may also influence the timing of cold pool-induced convective initiation by altering the environmental stability and the cold pool intensity. As the model resolution is coarsened, cold pool dissipation is found to be less sensitive to SHFs. Furthermore, the coarser resolution simulations not only poorly but sometimes wrongly represent the SHF impacts on the cold pools. Recommendations are made regarding simulating the interaction of cold pools with convection and the land surface in cloud-resolving models.

  1. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest on Functional Mobility and Balance: Relationship to Resting State Motor Cortex Connectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdeniz, B.; Koppelmans, V.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Kofman, I. S.; DeDios, Y. E.; Riascos-Castaneda, R. F.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA offers researchers from a variety of backgrounds the opportunity to study bed rest as an experimental analog for space flight. Extended exposure to a head-down tilt position during long duration bed rest can resemble many of the effects of a low-gravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The aim of our study is to a) identify changes in brain function that occur with prolonged bed rest and characterize their recovery time course; b) assess whether and how these changes impact behavioral and neurocognitive performance. Thus far, we completed data collection from six participants that include task based and resting state fMRI. The data have been acquired through the bed rest facility located at the University of Texas Medical Branch (Galveston, TX). Subjects remained in bed with their heads tilted down 6 degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. Behavioral measures and neuroimaging assessments were obtained at seven time points: a) 7 and 12 days before bed rest; b) 7, 30, and 65 days during bed rest; and c) 7 and 12 days after bed rest. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (FcMRI) analysis was performed to assess the connectivity of motor cortex in and out of bed rest. We found a decrease in motor cortex connectivity with vestibular cortex and the cerebellum from pre bed rest to in bed rest. We also used a battery of behavioral measures including the functional mobility test and computerized dynamic posturography collected before and after bed rest. We will report the preliminary results of analyses relating brain and behavior changes. Furthermore, we will also report the preliminary results of a spatial working memory task and vestibular stimulation during in and out of bed rest.

  2. mREST Interface Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCartney, Patrick; MacLean, John

    2012-01-01

    mREST is an implementation of the REST architecture specific to the management and sharing of data in a system of logical elements. The purpose of this document is to clearly define the mREST interface protocol. The interface protocol covers all of the interaction between mREST clients and mREST servers. System-level requirements are not specifically addressed. In an mREST system, there are typically some backend interfaces between a Logical System Element (LSE) and the associated hardware/software system. For example, a network camera LSE would have a backend interface to the camera itself. These interfaces are specific to each type of LSE and are not covered in this document. There are also frontend interfaces that may exist in certain mREST manager applications. For example, an electronic procedure execution application may have a specialized interface for configuring the procedures. This interface would be application specific and outside of this document scope. mREST is intended to be a generic protocol which can be used in a wide variety of applications. A few scenarios are discussed to provide additional clarity but, in general, application-specific implementations of mREST are not specifically addressed. In short, this document is intended to provide all of the information necessary for an application developer to create mREST interface agents. This includes both mREST clients (mREST manager applications) and mREST servers (logical system elements, or LSEs).

  3. Swimming pool. View of aisle between swimming pool and seating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Swimming pool. View of aisle between swimming pool and seating area. Non-original spa pool is partially visible on right. - Jewish Community Center of San Francisco, 3200 California Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 13 CFR 120.1704 - Pool Loans eligible for Pooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., construction or renovation of an aquarium, zoo, golf course, or swimming pool; or (iv) To a business covered by... zoos—712130 (“Zoos and Botanical Gardens”). (b) SBA review of a Pool Loan prior to pool formation....

  5. 13 CFR 120.1704 - Pool Loans eligible for Pooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., construction or renovation of an aquarium, zoo, golf course, or swimming pool; or (iv) To a business covered by... zoos—712130 (“Zoos and Botanical Gardens”). (b) SBA review of a Pool Loan prior to pool formation....

  6. 13 CFR 120.1704 - Pool Loans eligible for Pooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., construction or renovation of an aquarium, zoo, golf course, or swimming pool; or (iv) To a business covered by... zoos—712130 (“Zoos and Botanical Gardens”). (b) SBA review of a Pool Loan prior to pool formation....

  7. 13 CFR 120.1704 - Pool Loans eligible for Pooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., construction or renovation of an aquarium, zoo, golf course, or swimming pool; or (iv) To a business covered by... zoos—712130 (“Zoos and Botanical Gardens”). (b) SBA review of a Pool Loan prior to pool formation....

  8. 13 CFR 120.1704 - Pool Loans eligible for Pooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., construction or renovation of an aquarium, zoo, golf course, or swimming pool; or (iv) To a business covered by... zoos—712130 (“Zoos and Botanical Gardens”). (b) SBA review of a Pool Loan prior to pool formation....

  9. The contribution of epigenetic memory to immunologic memory.

    PubMed

    Zediak, Valerie P; Wherry, E John; Berger, Shelley L

    2011-04-01

    Memory T lymphocytes are distinct from antigen-inexperienced naïve T cells in that memory T cells can respond more rapidly when they re-encounter a pathogen. Work over the past decade has begun to define the epigenetic underpinnings of the transcriptional component of the memory T cell response. An emerging theme is the persistence of an active chromatin signature at relevant gene loci in resting memory T cells, even when those genes are transcriptionally inactive. This gives strength to the concept of gene poising, and has shown that memory T lymphocytes are an ideal model in which to further define various mechanisms of epigenetic poising.

  10. Pools for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Three institutions in Ohio now stress hydrotherapy and water recreation as important parts of individual educational programs for the handicapped. Specially designed and adapted pools provide freedom of movement and ego building as well as physical education and recreation. (Author)

  11. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Cancer.gov

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  12. Weld pool phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Zacharia, T.; DebRoy, T.

    1994-09-01

    During welding, the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure are affected by the interaction of the heat source with the metal. The interaction affects the fluid flow, heat transfer and mass transfer in the weld pool, and the solidification behavior of the weld metal. In recent years, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of the weld pool transport processes and the solid state transformation reactions in determining the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure. The relation between the weld pool transport processes and the composition and structure is reviewed. Recent applications of various solidification theories to welding are examined to understand the special problems of weld metal solidification. The discussion is focussed on the important problems and issues related to weld pool transport phenomena and solidification. Resolution of these problems would be an important step towards a science based control of composition, structure and properties of the weld metal.

  13. Swimming pool granuloma

    MedlinePlus

    Aquarium granuloma; Fish tank granuloma ... Risks include exposure to swimming pools, salt water aquariums, or ocean fish. ... Wash hands and arms thoroughly after cleaning aquariums. Or, wear rubber gloves when cleaning.

  14. Respiration of resting honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Hetz, Stefan K.; Petz, Markus; Crailsheim, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The relation between the respiratory activity of resting honeybees and ambient temperature (Ta) was investigated in the range of 5–40 °C. Bees were kept in a temperature controlled flow through respirometer chamber where their locomotor and endothermic activity, as well as abdominal ventilatory movements was recorded by infrared thermography. Surprisingly, true resting bees were often weakly endothermic (thorax surface up to 2.8 °C warmer than abdomen) at a Ta of 14–30 °C. Above 33 °C many bees cooled their body via evaporation from their mouthparts. A novel mathematical model allows description of the relationship of resting (standard) metabolic rate and temperature across the entire functional temperature range of bees. In chill coma (<11 °C) bees were ectothermic and CO2 release was mostly continuous. CO2 release rate (nl s−1) decreased from 9.3 at 9.7 °C to 5.4 at 5 °C. At a Ta of >11 °C CO2 was released discontinuously. In the bees’ active temperature range mean CO2 production rate (nl s−1) increased sigmoidally (10.6 at 14.1 °C, 24.1 at 26.5 °C, and 55.2 at 38.1 °C), coming to a halt towards the upper lethal temperature. This was primarily accomplished by an exponential increase in gas exchange frequency (0.54 and 3.1 breaths min−1 at 14.1 and 38.1 °C) but not in released CO2 volume per respiratory cycle (1487 and 1083 nl cycle−1 at 14.1 and 38.1 °C). Emission of CO2 bursts was mostly (98%) accompanied by abdominal ventilation movements even in small CO2 bursts. Larger bursts coincided with a longer duration of active ventilation. An increased amount of CO2 expelled per unit time of ventilation indicates a higher efficiency of ventilation at high ambient temperatures. PMID:17707395

  15. To pool or not to pool

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.

    1998-07-01

    In world electricity markets, third party access to transmission and distribution networks on non-discriminatory terms is available to generators and retail suppliers. Some market participants may believe that they are able to negotiate better terms and more market share through bilateral contracts than they would be able to obtain in a pool. Hence such companies will either argue against the development of a pool or seek to make membership of it optional. These companies are therefore seeking to ensure their continued ability to exercise their market power. Inevitably, those companies who would suffer in this form of market will advocate a more transparent arrangement where the market power of other organizations is curbed. The physical nature of the country and plant is also an important factor. Hydro-electric plant can, within water limitations, react very quickly to changing demand. These plant do not therefore require elaborate operating schedules hence market prices can be set ignoring physical plant characteristics. The ability of fossil fuel plant to respond is highly dependent on the operating condition of the plant. These generators need to plan their operations well in advance hence prices cannot be set in complete disregard of the generating plants' ability to meet the resulting schedule. The development of competitive markets is not, however, solely driven by commercial issues. Political and economic considerations such as stranded assets and the protection of indigenous industries, such as coal mines, can greatly influence the nature of the markets. Most countries have accepted the wisdom of having some form of pool. The choice of market mechanism will therefore be driven by: Physical constraints of the country infrastructure and plant; Market power of participants; and Political pressures on the Government. Of these factors political pressures tend to carry the greatest influence.

  16. Vernal Pool Lessons and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Nancy; Colburn, Betsy

    This curriculum guide accompanies Certified: A Citizen's Step-by-Step Guide to Protecting Vernal Pools which is designed to train volunteers in the process of identifying vernal pool habitat so that as many of these pools as possible can be certified by the Massachusetts Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program. Vernal pools are a kind of…

  17. DIRAC RESTful API

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casajus Ramo, A.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.

    2012-12-01

    The DIRAC framework for distributed computing has been designed as a flexible and modular solution that can be adapted to the requirements of any community. Users interact with DIRAC via command line, using the web portal or accessing resources via the DIRAC python API. The current DIRAC API requires users to use a python version valid for DIRAC. Some communities have developed their own software solutions for handling their specific workload, and would like to use DIRAC as their back-end to access distributed computing resources easily. Many of these solutions are not coded in python or depend on a specific python version. To solve this gap DIRAC provides a new language agnostic API that any software solution can use. This new API has been designed following the RESTful principles. Any language with libraries to issue standard HTTP queries may use it. GSI proxies can still be used to authenticate against the API services. However GSI proxies are not a widely adopted standard. The new DIRAC API also allows clients to use OAuth for delegating the user credentials to a third party solution. These delegated credentials allow the third party software to query to DIRAC on behalf of the users. This new API will further expand the possibilities communities have to integrate DIRAC into their distributed computing models.

  18. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  19. Thread Pool Interface (TPI)

    2008-04-01

    Thread Pool Interface (TpI) provides a simple interface for running functions written in C or C++ in a thread-parallel mode. Application or library codes may need to perform operations thread-parallel on machines with multicore processors. the TPI library provides a simple mechanism for managing thread activation, deactivation, and thread-parallel execution of application-provided subprograms.

  20. The Future of Pooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Peter C.; Fone, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Discusses seven propositions underlying the strategies that insurance pools can, will, and must pursue: (1) risk management versus risk financing; (2) elimination of windfall advantages; (3) the maintenance of market-dominant status; (4) cost leadership; (5) client focus; (6) innovation and diversification; and (7) leadership challenges. A sidebar…

  1. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  2. RESTful Web Services at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, R.

    2011-06-14

    RESTful (REpresentational State Transfer) web services are an alternative implementation to SOAP/RPC web services in a client/server model. BNLs IT Division has started deploying RESTful Web Services for enterprise data retrieval and manipulation. Data is currently used by system administrators for tracking configuration information and as it is expanded will be used by Cyber Security for vulnerability management and as an aid to cyber investigations. This talk will describe the implementation and outstanding issues as well as some of the reasons for choosing RESTful over SOAP/RPC and future directions.

  3. Allergic to Pool Water

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    To identify the allergy problem of a 36-year old swimming instructor, who experiences heavy itching and rashes whenever she comes in contact with pool water. Patch tests were performed with European standard series and materials from the work floor. A positive patch test to aluminum chloride and flocculant was observed. Occupational dermatitis is, based on a contact allergy to aluminum chloride in the flocculant. PMID:22993713

  4. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-08-15

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  5. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-05-16

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  6. Elevated hippocampal resting-state connectivity underlies deficient neurocognitive function in aging

    PubMed Central

    Salami, Alireza; Pudas, Sara; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The brain is not idle during rest. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have identified several resting-state networks, including the default mode network (DMN), which contains a set of cortical regions that interact with a hippocampus (HC) subsystem. Age-related alterations in the functional architecture of the DMN and HC may influence memory functions and possibly constitute a sensitive biomarker of forthcoming memory deficits. However, the exact form of DMN–HC alterations in aging and concomitant memory deficits is largely unknown. Here, using both task and resting data from 339 participants (25–80 y old), we have demonstrated age-related decrements in resting-state functional connectivity across most parts of the DMN, except for the HC network for which age-related elevation of connectivity between left and right HC was found along with attenuated HC–cortical connectivity. Elevated HC connectivity at rest, which was partly accounted for by age-related decline in white matter integrity of the fornix, was associated with lower cross-sectional episodic memory performance and declining longitudinal memory performance over 20 y. Additionally, elevated HC connectivity at rest was associated with reduced HC neural recruitment and HC–cortical connectivity during active memory encoding, which suggests that strong HC connectivity restricts the degree to which the HC interacts with other brain regions during active memory processing revealed by task fMRI. Collectively, our findings suggest a model in which age-related disruption in cortico–hippocampal functional connectivity leads to a more functionally isolated HC at rest, which translates into aberrant hippocampal decoupling and deficits during mnemonic processing. PMID:25422457

  7. Swimming Pools and Molluscum Contagiosum

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travelers' Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Swimming Pools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The ... often ask if molluscum virus can spread in swimming pools. There is also concern that it can ...

  8. Flight Analogs (Bed Rest Research)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Flight Analogs / Bed Rest Research Projects provide NASA with a ground based research platform to complement space research. By mimicking the conditions of weightlessness in the human body here on ...

  9. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  10. Discrete Resource Allocation in Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Brian; Ester, Edward F.; Awh, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Are resources in visual working memory allocated in a continuous or a discrete fashion? On one hand, flexible resource models suggest that capacity is determined by a central resource pool that can be flexibly divided such that items of greater complexity receive a larger share of resources. On the other hand, if capacity in working memory is…

  11. Expansion of IgG+ B-cells during mitogen stimulation for memory B-cell ELISpot analysis is influenced by size and composition of the B-cell pool.

    PubMed

    Scholzen, Anja; Nahrendorf, Wiebke; Langhorne, Jean; Sauerwein, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    The memory B-cell (MBC) ELISpot assay is the main technique used to measure antigen-specific MBCs as a readout of humoral immune memory. This assay relies on the ability of MBCs to differentiate into antibody-secreting cells (ASC) upon polyclonal stimulation. The total number of IgG+ ASCs generated by mitogen-stimulation is often used as a reference point; alternatively antigen-specific MBCs are expressed as a frequency of post-culture peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as a surrogate for absolute frequencies. Therefore, it is important to know whether IgG+ B-cells are uniformly expanded during the preceding mitogen-culture as a true reflection of MBC frequencies ex vivo. We systematically compared B-cell phenotype and proportions before and after mitogen stimulation in cultures of 269 peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from 62 volunteers by flow cytometry and analyzed the number of resulting ASCs. Our data show that the number of total IgG+ ASCs detected by ELISpot after mitogen stimulation correlates with the proportion of IgG+ MBCs ex vivo, highlighting its general robustness for comparisons of study cohorts at group level. The expansion of total and IgG+ B-cells during mitogen-stimulation, however, was not identical in all cultures, but influenced by size and composition of the ex vivo B-cell compartment. The uncorrected readout of antigen-specific MBCs per million post-culture PBMCs therefore only preserves the quality, but not the magnitude of differences in the ex vivo MBC response between groups or time points, particularly when comparing samples where the B-cell compartment substantially differs between cohorts or over time. Therefore, expressing antigen-specific cells per total IgG+ ASCs is currently the best measure to correct for mitogen-culture effects. Additionally, baseline information on the size and composition of the ex vivo B-cell compartment should be supplied to additionally inform about differences or changes in the size and

  12. Identifying major depressive disorder using Hurst exponent of resting-state brain networks.

    PubMed

    Wei, Maobin; Qin, Jiaolong; Yan, Rui; Li, Haoran; Yao, Zhijian; Lu, Qing

    2013-12-30

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) have revealed abnormalities of functional connectivity within or among the resting-state networks. They provide valuable insight into the pathological mechanisms of depression. However, few reports were involved in the "long-term memory" of fMRI signals. This study was to investigate the "long-term memory" of resting-state networks by calculating their Hurst exponents for identifying depressed patients from healthy controls. Resting-state networks were extracted from fMRI data of 20 MDD and 20 matched healthy control subjects. The Hurst exponent of each network was estimated by Range Scale analysis for further discriminant analysis. 95% of depressed patients and 85% of healthy controls were correctly classified by Support Vector Machine with an accuracy of 90%. The right fronto-parietal and default mode network constructed a deficit network (lower memory and more irregularity in MDD), while the left fronto-parietal, ventromedial prefrontal and salience network belonged to an excess network (longer memory in MDD), suggesting these dysfunctional networks may be related to a portion of the complex of emotional and cognitive disturbances. The abnormal "long-term memory" of resting-state networks associated with depression may provide a new possibility towards the exploration of the pathophysiological mechanisms of MDD.

  13. Secondary pool boiling effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, C.; Tsubaki, A.; Zuhlke, C.; Anderson, T.; Alexander, D.; Gogos, G.; Ndao, S.

    2016-02-01

    A pool boiling phenomenon referred to as secondary boiling effects is discussed. Based on the experimental trends, a mechanism is proposed that identifies the parameters that lead to this phenomenon. Secondary boiling effects refer to a distinct decrease in the wall superheat temperature near the critical heat flux due to a significant increase in the heat transfer coefficient. Recent pool boiling heat transfer experiments using femtosecond laser processed Inconel, stainless steel, and copper multiscale surfaces consistently displayed secondary boiling effects, which were found to be a result of both temperature drop along the microstructures and nucleation characteristic length scales. The temperature drop is a function of microstructure height and thermal conductivity. An increased microstructure height and a decreased thermal conductivity result in a significant temperature drop along the microstructures. This temperature drop becomes more pronounced at higher heat fluxes and along with the right nucleation characteristic length scales results in a change of the boiling dynamics. Nucleation spreads from the bottom of the microstructure valleys to the top of the microstructures, resulting in a decreased surface superheat with an increasing heat flux. This decrease in the wall superheat at higher heat fluxes is reflected by a "hook back" of the traditional boiling curve and is thus referred to as secondary boiling effects. In addition, a boiling hysteresis during increasing and decreasing heat flux develops due to the secondary boiling effects. This hysteresis further validates the existence of secondary boiling effects.

  14. Memory Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... different parts. Some of them are important for memory. The hippocampus (say: hih-puh-KAM-pus) is one of the more important parts of the brain that processes memories. Old information and new information, or memories, are ...

  15. Synaptic vesicle pools: an update.

    PubMed

    Denker, Annette; Rizzoli, Silvio O

    2010-01-01

    During the last few decades synaptic vesicles have been assigned to a variety of functional and morphological classes or "pools". We have argued in the past (Rizzoli and Betz, 2005) that synaptic activity in several preparations is accounted for by the function of three vesicle pools: the readily releasable pool (docked at active zones and ready to go upon stimulation), the recycling pool (scattered throughout the nerve terminals and recycling upon moderate stimulation), and finally the reserve pool (occupying most of the vesicle clusters and only recycling upon strong stimulation). We discuss here the advancements in the vesicle pool field which took place in the ensuing years, focusing on the behavior of different pools under both strong stimulation and physiological activity. Several new findings have enhanced the three-pool model, with, for example, the disparity between recycling and reserve vesicles being underlined by the observation that the former are mobile, while the latter are "fixed". Finally, a number of altogether new concepts have also evolved such as the current controversy on the identity of the spontaneously recycling vesicle pool. PMID:21423521

  16. The NASA Bed Rest Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Bradley; Meck, Janice

    2005-01-01

    NASA s National Vision for Space Exploration includes human travel beyond low earth orbit and the ultimate safe return of the crews. Crucial to fulfilling the vision is the successful and timely development of countermeasures for the adverse physiological effects on human systems caused by long term exposure to the microgravity environment. Limited access to in-flight resources for the foreseeable future increases NASA s reliance on ground-based analogs to simulate these effects of microgravity. The primary analog for human based research will be head-down bed rest. By this approach NASA will be able to evaluate countermeasures in large sample sizes, perform preliminary evaluations of proposed in-flight protocols and assess the utility of individual or combined strategies before flight resources are requested. In response to this critical need, NASA has created the Bed Rest Project at the Johnson Space Center. The Project establishes the infrastructure and processes to provide a long term capability for standardized domestic bed rest studies and countermeasure development. The Bed Rest Project design takes a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, integrated approach that reduces the resource overhead of one investigator for one campaign. In addition to integrating studies operationally relevant for exploration, the Project addresses other new Vision objectives, namely: 1) interagency cooperation with the NIH allows for Clinical Research Center (CRC) facility sharing to the benefit of both agencies, 2) collaboration with our International Partners expands countermeasure development opportunities for foreign and domestic investigators as well as promotes consistency in approach and results, 3) to the greatest degree possible, the Project also advances research by clinicians and academia alike to encourage return to earth benefits. This paper will describe the Project s top level goals, organization and relationship to other Exploration Vision Projects, implementation

  17. Brain and behavioural evidence for rest-activity cycles in Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Brown, Euan R; Piscopo, Stefania; De Stefano, Rosanna; Giuditta, Antonio

    2006-09-25

    Octopus vulgaris maintained under a 12/12h light/dark cycle exhibit a pronounced nocturnal activity pattern. Animals deprived of rest during the light period show a marked 'rebound' in activity in the following 24h. 'Active' octopuses attack faster than 'quiet' animals and brain activity recorded electrically intensifies during 'quiet' behaviour. Thus, in Octopus as in vertebrates, brain areas involved in memory or 'higher' processes exhibit 'off-line' activity during rest periods.

  18. Tidal Pools--Miniature Oceans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Linda Perry

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the biological activity in tidal pools is provided. The importance of environmental factors such as oxygen supply, temperature, salinity, and light is detailed. Plants and animals that might be found in a tidal pool are identified and described. (BT)

  19. Design of hydrotherapy exercise pools.

    PubMed

    Edlich, R F; Abidin, M R; Becker, D G; Pavlovich, L J; Dang, M T

    1988-01-01

    Several hydrotherapy pools have been designed specifically for a variety of aquatic exercise. Aqua-Ark positions the exerciser in the center of the pool for deep-water exercise. Aqua-Trex is a shallow underwater treadmill system for water walking or jogging. Swim-Ex generates an adjustable laminar flow that permits swimming without turning. Musculoskeletal conditioning can be accomplished in the above-ground Arjo shallow-water exercise pool. A hydrotherapy pool also can be custom designed for musculoskeletal conditioning in its shallow part and cardiovascular conditioning in a deeper portion of the pool. Regardless of the type of exercise, there is general agreement that the specific exercise conducted in water requires significantly more energy expenditure than when the same exercise is performed on land. PMID:3192611

  20. Disruption of ripple-associated hippocampal activity during rest impairs spatial learning in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ego-Stengel, Valérie; Wilson, Matthew A

    2010-01-01

    The hippocampus plays a key role in the acquisition of new memories for places and events. Evidence suggests that the consolidation of these memories is enhanced during sleep. At the neuronal level, reactivation of awake experience in the hippocampus during sharp-wave ripple events, characteristic of slow-wave sleep, has been proposed as a neural mechanism for sleep-dependent memory consolidation. However, a causal relation between sleep reactivation and memory consolidation has not been established. Here we show that disrupting neuronal activity during ripple events impairs spatial learning. We trained rats daily in two identical spatial navigation tasks followed each by a 1-hour rest period. After one of the tasks, stimulation of hippocampal afferents selectively disrupted neuronal activity associated with ripple events without changing the sleep-wake structure. Rats learned the control task significantly faster than the task followed by rest stimulation, indicating that interfering with hippocampal processing during sleep led to decreased learning.

  1. Agonist-sensitive calcium pool in the pancreatic acinar cell. I. Permeability properties

    SciTech Connect

    Muallem, S.; Schoeffield, M.S.; Fimmel, C.J.; Pandol, S.J.

    1988-08-01

    45Ca2+ fluxes and free cytosolic Ca2+ (( Ca2+)i) were used to describe the Ca2+ permeability and Ca2+ reloading of the agonist-sensitive pool at rest, during stimulation, and at termination of stimulation. A sequence of stimulation with carbachol, inhibition with atropine (cycling), and restimulation with cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) was used to follow Ca2+ reloading. Reloading of the pool required extracellular Ca2+ and was measured as an increased rate and extent of 45Ca2+ uptake into the acini. The 45Ca2+ incorporated into cycled acini could be completely released with CCK-8. The dose-response curves for 45Ca uptake and release were identical to those of the hormonally evoked (Ca2+)i increase. The increased 45Ca2+ uptake during reloading was not due to an expansion of any intracellular pool size but reflects the labeling of the pool to isotopic equilibrium in cycled acini. The rate constant of Ca2+ efflux from the pool of resting cells was approximately 0.67 +/- 0.01/h. With stimulation, the Ca2+ permeability of the pool membrane rapidly increased, resulting in Ca2+ release into the cytosol and an increase in (Ca2+)i. With termination of stimulation, the Ca2+ permeability of the pool membrane rapidly decreased while the pool continued to reload with extracellular Ca2+. Labeling of the pool to isotopic equilibrium allowed determination of the amount of Ca2+ released from the pool, which was 2.94 +/- 0.06 nmol/mg protein. This indicates that total Ca2+ concentration in the pool is in the millimolar range.

  2. Evaluation of a Reverse Gradient Garment for prevention of bed-rest deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, H.; Dolkas, D.; Newsom, B.; Webb, P.; Annis, J.; Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.

    1983-01-01

    A Reverse Gradient Garment (RGG) was used to intermittently induce venous pooling in the extremities of a magnitude similar to that seen in going from a lying to standing position during the course of a 15-d period of horizontal bed rest. Venous pooling failed to improve bed-rest-induced losses in +2.5 Gz and +3.0 Gz centrifugation tolerance or to prevent increased heart-rate responses to lower-body negative pressure (LBNP). Four subjects served as controls, four were treated. Tests during the 7-d recovery period showed fluid/electrolyte and body composition values to have returned to pre-bed-rest levels with continued depression of acceleration tolerance times (56% decreased at +2.5 Gz and 74% decreased at +3.0 Gz compared to pre-bed-rest levels) and exaggerated blood insulin response on glucose tolerance testing (blood insulin for treated group increased 95% at 1 h before bed rest and 465% during recovery). This study demonstrates that the physiologic changes after bed rest persist for significant periods of time. Acceleration tolerance time proved to be a sensitive test for the deconditioning process.

  3. Memory Palaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a lesson called Memory Palaces. A memory palace is a memory tool used to remember information, usually as visual images, in a sequence that is logical to the person remembering it. In his book, "In the Palaces of Memory", George Johnson calls them "...structure(s) for arranging knowledge. Lots of connections to language arts,…

  4. Retrospective Study of Serum Sclerostin Measurements in Bed Rest Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spatz, J. M.; Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Divieti, Pajevic P.; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, M. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton s response to mechanical unloading at the cellular level in part by an increase in sclerostin, an inhibitor of the anabolic Wnt pathway. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Thus, we determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men who participated in a controlled bed rest study. Seven healthy adult men (31 +/- 3 yrs old) underwent 90-day six-degree head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston's Institute for Translational Sciences - Clinical Research Center (ITS-CRC). Serum sclerostin, PTH, serum markers of bone turnover (bone specific alkaline phosphatase, RANKL/OPG, and osteocalcin), urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24 hour pooled urinary markers of bone resorption (NTX, DPD, PYD) were evaluated pre-bed rest (BL), bed rest day 28 (BR-28), bed rest day 60 (BR-60), and bed rest day 90 (BR-90). In addition, bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at BL, BR-60, and post bed rest day 5 (BR+5). Data are reported as mean +/- standard deviation. We used repeated measures ANOVA to compare baseline values to BR-28, BR-60, and BR-90. RESULTS Consistent with prior reports, BMD declined significantly (1-2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites (spine, hip, femur neck, and calcaneus). Serum sclerostin levels were elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29% +/- 20%, p = 0.003), BR-60 (+42% +/- 31%, p < 0.001), and BR-90 (22% +/- 21%, p = 0.07). Serum PTH levels were reduced at BR-28 (-17% +/- 16%, p = 0.02), BR-60 (-24% +/- 14%, p = 0.03), and returned to baseline at BR-90 (-21% +/- 21%, p = 0.14). Serum bone turnover markers did not change, however urinary bone resorption markers and calcium were significantly elevated following bed rest (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION We observed an increase of serum sclerostin

  5. Rest in underperforming elite competitors.

    PubMed Central

    Koutedakis, Y; Budgett, R; Faulmann, L

    1990-01-01

    This study examines the effects of 3-5 weeks of physical rest on selected physical, physiological and psychological parameters obtained from 12 Olympic but latterly underperforming competitors and their matched control subjects. Cardiorespiratory data were directly determined from their work to volitional exhaustion on either a treadmill, cycle, or rowing ergometer. Anaerobic power and capacity were evaluated through modified Wingate tests. For psychometric assessments, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) was used. For the Olympic competitors, one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant increases (p less than 0.05) in body weight, maximum respiratory exchange ratio, maximum oxygen consumption, and heart rate at the anaerobic threshold, following the rest period. There was also a significant reduction in fatigue and mood profile score, and a significant increase in vigour. No significant changes were found in the matched control subjects. The present data show that resting for 3-5 weeks assists underperforming elite competitors to improve their aerobic performance. PMID:2097024

  6. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest as a Spaceflight Analogue on Resting State Sensorimotor Network Functional Connectivity and Neurocognitive Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassady, K.; Koppelmans, V.; Yuan, P.; Cooke, K.; De Dios, Y.; Stepanyan, V.; Szecsy, D.; Gadd, N.; Wood, S.; Reuter-Lorenz, P.; Castenada, R. Riascos; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A.; Seidler, R.

    2015-01-01

    pre bed rest to the last day in bed rest. In contrast, connectivity within the default mode network remained stable over the course of bed rest. We also utilized a battery of behavioral measures including spatial working memory tasks and measures of functional mobility and balance. These behavioral measurements were collected before, during, and after bed rest. We will report the preliminary findings of correlations observed between brain functional connectivity and behavioral performance changes. Our results suggest that sensorimotor brain networks exhibit decoupling with extended periods of reduced usage. The findings from this study could aid in the understanding and future design of targeted countermeasures to alleviate the detrimental health and neurocognitive effects of long-duration spaceflight.

  7. The NASA performance assessment workstation: Cognitive performance during head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehab, Randa L.; Schlegel, Robert E.; Schiflett, Samuel G.; Eddy, Douglas R.

    The NASA Performance Assessment Workstation was used to assess cognitive performance changes in eight males subjected to seventeen days of 6 ° head-down bed rest. PAWS uses six performance tasks to assess directed and divided attention, spatial, mathematical, and memory skills, and tracking ability. Subjective scales assess overall fatigue and mood state. Subjects completed training trials, practice trials, bed rest trials, and recovery trials. The last eight practice trials and all bed rest trials were performed with subjects lying face-down on a gurney. In general, there was no apparent cumulative effect of bed rest. Following a short period of performance stabilization, a slight but steady trend of performance improvement was observed across all trials. For most tasks, this trend of performance improvement was enhanced during recovery. No statistically significant differences in performance were observed when comparing bed rest with the control period. Additionally, fatigue scores showed little change across all periods.

  8. 13 CFR 120.1708 - Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool Certificates. 120.1708... of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1708 Pool Certificates. (a) SBA Guarantee of Pool Certificates. SBA guarantees to a Pool Investor the timely payment...

  9. 13 CFR 120.1708 - Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool Certificates. 120.1708... of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1708 Pool Certificates. (a) SBA Guarantee of Pool Certificates. SBA guarantees to a Pool Investor the timely payment...

  10. 13 CFR 120.1708 - Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool Certificates. 120.1708... of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1708 Pool Certificates. (a) SBA Guarantee of Pool Certificates. SBA guarantees to a Pool Investor the timely payment...

  11. 13 CFR 120.1708 - Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pool Certificates. 120.1708... of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1708 Pool Certificates. (a) SBA Guarantee of Pool Certificates. SBA guarantees to a Pool Investor the timely payment...

  12. 13 CFR 120.1708 - Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool Certificates. 120.1708... of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1708 Pool Certificates. (a) SBA Guarantee of Pool Certificates. SBA guarantees to a Pool Investor the timely payment...

  13. Rest requirements and rest management of personnel in shift work

    SciTech Connect

    Hammell, B.D.; Scheuerle, A.

    1995-12-31

    A difficulty-weighted shift assignment scheme is proposed for use in prolonged and strenuous field operations such as emergency response, site testing, and short term hazardous waste remediation projects. The purpose of the work rotation plan is to increase productivity, safety, and moral of workers. Job weighting is accomplished by assigning adjustments to the mental and physical intensity of the task, the protective equipment worn, and the climatic conditions. The plan is based on medical studies of sleep deprivation, the effects of rest adjustments, and programs to reduce sleep deprivation and normalize shift schedules.

  14. Energy landscapes of resting-state brain networks.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Hirose, Satoshi; Wada, Hiroyuki; Imai, Yoshio; Machida, Toru; Shirouzu, Ichiro; Konishi, Seiki; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    During rest, the human brain performs essential functions such as memory maintenance, which are associated with resting-state brain networks (RSNs) including the default-mode network (DMN) and frontoparietal network (FPN). Previous studies based on spiking-neuron network models and their reduced models, as well as those based on imaging data, suggest that resting-state network activity can be captured as attractor dynamics, i.e., dynamics of the brain state toward an attractive state and transitions between different attractors. Here, we analyze the energy landscapes of the RSNs by applying the maximum entropy model, or equivalently the Ising spin model, to human RSN data. We use the previously estimated parameter values to define the energy landscape, and the disconnectivity graph method to estimate the number of local energy minima (equivalent to attractors in attractor dynamics), the basin size, and hierarchical relationships among the different local minima. In both of the DMN and FPN, low-energy local minima tended to have large basins. A majority of the network states belonged to a basin of one of a few local minima. Therefore, a small number of local minima constituted the backbone of each RSN. In the DMN, the energy landscape consisted of two groups of low-energy local minima that are separated by a relatively high energy barrier. Within each group, the activity patterns of the local minima were similar, and different minima were connected by relatively low energy barriers. In the FPN, all dominant local minima were separated by relatively low energy barriers such that they formed a single coarse-grained global minimum. Our results indicate that multistable attractor dynamics may underlie the DMN, but not the FPN, and assist memory maintenance with different memory states.

  15. 13 CFR 120.1706 - Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool. 120.1706 Section 120.1706 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Pools § 120.1706 Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool. The Pool Originator must retain...

  16. 13 CFR 120.1706 - Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool. 120.1706 Section 120.1706 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Pools § 120.1706 Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool. The Pool Originator must retain...

  17. 13 CFR 120.1706 - Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool. 120.1706 Section 120.1706 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Pools § 120.1706 Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool. The Pool Originator must retain...

  18. 13 CFR 120.1706 - Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool. 120.1706 Section 120.1706 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Pools § 120.1706 Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool. The Pool Originator must retain...

  19. 13 CFR 120.1706 - Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool. 120.1706 Section 120.1706 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Pools § 120.1706 Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool. The Pool Originator must retain...

  20. Modification of Antigen Impacts on Memory Quality after Adenovirus Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Colston, Julia M; Bolinger, Beatrice; Cottingham, Matthew G; Gilbert, Sarah; Klenerman, Paul

    2016-04-15

    The establishment of robust T cell memory is critical for the development of novel vaccines for infections and cancers. Classical memory generated by CD8(+)T cells is characterized by contracted populations homing to lymphoid organs. T cell memory inflation, as seen for example after CMV infection, is the maintenance of expanded, functional, tissue-associated effector memory cell pools. Such memory pools may also be induced after adenovirus vaccination, and we recently defined common transcriptional and phenotypic features of these populations in mice and humans. However, the rules that govern which epitopes drive memory inflation compared with classical memory are not fully defined, and thus it is not currently possible to direct this process. We used our adenoviral model of memory inflation to first investigate the role of the promoter and then the role of the epitope context in determining memory formation. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that conventional memory could be converted to inflationary memory by simple presentation of the Ag in the form of minigene vectors. When epitopes from LacZ and murine CMV that normally induce classical memory responses were presented as minigenes, they induced clear memory inflation. These data demonstrate that, regardless of the transgene promoter, the polypeptide context of a CD8(+)T cell epitope may determine whether classical or inflating memory responses are induced. The ability to direct this process by the use of minigenes is relevant to the design of vaccines and understanding of immune responses to pathogens.

