Science.gov

Sample records for restoring coastal plain

  1. Nitrous oxide emissions from natural, converted, and restored wetlands of the Mid-atlantic Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States, wetlands have often been drained and converted to agricultural use. Recent efforts by the Natural Resources Conservation Service have attempted to restore some of the prior-converted farmland back to their natural state. These restored wetlands...

  2. Soil physicochemical conditions, denitrification rates, and abundance in north Carolina coastal plain restored wetlands.

    PubMed

    Ducey, T F; Miller, J O; Lang, M W; Szogi, A A; Hunt, P G; Fenstermacher, D E; Rabenhorst, M C; McCarty, G W

    2015-05-01

    Over the last century, North Carolina has seen a severe reduction in the percentage of wetlands and a rise in negative environmental impacts related to this loss. To counter these effects, efforts have been enacted to mitigate wetland loss and create new wetland areas. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of hydrological restoration at several sites in the North Carolina coastal plain. Nine sites were selected for study. Hydrologically restored wetlands were compared with natural wetlands and prior converted (PC) croplands (i.e., historic wetlands under agricultural production). Each site was analyzed along a relative wetness gradient, and physicochemical properties, denitrification enzyme activity, and NO reductase gene () abundances using real-time PCR were measured. Physicochemically, restoration resulted in significantly increased levels of total C as compared with PC cropland sites. Restored wetland sites also saw pH, soil moisture, P, and NO+NO approximate levels similar to those of natural wetlands. Denitrification enzyme activity rates varied based on relative wetness within individual sites, generally increasing with increasing soil moisture. However, denitrification tended to be lower in restored wetland sites relative to natural wetlands. Gene abundances of saw statistically significant decreases in restored wetland soils. In conclusion, although analysis of restored wetlands reveals clear changes in several physicochemical characteristics and significant decreases in gene abundances, restoration efforts appear to have not significantly affected the denitrification component of the N cycle.

  3. Mitigation bank promotes research on restoring Coastal Plain depression wetlands (South Carolina).

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Christopher D.; DeSteven, Diane; Kilgo, John C.

    2004-12-31

    Barton, Christopher, D., Diane DeSteven and John C. Kilgo. 2004. Mitigation bank promotes research on restoring Coastal Plain depression wetlands (South Carolina). Ecol. Rest. 22(4):291-292. Abstract: Carolina bays and smaller depression wetlands support diverse plant communities and provide critical habitat for semi-aquatic fauna throughout the Coastal Plain region of the southeastern United States. Historically, many depression wetlands were altered or destroyed by surface ditching, drainage, and agricultural or silviculture uses. These important habitats are now at further risk of alteration and loss following a U.S. Supreme Court decision in 2001 restricting federal regulation of isolated wetlands. Thus, there is increased attention towards protecting intact sites and developing methods to restore others. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) 312-mi2 (800-km2) Savannah River Site (SRS) in west-central South Carolina includes about 350 Carolina bays and bay-like wetland depressions, of which about two-thirds were degraded or destroyed prior to federal acquisition of the land. Although some of the altered wetlands have recovered naturally, others still have active active drainage ditches and contain successional forests typical of drained sites. In 1997, DOE established a wetland mitigation bank to compensate for unavoidable wetland impacts on the SRS. This effort provided an opportunity fir a systematic research program to investigate wetland restoration techniques and ecological responses. Consequently, research and management staffs from the USDA Forest Service, Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation, the Savannah River Technology Center, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) and several universities developed a collaborative project to restore degraded depression wetlands on the SRS. The mitigation project seeks cost-effective methods to restore the hydrology and vegetation typical of natural depression wetlands, and so enhance habitats for wetland

  4. Carbon in Natural, Cultivated, and Restored Depressional Wetlands in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain.

    PubMed

    Fenstermacher, D E; Rabenhorst, M C; Lang, M W; McCarty, G W; Needelman, B A

    2016-03-01

    Aerial extent of wetland ecosystems has decreased dramatically since precolonial times due to the conversion of these areas for human use. Wetlands provide various ecosystem services, and conservation efforts are being made to restore wetlands and their functions, including soil carbon storage. This Mid-Atlantic Regional USDA Wetland Conservation Effects Assessment Project study was conducted to evaluate the effects and effectiveness of wetland conservation practices along the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. This study examined 48 wetland sites in Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina under natural, prior converted cropland, and 5- to 10-yr post wetland restoration states. The North Carolina sites mainly contained soils dominated by organic soil materials and therefore were analyzed separately from the rest of the sites, which primarily contained mineral soils. Soil samples were collected using the bulk density core method by horizon to a depth of 1 m and were analyzed for percent carbon. The natural wetlands were found to have significantly greater carbon stocks (21.5 ± 5.2 kg C m) than prior converted croplands (7.95 ± 1.93 kg C m; < 0.01) and restored wetlands (4.82 ± 1.13 kg C m; < 0.001). The restored and prior converted sites did not differ significantly, possibly the result of the methods used to restore the wetlands, and the relatively young age of the restored sites. Wetlands were either restored by plugging drainage structures, with minimal surface disturbance, or by scraping the surface (i.e., excavation) to increase hydroperiod. Sites restored with the scraping technique had significantly lower carbon stocks (2.70 ± 0.38 kg C m) than those restored by passive techniques (6.06 ± 1.50 kg C m; = 0.09). Therefore, techniques that involve excavation and scraping to restore hydrology appear to negatively affect C storage.

  5. Transplanting native dominant plants to facilitate community development in restored coastal plain wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.

    2007-12-01

    Abstract: Drained depressional wetlands are typically restored by plugging ditches or breaking drainage tiles to allow recovery of natural ponding regimes, while relying on passive recolonization from seed banks and dispersal to establish emergent vegetation. However, in restored depressions of the southeastern United States Coastal Plain, certain characteristic rhizomatous graminoid species may not recolonize because they are dispersal-limited and uncommon or absent in the seed banks of disturbed sites. We tested whether selectively planting such wetland dominants could facilitate restoration by accelerating vegetative cover development and suppressing non-wetland species. In an operational-scale project in a South Carolina forested landscape, drained depressional wetlands were restored in early 2001 by completely removing woody vegetation and plugging surface ditches. After forest removal, tillers of two rhizomatous wetland grasses (Panicum hemitomon, Leersia hexandra) were transplanted into singlespecies blocks in 12 restored depressions that otherwise were revegetating passively. Presence and cover of all plant species appearing in planted plots and unplanted control plots were recorded annually. We analyzed vegetation composition after two and four years, during a severe drought (2002) and after hydrologic recovery (2004). Most grass plantings established successfully, attaining 15%–85% cover in two years. Planted plots had fewer total species and fewer wetland species compared to control plots, but differences were small. Planted plots achieved greater total vegetative cover during the drought and greater combined cover of wetland species in both years. By 2004, planted grasses appeared to reduce cover of non-wetland species in some cases, but wetter hydrologic conditions contributed more strongly to suppression of non-wetland species. Because these two grasses typically form a dominant cover matrix in herbaceous depressions, our results indicated that

  6. Stream Restoration Effects on an Impaired Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community in a Small Coastal Plain Stream in Johnston County, North Carolina.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, G. W.; Roessler, C. E.

    2005-05-01

    Pre- and post-construction benthic macroinvertebrate community data were collected from a recently restored small coastal plain stream in North Carolina. Metrics for comparing two sites, a restoration and a reference reach, included total and EPT taxa richness, total and EPT biotic indices (BIs), and EPT abundance. Initially, the restoration site scored worse than the reference site on every metric and indicated an impaired status for biological integrity, the stream's primary designated use. Two years after restoration, metric values for the restoration site have improved, while those for the reference site remained stable. EPT taxa richness has nearly doubled from 7 to 13 taxa, exceeding that of the reference site. However, BIs at the restoration site, while improving, remain worse than those of the reference site, suggesting that the restoration site community has not yet stabilized. This conclusion is supported by the lesser number of shredders found at the restoration site than the reference site. However, it is anticipated that the restoration shredder population will grow as organic matter input from maturing riparian vegetation increases. These observations suggest that stream restoration can be an effective management tool for restoring biological integrity, as measured by benthic macroinvertebrate communities.

  7. Bat response to carolina bays and wetland restoration in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain.

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; John W. Edwards.

    2005-09-01

    Abstract: Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist of many species that are of conservation concern and are commonly associated with wetland and riparian habitats in the Southeast (making them a good general indicator for the condition of wetland habitats), we monitored bat activity over restored and reference Carolina bays surrounded by pine savanna (Pinus spp.) or mixed pine-hardwood habitat types at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In order to determine how wetland restoration efforts affected the bat community, we monitored bat activity above drained Carolina bays pre- and post-restoration. Our results indicate that bat activity was greater over reference (i.e., undrained) than drained bays prior to the restorative efforts. One year following combined hydrologic and vegetation treatment, however, bat activity was generally greater over restored than reference bays. Bat activity was also greater over both reference and restored bays than in random, forested interior locations. We found significantly more bat activity after restoration than prior to restoration for all but one species in the treatment bays, suggesting that Carolina bay restoration can have almost immediate positive impacts on bat activity.

  8. Analysis of denitrification in restored wetlands of the North Carolina coastal plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past several decades there has been considerable effort to protect and restore wetlands throughout the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is a multi-agency effort to quantify the environmental benefits of conservation pr...

  9. Soil carbon in natural, cultivated, and restored depressional wetlands in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial extent of wetland ecosystems have decreased dramatically since precolonial times due to the conversion of these areas for human use. Wetlands provide various ecosystem services, and conservation efforts are being made to restore wetlands and their functions, including soil carbon storage. Thi...

  10. Groundwater Restoration at Uranium In-Situ Recovery Mines, South Texas Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This talk was presented by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) geologist Susan Hall on May 11, 2009, at the Uranium 2009 conference in Keystone, Colorado, and on May 12, 2009, as part of an underground injection control track presentation at the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) Environmental Trade Fair and Conference in Austin, Texas. Texas has been the location of the greatest number of uranium in-situ recovery (ISR) mines in the United States and was the incubator for the development of alkaline leach technology in this country. For that reason, the author chose to focus on the effectiveness of restoration at ISR mines by examining legacy mines developed in Texas. The best source for accurate information about restoration at Texas ISR mines is housed at the TCEQ offices in Austin. The bulk of this research is an analysis of those records.

  11. Atlantic coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Libby-French, J.; Amato, R.V.

    1981-10-01

    Exploratory drilling in the Atlantic coastal plain region decreased in 1980. Seven wells were drilled, five of which were completed, for a total footage of 80,968 ft (24,679 m). Six of the wells were located in the Baltimore Canyon Trough, and one was located in the Southeast Georgia Embayment. No exploratory wells were drilled in the Georges Bank Basin or in the onshore portion of this region in 1980. Tenneco and Exxon reported gas shows in two wells in the Baltimore Canyon Trough; the remaining completed wells were reported as dry holes. No lease sales were held in 1980, but two sales are scheduled for 1981 in the Middle and South Atlantic. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  12. Geology of Atlantic Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, R.K.; Gohn, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The Atlantic Coastal Plain developed landward of a hinge zone on slowly subsiding continental crust during the postrift phase of the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. Generally, a wedge of marine and non-marine sediments reaches 2000m thickness near the Atlantic Coastline. Variations in deposition along strike in the coastal plain was controlled by tectonic movement of basins and structural highs which from north to south include the Raritan Embayment, South New Jersey High, Chesapeake-Delaware Basin, Norfolk Arch, Albemarle Embayment, Cape Fear Arch, Southeast Georgia Embayment and South Florida Basin. Postrift sedimentation was initiated during late Jurassic and early Cretaceous time adjacent to the faulted hinge zone which separates thicker unstretched continental crust beneath the coastal plain from thinner stretched crust beneath the outer Atlantic margin. Continental clastic and deltaic sediments were deposited in onlapping sequence from Long Island to northern Florida. During this time carbonate deposition was initiated in the South Florida Basin. Marine deposition of terrigenous sands, silts and clays occurred along the coastal plain in late Cenomanian time. Shallow carbonate deposition continued in Florida. Transgressive and regressive marine deposition was dominant in the coastal plain during late Cretaceous and Paleogene time. Deposition during the Neogene was affected by numerous changes in sea level and consequently it is stratigraphically incomplete and irregularly distributed. Many units lack precise biostratigraphic resolution.

  13. Model for Coastal Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Judd, Chaeli

    2007-07-27

    Successful restoration of wetland habitats depends on both our understanding of our system and our ability to characterize it. By developing a conceptual model, looking at different spatial scales and integrating diverse data streams: GIS datasets and NASA products, we were able to develop a dynamic model for site prioritization based on both qualitative and quantitative relationships found in the coastal environment.

  14. Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

    2013-10-01

    Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and

  15. Soil physicochemical conditions, denitrification rates, and nosZ abundance in North Carolina Coastal Plain restored wetlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ever since the United States adopted a national policy of wetland “No Net Loss”, a variety of measures have been aimed at restoring wetland biogeochemical function to former wetland areas. Nitrogen is a key element controlled by properly functioning wetlands, particularly when they are located adjac...

  16. Restoration of Upland Hardwood Tree Species on the Formerly Cultivated Soils in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H.; Waldrop, T.A.

    2001-08-03

    The authors studied various approaches to restore upland hardwood species to formerly cultivated soils at the SRS. Studies with direct seedling were largely a failure and resulted in very low rates of establishment. Failure was a result of predation and drought. Growth and survival of planted oaks, dogwood and pine did not vary between hardwood overstory and pine overstory conditions. Soil trenching in a forty year old loblolly stand demonstrated dramatic increases in growth of planted oaks and dogwood. When compared, survival is similar if not slightly better when seedlings are planted in the understory of canopies vs. clearcuts. However, growth is better in recent clearcuts for dogwood and white oaks. Hickory does better underplanted.

  17. Hydrogeologic framework of the Virginia coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meng, Andrew A.; Harsh, John F.

    1988-01-01

    This report defines the hydrogeologic framework of the Virginia Coastal Plain and is a product of a comprehensive regional study to define the geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system extending from North Carolina to Long Island, New York. The Virginia Coastal Plain consists of an eastward-thickening wedge of generally unconsolidated, interbedded sands and clays, ranging in age from Early Cretaceous to Holocene. These sediments range in thickness from more than 6,000 feet beneath the northeastern part of the Eastern Shore Peninsula to nearly 0 feet along the Fall Line. Eight confined aquifers, eight confining units, and an uppermost water table aquifer are delineated as the hydrogeologic framework of the Coastal Plain sediments in Virginia. The nine regional aquifers, from oldest to youngest, are lower, middle, and upper Potomac, Brightseat, Aquia, Chickahominy-Piney Point, St. Marys-Choptank, Yorktown-Eastover, and Columbia. The Brightseat is a newly identified and correlated aquifer of early Paleoceneage. This study is one of other, similar studies of the Coastal Plain areas in North Carolina, Maryland-Delaware, New Jersey, and Long Island, New York. These combined studies provide a system of hydrogeologic units that can be identified and correlated throughout the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain. Data for this study were collected and analyzed from October 1979 to May 1983. The nine aquifers and eight confining units are identified and delineated by use of geophysical logs, drillers' information, and stratigraphic and paleontologic data. By correlating geophysical logs with hydrologic, stratigraphic, and paleontologic data throughout the Coastal Plain, a comprehensive multilayered framework of aquifers and confining units, each with distinct lithologic properties, was developed. Cross sections show the stratigraphic relationships of aquifers and confining units in the hydrogeologic framework of the Virginia

  18. Contrasting Patterns of Carbon Flux and Storage in Pine Forest Ecosystems of the Atlantic Coastal Plain: Implications for Ecosystem Restoration and Climate Change Mitigation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, S. R.; Christensen, N.; Cohen, S.; Cunningham, P.

    2015-12-01

    Forest ecosystems in the Southeastern US have high rates of productivity but are underutilized as a medium for the mitigation of atmospheric CO2. In the lower Atlantic coastal plain, three pine species (longleaf [Pinus palustris], loblolly [P. taeda] and pond [P. serotina]) are the dominant overstory trees in a variety of wetland and upland ecosystems. These forest types can exist in close proximity throughout coastal plain landscapes, but exhibit contrasting patterns of productivity, pyrogenic C emissions, and mortality, thereby creating contrasting patterns of C assimilation and long-term C storage. Here, we combine field-based estimates of forest C storage and pyrogenic C emissions with LiDAR-based estimates of forest canopy heights in three contrasting forest ecosystems to 1) model their respective patterns of forest growth, mortality, and decomposition, 2) estimate the contribution of pyrogenic C fluxes to the ecosystem C budget, 3) estimate their potential upper bounds of forest C storage, and 4) model the impacts of current forest management practices and disturbance regimes on long-term forest C storage. Our results suggest that even though longleaf pine forests store comparatively little C in soil or belowground biomass, these forests nevertheless have the highest capacity for long-term C storage, in part due to their longevity. By contrast, while pond pine ecosystems have the highest capacity for long-term belowground C storage, they also have the lowest capacity for long-term aboveground C storage, one that is rarely achieved due to infrequent, high-severity disturbance regimes. Loblolly pine forests, while capable of higher growth rates than either longleaf or pond pine when in early stages of succesion, lack the long-term C storage capabilities of longleaf pine due to earlier senescence. Pyrogenic C emissions in these ecosystems are dominated by the combustion of ground and duff materials and occur over timescales ranging from rapid combustion in fire

  19. Denitrification in soils of hydrologically restored wetlands relative to natural and converted wetlands in the Mid-Atlantic coastal plain of the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last several decades, there has been considerable effort to protect and restore wetlands throughout the USA. These efforts have required significant investment of both private and public funds. Accordingly, it has become important to document the effectiveness of this protection and restora...