  1. Modification of Antigen Impacts on Memory Quality after Adenovirus Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Colston, Julia M; Bolinger, Beatrice; Cottingham, Matthew G; Gilbert, Sarah; Klenerman, Paul

    2016-04-15

    The establishment of robust T cell memory is critical for the development of novel vaccines for infections and cancers. Classical memory generated by CD8(+)T cells is characterized by contracted populations homing to lymphoid organs. T cell memory inflation, as seen for example after CMV infection, is the maintenance of expanded, functional, tissue-associated effector memory cell pools. Such memory pools may also be induced after adenovirus vaccination, and we recently defined common transcriptional and phenotypic features of these populations in mice and humans. However, the rules that govern which epitopes drive memory inflation compared with classical memory are not fully defined, and thus it is not currently possible to direct this process. We used our adenoviral model of memory inflation to first investigate the role of the promoter and then the role of the epitope context in determining memory formation. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that conventional memory could be converted to inflationary memory by simple presentation of the Ag in the form of minigene vectors. When epitopes from LacZ and murine CMV that normally induce classical memory responses were presented as minigenes, they induced clear memory inflation. These data demonstrate that, regardless of the transgene promoter, the polypeptide context of a CD8(+)T cell epitope may determine whether classical or inflating memory responses are induced. The ability to direct this process by the use of minigenes is relevant to the design of vaccines and understanding of immune responses to pathogens. PMID:26944930

  2. Pool impacts of Leidenfrost drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Maquet, Laurent; Dorbolo, Stephane; Dehandschoewercker, Eline; Pan, Zhao; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    This work concerns the impact of a droplet made of a volatile liquid (typically HFE) on a pool of an other liquid (typically silicone oil) which temperature is above the boiling point of the drop. Depending on the properties of the two liquids and the impacting conditions, four different regimes are observed. For low impacting speeds, the droplet bounces on the surface of the bath and finally levitates above it in a Leidenfrost state. Such a regime occurs as soon as the pool temperature exceeds the boiling point of the drop. This observation means that there is no threshold in temperature for a Leidenfrost effect on a liquid surface contrary to the case of a solid substrate. For intermediate impacting velocities, the pinch-off of the surface of the pool entraps the drop in the liquid bulk. The entrapped drop is separated from the pool by a layer of its own vapour in a similar way of antibulles. For increasing impacting speeds, the vapour layer between the drop and the pool does not hold during the pinch-off event. The contact of the drop with the hot liquid provokes a sudden and intense evaporation. At very large impacting speeds, the drop rapidely contacts the pool, spreads and finally induces a hemi-spherical cavity. In the end, these four different regimes are summarized in a Froud-Weber diagram which boundaries are discussed.

  3. Physiology of prolonged bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Bed rest has been a normal procedure used by physicians for centuries in the treatment of injury and disease. Exposure of patients to prolonged bed rest in the horizontal position induces adaptive deconditioning responses. While deconditioning responses are appropriate for patients or test subjects in the horizontal position, they usually result in adverse physiological responses (fainting, muscular weakness) when the patient assume the upright posture. These deconditioning responses result from reduction in hydrostatic pressure within the cardiovascular system, virtual elimination of longitudinal pressure on the long bones, some decrease in total body metabolism, changes in diet, and perhaps psychological impact from the different environment. Almost every system in the body is affected. An early stimulus is the cephalic shift of fluid from the legs which increases atrial pressure and induces compensatory responses for fluid and electrolyte redistribution. Without countermeasures, deterioration in strength and muscle function occurs within 1 wk while increased calcium loss may continue for months. Research should also focus on drug and carbohydrate metabolism.

  4. Vicarious memories.

    PubMed

    Pillemer, David B; Steiner, Kristina L; Kuwabara, Kie J; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Svob, Connie

    2015-11-01

    People not only have vivid memories of their own personal experiences, but also vicarious memories of events that happened to other people. To compare the phenomenological and functional qualities of personal and vicarious memories, college students described a specific past event that they had recounted to a parent or friend, and also an event that a friend or parent had recounted to them. Although ratings of memory vividness, emotional intensity, visualization, and physical reactions were higher for personal than for vicarious memories, the overall pattern of ratings was similar. Participants' ratings also indicated that vicarious memories serve many of the same life functions as personal memories, although at lower levels of intensity. The findings suggest that current conceptions of autobiographical memory, which focus on past events that happened directly to the self, should be expanded to include detailed mental representations of specific past events that happened to other people.

  5. Functional independence in resting-state connectivity facilitates higher-order cognition.

    PubMed

    James, G Andrew; Kearney-Ramos, Tonisha E; Young, Jonathan A; Kilts, Clinton D; Gess, Jennifer L; Fausett, Jennifer S

    2016-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that intrinsic functional connectivity (i.e. highly structured patterns of communication between brain regions during wakeful rest) may encode cognitive ability. However, the generalizability of these findings is limited by between-study differences in statistical methodology and cognitive domains evaluated. To address this barrier, we evaluated resting-state neural representations of multiple cognitive domains within a relatively large normative adult sample. Forty-four participants (mean(sd) age=31(10) years; 18 male and 26 female) completed a resting-state functional MRI scan and neuropsychological assessments spanning motor, visuospatial, language, learning, memory, attention, working memory, and executive function performance. Robust linear regression related cognitive performance to resting-state connectivity among 200 a priori determined functional regions of interest (ROIs). Only higher-order cognitions (such as learning and executive function) demonstrated significant relationships between brain function and behavior. Additionally, all significant relationships were negative - characterized by moderately positive correlations among low performers and weak to moderately negative correlations among high performers. These findings suggest that functional independence among brain regions at rest facilitates cognitive performance. Our interpretation is consistent with graph theoretic analyses which represent the brain as independent functional nodes that undergo dynamic reorganization with task demand. Future work will build upon these findings by evaluating domain-specific variance in resting-state neural representations of cognitive impairment among patient populations.

  6. Functional independence in resting-state connectivity facilitates higher-order cognition.

    PubMed

    James, G Andrew; Kearney-Ramos, Tonisha E; Young, Jonathan A; Kilts, Clinton D; Gess, Jennifer L; Fausett, Jennifer S

    2016-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that intrinsic functional connectivity (i.e. highly structured patterns of communication between brain regions during wakeful rest) may encode cognitive ability. However, the generalizability of these findings is limited by between-study differences in statistical methodology and cognitive domains evaluated. To address this barrier, we evaluated resting-state neural representations of multiple cognitive domains within a relatively large normative adult sample. Forty-four participants (mean(sd) age=31(10) years; 18 male and 26 female) completed a resting-state functional MRI scan and neuropsychological assessments spanning motor, visuospatial, language, learning, memory, attention, working memory, and executive function performance. Robust linear regression related cognitive performance to resting-state connectivity among 200 a priori determined functional regions of interest (ROIs). Only higher-order cognitions (such as learning and executive function) demonstrated significant relationships between brain function and behavior. Additionally, all significant relationships were negative - characterized by moderately positive correlations among low performers and weak to moderately negative correlations among high performers. These findings suggest that functional independence among brain regions at rest facilitates cognitive performance. Our interpretation is consistent with graph theoretic analyses which represent the brain as independent functional nodes that undergo dynamic reorganization with task demand. Future work will build upon these findings by evaluating domain-specific variance in resting-state neural representations of cognitive impairment among patient populations. PMID:27105037

  7. Resting state functional connectivity in early blind humans

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Harold; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2014-01-01

    Task-based neuroimaging studies in early blind humans (EB) have demonstrated heightened visual cortex responses to non-visual paradigms. Several prior functional connectivity studies in EB have shown altered connections consistent with these task-based results. But these studies generally did not consider behavioral adaptations to lifelong blindness typically observed in EB. Enhanced cognitive abilities shown in EB include greater serial recall and attention to memory. Here, we address the question of the extent to which brain intrinsic activity in EB reflects such adaptations. We performed a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study contrasting 14 EB with 14 age/gender matched normally sighted controls (NS). A principal finding was markedly greater functional connectivity in EB between visual cortex and regions typically associated with memory and cognitive control of attention. In contrast, correlations between visual cortex and non-deprived sensory cortices were significantly lower in EB. Thus, the available data, including that obtained in prior task-based and resting state fMRI studies, as well as the present results, indicate that visual cortex in EB becomes more heavily incorporated into functional systems instantiating episodic recall and attention to non-visual events. Moreover, EB appear to show a reduction in interactions between visual and non-deprived sensory cortices, possibly reflecting suppression of inter-sensory distracting activity. PMID:24778608

  8. Memory Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Brandy R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article highlights the dissociable human memory systems of episodic, semantic, and procedural memory in the context of neurologic illnesses known to adversely affect specific neuroanatomic structures relevant to each memory system. Recent Findings: Advances in functional neuroimaging and refinement of neuropsychological and bedside assessment tools continue to support a model of multiple memory systems that are distinct yet complementary and to support the potential for one system to be engaged as a compensatory strategy when a counterpart system fails. Summary: Episodic memory, the ability to recall personal episodes, is the subtype of memory most often perceived as dysfunctional by patients and informants. Medial temporal lobe structures, especially the hippocampal formation and associated cortical and subcortical structures, are most often associated with episodic memory loss. Episodic memory dysfunction may present acutely, as in concussion; transiently, as in transient global amnesia (TGA); subacutely, as in thiamine deficiency; or chronically, as in Alzheimer disease. Semantic memory refers to acquired knowledge about the world. Anterior and inferior temporal lobe structures are most often associated with semantic memory loss. The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) is the paradigmatic disorder resulting in predominant semantic memory dysfunction. Working memory, associated with frontal lobe function, is the active maintenance of information in the mind that can be potentially manipulated to complete goal-directed tasks. Procedural memory, the ability to learn skills that become automatic, involves the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and supplementary motor cortex. Parkinson disease and related disorders result in procedural memory deficits. Most memory concerns warrant bedside cognitive or neuropsychological evaluation and neuroimaging to assess for specific neuropathologies and guide treatment. PMID:26039844

  9. TCR Signaling in T Cell Memory.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Mark A; Teixeiro, Emma

    2015-01-01

    T cell memory plays a critical role in our protection against pathogens and tumors. The antigen and its interaction with the T cell receptor (TCR) is one of the initiating elements that shape T cell memory together with inflammation and costimulation. Over the last decade, several transcription factors and signaling pathways that support memory programing have been identified. However, how TCR signals regulate them is still poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that the biochemical rules that govern T cell memory, strikingly, change depending on the TCR signal strength. Furthermore, TCR signal strength regulates the input of cytokine signaling, including pro-inflammatory cytokines. These highlight how tailoring antigenic signals can improve immune therapeutics. In this review, we focus on how TCR signaling regulates T cell memory and how the quantity and quality of TCR-peptide-MHC interactions impact the multiple fates a T cell can adopt in the memory pool. PMID:26697013

  10. Carbon concentrations and transformations in peatland pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Pippa; Holden, Joseph; Baird, Andrew; Turner, Edward; Dooling, Gemma; Billett, Mike; McKenzie, Rebecca; Leith, Fraser; Dinsmore, Kerry

    2016-04-01

    Peatland pools may act as important features for aquatic and gaseous carbon production, transformation and release. Peatland restoration often results in new pools being created. Here we compare aquatic carbon concentrations in nearby natural and artificial pool systems monitored at three sites in northern Scotland over a three-year period. We found significant differences in pool water carbon concentrations between pool types with larger dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) in artificial pools. The differences were strong for all sites and occurred in all seasons. Importantly, the DOC outflows from natural pools were markedly lower than the DOC flowing into natural pools showing that processes in these pools were transforming and removing the DOC. These effects were not found in the artificial pools. Data on the composition of the DOC (absorbance ratios, specific ultraviolet absorbance) suggested that natural pools tended to have DOC that had been processed, and was older (radiocarbon dating) while the DOC in artificial pools was young and had not undergone much biochemical processing. Slope position was an important factor influencing pool DOC with those pools with a longer upslope contributing area and collecting water with a longer hillslope residence time having larger DOC concentrations. Dissolved methane (CH4) concentrations were not significantly different between pool types but the concentrations were always above atmospheric levels with values ˜ 200 times atmospheric concentrations not uncommon. Dissolved CO2 concentrations in the artificial pools were extremely large; typically ˜20 times atmospheric levels while those in natural pools were typically only just above atmospheric levels. The pools were strong sources of CH4 and CO2 evasion from the peat system. The smaller size of the artificial pools means that more of their CO2 is stored in the water until it reaches the stream system, while the larger natural pools have

  11. Serum Sclerostin Increases in Healthy Adult Men during Bed Rest

    PubMed Central

    Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Pajevic, P. Divieti; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, J. D.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton's response to mechanical unloading in part by an increase in sclerostin. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Objective: We determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men undergoing controlled bed rest. Design, Setting, and Participants: Seven healthy adult men (31 ± 3 yr old) underwent 90 d of 6° head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch Institute for Translational Sciences-Clinical Research Center. Outcomes: Serum sclerostin, PTH, vitamin D, bone resorption and formation markers, urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24-h pooled urinary markers of bone resorption were evaluated before bed rest [baseline (BL)] and at bed rest d 28 (BR-28), d 60 (BR-60), and d 90 (BR-90). Bone mineral density was measured at BL, BR-60, and 5 d after the end of the study (BR+5). Data are reported as mean ± sd. Results: Consistent with prior reports, bone mineral density declined significantly (1–2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites. Serum sclerostin was elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29 ± 20%; P = 0.003) and BR-60 (+42 ± 31%; P < 0.001), with a lesser increase at BR-90 (+22 ± 21%; P = 0.07). Serum PTH levels were reduced at BR-28 (−17 ± 16%; P = 0.02) and BR-60 (−24 ± 14%; P = 0.03) and remained lower than BL at BR-90 (−21 ± 21%; P = 0.14), but did not reach statistical significance. Serum bone turnover markers were unchanged; however, urinary bone resorption markers and calcium were significantly elevated at all time points after bed rest (P < 0.01). Conclusions: In healthy men subjected to controlled bed rest for 90 d, serum sclerostin increased, with a peak at 60, whereas serum PTH declined, and urinary calcium and bone resorption markers increased. PMID:22767636

  12. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining one question pool for each written examination element. Each question pool must contain at least 10 times...

  13. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining one question pool for each written examination element. Each question pool must contain at least 10 times...

  14. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215... Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of questions acceptable to the FCC. Each question pool must contain at least five (5) times the number of...

  15. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining one question pool for each written examination element. Each question pool must contain at least 10 times...

  16. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215... Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of questions acceptable to the FCC. Each question pool must contain at least five (5) times the number of...

  17. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215... Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of questions acceptable to the FCC. Each question pool must contain at least five (5) times the number of...

  18. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining one question pool for each written examination element. Each question pool must contain at least 10 times...

  19. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215... Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of questions acceptable to the FCC. Each question pool must contain at least five (5) times the number of...

  20. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215... Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of questions acceptable to the FCC. Each question pool must contain at least five (5) times the number of...

  1. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining one question pool for each written examination element. Each question pool must contain at least 10 times...

  2. HYDROLOGY AND LANDSCAPE CONNECTIVITY OF VERNAL POOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vernal pools are shaped by hydrologic processes which influence many aspects of pool function. The hydrologic budget of a pool can be summarized by a water balance equation that relates changes in the amount of water in the pool to precipitation, ground- and surface-water flows, ...

  3. Swimming Pools. Managing School Facilities, Guide 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This guide for schools with swimming pools offers advice concerning appropriate training for pool managers, the importance of water quality and testing, safety in the handling of chemicals, maintenance and cleaning requirements, pool security, and health concerns. The guide covers both indoor and outdoor pools, explains some technical terms,…

  4. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swimming pools. 1250.89 Section 1250.89 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.89 Swimming pools. (a) Fill and draw swimming pools shall not be installed or used. (b) Swimming pools of the recirculation type shall...

  5. Dreaming and offline memory processing.

    PubMed

    Wamsley, Erin J; Stickgold, Robert

    2010-12-01

    The activities of the mind and brain never cease. Although many of our waking hours are spent processing sensory input and executing behavioral responses, moments of unoccupied rest free us to wander through thoughts of the past and future, create daydreams, and imagine fictitious scenarios. During sleep, when attention to sensory input is at a minimum, the mind continues to process information, using memory fragments to create the images, thoughts, and narratives that we commonly call 'dreaming'. Far from being a random or meaningless distraction, spontaneous cognition during states of sleep and resting wakefulness appears to serve important functions related to processing past memories and planning for the future. From single-cell recordings in rodents to behavioral studies in humans, recent studies in the neurosciences suggest a new conception of dreaming as part of a continuum of adaptive cognitive processing occurring across the full range of mind/brain states.

  6. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  7. Episodic memory in aspects of large-scale brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Woorim; Chung, Chun Kee; Kim, June Sic

    2015-01-01

    Understanding human episodic memory in aspects of large-scale brain networks has become one of the central themes in neuroscience over the last decade. Traditionally, episodic memory was regarded as mostly relying on medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures. However, recent studies have suggested involvement of more widely distributed cortical network and the importance of its interactive roles in the memory process. Both direct and indirect neuro-modulations of the memory network have been tried in experimental treatments of memory disorders. In this review, we focus on the functional organization of the MTL and other neocortical areas in episodic memory. Task-related neuroimaging studies together with lesion studies suggested that specific sub-regions of the MTL are responsible for specific components of memory. However, recent studies have emphasized that connectivity within MTL structures and even their network dynamics with other cortical areas are essential in the memory process. Resting-state functional network studies also have revealed that memory function is subserved by not only the MTL system but also a distributed network, particularly the default-mode network (DMN). Furthermore, researchers have begun to investigate memory networks throughout the entire brain not restricted to the specific resting-state network (RSN). Altered patterns of functional connectivity (FC) among distributed brain regions were observed in patients with memory impairments. Recently, studies have shown that brain stimulation may impact memory through modulating functional networks, carrying future implications of a novel interventional therapy for memory impairment. PMID:26321939

  8. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The

  9. Declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended. PMID:25977084

  10. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Gabe V.; Carlson, Nancy M.; Donaldson, Alan D.

    1991-01-01

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid.

  11. Resting Heart Rate and Auditory Evoked Potential

    PubMed Central

    Fiuza Regaçone, Simone; Baptista de Lima, Daiane Damaris; Engrácia Valenti, Vitor; Figueiredo Frizzo, Ana Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between rest heart rate (HR) and the components of the auditory evoked-related potentials (ERPs) at rest in women. We investigated 21 healthy female university students between 18 and 24 years old. We performed complete audiological evaluation and measurement of heart rate for 10 minutes at rest (heart rate monitor Polar RS800CX) and performed ERPs analysis (discrepancy in frequency and duration). There was a moderate negative correlation of the N1 and P3a with rest HR and a strong positive correlation of the P2 and N2 components with rest HR. Larger components of the ERP are associated with higher rest HR. PMID:26504838

  12. Mass versus relativistic and rest masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okun, L. B.

    2009-05-01

    The concept of relativistic mass, which increases with velocity, is not compatible with the standard language of relativity theory and impedes the understanding and learning of the theory by beginners. The same difficulty occurs with the term rest mass. To get rid of relativistic mass and rest mass it is appropriate to replace the equation E =mc2 by the true Einstein's equation E0=mc2, where E0 is the rest energy and m is the mass.

  13. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during bed rest: effect on recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Donaldson, M. R.; Leskiw, M. J.; Schluter, M. D.; Baggett, D. W.; Boden, G.

    2003-01-01

    Bed rest is associated with a loss of protein from the weight-bearing muscle. The objectives of this study are to determine whether increasing dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) during bed rest improves the anabolic response after bed rest. The study consisted of a 1-day ambulatory period, 14 days of bed rest, and a 4-day recovery period. During bed rest, dietary intake was supplemented with either 30 mmol/day each of glycine, serine, and alanine (group 1) or with 30 mmol/day each of the three BCAAs (group 2). Whole body protein synthesis was determined with U-(15)N-labeled amino acids, muscle, and selected plasma protein synthesis with l-[(2)H(5)]phenylalanine. Total glucose production and gluconeogenesis from alanine were determined with l-[U-(13)C(3)]alanine and [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose. During bed rest, nitrogen (N) retention was greater with BCAA feeding (56 +/- 6 vs. 26 +/- 12 mg N. kg(-1). day(-1), P < 0.05). There was no effect of BCAA supplementation on either whole body, muscle, or plasma protein synthesis or the rate of 3-MeH excretion. Muscle tissue free amino acid concentrations were increased during bed rest with BCAA (0.214 +/- 0.066 vs. 0.088 +/- 0.12 nmol/mg protein, P < 0.05). Total glucose production and gluconeogenesis from alanine were unchanged with bed rest but were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with the BCAA group in the recovery phase. In conclusion, the improved N retention during bed rest is due, at least in part, to accretion of amino acids in the tissue free amino acid pools. The amount accreted is not enough to impact protein kinetics in the recovery phase but does improve N retention by providing additional essential amino acids in the early recovery phase.

  14. Dreaming, waking conscious experience, and the resting brain: report of subjective experience as a tool in the cognitive neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Wamsley, Erin J

    2013-01-01

    Even when we are ostensibly doing "nothing"-as during states of rest, sleep, and reverie-the brain continues to process information. In resting wakefulness, the mind generates thoughts, plans for the future, and imagines fictitious scenarios. In sleep, when the demands of sensory input are reduced, our experience turns to the thoughts and images we call "dreaming." Far from being a meaningless distraction, the content of these subjective experiences provides an important and unique source of information about the activities of the resting mind and brain. In both wakefulness and sleep, spontaneous experience combines recent and remote memory fragments into novel scenarios. These conscious experiences may reflect the consolidation of recent memory into long-term storage, an adaptive process that functions to extract general knowledge about the world and adaptively respond to future events. Recent examples from psychology and neuroscience demonstrate that the use of subjective report can provide clues to the function(s) of rest and sleep.

  15. Significant expansion of the REST/NRSF cistrome in human versus mouse embryonic stem cells: potential implications for neural development.

    PubMed

    Rockowitz, Shira; Zheng, Deyou

    2015-07-13

    Recent studies have employed cross-species comparisons of transcription factor binding, reporting significant regulatory network 'rewiring' between species. Here, we address how a transcriptional repressor targets and regulates neural genes differentially between human and mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We find that the transcription factor, Repressor Element 1 Silencing Transcription factor (REST; also called neuron restrictive silencer factor) binds to a core group of ∼1200 syntenic genomic regions in both species, with these conserved sites highly enriched with co-factors, selective histone modifications and DNA hypomethylation. Genes with conserved REST binding are enriched with neural functions and more likely to be upregulated upon REST depletion. Interestingly, we identified twice as many REST peaks in human ESCs compared to mouse ESCs. Human REST cistrome expansion involves additional peaks in genes targeted by REST in both species and human-specific gene targets. Genes with expanded REST occupancy in humans are enriched for learning or memory functions. Analysis of neurological disorder associated genes reveals that Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and oxidative stress genes are particularly enriched with human-specific REST binding. Overall, our results demonstrate that there is substantial rewiring of human and mouse REST cistromes, and that REST may have human-specific roles in brain development and functions. PMID:25990720

  16. Significant expansion of the REST/NRSF cistrome in human versus mouse embryonic stem cells: potential implications for neural development

    PubMed Central

    Rockowitz, Shira; Zheng, Deyou

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have employed cross-species comparisons of transcription factor binding, reporting significant regulatory network ‘rewiring’ between species. Here, we address how a transcriptional repressor targets and regulates neural genes differentially between human and mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We find that the transcription factor, Repressor Element 1 Silencing Transcription factor (REST; also called neuron restrictive silencer factor) binds to a core group of ∼1200 syntenic genomic regions in both species, with these conserved sites highly enriched with co-factors, selective histone modifications and DNA hypomethylation. Genes with conserved REST binding are enriched with neural functions and more likely to be upregulated upon REST depletion. Interestingly, we identified twice as many REST peaks in human ESCs compared to mouse ESCs. Human REST cistrome expansion involves additional peaks in genes targeted by REST in both species and human-specific gene targets. Genes with expanded REST occupancy in humans are enriched for learning or memory functions. Analysis of neurological disorder associated genes reveals that Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and oxidative stress genes are particularly enriched with human-specific REST binding. Overall, our results demonstrate that there is substantial rewiring of human and mouse REST cistromes, and that REST may have human-specific roles in brain development and functions. PMID:25990720

  17. Flame spread across liquid pools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard; Miller, Fletcher; Schiller, David; Sirignano, William A.

    1993-01-01

    For flame spread over liquid fuel pools, the existing literature suggests three gravitational influences: (1) liquid phase buoyant convection, delaying ignition and assisting flame spread; (2) hydrostatic pressure variation, due to variation in the liquid pool height caused by thermocapillary-induced convection; and (3) gas-phase buoyant convection in the opposite direction to the liquid phase motion. No current model accounts for all three influences. In fact, prior to this work, there was no ability to determine whether ignition delay times and flame spread rates would be greater or lesser in low gravity. Flame spread over liquid fuel pools is most commonly characterized by the relationship of the initial pool temperature to the fuel's idealized flash point temperature, with four or five separate characteristic regimes having been identified. In the uniform spread regime, control has been attributed to: (1) gas-phase conduction and radiation; (2) gas-phase conduction only; (3) gas-phase convection and liquid conduction, and most recently (4) liquid convection ahead of the flame. Suggestions were made that the liquid convection was owed to both vuoyancy and thermocapillarity. Of special interest to this work is the determination of whether, and under what conditions, pulsating spread can and will occur in microgravity in the absence of buoyant flows in both phases. The approach we have taken to resolving the importance of buoyancy for these flames is: (1) normal gravity experiments and advanced diagnostics; (2) microgravity experiments; and (3) numerical modelling at arbitrary gravitational level.

  18. Auditory recognition memory is inferior to visual recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Michael A.; Horowitz, Todd S.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2009-01-01

    Visual memory for scenes is surprisingly robust. We wished to examine whether an analogous ability exists in the auditory domain. Participants listened to a variety of sound clips and were tested on their ability to distinguish old from new clips. Stimuli ranged from complex auditory scenes (e.g., talking in a pool hall) to isolated auditory objects (e.g., a dog barking) to music. In some conditions, additional information was provided to help participants with encoding. In every situation, however, auditory memory proved to be systematically inferior to visual memory. This suggests that there exists either a fundamental difference between auditory and visual stimuli, or, more plausibly, an asymmetry between auditory and visual processing. PMID:19307569

  19. Interactions between pool geometry and hydraulics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, D.M.; Nelson, J.M.; Wohl, E.E.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental and computational research approach was used to determine interactions between pool geometry and hydraulics. A 20-m-long, 1.8-m-wide flume was used to investigate the effect of four different geometric aspects of pool shape on flow velocity. Plywood sections were used to systematically alter constriction width, pool depth, pool length, and pool exit-slope gradient, each at two separate levels. Using the resulting 16 unique geometries with measured pool velocities in four-way factorial analyses produced an empirical assessment of the role of the four geometric aspects on the pool flow patterns and hence the stability of the pool. To complement the conclusions of these analyses, a two-dimensional computational flow model was used to investigate the relationships between pool geometry and flow patterns over a wider range of conditions. Both experimental and computational results show that constriction and depth effects dominate in the jet section of the pool and that pool length exhibits an increasing effect within the recirculating-eddy system. The pool exit slope appears to force flow reattachment. Pool length controls recirculating-eddy length and vena contracta strength. In turn, the vena contracta and recirculating eddy control velocities throughout the pool.

  20. Virtual memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Virtual memory was conceived as a way to automate overlaying of program segments. Modern computers have very large main memories, but need automatic solutions to the relocation and protection problems. Virtual memory serves this need as well and is thus useful in computers of all sizes. The history of the idea is traced, showing how it has become a widespread, little noticed feature of computers today.

  1. CCD Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janesick, James R.; Elliot, Tom; Norris, Dave; Vescelus, Fred

    1987-01-01

    CCD memory device yields over 6.4 x 10 to the eighth power levels of information on single chip. Charge-coupled device (CCD) demonstrated to operate as either read-only-memory (ROM) or photon-programmable memory with capacity of 640,000 bits, with each bit capable of being weighted to more than 1,000 discrete analog levels. Larger memory capacities now possible using proposed approach in conjunction with CCD's now being fabricated, which yield over 4 x 10 to the ninth power discrete levels of information on single chip.

  2. Sitosterol bioconversion with resting cells in liquid polymer based systems.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Filipe; Marques, Marco P C; de Carvalho, Carla C C R; Cabral, Joaquim M S; Fernandes, Pedro

    2009-09-01

    The use of a biocompatible water-immiscible organic phase as a substrate and product pool has been acknowledged as an effective tool to overcome the low volumetric productivity of aqueous bioconversion systems involving hydrophobic compounds. The growing environmental and public health awareness is nevertheless leading to restrictions in the use of organic solvents in industrial processes, in order to render these more environmentally friendly. Different approaches are hence being assessed for the design of alternative bioconversion media, involving the use of supercritical fluids, ionic liquids and natural oils and liquid polymers, among others. In this work, the use of liquid polymers as key components in the bioconversion media for a multi-step microbial bioconversion was assessed. The model system used was the selective cleavage of the side-chain of beta-sitosterol by free resting cells of Mycobacterium sp. NRRL B-3805, a well established industrial multi-enzymatic process involving the use of nine catabolic enzymes in a fourteen-step metabolic pathway. High product yields were obtained when silicone B oil was used as substrate carrier/product pool, both in single oil and in oil:buffer two liquid phase system. PMID:19362822

  3. Aberrant functional connectivity of resting state networks associated with trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Modi, Shilpi; Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Pawan; Khushu, Subash

    2015-10-30

    Trait anxiety, a personality dimension, has been characterized by functional consequences such as increased distractibility, attentional bias in favor of threat-related information and hyper-responsive amygdala. However, literature on the association between resting state brain functional connectivity, as studied using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), and reported anxiety levels in the sub-clinical population is limited. In the present study, we employed rs-fMRI to investigate the possible alterations in the functional integrity of Resting State Networks (RSNs) associated with trait anxiety of the healthy subjects (15 high anxious and 14 low anxious). The rs-fMRI data was analyzed using independent component analysis and a dual regression approach that was applied on 12 RSNs that were identified using FSL. High anxious subjects showed significantly reduced functional connectivity in regions of the default mode network (posterior cingulate gyrus, middle and superior temporal gyrus, planum polare, supramarginal gyrus, temporal pole, angular gyrus and lateral occipital gyrus) which has been suggested to be involved in episodic memory, theory of mind, self-evaluation, and introspection, and perceptual systems including medial visual network, auditory network and another network involving temporal, parieto-occipital and frontal regions. Reduction in resting state connectivity in regions of the perceptual networks might underlie the perceptual, attentional and working memory deficits associated with trait anxiety. To our knowledge, this is the first study to relate trait anxiety to resting state connectivity using independent component analysis. PMID:26385540

  4. Geothermal applications for highway rest areas

    SciTech Connect

    Strawn, J.A.; Engen, I.A.

    1982-02-01

    A feasibility study, made for the South Dakota Department of Transportation, regarding geothermal applications for highway rest areas is described. This preliminary information indicated that the retrofit of the heating systems in the rest area structures was feasible. Specific design assumptions, equipment selections, costs, and other data are reported. This information is conceptual in nature.

  5. Cognitive Rest: An Integrated Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Kathleen H.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive rest has been suggested as a treatment for school athletes who have sustained a concussion, but the concept has rarely been defined. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive definition of cognitive rest, based on an integrative literature review. The method of synthesis was guided by Avant and Walker's concept analysis…

  6. International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

  7. Airline chair-rest deconditioning: induction of immobilisation thromboemboli?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Rehrer, Nancy J.; Mohler, Stanley R.; Quach, David T.; Evans, David G.

    2004-01-01

    Air passenger miles will likely double by year 2020. The altered and restrictive environment in an airliner cabin can influence haematological homeostasis in passengers and crew. Flight-related deep venous thromboemboli (DVT) have been associated with at least 577 deaths on 42 of 120 airlines from 1977 to 1984 (25 deaths/million departures), whereas many such cases go unreported. However, there are four major factors that could influence formation of possible flight-induced DVT: sleeping accommodations (via sitting immobilisation); travellers' medical history (via tissue injury); cabin environmental factors (via lower partial pressure of oxygen and lower relative humidity); and the more encompassing chair-rest deconditioning (C-RD) syndrome. There is ample evidence that recent injury and surgery (especially in deconditioned hospitalised patients) facilitate thrombophlebitis and formation of DVT that may be exacerbated by the immobilisation of prolonged air travel.In the healthy flying population, immobilisation factors associated with prolonged (>5 hours) C-RD such as total body dehydration, hypovolaemia and increased blood viscosity, and reduced venous blood flow (pooling) in the legs may facilitate formation of DVT. However, data from at least four case-controlled epidemiological studies did not confirm a direct causative relationship between air travel and DVT, but factors such as a history of vascular thromboemboli, venous insufficiency, chronic heart failure, obesity, immobile standing position, more than three pregnancies, infectious disease, long-distance travel, muscular trauma and violent physical effort were significantly more frequent in DVT patients than in controls. Thus, there is no clear, direct evidence yet that prolonged sitting in airliner seats, or prolonged experimental chair-rest or bed-rest deconditioning treatments cause DVT in healthy people.

  8. Airline Chair-rest Deconditioning: Induction of Immobilization Thromboemboli?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Rehrer, N. J.; Mohler, S. R.; Quach, D. T.; Evans, D. G.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Air passenger miles will likely double by year 2020. The altered and restrictive environment in an airliner cabin can influence hematological homeostasis in passengers and crew. Flight-related deep various thromboemboli (DVT) have been associated with at least 577 deaths on 42 of 120 airlines from 1977 to 1984 (25 deaths/million departures), whereas many such cases go unreported. However, there are four major factors that could influence formation of possible flight-induced DVT: sleeping accomodations (via sitting immobilization), travelers' medical history (via tissue injury), cabin environmental factors (via lower partial pressure of oxygen and lower relative humidity), and the more encompassing chair-rest deconditioning (C-RD) syndrome. There is ample evidence that recent injury and surgery (especially in deconditioned hospitalized patients) facilitate thrombophlebitis and formation of DVT that may be exacerbated by the immobilization of prolonged air travel. In the healthy flying population immobilization factors associated with prolonged (> 5 hr) C-RID such as total body dehydration, hypovolemia and increased blood viscosity, and reduced various blood flow (pooling) in the legs may facilitate formation of DVT. However, data from at least four case-controlled epidemiological studies did not confirm a direct causative relationship between air travel and DART, but factors such as history of vascular thromboemboli, various insufficiency, chronic heart failure, obesity, immobile standing position, more than 3 pregnancies, infectious disease, long-distance travel, muscular trauma and violent physical effort were significantly more frequent in DVT patients than in controls. Thus, there is no clear, direct evidence yet that prolonged sitting in airliner seats, or prolonged experimental chair-rest- or bed- rest-deconditioning treatments cause deep various thromboemboli in healthy people.

  9. [Infections transmitted in swimming pools].

    PubMed

    von Suzani, C; Hazeghi, P

    1976-01-01

    Public swimmingpools can be the source of infections due to micro-organism such as mycobacterium balnei, adeno and enteroviruses, the virus of plantar warts and molluscum contagiosum, the TRIC-Agent of swimmingpool-conjonctivitis and pathogenic fungi. The transmission of trichomonas vaginalis is considered unlikely-Water of pools, supposed to present satisfactory qualities by standard controls, was found to contain pathogenic staphylococci and pseudomonas aeruginosa. Effective preventive measures include the continuous recording of the redox-potential of the water, limiting the number of visitors to pool design specifications, better desinfection of sanitary installations, regular maintenance of technical equipment including frequent backwashing of filters and exclusion of visitors with communicable disease.

  10. Memory systems.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2010-07-01

    The idea that there are multiple memory systems can be traced to early philosophical considerations and introspection. However, the early experimental work considered memory a unitary phenomenon and focused on finding the mechanism upon which memory is based. A full reconciliation of debates about that mechanism, and a coincidental rediscovery of the idea of multiple memory systems, emerged from studies in the cognitive neuroscience of memory. This research has identified three major forms of memory that have distinct operating principles and are supported by different brain systems. These include: (1) a cortical-hippocampal circuit that mediates declarative memory, our capacity to recollect facts and events; (2) procedural memory subsystems involving a cortical-striatal circuit that mediates habit formation and a brainstem-cerebellar circuit that mediates sensorimotor adaptations; and (3) a circuit involving subcortical and cortical pathways through the amygdala that mediates the attachment of affective status and emotional responses to previously neutral stimuli. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  11. Collaging Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

  12. Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  13. Pool power control in remelting systems

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Rodney L.; Melgaard, David K.; Beaman, Joseph J.

    2011-12-13

    An apparatus for and method of controlling a remelting furnace comprising adjusting current supplied to an electrode based upon a predetermined pool power reference value and adjusting the electrode drive speed based upon the predetermined pool power reference value.

  14. Pool Safety: A Few Simple Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Presents suggestions by the National Swimming Pool Safety Committee on how to keep children safe while swimming. Ideas include maintaining strict adult supervision, pool and spa barriers, and knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (SM)

  15. Cold Pools in the Columbia Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, Charles D.; Zhong, Shiyuan; Shaw, William J.; Hubbe, John M.; Bian, Xindi; Mittelstadt, J.

    2001-01-01

    Persistent midwinter cold air pools produce multi-day periods of cold, dreary weather in valleys and basins. Persistent stable stratification leads to the buildup of pollutants and moisture in the pool. Because the pool sometimes has temperatures below freezing while the air above is warmer, freezing precipitation often occurs with consequent effects on transportation and safety. Forecasting the buildup and breakdown of these cold pools is difficult because the physical mechanisms leading to their formation, maintenance, and destruction have received little study. This paper provides a succinct meteorological definition of a cold pool, develops a climatology of Columbia Basin cold pools, and analyzes remote and in situ temperature and wind sounding data for two winter cold pool episodes that were accompanied by fog and stratus, illustrating many of the physical mechanisms affecting cold pool evolution.

  16. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    MedlinePlus

    ... Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study of public pools done ... The E. coli is a marker for fecal contamination. Finding a high percentage of E. coli-positive ...

  17. Memory conformity affects inaccurate memories more than accurate memories.

    PubMed

    Wright, Daniel B; Villalba, Daniella K

    2012-01-01

    After controlling for initial confidence, inaccurate memories were shown to be more easily distorted than accurate memories. In two experiments groups of participants viewed 50 stimuli and were then presented with these stimuli plus 50 fillers. During this test phase participants reported their confidence that each stimulus was originally shown. This was followed by computer-generated responses from a bogus participant. After being exposed to this response participants again rated the confidence of their memory. The computer-generated responses systematically distorted participants' responses. Memory distortion depended on initial memory confidence, with uncertain memories being more malleable than confident memories. This effect was moderated by whether the participant's memory was initially accurate or inaccurate. Inaccurate memories were more malleable than accurate memories. The data were consistent with a model describing two types of memory (i.e., recollective and non-recollective memories), which differ in how susceptible these memories are to memory distortion.

  18. Swimming pools soak up the sun

    SciTech Connect

    Cuoghi, D.; Hesse, P.; Schiller, T.

    1996-05-01

    Solar pool heaters survived the boom and bust solar years of the 1970s and 1980s. Today they are even popular and cost-effective in parts of the country where many people think solar is impractical. This article discusses the following topics: how solar pool heaters work; types of solar pool heater collectors; collector and pump sizing; collector siting and mounting; systems costs and economics; pool covers. 3 figs.

  19. Apparatus for heating a swimming pool

    SciTech Connect

    Kremen, R.D.

    1983-09-06

    This disclosure relates to a solar heater apparatus for a swimming pool which incorporates a submersible suspendible black body sheet to serve as a device to absorb solar radiation and transfer the collected energy to the pool water so that the pool water can be efficiently heated.

  20. 24 CFR 320.9 - Pool administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pool administration. 320.9 Section...-BACKED SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.9 Pool administration. The Association will only... prescribed by the Association. Pool administration requirements are set forth in such agreements or...

  1. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Press pools. 540.64 Section 540.64... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a press pool whenever he or she determines that the frequency of requests for interviews and...

  2. 10 CFR 429.24 - Pool heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool heaters. 429.24 Section 429.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.24 Pool heaters. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to pool heaters; and (2) For...

  3. 10 CFR 429.24 - Pool heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool heaters. 429.24 Section 429.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.24 Pool heaters. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to pool heaters; and (2) For...

  4. 10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Irradiator pools. 36.33 Section 36.33 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.33 Irradiator pools. (a) For licenses initially issued after July 1, 1993, irradiator pools must either: (1) Have a water-tight stainless steel liner or a liner...

  5. 10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Irradiator pools. 36.33 Section 36.33 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.33 Irradiator pools. (a) For licenses initially issued after July 1, 1993, irradiator pools must either: (1) Have a water-tight stainless steel liner or a liner...

  6. 10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Irradiator pools. 36.33 Section 36.33 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.33 Irradiator pools. (a) For licenses initially issued after July 1, 1993, irradiator pools must either: (1) Have a water-tight stainless steel liner or a liner...

  7. 10 CFR 429.24 - Pool heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pool heaters. 429.24 Section 429.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.24 Pool heaters. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to pool heaters; and (2) For...

  8. 24 CFR 320.9 - Pool administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pool administration. 320.9 Section...-BACKED SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.9 Pool administration. The Association will only... prescribed by the Association. Pool administration requirements are set forth in such agreements or...

  9. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Press pools. 540.64 Section 540.64... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a press pool whenever he or she determines that the frequency of requests for interviews and...

  10. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Press pools. 540.64 Section 540.64... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a press pool whenever he or she determines that the frequency of requests for interviews and...

  11. 24 CFR 320.9 - Pool administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pool administration. 320.9 Section...-BACKED SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.9 Pool administration. The Association will only... prescribed by the Association. Pool administration requirements are set forth in such agreements or...

  12. 24 CFR 320.9 - Pool administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pool administration. 320.9 Section...-BACKED SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.9 Pool administration. The Association will only... prescribed by the Association. Pool administration requirements are set forth in such agreements or...

  13. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Press pools. 540.64 Section 540.64... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a press pool whenever he or she determines that the frequency of requests for interviews and...

  14. 7 CFR 1005.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1005.7 Section 1005.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1005.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  15. 7 CFR 1006.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1006.7 Section 1006.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1006.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  16. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h)...

  17. 7 CFR 1005.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1005.7 Section 1005.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1005.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  18. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified...

  19. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h)...

  20. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h)...

  1. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of...

  2. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of...

  3. 7 CFR 1131.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1131.7 Section 1131.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1131.7 Pool plant. Pool Plant means a plant or unit of plants specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (g) of this...

  4. 7 CFR 1007.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1007.7 Section 1007.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1007.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  5. 7 CFR 1126.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1126.7 Section 1126.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1126.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  6. 7 CFR 1131.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1131.7 Section 1131.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1131.7 Pool plant. Pool Plant means a plant or unit of plants specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (g) of this...

  7. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of...

  8. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of...

  9. 7 CFR 1007.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1007.7 Section 1007.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1007.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  10. 7 CFR 1006.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1006.7 Section 1006.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1006.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  11. 7 CFR 1126.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1126.7 Section 1126.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1126.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  12. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Press pools. 540.64 Section 540.64... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a press pool whenever he or she determines that the frequency of requests for interviews and...

  13. 24 CFR 320.9 - Pool administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pool administration. 320.9 Section...-BACKED SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.9 Pool administration. The Association will only... prescribed by the Association. Pool administration requirements are set forth in such agreements or...

  14. 1968 Listing of Swimming Pool Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

    An up-to-date listing of swimming pool equipment including--(1) companies authorized to display the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standards relating to diatomite type filters, (3) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standard relating to sand type…

  15. Functional dissociation of ventral frontal and dorsomedial default mode network components during resting state and emotional autobiographical recall

    PubMed Central

    Bado, Patricia; Engel, Annerose; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Bramati, Ivanei E; Paiva, Fernando F; Basilio, Rodrigo; Sato, João R; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Moll, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Humans spend a substantial share of their lives mind-wandering. This spontaneous thinking activity usually comprises autobiographical recall, emotional, and self-referential components. While neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that a specific brain “default mode network” (DMN) is consistently engaged by the “resting state” of the mind, the relative contribution of key cognitive components to DMN activity is still poorly understood. Here we used fMRI to investigate whether activity in neural components of the DMN can be differentially explained by active recall of relevant emotional autobiographical memories as compared with the resting state. Our study design combined emotional autobiographical memory, neutral memory and resting state conditions, separated by a serial subtraction control task. Shared patterns of activation in the DMN were observed in both emotional autobiographical and resting conditions, when compared with serial subtraction. Directly contrasting autobiographical and resting conditions demonstrated a striking dissociation within the DMN in that emotional autobiographical retrieval led to stronger activation of the dorsomedial core regions (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex), whereas the resting state condition engaged a ventral frontal network (ventral striatum, subgenual and ventral anterior cingulate cortices) in addition to the IPL. Our results reveal an as yet unreported dissociation within the DMN. Whereas the dorsomedial component can be explained by emotional autobiographical memory, the ventral frontal one is predominantly associated with the resting state proper, possibly underlying fundamental motivational mechanisms engaged during spontaneous unconstrained ideation. Hum Brain Mapp 35:3302–3313, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25050426

  16. Resting brain activity varies with dream recall frequency between subjects.

    PubMed

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Nicolas, Alain; Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Redouté, Jérôme; Costes, Nicolas; Ruby, Perrine

    2014-06-01

    Dreaming is still poorly understood. Notably, its cerebral underpinning remains unclear. Neuropsychological studies have shown that lesions in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and/or the white matter of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) lead to the global cessation of dream reports, suggesting that these regions of the default mode network have key roles in the dreaming process (forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography in healthy subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies (DRFs) during wakefulness (rest) and sleep (rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, N2, and N3). Compared with Low recallers (0.5 ± 0.3 dream recall per week in average), High recallers (5.2 ± 1.4) showed higher rCBF in the TPJ during REM sleep, N3, and wakefulness, and in the MPFC during REM sleep and wakefulness. We demonstrate that the resting states of High recallers and Low recallers differ during sleep and wakefulness. It coheres with previous ERP results and confirms that a high/low DRF is associated with a specific functional organization of the brain. These results support the forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis and suggest that TPJ and MPFC are not only involved in dream recall during wakefulness but also have a role in dreaming during sleep (production and/or encoding). Increased activity in the TPJ and MPFC might promote the mental imagery and/or memory encoding of dreams. Notably, increased activity in TPJ might facilitate attention orienting toward external stimuli and promote intrasleep wakefulness, facilitating the encoding of the dreams in memory.

  17. Patent Pools: Intellectual Property Rights and Competition

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major players to form a cartel that excludes new competitors. For all the above reasons, patent pools are subject to regulatory clearance because they could result in a monopoly. The aim of this article is to present the relationship between patents and competition in a broad context. PMID:20200607

  18. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M.; Donaldson, A.D.

    1991-03-19

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools is disclosed, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figures.

  19. Cognitive function at rest and during exercise following breakfast omission.

    PubMed

    Komiyama, Takaaki; Sudo, Mizuki; Okuda, Naoki; Yasuno, Tetsuhiko; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Higaki, Yasuki; Ando, Soichi

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that breakfast omission, as opposed to breakfast consumption, has the detrimental effects on cognitive function. However, the effects of acute exercise following breakfast omission on cognitive function are poorly understood, particularly during exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactive effects of breakfast and exercise on cognitive function. Ten participants completed cognitive tasks at rest and during exercise in the breakfast consumption or omission conditions. Blood glucose concentration was measured immediately after each cognitive task. We used cognitive tasks to assess working memory [Spatial Delayed Response (DR) task] and executive function [Go/No-Go (GNG) task]. The participants cycled ergometer for 30 min while keeping their heart rate at 140 beats·min(-1). Accuracy of the GNG task was lower at rest in the breakfast omission condition than that in the breakfast consumption condition (Go trial: P=0.012; No-Go trial: P=0.028). However, exercise improved accuracy of the Go trial in the breakfast omission condition (P=0.013). Reaction time in the Go trial decreased during exercise relative to rest in both conditions (P=0.002), and the degree of decreases in reaction time was not different between conditions (P=0.448). Exercise and breakfast did not affect the accuracy of the Spatial DR task. The present results indicate that breakfast omission impairs executive function, but acute exercise improved executive function even after breakfast omission. It appears that beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive function are intact following breakfast omission. PMID:26876456

  20. Slow brain oscillations of sleep, resting state, and vigilance.

    PubMed

    Van Someren, E J W; Van Der Werf, Y D; Roelfsema, P R; Mansvelder, H D; da Silva, F H Lopes

    2011-01-01

    The most important quest of cognitive neuroscience may be to unravel the mechanisms by which the brain selects, links, consolidates, and integrates new information into its neuronal network, while preventing saturation to occur. During the past decade, neuroscientists working within several disciplines have observed an important involvement of the specific types of brain oscillations that occur during sleep--the cortical slow oscillations; during the resting state--the fMRI resting state networks including the default-mode network (DMN); and during task performance--the performance modulations that link as well to modulations in electroencephalography or magnetoencephalography frequency content. Understanding the role of these slow oscillations thus appears to be essential for our fundamental understanding of brain function. Brain activity is characterized by oscillations occurring in spike frequency, field potentials or blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. Environmental stimuli, reaching the brain through our senses, activate or inactivate neuronal populations and modulate ongoing activity. The effect they sort is to a large extent determined by the momentary state of the slow endogenous oscillations of the brain. In the absence of sensory input, as is the case during rest or sleep, brain activity does not cease. Rather, its oscillations continue and change with respect to their dominant frequencies and coupling topography. This chapter briefly introduces the topics that will be addressed in this dedicated volume of Progress in Brain Research on slow oscillations and sets the stage for excellent papers discussing their molecular, cellular, network physiological and cognitive performance aspects. Getting to know about slow oscillations is essential for our understanding of plasticity, memory, brain structure from synapse to DMN, cognition, consciousness, and ultimately for our understanding of the mechanisms and functions of

  1. 14 CFR 117.25 - Rest period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... minimum of 8 uninterrupted hours of sleep opportunity. (f) If a flightcrew member determines that a rest period under paragraph (e) of this section will not provide eight uninterrupted hours of...

  2. 78 FR 66865 - Interpretation of Rest Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... December 23, 2010, at 75 FR 80746 is withdrawn as of November 7, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... application of certain rest requirements during on-demand operations. Section 346 of the FAA Modernization...

  3. Effects Of Exercise During Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Bernauer, Edmund M.

    1993-01-01

    Pair of reports adds to growing body of knowledge of physical deconditioning caused by prolonged bed rest and effectiveness of various exercise regimens in preserving or restoring fitness. Major objective to determine what regimens to prescribe to astronauts before flight, during prolonged weightlessness, and immediately before returning to Earth. Knowledge also benefits patients confined by illness or injury. First report discusses experiment on effects of two types of periodic, intense, short-duration exercise during bed rest. Experiment also discussed in documents "Effects Of Exercise During Prolonged Bed Rest" (ARC-12190), and "Isotonic And Isokinetic Exercise During Bed Rest" (ARC-12180). Second report reviews knowledge acquired with view toward development of protocols for exercise regimens.

  4. ReSTful OSGi Web Applications Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Khawaja; Norris, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation accompanies a tutorial on the ReSTful (Representational State Transfer) web application. Using Open Services Gateway Initiative (OSGi), ReST uses HTTP protocol to enable developers to offer services to a diverse variety of clients: from shell scripts to sophisticated Java application suites. It also uses Eclipse for the rapid development, the Eclipse debugger, the test application, and the ease of export to production servers.

  5. The Physiology of Bed Rest. Chapter 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Schneider, Victor S.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Prolonged rest in bed has been utilized by physicians and other health-care workers to immobilize and confine patients for rehabilitation and restoration of health since time immemorial. The sitting or horizontal position is sought by the body to relieve the strain of the upright or vertical postures, for example during syncopal situations, bone fractures, muscle injuries, fatigue, and probably also to reduce energy expenditure. Most health-care personnel are aware that adaptive responses occurring during bed rest proceed concomitantly with the healing process; signs and symptoms associated with the former should be differentiated from those of the latter. Not all illnesses and infirmities benefit from prolonged bed rest. Considerations in prescribing bed rest for patients-including duration, body position, mode and duration of exercise, light-dark cycles, temperature, and humidity-have not been investigated adequately. More recently, adaptive physiological responses have been measured in normal, healthy subjects in the horizontal or slightly head-down postures during prolonged bed rest as analogs for the adaptive responses of astronauts exposed to the microgravity environment of outer and bed-rest research.

  6. The Transportable Auxin Pool 1

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, R. K.; Leopold, A. C.

    1970-01-01

    Evidences from experiments with stem sections of sunflower seedlings suggest that the transport of auxin may be limited by a restricted pool size of transportable auxin and restrictions in the availability of transport sites. A steady state of transport is observed over a range of lengths of stem sections, and over a wide range of auxin contents. The capacity of the sections to transport a pulse of auxin declines with aging after cutting, 50% decline occurring at about 10+ hours; the transportability of a pulse of auxin declines rapidly after the completion of uptake, 50% decline occurring at about 1 hour. A chase treatment with unlabeled auxin does not alter transport, but a pretreatment with auxin depressed subsequent transport for about 1 hour. In depleted tissues such pretreatment is not inhibitory but rather is promotive of transport. The interpretation offered is that transport is limited by the pool size and transport sites, and roles for these factors are suggested in relation to the auxin transport gradient and the tropistic responses. PMID:16657273

  7. Are Auditory Hallucinations Related to the Brain's Resting State Activity? A 'Neurophenomenal Resting State Hypothesis'

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    While several hypotheses about the neural mechanisms underlying auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) have been suggested, the exact role of the recently highlighted intrinsic resting state activity of the brain remains unclear. Based on recent findings, we therefore developed what we call the 'resting state hypotheses' of AVH. Our hypothesis suggest that AVH may be traced back to abnormally elevated resting state activity in auditory cortex itself, abnormal modulation of the auditory cortex by anterior cortical midline regions as part of the default-mode network, and neural confusion between auditory cortical resting state changes and stimulus-induced activity. We discuss evidence in favour of our 'resting state hypothesis' and show its correspondence with phenomenal, i.e., subjective-experiential features as explored in phenomenological accounts. Therefore I speak of a 'neurophenomenal resting state hypothesis' of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. PMID:25598821

  8. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE POOL BUILDING 307 AND THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE POOL BUILDING 307 AND THE POOL 308, LOOKING WEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Pool Building & Swimming Pool, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  9. Pyridoxic acid excretion during low vitamin B-6 intake, total fasting, and bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coburn, S. P.; Thampy, K. G.; Lane, H. W.; Conn, P. S.; Ziegler, P. J.; Costill, D. L.; Mahuren, J. D.; Fink, W. J.; Pearson, D. R.; Schaltenbrand, W. E.

    1995-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 metabolism in 10 volunteers during 21 d of total fasting was compared with results from 10 men consuming a diet low only in vitamin B-6 (1.76 mumol/d) and with men consuming a normal diet during bed rest. At the end of the fast mean plasma concentrations of vitamin B-6 metabolites and urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid tended to be higher in the fasting subjects than in the low-vitamin B-6 group. The fasting subjects lost approximately 10% of their total vitamin B-6 pool and approximately 13% of their body weight. The low-vitamin B-6 group lost only approximately 4% of their vitamin B-6 pool. Compared with baseline, urinary excretion of pyridoxic acid was significantly increased during 17 wk of bed rest. There was no increase in pyridoxic acid excretion during a second 15-d bed rest study. These data suggest the possibility of complex interactions between diet and muscle metabolism that may influence indexes that are frequently used to assess vitamin B-6 status.

  10. Synapsin Determines Memory Strength after Punishment- and Relief-Learning

    PubMed Central

    Niewalda, Thomas; Michels, Birgit; Jungnickel, Roswitha; Diegelmann, Sören; Kleber, Jörg; Kähne, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    Adverse life events can induce two kinds of memory with opposite valence, dependent on timing: “negative” memories for stimuli preceding them and “positive” memories for stimuli experienced at the moment of “relief.” Such punishment memory and relief memory are found in insects, rats, and man. For example, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) avoid an odor after odor-shock training (“forward conditioning” of the odor), whereas after shock-odor training (“backward conditioning” of the odor) they approach it. Do these timing-dependent associative processes share molecular determinants? We focus on the role of Synapsin, a conserved presynaptic phosphoprotein regulating the balance between the reserve pool and the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. We find that a lack of Synapsin leaves task-relevant sensory and motor faculties unaffected. In contrast, both punishment memory and relief memory scores are reduced. These defects reflect a true lessening of associative memory strength, as distortions in nonassociative processing (e.g., susceptibility to handling, adaptation, habituation, sensitization), discrimination ability, and changes in the time course of coincidence detection can be ruled out as alternative explanations. Reductions in punishment- and relief-memory strength are also observed upon an RNAi-mediated knock-down of Synapsin, and are rescued both by acutely restoring Synapsin and by locally restoring it in the mushroom bodies of mutant flies. Thus, both punishment memory and relief memory require the Synapsin protein and in this sense share genetic and molecular determinants. We note that corresponding molecular commonalities between punishment memory and relief memory in humans would constrain pharmacological attempts to selectively interfere with excessive associative punishment memories, e.g., after traumatic experiences. PMID:25972175

  11. Synapsin determines memory strength after punishment- and relief-learning.

    PubMed

    Niewalda, Thomas; Michels, Birgit; Jungnickel, Roswitha; Diegelmann, Sören; Kleber, Jörg; Kähne, Thilo; Gerber, Bertram

    2015-05-13

    Adverse life events can induce two kinds of memory with opposite valence, dependent on timing: "negative" memories for stimuli preceding them and "positive" memories for stimuli experienced at the moment of "relief." Such punishment memory and relief memory are found in insects, rats, and man. For example, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) avoid an odor after odor-shock training ("forward conditioning" of the odor), whereas after shock-odor training ("backward conditioning" of the odor) they approach it. Do these timing-dependent associative processes share molecular determinants? We focus on the role of Synapsin, a conserved presynaptic phosphoprotein regulating the balance between the reserve pool and the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. We find that a lack of Synapsin leaves task-relevant sensory and motor faculties unaffected. In contrast, both punishment memory and relief memory scores are reduced. These defects reflect a true lessening of associative memory strength, as distortions in nonassociative processing (e.g., susceptibility to handling, adaptation, habituation, sensitization), discrimination ability, and changes in the time course of coincidence detection can be ruled out as alternative explanations. Reductions in punishment- and relief-memory strength are also observed upon an RNAi-mediated knock-down of Synapsin, and are rescued both by acutely restoring Synapsin and by locally restoring it in the mushroom bodies of mutant flies. Thus, both punishment memory and relief memory require the Synapsin protein and in this sense share genetic and molecular determinants. We note that corresponding molecular commonalities between punishment memory and relief memory in humans would constrain pharmacological attempts to selectively interfere with excessive associative punishment memories, e.g., after traumatic experiences.

  12. 13 CFR 120.1709 - Transfers of Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... transfer. The Pool Investor must supply the following information in the letter: (1) Pool number; (2) Pool... recovery. At the same time a Pool Investor submits a letter of transmittal for a Pool Certificate pursuant... will supply the transfer information to the Pool Investor....

  13. Consolidation in older adults depends upon competition between resting-state networks

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Heidi I. L.; Dillen, Kim N. H.; Risius, Okka; Göreci, Yasemin; Onur, Oezguer A.; Fink, Gereon R.; Kukolja, Juraj

    2015-01-01

    Memory encoding and retrieval problems are inherent to aging. To date, however, the effect of aging upon the neural correlates of forming memory traces remains poorly understood. Resting-state fMRI connectivity can be used to investigate initial consolidation. We compared within and between network connectivity differences between healthy young and older participants before encoding, after encoding and before retrieval by means of resting-state fMRI. Alterations over time in the between-network connectivity analyses correlated with retrieval performance, whereas within-network connectivity did not: a higher level of negative coupling or competition between the default mode and the executive networks during the after encoding condition was associated with increased retrieval performance in the older adults, but not in the young group. Data suggest that the effective formation of memory traces depends on an age-dependent, dynamic reorganization of the interaction between multiple, large-scale functional networks. Our findings demonstrate that a cross-network based approach can further the understanding of the neural underpinnings of aging-associated memory decline. PMID:25620930

  14. Fear Memory.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Ivan; Furini, Cristiane R G; Myskiw, Jociane C

    2016-04-01

    Fear memory is the best-studied form of memory. It was thoroughly investigated in the past 60 years mostly using two classical conditioning procedures (contextual fear conditioning and fear conditioning to a tone) and one instrumental procedure (one-trial inhibitory avoidance). Fear memory is formed in the hippocampus (contextual conditioning and inhibitory avoidance), in the basolateral amygdala (inhibitory avoidance), and in the lateral amygdala (conditioning to a tone). The circuitry involves, in addition, the pre- and infralimbic ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the central amygdala subnuclei, and the dentate gyrus. Fear learning models, notably inhibitory avoidance, have also been very useful for the analysis of the biochemical mechanisms of memory consolidation as a whole. These studies have capitalized on in vitro observations on long-term potentiation and other kinds of plasticity. The effect of a very large number of drugs on fear learning has been intensively studied, often as a prelude to the investigation of effects on anxiety. The extinction of fear learning involves to an extent a reversal of the flow of information in the mentioned structures and is used in the therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder and fear memories in general. PMID:26983799

  15. Fear Memory.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Ivan; Furini, Cristiane R G; Myskiw, Jociane C

    2016-04-01

    Fear memory is the best-studied form of memory. It was thoroughly investigated in the past 60 years mostly using two classical conditioning procedures (contextual fear conditioning and fear conditioning to a tone) and one instrumental procedure (one-trial inhibitory avoidance). Fear memory is formed in the hippocampus (contextual conditioning and inhibitory avoidance), in the basolateral amygdala (inhibitory avoidance), and in the lateral amygdala (conditioning to a tone). The circuitry involves, in addition, the pre- and infralimbic ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the central amygdala subnuclei, and the dentate gyrus. Fear learning models, notably inhibitory avoidance, have also been very useful for the analysis of the biochemical mechanisms of memory consolidation as a whole. These studies have capitalized on in vitro observations on long-term potentiation and other kinds of plasticity. The effect of a very large number of drugs on fear learning has been intensively studied, often as a prelude to the investigation of effects on anxiety. The extinction of fear learning involves to an extent a reversal of the flow of information in the mentioned structures and is used in the therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder and fear memories in general.

  16. Resting-state FMRI confounds and cleanup

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Kevin; Birn, Rasmus M.; Bandettini, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is to investigate the brain’s functional connections by using the temporal similarity between blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals in different regions of the brain “at rest” as an indicator of synchronous neural activity. Since this measure relies on the temporal correlation of FMRI signal changes between different parts of the brain, any non-neural activity-related process that affects the signals will influence the measure of functional connectivity, yielding spurious results. To understand the sources of these resting-state FMRI confounds, this article describes the origins of the BOLD signal in terms of MR physics and cerebral physiology. Potential confounds arising from motion, cardiac and respiratory cycles, arterial CO2 concentration, blood pressure/cerebral autoregulation, and vasomotion are discussed. Two classes of techniques to remove confounds from resting-state BOLD time series are reviewed: 1) those utilising external recordings of physiology and 2) data-based cleanup methods that only use the resting-state FMRI data itself. Further methods that remove noise from functional connectivity measures at a group level are also discussed. For successful interpretation of resting-state FMRI comparisons and results, noise cleanup is an often over-looked but essential step in the analysis pipeline. PMID:23571418

  17. Radioisotope Power System Pool Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Bolotin, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for NASA deep space science missions have historically used static thermoelectric-based designs because they are highly reliable, and their radioisotope heat sources can be passively cooled throughout the mission life cycle. Recently, a significant effort to develop a dynamic RPS, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), was conducted by NASA and the Department of Energy, because Stirling based designs offer energy conversion efficiencies four times higher than heritage thermoelectric designs; and the efficiency would proportionately reduce the amount of radioisotope fuel needed for the same power output. However, the long term reliability of a Stirling based design is a concern compared to thermoelectric designs, because for certain Stirling system architectures the radioisotope heat sources must be actively cooled via the dynamic operation of Stirling converters throughout the mission life cycle. To address this reliability concern, a new dynamic Stirling cycle RPS architecture is proposed called the RPS Pool Concept.

  18. Is external memory memory? Biological memory and extended mind.

    PubMed

    Michaelian, Kourken

    2012-09-01

    Clark and Chalmers (1998) claim that an external resource satisfying the following criteria counts as a memory: (1) the agent has constant access to the resource; (2) the information in the resource is directly available; (3) retrieved information is automatically endorsed; (4) information is stored as a consequence of past endorsement. Research on forgetting and metamemory shows that most of these criteria are not satisfied by biological memory, so they are inadequate. More psychologically realistic criteria generate a similar classification of standard putative external memories, but the criteria still do not capture the function of memory. An adequate account of memory function, compatible with its evolution and its roles in prospection and imagination, suggests that external memory performs a function not performed by biological memory systems. External memory is thus not memory. This has implications for: extended mind theorizing, ecological validity of memory research, the causal theory of memory.

  19. REST and CoREST Modulate Neuronal Subtype Specification, Maturation and Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Gokhan, Solen; Zheng, Deyou; Bergman, Aviv; Mehler, Mark F.

    2009-01-01

    Background The repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) is a master regulator of neuronal gene expression. REST functions as a modular scaffold for dynamic recruitment of epigenetic regulatory factors including its primary cofactor, the corepressor for element-1-silencing transcription factor (CoREST), to genomic loci that contain the repressor element-1 (RE1) binding motif. While REST was initially believed to silence RE1 containing neuronal genes in neural stem cells (NSCs) and non-neuronal cells, emerging evidence shows an increasingly complex cell type- and developmental stage-specific repertoire of REST target genes and functions that include regulation of neuronal lineage maturation and plasticity. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we utilized chromatin immunoprecipitation on chip (ChIP-chip) analysis to examine REST and CoREST functions during NSC-mediated specification of cholinergic neurons (CHOLNs), GABAergic neurons (GABANs), glutamatergic neurons (GLUTNs), and medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs). We identified largely distinct but overlapping profiles of REST and CoREST target genes during neuronal subtype specification including a disproportionately high percentage that are exclusive to each neuronal subtype. Conclusions/Significance Our findings demonstrate that the differential deployment of REST and CoREST is an important regulatory mechanism that mediates neuronal subtype specification by modulating specific gene networks responsible for inducing and maintaining neuronal subtype identity. Our observations also implicate a broad array of factors in the generation of neuronal diversity including but not limited to those that mediate homeostasis, cell cycle dynamics, cell viability, stress responses and epigenetic regulation. PMID:19997604

  20. Heat transfer from internally heated hemispherical pools

    SciTech Connect

    Gabor, J.D.; Ellsion, P.G.; Cassulo, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on heat transfer from internally heated ZnSO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O pools to the walls of hemispherical containers. This experimental technique provides data for a heat transfer system that has to date been only theoretically treated. Three different sizes of copper hemispherical containers were used: 240, 280, 320 mm in diameter. The pool container served both as a heat transfer surface and as an electrode. The opposing electrode was a copper disk, 50 mm in diameter located at the top of the pool in the center. The top surface of the pool was open to the atmosphere.

  1. Intranasal Insulin Enhanced Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Hippocampal Regions in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Hao, Ying; Manor, Bradley; Novak, Peter; Milberg, William; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) alters brain function and manifests as brain atrophy. Intranasal insulin has emerged as a promising intervention for treatment of cognitive impairment. We evaluated the acute effects of intranasal insulin on resting-state brain functional connectivity in older adults with T2DM. This proof-of-concept, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of a single 40 IU dose of insulin or saline in 14 diabetic and 14 control subjects. Resting-state functional connectivity between the hippocampal region and default mode network (DMN) was quantified using functional MRI (fMRI) at 3Tesla. Following insulin administration, diabetic patients demonstrated increased resting-state connectivity between the hippocampal regions and the medial frontal cortex (MFC) as compared with placebo (cluster size: right, P = 0.03) and other DMN regions. On placebo, the diabetes group had lower connectivity between the hippocampal region and the MFC as compared with control subjects (cluster size: right, P = 0.02), but on insulin, MFC connectivity was similar to control subjects. Resting-state connectivity correlated with cognitive performance. A single dose of intranasal insulin increases resting-state functional connectivity between the hippocampal regions and multiple DMN regions in older adults with T2DM. Intranasal insulin administration may modify functional connectivity among brain regions regulating memory and complex cognitive behaviors. PMID:25249577

  2. Exercise countermeasures for bed-rest deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose for this 30-day bed rest study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high intensity isotonic and isokinetic exercise training on maintenance of working capacity (peak oxygen uptake), muscular strength and endurance, and on orthostatic tolerance, posture and gait. Other data were collected on muscle atrophy, bone mineralization and density, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid-electrolyte balance, muscle intermediary metabolism, and on performance and mood of the subjects. It was concluded that: The subjects maintained a relatively stable mood, high morale, and high esprit de corps throughout the study. Performance improved in nearly all tests in almost all the subjects. Isotonic training, as opposed to isokinetic exercise training, was associated more with decreasing levels of psychological tension, concentration, and motivation; and improvement in the quality of sleep. Working capacity (peak oxygen uptake) was maintained during bed rest with isotonic exercise training; it was not maintained with isokinetic or no exercise training. In general, there was no significant decrease in strength or endurance of arm or leg muscles during bed rest, in spite of some reduction in muscle size (atrophy) of some leg muscles. There was no effect of isotonic exercise training on orthostasis, since tilt-table tolerance was reduced similarly in all three groups following bed rest. Bed rest resulted in significant decreases of postural stability and self-selected step length, stride length, and walking velocity, which were not influenced by either exercise training regimen. Most pre-bed rest responses were restored by the fourth day of recovery.

  3. No effect of odor-induced memory reactivation during REM sleep on declarative memory stability

    PubMed Central

    Cordi, Maren J.; Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Memory reactivations in hippocampal brain areas are critically involved in memory consolidation processes during sleep. In particular, specific firing patterns of hippocampal place cells observed during learning are replayed during subsequent sleep and rest in rodents. In humans, experimentally inducing hippocampal memory reactivations during slow-wave sleep (but not during wakefulness) benefits consolidation and immediately stabilizes declarative memories against future interference. Importantly, spontaneous hippocampal replay activity can also be observed during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and some authors have suggested that replay during REM sleep is related to processes of memory consolidation. However, the functional role of reactivations during REM sleep for memory stability is still unclear. Here, we reactivated memories during REM sleep and examined its consequences for the stability of declarative memories. After 3 h of early, slow-wave sleep (SWS) rich sleep, 16 healthy young adults learned a 2-D object location task in the presence of a contextual odor. During subsequent REM sleep, participants were either re-exposed to the odor or to an odorless vehicle, in a counterbalanced within subject design. Reactivation was followed by an interference learning task to probe memory stability after awakening. We show that odor-induced memory reactivation during REM sleep does not stabilize memories against future interference. We propose that the beneficial effect of reactivation during sleep on memory stability might be critically linked to processes characterizing SWS including, e.g., slow oscillatory activity, sleep spindles, or low cholinergic tone, which are required for a successful redistribution of memories from medial temporal lobe regions to neocortical long-term stores. PMID:25225474

  4. Retracing Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David L.

    2005-01-01

    There are plenty of paths to poetry but few are as accessible as retracing ones own memories. When students are asked to write about something they remember, they are given them the gift of choosing from events that are important enough to recall. They remember because what happened was funny or scary or embarrassing or heartbreaking or silly.…

  5. Fueling Memories

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Jonathan D.; Pollizzi, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of the adaptive immune response is rapid and robust activation upon rechallenge. In the current issue of Immunity van der Windt et al. (2012) provide an important link between mitochondrial respiratory capacity and the development of CD8+ T cell memory. PMID:22284413

  6. Memory Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassebaum, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In four decades of teaching college English, the author has watched many good teaching jobs morph into second-class ones. Worse, she has seen the memory and then the expectation of teaching jobs with decent status, security, and salary depart along with principles and collegiality. To help reverse this downward spiral, she contends that what is…

  7. Physiological aging impacts the hemispheric balances of resting state primary somatosensory activities.

    PubMed

    Cottone, Carlo; Tomasevic, Leo; Porcaro, Camillo; Filligoi, Giancarlo; Tecchio, Franca

    2013-01-01

    To hone knowledge of sensorimotor cerebral organization changes with physiological aging, we focused on the primary somatosensory cortical area (S1). S1 neuronal pools (FS_S1) were identified by the functional source separation (FSS) algorithm applied to magnetoencephalographic recordings during median nerve stimulation. Age-dependence of FS_S1 was then studied at rest separately in the left and right hemispheres of 26 healthy, right-handed subjects between the ages of 24 and 95 years. The resting state FS_S1 spectral features changed with increasing age: (1) alpha activity slowed down; (2) total power increased only in the right hemisphere; (3) right>left interhemispheric asymmetry increased in the whole spectrum; (4) spectral entropy increased with age selectively in the left hemisphere. The present FSS-enriched electrophysiological procedure provided measures of resting state hand representation area sensitive to changes with age. Alterations were stronger in the right hemisphere. Relationships between resting state S1 activity and its responsiveness to external stimuli, revealed that the interhemispheric unbalances which emerged with age were conceivably due to an increased excitability within the right thalamocortical circuit impacting left versus right unbalances of spontaneous firing rates and of local inhibitory-excitatory networks.

  8. Resting-state Networks Predict Individual Differences in Common and Specific Aspects of Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Reineberg, Andrew E.; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R.; Depue, Brendan; Friedman, Naomi P.; Banich, Marie T.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine relationships between individual differences in resting state functional connectivity as ascertained by fMRI (rs-fcMRI) and performance on tasks of executive function (EF), broadly defined as the ability to regulate thoughts and actions. Unlike most previous research that focused on the relationship between rs-fcMRI and a single behavioral measure of EF, in the current study we examined the relationship of rs-fcMRI with individual differences in subcomponents of EF. Ninety-one adults completed a resting state fMRI scan and three separate EF tasks outside the magnet: inhibition of prepotent responses, task set shifting, and working memory updating. From these three measures, we derived estimates of common aspects of EF, as well as abilities specific to working memory updating and task shifting. Using Independent Components Analysis (ICA), we identified across the group of participants several networks of regions (Resting State Networks, RSNs) with temporally correlated time courses. We then used dual regression to explore how these RSNs covaried with individual differences in EF. Dual regression revealed that increased higher common EF was associated with connectivity of a) frontal pole with an attentional RSN, and b) Crus I and II of the cerebellum with the right frontoparietal RSN. Moreover, higher shifting-specific abilities were associated with increased connectivity of angular gyrus with a ventral attention RSN. The results of the current study suggest that the organization of the brain at rest may have important implications for individual differences in EF, and that individuals higher in EF may have expanded resting state networks as compared to individuals with lower EF. PMID:25281800

  9. Role of Perfusion at Rest in the Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction Using Vasodilator Stress Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mita B; Mor-Avi, Victor; Kawaji, Keigo; Nathan, Sandeep; Kramer, Christopher M; Lang, Roberto M; Patel, Amit R

    2016-04-01

    In clinical practice, perfusion at rest in vasodilator stress single-photon emission computed tomography is commonly used to confirm myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemia and to rule out artifacts. It is unclear whether perfusion at rest carries similar information in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). We sought to determine whether chronic MI is associated with abnormal perfusion at rest on CMR. We compared areas of infarct and remote myocardium in 31 patients who underwent vasodilator stress CMR (1.5 T), had MI confirmed by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE scar), and coronary angiography within 6 months. Stress perfusion imaging during gadolinium first pass was followed by reversal with aminophylline (75 to 125 mg), rest perfusion, and LGE imaging. Resting and peak-stress time-intensity curves were used to obtain maximal upslopes (normalized by blood pool upslopes), which were compared between infarcted and remote myocardial regions of interest. At rest, there was no significant difference between the slopes in the regions of interest supplied by arteries with and without stenosis >70% (0.31 ± 0.16 vs 0.26 ± 0.15 1/s), irrespective of LGE scar. However, at peak stress, we found significant differences (0.20 ± 0.11 vs 0.30 ± 0.22 1/s; p <0.05), reflecting the expected stress-induced ischemia. Similarly, at rest, there was no difference between infarcted and remote myocardium (0.27 ± 0.14 vs 0.30 ± 0.17 1/s), irrespective of stenosis, but significant differences were seen during stress (0.21 ± 0.16 vs 0.28 ± 0.18 1/s; p <0.001), reflecting inducible ischemia. In conclusion, abnormalities in myocardial perfusion at rest associated with chronic MI are not reliably detectable on CMR images. Accordingly, unlike single-photon emission computed tomography, normal CMR perfusion at rest should not be used to rule out chronic MI.