  20. Chinese tallow: Invading the southeastern Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Chinese tallow is an ornamental tree with colorful autumn foliage that can survive full sunlight and shade, flooding, drought, and in some cases fire. To horticulturists this kind of tree sounds like a dream, but to ecologists, land managers, and land owners this kind of tree can be a nightmare, especially when it invades an area and takes over native vegetation. Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera), a nonnative tree from China, is currently transforming the southeastern Coastal Plain.Over the last 30 years, Chinese tallow has become a common tree in old fields and bottomland swamps of coastal Louisiana. Several studies at the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC), Lafayette, Louisiana, are aimed at understanding the factors that contribute to Chinese tallow growth, spread, and management.When tallow invades, it eventually monopolizes an area, creating a forest without native animal or plant species. This tree exhibits classic traits of most nonnative invaders: it is attractive so people want to distribute it, it has incredible resiliency, it grows quickly and in a variety of soils, and it is resistant to pests.In the coastal prairie of Louisiana and Texas, Chinese tallow can grow up to 30 feet and shade out native sun-loving prairie species. The disappearing of prairie species is troublesome because less than 1% of original coastal prairie remains, and in Louisiana, less than 500 of the original 2.2 million acres still exist.Tallow reproduces and grows quickly and can cause large-scale ecosystem modification (fig. 1). For example, when it completely replaces native vegetation, it has a negative effect on birds by degrading the habitat. Besides shading out grasses that cattle like to eat, it can also be potentially harmful to humans and animals because of its berries (fig. 2) and plant sap that contain toxins. There is some concern its leaves may shed toxins that change the soil chemistry and make it difficult for other plants to grow.

  1. BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY IN MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAINS HEADWATER STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to assess the applicability of landscape metrics, in conjunction with stream water quality to estimate the biological integrity of headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plains using multivariate techniques.

  2. The Virginia Coastal Plain Hydrogeologic Framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFarland, E. Randolph; Bruce, T. Scott

    2006-01-01

    A refined descriptive hydrogeologic framework of the Coastal Plain of eastern Virginia provides a new perspective on the regional ground-water system by incorporating recent understanding gained by discovery of the Chesapeake Bay impact crater and determination of other geological relations. The seaward-thickening wedge of extensive, eastward-dipping strata of largely unconsolidated sediments is classified into a series of 19 hydrogeologic units, based on interpretations of geophysical logs and allied descriptions and analyses from a regional network of 403 boreholes. Potomac aquifer sediments of Early Cretaceous age form the primary ground-water supply resource. The Potomac aquifer is designated as a single aquifer because the fine-grained interbeds, which are spatially highly variable and inherently discontinuous, are not sufficiently dense across a continuous expanse to act as regional barriers to ground-water flow. Part of the Potomac aquifer in the outer part of the Chesapeake Bay impact crater consists of megablock beds, which are relatively undeformed internally but are bounded by widely separated faults. The Potomac aquifer is entirely truncated across the inner part of the crater. The Potomac confining zone approximates a transition from the Potomac aquifer to overlying hydrogeologic units. New or revised designations of sediments of Late Cretaceous age that are present only south of the James River include the upper Cenomanian confining unit, the Virginia Beach aquifer and confining zone, and the Peedee aquifer and confining zone. The Virginia Beach aquifer is a locally important ground-water supply resource. Sediments of late Paleocene to early Eocene age that compose the Aquia aquifer and overlying Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit are truncated along the margin of the Chesapeake Bay impact crater. Sediments of late Eocene age compose three newly designated confining units within the crater, which are from bottom to top, the impact-generated Exmore clast

  3. RESTORING COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS: ABRUPT CLIMATE CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consensus exists that U.S. coastal ecosystems are severely degraded due to a variety of human-factors requiring large financial expenditures to restore and manage. Yet, even as controversy surrounds human factors in ecosystem degradation in the Gulf of Mexico, Chesapeake Bay, an...

  4. Flood hydrology and methylmercury availability in coastal plain rivers.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul M; Journey, Celeste A; Chapelle, Francis H; Lowery, Mark A; Conrads, Paul A

    2010-12-15

    Mercury (Hg) burdens in top-predator fish differ substantially between adjacent South Carolina Coastal Plain river basins with similar wetlands coverage. In the Congaree River, floodwaters frequently originate in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont regions, where wetlands coverage and surface water dissolved methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations are low. Piedmont-driven flood events can lead to downward hydraulic gradients in the Coastal Plain riparian wetland margins, inhibiting MeHg transport from wetland sediments, and decreasing MeHg availability in the Congaree River habitat. In the adjacent Edisto River basin, floodwaters originate only within Coastal Plain sediments, maintaining upward hydraulic gradients even during flood events, promoting MeHg transport to the water column, and enhancing MeHg availability in the Edisto River habitat. These results indicate that flood hydrodynamics contribute to the variability in Hg vulnerability between Coastal Plain rivers and that comprehensive regional assessment of the relationship between flood hydrodynamics and Hg risk in Coastal Plain streams is warranted.

  5. Flood hydrology and methylmercury availability in Coastal Plain rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste; Chapelle, Francis H.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) burdens in top-predator fish differ substantially between adjacent South Carolina Coastal Plain river basins with similar wetlands coverage. In the Congaree River, floodwaters frequently originate in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont regions, where wetlands coverage and surface water dissolved methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations are low. Piedmont-driven flood events can lead to downward hydraulic gradients in the Coastal Plain riparian wetland margins, inhibiting MeHg transport from wetland sediments, and decreasing MeHg availability in the Congaree River habitat. In the adjacent Edisto River basin, floodwaters originate only within Coastal Plain sediments, maintaining upward hydraulic gradients even during flood events, promoting MeHg transport to the water column, and enhancing MeHg availability in the Edisto River habitat. These results indicate that flood hydrodynamics contribute to the variability in Hg vulnerability between Coastal Plain rivers and that comprehensive regional assessment of the relationship between flood hydrodynamics and Hg risk in Coastal Plain streams is warranted.

  6. Stratigraphic and hydrogeologic framework of the Alabama Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Tertiary and Cretaceous sand aquifers of the Southeastern United States Coastal Plain comprise a major multlstate aquifer system informally defined as the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system, which is being studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer System Analysis (RASA) program. The major objectives of each RASA study are to identify, delineate, and map the distribution of permeable clastlc rock, to examine the pattern of ground-water flow within the regional aquifers, and to develop digital computer simulations to understand the flow system. The Coastal Plain aquifers in Alabama are being studied as a part of this system. This report describes the stratlgraphlc framework of the Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary Systems in Alabama to aid in delineating aquifers and confining units within the thick sequence of sediments that comprises the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system in the State. Stratigraphlc units of Cretaceous and Tertiary age that make up most of the aquifer system in the Coastal Plain of Alabama consist of clastlc deposits of Early Cretaceous age; the Coker and Gordo Formations of the Tuscaloosa Group, Eutaw Formation, and Selma Group of Late Cretaceous age; and the Midway, Wilcox, and Clalborne Groups of Tertiary age. However, stratigraphlc units of late Eocene to Holocene age partially overlie and are hydraulically connected to clastic deposits in southern Alabama. These upper carbonate and clastlc stratlgraphic units also are part of the adjoining Florldan and Gulf Coastal Lowlands aquifer systems. The Coastal Plain aquifer system is underlain by pre-Cretaceous rocks consisting of low-permeabillty sedimentary rocks of Paleozolc, Triassic, and Jurassic age, and a complex of metamorphic and igneous rocks of Precambrian and Paleozolc age similar to those found near the surface in the Piedmont physiographic province. Twelve hydrogeologlc units in the Alabama Coastal Plain are defined--slx aquifers and six confining

  7. Lineaments in coastal plain sediments as seen in ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withington, C. F.

    1973-01-01

    Examination of satellite imagery over the Atlantic Coastal Plain near Washington, D. C. shows numerous lineaments, which cannot be accounted for by any known cultural or natural features. At least some of these lineaments represent the surface expression of faults, for one of them has been correlated with the outcrop of a fault that had been traced for several miles in southern Prince Georges County, Maryland. If a substantial number of these lineaments do indeed represent fault traces, the fact that they show on the surface suggests that the geologic history of the Coastal Plain is much more complex than has previously been recognized, and that faulting may have occurred in the Holocene, much later than has generally been recognized. The importance that such recent movements could have on future development of the Coastal Plain should be emphasized.

  8. Quaternary evolution of the Southern Apennines coastal plains: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santangelo, Nicoletta; Romano, Paola; Ascione, Alessandra; Russo Ermolli, Elda

    2017-02-01

    The Quaternary evolution of the main coastal basins located along the southwestern margin of the Southern Apennines has been reconstructed by integrating the huge amount of existing stratigraphical and geomorphological data. The information produced in the last twenty years has shed new light on the recent (late Middle Pleistocene to Present) history of the Campanian and Sele plains or basins. During the early Quaternary, the analysed coastal basins originated as half-grabens in response to opening processes active since the late Tortonian in the southern Tyrrhenian back-arc basin. In some of these basins (e.g. the Campanian Plain), volcanism has also played an important role. In the inner sectors of the coastal basins, the complex interplay between block faulting, sedimentary inputs and glacioeustatic fluctuations gave rise to relative sea-level change and related coastline migrations, leading to the formation of the present-day coastal plains. In the Sele Plain basin, the construction of the present-day landscape mainly resulted from the substantial ceasing of subsidence in the final part of the Middle Pleistocene. Conversely, a strong contribution to the recent evolution of the Campanian Plain has been provided by abundant volcaniclastic aggradation, able to hinder the effect of the vertical motions that occurred in the last 100 ka.

  9. Shifting paradigms in coastal restoration: Six decades' lessons from China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zezheng; Cui, Baoshan; He, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    With accelerating degradation of coastal environment worldwide, restoration has been elevated as a global strategy to enhance the functioning and social services of coastal ecosystems. While many developing countries suffer from intense coastal degradation, current understanding of the science and practice of their coastal restorations is extremely limited. Based on analysis of >1000 restoration projects, we provide the first synthesis of China's coastal restorations. We show that China's coastal restoration has recently entered a rapidly developing stage, with an increasing number of restoration projects carried out in multiple types of coastal ecosystems. While long-term, national-level restorations enforced by the government appear promising for some coastal ecosystems, especially mangroves, restorations of many other coastal ecosystems, such as salt marshes, seagrasses and coral reefs, have been much less implemented, likely due to under-appreciation of their ecosystem services values. Furthermore, the planning, techniques, research/assessment, and participation models underlying current restorations remain largely inadequate for restoration to effectively halt rapid coastal degradation. To promote success, we propose a framework where paradigms in current restorations from planning to implementation and assessment are transformed in multiple ways. Our study has broad implications for coastal environmental management policies and practices, and should inform sustainable development of coupled human-ocean systems in many countries.

  10. Turonian (Eaglefordian) stratigraphy of the Atlantic Coastal Plain and Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    A stratigraphic analysis of 14 localities from New England to Georgia and of 1 well from the type area of the Eaglefordian Stage at Dallas, Texas, has resulted in a reevaluation of the ages of both formal and informal stratigraphic units previously established for the Atlantic and eastern Gulf Coastal Plains. Lower Turonian strata, once thought to be absent beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain, are present. The study focused on a stratigraphic interval that is characterized by the presence of distinctive calcareous nannofossil and pollen floras. The Complexiopollis-Atlantopollis pollen assemblage zone, widespread throughout the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains and previously dated as late Cenomanian, is now shown to be late Cenomanian-early Turonian on the Gulf Coast on the basis of its occurrence with calcareous nannofossils, planktic foraminifers, and mollusks of that age. On the Atlantic Coast, only the lower Turonian part of the Complexiopollis-Atlantopollis zone is known to be present. Stratigraphic units that are now assigned to the lower Turonian include: (1) the Woodbridge Clay and Sayreville Sand Members of the Raritan Formation, New Jersey; (2) the upper part of the Raritan equivalent beneath the eastern shore of Virginia; (3) the Tuscaloosa equivalent (informal units K2, E, and part of F) in the South Carolina and Georgia coastal region; (4) the Tuscaloosa Formation of eastern Alabama and western Georgia; and, beneath the Gulf Coastal Plain; (5) the Coker Formation of western Alabama; and (6) the upper Britton and lowermost Arcadia Park Formations at Dallas, Texas. Cenomanian strata beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain are now interpreted to be much thinner than previously supposed. The lower Turonian there is bounded by upper Turonian and uppermost Cenomanian hiatuses of regional extent, whereas the upper Cenomanian-Turonian section is relatively complete at Dallas, Texas. 75 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Coastal geomorphology of the Martian northern plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Saunders, Stephen R.; Pieri, David C.; Schneeberger, Dale M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper considers the question of the formation of the outflow channels and valley networks discovered on the Martian northern plains during the Mariner 9 mission. Parker and Saunders (1987) and Parker et al. (1987, 1989) data are used to describe key features common both in the lower reaches of the outflow channels and within and along the margins of the entire northern plains. It is suggested, that of the geological processes capable of producing similar morphologies on earth, lacustrine or marine deposition and subsequent periglacial modification offer the simplest and most consistent explanation for the suit of features found on Mars.

  12. Effect of tillage on phosphorus leaching through coastal plain soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaching of phosphorus (P) is a primary water quality concern in soils of the Atlantic Coastal plain where lateral subsurface flow is the dominant P transport pathway. We hypothesize that very high soil P in the upper 2 cm of no-till soils contributes to P leaching via macropore flow and that cultiv...

  13. SWAT application in low-gradient Coastal Plain landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-gradient coastal plain watersheds present unique challenges for watershed modeling. Broad low-gradient floodplains with considerable in-stream vegetation contribute to low-velocity streamflow. In addition, direct interaction between streamflow and surficial aquifers must also be considered. H...

  14. Phosphorus in drainage waters of the Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Atlantic Coastal Plain region has had a long history of experimental and applied efforts to exclude phosphorus (P) from drainage waters. Early research focusing upon the chemical controls of soil and sediment P has given way to field studies aimed at refining our understanding of hydrologic path...

  15. BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY IN MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAINS HEADWATER STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to assess the applicability of using landscape variables in conjunction with water quality and benthic data to efficiently estimate stream condition of select headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plains. Eighty-two streams with riffle sit...

  16. Land Cover Trends in the Southern Florida Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kambly, Steven; Moreland, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of land use and land cover change in the Southern Florida Coastal Plain ecoregion for the period from 1973 to 2000. The ecoregion is one of 84 level III ecoregions defined by the Environmental Protection Agency; ecoregions have been designed to serve as a spatial framework for environmental resource management and denote areas that contain a geographically distinct assemblage of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The Southern Florida Coastal Plain ecoregion covers an area of approximately 22,407 square kilometers [8,651 square miles] across the lower portion of the Florida peninsula, from Lake Okeechobee southward through the Florida Keys. It comprises flat plains with wet soils, marshland and swamp land cover with Everglades and palmetto prairie vegetation types.