  10. A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Costes, D.

    2012-07-01

    This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

  11. Physiological responses during meditation and rest.

    PubMed

    Delmonte, M M

    1984-06-01

    Forty nonmeditators and 12 experienced transcendental meditators were randomly assigned to four experimental cells devised to control for order and expectation effects. All 52 (female) subjects were continuously monitored on seven physiological measures during both meditation and rest. Each subject was her own control in an abab experimental paradigm comparing meditation to rest. Analyses of variance on change scores calculated from both initial and running (intertrial) baselines revealed small but significant conditions effects for all variables except diastolic BP. The same subjects (both experienced meditators and those meditating for the first time) showed lower psychophysiological arousal during the meditation than during the rest condition for systolic BP, HR, SCL, digital BV, digital ST, and frontalis EMG. The experienced meditators showed only marginally more conditions effects than the novices practicing "noncultic" meditation. For the nonmeditators, deliberately fostering positive expectations of meditations was associated with lower physiological arousal in terms of diastolic BP, HR, and SCL. These findings suggest that both cultic and noncultic meditation are associated with lower physiological activation than eyes-closed rest. The meditators, however, tended to become more relaxed over meditation trials, whereas the nonmeditators showed the opposite trend.

  12. Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A 30-day 6 deg. head-down bed rest study was conducted to evaluate high-intensity, short-duration, alternating isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regiments designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (acclimation) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (a) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (b) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40%, but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regiments, and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  13. Effects Of Exercise During Prolonged Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, S.; Berry, P; Cohen, M.; Danelis, J.; Deroshia, C.; Greenleaf, J.; Harris, B.; Keil, L.; Bernauer, E.; Bond, M.; Ellis, S.; Lee, P.; Selzer, R.; Wade, C.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiment to investigate effects of isotonic and isokinetic leg exercises in counteracting effects of bed rest upon physical and mental conditions of subjects. Data taken on capacity for work, endurance and strength, tolerance to sitting up, equilibrium, posture, gait, atrophy, mineralization and density of bones, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid and electrolyte balances, intermediary metabolism of muscles, mood, and performance.

  14. 10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... purification system designed to be capable of maintaining the water during normal operation at a conductivity..., irradiator pools must either: (1) Have a water-tight stainless steel liner or a liner metallurgically... water level that could allow water to drain out of the pool. Pipes that have intakes more than 0.5...

  15. A Training Program for Swimming Pool Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, James R., Jr.; Mihalik, Brian J.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States today, there is a dramatic shortage of qualified public swimming pool operators. This article describes a training program initiated in South Carolina to serve the needs of everyone responsible for and involved in the safe operation and management of a public swimming pool. (MT)

  16. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... types of salt water pools shall be so operated that complete circulation and replacement of the water in... equipped so as to provide complete circulation, replacement, and filtration of the water in the pool every six hours or less. Suitable means of chlorination and, if necessary, other treatment of the...

  17. 10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... purification system designed to be capable of maintaining the water during normal operation at a conductivity..., irradiator pools must either: (1) Have a water-tight stainless steel liner or a liner metallurgically... water level that could allow water to drain out of the pool. Pipes that have intakes more than 0.5...

  18. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... types of salt water pools shall be so operated that complete circulation and replacement of the water in... equipped so as to provide complete circulation, replacement, and filtration of the water in the pool every six hours or less. Suitable means of chlorination and, if necessary, other treatment of the...

  19. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... types of salt water pools shall be so operated that complete circulation and replacement of the water in... equipped so as to provide complete circulation, replacement, and filtration of the water in the pool every six hours or less. Suitable means of chlorination and, if necessary, other treatment of the...

  20. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... types of salt water pools shall be so operated that complete circulation and replacement of the water in... equipped so as to provide complete circulation, replacement, and filtration of the water in the pool every six hours or less. Suitable means of chlorination and, if necessary, other treatment of the...

  1. The Chemistry of Swimming Pool Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Carl; Langhus, David L.

    2007-01-01

    The study of chemistry involved in the maintenance of a swimming pool provides a lot of chemical education to the students, including the demonstration of the importance of pH in water chemistry. The various chemical aspects hidden in the maintenance of the pool are being described.

  2. LinguisticBelief and PoolEvidence

    SciTech Connect

    DARBY, JOHN

    2008-03-11

    LinguisticBelief allows the creation and analysis of combinations of linguistic variables with epistemic uncertainty for decision making. The model is solved using approximate reasoning to implement the belief/plausibility measure of uncertainty for combinations of variables expressed as purely linguistic fuzzy sets. PoolEvidence pools evidence for linguistic variables from many experts for input into LinguisticBelief.

  3. Differential Resting State Connectivity Patterns and Impaired Semantically Cued List Learning Test Performance in Early Course Remitted MDD

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Julia A.; Jenkins, Lisanne M.; Hymen, Erica; Feigon, Maia; Weisenbach, Sara L.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Langenecker, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is a well-known association between memory impairment and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Additionally, recent studies are also showing resting-state (rs) fMRI abnormalities in active and remitted MDD. However, no studies to date have examined both resting state connectivity and memory performance in early course remitted MDD, nor the relationship between connectivity and semantically-cued episodic memory. Method Resting state MRI (rsMRI) data from two 3.0 Tesla GE scanners were collected from 34 unmedicated young adults with remitted MDD (rMDD) and 23 healthy controls (HCs) between 18–23 years of age using bilateral seeds in the hippocampus. Participants also completed a semantically-cued list-learning test and their performance was correlated with hippocampal seed-based rsMRI. Regression models were also used to predict connectivity patterns from memory performance. Results After correcting for sex, rMDD performed worse than HCs on the total number of words recalled and recognized. rMDD demonstrated significant in-network hypoactivation between the hippocampus and multiple fronto-temporal regions, and multiple extra-network hyperconnectivities between the hippocampus and fronto-parietal regions when compared to HCs. Memory performance negatively predicted connectivity in HCs and positively predicted connectivity in rMDD. Conclusions Even when individuals with a history of MDD are no longer displaying active depressive symptoms, they continue to demonstrate worse memory performance, disruptions in hippocampal connectivity, and a differential relationship between episodic memory and hippocampal connectivity. PMID:26888619

  4. Cardiac atrophy after bed rest and spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perhonen, M. A.; Franco, F.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Peshock, R. M.; Weatherall, P. T.; Levine, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac muscle adapts well to changes in loading conditions. For example, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may be induced physiologically (via exercise training) or pathologically (via hypertension or valvular heart disease). If hypertension is treated, LV hypertrophy regresses, suggesting a sensitivity to LV work. However, whether physical inactivity in nonathletic populations causes adaptive changes in LV mass or even frank atrophy is not clear. We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n = 5) and 12 (n = 3) wk of horizontal bed rest. LV and right ventricular (RV) mass and end-diastolic volume were measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 6, and 12 wk of bed rest; five healthy men were also studied before and after at least 6 wk of routine daily activities as controls. In addition, four astronauts were exposed to the complete elimination of hydrostatic gradients during a spaceflight of 10 days. During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8.0 +/- 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 +/- 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 +/- 12.2 vs. 153.4 +/- 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load. LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 14 +/- 1.7% (P = 0.002) after 2 wk of bed rest and changed minimally thereafter. After 6 wk of bed rest, RV free wall mass decreased by 10 +/- 2.7% (P = 0.06) and RV end-diastolic volume by 16 +/- 7.9% (P = 0.06). After spaceflight, LV mass decreased by 12 +/- 6.9% (P = 0.07). In conclusion, cardiac atrophy occurs during prolonged (6 wk) horizontal bed rest and may also occur after short-term spaceflight. We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity

  5. Resting State Networks' Corticotopy: The Dual Intertwined Rings Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Mesmoudi, Salma; Perlbarg, Vincent; Rudrauf, David; Messe, Arnaud; Pinsard, Basile; Hasboun, Dominique; Cioli, Claudia; Marrelec, Guillaume; Toro, Roberto; Benali, Habib; Burnod, Yves

    2013-01-01

    How does the brain integrate multiple sources of information to support normal sensorimotor and cognitive functions? To investigate this question we present an overall brain architecture (called “the dual intertwined rings architecture”) that relates the functional specialization of cortical networks to their spatial distribution over the cerebral cortex (or “corticotopy”). Recent results suggest that the resting state networks (RSNs) are organized into two large families: 1) a sensorimotor family that includes visual, somatic, and auditory areas and 2) a large association family that comprises parietal, temporal, and frontal regions and also includes the default mode network. We used two large databases of resting state fMRI data, from which we extracted 32 robust RSNs. We estimated: (1) the RSN functional roles by using a projection of the results on task based networks (TBNs) as referenced in large databases of fMRI activation studies; and (2) relationship of the RSNs with the Brodmann Areas. In both classifications, the 32 RSNs are organized into a remarkable architecture of two intertwined rings per hemisphere and so four rings linked by homotopic connections. The first ring forms a continuous ensemble and includes visual, somatic, and auditory cortices, with interspersed bimodal cortices (auditory-visual, visual-somatic and auditory-somatic, abbreviated as VSA ring). The second ring integrates distant parietal, temporal and frontal regions (PTF ring) through a network of association fiber tracts which closes the ring anatomically and ensures a functional continuity within the ring. The PTF ring relates association cortices specialized in attention, language and working memory, to the networks involved in motivation and biological regulation and rhythms. This “dual intertwined architecture” suggests a dual integrative process: the VSA ring performs fast real-time multimodal integration of sensorimotor information whereas the PTF ring performs multi

  6. On nodes and modes in resting state fMRI.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl J; Kahan, Joshua; Razi, Adeel; Stephan, Klaas Enno; Sporns, Olaf

    2014-10-01

    This paper examines intrinsic brain networks in light of recent developments in the characterisation of resting state fMRI timeseries--and simulations of neuronal fluctuations based upon the connectome. Its particular focus is on patterns or modes of distributed activity that underlie functional connectivity. We first demonstrate that the eigenmodes of functional connectivity--or covariance among regions or nodes--are the same as the eigenmodes of the underlying effective connectivity, provided we limit ourselves to symmetrical connections. This symmetry constraint is motivated by appealing to proximity graphs based upon multidimensional scaling. Crucially, the principal modes of functional connectivity correspond to the dynamically unstable modes of effective connectivity that decay slowly and show long term memory. Technically, these modes have small negative Lyapunov exponents that approach zero from below. Interestingly, the superposition of modes--whose exponents are sampled from a power law distribution--produces classical 1/f (scale free) spectra. We conjecture that the emergence of dynamical instability--that underlies intrinsic brain networks--is inevitable in any system that is separated from external states by a Markov blanket. This conjecture appeals to a free energy formulation of nonequilibrium steady-state dynamics. The common theme that emerges from these theoretical considerations is that endogenous fluctuations are dominated by a small number of dynamically unstable modes. We use this as the basis of a dynamic causal model (DCM) of resting state fluctuations--as measured in terms of their complex cross spectra. In this model, effective connectivity is parameterised in terms of eigenmodes and their Lyapunov exponents--that can also be interpreted as locations in a multidimensional scaling space. Model inversion provides not only estimates of edges or connectivity but also the topography and dimensionality of the underlying scaling space. Here, we

  7. Final Report: Programming Models for Shared Memory Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    May, J.; de Supinski, B.; Pudliner, B.; Taylor, S.; Baden, S.

    2000-01-04

    Most large parallel computers now built use a hybrid architecture called a shared memory cluster. In this design, a computer consists of several nodes connected by an interconnection network. Each node contains a pool of memory and multiple processors that share direct access to it. Because shared memory clusters combine architectural features of shared memory computers and distributed memory computers, they support several different styles of parallel programming or programming models. (Further information on the design of these systems and their programming models appears in Section 2.) The purpose of this project was to investigate the programming models available on these systems and to answer three questions: (1) How easy to use are the different programming models in real applications? (2) How do the hardware and system software on different computers affect the performance of these programming models? (3) What are the performance characteristics of different programming models for typical LLNL applications on various shared memory clusters?

  8. Identification of REST-regulated genes and pathways using a REST-targeted antisense approach.

    PubMed

    Sedaghat, Yalda; Bui, Huynh-Hoa; Mazur, Curt; Monia, Brett P

    2013-12-01

    The repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) is one of the first negative-acting transcriptional regulators implicated in vertebrate development thought to regulate hundreds of neuron-specific genes. However, its function in the adult system remains elusive. Here we employ second-generation antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to study the impact of rest-mediated suppression on gene expression. We demonstrate specific reductions in REST levels in vitro, and in vivo in mouse liver following treatment with ASOs, and we show that ASO mediated-REST suppression results in the elevation in expression of many neuronal genes including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Synapsin1 (syn1) and β3-tubulin in BALB/c liver. Furthermore, we show the elevation of the affected proteins in plasma following ASO treatment. Finally, microarray analysis was applied to identify a broad range of genes modulated by REST suppression in mouse liver. Our findings suggest that REST may be an important target for neurodegenerative diseases like Huntington's disease, is also involved in the regulation of a broad range of additional cellular pathways, and that the antisense approach is a viable strategy for selectively modulating REST activity in vivo. PMID:24329414

  9. REST corepressor (CoREST) repression induces phenotypic gene regulation in advanced osteoarthritic chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jun; Li, Tao; Wu, Zhihong; Shi, Zhanjun; Chen, Jianting; Lam, Stephen K L; Zhao, Zandong; Yang, Lanbo; Qiu, Guixing

    2010-12-01

    Alternations in cartilage chondrocyte phenotype characteristic by the decreased type II collagen and aggrecan together with increased type X collagen synthesis serve as a beacon for osteoarthritis progression. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. The current study seeks to discover molecules that involved in osteoarthritic chondrocytes phenotype regulation. Differential proteomics was generated with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis between normal articular cartilage (NAC) and advanced osteoarthritic cartilage (AOC). Those differentially expressed proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. The down-regulation of a neuronal silencer, the REST corepressor (CoREST) in AOC, was verified by Western blot. CoREST silencing was performed in primarily cultured NAC chondrocytes with specific siRNA to reveal the possible involvement of CoREST repression in chondrocyte phenotypic genes modulation. Ninteen differentially expressed proteins were screened and identified. Among these proteins, CoREST, HHL, and zinc finger protein 155 were estimated to be possible gene modulators. CoREST protein level was verified to be down-regulated by 69.5% (p < 0.001) in AOC. In response to CoREST knock-down by 64.8% (p < 0.001) in NAC chondrocytes, the gene expression level of the chondrocyte terminal differentiation marker gene, collagen X was found to be up-regulated by 40.0% (p = 0.017), whereas the chondrocyte differentiation phenotypic genes, collagen II and aggrecan were down-regulated by 71.4% (p < 0.001) and 57.6% (p < 0.001), respectively. The results indicate that the silencing of CoREST by siRNA transfection in NAC may reflect CoREST repression in AOC, which results in phenotypic genes modulation and suggests a homeostatic role of this transcription factor in articular chondrocyte.

  10. Effect of forced exercise and exercise withdrawal on memory, serum and hippocampal corticosterone levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Radahmadi, Maryam; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Nasrin

    2015-10-01

    Evidence suggests that there are positive effects of exercise on learning and memory. Moreover, some studies have demonstrated that forced exercise plays the role of a stressor. This study was aimed at investigating the effects of different timing of exercise and exercise withdrawal on memory, and serum and hippocampal corticosterone (CORT) levels. Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, sham, exercise-rest (exercise withdrawal), rest-exercise (exercised group), and exercise-exercise (continuous exercise). Rats were forced to run on a treadmill for 1 h/day at a speed 20-21-m/min. Memory function was evaluated by the passive avoidance test in different intervals (1, 7 and 21 days) after foot shock. Findings showed that after the exercise withdrawal, short-term and mid-term memories, had significant enhancement compared to the control group, while the long-term memory did not present this result. In addition, the serum and hippocampal CORT levels were at the basal levels after the rest period in the exercise-rest group. In the rest-exercise group, exercise improved mid- and long-term memories, whereas continuous exercise improved all types short-, mid- and long-term memories, particularly the mid-term memory. Twenty-one and forty-two days of exercise significantly decreased the serum and hippocampal CORT levels. It seems that exercise for at least 21 days with no rest could affect biochemical factors in the brain. Also, regular continuous exercise plays an important role in memory function. Hence, the duration and withdraw of exercise are important factors for the neurobiological aspects of the memory responses.

  11. The master negative regulator REST/NRSF controls adult neurogenesis by restraining the neurogenic program in quiescent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengliang; Ure, Kerstin; Ding, Peiguo; Nashaat, Mostafa; Yuan, Laura; Ma, Jing; Hammer, Robert E; Hsieh, Jenny

    2011-06-29

    Transcriptional regulation is a critical mechanism in the birth, specification, and differentiation of granule neurons in the adult hippocampus. One of the first negative-acting transcriptional regulators implicated in vertebrate development is repressor element 1-silencing transcription/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF)--thought to regulate hundreds of neuron-specific genes--yet its function in the adult brain remains elusive. Here we report that REST/NRSF is required to maintain the adult neural stem cell (NSC) pool and orchestrate stage-specific differentiation. REST/NRSF recruits CoREST and mSin3A corepressors to stem cell chromatin for the regulation of pro-neuronal target genes to prevent precocious neuronal differentiation in cultured adult NSCs. Moreover, mice lacking REST/NRSF specifically in NSCs display a transient increase in adult neurogenesis that leads to a loss in the neurogenic capacity of NSCs and eventually diminished granule neurons. Our work identifies REST/NRSF as a master negative regulator of adult NSC differentiation and offers a potential molecular target for neuroregenerative approaches. PMID:21715642

  12. Altered resting functional connectivity of expressive language regions after speed reading training.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Michael A; Nielsen, Jared A; Anderson, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    A goal of interventions designed to increase reading speed is to reduce the practice of articulating words in an individual's thoughts, or subvocalization. This practice may require redundant cognitive resources, slow reading speed, and detract from efficient transfer of written words to semantic understanding. It is unclear, however, whether exercises designed to promote faster reading speed generalize to cognitive function beyond the reading task itself. To investigate this possibility, we measured resting state functional connectivity in classical language regions before and after a course of cognitive exercise designed to increase reading speed in 9 healthy adolescent female volunteers. We found significantly decreased correlation between left Broca area and right Broca homologue and between right Broca homologue and right Wernicke homologue in the resting state after the training period compared to before training. Differences in functional connectivity after training to left Broca area showed a spatial distribution reflecting decreased correlation to memory-associated brain regions and increased correlation to auditory regions, which might be consistent with a hypothesis that such training may decrease subvocalization associated with semantic memory function during the resting state.

  13. poolMC: Smart pooling of mRNA samples in microarray experiments

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Typically, pooling of mRNA samples in microarray experiments implies mixing mRNA from several biological-replicate samples before hybridization onto a microarray chip. Here we describe an alternative smart pooling strategy in which different samples, not necessarily biological replicates, are pooled in an information theoretic efficient way. Further, each sample is tested on multiple chips, but always in pools made up of different samples. The end goal is to exploit the compressibility of microarray data to reduce the number of chips used and increase the robustness to noise in measurements. Results A theoretical framework to perform smart pooling of mRNA samples in microarray experiments was established and the software implementation of the pooling and decoding algorithms was developed in MATLAB. A proof-of-concept smart pooled experiment was performed using validated biological samples on commercially available gene chips. Differential-expression analysis of the smart pooled data was performed and compared against the unpooled control experiment. Conclusions The theoretical developments and experimental demonstration in this paper provide a useful starting point to investigate smart pooling of mRNA samples in microarray experiments. Although the smart pooled experiment did not compare favorably with the control, the experiment highlighted important conditions for the successful implementation of smart pooling - linearity of measurements, sparsity in data, and large experiment size. PMID:20525223

  14. Apparatus for draining lower drywell pool water into suppresion pool in boiling water reactor

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus which mitigates temperature stratification in the suppression pool water caused by hot water drained into the suppression pool from the lower drywell pool. The outlet of a spillover hole formed in the inner bounding wall of the suppression pool is connected to and in flow communication with one end of piping. The inlet end of the piping is above the water level in the suppression pool. The piping is routed down the vertical downcomer duct and through a hole formed in the thin wall separating the downcomer duct from the suppression pool water. The piping discharge end preferably has an elevation at or near the bottom of the suppression pool and has a location in the horizontal plane which is removed from the point where the piping first emerges on the suppression pool side of the inner bounding wall of the suppression pool. This enables water at the surface of the lower drywell pool to flow into and be discharged at the bottom of the suppression pool.

  15. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy NUCLEAR... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool...

  16. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy NUCLEAR... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool...

  17. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy NUCLEAR... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool...

  18. 48 CFR 9.703 - Contracting with individual pool members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... individual pool members. 9.703 Section 9.703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Defense Production Pools and Research and Development Pools 9.703 Contracting with individual pool members. (a) Pool members may submit...

  19. 13 CFR 120.1709 - Transfers of Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfers of Pool Certificates... Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1709 Transfers of Pool Certificates. (a) Transfer of Pool Certificates. A Pool Certificate is transferable....

  20. 48 CFR 9.702 - Contracting with pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contracting with pools. 9... PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Defense Production Pools and Research and Development Pools 9.702 Contracting with pools. (a) Except as specified in this subpart, a pool shall be treated the same as any...

  1. 48 CFR 9.703 - Contracting with individual pool members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... individual pool members. 9.703 Section 9.703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Defense Production Pools and Research and Development Pools 9.703 Contracting with individual pool members. (a) Pool members may submit...

  2. 13 CFR 120.1709 - Transfers of Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfers of Pool Certificates... Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1709 Transfers of Pool Certificates. (a) Transfer of Pool Certificates. A Pool Certificate is transferable....

  3. 13 CFR 120.1709 - Transfers of Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfers of Pool Certificates... Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1709 Transfers of Pool Certificates. (a) Transfer of Pool Certificates. A Pool Certificate is transferable....

  4. 48 CFR 9.703 - Contracting with individual pool members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... individual pool members. 9.703 Section 9.703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Defense Production Pools and Research and Development Pools 9.703 Contracting with individual pool members. (a) Pool members may submit...

  5. 48 CFR 9.702 - Contracting with pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contracting with pools. 9... PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Defense Production Pools and Research and Development Pools 9.702 Contracting with pools. (a) Except as specified in this subpart, a pool shall be treated the same as any...

  6. 13 CFR 120.1709 - Transfers of Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfers of Pool Certificates... Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1709 Transfers of Pool Certificates. (a) Transfer of Pool Certificates. A Pool Certificate is transferable....

  7. 48 CFR 9.702 - Contracting with pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contracting with pools. 9... PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Defense Production Pools and Research and Development Pools 9.702 Contracting with pools. (a) Except as specified in this subpart, a pool shall be treated the same as any...

  8. 48 CFR 9.703 - Contracting with individual pool members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... individual pool members. 9.703 Section 9.703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Defense Production Pools and Research and Development Pools 9.703 Contracting with individual pool members. (a) Pool members may submit...

  9. 48 CFR 9.702 - Contracting with pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracting with pools. 9... PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Defense Production Pools and Research and Development Pools 9.702 Contracting with pools. (a) Except as specified in this subpart, a pool shall be treated the same as any...

  10. Swimming Pools. A Guide to Their Planning, Design and Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabrielsen, M. Alexander, Ed.

    Information is presented regarding all phases of swimming pool development and operation from earliest planning considerations to final programing. This comprehensive book covers--(1) the steps involved in planning a pool, (2) designing the pool, (3) water circulation, filtration, and treatment, (4) community pools, school and agency pools, and…

  11. 48 CFR 9.703 - Contracting with individual pool members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... individual pool members. 9.703 Section 9.703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Defense Production Pools and Research and Development Pools 9.703 Contracting with individual pool members. (a) Pool members may submit...

  12. 48 CFR 9.702 - Contracting with pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracting with pools. 9... PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Defense Production Pools and Research and Development Pools 9.702 Contracting with pools. (a) Except as specified in this subpart, a pool shall be treated the same as any...

  13. Pool-riffle Maintenance in Mountain Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartrand, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Pool-riffles are maintained through a combination of at least several mechanisms that operate and interact over a range of temporal and spatial scales. Velocity or shear reversal is subsumed within several of these mechanisms, however a growing body of work suggests that (1) flow convergence into pools, (2) structuring of riffle crest sediments, and (3) local feedbacks between flood stage bedform evolution and hydrodynamics may be disproportionately important. We additionally propose that temporal and spatial patterns of sediment sorting across pool-riffles may also provide some level of bedform maintenance. A comprehensive understanding of these maintenance mechanisms is needed. We will report results of several flume experiments for autogenic pool-riffles. The experiments examined pool-riffle maintenance processes under variable flood and sediment supply conditions. A focus of our work is to characterize spatial and temporal patterns of pool-riffle sediment sorting, and to examine this in relation to temporal patterns of bedform evolution. The experiments represent a 5:1 scale-model of a prototype reach of a pool-riffle stream located within the University of British Columbia Malcolm Knapp Research Forest, Maple Ridge, BC.

  14. Optimum blending gives best pool octane

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, W.E.

    1986-01-20

    Optimum blending of gasoline components can increase the pool octane by 0.1 to 0.5 numbers. To achieve the optimum octane blending scheme, accurate octane blending values must be obtained. These blending values can be developed from an interaction blending study or from generalized predicted interaction coefficients. Many refiners are blending in a non-optimum fashion so that there are some cheap octanes available for the taking by simply changing to an optimum blending scheme. A study of 1984 gasoline compositions indicated that many refiners were blending in a non-optimum fashion and that ''pool octane'' could have been increased almost 0.5 octane. The term pool octane usually refers to the weighted average octane of all of the gasoline components. It can be calculated by multiplying the octane of each component by its fraction of the pool and adding the results. If the components are blended into two or more grades, a second pool octane could be calculated by multiplying the octane of each grade, before any lead antiknock addition, by its fraction of the total pool. The second pool octane will differ from the first because the components do not blend linearly. The octane of a 50:50 blend of two components may be higher or lower than the average of the octanes of the two components.

  15. Regulated selection of germinal-center cells into the memory B cell compartment.

    PubMed

    Shinnakasu, Ryo; Inoue, Takeshi; Kometani, Kohei; Moriyama, Saya; Adachi, Yu; Nakayama, Manabu; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Fukuyama, Hidehiro; Okada, Takaharu; Kurosaki, Tomohiro

    2016-07-01

    Despite the importance of memory B cells in protection from reinfection, how such memory cells are selected and generated during germinal-center (GC) reactions remains unclear. We found here that light-zone (LZ) GC B cells with B cell antigen receptors (BCRs) of lower affinity were prone to enter the memory B cell pool. Mechanistically, cells in this memory-prone fraction had higher expression of the transcriptional repressor Bach2 than that of their counterparts with BCRs of higher affinity. Haploinsufficiency of Bach2 resulted in reduced generation of memory B cells, independently of suppression of the gene encoding the transcription factor Blimp-1. Bach2 expression in GC cells was inversely correlated with the strength of help provided by T cells. Thus, we propose an instructive model in which weak help from T cells maintains relatively high expression of Bach2, which predisposes GC cells to enter the memory pool.

  16. Resting-state connectivity of the amygdala is altered following Pavlovian fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Douglas H; Balderston, Nicholas L; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2012-01-01

    Neural plasticity in the amygdala is necessary for the acquisition and storage of memory in Pavlovian fear conditioning, but most neuroimaging studies have focused only on stimulus-evoked responses during the conditioning session. This study examined changes in the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the amygdala before and after Pavlovian fear conditioning, an emotional learning task. Behavioral results from the conditioning session revealed that participants learned normally and fMRI data recorded during learning identified a number of stimulus-evoked changes that were consistent with previous work. A direct comparison between the pre- and post-conditioning amygdala connectivity revealed a region of dorsal prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the superior frontal gyrus that showed a significant increase in connectivity following the conditioning session. A behavioral measure of explicit memory performance was positively correlated with the change in amygdala connectivity within a neighboring region in the superior frontal gyrus. Additionally, an implicit autonomic measure of conditioning was positively correlated with the change in connectivity between the amygdala and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). The resting-state data show that amygdala connectivity is altered following Pavlovian fear conditioning and that these changes are also related to behavioral outcomes. These alterations may reflect the operation of a consolidation process that strengthens neural connections to support memory after the learning event.

  17. Distributed Technologies in a Data Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiser, K.; Conover, H.; Graves, S.; He, Y.; Regner, K.; Smith, M.

    2004-12-01

    A Data Pool is an on-line repository providing interactive and programmatic access to data products through a variety of services. The University of Alabama in Huntsville has developed and deployed such a Data Pool in conjunction with the DISCOVER project, a collaboration with NASA and Remote Sensing Systems. DISCOVER provides long-term ocean and climate data from a variety of passive microwave satellite instruments, including such products as sea-surface temperature and wind, air temperature, atmospheric water vapor, cloud water and rain rate. The Data Pool provides multiple methods to access and visualize these products, including conventional HTTP and FTP access, as well as data services that provide for enhanced usability and interoperability, such as GridFTP, OPeNDAP, OpenGIS-compliant web mapping and coverage services, and custom subsetting and packaging services. This paper will focus on the distributed service technologies used in the Data Pool, which spans heterogeneous machines at multiple locations. For example, in order to provide seamless access to data at multiple sites, the Data Pool provides catalog services for all data products at the various data server locations. Under development is an automated metadata generation tool that crawls the online data repositories regularly to dynamically update the Data Pool catalog with information about newly generated data files. For efficient handling of data orders across distributed repositories, the Data Pool also implements distributed data processing services on the file servers where the data resides. Ontologies are planned to support automated service chaining for custom user requests. The UAH Data Pool is based on a configurable technology framework that integrates distributed data services with a web interface and a set of centralized database services for catalogs and order tracking. While this instantiation of the Data Pool was implemented to meet the needs of the DISCOVER project, the framework was

  18. Magnetic characterization of Daphnia resting eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Sakata, Masanobu; Kawasaki, Tamami . E-mail: tamami@rtri.or.jp; Shibue, Toshimichi; Takada, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Hideyuki; Namiki, Hideo

    2006-12-15

    This study characterized the magnetic materials found within Daphnia resting eggs by measuring static magnetization with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer, after forming two types of conditions, each of which consists of zero-field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC). Magnetic ions, such as Fe{sup 3+}, contained in Daphnia resting eggs existed as (1) paramagnetic and superparamagnetic particles, demonstrated by a magnetization and temperature dependence of the magnetic moments under an applied magnetic field after ZFC and FC, and (2) ferromagnetic particles with definite magnetic moments, the content of which was estimated to be very low, demonstrated by the Moskowitz test. Conventionally, biomagnets have been directly detected by transmission electron microscopes (TEM). As demonstrated in this study, it is possible to nondestructively detect small biomagnets by magnetization measurement, especially after two types of ZFC and FC. This nondestructive method can be applied in detecting biomagnets in complex biological organisms.

  19. An algae-covered alligator rests warily

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    An algae-covered alligator keeps a wary eye open as it rests in one of the ponds at Kennedy Space Center. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  20. Information Flow Between Resting-State Networks

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Ibai; Erramuzpe, Asier; Escudero, Iñaki; Mateos, Beatriz; Cabrera, Alberto; Marinazzo, Daniele; Sanz-Arigita, Ernesto J.; Stramaglia, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The resting brain dynamics self-organize into a finite number of correlated patterns known as resting-state networks (RSNs). It is well known that techniques such as independent component analysis can separate the brain activity at rest to provide such RSNs, but the specific pattern of interaction between RSNs is not yet fully understood. To this aim, we propose here a novel method to compute the information flow (IF) between different RSNs from resting-state magnetic resonance imaging. After hemodynamic response function blind deconvolution of all voxel signals, and under the hypothesis that RSNs define regions of interest, our method first uses principal component analysis to reduce dimensionality in each RSN to next compute IF (estimated here in terms of transfer entropy) between the different RSNs by systematically increasing k (the number of principal components used in the calculation). When k=1, this method is equivalent to computing IF using the average of all voxel activities in each RSN. For k≥1, our method calculates the k multivariate IF between the different RSNs. We find that the average IF among RSNs is dimension dependent, increasing from k=1 (i.e., the average voxel activity) up to a maximum occurring at k=5 and to finally decay to zero for k≥10. This suggests that a small number of components (close to five) is sufficient to describe the IF pattern between RSNs. Our method—addressing differences in IF between RSNs for any generic data—can be used for group comparison in health or disease. To illustrate this, we have calculated the inter-RSN IF in a data set of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to find that the most significant differences between AD and controls occurred for k=2, in addition to AD showing increased IF w.r.t. controls. The spatial localization of the k=2 component, within RSNs, allows the characterization of IF differences between AD and controls. PMID:26177254

  1. "Let It Rest:" Reflecting on Instructional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontichiaro, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Top Chef is one of America's top food television shows. In one episode, lead judge Tom Colicchio, chef and restaurant owner, chides a contestant for hurriedly slicing a piece of meat as soon as it had emerged from the oven. The meat was fully cooked, but the competitor had not "let it rest," or let it steep in its own juices outside the oven for…

  2. Keeping an eye on the rest of the body.

    PubMed

    Wright, I S

    1987-09-01

    The health problems of the elderly are multiplying exponentially with the demographic changes in our aging population. Visual impairment represents one of the most significant of these problems, not only in terms of eye diseases, but because of the associated dangers affecting the rest of the body. The gradual loss of vision, especially if it first affects one eye, is often ignored or denied until it is far advanced with marked functional impairment or causes serious accident. A high percentage of falls, often with resulting fractures, is a direct result of poor vision, but in the elderly this risk is frequently compounded by unsteady gait, osteoporosis, and poor lighting. Misuse of medication, especially with overdose is frequent when directions are in small print. Misuse can be exacerbated by poor memory. The risk of driving accidents is increased. Although notable progress has been made in technical approaches to ophthalmology, many serious problems such as macular and retinal degeneration remain unsolved. The American Federation for Aging Research, which is dedicated to the support of research in all biomedical changes associated with aging, has an active interest in basic research in the field of visual impairment with other changes and diseases in our elderly population.

  3. Attenuated anticorrelation between the default and dorsal attention networks with aging: evidence from task and rest.

    PubMed

    Spreng, R Nathan; Stevens, W Dale; Viviano, Joseph D; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-09-01

    Anticorrelation between the default and dorsal attention networks is a central feature of human functional brain organization. Hallmarks of aging include impaired default network modulation and declining medial temporal lobe (MTL) function. However, it remains unclear if this anticorrelation is preserved into older adulthood during task performance, or how this is related to the intrinsic architecture of the brain. We hypothesized that older adults would show reduced within- and increased between-network functional connectivity (FC) across the default and dorsal attention networks. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of aging on task-related and intrinsic FC using functional magnetic resonance imaging during an autobiographical planning task known to engage the default network and during rest, respectively, with young (n = 72) and older (n = 79) participants. The task-related FC analysis revealed reduced anticorrelation with aging. At rest, there was a robust double dissociation, with older adults showing a pattern of reduced within-network FC, but increased between-network FC, across both networks, relative to young adults. Moreover, older adults showed reduced intrinsic resting-state FC of the MTL with both networks suggesting a fractionation of the MTL memory system in healthy aging. These findings demonstrate age-related dedifferentiation among these competitive large-scale networks during both task and rest, consistent with the idea that age-related changes are associated with a breakdown in the intrinsic functional architecture within and among large-scale brain networks. PMID:27459935

  4. Attenuated anticorrelation between the default and dorsal attention networks with aging: evidence from task and rest.

    PubMed

    Spreng, R Nathan; Stevens, W Dale; Viviano, Joseph D; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-09-01

    Anticorrelation between the default and dorsal attention networks is a central feature of human functional brain organization. Hallmarks of aging include impaired default network modulation and declining medial temporal lobe (MTL) function. However, it remains unclear if this anticorrelation is preserved into older adulthood during task performance, or how this is related to the intrinsic architecture of the brain. We hypothesized that older adults would show reduced within- and increased between-network functional connectivity (FC) across the default and dorsal attention networks. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of aging on task-related and intrinsic FC using functional magnetic resonance imaging during an autobiographical planning task known to engage the default network and during rest, respectively, with young (n = 72) and older (n = 79) participants. The task-related FC analysis revealed reduced anticorrelation with aging. At rest, there was a robust double dissociation, with older adults showing a pattern of reduced within-network FC, but increased between-network FC, across both networks, relative to young adults. Moreover, older adults showed reduced intrinsic resting-state FC of the MTL with both networks suggesting a fractionation of the MTL memory system in healthy aging. These findings demonstrate age-related dedifferentiation among these competitive large-scale networks during both task and rest, consistent with the idea that age-related changes are associated with a breakdown in the intrinsic functional architecture within and among large-scale brain networks.

  5. Structural foundations of resting-state and task-based functional connectivity in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Hermundstad, Ann M; Bassett, Danielle S; Brown, Kevin S; Aminoff, Elissa M; Clewett, David; Freeman, Scott; Frithsen, Amy; Johnson, Arianne; Tipper, Christine M; Miller, Michael B; Grafton, Scott T; Carlson, Jean M

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging enables the noninvasive mapping of both anatomical white matter connectivity and dynamic patterns of neural activity in the human brain. We examine the relationship between the structural properties of white matter streamlines (structural connectivity) and the functional properties of correlations in neural activity (functional connectivity) within 84 healthy human subjects both at rest and during the performance of attention- and memory-demanding tasks. We show that structural properties, including the length, number, and spatial location of white matter streamlines, are indicative of and can be inferred from the strength of resting-state and task-based functional correlations between brain regions. These results, which are both representative of the entire set of subjects and consistently observed within individual subjects, uncover robust links between structural and functional connectivity in the human brain.

  6. Resting-state qEEG predicts rate of second language learning in adults.

    PubMed

    Prat, Chantel S; Yamasaki, Brianna L; Kluender, Reina A; Stocco, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the neurobiological basis of individual differences in second language acquisition (SLA) is important for research on bilingualism, learning, and neural plasticity. The current study used quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) to predict SLA in college-aged individuals. Baseline, eyes-closed resting-state qEEG was used to predict language learning rate during eight weeks of French exposure using an immersive, virtual scenario software. Individual qEEG indices predicted up to 60% of the variability in SLA, whereas behavioral indices of fluid intelligence, executive functioning, and working-memory capacity were not correlated with learning rate. Specifically, power in beta and low-gamma frequency ranges over right temporoparietal regions were strongly positively correlated with SLA. These results highlight the utility of resting-state EEG for studying the neurobiological basis of SLA in a relatively construct-free, paradigm-independent manner. PMID:27164483

  7. [Microecology of nuclear reactor pool water].

    PubMed

    Mal'tsev, V N; Saadavi, A; Aĭiad, A; El'gaui, O; Shlip, M

    1996-01-01

    In the course of research it was found that the circulation of pool water through the nuclear reactor core produces a bactericidal effect of microflora due to the influence of radiation of various types. The amount of microbes returns to initial level after 2-4 months after circulation was stopped. Microflora of pool water comprises large amounts of coccus, Gram-positive rods, fungi and a lower content of Gram-negative rods if compared to water which had been used to fill reactor pool. No difference in radioresistance was noticed for unitype microbes isolated from initial water and from reactor pool water. Quality of microflora reflects a unique phenomenon called "selection" which results in vanishing of all the radiosensitive types of microbes and survival of the radioresistant types. Radioresistance grows with increasing of catalase and nuclease activity.

  8. Pooled genomic indexing of rhesus macaque

    PubMed Central

    Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Harris, Ronald A.; Sodergren, Erica J.; Jackson, Andrew R.; Kalafus, Ken J.; Hodgson, Anne; Cree, Andrew; Dai, Weilie; Csuros, Miklos; Zhu, Baoli; de Jong, Pieter J.; Weinstock, George M.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    Pooled genomic indexing (PGI) is a method for mapping collections of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones between species by using a combination of clone pooling and DNA sequencing. PGI has been used to map a total of 3858 BAC clones covering ∼24% of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) genome onto 4178 homologous loci in the human genome. A number of intrachromosomal rearrangements were detected by mapping multiple segments within the individual rhesus BACs onto multiple disjoined loci in the human genome. Transversal pooling designs involving shuffled BAC arrays were employed for robust mapping even with modest DNA sequence read coverage. A further innovation, short-tag pooled genomic indexing (ST-PGI), was also introduced to further improve the economy of mapping by sequencing multiple, short, mapable tags within a single sequencing reaction. PMID:15687293

  9. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Tide Pool Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Students investigated the salinity of tide pools at different levels in the intertidal zone. Data are analyzed collectively. Students graphed and discussed data. Included are suggestions for evaluation and further study. (Author)

  10. How to map your industry's profit pool.

    PubMed

    Gadiesh, O; Gilbert, J L

    1998-01-01

    Many managers chart strategy without a full understanding of the sources and distribution of profits in their industry. Sometimes they focus their sights on revenues instead of profits, mistakenly assuming that revenue growth will eventually translate into profit growth. In other cases, they simply lack the data or the analytical tools required to isolate and measure variations in profitability. In this Manager's Tool Kit, the authors present a way to think clearly about where the money's being made in any industry. They describe a framework for analyzing how profits are distributed among the activities that form an industry's value chain. Such an analysis can provide a company's managers with a rich understanding of their industry's profit structure--what the authors call its profit pool--enabling them to identify which activities are generating disproportionately large or small shares of profits. Even more important, a profit-pool map opens a window onto the underlying structure of the industry, helping managers see the various forces that are determining the distribution of profits. As such, a profit-pool map provides a solid basis for strategic thinking. Mapping a profit pool involves four steps: defining the boundaries of the pool, estimating the pool's overall size, estimating the size of each value-chain activity in the pool, and checking and reconciling the calculations. The authors briefly describe each step and then apply the process by providing a detailed example of a hypothetical retail bank. They conclude by looking at ways of organizing the data in chart form as a first step toward plotting a profit-pool strategy.

  11. Performance Study of Swimming Pool Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a controlled laboratory study on the efficiency and emissions of swimming pool heaters based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected variations in operational parameters. Swimming pool heater sales trends have indicated a significant decline in the number of conventional natural gas-fired swimming pool heaters (NGPH). On Long Island the decline has been quite sharp, on the order of 50%, in new installations since 2001. The major portion of the decline has been offset by a significant increase in the sales of electric powered heat pump pool heaters (HPPH) that have been gaining market favor. National Grid contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to measure performance factors in order to compare the relative energy, environmental and economic consequences of using one technology versus the other. A field study was deemed inappropriate because of the wide range of differences in actual load variations (pool size), geographic orientations, ground plantings and shading variations, number of hours of use, seasonal use variations, occupancy patterns, hour of the day use patterns, temperature selection, etc. A decision was made to perform a controlled laboratory study based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected operational variations in parameters. Critical to this are the frequency of use, temperature selection, and sizing of the heater to the associated pool heating loads. This would be accomplished by installing a limited amount of relatively simple compact field data acquisition units on selected pool installations. This data included gas usage when available and alternately heater power or gas consumption rates were inferred from the manufacturer's specifications when direct metering was not available in the field. Figure 1 illustrates a typical pool heater installation layout.

  12. Profit pools: a fresh look at strategy.

    PubMed

    Gadiesh, O; Gilbert, J L

    1998-01-01

    In charting strategy, many managers focus on revenue growth, assuming that profits will follow. But that approach is dangerous: today's deep revenue pool may become tomorrow's dry hole. To create strategies that result in profitable growth, managers need to look beyond revenues to see the shape of their industry's profit pool. The authors define an industry's profit pool as the total profits earned at all points along the industry's value chain. Although the concept is simple, the structure of a profit pool is usually quite complex. The pool will be deeper in some segments of the value chain than in others, and depths will vary within an individual segment as well. Segment profitability may, for example, vary widely by customer group, product category, geographic market, and distribution channel. Moreover, the pattern of profit concentration in an industry will often be very different from the pattern of revenue concentration. The authors describe how successful companies have gained competitive advantage by developing sophisticated profit-pool strategies. They explain how U-Haul identified new sources of profit in the consumer-truck-rental industry; how Merck reached beyond its traditional value-chain role to protect its profits in the pharmaceuticals industry; how Dell rebounded from a misguided channel decision by refocusing on its traditional source of profit; and how Anheuser-Busch made a series of astute product, pricing, and operating decisions to dominate the beer industry's profit pool. The companies with the best understanding of their industry's profit pool, the authors argue, will be in the best position to thrive over the long term.

  13. Welding pool measurement using thermal array sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Chia-Hung; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Chen, Hsin-Yi

    2015-08-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that uses a high-power laser beam to melt metal powder in chamber of inert gas. The process starts by slicing the 3D CAD data as a digital information source into layers to create a 2D image of each layer. Melting pool was formed by using laser irradiation on metal powders which then solidified to consolidated structure. In a selective laser melting process, the variation of melt pool affects the yield of a printed three-dimensional product. For three dimensional parts, the border conditions of the conductive heat transport have a very large influence on the melt pool dimensions. Therefore, melting pool is an important behavior that affects the final quality of the 3D object. To meet the temperature and geometry of the melting pool for monitoring in additive manufacturing technology. In this paper, we proposed the temperature sensing system which is composed of infrared photodiode, high speed camera, band-pass filter, dichroic beam splitter and focus lens. Since the infrared photodiode and high speed camera look at the process through the 2D galvanometer scanner and f-theta lens, the temperature sensing system can be used to observe the melting pool at any time, regardless of the movement of the laser spot. In order to obtain a wide temperature detecting range, 500 °C to 2500 °C, the radiation from the melting pool to be measured is filtered into a plurality of radiation portions, and since the intensity ratio distribution of the radiation portions is calculated by using black-body radiation. The experimental result shows that the system is suitable for melting pool to measure temperature.

  14. Electromagnetic Interference in a Private Swimming Pool

    PubMed Central

    Iskandar, Sandia; Lavu, Madhav; Atoui, Moustapha; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya

    2016-01-01

    Although current lead design and filtering capabilities have greatly improved, Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) from environmental sources has been increasingly reported in patients with Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device (CIED) [1]. Few cases of inappropriate intracardiac Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) associated with swimming pool has been described [2]. Here we present a case of 64 year old male who presented with an interesting EMI signal that was subsequently identified to be related to AC current leak in his swimming pool. PMID:27479205

  15. Characterisation of the Permafrost Carbon Pool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhry, P.; Grosse, G.; Harden, J.W.; Hugelius, G.; Koven, C.D.; Ping, C.-L.; Schirrmeister, L.; Tarnocai, C.

    2013-01-01

    The current estimate of the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool in the northern permafrost region of 1672 Petagrams (Pg) C is much larger than previously reported and needs to be incorporated in global soil carbon (C) inventories. The Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (NCSCD), extended to include the range 0–300 cm, is now available online for wider use by the scientific community. An important future aim is to provide quantitative uncertainty ranges for C pool estimates. Recent studies have greatly improved understanding of the regional patterns, landscape distribution and vertical (soil horizon) partitioning of the permafrost C pool in the upper 3 m of soils. However, the deeper C pools in unconsolidated Quaternary deposits need to be better constrained. A general lability classification of the permafrost C pool should be developed to address potential C release upon thaw. The permafrost C pool and its dynamics are beginning to be incorporated into Earth System models, although key periglacial processes such as thermokarst still need to be properly represented to obtain a better quantification of the full permafrost C feedback on global climate change.

  16. Pool Boiling Experiment Has Five Successful Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiaramonte, Fran

    1997-01-01

    The Pool Boiling Experiment (PBE) is designed to improve understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that constitute nucleate pool boiling. Nucleate pool boiling is a process wherein a stagnant pool of liquid is in contact with a surface that can supply heat to the liquid. If the liquid absorbs enough heat, a vapor bubble can be formed. This process occurs when a pot of water boils. On Earth, gravity tends to remove the vapor bubble from the heating surface because it is dominated by buoyant convection. In the orbiting space shuttle, however, buoyant convection has much less of an effect because the forces of gravity are very small. The Pool Boiling Experiment was initiated to provide insight into this nucleate boiling process, which has many earthbound applications in steamgeneration power plants, petroleum plants, and other chemical plants. In addition, by using the test fluid R-113, the Pool Boiling Experiment can provide some basic understanding of the boiling behavior of cryogenic fluids without the large cost of an experiment using an actual cryogen.

  17. Pool Boiling Experiment Has Successful Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pool Boiling Experiment (PBE) is designed to improve understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that constitute nucleate pool boiling. Nucleate pool boiling is a process wherein a stagnant pool of liquid is in contact with a surface that can supply heat to the liquid. If the liquid absorbs enough heat, a vapor bubble can be formed. This process occurs when a pot of water boils. On Earth, gravity tends to remove the vapor bubble from the heating surface because it is dominated by buoyant convection. In the orbiting space shuttle, however, buoyant convection has much less of an effect because the forces of gravity are very small. The Pool Boiling Experiment was initiated to provide insight into this nucleate boiling process, which has many Earthbound applications, such as steam-generation power plants, petroleum, and other chemical plants. Also, by using the test fluid R-113, the Pool Boiling Experiment can provide some basic understanding of the boiling behavior of cryogenic fluids without the large cost of an experiment using an actual cryogen.

  18. Disentangling pooled triad genotypes for association studies.

    PubMed

    Shi, Min; Umbach, David M; Weinberg, Clarice R

    2014-09-01

    Association studies that genotype affected offspring and their parents (triads) offer robustness to genetic population structure while enabling assessments of maternal effects, parent-of-origin effects, and gene-by-environment interaction. We propose case-parents designs that use pooled DNA specimens to make economical use of limited available specimens. One can markedly reduce the number of genotyping assays required by randomly partitioning the case-parent triads into pooling sets of h triads each and creating three pools from every pooling set, one pool each for mothers, fathers, and offspring. Maximum-likelihood estimation of relative risk parameters proceeds via log-linear modeling using the expectation-maximization algorithm. The approach can assess offspring and maternal genetic effects and accommodate genotyping errors and missing genotypes. We compare the power of our proposed analysis for testing offspring and maternal genetic effects to that based on a difference approach and that of the gold standard based on individual genotypes, under a range of allele frequencies, missing parent proportions, and genotyping error rates. Power calculations show that the pooling strategies cause only modest reductions in power if genotyping errors are low, while reducing genotyping costs and conserving limited specimens.

  19. A human brain atlas derived via n-cut parcellation of resting-state and task-based fMRI data.

    PubMed

    James, George Andrew; Hazaroglu, Onder; Bush, Keith A

    2016-02-01

    The growth of functional MRI has led to development of human brain atlases derived by parcellating resting-state connectivity patterns into functionally independent regions of interest (ROIs). All functional atlases to date have been derived from resting-state fMRI data. But given that functional connectivity between regions varies with task, we hypothesized that an atlas incorporating both resting-state and task-based fMRI data would produce an atlas with finer characterization of task-relevant regions than an atlas derived from resting-state alone. To test this hypothesis, we derived parcellation atlases from twenty-nine healthy adult participants enrolled in the Cognitive Connectome project, an initiative to improve functional MRI's translation into clinical decision-making by mapping normative variance in brain-behavior relationships. Participants underwent resting-state and task-based fMRI spanning nine cognitive domains: motor, visuospatial, attention, language, memory, affective processing, decision-making, working memory, and executive function. Spatially constrained n-cut parcellation derived brain atlases using (1) all participants' functional data (Task) or (2) a single resting-state scan (Rest). An atlas was also derived from random parcellation for comparison purposes (Random). Two methods were compared: (1) a parcellation applied to the group's mean edge weights (mean), and (2) a two-stage approach with parcellation of individual edge weights followed by parcellation of mean binarized edges (two-stage). The resulting Task and Rest atlases had significantly greater similarity with each other (mean Jaccard indices JI=0.72-0.85) than with the Random atlases (JI=0.59-0.63; all p<0.001 after Bonferroni correction). Task and Rest atlas similarity was greatest for the two-stage method (JI=0.85), which has been shown as more robust than the mean method; these atlases also better reproduced voxelwise seed maps of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during

  20. Regulation of power pools and system operators: An international comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, J. Jr.; Tenenbaum, B.; Woolf, F.

    1997-12-31

    This paper focuses on the governance and regulation of power pools outside the United States. The current governance and regulatory arrangements for four power pools, as developed in pool documents and government regulations and laws, are compared and contrasted. The power pools analyzed are located in England and Wales, Australia, Canada, and Scandinavia. Topics discussed in relation to these pools are the effects of structure on governance, how each pool has dealt with a number of basic governance decisions, how the pools monitor the markets, ways in which regulators and other institutions control pools, and self-governance issues.

  1. Spatially Extended Memory Models of Cardiac Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Jeffrey; Riccio, Mark; Hua, Fei; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Gilmour, Robert

    2002-03-01

    Beat-to-beat alternation of cardiac electrical properties (alternans) commonly occurs during rapid periodic pacing. Although alternans is generally associated with a resititution curve with slope >=1, recent studies by Gauthier and co-workers reported the absence of alternans in frog heart tissue with a restitution curve of slope >=1. These experimental findings were understood in terms of a memory model in which the duration D of an action potential depends on the preceding rest interval I as well as a memory variable M that accumulates during D and dissipates during I. We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of a spatially extended 1-d fiber using an ionic model that exhibits memory effects. We find that while a single cell can have a restitution slope >=1 and not show alternans (because of memory), the spatially extended system exhibits alternans. To understand the dynamical mechanism of this behavior, we study a coupled maps memory model both numerically and analytically. These results illustrate that spatial effects and memory effects can play a significant role in determining the dynamics of wave propagation in cardiac tissue.

  2. Self, cortical midline structures and the resting state: Implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Marina; Northoff, Georg; Damasceno, Benito Pereira; Balthazar, Marcio Luiz Figueredo

    2016-09-01

    Different aspects of the self have been reported to be affected in many neurological or psychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), including mainly higher-level cognitive self-unawareness. This higher sense of self-awareness is most likely related to and dependent on episodic memory, due to the proper integration of ourselves in time, with a permanent conservation of ourselves (i.e., sense of continuity across time). Reviewing studies in this field, our objective is thus to raise possible explanations, especially with the help of neuroimaging studies, for where such self-awareness deficits originate in AD patients. We describe not only episodic (and autobiographical memory) impairment in patients, but also the important role of cortical midline structures, the Default Mode Network, and the resting state (intrinsic brain activity) for the processing of self-related information.

  3. Self, cortical midline structures and the resting state: Implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Marina; Northoff, Georg; Damasceno, Benito Pereira; Balthazar, Marcio Luiz Figueredo

    2016-09-01

    Different aspects of the self have been reported to be affected in many neurological or psychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), including mainly higher-level cognitive self-unawareness. This higher sense of self-awareness is most likely related to and dependent on episodic memory, due to the proper integration of ourselves in time, with a permanent conservation of ourselves (i.e., sense of continuity across time). Reviewing studies in this field, our objective is thus to raise possible explanations, especially with the help of neuroimaging studies, for where such self-awareness deficits originate in AD patients. We describe not only episodic (and autobiographical memory) impairment in patients, but also the important role of cortical midline structures, the Default Mode Network, and the resting state (intrinsic brain activity) for the processing of self-related information. PMID:27235083

  4. Changes in Neural Connectivity and Memory Following a Yoga Intervention for Older Adults: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, Harris A.; Acevedo, Bianca; Yang, Hongyu; Siddarth, Prabha; Van Dyk, Kathleen; Ercoli, Linda; Leaver, Amber M.; Cyr, Natalie St.; Narr, Katherine; Baune, Bernhard T.; Khalsa, Dharma S.; Lavretsky, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background: No study has explored the effect of yoga on cognitive decline and resting-state functional connectivity. Objectives: This study explored the relationship between performance on memory tests and resting-state functional connectivity before and after a yoga intervention versus active control for subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: Participants ( ≥ 55 y) with MCI were randomized to receive a yoga intervention or active “gold-standard” control (i.e., memory enhancement training (MET)) for 12 weeks. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to map correlations between brain networks and memory performance changes over time. Default mode networks (DMN), language and superior parietal networks were chosen as networks of interest to analyze the association with changes in verbal and visuospatial memory performance. Results: Fourteen yoga and 11 MET participants completed the study. The yoga group demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in depression and visuospatial memory. We observed improved verbal memory performance correlated with increased connectivity between the DMN and frontal medial cortex, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, right middle frontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and left lateral occipital cortex. Improved verbal memory performance positively correlated with increased connectivity between the language processing network and the left inferior frontal gyrus. Improved visuospatial memory performance correlated inversely with connectivity between the superior parietal network and the medial parietal cortex. Conclusion:Yoga may be as effective as MET in improving functional connectivity in relation to verbal memory performance. These findings should be confirmed in larger prospective studies. PMID:27060939

  5. Traveling and resting crystals in active systems.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Andreas M; Löwen, Hartmut

    2013-02-01

    A microscopic field theory for crystallization in active systems is proposed which unifies the phase-field-crystal model of freezing with the Toner-Tu theory for self-propelled particles. A wealth of different active crystalline states are predicted and characterized. In particular, for increasing strength of self-propulsion, a transition from a resting crystal to a traveling crystalline state is found where the particles migrate collectively while keeping their crystalline order. Our predictions, which are verifiable in experiments and in particle-resolved computer simulations, provide a starting point for the design of new active materials.

  6. Exercise countermeasures for bed rest deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The major objectives were to evaluate the efficiency of different modes of exercise (isotonic and isokinetic) for countering the effects of bed rest deconditioning on work capacity (peak oxygen uptake), muscular strength, orthostatic tolerance, posture, equilibrium and gait; and to collect additional data of a more fundamental nature to help understand how these deconditioning responses occur. These data will be used for writing prescriptions for exercise to be utilized by astronauts for maintaining work capacity and well-being on Freedom Station, and to determine what exercise devices should be place in the station.

  7. How cold pool triggers deep convection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Jun-Ichi

    2014-05-01

    The cold pool in the boundary layer is often considered a major triggering mechanism of convection. Here, presented are basic theoretical considerations on this issue. Observations suggest that cold pool-generated convective cells is available for shallow maritime convection (Warner et al. 1979; Zuidema et al. 2012), maritime deep convection (Barnes and Garstang 1982; Addis et al. 1984; Young et al. 1995) and continental deep convection (e.g., Lima and Wilson 2008; Flamant 2009; Lothon et al. 2011; Dione et al. 2013). Moreover, numerical studies appear to suggest that cold pools promote the organization of clouds into larger structures and thereby aid the transition from shallow to deep convection (Khairoutdinov and Randall 2006, Boing et al. 2012, Schlemmer and Hohenegger, 2014). Even a cold--pool parameterization coupled with convection is already proposed (Grandpeix and Lafore 2010: but see also Yano 2012). However, the suggested link between the cold pool and deep convection so far is phenomenological at the best. A specific process that the cold pool leads to a trigger of deep convection must still to be pinned down. Naively, one may imagine that a cold pool lifts up the air at the front as it propagates. Such an uplifting leads to a trigger of convection. However, one must realize that a shift of air along with its propagation does not necessarily lead to an uplifting, and even if it may happen, it would not far exceed a depth of the cold pool itself. Thus, the uplifting can never be anything vigorous. Its thermodynamic characteristics do help much either for inducing convection. The cold-pool air is rather under rapid recovering process before it can induce convection under a simple parcel-lifting argument. The most likely reason that the cold pool may induce convection is its gust winds that may encounter an air mass from an opposite direction. This induces a strong convergence, also leading to a strong uplifting. This is an argument essentially developed

  8. Framework for ReSTful Web Services in OSGi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Khawaja S.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Mittman, David S.; Fox, Jason M.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Wallick, Michael N.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Rabe, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ensemble ReST is a software system that eases the development, deployment, and maintenance of server-side application programs to perform functions that would otherwise be performed by client software. Ensemble ReST takes advantage of the proven disciplines of ReST (Representational State Transfer. ReST leverages the standardized HTTP protocol to enable developers to offer services to a diverse variety of clients: from shell scripts to sophisticated Java application suites

  9. Cyst Distribution and Hatching Pattern of Chirocephalus ruffoi (Crustacea, Anostraca) in an Experimental Undisturbed Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mura, Graziella

    2005-06-01

    The pattern of cyst distribution in the absence of turbation and their hatching behaviour were studied in an outdoor artificial pool, where just differentiated adults of the anostracan Chirocephalus ruffoi (sex ratio 1:3) lived until it dried up. The horizontal and vertical distributions of cysts in the pool bed were determined. The comparison between cyst bank estimate (Mura, 2004) and the actual number of cysts counted in the pool bed revealed an estimate error of 20.9%. Resting eggs occurred only in the upper 2.5 cm thick soil sections and decreased within this section as depth increased. Peripheral areas of the pool contained significantly larger numbers of cysts than the central area. Multiway analysis on the results recorded in hatching success (nested ANOVA) revealed that the differences were significantly affected by initial soil conditions, treatment and vertical distribution of cysts. Among these factors, vertical distribution (sections nested in cores) was the most influential. Hatching success was significantly inversely related to depth. Differences in the timing of hatching depending on the above considered factors were also noted. A nearly synchronous hatching pattern was observed only for cysts from initially dry sediment of the uppermost layers. In all successively deeper layers, hatching showed multiple peaks and was increasingly delayed and erratic (already mentioned). ANCOVA within each of the experimental conditions revealed significant differences in hatching frequencies (time as covariate) depending on sediment depth. Within any given layer, ANCOVA revealed a significant influence of initial sediment conditions and treatment on the timing of hatching.

  10. Coupling dynamic blow down and pool evaporation model for LNG.

    PubMed

    Woodward, John L

    2007-02-20

    Treating the dynamic effects of accidental discharges of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is important for realistic predictions of pool radius. Two phenomena have important influence on pool spread dynamics, time-varying discharge (blow down) and pool ignition. Time-varying discharge occurs because a punctured LNG tanker or storage tank drains with a decreasing liquid head and decreasing head-space pressure. Pool ignition increases the evaporation rate of a pool and consequently decreases the ultimate pool area. This paper describes an approach to treat these phenomena in a dynamic pool evaporation model. The pool evaporation model developed here has two separate regimes. Early in the spill, momentum forces dominate and the pool spreads independently of pool evaporation rate and the corresponding heat transfer rate. After the average pool depth drops below a minimum value, momentum forces are largely dissipated and the thin edges of the pool completely evaporate, so pool area is established by the heat transfer rate. The maximum extent of a burning pool is predicted to be significantly less than that of an unignited pool because the duration of the first regime is reduced by higher heat transfer rates. The maximum extent of an LNG pool is predicted to be larger upon accounting for blow down compared with using a constant average discharge rate. However, the maximum pool extent occurs only momentarily before retreating. PMID:17184912

  11. 23 CFR 752.5 - Safety rest areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Safety rest areas. 752.5 Section 752.5 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.5 Safety rest areas. (a) Safety rest areas should provide facilities reasonably...

  12. 23 CFR 752.5 - Safety rest areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Safety rest areas. 752.5 Section 752.5 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.5 Safety rest areas. (a) Safety rest areas should provide facilities reasonably...

  13. Memory Retrieval and Interference: Working Memory Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Copeland, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Working memory capacity has been suggested as a factor that is involved in long-term memory retrieval, particularly when that retrieval involves a need to overcome some sort of interference (Bunting, Conway, & Heitz, 2004; Cantor & Engle, 1993). Previous work has suggested that working memory is related to the acquisition of information during…

  14. Episodic memory, semantic memory, and amnesia.

    PubMed

    Squire, L R; Zola, S M

    1998-01-01

    Episodic memory and semantic memory are two types of declarative memory. There have been two principal views about how this distinction might be reflected in the organization of memory functions in the brain. One view, that episodic memory and semantic memory are both dependent on the integrity of medial temporal lobe and midline diencephalic structures, predicts that amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe/diencephalic damage should be proportionately impaired in both episodic and semantic memory. An alternative view is that the capacity for semantic memory is spared, or partially spared, in amnesia relative to episodic memory ability. This article reviews two kinds of relevant data: 1) case studies where amnesia has occurred early in childhood, before much of an individual's semantic knowledge has been acquired, and 2) experimental studies with amnesic patients of fact and event learning, remembering and knowing, and remote memory. The data provide no compelling support for the view that episodic and semantic memory are affected differently in medial temporal lobe/diencephalic amnesia. However, episodic and semantic memory may be dissociable in those amnesic patients who additionally have severe frontal lobe damage.

  15. Resting state functional connectivity in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Phillipou, Andrea; Abel, Larry Allen; Castle, David Jonathan; Hughes, Matthew Edward; Nibbs, Richard Grant; Gurvich, Caroline; Rossell, Susan Lee

    2016-05-30

    Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric illness characterised by a disturbance in body image, a fear of weight gain and significantly low body weight. The factors involved in the genesis and maintenance of AN are unclear, though the potential neurobiological underpinnings of the condition are of increasing interest. Through the investigation of functional connectivity of the brain at rest, information relating to neuronal communication and integration of information that may relate to behaviours and cognitive symptoms can be explored. The aim of this study was to investigate functional connectivity of the default mode network, and sensorimotor and visual networks in AN. 26 females with AN and 27 healthy control participants matched for age, gender and premorbid intelligence underwent a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Default mode network functional connectivity did not differ between groups. AN participants displayed reduced functional connectivity between the sensorimotor and visual networks, in comparison to healthy controls. This finding is discussed in terms of differences in visuospatial processing in AN and the distortion of body image experienced by these individuals. Overall, the findings suggest that sensorimotor and visual network connectivity may be related to visuospatial processing in AN, though, further research is required. PMID:27111812

  16. A RESTful way to Manage Ontologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, R. K.; Lawrence, B. N.

    2009-04-01

    In 2005 BODC implemented the first version of a vocabulary server developed as a contribution to the NERC DataGrid project. Vocabularies were managed within an RDBMS environment and accessed through a SOAP Web Service API. This was designed as a database query interface with operations targeted at designated database fields and results returned as strings. At the end of 2007 a new version of the server was released capable of serving thesauri and ontologies as well as vocabularies. The SOAP API functionality was enhanced and the output format changed to XML. In addition, a pseudo-RESTful query interface was developed directly addressing terms and lists by URLs. This is in full operational use by projects such as SeaDataNet and will run for the foreseeable future. However, operational experience has exposed shortcomings in both the API and its document payload. Other ontology servers, notably at MMI and CSIRO, are coming on-line making now the time to unify ontology management. This paper presents a RESTful API and payload document schema. It is based on the lessons learned in four years of operational vocabulary serving, provides full ontology management functionality and has the potential to form the basis for an interoperable network of distributed ontologies.

  17. Respiration patterns of resting wasps (Vespula sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Käfer, Helmut; Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the respiration patterns of wasps (Vespula sp.) in their viable temperature range (2.9–42.4 °C) by measuring CO2 production and locomotor and endothermic activity. Wasps showed cycles of an interburst–burst type at low ambient temperatures (Ta < 5 °C) or typical discontinuous gas exchange patterns with closed, flutter and open phases. At high Ta of >31 °C, CO2 emission became cyclic. With rising Ta they enhanced CO2-emission primarily by an exponential increase in respiration frequency, from 2.6 mHz at 4.7 °C to 74 mHz at 39.7 °C. In the same range of Ta CO2 release per cycle decreased from 38.9 to 26.4 μl g−1 cycle−1. A comparison of wasps with other insects showed that they are among the insects with a low respiratory frequency at a given resting metabolic rate (RMR), and a relatively flat increase of respiratory frequency with RMR. CO2 emission was always accompanied by abdominal respiration movements in all open phases and in 71.4% of the flutter phases, often accompanied by body movements. Results suggest that resting wasps gain their highly efficient gas exchange to a considerable extent via the length and type of respiration movements. PMID:23399474

  18. EEG microstates during resting represent personality differences.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Felix; Lehmann, Dietrich; Faber, Pascal L; Milz, Patricia; Gianotti, Lorena R R

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the spontaneous brain electric activity of 13 skeptics and 16 believers in paranormal phenomena; they were university students assessed with a self-report scale about paranormal beliefs. 33-channel EEG recordings during no-task resting were processed as sequences of momentary potential distribution maps. Based on the maps at peak times of Global Field Power, the sequences were parsed into segments of quasi-stable potential distribution, the 'microstates'. The microstates were clustered into four classes of map topographies (A-D). Analysis of the microstate parameters time coverage, occurrence frequency and duration as well as the temporal sequence (syntax) of the microstate classes revealed significant differences: Believers had a higher coverage and occurrence of class B, tended to decreased coverage and occurrence of class C, and showed a predominant sequence of microstate concatenations from A to C to B to A that was reversed in skeptics (A to B to C to A). Microstates of different topographies, putative "atoms of thought", are hypothesized to represent different types of information processing.The study demonstrates that personality differences can be detected in resting EEG microstate parameters and microstate syntax. Microstate analysis yielded no conclusive evidence for the hypothesized relation between paranormal belief and schizophrenia.

  19. Respiration patterns of resting wasps (Vespula sp.).

    PubMed

    Käfer, Helmut; Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the respiration patterns of wasps (Vespula sp.) in their viable temperature range (2.9-42.4°C) by measuring CO2 production and locomotor and endothermic activity. Wasps showed cycles of an interburst-burst type at low ambient temperatures (Ta<5°C) or typical discontinuous gas exchange patterns with closed, flutter and open phases. At high Ta of >31°C, CO2 emission became cyclic. With rising Ta they enhanced CO2-emission primarily by an exponential increase in respiration frequency, from 2.6 mHz at 4.7°C to 74 mHz at 39.7°C. In the same range of Ta CO2 release per cycle decreased from 38.9 to 26.4 μl g(-1)cycle(-1). A comparison of wasps with other insects showed that they are among the insects with a low respiratory frequency at a given resting metabolic rate (RMR), and a relatively flat increase of respiratory frequency with RMR. CO2 emission was always accompanied by abdominal respiration movements in all open phases and in 71.4% of the flutter phases, often accompanied by body movements. Results suggest that resting wasps gain their highly efficient gas exchange to a considerable extent via the length and type of respiration movements.

  20. Resting state functional connectivity in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Phillipou, Andrea; Abel, Larry Allen; Castle, David Jonathan; Hughes, Matthew Edward; Nibbs, Richard Grant; Gurvich, Caroline; Rossell, Susan Lee

    2016-05-30

    Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric illness characterised by a disturbance in body image, a fear of weight gain and significantly low body weight. The factors involved in the genesis and maintenance of AN are unclear, though the potential neurobiological underpinnings of the condition are of increasing interest. Through the investigation of functional connectivity of the brain at rest, information relating to neuronal communication and integration of information that may relate to behaviours and cognitive symptoms can be explored. The aim of this study was to investigate functional connectivity of the default mode network, and sensorimotor and visual networks in AN. 26 females with AN and 27 healthy control participants matched for age, gender and premorbid intelligence underwent a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Default mode network functional connectivity did not differ between groups. AN participants displayed reduced functional connectivity between the sensorimotor and visual networks, in comparison to healthy controls. This finding is discussed in terms of differences in visuospatial processing in AN and the distortion of body image experienced by these individuals. Overall, the findings suggest that sensorimotor and visual network connectivity may be related to visuospatial processing in AN, though, further research is required.

  1. Optical memory

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  2. Condensation in a two-phase pool

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, R.B.; Hughes, E.D.

    1991-12-31

    We consider the case of vapor condensation in a liquid pool, when the heat transfer is controlled by heat losses through the walls. The analysis is based on drift flux theory for phase separation in the pool, and determines the two-phase mixture height for the pool. To our knowledge this is the first analytical treatment of this classic problem that gives an explicit result, previous work having established the result for the evaporative case. From conservation of mass and energy in a one-dimensional steady flow, together with a void relation between the liquid and vapor fluxes, we determine the increase in the mixture level from the base level of the pool. It can be seen that the thermal and hydrodynamic influences are separable. Thus, the thermal influence of the wall heat transfer appears through its effect on the condensing length L*, so that at high condensation rates the pool is all liquid, and at low rates overflows (the level swell or foaming effect). Similarly, the phase separation effect hydrodynamically determines the height via the relative velocity of the mixture to the entering flux. We examine some practical applications of this result to level swell in condensing flows, and also examine some limits in ideal cases.

  3. Condensation in a two-phase pool

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, R.B. ); Hughes, E.D. )

    1991-01-01

    We consider the case of vapor condensation in a liquid pool, when the heat transfer is controlled by heat losses through the walls. The analysis is based on drift flux theory for phase separation in the pool, and determines the two-phase mixture height for the pool. To our knowledge this is the first analytical treatment of this classic problem that gives an explicit result, previous work having established the result for the evaporative case. From conservation of mass and energy in a one-dimensional steady flow, together with a void relation between the liquid and vapor fluxes, we determine the increase in the mixture level from the base level of the pool. It can be seen that the thermal and hydrodynamic influences are separable. Thus, the thermal influence of the wall heat transfer appears through its effect on the condensing length L*, so that at high condensation rates the pool is all liquid, and at low rates overflows (the level swell or foaming effect). Similarly, the phase separation effect hydrodynamically determines the height via the relative velocity of the mixture to the entering flux. We examine some practical applications of this result to level swell in condensing flows, and also examine some limits in ideal cases.

  4. Memory trace replay: the shaping of memory consolidation by neuromodulation

    PubMed Central

    Atherton, Laura A.; Dupret, David; Mellor, Jack R.

    2015-01-01

    The consolidation of memories for places and events is thought to rely, at the network level, on the replay of spatially tuned neuronal firing patterns representing discrete places and spatial trajectories. This occurs in the hippocampal-entorhinal circuit during sharp wave ripple events (SWRs) that occur during sleep or rest. Here, we review theoretical models of lingering place cell excitability and behaviorally induced synaptic plasticity within cell assemblies to explain which sequences or places are replayed. We further provide new insights into how fluctuations in cholinergic tone during different behavioral states might shape the direction of replay and how dopaminergic release in response to novelty or reward can modulate which cell assemblies are replayed. PMID:26275935

  5. 17 CFR 229.1105 - (Item 1105) Static pool information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false (Item 1105) Static pool....1105 (Item 1105) Static pool information. (a) For amortizing asset pools, unless the registrant determines that such information is not material: (1) Provide static pool information, to the extent...