  17. Arctic Refuge coastal plain terrestrial wildlife research summaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    In 1980, when the U.S. Congress enacted the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA), it also mandated a study of the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Section 1002 of ANILCA stated that a comprehensive inventory of fish and wildlife resources would be conducted on 1.5 million acres of the Arctic Refuge coastal plain (1002 Area). Potential petroleum reserves in the 1002 Area were also to be evaluated from surface geological studies and seismic exploration surveys. Results of these studies and recommendations for future management of the Arctic Refuge coastal plain were to be prepared in a report to Congress. In 1987, the Department of the Interior published the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, Coastal Plain Resource Assessment - Report and Recommendations to the Congress of the United States and Final Environmental Impact Statement. This report to Congress identified the potential for oil and gas production (updated* most recently by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2001), described the biological resources, and evaluated the potential adverse effects to fish and wildlife resources. The 1987 report analyzed the potential environmental consequences of five management alternatives for the coastal plain, ranging from wilderness designation to opening the entire area to lease for oil and gas developement. The report's summary recommended opening the 1002 Area to an orderly oil and gas leasing program, but cautioned that adverse effects to some wildlife populations were possible. Congress did not act on this recommendation nor any other alternative for the 1002 Area, and scientists continued studies of key wildlife species and habitats on the coastal plain of the Arctic Refuge and surrounding areas. This report contains updated summaries of those scientific investigations of caribou, muskoxen, predators (grizzly bears, wolves, golden eagles), polar bears, snow geese, and their wildlife habitats. Contributions to this report were

  18. Native plants for effective coastal wetland restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, Rebecca J.

    2003-01-01

    Plant communities, along with soils and appropriate water regimes, are essential components of healthy wetland systems. In Louisiana, the loss of wetland habitat continues to be an issue of major concern. Wetland loss is caused by several interacting factors, both natural and human-induced (e.g., erosion and saltwater intrusion from the construction of canals and levees). Recent estimates of annual coastal land loss rates of about 62 km2 (24 mi2 ) over the past decade emphasize the magnitude of this problem. In an attempt to slow the rate of loss and perhaps halt the overall trend, resource managers in Louisiana apply various techniques to restore damaged or degraded habitats to functioning wetland systems.Researchers at the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC) have cooperated with the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources in studies that address effective restoration strategies for coastal wetlands. The studies have identified differences in growth that naturally exist in native Louisiana wetland plant species and genetic varieties (i.e., clones) within species. Clones of a species have a distinctive genetic identity, and some clones may also have distinctive growth responses under various environmental conditions (i.e., preferences). Indeed, large areas of coastal marsh are typically populated by several clones of a plant species, each growing in a microenvironment suited to its preferences.These studies will provide information that will assist resource managers in selecting plant species and clones of species with known growth characteristics that can be matched to environmental conditions at potential restoration sites. Before the studies began, a collection of several clones from four plant species native to coastal Louisiana was established. The species collected included saltgrass (Distichlis spicata), common reed (Phragmites australis), giant bulrush (Schoenoplectus californicus), and saltmarsh bulrush (Schoenoplectus

  19. Hydrogeologic Framework of the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zapecza, Otto S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents the results of a water-resources, oriented subsurface mapping program within the Coastal Plain of New Jersey. The occurrence and configuration of 15 regional hydrogeologic units have been defined, primarily on the basis of an interpretation of borehole geophysical data. The nine aquifers and six confining beds are composed of unconsolidated clay, silt, sand, and gravel and range in age from Cretaceous to Quaternary. Electric and gamma-ray logs from more than 1,000 Coastal Plain wells were examined. Of these, interpretive data for 302 sites were selected, on the basis of logged depth, quality of data, and data distribution, to prepare structure contour and thickness maps for each aquifer and a thickness map for each confining bed. These maps, together with 14 hydrogeologic sections, show the geometry, lateral extent, and vertical and horizontal relationships among the 15 hydrogeologic units. The hydrogeologic maps and sections show that distinct lower, middle, and upper aquifers are present within the Potomac, Raritan-Magothy aquifer system near the Delaware River from Burlington County to Salem County. Although the lower aquifer is recognized only in this area, the middle aquifer extends into the northeastern Coastal Plain of New Jersey, where it is stratigraphically equivalent to the Farrington aquifer. The upper aquifer extends throughout most of the New Jersey Coastal Plain and is stratigraphically equivalent to the Old Bridge aquifer in the northeastern Coastal Plain. The overlying Merchantville-Woodbury confining bed is the most regionally extensive confining bed within the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Its thickness ranges from less than 100 feet near the outcrop to more than 450 feet along the coast. The Englishtown aquifer system acts as a single aquifer throughout most of its subsurface extent, but it contains two water-bearing sands in pars of Monmouth and Ocean Counties. The overlying Marshalltown-Wenonah confining bed is a thin, leaky

  20. River diversions, avulsions and captures in the Tortuguero coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galve, Jorge Pedro; Alvarado, Guillermo; Pérez Peña, José Vicente; Azañón, José Miguel; Mora, Mauricio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The Tortuguero area is a coastal plain that forms part of the North Limón sedimentary basin, the back-arc region of the Caribbean side of Costa Rica. This coastal plain is characterised by an abnormal drainage pattern with river captures, diversions and shifts in channel directions. We are analyzing this anomalous drainage network adopting a classical geomorphological approach combined with geomorphometric techniques. The SRTM DEM at 1 arc-second of resolution (~30 m) from NASA, topographic maps 1:50,000, satellital images and the digital cartography of the drainage network have been used for inventorying the channel pattern anomalies. River segments were categorized according to sinuosity, orientation, slope changes and incision using GIS tools. Initially, anomalies in the analyzed river courses suggested that buried thrust fronts could disrupt their natural pattern. However, we have not identified any evidence to link the activity of buried structures with the disruption of natural drainage. Blind thrusts detected through seismic subsurface exploration in the SE sector of the Tortuguero plain do not seem to produce changes in the sinuosity, orientation, slope and incision of rivers as those observed in the deeply studied tectonically active area of the Po Plain (Italy). The identified river pattern anomalies have been explained due to other alternative causes: (1) the migration of the mouths of Reventazón, Pacuare and Matina rivers is produced by sand sedimentation in the coast because of a successive ridge beach formation. This migration to the SE has the same direction than the main ocean currents those deposited the sand. (2) The anomalous course of Parismina river is most probably conditioned by the fracturation of the dissected volcanic apron of Turrialba volcano. (3) Channel migration and capture of Barbilla river by Matina river can be triggered by the tectonic tilting of the coastal plain towards the SE. The subsidence of the SE sector of the plain was

  1. Hydrogeologic conditions in the coastal plain of New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vowinkel, Eric F.; Foster, W. Kendall

    1981-01-01

    A wedge-shaped mass of unconsolidated sediments composed of alternating layers of clay, silt, sand, and gravel underlies the Coastal Plain of New Jersey. The hydrologic units of this mass vary in thickness, lateral extent, lithology, and water-bearing characteristics. Some of the units act as aquifers, whereas other units act as confining layers. The entire sediment wedge is almost an independent and isolated hydrologic system. Components of the long-term hydrologic budget for the Coastal Plain are precipitation, streamflow, and water loss. Under natural conditions, average precipitation is about 44 inches per year; while streamflow and water loss are about 20 and 24 inches per year, respectively. More than 75 percent of the streamflow in the Coastal Plain is derived from ground-water runoff. Some activities of man have modified the natural hydrologic cycle in the Coastal Plain. The primary activity affecting the system has been the withdrawal of ground water. Major changes in the flow patterns of water in several aquifers have been recognized during the past few decades partially as a result of increasing ground-water withdrawal. Where head gradients are large enough, water can be induced to flow from adjacent surface-water bodies or through confining beds. Induced recharge from the Delaware River to the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system is occurring as a result of pumping stresses in the outcrop area of the aquifer. Recharge from the river to the aquifer from Salem to Burlington County was estimated to be about 113 cubic feet per second in 1978. (USGS)

  2. Groundwater quality in the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Tracy A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-10-03

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California established the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Santa Barbara Coastal Plain is one of the study units.

  3. Greenhouse gas fluxes in southeastern U.S. coastal plain wetlands under contrasting land uses.

    PubMed

    Morse, Jennifer L; Ardón, Marcelo; Bernhardt, Emily S

    2012-01-01

    Whether through sea level rise or wetland restoration, agricultural soils in coastal areas will be inundated at increasing rates, renewing connections to sensitive surface waters and raising critical questions about environmental trade-offs. Wetland restoration is often implemented in agricultural catchments to improve water quality through nutrient removal. Yet flooding of soils can also increase production of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide and methane, representing a potential environmental trade-off. Our study aimed to quantify and compare greenhouse gas emissions from unmanaged and restored forested wetlands, as well as actively managed agricultural fields within the North Carolina coastal plain, USA. In sampling conducted once every two months over a two-year comparative study, we found that soil carbon dioxide flux (range: 8000-64 800 kg CO2 x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) comprised 66-100% of total greenhouse gas emissions from all sites and that methane emissions (range: -6.87 to 197 kg CH4 x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) were highest from permanently inundated sites, while nitrous oxide fluxes (range: -1.07 to 139 kg N2O x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) were highest in sites with lower water tables. Contrary to predictions, greenhouse gas fluxes (as CO2 equivalents) from the restored wetland were lower than from either agricultural fields or unmanaged forested wetlands. In these acidic coastal freshwater ecosystems, the conversion of agricultural fields to flooded young forested wetlands did not result in increases in greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. Late Tertiary faulting along the coastal plain of Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, J.; Gvirtzman, Z.; Gvirtzman, H.; Ben-Gai, Y.

    2008-08-01

    This study documents a 70-km long and 200-400 m high step at the base of the Pliocene section in the Israeli coastal plain. Depositional explanations for this lineament, such as a buried shelf edge or reef front, are very unlikely; whereas a fault scarp explanation is supported by seismic profiles and geological cross sections. The eastern elevated side of the fault was eroded before its burial, though a quantitive distinction between this erosion, earlier truncations, and original hiatuses, is not possible at this stage. Sediments covering the fault scarp constrain its age to Late Miocene and/or Early Pliocene. The presence of such a fault along the Israeli coastal plain may also shed light on numerous post-Mid-Cretaceous faults previously documented along the coastal plain, but never explained. In a wider perspective, the fault described here along with other documented processes indicate that in the Late Tertiary tectonism along the Levant continental margin resumed after a long passive history. This renewed activity is coeval with the Africa-Arabian breakup and the Red Sea- Suez rifting. In particular, the fault described here is coeval with plate reorganization and vertical motions along the Dead Sea transform and possibly along the Cypriot Arc during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene.

  5. Slowing of coastal subsidence is good news for restoration of Louisiana's wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cimitile, Matthew; Gibbons, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Every year, volunteers use thousands of discarded Christmas trees to build brush fences in the coastal waters of Louisiana. The fences slow down waves and trap sediment, allowing aquatic vegetation to take root in the still water and stimulating the growth of new marsh. This is one of many efforts to counteract wetland loss (the loss of saline, brackish, intermediate, and freshwater marshes) that has plagued coastal Louisiana since the mid-20th century. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently announced good news for Louisiana's coastal-restoration projects: using a combination of historical and recently released data, they discovered that subsidence of coastal land in the Mississippi River delta plain appears to have slowed considerably since the 1990s. This discovery means that new marshlands created by the Christmas tree program and other restoration projects may persist—that is, stay above sea level—longer than previously thought.

  6. Hydrologic Controls On Methylmercury Availability In Coastal Plain Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, P. M.; Brigham, M. E.; Burns, D. A.; Button, D. T.; Lutz, M. A.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.; Riva-Murray, K.; Journey, C.

    2011-12-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) in streams is often attributed to methylation in up-gradient wetland areas, with episodic flood events maximizing wetland-stream hydrologic connectivity and dominating MeHg supply to the stream habitat. A number of studies have demonstrated that Coastal Plain streams in the southeastern United States are particularly vulnerable to high MeHg bioaccumulation and have attributed this vulnerability to wetland abundance and strong hydrologic connectivity between wetland areas and adjacent stream aquatic habitat. Because characteristically coarse-grained Coastal Plain sediments favor vertical infiltration with little surface runoff, flood events attributable to Coastal Plain precipitation are driven by rising groundwater, promoting efficient transport of MeHg from wetland/floodplain source areas to the stream habitat and increasing in-stream availability. Several observations at McTier Creek, South Carolina, however, suggest that good hydrologic connectivity and efficient MeHg transport in Coastal Plain systems are not limited to flood conditions. Close correspondence between stream and shallow-groundwater water levels at McTier indicate good hydrologic connectivity exists prior to flood conditions. Dissolved MeHg concentrations do not increase under flood conditions. Thus, we assessed the flux of water and dissolved mercury (Hg) species (FMeHg and total Hg (FTHg)) from surface water and groundwater sources in a short reach at McTier Creek during separate events in April and July 2009, to determine the importance of shallow groundwater Hg transport from floodplain areas to the stream under non-flood conditions. Mass balance assessments indicated that, under non-flood conditions, the primary supply of water, FMeHg, and FTHg within the reach (excluding upstream surface-water influx) was groundwater discharge, rather than tributary transport from wetlands, in-stream MeHg production, or atmospheric deposition. The results indicate efficient transport of

  7. Processes affecting coastal wetland loss in the Louisiana deltaic plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Penland, Shea; Roberts, Harry H.

    1993-01-01

    Nowhere are the problems of coastal wetland loss more serious and dramatic than in the Mississippi River deltaic plain region of south-central Louisiana. In that area, rates of shoreline erosion of 20 m.yr and loss of land area of up to 75 km/yr result from a complex combination of natural (delta switching, subsidence, sea-level rise, storms) and human (flood control, navigation, oil and gas development, land reclamation) factors. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Coastal Geology Program, has undertaken joint filed investigations with Federal, State, and university partners. The objective of these long-term studies is to gather and interpret baseline information in order to improve our scientific understanding of the critical processes and responses responsible for creation, maintenance, and deterioration of coastal wetlands.

  8. The cost and feasibility of marine coastal restoration.

    PubMed

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Saunders, Megan I; Abdullah, Sabah; Mills, Morena; Beher, Jutta; Possingham, Hugh P; Mumby, Peter J; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2016-06-01

    Land-use change in the coastal zone has led to worldwide degradation of marine coastal ecosystems and a loss of the goods and services they provide. Restoration is the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed and is critical for habitats where natural recovery is hindered. Uncertainties about restoration cost and feasibility can impede decisions on whether, what, how, where, and how much to restore. Here, we perform a synthesis of 235 studies with 954 observations from restoration or rehabilitation projects of coral reefs, seagrass, mangroves, salt-marshes, and oyster reefs worldwide, and evaluate cost, survival of restored organisms, project duration, area, and techniques applied. Findings showed that while the median and average reported costs for restoration of one hectare of marine coastal habitat were around US$80000 (2010) and US$1600000 (2010), respectively, the real total costs (median) are likely to be two to four times higher. Coral reefs and seagrass were among the most expensive ecosystems to restore. Mangrove restoration projects were typically the largest and the least expensive per hectare. Most marine coastal restoration projects were conducted in Australia, Europe, and USA, while total restoration costs were significantly (up to 30 times) cheaper in countries with developing economies. Community- or volunteer-based marine restoration projects usually have lower costs. Median survival of restored marine and coastal organisms, often assessed only within the first one to two years after restoration, was highest for saltmarshes (64.8%) and coral reefs (64.5%) and lowest for seagrass (38.0%). However, success rates reported in the scientific literature could be biased towards publishing successes rather than failures. The majority of restoration projects were short-lived and seldom reported monitoring costs. Restoration success depended primarily on the ecosystem, site selection, and techniques

  9. Diversity of atlantic coastal plain mollusks since the pliocene.

    PubMed

    Allmon, W D; Rosenberg, G; Portell, R W; Schindler, K S

    1993-06-11

    About 70 percent of tropical western Atlantic mollusk species have become extinct since the Pliocene, which has led to perceptions of a corresponding decline in diversity. However, a compilation of gastropod species from Plio-Pleistocene faunas of the United States Atlantic coastal plain and from Recent western Atlantic faunas indicates that regional diversity has not changed since the Pliocene. Gastropod diversity in the Pliocene Pinecrest Beds in Florida approximates that seen today on either coast of Florida. Gastropod diversity is not demonstrably different in the Recent tropical western Atlantic than in the Recent tropical eastern Pacific. High extinction rates must have been balanced by high origination rates.

  10. Senate vote possible this week on opening ANWR Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-17

    The U.S. Senate will continue debate this week on an omnibus energy bill and could vote on whether to allow exploration on the Alaska National natural gas and petroleum Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) Coastal Plain. After taking up the energy bill the Senate approved 68 amendments, many of them concerning alternative fuel auto fleets. The amendments have not changed core elements of the bill. This paper reports on the major pending amendment, which would permit ANWR exploration. The Senate scheduled 4 hr of debate on that issue this week.

  11. Two depositional models for Pliocene coastal plain fluvial systems, Goliad Formation, south Texas Gulf Coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Hoel, H.D.; Galloway, W.E.

    1983-03-01

    The Goliad Formation consists of four depositional systems-the Realitos and Mathis bed-load fluvial systems in the southwest and the Cuero and Eagle Lake mixed-load fluvial systems in the northeast. Five facies are recognized in the Realitos and Mathis bed-load fluvial systems: (1) primary channel-fill facies, (2) chaotic flood channel-fill facies, (3) complex splay facies, (4) flood plain facies, and (5) playa facies. A model for Realitos-Mathis depositional environments shows arid-climate braided stream complexes with extremely coarse sediment load, highly variable discharge, and marked channel instability. Broad, shallow, straight to slightly sinuous primary channels were flanked by wide flood channels. Flood channels passed laterally into broad, low-relief flood plains. Small playas occupied topographic lows near large channel axes. Three facies are recognized in the Cuero and Eagle Lake mixed-load fluvial systems: (1) channel-fill facies, (2) crevasse splay facies, and (3) flood plain facies. A model for Cuero-Eagle Lake depositional environments shows coarse-grained meander belts in a semi-arid climate. Slightly to moderately sinuous meandering streams were flanked by low, poorly developed natural levees. Crevasse splays were common, but tended to be broad and ill-defined. Extensive, low-relief flood plains occupied interaxial areas. The model proposed for the Realitos and Mathis fluvial systems may aid in recognition of analogous ancient depositional systems. In addition, since facies characteristics exercise broad controls on Goliad uranium mineralization, the proposed depositional models aid in defining target zones for Goliad uranium exploration.

  12. The Pliocene Citronelle Formation of the Gulf Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matson, George Charlton

    1916-01-01

    In the spring of 1910 the writer, working under the direction of T. Wayland Vaughan, geologist in charge of Coastal Plain investigations, undertook a study of the later Tertiary formations of the Gulf Coastal Plain. According to the plans outlined before the work was begun, the beds that had formerly been grouped under the names Lafayette formation and Grand Gulf formation were to be studied with a view to their possible separation into more satisfactory stratigraphic units that might be correlated with other formations which, on the basis of their fossils, had been assigned to their proper positions in the geologic time scale. The original plan included a study of the post-Vicksburgian Tertiary deposits from western Florida to Mississippi River and correlations with formations previously recognized in Florida, southern Alabama, and Louisiana. This plan was subsequently modified to extend the investigation as far west as Sabine River. The field work was interrupted and the office work was delayed by calls for geologic work in other areas, so that the preparation of the reports could not be begun until the spring of 1914.