  6. 17 CFR 4.22 - Reporting to pool participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting to pool participants... POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Commodity Pool Operators § 4.22 Reporting to pool participants. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(4) or (a)(6) of this section, each commodity...

  7. 48 CFR 232.470 - Advance payment pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Advance payment pool. 232... Items 232.470 Advance payment pool. (a) An advance payment pool agreement— (1) Is a means of financing... addition to any other advance payment pool agreement at a single contractor location when it is...

  8. 48 CFR 232.470 - Advance payment pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Advance payment pool. 232... Items 232.470 Advance payment pool. (a) An advance payment pool agreement— (1) Is a means of financing... addition to any other advance payment pool agreement at a single contractor location when it is...

  9. 48 CFR 232.470 - Advance payment pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Advance payment pool. 232... Items 232.470 Advance payment pool. (a) An advance payment pool agreement— (1) Is a means of financing... addition to any other advance payment pool agreement at a single contractor location when it is...

  10. 48 CFR 232.470 - Advance payment pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advance payment pool. 232... Items 232.470 Advance payment pool. (a) An advance payment pool agreement— (1) Is a means of financing... addition to any other advance payment pool agreement at a single contractor location when it is...

  11. 13 CFR 120.1705 - Pool formation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool formation requirements. 120... Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1705 Pool formation requirements. (a) Initiation of Pool formation. Only an entity approved by SBA to be a...

  12. 17 CFR 229.1105 - (Item 1105) Static pool information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false (Item 1105) Static pool....1105 (Item 1105) Static pool information. (a) For amortizing asset pools, unless the registrant determines that such information is not material: (1) Provide static pool information, to the extent...

  13. 17 CFR 229.1105 - (Item 1105) Static pool information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false (Item 1105) Static pool....1105 (Item 1105) Static pool information. (a) For amortizing asset pools, unless the registrant determines that such information is not material: (1) Provide static pool information, to the extent...

  14. 13 CFR 120.1705 - Pool formation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pool formation requirements. 120... Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1705 Pool formation requirements. (a) Initiation of Pool formation. Only an entity approved by SBA to be a...

  15. 13 CFR 120.1705 - Pool formation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool formation requirements. 120... Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1705 Pool formation requirements. (a) Initiation of Pool formation. Only an entity approved by SBA to be a...

  16. 13 CFR 120.1705 - Pool formation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool formation requirements. 120... Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1705 Pool formation requirements. (a) Initiation of Pool formation. Only an entity approved by SBA to be a...

  17. A Strategy for Optimizing Item-Pool Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariel, Adelaide; van der Linden, Wim J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2006-01-01

    Item-pool management requires a balancing act between the input of new items into the pool and the output of tests assembled from it. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management is presented that is based on the idea of a periodic update of an optimal blueprint for the item pool to tune item production to test assembly. A simulation study with…

  18. 13 CFR 120.1705 - Pool formation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool formation requirements. 120... Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1705 Pool formation requirements. (a) Initiation of Pool formation. Only an entity approved by SBA to be a...

  19. 48 CFR 232.470 - Advance payment pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advance payment pool. 232... Items 232.470 Advance payment pool. (a) An advance payment pool agreement— (1) Is a means of financing... addition to any other advance payment pool agreement at a single contractor location when it is...

  20. Energy pooling upconversion in organic molecular systems.

    PubMed

    LaCount, Michael D; Weingarten, Daniel; Hu, Nan; Shaheen, Sean E; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Rumbles, Garry; Walba, David M; Lusk, Mark T

    2015-04-30

    A combination of molecular quantum electrodynamics, perturbation theory, and ab initio calculations was used to create a computational methodology capable of estimating the rate of three-body singlet upconversion in organic molecular assemblies. The approach was applied to quantify the conditions under which such relaxation rates, known as energy pooling, become meaningful for two test systems, stilbene-fluorescein and hexabenzocoronene-oligothiophene. Both exhibit low intramolecular conversion, but intermolecular configurations exist in which pooling efficiency is at least 90% when placed in competition with more conventional relaxation pathways. For stilbene-fluorescein, the results are consistent with data generated in an earlier experimental investigation. Exercising these model systems facilitated the development of a set of design rules for the optimization of energy pooling. PMID:25793313

  1. Automatic swimming pool identification for fire suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimmons, Bo; Buck, Heidi

    2012-09-01

    Southern California experienced some of the largest wildfires ever seen in 2003 and 2007. The Cedar fire in 2003 resulted in 2,820 lost structures and 15 deaths, and the Witch fire in 2007 resulted in 1,650 lost structures and 2 deaths according to the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CAL FIRE). Fighting fires of this magnitude requires every available resource, and an adequate water supply is vital in the firefighting arsenal. Utilizing the fact that many homes in Southern California have swimming pools, firefighters could have access to strategically placed water supplies. The problem is accurately and quickly identifying which residences have actively filled swimming pools at the time of the emergency. The proposed method approaches the problem by employing satellite imagery and remote sensing techniques. Specifically, swimming pool identification is attempted with Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) on multispectral imagery from the Worldview-2 satellite.

  2. Memory systems, computation, and the second law of thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wolpert, D.H.

    1992-04-01

    A memory is a physical system for transferring information form one moment in time to another, where that information concerns something external to the system itself. This paper argues on information-theoretic and statistical mechanical grounds that useful memories must be of one of two types, exemplified by memory in abstract computer programs and by memory in photographs. Photograph-type memories work by exploring a collapse of state space flow to an attractor state. (This attractor state is the {open_quotes}initialized{close_quotes} state of the memory.) The central assumption of the theory of reversible computation tells us that in any such collapsing, regardless of whether the collapsing must increase in entropy of the system. In concert with the second law, this establishes the logical necessity of the empirical observation that photograph-type memories are temporally asymmetric (they can tell us about the past but not about the future). Under the assumption that human memory is a photograph-type memory, this result also explains why we humans can remember only our past and not our future. In contrast to photo-graph-type memories, computer-type memories do not require any initialization, and therefore are not directly affected by the second law. As a result, computer memories can be of the future as easily as of the past, even if the program running on the computer is logically irreversible. This is entirely in accord with the well-known temporal reversibility of the process of computation. This paper ends by arguing that the asymmetry of the psychological arrow of time is a direct consequence of the asymmetry of human memory. With the rest of this paper, this explains, explicitly and rigorously, why the psychological and thermodynamic arrows of time are correlated with one another. 24 refs.

  3. Memory systems, computation, and the second law of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    1992-04-01

    A memory is a physical system for transferring information from one moment in time to another, where that information concerns something external to the system itself. This paper argues on information-theoretic and statistical mechanical grounds that useful memories must be of one of two types, exemplified by memory in abstract computer programs and by memory in photographs. Photograph-type memories work by exploiting a collapse of state space flow to an attractor state. (This attractor state is the “initialized” state of the memory.) The central assumption of the theory of reversible computation tells us that in any such collapsing, regardless of whether the collapsing proceeds from the past to the future or vice versa, the collapsing must increase the entropy of the system. In concert with the second law, this establishes the logical necessity of the empirical observation that photograph-type memories are temporally asymmetric (they can tell us about the past but not about the future). Under the assumption that human memory is a photograph-type memory, this result also explains why we humans can remember only our past and not our future. In contrast to photograph-type memories, computer-type memories do not require any initialization, and therefore are not directly affected by the second law. As a result, computer memories can be of the future as easily as of the past, even if the program running on the computer is logically irreversible. This is entirely in accord with the well-known temporal reversibility of the process of computation. This paper ends by arguing that the asymmetry of the psychological arrow of time is a direct consequence of the asymmetry of human memory. With the rest of this paper, this explains, explicitly and rigorously, why the psychological and thermodynamic arrows of time are correlated with one another.

  4. Effects of ambient temperature on mechanomyography of resting quadriceps muscle.

    PubMed

    McKay, William P; Vargo, Michael; Chilibeck, Philip D; Daku, Brian L

    2013-03-01

    It has been speculated that resting muscle mechanical activity, also known as minor tremor, microvibration, and thermoregulatory tonus, has evolved to maintain core temperature in homeotherms, and may play a role in nonshivering thermogenesis. This experiment was done to determine whether resting muscle mechanical activity increases with decreasing ambient temperature. We cooled 20 healthy, human, resting, supine subjects from an ambient temperature of 40° to 12 °C over 65 min. Core temperature, midquadriceps mechanomyography, surface electromyography, and oxygen consumption (VO2) were recorded. Resting muscle mechanical and electrical activity in the absence of shivering increased significantly at temperatures below 21.5 °C. Women defended core temperature more effectively than men, and showed increased resting muscle activity earlier than men. Metabolism measured by VO2 correlated with resting muscle mechanical activity (R = 0.65; p = 0.01). Resting muscle mechanical activity may have evolved, in part, to maintain core temperature in the face of mild cooling.

  5. Ubiquitination and deubiquitination of REST and its roles in cancers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi; Bao, Shideng

    2012-06-01

    REST/NRSF (the RE-1 silencing transcription factor or neuron-restrictive silencer factor) was originally identified as a transcriptional repressor of a number of neuronal-specific genes in neural stem cells and non-neuronal cells. REST functions as a master regulator in the maintenance of neural stem cells. During tumorigenesis, REST shows opposing roles in different type of cells. In human epithelial cancers such as colon cancer, REST acts as a tumor suppressor. In contrast, REST plays an oncogenic role in the development of brain tumors and other cancers. Abnormal upregulation of REST has been found in medulloblastoma, neuroblastoma and glioblastoma (GBM). Recent studies in GBMs suggest that REST exerts its oncogenic function by maintaining self-renewal potential of glioma stem cells (GSCs). PMID:22569092

  6. Exercise thermoregulation after 14 days of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Reese, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of bed rest and exercise training during bed rest on body temperature and thermoregulatory responses at rest and during exercise are investigated. Seven male subjects underwent three two-week periods of bed rest during which isometric, isotonic, or no exercises were performed, separated by two ambulatory control periods and preceded by a two-week control period, during which they exercised regularly. Rectal and mean skin temperatures and sweating responses were determined during 70-min submaximal supine exercise during the bed rest and recovery periods. Measurements reveal a reduction in basal oral temperature during the control-recovery periods, with a relatively constant level during bed rest periods, and a significant increase in the rectal temperature elavation brought on by exercise following all three bed-rest regimes. It is concluded that the excessive increase in rectal temperature could be influenced by changes in skin heat conductance or the inhibition of sweating.

  7. On the use of heterogeneous pooling groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas; Jones, David

    2010-05-01

    Pooling of data from catchments considered similar in terms of morphology, climatology and other important hydrological factors is a widely used technique in regional frequency analysis of extreme hydrological events. An often cited key assumption of many such pooling methods is that the statistical distribution of the events is identical across sites within a region (geographically contiguous or not) except for a dimensional scaling parameter, aka homogeneity. A particular method based on these principles is the index-flood method as implemented in the Flood Estimation Handbook (FEH) for flood frequency estimation in the UK based on annual maximum peak flow series. This paper presents a revised method for pooling of extreme flood events which has effectively replaced the FEH procedure as the standard UK method. While the new method has retained the index flood method and the use of L-moment ratios as its foundation, its approach to forming weights with the pooling group has rendered obsolete the need for identification of homogeneous pooling groups. This extension introduces a more complex relationship between the weights assigned to each pooling group member and the degree of similarity between each member and the actual site of interest. The new set of weights also depends on record-length at each individual site, and on whether the target site is gauged or ungauged. The method has been developed and tested using annual maximum peak flow series from 602 gauged rural catchments located through-out the UK, and was found to perform better than other alternative methods, including the existing FEH methodology for prediction of flood quantiles at ungauged sites.

  8. Infant Visual Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2004-01-01

    Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

  9. Memory and the brain.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lee T

    2002-01-01

    This review summarizes some of the recent advances in the neurobiology of memory. Current research helps us to understand how memories are created and, conversely, how our memories can be influenced by stress, drugs, and aging. An understanding of how memories are encoded by the brain may also lead to new ideas about how to maximize the long-term retention of important information. There are multiple memory systems with different functions and, in this review, we focus on the conscious recollection of one's experience of events and facts and on memories tied to emotional responses. Memories are also classified according to time: from short-term memory, lasting only seconds or minutes, to long-term memory, lasting months or years. The advent of new functional neuroimaging methods provides an opportunity to gain insight into how the human brain supports memory formation. Each memory system has a distinct anatomical organization, where different parts of the brain are recruited during phases of memory storage. Within the brain, memory is a dynamic property of populations of neurons and their interconnections. Memories are laid down in our brains via chemical changes at the neuron level. An understanding of the neurobiology of memory may stimulate health educators to consider how various teaching methods conform to the process of memory formation. PMID:12358099

  10. IPFR: Integrated Pool Fusion Reactor concept

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    The IPFR (Integrated Pool Fusion Reactor) concept is to place a fusion reactor into a pool of molten Flibe. The Flibe will serve the multiple functions of breeding, cooling, shielding, and moderating. Therefore, the only structural material between the superconducting magnets and the plasma is the first wall. The first wall is a stand-alone structure with no coolant connection and is cooled by Flibe at the atmospheric pressure. There is also no need of the primary coolant loop. The design is expected to improve the safety, reliability, and maintainability aspects of the fusion system.

  11. [Resting heart rate and cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Alemán Sánchez, José Juan; Cabrera de León, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    Heart rate reflects autonomic nervous system activity. Numerous studies have demonstrated that an increased heart rate at rest is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as an independent risk factor. It has been shown a link between cardiac autonomic balance and inflammation. Thus, an elevated heart rate produces a micro-inflammatory response and is involved in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction. In turn, decrease in heart rate produces benefits in congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. Alteration of other heart rate-related parameters, such as their variability and recovery after exercise, is associated with risk of cardiovascular events. Drugs reducing the heart rate (beta-blockers, calcium antagonists and inhibitors of If channels) have the potential to reduce cardiovascular events. Although not recommended in healthy subjects, interventions for reducing heart rate constitute a reasonable therapeutic goal in certain pathologies.

  12. Dr. Wernher von Braun Laid to Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun served as Marshall Space Flight Center's first director from July 1, 1960 until January 27, 1970, when he was appointed NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for Planning. Following World War II, Dr. von Braun and his German colleagues arrived in the United States under Project Paper Clip to continue their rocket development work. In 1950, von Braun and his rocket team were transferred from Ft. Bliss, Texas to Huntsville, Alabama to work for the Army's rocket program at Redstone Arsenal and later, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Under von Braun's leadership, Marshall developed the Saturn V launch vehicle which took Apollo astronauts to the moon. Dr. von Braun died in Alexandria, Va., on June 16, 1977, seven years after his NASA appointment. This photo was taken at the site where he was laid to rest.

  13. Resting State Brain Entropy Alterations in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fuqing; Zhuang, Ying; Gong, Honghan; Zhan, Jie; Grossman, Murray; Wang, Ze

    2016-01-01

    Brain entropy (BEN) mapping provides a novel approach to characterize brain temporal dynamics, a key feature of human brain. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), reliable and spatially distributed BEN patterns have been identified in normal brain, suggesting a potential use in clinical populations since temporal brain dynamics and entropy may be altered in disease conditions. The purpose of this study was to characterize BEN in multiple sclerosis (MS), a neurodegenerative disease that affects millions of people. Since currently there is no cure for MS, developing treatment or medication that can slow down its progression represents a high research priority, for which validating a brain marker sensitive to disease and the related functional impairments is essential. Because MS can start long time before any measurable symptoms and structural deficits, assessing the dynamic brain activity and correspondingly BEN may provide a critical way to study MS and its progression. Because BEN is new to MS, we aimed to assess BEN alterations in the relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients using a patient versus control design, to examine the correlation of BEN to clinical measurements, and to check the correlation of BEN to structural brain measures which have been more often used in MS studies. As compared to controls, RRMS patients showed increased BEN in motor areas, executive control area, spatial coordinating area, and memory system. Increased BEN was related to greater disease severity as measured by the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and greater tissue damage as indicated by the mean diffusivity. Patients also showed decreased BEN in other places, which was associated with less disability or fatigue, indicating a disease-related BEN re-distribution. Our results suggest BEN as a novel and useful tool for characterizing RRMS. PMID:26727514

  14. Resting State Brain Entropy Alterations in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fuqing; Zhuang, Ying; Gong, Honghan; Zhan, Jie; Grossman, Murray; Wang, Ze

    2016-01-01

    Brain entropy (BEN) mapping provides a novel approach to characterize brain temporal dynamics, a key feature of human brain. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), reliable and spatially distributed BEN patterns have been identified in normal brain, suggesting a potential use in clinical populations since temporal brain dynamics and entropy may be altered in disease conditions. The purpose of this study was to characterize BEN in multiple sclerosis (MS), a neurodegenerative disease that affects millions of people. Since currently there is no cure for MS, developing treatment or medication that can slow down its progression represents a high research priority, for which validating a brain marker sensitive to disease and the related functional impairments is essential. Because MS can start long time before any measurable symptoms and structural deficits, assessing the dynamic brain activity and correspondingly BEN may provide a critical way to study MS and its progression. Because BEN is new to MS, we aimed to assess BEN alterations in the relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients using a patient versus control design, to examine the correlation of BEN to clinical measurements, and to check the correlation of BEN to structural brain measures which have been more often used in MS studies. As compared to controls, RRMS patients showed increased BEN in motor areas, executive control area, spatial coordinating area, and memory system. Increased BEN was related to greater disease severity as measured by the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and greater tissue damage as indicated by the mean diffusivity. Patients also showed decreased BEN in other places, which was associated with less disability or fatigue, indicating a disease-related BEN re-distribution. Our results suggest BEN as a novel and useful tool for characterizing RRMS.

  15. Resting State Brain Entropy Alterations in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fuqing; Zhuang, Ying; Gong, Honghan; Zhan, Jie; Grossman, Murray; Wang, Ze

    2016-01-01

    Brain entropy (BEN) mapping provides a novel approach to characterize brain temporal dynamics, a key feature of human brain. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), reliable and spatially distributed BEN patterns have been identified in normal brain, suggesting a potential use in clinical populations since temporal brain dynamics and entropy may be altered in disease conditions. The purpose of this study was to characterize BEN in multiple sclerosis (MS), a neurodegenerative disease that affects millions of people. Since currently there is no cure for MS, developing treatment or medication that can slow down its progression represents a high research priority, for which validating a brain marker sensitive to disease and the related functional impairments is essential. Because MS can start long time before any measurable symptoms and structural deficits, assessing the dynamic brain activity and correspondingly BEN may provide a critical way to study MS and its progression. Because BEN is new to MS, we aimed to assess BEN alterations in the relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients using a patient versus control design, to examine the correlation of BEN to clinical measurements, and to check the correlation of BEN to structural brain measures which have been more often used in MS studies. As compared to controls, RRMS patients showed increased BEN in motor areas, executive control area, spatial coordinating area, and memory system. Increased BEN was related to greater disease severity as measured by the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and greater tissue damage as indicated by the mean diffusivity. Patients also showed decreased BEN in other places, which was associated with less disability or fatigue, indicating a disease-related BEN re-distribution. Our results suggest BEN as a novel and useful tool for characterizing RRMS. PMID:26727514

  16. Parallel ICA identifies sub-components of resting state networks that covary with behavioral indices

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Timothy B.; Wildenberg, Joseph C.; Liu, Jingyu; Chen, Jiayu; Calhoun, Vince D.; Biswal, Bharat B.; Meyerand, Mary E.; Birn, Rasmus M.; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    Parallel Independent Component Analysis (para-ICA) is a multivariate method that can identify complex relationships between different data modalities by simultaneously performing Independent Component Analysis on each data set while finding mutual information between the two data sets. We use para-ICA to test the hypothesis that spatial sub-components of common resting state networks (RSNs) covary with specific behavioral measures. Resting state scans and a battery of behavioral indices were collected from 24 younger adults. Group ICA was performed and common RSNs were identified by spatial correlation to publically available templates. Nine RSNs were identified and para-ICA was run on each network with a matrix of behavioral measures serving as the second data type. Five networks had spatial sub-components that significantly correlated with behavioral components. These included a sub-component of the temporo-parietal attention network that differentially covaried with different trial-types of a sustained attention task, sub-components of default mode networks that covaried with attention and working memory tasks, and a sub-component of the bilateral frontal network that split the left inferior frontal gyrus into three clusters according to its cytoarchitecture that differentially covaried with working memory performance. Additionally, we demonstrate the validity of para-ICA in cases with unbalanced dimensions using simulated data. PMID:23087635

  17. Simulation of time-dependent pool shape during laser spot welding: Transient effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlen, Georg; Ludwig, Andreas; Sahm, Peter R.

    2003-12-01

    The shape and depth of the area molten during a welding process is of immense technical importance. This study investigates how the melt pool shape during laser welding is influenced by Marangoni convection and tries to establish general qualitative rules of melt pool dynamics. A parameter study shows how different welding powers lead to extremely different pool shapes. Special attention is paid to transient effects that occur during the melting process as well as after switching off the laser source. It is shown that the final pool shape can depend strongly on the welding duration. The authors use an axisymmetric two-dimensional (2-D) control-volume-method (CVM) code based on the volume-averaged two-phase model of alloy solidification by Ni and Beckermann[1] and the SIMPLER algorithm by Patankar.[2] They calculate the transient distribution of temperatures, phase fractions, flow velocities, pressures, and concentrations of alloying elements in the melt and two solid phases (peritectic solidification) for a stationary laser welding process. Marangoni flow is described using a semiempirical model for the temperature-dependent surface tension gradient. The software was parallelized using the shared memory standard OpenMP.

  18. Memory Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Under contract to NASA during preparations for the space station, Memry Technologies Inc. investigated shape memory effect (SME). SME is a characteristic of certain metal alloys that can change shape in response to temperature variations. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Memry used its NASA-acquired expertise to produce a line of home and industrial safety products, and refined the technology in the mid-1990s. Among the new products they developed are three MemrySafe units which prevent scalding from faucets. Each system contains a small valve that reacts to temperature, not pressure. When the water reaches dangerous temperatures, the unit reduces the flow to a trickle; when the scalding temperature subsides, the unit restores normal flow. Other products are the FIRECHEK 2 and 4, heat-activated shutoff valves for industrial process lines, which sense excessive heat and cut off pneumatic pressure. The newest of these products is Memry's Demand Management Water Heater which shifts the electricity requirement from peak to off-peak demands, conserving energy and money.

  19. Regulation of the neuronal transcription factor NPAS4 by REST and microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Bersten, David C; Wright, Josephine A; McCarthy, Peter J; Whitelaw, Murray L

    2014-01-01

    NPAS4 is a brain restricted, activity-induced transcription factor which regulates the expression of inhibitory synapse genes to control homeostatic excitatory/inhibitory balance in neurons. NPAS4 is required for normal social interaction and contextual memory formation in mice. Protein and mRNA expression of NPAS4 is tightly coupled to neuronal depolarization and most prevalent in the cortical and hippocampal regions in the brain, however the precise mechanisms by which the NPAS4 gene is controlled remain unexplored. Here we show that expression of NPAS4 mRNA is actively repressed by RE-1 silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) in embryonic stem cells and non-neuronal cells by binding multiple sites within the promoter and Intron I of NPAS4. Repression by REST also appears to correlate with the binding of the zinc finger DNA binding protein CTCF within Intron I of NPAS4. In addition, we show that the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of NPAS4 can be targeted by two microRNAs, miR-203 and miR-224 to further regulate its expression. miR-224 is a midbrain/hypothalamus enriched microRNA which is expressed from an intron within the GABAA receptor epsilon (GABRE) gene and may further regionalize NPAS4 expression. Our results reveal REST and microRNA dependent mechanisms that restrict NPAS4 expression to the brain. PMID:24291638

  20. Sleep supports cued fear extinction memory consolidation independent of circadian phase.

    PubMed

    Melo, Irene; Ehrlich, Ingrid

    2016-07-01

    Sleep promotes memory, particularly for declarative learning. However, its role in non-declarative, emotional memories is less well understood. Some studies suggest that sleep may influence fear-related memories, and thus may be an important factor determining the outcome of treatments for emotional disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Here, we investigated the effect of sleep deprivation and time of day on fear extinction memory consolidation. Mice were subjected to a cued Pavlovian fear and extinction paradigm at the beginning of their resting or active phase. Immediate post-extinction learning sleep deprivation for 5h compromised extinction memory when tested 24h after learning. Context-dependent extinction memory recall was completely prevented by sleep-manipulation during the resting phase, while impairment was milder during the active phase and extinction memory retained its context-specificity. Importantly, control experiments excluded confounding factors such as differences in baseline locomotion, fear generalization and stress hormone levels. Together, our findings indicate that post-learning sleep supports cued fear extinction memory consolidation in both circadian phases. The lack of correlation between memory efficacy and sleep time suggests that extinction memory may be influenced by specific sleep events in the early consolidation period. PMID:27109918

  1. Changes in Brain Network Efficiency and Working Memory Performance in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Matthew L.; Simpson, Sean L.; Dagenbach, Dale; Lyday, Robert G.; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Working memory is a complex psychological construct referring to the temporary storage and active processing of information. We used functional connectivity brain network metrics quantifying local and global efficiency of information transfer for predicting individual variability in working memory performance on an n-back task in both young (n = 14) and older (n = 15) adults. Individual differences in both local and global efficiency during the working memory task were significant predictors of working memory performance in addition to age (and an interaction between age and global efficiency). Decreases in local efficiency during the working memory task were associated with better working memory performance in both age cohorts. In contrast, increases in global efficiency were associated with much better working performance for young participants; however, increases in global efficiency were associated with a slight decrease in working memory performance for older participants. Individual differences in local and global efficiency during resting-state sessions were not significant predictors of working memory performance. Significant group whole-brain functional network decreases in local efficiency also were observed during the working memory task compared to rest, whereas no significant differences were observed in network global efficiency. These results are discussed in relation to recently developed models of age-related differences in working memory. PMID:25875001

  2. Changes in brain network efficiency and working memory performance in aging.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Matthew L; Simpson, Sean L; Dagenbach, Dale; Lyday, Robert G; Burdette, Jonathan H; Laurienti, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Working memory is a complex psychological construct referring to the temporary storage and active processing of information. We used functional connectivity brain network metrics quantifying local and global efficiency of information transfer for predicting individual variability in working memory performance on an n-back task in both young (n = 14) and older (n = 15) adults. Individual differences in both local and global efficiency during the working memory task were significant predictors of working memory performance in addition to age (and an interaction between age and global efficiency). Decreases in local efficiency during the working memory task were associated with better working memory performance in both age cohorts. In contrast, increases in global efficiency were associated with much better working performance for young participants; however, increases in global efficiency were associated with a slight decrease in working memory performance for older participants. Individual differences in local and global efficiency during resting-state sessions were not significant predictors of working memory performance. Significant group whole-brain functional network decreases in local efficiency also were observed during the working memory task compared to rest, whereas no significant differences were observed in network global efficiency. These results are discussed in relation to recently developed models of age-related differences in working memory.

  3. Scale-Free and Multifractal Time Dynamics of fMRI Signals during Rest and Task.

    PubMed

    Ciuciu, P; Varoquaux, G; Abry, P; Sadaghiani, S; Kleinschmidt, A

    2012-01-01

    Scaling temporal dynamics in functional MRI (fMRI) signals have been evidenced for a decade as intrinsic characteristics of ongoing brain activity (Zarahn et al., 1997). Recently, scaling properties were shown to fluctuate across brain networks and to be modulated between rest and task (He, 2011): notably, Hurst exponent, quantifying long memory, decreases under task in activating and deactivating brain regions. In most cases, such results were obtained: First, from univariate (voxelwise or regionwise) analysis, hence focusing on specific cognitive systems such as Resting-State Networks (RSNs) and raising the issue of the specificity of this scale-free dynamics modulation in RSNs. Second, using analysis tools designed to measure a single scaling exponent related to the second order statistics of the data, thus relying on models that either implicitly or explicitly assume Gaussianity and (asymptotic) self-similarity, while fMRI signals may significantly depart from those either of those two assumptions (Ciuciu et al., 2008; Wink et al., 2008). To address these issues, the present contribution elaborates on the analysis of the scaling properties of fMRI temporal dynamics by proposing two significant variations. First, scaling properties are technically investigated using the recently introduced Wavelet Leader-based Multifractal formalism (WLMF; Wendt et al., 2007). This measures a collection of scaling exponents, thus enables a richer and more versatile description of scale invariance (beyond correlation and Gaussianity), referred to as multifractality. Also, it benefits from improved estimation performance compared to tools previously used in the literature. Second, scaling properties are investigated in both RSN and non-RSN structures (e.g., artifacts), at a broader spatial scale than the voxel one, using a multivariate approach, namely the Multi-Subject Dictionary Learning (MSDL) algorithm (Varoquaux et al., 2011) that produces a set of spatial components that

  4. Scale-Free and Multifractal Time Dynamics of fMRI Signals during Rest and Task

    PubMed Central

    Ciuciu, P.; Varoquaux, G.; Abry, P.; Sadaghiani, S.; Kleinschmidt, A.

    2012-01-01

    Scaling temporal dynamics in functional MRI (fMRI) signals have been evidenced for a decade as intrinsic characteristics of ongoing brain activity (Zarahn et al., 1997). Recently, scaling properties were shown to fluctuate across brain networks and to be modulated between rest and task (He, 2011): notably, Hurst exponent, quantifying long memory, decreases under task in activating and deactivating brain regions. In most cases, such results were obtained: First, from univariate (voxelwise or regionwise) analysis, hence focusing on specific cognitive systems such as Resting-State Networks (RSNs) and raising the issue of the specificity of this scale-free dynamics modulation in RSNs. Second, using analysis tools designed to measure a single scaling exponent related to the second order statistics of the data, thus relying on models that either implicitly or explicitly assume Gaussianity and (asymptotic) self-similarity, while fMRI signals may significantly depart from those either of those two assumptions (Ciuciu et al., 2008; Wink et al., 2008). To address these issues, the present contribution elaborates on the analysis of the scaling properties of fMRI temporal dynamics by proposing two significant variations. First, scaling properties are technically investigated using the recently introduced Wavelet Leader-based Multifractal formalism (WLMF; Wendt et al., 2007). This measures a collection of scaling exponents, thus enables a richer and more versatile description of scale invariance (beyond correlation and Gaussianity), referred to as multifractality. Also, it benefits from improved estimation performance compared to tools previously used in the literature. Second, scaling properties are investigated in both RSN and non-RSN structures (e.g., artifacts), at a broader spatial scale than the voxel one, using a multivariate approach, namely the Multi-Subject Dictionary Learning (MSDL) algorithm (Varoquaux et al., 2011) that produces a set of spatial components that

  5. Working memory resources are shared across sensory modalities.

    PubMed

    Salmela, V R; Moisala, M; Alho, K

    2014-10-01

    A common assumption in the working memory literature is that the visual and auditory modalities have separate and independent memory stores. Recent evidence on visual working memory has suggested that resources are shared between representations, and that the precision of representations sets the limit for memory performance. We tested whether memory resources are also shared across sensory modalities. Memory precision for two visual (spatial frequency and orientation) and two auditory (pitch and tone duration) features was measured separately for each feature and for all possible feature combinations. Thus, only the memory load was varied, from one to four features, while keeping the stimuli similar. In Experiment 1, two gratings and two tones-both containing two varying features-were presented simultaneously. In Experiment 2, two gratings and two tones-each containing only one varying feature-were presented sequentially. The memory precision (delayed discrimination threshold) for a single feature was close to the perceptual threshold. However, as the number of features to be remembered was increased, the discrimination thresholds increased more than twofold. Importantly, the decrease in memory precision did not depend on the modality of the other feature(s), or on whether the features were in the same or in separate objects. Hence, simultaneously storing one visual and one auditory feature had an effect on memory precision equal to those of simultaneously storing two visual or two auditory features. The results show that working memory is limited by the precision of the stored representations, and that working memory can be described as a resource pool that is shared across modalities.

  6. Working memory resources are shared across sensory modalities.

    PubMed

    Salmela, V R; Moisala, M; Alho, K

    2014-10-01

    A common assumption in the working memory literature is that the visual and auditory modalities have separate and independent memory stores. Recent evidence on visual working memory has suggested that resources are shared between representations, and that the precision of representations sets the limit for memory performance. We tested whether memory resources are also shared across sensory modalities. Memory precision for two visual (spatial frequency and orientation) and two auditory (pitch and tone duration) features was measured separately for each feature and for all possible feature combinations. Thus, only the memory load was varied, from one to four features, while keeping the stimuli similar. In Experiment 1, two gratings and two tones-both containing two varying features-were presented simultaneously. In Experiment 2, two gratings and two tones-each containing only one varying feature-were presented sequentially. The memory precision (delayed discrimination threshold) for a single feature was close to the perceptual threshold. However, as the number of features to be remembered was increased, the discrimination thresholds increased more than twofold. Importantly, the decrease in memory precision did not depend on the modality of the other feature(s), or on whether the features were in the same or in separate objects. Hence, simultaneously storing one visual and one auditory feature had an effect on memory precision equal to those of simultaneously storing two visual or two auditory features. The results show that working memory is limited by the precision of the stored representations, and that working memory can be described as a resource pool that is shared across modalities. PMID:24935809

  7. REST and stress resistance in ageing and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tao; Aron, Liviu; Zullo, Joseph; Pan, Ying; Kim, Haeyoung; Chen, Yiwen; Yang, Tun-Hsiang; Kim, Hyun-Min; Drake, Derek; Liu, X Shirley; Bennett, David A; Colaiácovo, Monica P; Yankner, Bruce A

    2014-03-27

    Human neurons are functional over an entire lifetime, yet the mechanisms that preserve function and protect against neurodegeneration during ageing are unknown. Here we show that induction of the repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor (REST; also known as neuron-restrictive silencer factor, NRSF) is a universal feature of normal ageing in human cortical and hippocampal neurons. REST is lost, however, in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Chromatin immunoprecipitation with deep sequencing and expression analysis show that REST represses genes that promote cell death and Alzheimer's disease pathology, and induces the expression of stress response genes. Moreover, REST potently protects neurons from oxidative stress and amyloid β-protein toxicity, and conditional deletion of REST in the mouse brain leads to age-related neurodegeneration. A functional orthologue of REST, Caenorhabditis elegans SPR-4, also protects against oxidative stress and amyloid β-protein toxicity. During normal ageing, REST is induced in part by cell non-autonomous Wnt signalling. However, in Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, REST is lost from the nucleus and appears in autophagosomes together with pathological misfolded proteins. Finally, REST levels during ageing are closely correlated with cognitive preservation and longevity. Thus, the activation state of REST may distinguish neuroprotection from neurodegeneration in the ageing brain. PMID:24670762

  8. Resting gamma power is linked to reading ability in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Adam; Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Infants who have more power within the gamma frequency range at rest develop better language and cognitive abilities over their first 3 years of life (Benasich et al., 2008). This positive trend may reflect the gradual increase in resting gamma power that peaks at about 4 years (Takano & Ogawa, 1998): infants further along the maturational curve may exhibit both increased resting gamma power and more advanced language and cognitive function. Similar to other neural characteristics such as synaptic density, resting gamma power subsequently decreases with further development into adulthood (Tierney, Strait, O'Connell & Kraus, 2013). If previously reported relationships between resting gamma power and behavioral performance reflect variance in maturation, at least in part, negative correlations between resting gamma and behavior may predominate in later developmental stages, during which resting gamma activity is decreasing. We tested this prediction by examining resting gamma activity and language-dependent behavioral performance, reflected by a variety of reading-related tests, in adolescents between the ages of 14 and 15 years. Consistent with our predictions, resting gamma power inversely related to every aspect of reading assessed (i.e. reading fluency, rapid naming, and basic reading proficiency). Our results suggest that resting gamma power acts as an index of maturational progress in adolescents. PMID:24341975

  9. REST and stress resistance in ageing and Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tao; Aron, Liviu; Zullo, Joseph; Pan, Ying; Kim, Haeyoung; Chen, Yiwen; Yang, Tun-Hsiang; Kim, Hyun-Min; Drake, Derek; Liu, X. Shirley; Bennett, David A.; Colaiácovo, Monica P.; Yankner, Bruce A.

    2014-03-01

    Human neurons are functional over an entire lifetime, yet the mechanisms that preserve function and protect against neurodegeneration during ageing are unknown. Here we show that induction of the repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor (REST; also known as neuron-restrictive silencer factor, NRSF) is a universal feature of normal ageing in human cortical and hippocampal neurons. REST is lost, however, in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Chromatin immunoprecipitation with deep sequencing and expression analysis show that REST represses genes that promote cell death and Alzheimer's disease pathology, and induces the expression of stress response genes. Moreover, REST potently protects neurons from oxidative stress and amyloid β-protein toxicity, and conditional deletion of REST in the mouse brain leads to age-related neurodegeneration. A functional orthologue of REST, Caenorhabditis elegans SPR-4, also protects against oxidative stress and amyloid β-protein toxicity. During normal ageing, REST is induced in part by cell non-autonomous Wnt signalling. However, in Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, REST is lost from the nucleus and appears in autophagosomes together with pathological misfolded proteins. Finally, REST levels during ageing are closely correlated with cognitive preservation and longevity. Thus, the activation state of REST may distinguish neuroprotection from neurodegeneration in the ageing brain.

  10. Contour Mapping for Pools and Ponds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Noel

    1985-01-01

    Simple jigs (positioning devices) to make contour mapping tasks easier and more accurate are easily constructed from 5mm-thick acetate sheets. These plastic holders are used with meter sticks to provide scanning guides to measure pools and ponds. Instructions for making the jigs and sample results are included. (DH)

  11. Spent fuel pool analysis using TRACE code

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Saez, F.; Carlos, S.; Villanueva, J. F.; Martorell, S.

    2012-07-01

    The storage requirements of Spent Fuel Pools have been analyzed with the purpose to increase their rack capacities. In the past, the thermal limits have been mainly evaluated with conservative codes developed for this purpose, although some works can be found in which a best estimate code is used. The use of best estimate codes is interesting as they provide more realistic calculations and they have the capability of analyzing a wide range of transients that could affect the Spent Fuel Pool. Two of the most representative thermal-hydraulic codes are RELAP-5 and TRAC. Nowadays, TRACE code is being developed to make use of the more favorable characteristics of RELAP-5 and TRAC codes. Among the components coded in TRACE that can be used to construct the model, it is interesting to use the VESSEL component, which has the capacity of reproducing three dimensional phenomena. In this work, a thermal-hydraulic model of the Maine Yankee spent fuel pool using the TRACE code is developed. Such model has been used to perform a licensing calculation and the results obtained have been compared with experimental measurements made at the pool, showing a good agreement between the calculations predicted by TRACE and the experimental data. (authors)

  12. Swimming Pools, Hot Rods, and Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde, Dale D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes some reactions for the identification and application of cyanuric acid. Suggests students may find this applied chemistry interesting because of the use of cyanuric acid in swimming pools and diesel engines. Lists three tests for cyanate ion and two tests for cyanuric acid. (MVL)

  13. 29 CFR 531.54 - Tip pooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAGE PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Tipped Employees § 531.54 Tip pooling. Where employees practice... received and retained by each individual as his own are counted as his tips for purposes of the...

  14. 29 CFR 531.54 - Tip pooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAGE PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Tipped Employees § 531.54 Tip pooling. Where employees practice... received and retained by each individual as his own are counted as his tips for purposes of the...

  15. 29 CFR 531.54 - Tip pooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAGE PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Tipped Employees § 531.54 Tip pooling. Where employees practice... received and retained by each individual as his own are counted as his tips for purposes of the...

  16. 29 CFR 531.54 - Tip pooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAGE PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Tipped Employees § 531.54 Tip pooling. Where employees practice... received and retained by each individual as his own are counted as his tips for purposes of the...

  17. Carbon Residence Times in Pedogenic Carbonate Pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monger, H.; Feng, Y.; Karnjanapiboonwang, A.

    2013-12-01

    Soil carbonate is a huge pool of terrestrial carbon that contains at least 930 to 940 Pg C and has influx rates on the order of 1 to 12 g CaCO3/m2/yr. Such large mass to flux ratios yield long mean residence times for carbon (e.g., 85,000 years)--assuming steady state. Like other global carbon pools, the soil carbonate pool has smaller sub-pools with higher influx rates and shorter mean residence times. For example, pedogenic carbonate in coppice dunes known to have formed since 1858 and carbonate formed on lithic artifacts in soils at archaeology sites suggests mean residence times can be as short as 120 years--again assuming steady state. Harder to assess are efflux rates as CO2 emissions or bicarbonate leaching. Some Bowen-ratio studies have nevertheless found evidence for CO2 emissions resulting from carbonate dissolution, and other studies have found evidence for bicarbonate leaching based on dissolution pipes through calcic horizons using soil morphology studies. Since an understanding of mean residence times are prerequisite for a better understanding of soil carbonate in the global carbon cycle, especially in a scenario of an expanding Aridosphere, more influx and efflux measurements are needed to evaluate the possibility of carbon sequestration by soil carbonate in hyperarid, arid, semiarid, or subhumid soils.

  18. The Pool Is Not Just for Swimming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzker, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Participating in water fitness workouts is one way to benefit one's health at very little cost. If the pool at a school is used only for swimming, then the benefits of having one barely causes a ripple. When the properties of water and how humans react to water are understood and applied to water activity programs, health benefits and enjoyment…

  19. The Pool with the Movable Bottom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1977

    1977-01-01

    A major diagnostic, therapeutic, educational, and training center for the handicapped has under construction a swimming pool with a floor that will rise to deck level to enable handicapped persons to roll their wheel chairs on and then float free as the floor is lowered. (Author/MLF)

  20. Increasing Accessibility by Pooling Digital Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushion, Steve

    2004-01-01

    There are now many CALL authoring packages that can create interactive websites and a large number of language teachers are writing materials for the whole range of such packages. Currently, each product stores its data in different formats thus hindering interoperability, pooling of digital resources and moving between software packages based in…

  1. Transferring Goods or Splitting a Resource Pool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jacob; Van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the consequences for exchange outcomes of the violation of an assumption underlying most social psychological research on exchange. This assumption is that the negotiated direct exchange of commodities between two actors (pure exchange) can be validly represented as two actors splitting a fixed pool of resources (split pool…

  2. Risk Pools: State Approaches. inForum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve

    2006-01-01

    Historically, many state education agencies (SEAs) have formally or informally used risk pools to provide extra funds to local education agencies (LEAs) serving students with high cost special education needs. With the 2004 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), SEAs have been encouraged to formalize their…

  3. Investment Policies and Concepts for Pools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Robert L.

    1973-01-01

    Investment and endowment policies for educational institutions are shown to be greatly influenced by the size of the endowment and of the school budget. Administration of pooled funds is discussed with particular reference to procedures at Smith College. Establishment of an independent investment committee, separate from the finance committee, is…

  4. Increased task demand during spatial memory testing recruits the anterior cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Carr, Joshua K; Fournier, Neil M; Lehmann, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    We examined whether increasing retrieval difficulty in a spatial memory task would promote the recruitment of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) similar to what is typically observed during remote memory retrieval. Rats were trained on the hidden platform version of the Morris Water Task and tested three or 30 d later. Retrieval difficulty was manipulated by removing several prominent extra-pool cues from the testing room. Immediate early gene expression (c-Fos) in the ACC was greater following the cue removal and comparable to remote memory retrieval (30-d retention interval) levels, supporting the view of increased ACC contribution during high cognitive-demand memory processes. PMID:27531834

  5. Structural and Metabolic Correlates of Episodic Memory in Relation to the Depth of Encoding in Normal Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalpouzos, Gregoria; Chetelat, Gael; Landeau, Brigitte; Clochon, Patrice; Viader, Fausto; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Beatrice

    2009-01-01

    This study set out to establish the relationship between changes in episodic memory retrieval in normal aging on the one hand and gray matter volume and [superscript 18]FDG uptake on the other. Structural MRI, resting-state [superscript 18]FDG-PET, and an episodic memory task manipulating the depth of encoding and the retention interval were…

  6. Suncatcher and cool pool. Project report

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, J.

    1981-03-01

    The Suncatcher is a simple, conical solar concentrating device that captures light entering clerestory windows and directs it onto thermal storage elements at the back of a south facing living space. The cone shape and inclination are designed to capture low angle winter sunlight and to reflect away higher angle summer sunlight. It is found that winter radiation through a Suncatcher window is 40 to 50% higher than through an ordinary window, and that the average solar fraction is 59%. Water-filled steal culvert pipes used for thermal storage are found to undergo less stratification, and thus to be more effective, when located where sunlight strikes the bottom rather than the top. Five Suncatcher buildings are described. Designs are considered for 32/sup 0/, 40/sup 0/ and 48/sup 0/ north latitude, and as the latitude increases, the inclination angle of the cone should be lowered. The Cool Pool is an evaporating, shaded roof pond which thermosiphons cool water into water-filled columns within a building. Preliminary experiments indicate that the best shade design has unimpeded north sky view, good ventilation, complete summer shading, a low architectural profile, and low cost attic vent lowers work. Another series of experiments established the satisfactory performance of the Cool Pool on a test building using four water-filled cylinders, two cylinders, and two cylinders connected to the Cool Pool through a heat exchanger. Although an unshaded pool cools better at night than a shaded one, daytime heat gain far offsets this advantage. A vinyl waterbag heat exchanger was developed for use with the Cool Pool. (LEW)

  7. Corium quench in deep pool mixing experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B.W.; McUmber, L.; Gregorash, D.; Aeschlimann, R.; Sienicki, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The results of two recent corium-water thermal interaction (CWTI) tests are described in which a stream of molten corium was poured into a deep pool of water in order to determine the mixing behavior, the corium-to-water heat transfer rates, and the characteristic sizes of the quenched debris. The corium composition was 60% UO/sub 2/, 16% ZrO/sub 2/, and 24% stainless steel by weight; its initial temperature was 3080 K, approx.160 K above the oxide phase liquidus temperature. The corium pour stream was a single-phase 2.2 cm dia liquid column which entered the water pool in film boiling at approx.4 m/s. The water subcooling was 6 and 75C in the two tests. Test results showed that with low subcooling, rapid steam generation caused the pool to boil up into a high void fraction regime. In contrast, with large subcooling no net steam generation occurred, and the pool remained relatively quiescent. Breakup of the jet appeared to occur by surface stripping. In neither test was the breakup complete during transit through the 32 cm deep water pool, and molten corium channeled to the base where it formed a melt layer. The characteristic heat transfer rates measured 3.5 MJ/s and 2.7 MJ/s during the fall stage for small and large subcooling, respectively; during the initial stage of bed quench, the surface heat fluxes measured 2.4 MW/m/sup 2/ and 3.7 MW/m/sup 2/, respectively. A small mass of particles was formed in each test, measuring typically 0.1 to 1 mm and 1 to 5 mm dia for the large and small subcooling conditions, respectively. 9 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Long term habitual exercise is associated with lower resting level of serum BDNF.

    PubMed

    Babaei, Parvin; Damirchi, Arsalan; Mehdipoor, Mohammad; Tehrani, Bahram Soltani

    2014-04-30

    This experiment has been designed to evaluate the basal serum BDNF level and memory performance, and also the change in BDNF in response to acute aerobic and anaerobic training in athletes and sedentary groups. Nineteen middle aged elite athletes (45-65 years) who used to be competing at domestic championship for more than 10 years and 20 sedentary subjects participated in this study. Blood samples and cognitive function were assessed at rest and also after performing a single bout of acute aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Basal serum BDNF significantly was lower in the athletes group compared to the control one (475.18±45.32, 1089.30±94.92, P=0.001). Serum BDNF was inversely correlated with Vo2 max (r=-0.5, P=0.013), but positively with BMI (r=0.2, p=0.4). Pictures recall memory was better in the athlete group (9.25±1.61) compared with the control ones (8±1.15, p=0.04). Basal platelets did not show any significant differences between athletes and controls (p>0.05). Both acute aerobic and anaerobic activity elevated serum BDNF and platelets in athletes and sedentary groups compared with rest (P<0.001). This study suggests that long-term habitual exercise is associated with lower peripheral BDNF and better intermediate memory. However acute form of intensive activity either aerobic or anaerobic are capable to elevate serum BDNF level in both sedentary and athletes.

  9. Long term habitual exercise is associated with lower resting level of serum BDNF.

    PubMed

    Babaei, Parvin; Damirchi, Arsalan; Mehdipoor, Mohammad; Tehrani, Bahram Soltani

    2014-04-30

    This experiment has been designed to evaluate the basal serum BDNF level and memory performance, and also the change in BDNF in response to acute aerobic and anaerobic training in athletes and sedentary groups. Nineteen middle aged elite athletes (45-65 years) who used to be competing at domestic championship for more than 10 years and 20 sedentary subjects participated in this study. Blood samples and cognitive function were assessed at rest and also after performing a single bout of acute aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Basal serum BDNF significantly was lower in the athletes group compared to the control one (475.18±45.32, 1089.30±94.92, P=0.001). Serum BDNF was inversely correlated with Vo2 max (r=-0.5, P=0.013), but positively with BMI (r=0.2, p=0.4). Pictures recall memory was better in the athlete group (9.25±1.61) compared with the control ones (8±1.15, p=0.04). Basal platelets did not show any significant differences between athletes and controls (p>0.05). Both acute aerobic and anaerobic activity elevated serum BDNF and platelets in athletes and sedentary groups compared with rest (P<0.001). This study suggests that long-term habitual exercise is associated with lower peripheral BDNF and better intermediate memory. However acute form of intensive activity either aerobic or anaerobic are capable to elevate serum BDNF level in both sedentary and athletes. PMID:24572590

  10. Transactive memory systems scale for couples: development and validation

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Lauren Y.; Roberts, Lynne D.

    2015-01-01

    People in romantic relationships can develop shared memory systems by pooling their cognitive resources, allowing each person access to more information but with less cognitive effort. Research examining such memory systems in romantic couples largely focuses on remembering word lists or performing lab-based tasks, but these types of activities do not capture the processes underlying couples’ transactive memory systems, and may not be representative of the ways in which romantic couples use their shared memory systems in everyday life. We adapted an existing measure of transactive memory systems for use with romantic couples (TMSS-C), and conducted an initial validation study. In total, 397 participants who each identified as being a member of a romantic relationship of at least 3 months duration completed the study. The data provided a good fit to the anticipated three-factor structure of the components of couples’ transactive memory systems (specialization, credibility and coordination), and there was reasonable evidence of both convergent and divergent validity, as well as strong evidence of test–retest reliability across a 2-week period. The TMSS-C provides a valuable tool that can quickly and easily capture the underlying components of romantic couples’ transactive memory systems. It has potential to help us better understand this intriguing feature of romantic relationships, and how shared memory systems might be associated with other important features of romantic relationships. PMID:25999873

  11. Transactive memory systems scale for couples: development and validation.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Lauren Y; Roberts, Lynne D

    2015-01-01

    People in romantic relationships can develop shared memory systems by pooling their cognitive resources, allowing each person access to more information but with less cognitive effort. Research examining such memory systems in romantic couples largely focuses on remembering word lists or performing lab-based tasks, but these types of activities do not capture the processes underlying couples' transactive memory systems, and may not be representative of the ways in which romantic couples use their shared memory systems in everyday life. We adapted an existing measure of transactive memory systems for use with romantic couples (TMSS-C), and conducted an initial validation study. In total, 397 participants who each identified as being a member of a romantic relationship of at least 3 months duration completed the study. The data provided a good fit to the anticipated three-factor structure of the components of couples' transactive memory systems (specialization, credibility and coordination), and there was reasonable evidence of both convergent and divergent validity, as well as strong evidence of test-retest reliability across a 2-week period. The TMSS-C provides a valuable tool that can quickly and easily capture the underlying components of romantic couples' transactive memory systems. It has potential to help us better understand this intriguing feature of romantic relationships, and how shared memory systems might be associated with other important features of romantic relationships.

  12. CyREST: Turbocharging Cytoscape Access for External Tools via a RESTful API.

    PubMed

    Ono, Keiichiro; Muetze, Tanja; Kolishovski, Georgi; Shannon, Paul; Demchak, Barry

    2015-01-01

    As bioinformatic workflows become increasingly complex and involve multiple specialized tools, so does the difficulty of reliably reproducing those workflows. Cytoscape is a critical workflow component for executing network visualization, analysis, and publishing tasks, but it can be operated only manually via a point-and-click user interface. Consequently, Cytoscape-oriented tasks are laborious and often error prone, especially with multistep protocols involving many networks. In this paper, we present the new cyREST Cytoscape app and accompanying harmonization libraries. Together, they improve workflow reproducibility and researcher productivity by enabling popular languages (e.g., Python and R, JavaScript, and C#) and tools (e.g., IPython/Jupyter Notebook and RStudio) to directly define and query networks, and perform network analysis, layouts and renderings. We describe cyREST's API and overall construction, and present Python- and R-based examples that illustrate how Cytoscape can be integrated into large scale data analysis pipelines. cyREST is available in the Cytoscape app store (http://apps.cytoscape.org) where it has been downloaded over 1900 times since its release in late 2014. PMID:26672762

  13. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and left ventricular function at rest in patients with rest angina pectoris

    SciTech Connect

    Hakki, A.H.; Iskandrian, A.S.; Kane, S.A.; Amenta, A.

    1984-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the rest thallium-201 perfusion pattern during angina-free periods in 40 patients with rest angina pectoris secondary to coronary artery disease (greater than or equal to 70% diameter narrowing). Seventeen patients had previous Q wave myocardial infarction. The perfusion defects were considered fixed or reversible, depending on the absence or presence of redistribution in the 4-hour delayed images. There were 40 perfusion defects (26 fixed and 14 reversible) in 27 patients whereas 13 patients had normal scans. Reversible perfusion defects were present in 10 patients (25%). Of the 26 fixed perfusion defects, 17 did not have corresponding Q waves. Occluded vessels (63%) had more perfusion defects than vessels with subtotal occlusion (30%) (p less than 0.01). The perfusion defect size was larger in patients with lower ejection fraction than in patients with higher ejection fraction. We conclude: (1) perfusion defects are common in patients with rest angina and are reversible in 25% of patients indicating reduced regional coronary blood flow; (2) the degree of stenosis affects the presence of perfusion defect; (3) fixed defects may be present without corresponding Q waves; and (4) global left ventricular function is related to the size of perfusion defects.

  14. Memory beyond expression.

    PubMed

    Delorenzi, A; Maza, F J; Suárez, L D; Barreiro, K; Molina, V A; Stehberg, J

    2014-01-01

    The idea that memories are not invariable after the consolidation process has led to new perspectives about several mnemonic processes. In this framework, we review our studies on the modulation of memory expression during reconsolidation. We propose that during both memory consolidation and reconsolidation, neuromodulators can determine the probability of the memory trace to guide behavior, i.e. they can either increase or decrease its behavioral expressibility without affecting the potential of persistent memories to be activated and become labile. Our hypothesis is based on the findings that positive modulation of memory expression during reconsolidation occurs even if memories are behaviorally unexpressed. This review discusses the original approach taken in the studies of the crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata, which was then successfully applied to test the hypothesis in rodent fear memory. Data presented offers a new way of thinking about both weak trainings and experimental amnesia: memory retrieval can be dissociated from memory expression. Furthermore, the strategy presented here allowed us to show in human declarative memory that the periods in which long-term memory can be activated and become labile during reconsolidation exceeds the periods in which that memory is expressed, providing direct evidence that conscious access to memory is not needed for reconsolidation. Specific controls based on the constraints of reminders to trigger reconsolidation allow us to distinguish between obliterated and unexpressed but activated long-term memories after amnesic treatments, weak trainings and forgetting. In the hypothesis discussed, memory expressibility--the outcome of experience-dependent changes in the potential to behave--is considered as a flexible and modulable attribute of long-term memories. Expression seems to be just one of the possible fates of re-activated memories.

  15. Resting pulmonary ventilation in sports scuba divers.

    PubMed

    Muth, Thomas; Gams, Emmeran; Schipke, Jochen D

    2005-01-01

    It should be investigated whether the traditional dependency between respiratory and systemic measures is preserved during scuba diving, and whether the diving experience would affect respiration. Additionally, respiration data were analyzed for gender differences (118 sports divers). Respiratory variables were assessed at poolside and during diving in the pool. The respiration pattern at poolside was significantly different from the pattern during diving, where respiration rate (RR) decreased (11.8 +/- 3.8 vs. 7.8 +/- 2.9 min(-1); -34%) and tidal volume increased (1.1 +/- 0.5 vs. 1.6 +/- 0.6 L; +45%). This produced a decrease in respiratory minute volume (RMV) from 12.4 +/- 4.7 to 11.2 +/- 3.8 L/min (-10%). Respiratory Minute Volume and vital capacity correlated at poolside. This physiologic correlation was lost while diving. Instead, RMV and number of dives (= diver's experience) correlated negatively. Because RMV at both poolside and during diving correlates with RR, an increased RMV in diving beginners can be estimated via RR. Thus, close observation of RR could help improve safety during a regular dive, avoiding hazardous hyperventilation. Female divers, irrespective of body height and weight, need less air during diving.

  16. Detailed sensory memory, sloppy working memory.

    PubMed

    Sligte, Ilja G; Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2010-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables us to actively maintain information in mind for a brief period of time after stimulus disappearance. According to recent studies, VSTM consists of three stages - iconic memory, fragile VSTM, and visual working memory - with increasingly stricter capacity limits and progressively longer lifetimes. Still, the resolution (or amount of visual detail) of each VSTM stage has remained unexplored and we test this in the present study. We presented people with a change detection task that measures the capacity of all three forms of VSTM, and we added an identification display after each change trial that required people to identify the "pre-change" object. Accurate change detection plus pre-change identification requires subjects to have a high-resolution representation of the "pre-change" object, whereas change detection or identification only can be based on the hunch that something has changed, without exactly knowing what was presented before. We observed that people maintained 6.1 objects in iconic memory, 4.6 objects in fragile VSTM, and 2.1 objects in visual working memory. Moreover, when people detected the change, they could also identify the pre-change object on 88% of the iconic memory trials, on 71% of the fragile VSTM trials and merely on 53% of the visual working memory trials. This suggests that people maintain many high-resolution representations in iconic memory and fragile VSTM, but only one high-resolution object representation in visual working memory. PMID:21897823

  17. The Maine Vernal Pool Mapping and Assessment Program: Engaging Municipal Officials and Private Landowners in Community-Based Citizen Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansujwicz, Jessica S.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Lilieholm, Robert J.

    2013-12-01

    The Vernal Pool Mapping and Assessment Program (VPMAP) was initiated in 2007 to create a vernal pool database as a planning tool to foster local compliance with new state vernal pool regulations. In the northeastern United States, vernal pools are seasonal wetlands that provide critical breeding habitat for a number of amphibians and invertebrates and provide important resting and foraging habitat for some rare and endangered state-listed species. Using participant observation, interviews, and focus groups, we examined the engagement of municipal officials and private landowners in VPMAP. Important outcomes of municipal and landowner engagement included mobilization of town support for proactive planning, improved awareness and understanding of vernal pools, and increased interactions between program coordinators, municipal officials, and private landowners. Challenges to municipal and landowner engagement included an inconsistency in expectations between coordinators and municipal officials and a lack of time and sufficient information for follow-up with landowners participating in VPMAP. Our study highlights the importance of developing relationships among coordinators, municipal officials, and private landowners in facilitating positive outcomes for all stakeholders and for effective resource management. We suggest an expanded citizen science model that focuses on improving two-way communication among project coordinators, municipal officials, and local citizens and places communication with private landowners on par with volunteer citizen scientist recruitment and field training. Lessons learned from this research can inform the design and implementation of citizen science projects on private land.

  18. The Maine Vernal Pool Mapping and Assessment Program: engaging municipal officials and private landowners in community-based citizen science.

    PubMed

    Jansujwicz, Jessica S; Calhoun, Aram J K; Lilieholm, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    The Vernal Pool Mapping and Assessment Program (VPMAP) was initiated in 2007 to create a vernal pool database as a planning tool to foster local compliance with new state vernal pool regulations. In the northeastern United States, vernal pools are seasonal wetlands that provide critical breeding habitat for a number of amphibians and invertebrates and provide important resting and foraging habitat for some rare and endangered state-listed species. Using participant observation, interviews, and focus groups, we examined the engagement of municipal officials and private landowners in VPMAP. Important outcomes of municipal and landowner engagement included mobilization of town support for proactive planning, improved awareness and understanding of vernal pools, and increased interactions between program coordinators, municipal officials, and private landowners. Challenges to municipal and landowner engagement included an inconsistency in expectations between coordinators and municipal officials and a lack of time and sufficient information for follow-up with landowners participating in VPMAP. Our study highlights the importance of developing relationships among coordinators, municipal officials, and private landowners in facilitating positive outcomes for all stakeholders and for effective resource management. We suggest an expanded citizen science model that focuses on improving two-way communication among project coordinators, municipal officials, and local citizens and places communication with private landowners on par with volunteer citizen scientist recruitment and field training. Lessons learned from this research can inform the design and implementation of citizen science projects on private land.

  19. High genetic variation in resting-stage production in a metapopulation: Is there evidence for local adaptation?

    PubMed

    Roulin, Anne C; Mariadassou, Mahendra; Hall, Matthew D; Walser, Jean-Claude; Haag, Christoph; Ebert, Dieter

    2015-10-01

    Local adaptation is a key process for the maintenance of genetic diversity and population diversification. A better understanding of the mechanisms that allow (or prevent) local adaptation constitutes a key in apprehending how and at what spatial scale it occurs. The production of resting stages is found in many taxa and reflects an adaptation to outlast adverse environmental conditions. Daphnia magna (Crustacea) can alternate between asexual and sexual reproduction, the latter being linked to dormancy, as resting stages can only be produced sexually. In this species, on a continental scale, resting-stage production is locally adapted--that is, it is induced when the photoperiod indicates the imminence of habitat deterioration. Here, we aimed to explore whether selection is strong enough to maintain local adaptation at a scale of a few kilometers. We assessed life-history traits of 64 D. magna clones originating from 11 populations of a metapopulation with permanent and intermittent pool habitats. We found large within- and between-population variation for all dormancy-related traits, but no evidence for the hypothesized higher resting-stage production in animals from intermittent habitats. We discuss how gene flow, founder events, or other forms of selection might interfere with the process of local adaptation. PMID:26418426

  20. High genetic variation in resting-stage production in a metapopulation: Is there evidence for local adaptation?

    PubMed

    Roulin, Anne C; Mariadassou, Mahendra; Hall, Matthew D; Walser, Jean-Claude; Haag, Christoph; Ebert, Dieter

    2015-10-01

    Local adaptation is a key process for the maintenance of genetic diversity and population diversification. A better understanding of the mechanisms that allow (or prevent) local adaptation constitutes a key in apprehending how and at what spatial scale it occurs. The production of resting stages is found in many taxa and reflects an adaptation to outlast adverse environmental conditions. Daphnia magna (Crustacea) can alternate between asexual and sexual reproduction, the latter being linked to dormancy, as resting stages can only be produced sexually. In this species, on a continental scale, resting-stage production is locally adapted--that is, it is induced when the photoperiod indicates the imminence of habitat deterioration. Here, we aimed to explore whether selection is strong enough to maintain local adaptation at a scale of a few kilometers. We assessed life-history traits of 64 D. magna clones originating from 11 populations of a metapopulation with permanent and intermittent pool habitats. We found large within- and between-population variation for all dormancy-related traits, but no evidence for the hypothesized higher resting-stage production in animals from intermittent habitats. We discuss how gene flow, founder events, or other forms of selection might interfere with the process of local adaptation.

  1. Introducing the PRIDE Archive RESTful web services.

    PubMed

    Reisinger, Florian; del-Toro, Noemi; Ternent, Tobias; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The PRIDE (PRoteomics IDEntifications) database is one of the world-leading public repositories of mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics data and it is a founding member of the ProteomeXchange Consortium of proteomics resources. In the original PRIDE database system, users could access data programmatically by accessing the web services provided by the PRIDE BioMart interface. New REST (REpresentational State Transfer) web services have been developed to serve the most popular functionality provided by BioMart (now discontinued due to data scalability issues) and address the data access requirements of the newly developed PRIDE Archive. Using the API (Application Programming Interface) it is now possible to programmatically query for and retrieve peptide and protein identifications, project and assay metadata and the originally submitted files. Searching and filtering is also possible by metadata information, such as sample details (e.g. species and tissues), instrumentation (mass spectrometer), keywords and other provided annotations. The PRIDE Archive web services were first made available in April 2014. The API has already been adopted by a few applications and standalone tools such as PeptideShaker, PRIDE Inspector, the Unipept web application and the Python-based BioServices package. This application is free and open to all users with no login requirement and can be accessed at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/ws/archive/.

  2. Recovery After Prolonged Bed-Rest Deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Quach, David T.

    2003-01-01

    Recovery data were analyzed from normal healthy test subjects maintained in the horizontal or head-down body position in well-controlled bed rest (BR) studies in which adherence to the well-designed protocol was monitored. Because recovery data were almost always of secondary importance to the data collected during the BR period, there was little consistency in the recovery experimental designs regarding control factors (e.g., diet or exercise), duration, or timing of data collection. Thus, only about half of the BR studies that provided appropriate data were analyzed here. These recovery data were sorted into two groups: those from BR protocols of less than 37 days, and those from protocols greater than 36 days. There was great disparity in the unchanged responses at the end of BR in these two groups. Likewise with the variables that required more than 40 days for recovery; for example, some immune variables required more than 180 days. Knowledge of the recovery process after BR in healthy people should assist rehabilitation workers in differentiating "healthy" BR recovery responses from those of the infirmity of sick or injured patients; this should result in more appropriate and efficient health care.

  3. Sleep and Rest Requirements: Physiological Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neri, David F.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Sleep is a vital physiological need which must be met to insure optimal functioning. A single night of significantly shortened sleep negatively impacts performance, alertness, and mood. Restricted sleep studies have shown that even a relatively small amount of sleep loss over several consecutive days can be additive and result in a cumulative sleep debt with similar detrimental effects. Compounding the problem of sleep loss in the operational environment is the poor correlation between subjective reports of sleepiness and objective measures of physiological sleep need. Some of the factors determining how sleepy an individual is at a given point in time are: (1) individual characteristics (e.g., amount of prior sleep and wakefulness, circadian phase, age), (2) environmental conditions (e.g., noise, temperature, amount of social interaction), and (3) task variables (e.g., signal rate, workload). Although sleep need can be masked with medications, the only way to reduce it is with sleep itself. The timing of the sleep period can affect sleep duration and quality and thus its restorative strength. The data are clear that increasing sleep time results in improved alertness. This paper will briefly review the scientific findings on sleep need, the effects of sleep loss, napping strategies, and the implications of incorporating physiologically sound sleep and rest strategies into the operational aviation environment.

  4. Introducing the PRIDE Archive RESTful web services

    PubMed Central

    Reisinger, Florian; del-Toro, Noemi; Ternent, Tobias; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The PRIDE (PRoteomics IDEntifications) database is one of the world-leading public repositories of mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics data and it is a founding member of the ProteomeXchange Consortium of proteomics resources. In the original PRIDE database system, users could access data programmatically by accessing the web services provided by the PRIDE BioMart interface. New REST (REpresentational State Transfer) web services have been developed to serve the most popular functionality provided by BioMart (now discontinued due to data scalability issues) and address the data access requirements of the newly developed PRIDE Archive. Using the API (Application Programming Interface) it is now possible to programmatically query for and retrieve peptide and protein identifications, project and assay metadata and the originally submitted files. Searching and filtering is also possible by metadata information, such as sample details (e.g. species and tissues), instrumentation (mass spectrometer), keywords and other provided annotations. The PRIDE Archive web services were first made available in April 2014. The API has already been adopted by a few applications and standalone tools such as PeptideShaker, PRIDE Inspector, the Unipept web application and the Python-based BioServices package. This application is free and open to all users with no login requirement and can be accessed at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/ws/archive/. PMID:25904633

  5. Risk pools: payers and providers take the plunge.

    PubMed

    Hummel, J R

    1999-11-01

    Providers considering managed care risk pool arrangements should understand thoroughly what services the pool covers, the time period covered, and how the pool is administered. Important issues related to pool administration include how credits and debits are applied; when the accounting occurs (interim, year-end, or contract termination); and provisions for reports, audit rights, and dispute resolution. Although a pool arrangement gives the health plan control over claims payment, the risk allocation made possible through a pool arrangement helps ensure that the economic incentives of the health plan and the provider are aligned.

  6. 74. AERIAL VIEW OF MEMORIAL BRIDGE AND MEMORIAL AVENUE LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. AERIAL VIEW OF MEMORIAL BRIDGE AND MEMORIAL AVENUE LOOKING EAST AT LINCOLN MEMORIAL. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  7. Role of Perfusion at Rest in the Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction Using Vasodilator Stress Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mita B; Mor-Avi, Victor; Kawaji, Keigo; Nathan, Sandeep; Kramer, Christopher M; Lang, Roberto M; Patel, Amit R

    2016-04-01

    In clinical practice, perfusion at rest in vasodilator stress single-photon emission computed tomography is commonly used to confirm myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemia and to rule out artifacts. It is unclear whether perfusion at rest carries similar information in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). We sought to determine whether chronic MI is associated with abnormal perfusion at rest on CMR. We compared areas of infarct and remote myocardium in 31 patients who underwent vasodilator stress CMR (1.5 T), had MI confirmed by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE scar), and coronary angiography within 6 months. Stress perfusion imaging during gadolinium first pass was followed by reversal with aminophylline (75 to 125 mg), rest perfusion, and LGE imaging. Resting and peak-stress time-intensity curves were used to obtain maximal upslopes (normalized by blood pool upslopes), which were compared between infarcted and remote myocardial regions of interest. At rest, there was no significant difference between the slopes in the regions of interest supplied by arteries with and without stenosis >70% (0.31 ± 0.16 vs 0.26 ± 0.15 1/s), irrespective of LGE scar. However, at peak stress, we found significant differences (0.20 ± 0.11 vs 0.30 ± 0.22 1/s; p <0.05), reflecting the expected stress-induced ischemia. Similarly, at rest, there was no difference between infarcted and remote myocardium (0.27 ± 0.14 vs 0.30 ± 0.17 1/s), irrespective of stenosis, but significant differences were seen during stress (0.21 ± 0.16 vs 0.28 ± 0.18 1/s; p <0.001), reflecting inducible ischemia. In conclusion, abnormalities in myocardial perfusion at rest associated with chronic MI are not reliably detectable on CMR images. Accordingly, unlike single-photon emission computed tomography, normal CMR perfusion at rest should not be used to rule out chronic MI. PMID:26830261

  8. REST represses a subset of the pancreatic endocrine differentiation program.

    PubMed

    Martin, David; Kim, Yung-Hae; Sever, Dror; Mao, Chai-An; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine; Grapin-Botton, Anne

    2015-09-15

    To contribute to devise successful beta-cell differentiation strategies for the cure of Type 1 diabetes we sought to uncover barriers that restrict endocrine fate acquisition by studying the role of the transcriptional repressor REST in the developing pancreas. Rest expression is prevented in neurons and in endocrine cells, which is necessary for their normal function. During development, REST represses a subset of genes in the neuronal differentiation program and Rest is down-regulated as neurons differentiate. Here, we investigate the role of REST in the differentiation of pancreatic endocrine cells, which are molecularly close to neurons. We show that Rest is widely expressed in pancreas progenitors and that it is down-regulated in differentiated endocrine cells. Sustained expression of REST in Pdx1(+) progenitors impairs the differentiation of endocrine-committed Neurog3(+) progenitors, decreases beta and alpha cell mass by E18.5, and triggers diabetes in adulthood. Conditional inactivation of Rest in Pdx1(+) progenitors is not sufficient to trigger endocrine differentiation but up-regulates a subset of differentiation genes. Our results show that the transcriptional repressor REST is active in pancreas progenitors where it gates the activation of part of the beta cell differentiation program. PMID:26156633

  9. REST represses a subset of the pancreatic endocrine differentiation program

    PubMed Central

    Martin, David; Kim, Yung-Hae; Sever, Dror; Mao, Chai-An; Haefiiger, Jacques-Antoine; Grapin-Botton, Anne

    2016-01-01

    To contribute to devise successful beta-cell differentiation strategies for the cure of Type 1 diabetes we sought to uncover barriers that restrict endocrine fate acquisition by studying the role of the transcriptional repressor REST in the developing pancreas. Rest expression is prevented in neurons and in endocrine cells, which is necessary for their normal function. During development, REST represses a subset of genes in the neuronal differentiation program and Rest is down-regulated as neurons differentiate. Here, we investigate the role of REST in the differentiation of pancreatic endocrine cells, which are molecularly close to neurons. We show that Rest is widely expressed in pancreas progenitors and that it is down-regulated in differentiated endocrine cells. Sustained expression of REST in Pdx1+ progenitors impairs the differentiation of endocrine-committed Neurog3+ progenitors, decreases beta and alpha cell mass by E18.5, and triggers diabetes in adulthood. Conditional inactivation of Rest in Pdx1+ progenitors is not sufficient to trigger endocrine differentiation but up-regulates a subset of differentiation genes. Our results show that the transcriptional repressor REST is active in pancreas progenitors where it gates the activation of part of the beta cell differentiation program. PMID:26156633

  10. Rest mutant zebrafish swim erratically and display atypical spatial preferences.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Cara E; Li, Edward; Maaswinkel, Hans; Kritzer, Mary F; Weng, Wei; Sirotkin, Howard I

    2015-05-01

    The Rest/Nrsf transcriptional repressor modulates expression of a large set of neural specific genes. Many of these target genes have well characterized roles in nervous system processes including development, plasticity and synaptogenesis. However, the impact of Rest-mediated transcriptional regulation on behavior has been understudied due in part to the embryonic lethality of the mouse knockout. To investigate the requirement for Rest in behavior, we employed the zebrafish rest mutant to explore a range of behaviors in adults and larva. Adult rest mutants of both sexes showed abnormal behaviors in a novel environment including increased vertical swimming, erratic swimming patterns and a proclivity for the tank walls. Adult males also had diminished reproductive success. At 6 days post fertilization (dpf), rest mutant larva were hypoactive, but displayed normal evoked responses to light and sound stimuli. Overall, these results provide evidence that rest dysfunction produces atypical swimming patterns and preferences in adults, and reduced locomotor activity in larvae. This study provides the first behavioral analysis of rest mutants and reveals specific behaviors that are modulated by Rest. PMID:25712696

  11. REST represses a subset of the pancreatic endocrine differentiation program.

    PubMed

    Martin, David; Kim, Yung-Hae; Sever, Dror; Mao, Chai-An; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine; Grapin-Botton, Anne

    2015-09-15

    To contribute to devise successful beta-cell differentiation strategies for the cure of Type 1 diabetes we sought to uncover barriers that restrict endocrine fate acquisition by studying the role of the transcriptional repressor REST in the developing pancreas. Rest expression is prevented in neurons and in endocrine cells, which is necessary for their normal function. During development, REST represses a subset of genes in the neuronal differentiation program and Rest is down-regulated as neurons differentiate. Here, we investigate the role of REST in the differentiation of pancreatic endocrine cells, which are molecularly close to neurons. We show that Rest is widely expressed in pancreas progenitors and that it is down-regulated in differentiated endocrine cells. Sustained expression of REST in Pdx1(+) progenitors impairs the differentiation of endocrine-committed Neurog3(+) progenitors, decreases beta and alpha cell mass by E18.5, and triggers diabetes in adulthood. Conditional inactivation of Rest in Pdx1(+) progenitors is not sufficient to trigger endocrine differentiation but up-regulates a subset of differentiation genes. Our results show that the transcriptional repressor REST is active in pancreas progenitors where it gates the activation of part of the beta cell differentiation program.