  13. Phosphorus leaching in manure-amended Atlantic Coastal Plain soils.

    PubMed

    Butler, Jennifer S; Coale, Frank J

    2005-01-01

    Targeting the sources of phosphorus (P) and transport pathways of drainage from agricultural land will assist in the reduction of P loading to surface waters. Our research investigated the vertical movement of P from dairy manure and broiler litter through four Atlantic Coastal Plain soils. A randomized split-plot design with two main-plot tillage treatments (no tillage [NT] and chisel tillage [CH]) and five manure P rate split-plot treatments was used at each location. The split-plot P rates were 0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1). Four consecutive years of manure application began at all sites 5 yr before sampling. Soils were sampled to a depth of 150 cm from each split plot in seven depth increments and analyzed for soil test phosphorus (STP), water-extractable soil phosphorus (WSP), and degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS). The DPS of the 0- to 15-cm depths confirmed that at the 100 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) application rate, all sites exceeded the threshold for P saturation (30%). At depths greater than 30 cm, DPS was typically below the 30% saturation threshold. The DPS change points ranged from 25 to 34% for the 0- to 90-cm depths. Our research concluded that the risk of P leaching through the matrix of the Atlantic Coastal Plain soils studied was not high; however, P leaching via macropore bypass may contribute to P loss from these soils.

  14. Solubility of adsorbed sulfate in coastal plain soils

    SciTech Connect

    Camberato, J.J.; Kamprath, E.J.

    1986-10-01

    Ultisols of the Atlantic Coastal Plain have sandy surface horizons low in Ca(H/sub 2/PO/sub 4/)/sub 2/-extractable SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and clayey subsoil horizons high in extractable SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/. The capacity of the subsoils to supply adequate S is dependent upon the solubility of the extractable SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/. To assess the solubility of adsorbed SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ in Coastal Plain soils, the authors collected samples from the Ap and B horizons of 12 sites and determined Ca(H/sub 2/PO/sub 4/)/sub 2/-extractable and water-soluble SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/. The Ap horizon contained 2 to 7 mg kg/sup -1/ of Ca(H/sub 2/PO/sub 4/)/sub 2/-extractable SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/-S, which ranged from 33 to 100% water soluble, with an average of 79%. The B horizon Ca(H/sub 2/PO/sub 4/)/sub 2/-extractable SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/-S levels ranged from 26 to 142 mg kg/sup -1/ soil. The solubility of the adsorbed SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/-S in the B horizons ranged from 0.203 to 0.359 mM L/sup -1/ SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/-S, which is adequate to supply plant requirements for S if plant roots can gain access to the B horizon.

  15. Hydrogeologic framework of the North Carolina Coastal Plain aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winner, M.D.; Coble, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework of the North Carolina Coastal Plain aquifer system consists of ten aquifers separated by nine confining units. From top to bottom the aquifers are: the surficial aquifer, Yorktown aquifer, Pungo River aquifer, Castle Hayne aquifer, Beaufort aquifer, Peedee aquifer, Black Creek aquifer, upper Cape Fear aquifer, lower Cape Fear aquifer, and the Lower Cretaceous aquifer. The uppermost aquifer (the surficial aquifer in most places) is a water-table aquifer and the bottom of the system is underlain by crystalline bedrock. The sedimentary deposits forming the aquifers are of Holocene to Cretaceous age and are composed mostly of sand with lesser amounts of gravel and limestone. Confining units between aquifers are composed primarily of clay and silt. The thickness of the aquifers ranges from zero along the Fall Line to more than 10,000 feet at Cape Hatteras. Prominent structural features are the increasing easterly homoclinal dip of the sediments and the Cape Fear arch, the axis of which trends in a southeast direction. The stratigraphic continuity is determined from correlations of 161 geophysical logs along with data from drillers' and geologists' logs. Aquifers were defined by means of these logs plus water-level and water-quality data and evidence of the continuity of pumping effects. Eighteen hydrogeologic sections depict the correlation of these aquifers throughout the Coastal Plain.

  16. Hydrogeologic framework of the North Carolina coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winner, M.D.; Coble, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework of the North Carolina Coastal Plain aquifer system consists of 10 aquifers separated by 9 confining units. From top to bottom, the aquifers are the surficial aquifer, Yorktown aquifer, Pungo River aquifer, Castle Hayne aquifer, Beaufort aquifer, Peedee aquifer, Black Creek aquifer, upper Cape Fear aquifer, lower Cape Fear aquifer, and Lower Cretaceous aquifer. The uppermost aquifer (the surficial aquifer in most places) is a water-table aquifer, and the bottom of the system is underlain by crystalline bedrock. The sedimentary deposits forming the aquifers are of Holocene to Cretaceous age and are composed mostly of sand, with lesser amounts of gravel and limestone. The confining units between the aquifers are composed primarily of clay and silt. The thickness of the aquifers ranges from zero along the Fall Line to more than 10,000 feet at Cape Hatteras. Prominent structural features are the increasing easterly homoclinal dip of the sediments and the Cape Fear arch, the axis of which trends in a southeast direction. Stratigraphic continuity was determined from correlations of 161 geophysical logs along with data from drillers? and geologists? logs. Aquifers were defined by means of these logs as well as water-level and water-quality data and evidence of the continuity of pumping effects. Eighteen hydrogeologic sections depict the correlation of these aquifers throughout the North Carolina Coastal Plain.

  17. Estimating canopy fuel parameters for Atlantic Coastal Plain forest types.

    SciTech Connect

    Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2007-01-15

    Abstract It is necessary to quantify forest canopy characteristics to assess crown fire hazard, prioritize treatment areas, and design treatments to reduce crown fire potential. A number of fire behavior models such as FARSITE, FIRETEC, and NEXUS require as input four particular canopy fuel parameters: 1) canopy cover, 2) stand height, 3) crown base height, and 4) canopy bulk density. These canopy characteristics must be mapped across the landscape at high spatial resolution to accurately simulate crown fire. Currently no models exist to forecast these four canopy parameters for forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, a region that supports millions of acres of loblolly, longleaf, and slash pine forests as well as pine-broadleaf forests and mixed species broadleaf forests. Many forest cover types are recognized, too many to efficiently model. For expediency, forests of the Savannah River Site are categorized as belonging to 1 of 7 broad forest type groups, based on composition: 1) loblolly pine, 2) longleaf pine, 3) slash pine, 4) pine-hardwood, 5) hardwood-pine, 6) hardwoods, and 7) cypress-tupelo. These 7 broad forest types typify forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain region, from Maryland to Florida.

  18. Geothermal Energy Resources of Navy/Marine Corps Installations on the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    East Gulf Coastal Plain .............................................. 10 5. Generalized Outcrop Pattern of Mesozoic, Cenozoic , and Paleozoic Units on...deposits and associated karat features. Florida possesses a variable coastline, which is characterized by barrier beaches, coral reefs , and mangrove...elevated Pleistocene terrace features. Figure 5 shows a generalized out- crop pattern of Mesozoic, Cenozoic , and Paleozoic units on the coastal plain

  19. Geology, geochemistry, and tectonostratigraphic relations of the crystalline basement beneath the coastal plain of New Jersey and contiguous areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Volkert, Richard A.; Drake, Avery Ala; Sugarman, Peter J.

    1996-01-01

    Coastal plain sediments are underlain by pre-Mesozoic crystalline rocks. The inner coastal plain is underlain by schist that is correlated with the Potomac Terrane, as well as by mafic rocks probably equivalent to the Wilmington or Bel Air-Rising Sun terranes. The northern and central outer coastal plain is underlain by metasedimentary rocks similar to the Brompton-Cameron Terrane. Rocks beneath the southern coastal plain probably correlate with those of the Chopawamsic and Roanoke Rapids terranes.

  20. Pesticides in Ground Water of the Maryland Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denver, Judith M.; Ator, Scott W.

    2006-01-01

    Selected pesticides are detectable at low levels (generally less than 0.1 microgram per liter) in unconfined ground water in many parts of the Maryland Coastal Plain. Samples were recently collected (2001-04) from 47 wells in the Coastal Plain and analyzed for selected pesticides and degradate compounds (products of pesticide degradation). Most pesticide degradation occurs in the soil zone before infiltration to the water table, and degradates of selected pesticides were commonly detected in ground water, often at higher concentrations than their respective parent compounds. Pesticides and their degradates often occur in ground water in mixtures of multiple compounds, reflecting similar patterns in usage. All measured concentrations in ground water were below established standards for drinking water, and nearly all were below other health-based guidelines. Although drinking-water standards and guidelines are typically much higher than observed concentrations in ground water, they do not exist for many detected compounds (particularly degradates), or for mixtures of multiple compounds. The distribution of observed pesticide compounds reflects known usage patterns, as well as chemical properties and environmental factors that affect the fate and transport of these compounds in the environment. Many commonly used pesticides, such as glyphosate, pendimethalin, and 2,4-D were not detected in ground water, likely because they were sorbed onto organic matter or degraded in the soil zone. Others that are more soluble and (or) persistent, like atrazine, metolachlor, and several of their degradates, were commonly detected in ground water where they have been used. Atrazine, for example, an herbicide used primarily on corn, was most commonly detected in ground water on the Eastern Shore (where agriculture is common), particularly where soils are well drained. Conversely, dieldrin, an insecticide previously used heavily for termite control, was detected only on the Western

  1. Contribution of landbird migration to the biological diversity of the northwest gulf coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrow, W.C.; Hamilton, R.B.; Powell, M.A.; Ouchley, K.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined seasonal diversity and feeding behavior of those avian species utilizing that region of the Northwest Gulf Coastal Plain known as the Chenier Plain. Field observations were conducted at three forested locations on coastal cheniers for three years (1993-95) in the spring and at one location for three years (1996-98) in autumn to determine species presence and diet. One hundred and twenty-eight species were present during the spring and 103 species in autumn. The majority of these species were migrants (103 species in spring and 89 species in autumn) and the majority of these were Nearctic/Neotropical species (73 species in spring and 66 species in autumn). The diet of these migrants was more variable than expected. Many insectivorous species were observed to consume seeds, fruit and nectar as well as insects. Because of these varied diets, many species serve as seed dispersers, occasional pollinators and important predators of herbivorus insects. Wooded areas were found to be important in providing food, cover and water for migrating species. A review of historical changes in the landscape of this area is presented and management practices designed to restore wooded habitat to this area are proposed.

  2. Geohydrologic units of the Gulf Coastal Plain in Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.C.; Broom, M.E.; Bush, W.V.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes geohydrologic units of the Jurassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary Systems and of the Paleozoic Era in the Gulf Coastal Plain in Arkansas. Structure contour maps on top of the Paleozoic rocks, Trinity Group, Tokio Formation, Nacatoch Sand, Midway Group, Wilcox Group, Carrizo Sand, Cane River Formation. Sparta Sand, and the Memphis Sand are included. Thickness maps of the Wilcox Group, Carrizo Sand, Cane River Formation, Sparta Sand, and the Memphis Sand and maps showing lines of equal dissolved-solids concentrations of the Nacatoch Sand, Wilcox Group, Carrizo Sand, Cane River Formation, and Sparta Sand are also included. The dissolved-solids maps are at about a 1:2 million scale. All other maps are at a 1:1 million scale. Brief descriptions of the geohydrologic units mentioned above and of the Cook Mountain and Cockfield Formations and the Jackson Group are also included. (USGS)

  3. Storm flow export of metolachlor from a coastal plain watershed.

    PubMed

    Watts, D W; Novak, J M; Johnson, M H; Stone, K C

    2000-03-01

    During an 18-month (1994-1995) survey of the surface water in an Atlantic Coastal Plain watershed, metolachlor was most frequently detected during storm flow events. Therefore, a sampling procedure, focused on storm flow, was implemented in June of 1996. During 1996, three tropical cyclones made landfall within 150 km of the watershed. These storms, as well as several summer thunderstorms, produced six distinct storm flow events within the watershed. Metolachlor was detected leaving the watershed during each event. In early September, Hurricane Fran produced the largest storm flow event and accounted for the majority of the metolachlor exports. During the storm event triggered by Hurricane Fran, the highest daily average flow (7.5 m2 s-1) and highest concentration (5.1 micrograms L-1) ever measured at the watershed outlet were recorded. Storm flow exports leaving the watershed represented 0.1 g ha-1 or about 0.04% of active ingredient applied.

  4. Facilitation shifts paradigms and can amplify coastal restoration efforts.

    PubMed

    Silliman, Brian R; Schrack, Elizabeth; He, Qiang; Cope, Rebecca; Santoni, Amanda; van der Heide, Tjisse; Jacobi, Ralph; Jacobi, Mike; van de Koppel, Johan

    2015-11-17

    Restoration has been elevated as an important strategy to reverse the decline of coastal wetlands worldwide. Current practice in restoration science emphasizes minimizing competition between out-planted propagules to maximize planting success. This paradigm persists despite the fact that foundational theory in ecology demonstrates that positive species interactions are key to organism success under high physical stress, such as recolonization of bare substrate. As evidence of how entrenched this restoration paradigm is, our survey of 25 restoration organizations in 14 states in the United States revealed that >95% of these agencies assume minimizing negative interactions (i.e., competition) between outplants will maximize propagule growth. Restoration experiments in both Western and Eastern Atlantic salt marshes demonstrate, however, that a simple change in planting configuration (placing propagules next to, rather than at a distance from, each other) results in harnessing facilitation and increased yields by 107% on average. Thus, small adjustments in restoration design may catalyze untapped positive species interactions, resulting in significantly higher restoration success with no added cost. As positive interactions between organisms commonly occur in coastal ecosystems (especially in more physically stressful areas like uncolonized substrate) and conservation resources are limited, transformation of the coastal restoration paradigm to incorporate facilitation theory may enhance conservation efforts, shoreline defense, and provisioning of ecosystem services such as fisheries production.

  5. Facilitation shifts paradigms and can amplify coastal restoration efforts

    PubMed Central

    Silliman, Brian R.; Schrack, Elizabeth; He, Qiang; Cope, Rebecca; Santoni, Amanda; van der Heide, Tjisse; Jacobi, Ralph; Jacobi, Mike; van de Koppel, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Restoration has been elevated as an important strategy to reverse the decline of coastal wetlands worldwide. Current practice in restoration science emphasizes minimizing competition between out-planted propagules to maximize planting success. This paradigm persists despite the fact that foundational theory in ecology demonstrates that positive species interactions are key to organism success under high physical stress, such as recolonization of bare substrate. As evidence of how entrenched this restoration paradigm is, our survey of 25 restoration organizations in 14 states in the United States revealed that >95% of these agencies assume minimizing negative interactions (i.e., competition) between outplants will maximize propagule growth. Restoration experiments in both Western and Eastern Atlantic salt marshes demonstrate, however, that a simple change in planting configuration (placing propagules next to, rather than at a distance from, each other) results in harnessing facilitation and increased yields by 107% on average. Thus, small adjustments in restoration design may catalyze untapped positive species interactions, resulting in significantly higher restoration success with no added cost. As positive interactions between organisms commonly occur in coastal ecosystems (especially in more physically stressful areas like uncolonized substrate) and conservation resources are limited, transformation of the coastal restoration paradigm to incorporate facilitation theory may enhance conservation efforts, shoreline defense, and provisioning of ecosystem services such as fisheries production. PMID:26578775

  6. Composite refraction-reflection stack sections: Tracing faults in the Atlantic coastal plain sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, D.E.; Coruh, C.; Costain, J.K.

    1993-05-01

    Seismic data from the Atlantic Coastal Plain are reprocessed and composite refraction-reflection stack sections produced to investigate basement faults that penetrate upward into Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments in South Carolina. Reprocessing recovered reflections from within the deep crust to the Moho as well as from within thin veneer (300) of the Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments. One of the major objectives of this paper is to discuss the use of shallow refracted arrivals to construct a composite refraction- reflection stack that allows better imaging of the subsurface at shallow depths.

  7. THE EFFECTS OF RIPARIAN MANAGEMENT ON DETRITUS PROCESSING AND INVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES IN COASTAL PLAIN INTERMITTENT STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Silviculture is the primary land use within many Coastal Plain watersheds of the southeastern United States, where most forested wetlands are found along headwater intermittent streams. Our study compared invertebrate assemblages and breakdown of buried detritus (leaves, wood, a...

  8. Savannah River Region: Transition between the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Zullo, V.A.; Harris, W.B.; Price, V.

    1990-12-31

    The focus of the this conference of Coastal Plains geologists was on the Savannah River region of Georgia and South Carolina, and particularly on the geology of the US Department of Energy`s 300 square mile Savannah River Site (SRS) in western South Carolina. Current geological studies indicate that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section in the Savannah River region is transitional between that of the Gulf Coastal Plain to the southwest and that of the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the northeast. With the transitional aspect of the region as its theme, the first session was devoted to overviews of Cretaceous and Paleogene geology in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Succeeding presentations and resulting discussions dealt with more specific problems in structural, lithostratigraphic, hydrological, biostratigraphic, and cyclostratigraphic analysis, and of correlation to standard stratigraphic frameworks. For these conference proceedings, individual papers have been processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  9. Invertebrate colonization of leaves and roots within sediments of intermittent coastal plain streams across hydrologic phases

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared benthic invertebrate assemblages colonizing three types of buried substrates (leaves, roots and plastic roots) among three intermittent Coastal Plain streams over a one year period. Invertebrate density was significantly lower in root litterbags than in plastic root l...