  12. Dynamic Status of REST in the Mouse ESC Pluripotency Network

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sanjay K.; Veo, Bethany L.; Kagalwala, Mohamedi N.; Shi, Weiwei; Liang, Shoudan; Majumder, Sadhan

    2012-01-01

    Background REST is abundantly expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Many genome-wide analyses have found REST to be an integral part of the ESC pluripotency network. However, experimental systems have produced contradictory findings: (1) REST is required for the maintenance of ESC pluripotency and loss of REST causes increased expression of differentiation markers, (2) REST is not required for the maintenance of ESC pluripotency and loss of REST does not change expression of differentiation markers, and (3) REST is not required for the maintenance of ESC pluripotency but loss of REST causes decreased expression of differentiation markers. These reports highlight gaps in our knowledge of the ESC network. Methods Employing biochemical and genome-wide analyses of various culture conditions and ESC lines, we have attempted to resolve some of the discrepancies in the literature. Results We show that Rest+/− and Rest−/− AB-1 mutant ESCs, which did not exhibit a role of REST in ESC pluripotency when cultured in the presence of feeder cells, did show impaired self-renewal when compared with the parental cells under feeder-free culture conditions, but only in early passage cells. In late passage cells, both Rest+/− and Rest−/− AB-1 ESCs restored pluripotency, suggesting a passage and culture condition-dependent response. Genome-wide analysis followed by biochemical validation supported this response and further indicated that the restoration of pluripotency was associated by increased expression of the ESC pluripotency factors. E14Tg2a.4 ESCs with REST-knockdown, which earlier showed a REST-dependent pluripotency when cultured under feeder-free conditions, as well as Rest−/− AB-1 ESCs, showed no REST-dependent pluripotency when cultured in the presence of either feeder cells or laminin, indicating that extracellular matrix components can rescue REST's role in ESC pluripotency. Conclusions REST regulates ESC pluripotency in culture condition- and

  13. Rest Mutant zebrafish swim erratically and display atypical spatial preferences

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, Cara E.; Li, Edward; Maaswinkel, Hans; Kritzer, Mary F.; Weng, Wei; Sirotkin, Howard I.

    2015-01-01

    The Rest/Nrsf transcriptional repressor modulates expression of a large set of neural specific genes. Many of these target genes have well characterized roles in nervous system processes including development, plasticity and synaptogenesis. However, the impact of Rest-mediated transcriptional regulation on behavior has been understudied due in part to the embryonic lethality of the mouse knockout. To investigate the requirement for Rest in behavior, we employed the zebrafish rest mutant to explore a range of behaviors in adults and larva. Adult rest mutants of both sexes showed abnormal behaviors in a novel environment including increased vertical swimming, erratic swimming patterns and a proclivity for the tank walls. Adult males also had diminished reproductive success. At 6 days post fertilization (dpf), rest mutant larva were hypoactive, but displayed normal evoked responses to light and sound stimuli. Overall, these results provide evidence that rest dysfunction produces atypical swimming patterns and preferences in adults, and reduced locomotor activity in larvae. This study provides the first behavioral analysis of rest mutants and reveals specific behaviors that are modulated by Rest. PMID:25712696

  14. Rest mutant zebrafish swim erratically and display atypical spatial preferences.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Cara E; Li, Edward; Maaswinkel, Hans; Kritzer, Mary F; Weng, Wei; Sirotkin, Howard I

    2015-05-01

    The Rest/Nrsf transcriptional repressor modulates expression of a large set of neural specific genes. Many of these target genes have well characterized roles in nervous system processes including development, plasticity and synaptogenesis. However, the impact of Rest-mediated transcriptional regulation on behavior has been understudied due in part to the embryonic lethality of the mouse knockout. To investigate the requirement for Rest in behavior, we employed the zebrafish rest mutant to explore a range of behaviors in adults and larva. Adult rest mutants of both sexes showed abnormal behaviors in a novel environment including increased vertical swimming, erratic swimming patterns and a proclivity for the tank walls. Adult males also had diminished reproductive success. At 6 days post fertilization (dpf), rest mutant larva were hypoactive, but displayed normal evoked responses to light and sound stimuli. Overall, these results provide evidence that rest dysfunction produces atypical swimming patterns and preferences in adults, and reduced locomotor activity in larvae. This study provides the first behavioral analysis of rest mutants and reveals specific behaviors that are modulated by Rest.

  15. Zazen meditation and no-task resting EEG compared with LORETA intracortical source localization.

    PubMed

    Faber, Pascal L; Lehmann, Dietrich; Gianotti, Lorena R R; Milz, Patricia; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D; Held, Marlene; Kochi, Kieko

    2015-02-01

    Meditation is a self-induced and willfully initiated practice that alters the state of consciousness. The meditation practice of Zazen, like many other meditation practices, aims at disregarding intrusive thoughts while controlling body posture. It is an open monitoring meditation characterized by detached moment-to-moment awareness and reduced conceptual thinking and self-reference. Which brain areas differ in electric activity during Zazen compared to task-free resting? Since scalp electroencephalography (EEG) waveforms are reference-dependent, conclusions about the localization of active brain areas are ambiguous. Computing intracerebral source models from the scalp EEG data solves this problem. In the present study, we applied source modeling using low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) to 58-channel scalp EEG data recorded from 15 experienced Zen meditators during Zazen and no-task resting. Zazen compared to no-task resting showed increased alpha-1 and alpha-2 frequency activity in an exclusively right-lateralized cluster extending from prefrontal areas including the insula to parts of the somatosensory and motor cortices and temporal areas. Zazen also showed decreased alpha and beta-2 activity in the left angular gyrus and decreased beta-1 and beta-2 activity in a large bilateral posterior cluster comprising the visual cortex, the posterior cingulate cortex and the parietal cortex. The results include parts of the default mode network and suggest enhanced automatic memory and emotion processing, reduced conceptual thinking and self-reference on a less judgmental, i.e., more detached moment-to-moment basis during Zazen compared to no-task resting.

  16. Physical activity associated with increased resting-state functional connectivity in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Patterson, Beth; Janssen, Alisha; Abduljalil, Amir; Boster, Aaron

    2011-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, resulting in physical, cognitive and affective disturbances, with notable declines in the ability to learn and retain new information. In this study, we examined if higher levels of physical activity in MS individuals were associated with an increased resting-state connectivity of the hippocampus and cortex, resulting in better performance on a task of episodic memory. Forty-five individuals with a clinically definite diagnosis of MS were recruited for the study. Consistent with previous reports, hippocampus was functionally connected to the posteromedial cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, and the medial frontal cortex. Higher levels of physical activity in MS patients were associated with an increased coherence between the hippocampus and the posteromedial cortex (PMC). The increased connectivity between these two regions, in turn, was predictive of better relational memory, such that MS patients who showed an increased coherence between the left (not right) hippocampus and the PMC also showed better relational memory. Results of the study are interpreted in light of the challenge of disentangling effects of physical activity from effects of disease severity and its neuropathological correlates.

  17. Is the HM story only a "remote memory"? Some facts about hippocampus and memory in humans.

    PubMed

    Deweer, B; Pillon, B; Pochon, J B; Dubois, B

    2001-12-14

    In this review, we argue that a number of current data support the notion that the hippocampal formations play an important role in episodic memory in humans. We will focus on data gathered from three topics within this field: (1) the neuropsychological study of memory in degenerative diseases, which provides striking dissociations of processes, as a function of the location of cerebral lesions and of their functional consequences; (2) the description of patients' memory difficulties after unilateral medial temporal lobectomy. Given the visuo-verbal dissociation, we may anticipate that the study of the effects of such lesions may help in the understanding of the role of the hippocampus in memory, in terms of: (i) the stage of memory processing where the hippocampus is really involved (encoding, consolidation and/or retrieval); (ii) the specificity of the impairments as a function of the nature (verbal vs. visuo-spatial) of the to-be-remembered material; (3) recent evidence from imaging studies: (i) the morphological approach, which provides interesting information with the study of correlations between the volumes of diverse cerebral regions-particularly the volume of the hippocampus-and episodic memory performance and other cognitive measures; (ii) metabolic studies, using PET scan, which were first designed for correlational analyses between performance in episodic memory tasks and glucose utilization at rest in diverse regions of interest, such as the hippocampal formations; (iii) activation studies with PET and functional MRI, which are actually more straightforward, since they allow correlations between the metabolism in regions of interest and performance on line (e.g. during encoding or retrieval of information). In our view, inasmuch as such different approaches-degenerative diseases, lesions or imagery-provide convergent information, they give renewed weight to the notion according to which the hippocampal formations are critically concerned in episodic

  18. Neural activity during self-referential working memory and the underlying role of the amygdala in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Jin Seong; Shin, Yu-Bin; Choi, Soo-Hee; Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2016-08-01

    Self-referential processing, theory of mind, and working memory are distorted in social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to investigate characteristics of altered self-referential working memory processing and resting-state functional connectivity in patients with SAD. Twenty patients and 20 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at resting-state and while performing a working memory task containing faces with self-referential positive or negative comments and three memory phases (encoding, maintenance, and retrieval). Task-related results were compared between groups and tested for correlations. Resting-state connectivity between amygdala subregions and regions showing a task-related difference was also compared between groups. Patients compared to controls showed augmented memory for the negative comments, hyperactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and temporo-parietal junction during encoding, and hypoactivation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and insula during retrieval. At resting-state, increased connectivity of amygdala subregions with multiple task-related regions was found in patients. These findings suggest that the encoding process in SAD is accompanied by altered involvement of self-referential processing and theory of mind, whereas the retrieval process reflects impaired cognitive control. These memory-related processing may be affected by predisposing resting-state hyperconnectivity with the amygdala, and may underlie a hypersensitivity to negative comments and post-event reflection in SAD. PMID:27260987

  19. Electrophysiological Measures of Resting State Functional Connectivity and Their Relationship with Working Memory Capacity in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jessica J.; Woolrich, Mark W.; Baker, Kate; Colclough, Giles L.; Astle, Duncan E.

    2016-01-01

    Functional connectivity is the statistical association of neuronal activity time courses across distinct brain regions, supporting specific cognitive processes. This coordination of activity is likely to be highly important for complex aspects of cognition, such as the communication of fluctuating task goals from higher-order control regions to…

  20. Memories of attachment hamper EEG cortical connectivity in dissociative patients.

    PubMed

    Farina, Benedetto; Speranza, Anna Maria; Dittoni, Serena; Gnoni, Valentina; Trentini, Cristina; Vergano, Carola Maggiora; Liotti, Giovanni; Brunetti, Riccardo; Testani, Elisa; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated cortical connectivity modifications by electroencephalography (EEG) lagged coherence analysis, in subjects with dissociative disorders and in controls, after retrieval of attachment memories. We asked thirteen patients with dissociative disorders and thirteen age- and sex-matched healthy controls to retrieve personal attachment-related autobiographical memories through adult attachment interviews (AAI). EEG was recorded in the closed eyes resting state before and after the AAI. EEG lagged coherence before and after AAI was compared in all subjects. In the control group, memories of attachment promoted a widespread increase in EEG connectivity, in particular in the high-frequency EEG bands. Compared to controls, dissociative patients did not show an increase in EEG connectivity after the AAI. Conclusions: These results shed light on the neurophysiology of the disintegrative effect of retrieval of traumatic attachment memories in dissociative patients.

  1. A parietal memory network revealed by multiple MRI methods.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Adrian W; Nelson, Steven M; McDermott, Kathleen B

    2015-09-01

    The manner by which the human brain learns and recognizes stimuli is a matter of ongoing investigation. Through examination of meta-analyses of task-based functional MRI and resting state functional connectivity MRI, we identified a novel network strongly related to learning and memory. Activity within this network at encoding predicts subsequent item memory, and at retrieval differs for recognized and unrecognized items. The direction of activity flips as a function of recent history: from deactivation for novel stimuli to activation for stimuli that are familiar due to recent exposure. We term this network the 'parietal memory network' (PMN) to reflect its broad involvement in human memory processing. We provide a preliminary framework for understanding the key functional properties of the network. PMID:26254740

  2. The hydrology of natural and artificial bog pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Joseph; Turner, Ed; McKenzie, Rebecca; Baird, Andy; Billett, Mike; Chapman, Pippa; Dinsmore, Kerry; Dooling, Gemma

    2016-04-01

    Twelve bog pools were monitored over a 3.5-year period (2012-2015) in the Cross Lochs blanket peatland in the Flow Country of northern Scotland. Six pools were located in a natural pool complex while the other six were in an adjacent area where the peat had been ditched in the 1970s. The ditches had been subsequently dammed with peat in 2002 resulting in dozens of artificial pools along each ditch, with one pool upslope of each dam. The natural pools ranged in area from 15 m2 to 850 m2, while the artificial pools are a more uniform size at c.3 - 4 m2. Following a dry first summer, water levels in the 12 pools were lower throughout the subsequent winter and spring than they were in proceeding years showing strong inter-annual variability in pool levels even for winter months. Over the three year study, water level fluctuations in the natural pools were very different to those in the artificial pools. The natural pools showed subdued responses to rainfall and, after rainfall, slow falls in water level dominated by evaporation; the hydraulic conductivity of the peat was very low at depths of 30 and 50 cm below the peat surface around the pools (median values of 2.49 × 10-5 and 1.09 × 10-5 cm s-1 respectively). The artificial pools had much larger monthly interquartile ranges of water levels and a greater rise and fall of pool water level in response to each individual rainfall event compared with the natural pools. Thus the biogeochemistry and carbon cycling processes that occur within the natural pools is not likely to be replicated in the artificial pools as their hydrological behaviour is quite different. Slope position was a factor in terms of hydrological response of pools with those further downslope having higher relative water levels for longer periods of time compared to upslope pools. Thus we anticipate that local biogeochemical processes in and around bog pools may be impacted by slope position and by whether they are natural pools or artificial pools

  3. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    V. King

    2000-06-19

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous

  4. Increases in plasma pool size of lipoprotein components in copper-deficient hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Othman, A.A.; Rosenstein, F.; Lei, K.Y. )

    1991-03-15

    Twenty-four male Golden Syrian hamsters, were randomly assigned to 2 dietary copper (Cu) treatments; deficient and adequate. Reductions in weight gain, hematocrit and liver Cu as well as increases in heart weight and plasma volume were observed in CD hamsters after 7 weeks of treatment. Plasma very low (VLDL), low (LDL) and high (HDL) density lipoproteins were isolated by ultracentrifugation and Sepharose column chromatography. The percentage of total plasma cholesterol carried by LDL was increased from 20 to 24% but was reduced from 71 to 68% for HDL as a result of Cu deficiency. In LDL the % composition of triglycerides (TG) and phospholipids (PL) was increased by 25% but that of cholesterol was reduced by 13%. The % composition of protein was reduced 24% but that of TG was increased 18% in VLDL by Cu deficiency. Since plasma volume was increased 50% in CD hamsters, the data were expressed as the amount present in the plasma pool corrected for body weight. With the exceptions of smaller increased in VLDL protein and PL as well as the more than threefold increases in LDL TG and PL plasma pool size, the pool size for the rest of the lipoprotein components were increased about twofold in CD hamsters. The lipoprotein data further indicate that Cu deficiency increased the particle number of VLDL, LDL and HDL but enlarged the size of only VLDL and LDL.

  5. [Is Dutch swimming pool water erosive?].

    PubMed

    Lokin, P A; Huysmans, M C

    2004-01-01

    Etiological factors in the development of dental erosion are usually listed as dietary acids, for instance in soft drinks and fruit juices, and intrinsic acid exposure due to gastro-intestinal disease or frequent vomiting. Quite often the list of causes in reviews and textbooks also includes frequent swimming. This paper evaluates the evidence behind this erosion etiology. The main disinfection techniques using gas chlorination and sodium hypochlorite are described, and their relative risk for development of low pH water is discussed. In the Netherlands only the relatively safe sodium hypochlorite method is used, and the quality of the water in public swimming pools is monitored monthly by independent test laboratories. Data for 2001 from such a test laboratory show that the percentage of low-pH results is very low (0.14%). It is concluded that the risk of dental erosion from frequent swimming in acidic pool water is probably negligible in the Netherlands.

  6. Conceptual design for spacelab pool boiling experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lienhard, J. H.; Peck, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    A pool boiling heat transfer experiment to be incorporated with a larger two-phase flow experiment on Spacelab was designed to confirm (or alter) the results of earth-normal gravity experiments which indicate that the hydrodynamic peak and minimum pool boiling heat fluxes vanish at very low gravity. Twelve small sealed test cells containing water, methanol or Freon 113 and cylindrical heaters of various sizes are to be built. Each cell will be subjected to one or more 45 sec tests in which the surface heat flux on the heaters is increased linearly until the surface temperature reaches a limiting value of 500 C. The entire boiling process will be photographed in slow-motion. Boiling curves will be constructed from thermocouple and electric input data, for comparison with the motion picture records. The conduct of the experiment will require no more than a few hours of operator time.

  7. Searching for repressed memory.

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the work of my research group on adults who report either repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) or who report no history of CSA. Adapting paradigms from cognitive psychology, we tested hypotheses inspired by both the "repressed memory" and "false memory" perspectives on recovered memories of CSA. We found some evidence for the false memory perspective, but no evidence for the repressed memory perspective. However, our work also suggests a third perspective on recovered memories that does not require the concept of repression. Some children do not understand their CSA when it occurs, and do not experience terror. Years later, they recall the experience, and understanding it as abuse, suffer intense distress. The memory failed to come to mind for years, partly because the child did not encode it as terrifying (i.e., traumatic), not because the person was unable to recall it.

  8. Poole-frenkel piezoconductive element and sensor

    DOEpatents

    Habermehl, Scott D.

    2004-08-03

    A new class of highly sensitive piezoconductive strain sensor elements and sensors has been invented. The new elements function under conditions such that electrical conductivity is dominated by Poole-Frenkel transport. A substantial piezoconductive effect appears in this regime, allowing the new sensors to exhibit sensitivity to applied strain as much as two orders of magnitude in excess of prior art sensors based on doped silicon.

  9. Natural convection in a uniformly heated pool

    SciTech Connect

    Tzanos, C.P.

    1996-05-01

    In the event of a core meltdown accident, to prevent reactor vessel failure from molten corium relocation to the reactor vessel lower head, the establishment of a coolable configuration has been proposed by flooding with water the reactor cavity. In Reference 3, it was shown that for the heavy-water new production reactor (NPW-HWR) design, this strategy, e.g., the rejection of decay heat to a containment decay heat removal system by boiling of water in the reactor cavity, could keep the reactor vessel temperature below failure limits. The analysis of Ref. 3 was performed with the computer code COMMIX-1AR/P, and showed that natural convection in the molten-corium pool was the dominant mechanism of heat transfer from the pool to the wall of the reactor vessel lower head. To determine whether COMMIX adequately predicts natural convection in a pool heated by a uniform heat source, in Ref. 4, the experiments of free convection in a semicircular cavity of Jahn and Reineke were analyzed with COMMIX. It was found that the Nusselt (Nu) number predicted by COMMIX was within the spread of the experimental measurements. In the COMMIX analysis of Ref. 4, the semicircular cavity was treated as symmetric. The objective of the work presented in this paper was to extend the COMMIX validation analysis of Ref. 4 by removing the assumption of symmetry and expanding the analysis up to the highest Rayleigh (Ra) number that leads to a steady state. In conclusion, this work shows that the numerical predictions of natural convection in an internally heated pool bounded by a curved bottom are in reasonably good agreement with experimental measurements.

  10. Zebrafish rest regulates developmental gene expression but not neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kok, Fatma O; Taibi, Andrew; Wanner, Sarah J; Xie, Xiayang; Moravec, Cara E; Love, Crystal E; Prince, Victoria E; Mumm, Jeff S; Sirotkin, Howard I

    2012-10-01

    The transcriptional repressor Rest (Nrsf) recruits chromatin-modifying complexes to RE1 'silencer elements', which are associated with hundreds of neural genes. However, the requirement for Rest-mediated transcriptional regulation of embryonic development and cell fate is poorly understood. Conflicting views of the role of Rest in controlling cell fate have emerged from recent studies. To address these controversies, we examined the developmental requirement for Rest in zebrafish using zinc-finger nuclease-mediated gene targeting. We discovered that germ layer specification progresses normally in rest mutants despite derepression of target genes during embryogenesis. This analysis provides the first evidence that maternal rest is essential for repression of target genes during blastula stages. Surprisingly, neurogenesis proceeds largely normally in rest mutants, although abnormalities are observed within the nervous system, including defects in oligodendrocyte precursor cell development and a partial loss of facial branchiomotor neuron migration. Mutants progress normally through embryogenesis but many die as larvae (after 12 days). However, some homozygotes reach adulthood and are viable. We utilized an RE1/NRSE transgenic reporter system to dynamically monitor Rest activity. This analysis revealed that Rest is required to repress gene expression in mesodermal derivatives including muscle and notochord, as well as within the nervous system. Finally, we demonstrated that Rest is required for long-term repression of target genes in non-neural tissues in adult zebrafish. Our results point to a broad role for Rest in fine-tuning neural gene expression, rather than as a widespread regulator of neurogenesis or cell fate. PMID:22951640

  11. Emotional Memory Persists Longer than Event Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition…

  12. Pooling procurement in the Belgian hospital sector.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Guy

    2011-01-01

    The Belgian hospital sector is following the example of a number of other European countries and for more than ten years now, has been striving to pool its medical supplies and equipment purchases in a bid to reduce costs. The various experiments of which we are aware come under both opportunist purchases and initiatives which are designed to encourage local-regional contracts. These attempts have now all come to nothing or are struggling in the absence of a structured and professional approach. In 2005, the Saint Luc University Clinic in Brussels decided to set up a high-performance purchasing department, the aim being to centre its initiatives around TCO or Total Cost of Ownership. Following an analysis of the various experiments into pooling procurement in hospitals in Europe, the Saint Luc University Clinic decided on a central procurement agency model, in accordance with new legislation on public procurement. This article seeks to highlight the prerequisites which are vital for a procurement pooling initiative, without underestimating the risks and limitations of implementing such a change in procurement practices. The Mercure central procurement agency is now the largest interhospital purchasing structure in Belgium. PMID:21675637

  13. Hemophilic bleeding evaluated by blood pool scanning.

    PubMed

    Green, D; Spies, S M; Rana, N A; Milgram, J W; Mintzer, R

    1981-06-30

    The technique of blood pool scanning was used to examine 15 hemophilic subjects. Employing an in vivo method for erythrocyte labeling with Technetium-99 m, a dynamic perfusion sequence is obtained using a scintillation camera positioned over the area to be examined. This demonstrates the vascularity of the tissue. Subsequently, equilibrium blood pool images of the area are obtained and analyzed with a densitometer to assess relative regional blood volume. In patients who were not bleeding but had chronic arthropathy, vascularity was not increased, and the blood volume of comparable joints was similar. By contrast, marked increases in vascularity and image density were observed in studies of acutely bleeding joints. Chronic hemarthroses were associated with persistent, but less marked increases in joint perfusion. Transient increases in joint vascularity were demonstrated after insertion of knee prostheses. In a patient with a thigh hematoma, the dimensions of the hemorrhage were clearly delineated. Since only a tracer dose of nuclide is infused intravenously, there are no allergic reactions or other side effects of the procedure. Blood pool scanning is a safe, non-invasive technique that augments clinical and radiographic evaluations, and provides a new dimension in the assessment of the hemophilic patient. PMID:6269248

  14. Ulk4 Regulates Neural Stem Cell Pool.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Guan, Zhenlong; Shen, Qin; Flinter, Frances; Domínguez, Laura; Ahn, Joo Wook; Collier, David A; O'Brien, Timothy; Shen, Sanbing

    2016-09-01

    The size of neural stem cell (NSC) pool at birth determines the starting point of adult neurogenesis. Aberrant neurogenesis is associated with major mental illness, in which ULK4 is proposed as a rare risk factor. Little is known about factors regulating the NSC pool, or function of the ULK4. Here, we showed that Ulk4(tm1a/tm1a) mice displayed a dramatically reduced NSC pool at birth. Ulk4 was expressed in a cell cycle-dependent manner and peaked in G2/M phases. Targeted disruption of the Ulk4 perturbed mid-neurogenesis and significantly reduced cerebral cortex in postnatal mice. Pathway analyses of dysregulated genes in Ulk4(tm1a/tm1a) mice revealed Ulk4 as a key regulator of cell cycle and NSC proliferation, partially through regulation of the Wnt signaling. In addition, we identified hemizygous deletion of ULK4 gene in 1.2/1,000 patients with pleiotropic symptoms including severe language delay and learning difficulties. ULK4, therefore, may significantly contribute to neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders. Stem Cells 2016;34:2318-2331.

  15. Ulk4 Regulates Neural Stem Cell Pool.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Guan, Zhenlong; Shen, Qin; Flinter, Frances; Domínguez, Laura; Ahn, Joo Wook; Collier, David A; O'Brien, Timothy; Shen, Sanbing

    2016-09-01

    The size of neural stem cell (NSC) pool at birth determines the starting point of adult neurogenesis. Aberrant neurogenesis is associated with major mental illness, in which ULK4 is proposed as a rare risk factor. Little is known about factors regulating the NSC pool, or function of the ULK4. Here, we showed that Ulk4(tm1a/tm1a) mice displayed a dramatically reduced NSC pool at birth. Ulk4 was expressed in a cell cycle-dependent manner and peaked in G2/M phases. Targeted disruption of the Ulk4 perturbed mid-neurogenesis and significantly reduced cerebral cortex in postnatal mice. Pathway analyses of dysregulated genes in Ulk4(tm1a/tm1a) mice revealed Ulk4 as a key regulator of cell cycle and NSC proliferation, partially through regulation of the Wnt signaling. In addition, we identified hemizygous deletion of ULK4 gene in 1.2/1,000 patients with pleiotropic symptoms including severe language delay and learning difficulties. ULK4, therefore, may significantly contribute to neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders. Stem Cells 2016;34:2318-2331. PMID:27300315

  16. CDRI-08 Attenuates REST/NRSF-Mediated Expression of NMDAR1 Gene in PBDE-209-Exposed Mice Brain.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priya; Gupta, Rajaneesh K; Gandhi, Behrose S; Singh, Poonam

    2015-01-01

    CDRI-08 is a standardized bacoside enriched ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri, a nootropic plant. We reported that CDRI-08 attenuated oxidative stress and memory impairment in mice, induced by a flame retardant, PBDE-209. In order to explore the mechanism, present study was designed to examine the role of CDRI-08 on the expression of NMDAR1 (NR1) and the binding of REST/NRSF to NR1 promoter against postnatal exposure of PBDE-209. Male mice pups were orally supplemented with CDRI-08 at the doses of 40, 80, or 120 mg/kg along with PBDE-209 (20 mg/kg) during PND 3-10 and frontal cortex and hippocampus were collected at PND 11 and 60 to study the expression and regulation of NR1 by RT-PCR and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively. The findings showed upregulated expression of NR1 and decreased binding of REST/NRSF to NR1 promoter after postnatal exposure of PBDE-209. Interestingly, supplementation with CDRI-08 significantly restored the expression of NR1 and binding of REST/NRSF to NR1 promoter near to the control value at the dose of 120 mg/kg. In conclusion, the results suggest that CDRI-08 possibly acts on glutamatergic system through expression and regulation of NR1 and may restore memory, impaired by PBDE-209 as reported in our previous study. PMID:26413122

  17. CDRI-08 Attenuates REST/NRSF-Mediated Expression of NMDAR1 Gene in PBDE-209-Exposed Mice Brain

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Priya; Gupta, Rajaneesh K.; Gandhi, Behrose S.; Singh, Poonam

    2015-01-01

    CDRI-08 is a standardized bacoside enriched ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri, a nootropic plant. We reported that CDRI-08 attenuated oxidative stress and memory impairment in mice, induced by a flame retardant, PBDE-209. In order to explore the mechanism, present study was designed to examine the role of CDRI-08 on the expression of NMDAR1 (NR1) and the binding of REST/NRSF to NR1 promoter against postnatal exposure of PBDE-209. Male mice pups were orally supplemented with CDRI-08 at the doses of 40, 80, or 120 mg/kg along with PBDE-209 (20 mg/kg) during PND 3–10 and frontal cortex and hippocampus were collected at PND 11 and 60 to study the expression and regulation of NR1 by RT-PCR and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively. The findings showed upregulated expression of NR1 and decreased binding of REST/NRSF to NR1 promoter after postnatal exposure of PBDE-209. Interestingly, supplementation with CDRI-08 significantly restored the expression of NR1 and binding of REST/NRSF to NR1 promoter near to the control value at the dose of 120 mg/kg. In conclusion, the results suggest that CDRI-08 possibly acts on glutamatergic system through expression and regulation of NR1 and may restore memory, impaired by PBDE-209 as reported in our previous study. PMID:26413122

  18. CDRI-08 Attenuates REST/NRSF-Mediated Expression of NMDAR1 Gene in PBDE-209-Exposed Mice Brain.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priya; Gupta, Rajaneesh K; Gandhi, Behrose S; Singh, Poonam

    2015-01-01

    CDRI-08 is a standardized bacoside enriched ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri, a nootropic plant. We reported that CDRI-08 attenuated oxidative stress and memory impairment in mice, induced by a flame retardant, PBDE-209. In order to explore the mechanism, present study was designed to examine the role of CDRI-08 on the expression of NMDAR1 (NR1) and the binding of REST/NRSF to NR1 promoter against postnatal exposure of PBDE-209. Male mice pups were orally supplemented with CDRI-08 at the doses of 40, 80, or 120 mg/kg along with PBDE-209 (20 mg/kg) during PND 3-10 and frontal cortex and hippocampus were collected at PND 11 and 60 to study the expression and regulation of NR1 by RT-PCR and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively. The findings showed upregulated expression of NR1 and decreased binding of REST/NRSF to NR1 promoter after postnatal exposure of PBDE-209. Interestingly, supplementation with CDRI-08 significantly restored the expression of NR1 and binding of REST/NRSF to NR1 promoter near to the control value at the dose of 120 mg/kg. In conclusion, the results suggest that CDRI-08 possibly acts on glutamatergic system through expression and regulation of NR1 and may restore memory, impaired by PBDE-209 as reported in our previous study.

  19. 3. POOL, DAM, AND INTAKE TO PIPELINE LEADING TO FISH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. POOL, DAM, AND INTAKE TO PIPELINE LEADING TO FISH WHEEL, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Bear Creek Diversion Dam & Confluence Pool, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. Pool area with mezzanine at rear Fitzsimons General Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pool area with mezzanine at rear - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  1. Interior view of pool facing southeast Fitzsimons General Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of pool facing southeast - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  2. Interior view of pool facing northwest Fitzsimons General Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of pool facing northwest - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  3. VIEW OF BUILDING 233, NORTH SIDE OF POOL AREA, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 233, NORTH SIDE OF POOL AREA, SHOWING WEST WALL OF BUILDING 22, FACING EAST - Roosevelt Base, Swimming Pool, Reeves Avenue, enclosed by Building No. 22 & Arcade, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. Pool area showing steel trusses from mezzanine on west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pool area showing steel trusses from mezzanine on west - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  5. Entrance to pool area near northeast end of the building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Entrance to pool area near northeast end of the building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  6. 16. Photocopy of blueprint (from plans of Blintz Pool in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of blueprint (from plans of Blintz Pool in the Johnson City Village Offices) showing DEPTH SIGNS, 1924 - Charles F. Johnson Pool, Charles F. Johnson Park, Johnson City, Broome County, NY

  7. Performance Study and Dynamic Optimization Design for Thread Pool Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dongping Xu

    2004-12-19

    Thread pools have been widely used by many multithreaded applications. However, the determination of the pool size according to the application behavior still remains problematic. To automate this process, in this thesis we have developed a set of performance metrics for quantitatively analyzing thread pool performance. For our experiments, we built a thread pool system which provides a general framework for thread pool research. Based on this simulation environment, we studied the performance impact brought by the thread pool on different multithreaded applications. Additionally, the correlations between internal characterizations of thread pools and their throughput were also examined. We then proposed and evaluated a heuristic algorithm to dynamically determine the optimal thread pool size. The simulation results show that this approach is effective in improving overall application performance.

  8. Hemangioma of the tongue demonstrating a perfusion blood pool mismatch

    SciTech Connect

    Front, D.; Groshar, D.; Israel, O.; Robinson, E.

    1986-02-01

    Perfusion blood pool mismatch using Tc-99m labeled red blood cells (RBCs) in a hemangioma of the tongue is described. The method is useful in the evaluation of size of the residual blood pool after irradiation of the tumor.

  9. 3. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Swimming Pool, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  10. 2. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Swimming Pool, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  11. 1. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO WEST. Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Swimming Pool, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  12. 2. CONFLUENCE POOL, DETAIL OF TUNNEL PORTAL WITH WATER ENTERING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONFLUENCE POOL, DETAIL OF TUNNEL PORTAL WITH WATER ENTERING FROM SANTA ANA RIVER. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Bear Creek Diversion Dam & Confluence Pool, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. 1. WATER ENTERING CONFLUENCE POOL FROM BEAR CREEK AT LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WATER ENTERING CONFLUENCE POOL FROM BEAR CREEK AT LEFT, AND FROM SANTA ANA RIVER THROUGH TUNNEL #0 AT RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Bear Creek Diversion Dam & Confluence Pool, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  14. Vernal Pool Conservation in Connecticut: An Assessment and Recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preisser, Evan L.; Kefer, Jennifer Yelin; Lawrence, Jessica D.; Clark, Tim W.

    2000-11-01

    Vernal pools, a variety of ephemeral wetlands, are threatened in many areas of the United States. As habitat fragmentation and degradation increase, some vernal pool amphibian species are declining in numbers. Uneven implementation of state regulations further hampers effective conservation. To prevent further species decline and vernal pool loss, we evaluated alternatives for improving vernal pool conservation. We used transcripts from a recent vernal pool conference, interviews with members of relevant interest groups, and a literature review to determine opportunities for and constraints on improving vernal pool conservation policy. Participants from different interest groups had very diverse views about appropriate protection strategies. We have examined these different perspectives and alternatives and offer policy recommendations on both the state and local level. These recommendations can foster awareness of vernal pools as unique habitats, increase protection of these areas, and expand citizen participation in the vernal pool regulatory process.

  15. 1. photocopy of postcard (from Glenwood Springs Lodge & Pool, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. photocopy of postcard (from Glenwood Springs Lodge & Pool, Inc., Date unknown) Photographer unknown, Date unknown GENERAL VIEW OF LODGE, HOT SPRINGS POOL AND ENVIRONS - Hot Springs Lodge, Garfield County, CO

  16. Rainbow Pool, Eastern portion of West Potomac Park; bounded by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rainbow Pool, Eastern portion of West Potomac Park; bounded by Elm Walks to the north and south, Seventeenth Street to the east and the Reflecting Pool to the west, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 14. AERIAL VIEW OF POOL AND STRUCTURES Photocopy of photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. AERIAL VIEW OF POOL AND STRUCTURES Photocopy of photocopy of 1931 rendering by Alexander, Becker and Schoeppe, architects and engineers - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  18. 23. VIEW, FROM EAST, SHOWING DIVING AND MAIN POOLS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW, FROM EAST, SHOWING DIVING AND MAIN POOLS AND WEST ELEVATION OF OFFICE AND FIRST AID BUILDING - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  19. VIEW SHOWING THE CORNER OF THE POOL WITH BUILDING 619 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SHOWING THE CORNER OF THE POOL WITH BUILDING 619 AND THE DIVING TOWER (STRUCTURE No. S659) IN THE BACKGROUND - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Swimming Pool, Oakley Road & Cromwell Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. A REST-ful interpretation for embedded modular systems based on open architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyke, James

    2016-05-01

    The much-anticipated revolution of the "Internet of things" (IoT) is expected to generate one trillion internet devices within the next 15 years, mostly in the form of simple wireless sensor devices. While this revolution promises to transform silicon markets and drive a number of disruptive changes in society, it is also the case that the protocols, complexity, and security issues of extremely large dynamic, co-mingled networks is still poorly understood. Furthermore, embedded system developers, to include military and aerospace users, have largely ignored the potential (good and bound) of the cloudlike, possibly intermingling networks having variable structure to how future systems might be engineered. In this paper, we consider a new interpretation of IoT inspired modular architecture strategies involving the representational state transfer (REST) model, in which dynamic networks with variable structure employ stateless application programming interface (API) concepts. The power of the method, which extends concepts originally developed for space plug-and-play avionics, is that it allows for the fluid co-mingling of hardware and software in networks whose structure can overlap and evolve. Paradoxically, these systems may have the most stringent determinism and fault-tolerant needs. In this paper we review how RESTful APIs can potentially be used to design, create, test, and deploy systems rapidly while addressing security and referential integrity even when the nodes of many systems might physically co-mingle. We will also explore ways to take advantage of the RESTful paradigm for fault tolerance and what extensions might be necessary to deal with high-performance and determinism.