  10. Seagrass restoration enhances "blue carbon" sequestration in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Jill T; McGlathery, Karen J; Gunnell, John; McKee, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    Seagrass meadows are highly productive habitats that provide important ecosystem services in the coastal zone, including carbon and nutrient sequestration. Organic carbon in seagrass sediment, known as "blue carbon," accumulates from both in situ production and sedimentation of particulate carbon from the water column. Using a large-scale restoration (>1700 ha) in the Virginia coastal bays as a model system, we evaluated the role of seagrass, Zosteramarina, restoration in carbon storage in sediments of shallow coastal ecosystems. Sediments of replicate seagrass meadows representing different age treatments (as time since seeding: 0, 4, and 10 years), were analyzed for % carbon, % nitrogen, bulk density, organic matter content, and ²¹⁰Pb for dating at 1-cm increments to a depth of 10 cm. Sediment nutrient and organic content, and carbon accumulation rates were higher in 10-year seagrass meadows relative to 4-year and bare sediment. These differences were consistent with higher shoot density in the older meadow. Carbon accumulation rates determined for the 10-year restored seagrass meadows were 36.68 g C m⁻² yr⁻¹. Within 12 years of seeding, the restored seagrass meadows are expected to accumulate carbon at a rate that is comparable to measured ranges in natural seagrass meadows. This the first study to provide evidence of the potential of seagrass habitat restoration to enhance carbon sequestration in the coastal zone.

  11. Coastal Prairie Restoration Information System: Version 1 (Louisiana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allain, Larry

    2007-01-01

    The Coastal Prairie Restoration Information System (CPR) is a Microsoft Access database that allows users to query and view data about Louisiana coastal prairie species. Less than 0.1% of Louisiana's coastal prairie vegetation remains in a relatively undisturbed condition. Encompassing as much as 1 million hectares of land, coastal prairie is a hybrid of coastal wetlands and tall grass prairie. Over 550 plant species have been identified in Louisiana's coastal prairies to date. Efforts to conserve and restore this endangered ecosystem are limited by the ability of workers to identify and access knowledge about this diverse group of plants. In this database, a variety of data are provided for each of 650 coastal prairie species in Louisiana. The database was developed at the U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center by Larry Allain, with software development by Myra Silva. Additional funding was provided by the biology department of the University of Louisiana at Lafayette (ULL), the ULL Center for Environmental and Ecological Technology, and the National Science Foundation.

  12. Shallow Groundwater Mercury Supply in a Coastal Plain Stream

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Fluvial methylmercury (MeHg) is attributed to methylation in up-gradient wetland areas. This hypothesis depends on efficient wetland-to-stream hydraulic transport under nonflood and flood conditions. Fluxes of water and dissolved (filtered) mercury (Hg) species (FMeHg and total Hg (FTHg)) were quantified in April and July of 2009 in a reach at McTier Creek, South Carolina to determine the relative importance of tributary surface water and shallow groundwater Hg transport from wetland/floodplain areas to the stream under nonflood conditions. The reach represented less than 6% of upstream main-channel distance and 2% of upstream basin area. Surface-water discharge increased within the reach by approximately 10%. Mean FMeHg and FTHg fluxes increased within the reach by 23–27% and 9–15%, respectively. Mass balances indicated that, under nonflood conditions, the primary supply of water, FMeHg, and FTHg within the reach (excluding upstream surface water influx) was groundwater discharge, rather than tributary transport from wetlands, in-stream MeHg production, or atmospheric Hg deposition. These results illustrate the importance of riparian wetland/floodplain areas as sources of fluvial MeHg and of groundwater Hg transport as a fundamental control on Hg supply to Coastal Plain streams. PMID:22734594

  13. Groundwater Discharge along a Channelized Coastal Plain Stream

    SciTech Connect

    LaSage, Danita M; Sexton, Joshua L; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Fryar, Alan E; Greb, Stephen F

    2015-10-01

    In the Coastal Plain of the southeastern USA, streams have commonly been artificially channelized for flood control and agricultural drainage. However, groundwater discharge along such streams has received relatively little attention. Using a combination of stream- and spring-flow measurements, spring temperature measurements, temperature profiling along the stream-bed, and geologic mapping, we delineated zones of diffuse and focused discharge along Little Bayou Creek, a channelized, first-order perennial stream in western Kentucky. Seasonal variability in groundwater discharge mimics hydraulic-head fluctuations in a nearby monitoring well and spring-discharge fluctuations elsewhere in the region, and is likely to reflect seasonal variability in recharge. Diffuse discharge occurs where the stream is incised into the semi-confined regional gravel aquifer, which is comprised of the Mounds Gravel. Focused discharge occurs upstream where the channel appears to have intersected preferential pathways within the confining unit. Seasonal fluctuations in discharge from individual springs are repressed where piping results in bank collapse. Thereby, focused discharge can contribute to the morphological evolution of the stream channel.

  14. Ground-water flow in the New Jersey coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Mary

    1990-01-01

    Flow was simulated in 10 aquifers of the New Jersey Coastal Plain using a multilayer finite-difference model for prepumping steady-state conditions and transient conditions from 1896-1981. The highest transmissivity, greater than 10,000 sq ft/day, is in Camden and Gloucester Counties in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifers; Monmouth and Ocean Counties in the middle aquifer of the Potomac-Raritan Magothy aquifer system; and Ocean, Burlington, Atlantic, and Cape May Counties in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system. Confining unit leakance is highest, > than 0.001 ft/day/ft in updip areas and lowest, < 0.00001 ft/day/ft, in downdip areas. Areas near the center of the major cones of depression approximate steady-state conditions. However, downdip and offshore areas are under transient conditions. Simulated head changes along the saltwater- freshwater interface boundary indicate that the lower aquifer of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system and the confined Kirkwood aquifer have the greatest potential for updip movement of chlorides. The simulated sources of water to wells in 1978 include: (1) 3% from aquifer storage; (2) 3% from boundary flows; (3) 4% from the ocean and bays; and (4) 90% from streamflow. (USGS)

  15. Shallow groundwater mercury supply in a Coastal Plain stream.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul M; Journey, Celeste A; Lowery, Mark A; Brigham, Mark E; Burns, Douglas A; Button, Daniel T; Chapelle, Francis H; Lutz, Michelle A; Marvin-Dipasquale, Mark C; Riva-Murray, Karen

    2012-07-17

    Fluvial methylmercury (MeHg) is attributed to methylation in up-gradient wetland areas. This hypothesis depends on efficient wetland-to-stream hydraulic transport under nonflood and flood conditions. Fluxes of water and dissolved (filtered) mercury (Hg) species (FMeHg and total Hg (FTHg)) were quantified in April and July of 2009 in a reach at McTier Creek, South Carolina to determine the relative importance of tributary surface water and shallow groundwater Hg transport from wetland/floodplain areas to the stream under nonflood conditions. The reach represented less than 6% of upstream main-channel distance and 2% of upstream basin area. Surface-water discharge increased within the reach by approximately 10%. Mean FMeHg and FTHg fluxes increased within the reach by 23-27% and 9-15%, respectively. Mass balances indicated that, under nonflood conditions, the primary supply of water, FMeHg, and FTHg within the reach (excluding upstream surface water influx) was groundwater discharge, rather than tributary transport from wetlands, in-stream MeHg production, or atmospheric Hg deposition. These results illustrate the importance of riparian wetland/floodplain areas as sources of fluvial MeHg and of groundwater Hg transport as a fundamental control on Hg supply to Coastal Plain streams.

  16. Shallow groundwater mercury supply in a coastal plain stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste; Lowery, Mark A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Burns, Douglas A.; Button, Daniel T.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Riva-Murray, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Fluvial methylmercury (MeHg) is attributed to methylation in up-gradient wetland areas. This hypothesis depends on efficient wetland-to-stream hydraulic transport under nonflood and flood conditions. Fluxes of water and dissolved (filtered) mercury (Hg) species (FMeHg and total Hg (FTHg)) were quantified in April and July of 2009 in a reach at McTier Creek, South Carolina to determine the relative importance of tributary surface water and shallow groundwater Hg transport from wetland/floodplain areas to the stream under nonflood conditions. The reach represented less than 6% of upstream main-channel distance and 2% of upstream basin area. Surface-water discharge increased within the reach by approximately 10%. Mean FMeHg and FTHg fluxes increased within the reach by 23–27% and 9–15%, respectively. Mass balances indicated that, under nonflood conditions, the primary supply of water, FMeHg, and FTHg within the reach (excluding upstream surface water influx) was groundwater discharge, rather than tributary transport from wetlands, in-stream MeHg production, or atmospheric Hg deposition. These results illustrate the importance of riparian wetland/floodplain areas as sources of fluvial MeHg and of groundwater Hg transport as a fundamental control on Hg supply to Coastal Plain streams.

  17. Groundwater discharge along a channelized Coastal Plain stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaSage, D.M.; Sexton, J.L.; Mukherjee, A.; Fryar, A.E.; Greb, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    In the Coastal Plain of the southeastern USA, streams have commonly been artificially channelized for flood control and agricultural drainage. However, groundwater discharge along such streams has received relatively little attention. Using a combination of stream- and spring-flow measurements, spring temperature measurements, temperature profiling along the stream-bed, and geologic mapping, we delineated zones of diffuse and focused discharge along Little Bayou Creek, a channelized, first-order perennial stream in western Kentucky. Seasonal variability in groundwater discharge mimics hydraulic-head fluctuations in a nearby monitoring well and spring-discharge fluctuations elsewhere in the region, and is likely to reflect seasonal variability in recharge. Diffuse discharge occurs where the stream is incised into the semi-confined regional gravel aquifer, which is comprised of the Mounds Gravel. Focused discharge occurs upstream where the channel appears to have intersected preferential pathways within the confining unit. Seasonal fluctuations in discharge from individual springs are repressed where piping results in bank collapse. Thereby, focused discharge can contribute to the morphological evolution of the stream channel. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dissolved phosphorus retention and release from southeastern USA Coastal Plain in-stream wetlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the southeastern USA Coastal Plain region, many inland surface water systems will meander through flat or depressional landscape areas prior to discharge into coastal estuaries. Slow water flow through these areas often causes flooding that promotes formation of in-stream wetlands with dense vege...

  19. A Surficial Hydrogeologic Framework for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.; Krantz, David E.; Newell, Wayne L.; Martucci, Sarah K.

    2005-01-01

    A surficial hydrogeologic framework was developed for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, from New Jersey through North Carolina. The framework includes seven distinct hydrogeologic subregions within which the primary natural physical factors affecting the flow and chemistry of shallow ground water and small streams are relatively consistent. Within most subregions, the transport of chemicals from the land surface to ground water and streams can be described by a fairly uniform set of natural processes; some subregions include mixed hydrogeologic settings that are indistinguishable at the regional scale. The hydrogeologic framework and accompanying physiographic and geologic delineations are presented in digital and printed format. The seven hydrogeologic subregions that constitute the framework were delineated primarily on the basis of physiography and the predominant texture (typical grain size) of surficial and (where surficial sediments are particularly thin) subcropping sediments. Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was constructed by standardizing and extrapolating previously published interpretations for the Coastal Plain of South Carolina and New Jersey, based on similar work in the other States. Surficial and subcropping geology were similarly compiled from previous publications by resolving inconsistencies in nomenclature, interpretation, and scale, and interpolating across unmapped areas. A bulk sediment texture was determined for each mapped geologic unit on the basis of published descriptions. Fundamental differences among the seven hydrogeologic subregions are described on the basis of hypotheses about surficial and shallow subsurface hydrology and water chemistry in each, as well as variable land use, soils, and topography. On the regional scale, the Coastal Lowlands (Subregion 1), the Middle Coastal Plain Fine Sediments (Subregion 3), the Middle Coastal Plain Sands with Overlying Gravels (Subregion 4), and the Inner Coastal Plain Upland

  20. Presence and absence of bats across habitat scales in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, W.Mark; Menzel, Jennifer M.; Menzel, Michael A.: Edwards, John W.; Kilgo, John C.

    2006-10-01

    Abstract During 2001, we used active acoustical sampling (Anabat II) to survey foraging habitat relationships of bats on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Using an a priori information-theoretic approach, we conducted logistic regression analysis to examine presence of individual bat species relative to a suite of microhabitat, stand, and landscape-level features such as forest structural metrics, forest type, proximity to riparian zones and Carolina bay wetlands, insect abundance, and weather. There was considerable empirical support to suggest that the majority of the activity of bats across most of the 6 species occurred at smaller, stand-level habitat scales that combine measures of habitat clutter (e.g., declining forest canopy cover and basal area), proximity to riparian zones, and insect abundance. Accordingly, we hypothesized that most foraging habitat relationships were more local than landscape across this relatively large area for generalist species of bats. The southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius) was the partial exception, as its presence was linked to proximity of Carolina bays (best approximating model) and bottomland hardwood communities (other models with empirical support). Efforts at SRS to promote open longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and loblolly pine (P. taeda) savanna conditions and to actively restore degraded Carolina bay wetlands will be beneficial to bats. Accordingly, our results should provide managers better insight for crafting guidelines for bat habitat conservation that could be linked to widely accepted land management and environmental restoration practices for the region.

  1. Distribution of autumn-staging Lesser Snow Geese on the northeast coastal plain of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Donna G.; Brackney, Alan W.; Spindler, Michael A.; Hupp, Jerry W.

    1997-01-01

    We conducted aerial surveys of Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) during autumn staging on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in northeast Alaska from late August through September, 1982 - 1993. We evaluated numbers and distribution of Snow Geese that staged on the ANWR, compared abundance of birds among 5 x 5-km cells used frequently (5 - 8 yr), periodically (3 - 4 yr), or infrequently (1 - 2 yr), and examined distribution changes within years. Maximum numbers of Snow Geese observed annually were highly variable (range 12,828 - 309,225). Snow Goose flocks occurred across 605,000 ha of the coastal plain, but used some areas more frequently than others. Frequently used cells (38 of 363 cells in the study area) were non-randomly distributed and primarily occurred on the central coastal plain between the wet coastal and steep foothills regions. Abundance of geese was greatest in frequently used, intermediate in periodically used, and lowest in infrequently used cells. Within years, Snow Goose numbers and flock locations varied between surveys, possibly because geese moved to different foraging areas during staging. The widespread distribution and annual variability in numbers of Snow Geese on the coastal plain was likely because birds used foraging habitats that were spatially and temporally heterogeneous. The ANWR coastal plain is an important component of the fall-staging area used by Snow Geese that nest in the western Canadian Arctic. Management decisions that affect the region should reflect its value to migrating Snow Geese.

  2. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Costa Rica Coastal Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the northern coastal plain of Costa Rica with the Cordillera Central, composed of a number of active and dormant volcanoes, rising in the background. This view looks toward the south over the Rio San Juan, which marks the boundary between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The smaller river joining Rio San Juan in the center of the image is Rio Sarapiqui, which is navigable upstream as far inland as Puerto Viejo (Old Port) de Sarapiqui at the mountain's base. This river was an important transportation route for those few hardy settlers who first moved into this region, although as recently as 1953 a mere three thatched-roof houses were all that comprised the village of Puerto Viejo.

    This coastal plain is a sedimentary basin formed about 50 million years ago composed of river alluvium and lahar (mud and ash flow) deposits from the volcanoes of the Cordillera Central. It comprises the province of Heredia (the smallest of Costa Rica's seven) and demonstrates a wide range of climatic conditions, from warm and humid lowlands to cool and damp highlands, and including the mild but seasonally wet and dry Central Valley.

    This image was generated in support of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development through an agreement with NASA. The Commission involves eight nations working to develop the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an effort to study and preserve some of the most biologically diverse regions of the planet.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 2X.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large

  3. Localized sulfate-reducing zones in a coastal plain aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, C.J.; Coates, J.D.; Schoonen, M.A.A.

    1999-01-01

    High concentrations of dissolved iron in ground water of coastal plain or alluvial aquifers contribute to the biofouling of public supply wells for which treatment and remediation is costly. Many of these aquifers, however, contain zones in which microbial sulfate reduction and the associated precipitation of iron-sulfide minerals decreases iron mobility. The principal water-bearing aquifer (Magothy Aquifer of Cretaceous age) in Suffolk County, New York, contains localized sulfate-reducing zones in and near lignite deposits, which generally are associated with clay lenses. Microbial analyses of core samples amended with [14C]-acetate indicate that microbial sulfate reduction is the predominant terminal-electron-accepting process (TEAP) in poorly permeable, lignite-rich sediments at shallow depths and near the ground water divide. The sulfate-reducing zones are characterized by abundant lignite and iron-sulfide minerals, low concentrations of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, and by proximity to clay lenses that contain pore water with relatively high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved organic carbon. The low permeability of these zones and, hence, the long residence time of ground water within them, permit the preservation and (or) allow the formation of iron-sulfide minerals, including pyrite and marcasite. Both sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) are present beneath and beyond the shallow sulfate-reducing zones. A unique Fe(III)-reducing organism, MD-612, was found in core sediments from a depth of 187 m near the southern shore of Long Island. The distribution of poorly permeable, lignite-rich, sulfate-reducing zones with decreased iron concentration is varied within the principal aquifer and accounts for the observed distribution of dissolved sulfate, iron, and iron sulfides in the aquifer. Locating such zones for the placement of production wells would be difficult, however, because these zones are of limited aerial extent.

  4. Rates of microbial metabolism in deep coastal plain aquifers.

    PubMed

    Chapelle, F H; Lovley, D R

    1990-06-01

    Rates of microbial metabolism in deep anaerobic aquifers of the Atlantic coastal plain of South Carolina were investigated by both microbiological and geochemical techniques. Rates of [2-C]acetate and [U-C]glucose oxidation as well as geochemical evidence indicated that metabolic rates were faster in the sandy sediments composing the aquifers than in the clayey sediments of the confining layers. In the sandy aquifer sediments, estimates of the rates of CO(2) production (millimoles of CO(2) per liter per year) based on the oxidation of [2-C] acetate were 9.4 x 10 to 2.4 x 10 for the Black Creek aquifer, 1.1 x 10 for the Middendorf aquifer, and <7 x 10 for the Cape Fear aquifer. These estimates were at least 2 orders of magnitude lower than previously published estimates that were based on the accumulation of CO(2) in laboratory incubations of similar deep subsurface sediments. In contrast, geochemical modeling of groundwater chemistry changes along aquifer flowpaths gave rate estimates that ranged from 10 to 10 mmol of CO(2) per liter per year. The age of these sediments (ca. 80 million years) and their organic carbon content suggest that average rates of CO(2) production could have been no more than 10 mmol per liter per year. Thus, laboratory incubations may greatly overestimate the in situ rates of microbial metabolism in deep subsurface environments. This has important implications for the use of laboratory incubations in attempts to estimate biorestoration capacities of deep aquifers. The rate estimates from geochemical modeling indicate that deep aquifers are among the most oligotrophic aquatic environments in which there is ongoing microbial metabolism.

  5. Rates of microbial metabolism in deep coastal plain aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; Lovley, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Rates of microbial metabolism in deep anaerobic aquifers of the Atlantic coastal plain of South Carolina were investigated by both microbiological and geochemical techniques. Rates of [2-14C]acetate and [U-14C]glucose oxidation as well as geochemical evidence indicated that metabolic rates were faster in the sandy sediments composing the aquifers than in the clayey sediments of the confining layers. In the sandy aquifer sediments, estimates of the rates of CO2 production (millimoles of CO2 per liter per year) based on the oxidation of [2-14C]acetate were 9.4 x 10-3 to 2.4 x 10-1 for the Black Creek aquifer, 1.1 x 10-2 for the Middendorf aquifer, and <7 x 10-5 for the Cape Fear aquifer. These estimates were at least 2 orders of magnitude lower than previously published estimates that were based on the accumulation of CO2 in laboratory incubations of similar deep subsurface sediments. In contrast, geochemical modeling of groundwater chemistry changes along aquifer flowpaths gave rate estimates that ranged from 10-4 to 10-6 mmol of CO2 per liter per year. The age of these sediments (ca. 80 million years) and their organic carbon content suggest that average rates of CO2 production could have been no more than 10-4 mmol per liter per year. Thus, laboratory incubations may greatly overestimate the in situ rates of microbial metabolism in deep subsurface environments. This has important implications for the use of laboratory incubations in attempts to estimate biorestoration capacities of deep aquifers. The rate estimates from geochemical modeling indicate that deep aquifers are among the most oligotrophic aquatic environments in which there is ongoing microbial metabolism.

  6. Geologic Map of the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain Area, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Keller, Edward A.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a newly revised and expanded digital geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area at a compilation scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map to 2,000 feet on the ground)1 and with a horizontal positional accuracy of at least 20 m. The map depicts the distribution of bedrock units and surficial deposits and associated deformation underlying and adjacent to the coastal plain within the contiguous Dos Pueblos Canyon, Goleta, Santa Barbara, and Carpinteria 7.5' quadrangles. The new map supersedes an earlier preliminary geologic map of the central part of the coastal plain (Minor and others, 2002; revised 2006) that provided coastal coverage only within the Goleta and Santa Barbara quadrangles. In addition to new mapping to the west and east, geologic mapping in parts of the central map area has been significantly revised from the preliminary map compilation - especially north of downtown Santa Barbara in the Mission Ridge area - based on new structural interpretations supplemented by new biostratigraphic data. All surficial and bedrock map units, including several new units recognized in the areas of expanded mapping, are described in detail in the accompanying pamphlet. Abundant new biostratigraphic and biochronologic data based on microfossil identifications are presented in expanded unit descriptions of the marine Neogene Monterey and Sisquoc Formations. Site-specific fault kinematic observations embedded in the digital map database are more complete owing to the addition of slip-sense determinations. Finally, the pamphlet accompanying the present report includes an expanded and refined summary of stratigraphic and structural observations and interpretations that are based on the composite geologic data contained in the new map compilation. The Santa Barbara coastal plain is located in the western Transverse Ranges physiographic province along an east-west-trending segment of the southern California coastline about 100 km (62 mi) northwest

  7. Contrasting soils and landscapes of the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markewich, H.W.; Pavich, M.J.; Buell, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces comprise 80 percent of the Atlantic Coastal states from New Jersey to Georgia. The provinces are climatically similar. The soil moisture regime is udic. The soil temperature regime is typically thermic from Virginia through Georgia, although it is mesic at altitudes above 400 m in Georgia and above 320 m in Virginia. The soil temperature regime is mesic for the Piedmont and Coastal Plain from Maryland through New Jersey. The tightly folded, structurally complex crystalline rocks of the Piedmont and the gently dipping "layer-cake" clastic sedimentary rocks and sediments of the Coastal Plain respond differently to weathering, pedogenesis, and erosion. The different responses result in two physiographically contrasting terrains; each has distinctive near-surface hydrology, regolith, drainage morphology, and morphometry. The Piedmont is predominantly an erosional terrain. Interfluves are as narrow as 0.5 to 2 km, and are convex upward. Valleys are as narrow as 0.1 to 0.5 km and generally V-shaped in cross section. Alluvial terraces are rare and discontinuous. Soils in the Piedmont are typically less than 1 m thick, have less sand and more clay than Coastal Plain soils, and generally have not developed sandy epipedons. Infiltration rates for Piedmont soils are low at 6-15 cm/h. The soil/saprolite, soil/rock, and saprolite/rock boundaries are distinct (can be placed within 10 cm) and are characterized by ponding and/or lateral movement of water. Water movement through soil into saprolite, and from saprolite into rock, is along joints, foliation, bedding planes and faults. Soils and isotopic data indicate residence times consistent with a Pleistocene age for most Piedmont soils. The Coastal Plain is both an erosional and a constructional terrain. Interfluves commonly are broader than 2 km and are flat. Valleys are commonly as wide as 1 km to greater than 10 km, and contain numerous alluvial and estuarine terrace

  8. Episodic acidification of a coastal plain stream in Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Brien, A. K.; Eshleman, K.N.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates the episodic acidification of Reedy Creek, a wetland-influenced coastal plain stream near Richmond, Virginia. Primary objectives of the study were to quantify the episodic variability of acid- base chemistry in Reedy Creek, to examine the seasonal variability in episodic response and to explain the hydrological and geochemical factors that contribute to episodic acidification. Chemical response was similar in each of the seven storms examined, however, the ranges in concentrations observed were commonly greater in summer/fall storms than in winter/spring storms. An increase in SO4/2- concentration with discharge was observed during all storms and peak concentration occurred at or near peak flow. Small increases in Mg2+, Ca2+, K+ concentrations and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were observed during most storms. At the same time, ANC, Na+ and Cl- concentrations usually decreased with increasing discharge. In summer/fall storms, the absolute increase in SO4/2- concentration was one-third to 15 times the increase observed in winter/spring storms; the decrease in ANC during summer/fall storms was usually within the range of the decrease observed in winter/spring storms. In contrast, the decrease in Na+ and Cl- concentrations during winter/spring storms was much greater than that observed during summer/fall storms. Data show that while base flow anion deficit was higher in summer/fall than in winter/spring, anion deficit decreased during most summer/fall storms. In contrast, base flow anion deficit was lower in spring and winter, but increased during winter/spring storms. Increased SO4/2- concentration was the main cause of episodic acidification during storms at Reedy Creek, but increased anion deficit indicates organic acids may contribute to episodic acidification during winter/spring storms. Changes in SO4/2- concentration coincident with the hydrograph rise indicate quick routing of water through the watershed. Saturation overland flow

  9. Quantifying local-scale dust emission from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, Anatolii; Tao, Weichun; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Kalenderski, Stoitchko; Jish Prakash, P.; Yang, Zong-Liang; Shi, Mingjie

    2017-01-01

    Dust plumes emitted from the narrow Arabian Red Sea coastal plain are often observed on satellite images and felt in local population centers. Despite its relatively small area, the coastal plain could be a significant dust source; however, its effect is not well quantified as it is not well approximated in global or even regional models. In addition, because of close proximity to the Red Sea, a significant amount of dust from the coastal areas could be deposited into the Red Sea and serve as a vital component of the nutrient balance of marine ecosystems.In the current study, we apply the offline Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) to better quantify dust emission from the coastal plain during the period of 2009-2011. We verify the spatial and temporal variability in model results using independent weather station reports. We also compare the results with the MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). We show that the best results are obtained with 1 km model spatial resolution and dust source function based on Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) measurements. We present the dust emission spatial pattern, as well as estimates of seasonal and diurnal variability in dust event frequency and intensity, and discuss the emission regime in the major dust generation hot spot areas. We demonstrate the contrasting seasonal dust cycles in the northern and southern parts of the coastal plain and discuss the physical mechanisms responsible for dust generation.This study provides the first estimates of the fine-scale spatial and temporal distribution of dust emissions from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain constrained by MERRAero and short-term WRF-Chem simulations. The estimate of total dust emission from the coastal plain, tuned to fit emissions in MERRAero, is 7.5 ± 0.5 Mt a-1. Small interannual variability indicates that the study area is a stable dust source. The mineralogical composition analysis shows that the coastal plain

  10. Prediction of episodic acidification in Maryland Coastal Plain streams. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerritsen, J.; Dietz, J.; Wilson, H.T.; Janicki, A.J.

    1989-12-01

    Episodic acidification from acidic precipitation in Coastal Plain streams of the Chesapeake Bay watershed is a potential threat to spawning and survival of anadromous fish species. The study is part of a process of selection of streams for mitigation of acidic episodes to increase the spawning success of anadromous fish stocks. It describes the development of practical, empirical models to predict the chemical response of Coastal Plain streams during precipitation events. One of the design criteria for the models was that they predict the response of a stream to precipitation events using data that are relatively easy to obtain. Data used to build and test the models were from several intensive studies of episodic acidification in the Maryland Coastal Plain. Regression models were developed to predict minimum pH during an event, change in pH during an event and minimum ANC (alkalinity) during an event. Two models were developed for each dependent variable.

  11. Evaluation of stream chemistry and watershed characteristics in the mid-atlantic coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Janicki, A.; Morgan, M.; Lynch, J.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to apply the stream classification model developed from Maryland Synoptic Stream Chemistry Study data base to assess the relative importance of acidic deposition and other anthropogenic disturbances on acidity in Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain streams. Data pertaining to Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain watershed geology, soils, land use type, and stream chemistry were obtained from USEPA National Stream Survey, USGS and County Soil Conservation Services from New Jersey to North Carolina. These data were used in a regression analysis to establish the relative importance of ions determining stream water acidity. The study results support the conclusion that acidic deposition has substantially altered the acid base chemistry of Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain Streams.

  12. Ground water contamination and costs of pesticide restrictions in the southeastern coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Danielson, L.E.; Carlson, G.A.; Liu, S.; Weber, J.B.; Warren, R.

    1993-01-01

    The project developed new methodology for estimating: (1) groundwater contamination potential (GWCP) in the Southeast Coastal Plain, and (2) the potential economic impacts of selected policies that restrict pesticide use. The potential for ground water contamination was estimated by use of a simple matrix for combining ratings for both soil leaching potential and pesticide leaching potential. Key soil variables included soil texture, soil acidity and organic matter content. Key pesticide characteristics included Koc, pesticide half-life, the rate of application and the fraction of the pesticide hitting the soil. Comparisons of pesticide use from various farmer and expert opinion surveys were made for pesticide groups and for individual pesticide products. Methodology for merging the GWCP changes and lost benefits from selected herbicide cancellations was developed using corn production in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Economic evaluations of pesticide cancellations for corn included national and Coastal Plain estimates for atrazine; metolachlor; dicamba; dicamba and atrazine; and dicamba, atrazine and metolachlor.

  13. A new GIS approach for reconstructing and mapping dynamic late Holocene coastal plain palaeogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierik, H. J.; Cohen, K. M.; Stouthamer, E.

    2016-10-01

    The geomorphological development of Holocene coastal plains around the world has been studied since the beginning of the twentieth century from various disciplines, resulting in large amounts of data. However, the overwhelming quantities and heterogeneous nature of this data have caused the divided knowledge to remain inconsistent and fragmented. To keep improving the understanding of coastal plain geomorphology and geology, cataloguing of data and integration of knowledge are essential. In this paper we present a GIS that incorporates the accumulated data of the Netherlands' coastal plain and functions as a storage and integration tool for coastal plain mapped data. The GIS stores redigitised architectural elements (beach barriers, tidal channels, intertidal flats, supratidal flats, and coastal fresh water peat) from earlier mappings in separate map layers. A coupled catalogue-style database stores the dating information of these elements, besides references to source studies and annotations regarding changed insights. Using scripts, the system automatically establishes palaeogeographical maps for any chosen moment, combining the above mapping and dating information. In our approach, we strip the information to architectural element level, and we separate mapping from dating information, serving the automatic generation of time slice maps. It enables a workflow in which the maker can iteratively regenerate maps, which speeds up fine-tuning and thus the quality of palaeogeographical reconstruction. The GIS currently covers the late Holocene coastal plain development of the Netherlands. This period witnessed widespread renewed flooding along the southern North Sea coast, coinciding with large-scale reclamation and human occupation. Our GIS method is generic and can be expanded and adapted to allow faster integrated processing of growing amounts of data for many coastal areas and other large urbanising lowlands around the world. It allows maintaining actual data

  14. Importance of Small Isolated Wetlands for Herpetofaunal Diversity in Managed, Young Growth Forests in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, K.R.; Guynn, D.C., Jr.; Hanlin, H.G.

    2002-03-27

    Assessment and comparison of richness, abundance and difference of herpetofauna at five small isolated wetlands located within a commercial forest landscape in the South Carolina Coastal Plain. Data indicates small isolated wetlands are focal points of herpetofaunal richness and abundance in managed coastal plain forest and contribute more to regional biodiversity than is implied by their small size or ephemeral hydrology.

  15. 50 CFR Appendix I to Part 37 - Legal Description of the Coastal Plain, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska I Appendix I to Part 37 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA Pt. 37, App. I Appendix I to Part 37—Legal Description of the Coastal Plain, Arctic National......

  16. 50 CFR Appendix I to Part 37 - Legal Description of the Coastal Plain, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska I Appendix I to Part 37 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA Pt. 37, App. I Appendix I to Part 37—Legal Description of the Coastal Plain, Arctic National......

  17. Preliminary geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Stone, Paul; Powell, Charles L.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Selting, Amy J.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a new geologic digital map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area at a compilation scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map = 2,000 feet on the ground) and with a horizontal positional accuracy of at least 20 m. This preliminary map depicts the distribution of bedrock units and surficial deposits and associated deformation underlying and adjacent to the coastal plain within the contiguous Santa Barbara and Goleta 7.5' quadrangles. A planned second version will extend the mapping westward into the adjoining Dos Pueblos Canyon quadrangle and eastward into the Carpinteria quadrangle. The mapping presented here results from the collaborative efforts of geologists with the U.S. Geological Survey Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP) (Minor, Kellogg, Stanley, Stone, and Powell) and the tectonic geomorphology research group at the University of California at Santa Barbara (Gurrola and Selting). C.L. Powell, II, performed all new fossil identifications and interpretations reported herein. T.R. Brandt designed and edited the GIS database,performed GIS database integration and created the digital cartography for the map layout. The Santa Barbara coastal plain is located in the western Transverse Ranges physiographic province along a west-trending segment of the southern California coastline about 100 km (62 mi) northwest of Los Angeles. The coastal plain region, which extends from the Santa Ynez Mountains on the north to the Santa Barbara Channel on the south, is underlain by numerous active and potentially active folds and partly buried thrust faults of the Santa Barbara fold and fault belt. Strong earthquakes that occurred in the region in 1925 (6.8 magnitude) and 1978 (5.1 magnitude) are evidence that such structures pose a significant earthquake hazard to the approximately 200,000 people living within the major coastal population centers of Santa Barbara and Goleta. Also, young landslide deposits along the steep lower flank of the Santa

  18. Oil and gas developments in Atlantic Coastal Plain and Outer Continental Shelf in 1985 and 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Amato, R.V.

    1987-10-01

    Drilling activity for 1985 was not reported previously due to the low level of activity. No exploratory drilling took place on the Atlantic outer continental shelf in 1985 or 1986. One shallow well was drilled onshore in Georgia on the Atlantic coastal plan in 1985, and 2 wells were completed in Georgia in 1986. Texaco drilled 6 core holes on the Virginia coastal plain in 1986. 2 tables.

  19. Geochemistry of shallow ground water in coastal plain environments in the southeastern United States: Implications for aquifer susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tesoriero, A.J.; Spruill, T.B.; Eimers, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-water chemistry data from coastal plain environments have been examined to determine the geochemical conditions and processes that occur in these areas and assess their implications for aquifer susceptibility. Two distinct geochemical environments were studied to represent a range of conditions: an inner coastal plain setting having more well-drained soils and lower organic carbon (C) content and an outer coastal plain environment that has more poorly drained soils and high organic C content. Higher concentrations of most major ions and dissolved inorganic and organic C in the outer coastal plain setting indicate a greater degree of mineral dissolution and organic matter oxidation. Accordingly, outer coastal plain waters are more reducing than inner coastal plain waters. Low dissolved oxygen (O2) and nitrate (NO 3-) concentrations and high iron (Fe) concentrations indicate that ferric iron (Fe (III)) is an important electron acceptor in this setting, while dissolved O2 is the most common terminal electron acceptor in the inner coastal plain setting. The presence of a wide range of redox conditions in the shallow aquifer system examined here underscores the importance of providing a detailed geochemical characterization of ground water when assessing the intrinsic susceptibility of coastal plain settings. The greater prevalence of aerobic conditions in the inner coastal plain setting makes this region more susceptible to contamination by constituents that are more stable under these conditions and is consistent with the significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of NO3- found in this setting. Herbicides and their transformation products were frequently detected (36% of wells sampled), however concentrations were typically low (<0.1 ??g/L). Shallow water table depths often found in coastal plain settings may result in an increased risk of the detection of pesticides (e.g., alachlor) that degrade rapidly in the unsaturated zone.

  20. Ground-water use in the coastal plain of Maryland, 1900-1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, J.C.; Wilde, F.D.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents groundwater withdrawal data from 1900 through 1980 for Maryland counties lying with the Coastal Plain physiographic province, as well as a summary section for the total Maryland Coastal Plain. The types of water use included are domestic, military, water supplier, industrial/commercial, and irrigation. The data were obtained from state and county reports, biannual pumpage reports submitted to the Maryland Water Resources Administration, communication with individual owners, and estimates based on existing published data. The amount of groundwater withdrawn from aquifers in the Maryland Coastal Plain in 1900 was approximately 26 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) compared to nearly 134 Mgal/d in 1980. Jurisdictions withdrawing more than 10 Mgal/d for most of the 80-year period were Anne Arundel and Baltimore Counties and Baltimore City. The greatest withdrawals for most of the early part of the period were for domestic and industrial/commercial uses; however, water-supplier use dominated after 1965. Groundwater use for irrigation became important in the Coastal Plain around 1960 and increased steadily from approximately 2 Mgal/d in 1960 to nearly 12 Mgal/d in 1980. (USGS)

  1. Hydrogeologic setting and potential for denitrification in ground water, coastal plain of southern Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krantz, David E.; Powars, David S.

    2000-01-01

    The types and distribution of Coastal Plain sediments in the Patuxent River Basin may contribute to relatively low concentrations of nitrate (typically less than 1 milligram per liter) in stream base flow because of the chemical reduction of dissolved nitrate (denitrification) in ground water. Water chemistry data from synoptic stream base-flow surveys in the Patuxent River Basin show higher dissolved nitrate concentrations in the Piedmont than in the Coastal Plain section of the watershed. Stream base flow reflects closely the chemistry of ground water discharging from the surficial (unconfined) aquifer to the stream. Because land use in the sampled subbasins is virtually the same in each section, differences in the physical and geochemical characteristics of the surficial aquifer may explain the observed differences in water chemistry. One possible cause of lower nitrate concentrations in the Coastal Plain is denitrification within marine sediments that contain chemically reduced compounds. During denitrification, the oxygen atoms on the nitrate (N03-) molecule are transferred to a reduced compound and N gas is produced. Organic carbon and ferrous iron (Fe2+), derived from the dissolution of minerals such as pyrite (FeS2) and glauconite (an iron aluminosilicate clay), can act as reducing substrates; these reduced chemical species are common in the marine and estuarine deposits in Southern Maryland. The spatial distribution of geologic units and their lithology (sediment type) has been used to create a map of the potential for denitrification of ground water in the surficial aquifer of the Coastal Plain in Southern Maryland.

  2. Conservation practices to enhance soil carbon sequestration across southeastern Coastal Plain soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coastal Plain soils consist of highly weathered Ultisols with coarse textures, poor structure, and soil organic carbon (SOC) contents below 0.5 %, which decreases crop productivity across the region. Two separate experiments were established in Central (Prattville) and Southeast (Wiregrass) Alabama...

  3. Directory of Facilities. Development Activities in the Marine Environment of the Coastal Plains Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Philip G.

    Described in this directory are marine activities on the coasts of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, and the adjacent offshore area, known administratively as the Coastal Plains Region. The facilities for each state are described within these categories: educational institutions, state agencies, federal agencies, and industrial…

  4. Distribution of breeding shorebirds on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.A.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Andres, B.A.; Bart, J.R.; Brown, S.C.; Kendall, S.J.; Payer, David C.

    2007-01-01

    Available information on the distribution of breeding shorebirds across the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska is dated, fragmented, and limited in scope. Herein, we describe the distribution of 19 shorebird species from data gathered at 407 study plots between 1998 and 2004. This information was collected using a single-visit rapid area search technique during territory establishment and early incubation periods, a time when social displays and vocalizations make the birds highly detectable. We describe the presence or absence of each species, as well as overall numbers of species, providing a regional perspective on shorebird distribution. We compare and contrast our shorebird distribution maps to those of prior studies and describe prominent patterns of shorebird distribution. Our examination of how shorebird distribution and numbers of species varied both latitudinally and longitudinally across the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska indicated that most shorebird species occur more frequently in the Beaufort Coastal Plain ecoregion (i.e., closer to the coast) than in the Brooks Foothills ecoregion (i.e., farther inland). Furthermore, the occurrence of several species indicated substantial longitudinal directionality. Species richness at surveyed sites was highest in the western portion of the Beaufort Coastal Plain ecoregion. The broad-scale distribution information we present here is valuable for evaluating potential effects of human development and climate change on Arctic-breeding shorebird populations. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

  5. Assessment of undiscovered sandstone-hosted uranium resources in the Texas Coastal Plain, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Hall, Susan M.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Tureck, Kathleen R.; Hannon, Mark T.; Breit, George N.; Zielinski, Robert A.; Elliott, Brent

    2015-12-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 220 million pounds of recoverable uranium oxide (U3O8 ) remaining as potential undiscovered resources in southern Texas. This estimate used a geology-based assessment method for Tertiary sandstone-hosted uranium deposits in the Texas Coastal Plain sedimentary strata (fig.1).

  6. Air Emissions from Organic Soil Burning on the Coastal Plain of North Carolina

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of trace gases and particles <10 and 2.5 microns aerodynamic diameter (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively) from fires during 2009-2011 on the North Carolina coastal plain were collected and analyzed. Carbon mass balance techniques were used to quantify emission factors (EFs)....

  7. Research from the Coastal Plain Experiment Station, Tifton, Georgia, to minimize contamination in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists with the United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service and scientists with the University of Georgia located at the Coastal Plain Experiment Station in Tifton, Georgia have been conducting research on aflatoxin contamination of peanut since the early 1960's. Ear...

  8. Impact of dredging on dissolved phosphorus transport in agricultural drainage ditches of the Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage ditches can be a key conduit of phosphorus (P) between agricultural soils of the Atlantic coastal plain and local surface waters, including the Chesapeake Bay. This study sought to quantify the effect of a common ditch management practice, sediment dredging, on fate of P in drainage ditches...

  9. Sediment loss and runoff from cropland in a Southeast Atlantic Coastal Plain landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Widespread implementation of conservation-tillage (CsT) systems during cotton and peanut production in the Atlantic Coastal Plain region (USA) has substantially reduced erosion and sediment loss. However, benefits of CsT in these cropping systems are being threatened by weather shifts that include i...

  10. Spatial yield response of corn and cotton on a Coastal Plain loamy sand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A substantial amount of the yield variation in many coastal plain fields in the southeast is related to soil differences in and around poorly drained depression areas. We conducted a six-year study to evaluate the influence of management system and soil map unit on corn (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gos...

  11. Rural Poverty in Three Southern Regions: Mississippi Delta, Ozarks, Southeast Coastal Plain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, John L.

    The focus of this report is on poverty and its relationships to certain individual characteristics as distributed across 3 regions: the Ozarks, Mississippi Delta, and Southeast Coastal Plain. After a broad description of these areas, the study looks at (1) age of household heads, (2) number of persons in households, (3) housing quality (running…

  12. Stormflow Response as a Function of Alluvial Storage in a Small Atlantic Coastal Plain Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total available groundwater storage in alluvial floodplains has been shown to have a significant impact upon stormflow within larger (16.7 to 50 km2) watersheds within the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Groundwater and streamflow data from a small (0.5 km2) watershed were examined to evaluate the temporal...

  13. APPLICATION OF A MULTIPURPOSE UNEQUAL-PROBABILITY STREAM SURVEY IN THE MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A stratified random sample with unequal-probability selection was used to design a multipurpose survey of headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Objectives for data from the survey include unbiased estimates of regional stream conditions, and adequate coverage of un...

  14. Selection and use of designer biochars to improve characteristics of southeastern USA Coastal Plain degraded soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sandy soils in the southeastern Coastal Plain Region have a long history of agricultural production; the soils were initially cultivated by Paleo-Americans and more recently by European settlers with row crops (corn, cotton, wheat, etc.). Because these soils are sandy, they have poor tilth. Soils we...

  15. An analysis of the link between strokes and soils in the South Carolina coastal plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Stroke Belt is a geographical region of the southeastern United States where resident individuals suffer a disproportionately higher rate of strokes than the rest of the population. While the “buckle” of this Stroke Belt coincides with the southeastern Coastal Plain region of North and South Car...

  16. 40 CFR 81.149 - Northern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Northern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial... territorial area of all municipalities (as defined in section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C....

  17. 40 CFR 81.152 - Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial... territorial area of all municipalities (as defined in section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C....

  18. 40 CFR 81.149 - Northern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Northern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial... territorial area of all municipalities (as defined in section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C....

  19. 40 CFR 81.152 - Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial... territorial area of all municipalities (as defined in section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C....

  20. Impact of biochar amendment on fertility of a southeastern Coastal Plain soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural soils in the southeastern USA Coastal Plain region have meager soil fertility characteristics due to their sandy textures, acidic pH values, kaolinitic clays, low cation exchange capacities (CEC), and diminutive soil organic carbon (SOC) contents. We hypothesized that biochar additions ...

  1. ASSESSING THE HYDROGEOLOGIC CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM IN MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN STREAMS USING BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing classification systems that describe natural variation across regions is an important first step for developing indicators. We evaluated a hydrogeologic framework for first order streams in the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain as part of the LIPS-MACS (Landscape Indicators f...

  2. Exploring the Coastal Plain of the Carolinas in Search of Heirloom Collard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A commonly grown vegetable in the coastal plain region of North and South Carolina is collard, a leafy green type of Brassica oleracea L. (Acephala Group) closely related to common heading cabbage. Although it is widely grown commercially and as a garden crop in the Southeast, collard is not indige...

  3. MINERALIZATION OF NITROGEN FROM BROILER LITTER AS AFFECTED BY SOIL TEXTURE IN THE SOUTHEASTERN COASTAL PLAIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field study was conducted during 2004-2005 to determine nitrogen (N) mineralization of broiler litter (BL) in two Coastal Plain soils of differing texture, sandy or clayey. The soils were a Tifton loamy sand (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic, Plinthic Kandiudults) and a Greenville sandy clay loam (...

  4. Nitrogen Mineralization of Broiler Litter Applied to Southeastern Coastal Plain Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field study was conducted to determine nitrogen (N) mineralization of broiler litter (BL) in two Coastal Plain soils of differing texture, sandy or clayey. The soils were a Tifton loamy sand (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic, Plinthic Kandiudults) and a Greenville sandy clay loam (clayey, kaoliniti...

  5. Characteristics of Human Resources in the Rural Southeast Coastal Plain...With Emphasis on the Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElveen, Jackson V.; And Others

    The objectives of this study were to determine the anatomy, typology, and conditions surrounding low incomes in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina and to determine the measures most suitable to reduce low income within the area. A sample of 1,000 households was selected and stratified among the 10 counties and between the open-country rural area…

  6. Effect of habitat and foraging height on bat activity in the coastal plain of South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Jennifer, M.; Menzel, Michael A.; Kilgo, John C.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.; McCracken, Gary F.

    2005-07-01

    A comparison of bat activity levels in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina among 5 habitat types: forested riparian areas, clearcuts, young pine plantations, mature pine plantations and pine savannas, using time expansion radio-microphones and integrated detectors to simultaneously monitor bat activity at three heights in each habitat type.

  7. Field application of PAM as an amendment in deep-tilled US southeastern Coastal Plain soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) was added to sandy coastal plain soils to improve physical properties and yield. Soils were amended with 8 treatments of linear and cross-linked PAMs or controls. Treatments and controls included the following: 1. spraying a 600 mg/kg solution of linear PAM behind a subsoil shan...

  8. Characterizing mercury concentrations and flux dynamics in a coastal plain watershed using multiple models and data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury-related fish consumption advisories are widespread in the coastal plain of the southeastern U.S., where atmospherically deposited mercury interacts with an abundance of wetlands and high-dissolved organic carbon (DOC), acidic waters. Recent trends in decision making proce...

  9. Soil organic carbon dynamics in a sod-based rotation on coastal plain soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A frequently used cropping system in the southeastern Coastal Plain is an annual rotation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under conventional tillage (CT). The traditional peanut-cotton rotation (TR) often results in erosion and loss of soil organic carbon (SOC). In...

  10. Changing hydrology under a changing climate for a Coastal Plain Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of climate data from the Little River Experimental Watershed near Tifton, Georgia, in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain of the U.S.A. indicate air temperatures will increase (0.15 to 0.41°C decade-1) along with a slight increase in total annual precipitation in the 21st century. The greates...

  11. Projected climate change for the coastal plain region of Georgia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climatic patterns for the Coastal Plain region of Georgia, USA, centered on Tifton, Georgia (31 28 30N, 83 31 54W) were examined for long term patterns in precipitation and air temperature. Climate projections based upon output from seven Global Circulation Models (GCMs) and three future Green Hous...

  12. ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK FOR MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN STREAMS USING BENTHIC MACRO INVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A collaborative study among 6 states along the mid-Atlantic seaboard of the USA developed a consistent approach for collecting and interpreting macroinvertebrate data for low-gradient streams of the coastal plain. The study had 3 objectives: 1) to evaluate the validity of aggrega...

  13. Artesian water in the Malabar coastal plain of southern Kerala, India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.; Ghosh, P.K.

    1964-01-01

    The present report is based on a geological and hydrological reconnaissance during 1954 of the Malabar Coastal Plain and adjacent island area of southern Kerala to evaluate the availability of ground water for coastal villages and municipalities and associated industries and the potentialities for future development. The work was done in cooperation with the Geological Survey of India and under the auspices of the U.S. Technical Cooperation Mission to India. The State of Kerala, which lies near the southern tip of India and along the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, contains a total area of 14,937 square miles. The eastern part of the state is s rugged mountainous highland which attains altitudes of more than 6,000 feet. This highland descends westward through piedmont upland to s narrow coastal plain, which reaches a maximum width of about 16 miles in the latitude of Shertalli. A tropical monsoon rain-forest climate prevails in most of Kerala, and annual rainfall ranges from 65 to 130 inches in the southern part of the coastal plain to as much a 200 inches in the highland. The highland and piedmont upland tracts of Kerala are underlain by Precambrian meamorphic and igneous rocks belonging in large parabola-the so-called Charnockite Series. Beneath ahe coastal plain are semiconsolidated asunconsolidated sedimentary deposits whose age ranges from Miocene to Recent. These deposits include sofa sandstone and clay shale containing some marl or limestone and sand, and clay and pea containing some gravel. The sofa sandstone, sand, and gravel beds constitute important aquifers a depths ranging from a few tens of feet to 400 feet or more below the land surface. The shallow ground war is under water-able or unconfined conditions, but the deeper aquifers contain water under artesian pressure. Near the coast, drilled wells tapping the deeper aquifers commonly flow with artesian heads as much as 10 to 12 feet above the land surface. The draft from existing wells in the

  14. Historical and contemporary imagery to assess ecosystem change on the Arctic coastal plain of northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tape, Ken D.; Pearce, John M.; Walworth, Dennis; Meixell, Brandt W.; Fondell, Tom F.; Gustine, David D.; Flint, Paul L.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Ward, David H.

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we describe and make available a set of 61 georectified aerial images of the Arctic Coastal Plain (taken from 1948 to 2010) that were obtained by the USGS to inform research objectives of the USGS CAE Initiative. Here, we describe the origins, metadata, and public availability of these images that were obtained within four main study areas on the Arctic Coastal Plain: Teshekpuk Lake Special Area, Chipp River, the Colville River Delta, and locations along the Dalton Highway Corridor between the Brooks Range and Deadhorse. We also provide general descriptions of observable changes to the geomorphology of landscapes that are apparent by comparing historical and contemporary images. These landscape changes include altered river corridors, lake drying, coastal erosion, and new vegetation communities. All original and georectified images and metadata are available through the USGS Alaska Science Center Portal (search under ‘Project Name’ using title of this report) or by contacting ascweb@usgs.gov.

  15. Patterns of Seasonal Abundance and Social Segregation in Inland and Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrows in a Delaware Tidal Marsh

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana nigrescens, CPSS) breeds in the coastal brackish marshes of the North American Mid-Atlantic States. During the non-breeding season, coastal brackish marshes are occupied by both this subspecies and two far more widespread inte...

  16. Adaptively Addressing Uncertainty in Estuarine and Near Coastal Restoration Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Williams, Greg D.; Borde, Amy B.; Southard, John A.; Sargeant, Susan L.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Laufle, Jeffrey C.; Glasoe, Stuart

    2005-03-01

    Restoration projects have an uncertain outcome because of a lack of information about current site conditions, historical disturbance levels, effects of landscape alterations on site development, unpredictable trajectories or patterns of ecosystem structural development, and many other factors. A poor understanding of the factors that control the development and dynamics of a system, such as hydrology, salinity, wave energies, can also lead to an unintended outcome. Finally, lack of experience in restoring certain types of systems (e.g., rare or very fragile habitats) or systems in highly modified situations (e.g., highly urbanized estuaries) makes project outcomes uncertain. Because of these uncertainties, project costs can rise dramatically in an attempt to come closer to project goals. All of the potential sources of error can be addressed to a certain degree through adaptive management. The first step is admitting that these uncertainties can exist, and addressing as many of the uncertainties with planning and directed research prior to implementing the project. The second step is to evaluate uncertainties through hypothesis-driven experiments during project implementation. The third step is to use the monitoring program to evaluate and adjust the project as needed to improve the probability of the project to reach is goal. The fourth and final step is to use the information gained in the project to improve future projects. A framework that includes a clear goal statement, a conceptual model, and an evaluation framework can help in this adaptive restoration process. Projects and programs vary in their application of adaptive management in restoration, and it is very difficult to be highly prescriptive in applying adaptive management to projects that necessarily vary widely in scope, goal, ecosystem characteristics, and uncertainties. Very large ecosystem restoration programs in the Mississippi River delta (Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and Restoration

  17. Evolution of the Gulf of Alaska coastal plain: Cape Suckling to Icy Point

    SciTech Connect

    Molnia, B.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Gulf of Alaska coastline, coastal plain, and adjacent continental margin between Cape Suckling and Icy Point is located on the leading edge of the northwestward moving Pacific Plate. Although dominated by intensive wind and wave erosion, this coastal region is accretionary. This apparent contradiction results from the ongoing combination of aperiodic seismic uplift and long-term tectonic uplift raising new shoreline areas which are immediately attacked by erosion. If the hiatus between episodes of successive uplift is short, then a segment of the uplifted area is preserved as a coastal plain ridge. About one-half of the almost 500 km long coastal area has a ridge cover. Near the Alsek River and west of Cape Yakataga, as many as 20 distinct parallel ridges exist. All are younger than 3000 radiocarbon years old. Approximately 4000 years ago, as eustatic sea level reached present level, there was no coastal plain. Rather, the Pacific Ocean covered a deep, glacially-scoured bedrock shelf and reached directly to the foot of the coast mountains. Rivers draining onto the continental shelf had to fill fiords and shelf basins before a continental shelf sediment wedge developed. Only in the past 2000-3000 years has the wedge projected above sea level. Once this occurred, the combination of seismicity and tectonics began the ridge building process. This combination of processes has produced an extremely young, very dynamic, changing coastline and coastal plain. As evidence of its youthfulness, the two largest ridge complexes adjacent to the coastline were too young to date by radiocarbon methods.

  18. Factors Affecting Nitrate Delivery to Streams from Shallow Ground Water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of data collected at five flow-path study sites between 1997 and 2006 was performed to identify the factors needed to formulate a comprehensive program, with a focus on nitrogen, for protecting ground water and surface water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Water-quality protection in the Coastal Plain requires the identification of factors that affect the transport of nutrients from recharge areas to streams through the shallow ground-water system. Some basins process or retain nitrogen more readily than others, and the factors that affect nitrogen processing and retention were the focus of this investigation to improve nutrient management in Coastal Plain streams and to reduce nutrient loads to coastal waters. Nitrate reduction in ground water was observed at all five flow-path study sites in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, although the extent of reduction at each site was influenced by various environmental, hydrogeologic, and geochemical factors. Denitrification was the most common factor responsible for decreases in nitrate along the ground-water flow paths. Specific factors, some of which affect denitrification rates, that appeared to influence ground-water nitrate concentrations along the flow paths or in the streams include soil drainage, presence or absence of riparian buffers, evapotranspiration, fertilizer use, ground-water recharge rates and residence times, aquifer properties, subsurface tile drainage, sources and amounts of organic matter, and hyporheic processes. The study data indicate that the nitrate-reducing capacity of the buffer zone combined with that of the hyporheic zone can substantially lower the amount of ground-water nitrate discharged to streams in agricultural settings of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. At the watershed scale, the effects of ground-water discharge on surface-water quality appear to be greatly influenced by streamflow conditions and the presence of extensive riparian vegetation. Streamflow statistics

  19. Groundwater availability in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Bruce G.; Coes, Alissa L.

    2010-01-01

    The Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers and confining units of North and South Carolina are composed of crystalline carbonate rocks, sand, clay, silt, and gravel and contain large volumes of high-quality groundwater. The aquifers have a long history of use dating back to the earliest days of European settlement in the late 1600s. Although extensive areas of some of the aquifers have or currently (2009) are areas of groundwater level declines from large-scale, concentrated pumping centers, large areas of the Atlantic Coastal Plain contain substantial quantities of high-quality groundwater that currently (2009) are unused. Groundwater use from the Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers in North Carolina and South Carolina has increased during the past 60 years as the population has increased along with demands for municipal, industrial, and agricultural water needs. While North Carolina and South Carolina work to increase development of water supplies in response to the rapid growth in these coastal populations, both States recognize that they are facing a number of unanswered questions regarding availability of groundwater supplies and the best methods to manage these important supplies. An in-depth assessment of groundwater availability of the Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers of North and South Carolina has been completed by the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program. This assessment includes (1) a determination of the present status of the Atlantic Coastal Plain groundwater resources; (2) an explanation for how these resources have changed over time; and (3) development of tools to assess the system's response to stresses from potential future climate variability. Results from numerous previous investigations of the Atlantic Coastal Plain by Federal and State agencies have been incorporated into this effort. The primary products of this effort are (1) comprehensive hydrologic datasets such as groundwater levels, groundwater use, and aquifer properties; (2) a

  20. The oligocene stratigraphic framework of the coastal plain of the southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Huddlestun, P.F. )

    1993-03-01

    Four lithostratigraphic associations are recognized in the Oligocene of the southeastern Coastal Plain: (1) an eastern Gulf of Mexico stratigraphic association, (2) a Gulf Trough stratigraphic association, (3) a Florida Bank stratigraphic association and (4), an Atlantic continental shelf stratigraphic association. Oligocene formations and faunal provinces appear to be directly related to the stratigraphic associations. The Vicksburg Group is restricted to the eastern Gulf of Mexico continental shelf stratigraphic association and to the Coastal Plain north and west of the Gulf Trough. The Gulf Trough stratigraphic association includes the Ochlockonee Formation, Wolf Pit Dolostone, Okapilco Limestone, and Bridgeboro Limestone (the Bridgeboro Limestones occurs only on and adjacent to the northern and southern flanks of the trough). The Florida Bank stratigraphic association is largely restricted to the area south of the Gulf Trough and includes the Ellaville Limestone, Suwannacoochee Dolostone, and Suwannee Limestone (the Suwannee Limestone also occurs immediately north of the Gulf Trough in the central Georgia Coastal Plain). The Cooper and Lazaretto Creek Formations are restricted to the Atlantic continental shelf stratigraphic association and occur only in the coastal area of Georgia, South Carolina, and beneath the continental shelf. Three faunal provinces (or subprovinces) are recognized in the southeastern Coastal Plain during the Oligocene: (1) a Gulf of Mexico continental shelf faunal province that characterizes the Gulf Trough and the region north and west of the trough, (2) a Florida province characteristic and largely restricted to the Florida Bank and (3), an Atlantic continental shelf faunal province. Through the Early Oligocene, the trough marked the limits of the Gulf of Mexico and Florida provinces.

  1. Water quality of surficial aquifers in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandall, C.A.; Berndt, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The National Water Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey established the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit in 1991. The ground-water study-unit survey was conducted in 1993 to provide a broad over-view of water quality in surficial aquifers. Three land resource provinces were included in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study-unit survey: the Central Florida Ridge, the Coastal Flatwoods, and the Southern Coastal Plain. The U.S. Geological Survey sampled 37 wells in surficial aquifers, 18 in the Coastal Flatwoods and 19 in the Southern Coastal Plain. The Florida Department of Environmental Protection sampled 27 wells tapping surficial aquifers in the Central Florida Ridge as part of the background ground-water quality monitoring network from 1985 through 1989. The data were used to characterize water quality in surficial aquifers of the Central Florida Ridge. Results of the study-unit survey indicated that dissolved solids concentrations in ground water were mostly less than 100 mg/L (milligrams per liter). Higher medians of pH, specific conductance, and concentrations of calcium, bicarbonate, and dissolved solids were measured in samples from the Central Florida Ridge compared to the Southern Coastal Plain and Coastal Flatwoods, probably because of a greater percentage of carbonate minerals in aquifer materials. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant level for iron of 300 ug/L (micrograms per liter) in drinking water was exceeded in 15 of 45 samples. Concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen were less than 3.0 mg/L in most samples (74 percent), indicating little or no influence from human activity. Only five samples (9 percent) had concentrations above 10 mg/L, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level for nitrate concentration in drinking water. Significantly lower median concentrations of nitrate were measured in samples from polyvinyl chloride monitoring wells with diameters less

  2. Oil and gas developments in Atlantic Coastal Plain and outer continental shelf in 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Giordano, A.C.; Amato, R.V.; Carpenter, G.B.

    1983-10-01

    Exploratory drilling in the Atlantic Coastal Plain region declined slightly in 1982. Five wells were spudded, 4 on Georges Bank and 1 in south-central coastal New Jersey. Eight wells were completed in 1982; all were announced to be dry. There were no wells actively drilling at year end. Three hundred and eighty-seven tracts were offered for lease as part of Sale RS-2. Bids of $7,209,300 were received on 28 tracts, and 26 tracts were actually leased. The level of seismic data acquisition increased 50% over 1981 to 36,820 line-mi.

  3. ERTS-1 applied for structural and morphological investigtions case studies. 1: Los Angeles, California. 2: Coastal plain, New Jersey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kedar, E. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Two major earth's resources management problems, the application of ERTS-1 imagery for geomorphotectonics, and subsequently seismic-risk, earthquake, and mineral exploration applications are discussed. Case studies are presented for Los Angeles, California, and New Jersey coastal plain.

  4. Coastal Mudflat Accretion under Energetic Conditions, Louisiana Chenier-Plain Coast, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draut, Amy E.; Kineke, Gail C.; Huh, Oscar K.; Grymes, John M., III; Westphal, Karen A.; Moeller, Christopher C.

    2005-01-01

    Mudflat accretion on the chenier-plain coast of Louisiana, northern Gulf of Mexico, is anomalous in an area that otherwise experiences widespread land loss due to rapid relative sea level rise. Accretion is shown to be related to energetic events (Winta cold fronts and occasional tropical-dcprrssion srmms) using a 17-year record of meteorological conditions and aerial surveys The results indicate substantial differences between the behavior of sand- and mud-dominated coastal systems under energetic conditions. Comparison of the Louisiana chenier plain to other mud-rich coasts indicates that certain conditions are necessary for mudflat accretion to occur during energetic atmospheric activity. These include an abundant supply of fine-grained fluvial sediment and resuspension events that maintain an unconsolidated sea floor, dominant onshore wind direction during energetic conditions, particularly when onshore winds coincide with high fluvial sediment input to the coastal ocean, and a low tidal range.

  5. Diversity and distribution of zooplankton in ponds on the Southeastern coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Debiase, A.E.; Taylor, B.E. )

    1994-06-01

    The Southeastern coastal plain is scattered with numerous Carolina bays and other isolated temporary wetlands, which are unstudied in comparison to wetlands in other regions of the United States. We studied 88 Carolina bays and other temporary ponds on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. These ponds support diverse planktonic communities, including several species as yet undescribed. Species distribution and diversity were most strongly linked to hydrology, rather than factors such as pond area or past disturbance. Ponds with longer duration were more diverse, mainly in the number of cladocerans. Correlations between species distribution and vegetation type or geomorphic region were observed for some species. Assemblage similarity decreased with distance between ponds, suggesting that dispersal is poor.

  6. Stable isotope enrichment in paleowaters of the southeast atlantic coastal plain, United States.

    PubMed

    Plummer, L N

    1993-12-24

    Paleowaters from the Floridan aquifer system in the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain have higher D/H and (18)O/(16)O ratios than local Holocene ground water. Maximum delta(18)O enrichments in ground water having adjusted radiocarbon ages of 20,000 to 26,000 years are 0.7 to 2.3 per mil. The trend in isotopic enrichment in paleowaters is the reverse of that normally observed in continental glacial age ground water. Dissolved nitrogen and argon concentrations indicate, however, that the average recharge temperature was 5.3 degrees C cooler than that today. The data indicate cool conditions in the southeast Atlantic coastal plain during the last glacial maximum, with recharge limited primarily to late summer tropical cyclones and hurricanes.

  7. Correlation of lineaments with soil gas anomalies in the Atlantic Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.E. |; Richers, D.

    1994-08-23

    Results from a soil gas survey, performed in the Atlantic Coastal Plain and centered on the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site discovered areas of anomalous (greater than one standard deviation above the mean) methane, ethane, propane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. A lineament study was performed to investigate whether these anomalies may be associated with fractures or faults and therefore be sourced in basement rocks. The lineament study used a regional aeromagnetic map, various scale topographic maps and a Landsat image. The results of the study suggest the following: (1) correcting for barometric pumping effects, the soil gas anomalies have a strong coincidence with lineations, (2) comparing linear features discernible on a variety of sources mapped at different scales allows for a combined data set to be formed that may define a lineation zone, and (3) linear trends compare favorably with suspected structural trends for the coastal plain.

  8. Hydrochemical facies and ground-water flow patterns in northern part of Atlantic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Back, William

    1966-01-01

    Flow patterns of fresh ground water shown on maps and in cross sections have been deduced from available water-level data. These patterns are controlled by the distribution of the higher landmasses and by the depth to either bedrock or to the salt-water interface. The mapping of hydrochemical facies shows that at shallow depths within the Coastal Plain (less than about 200 ft) the calcium-magnesium cation facies generally predominates. The bicarbonate anion facies occurs within more of the shallow Coastal Plain sediments than does the sulfate or the chloride facies. In deeper formations, the sodium chloride character predominates. The lower dissolved-solids content of the ground water in New Jersey indicates less upward vertical leakage than in Maryland and Virginia, where the shallow formations contain solutions of higher concentration.

  9. Stable isotope enrichment in paleowaters of the southeast atlantic coastal plain, United States

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, L.N. )

    1993-12-24

    Paleowaters from the Floridan aquifer system in the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain have higher D/H and [sup 18]O/[sup 16]O ratios than local Holocene groundwater. Maximum [delta][sup 18]O enrichments in groundwater having adjusted radiocarbon ages of 20,000 to 26,000 years are 0.7 to 2.3 per mil. The trend in isotopic enrichment in paleowaters is the reverse of that normally observed in continental glacial age groundwater. Dissolved nitrogen and argon concentrations indicate, however, that the average recharge temperature was 5.3[degrees]C cooler than that today. The data indicate cool conditions in the southeast Atlantic coastal plain during the last glacial maximum, with recharge limited primarily to late summer tropical cyclones and hurricanes.

  10. Stable isotope enrichment in paleowaters of the southeast Atlantic coastal plain, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, L.N.

    1993-01-01

    Paleowaters from the Floridan aquifer system in the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain have higher D/H and 18O/16O ratios than local Holocene ground water. Maximum ??18O enrichments in ground water having adjusted radiocarbon ages of 20,000 to 26,000 years are 0.7 to 2.3 per mil. The trend in isotopic enrichment in paleowaters is the reverse of that normally observed in continental glacial age ground water. Dissolved nitrogen and argon concentrations indicate, however, that the average recharge temperature was 5.3??C cooler than that today. The data indicate cool conditions in the southeast Atlantic coastal plain during the last glacial maximum, with recharge limited primarily to late summer tropical cyclones and hurricanes.

  11. Water-Level Changes in Aquifers of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Predevelopment to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    dePaul, Vincent T.; Rice, Donald E.; Zapecza, Otto S.

    2008-01-01

    The Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system, which underlies a large part of the east coast of the United States, is an important source of water for more than 20 million people. As the population of the region increases, further demand is being placed on those ground-water resources. To define areas of past and current declines in ground-water levels, as well as to document changes in those levels, historical water-level data from more than 4,000 wells completed in 13 regional aquifers in the Atlantic Coastal Plain were examined. From predevelopment to 1980, substantial water-level declines occurred in many areas of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Regional variability in water-level change in the confined aquifers of the Atlantic Coastal Plain resulted from regional differences in aquifer properties and patterns of ground-water withdrawals. Within the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, declines of more than 100 ft were observed in New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. Regional declines in water levels were most widespread in the deeper aquifers that were most effectively confined?the Upper, Middle, and Lower Potomac aquifers. Within these aquifers, water levels had declined up to 200 ft in southern Virginia and to more than 100 ft in New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and North Carolina. Substantial water-level declines were also evident in the regional Lower Chesapeake aquifer in southeastern New Jersey; in the Castle Hayne-Piney Point aquifer in Delaware, Maryland, southern Virginia and east-central North Carolina; in the Peedee-Severn aquifer in east-central New Jersey and southeastern North Carolina; and in the Black Creek-Matawan aquifer in east-central New Jersey and east-central North Carolina. Conversely, declines were least severe in the regional Upper Chesapeake aquifer during this period. In the Southeastern Coastal Plain, declines of more than 100 ft in the Chattahoochee River aquifer occurred in eastern South Carolina and in southwestern

  12. Ground-water quality data for the Atlantic Coastal Plain; New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knobel, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    This report is a compilation of chemical analyses of ground-water samples in the Atlantic Coastal Plain from North Carolina through New Jersey. It contains records of 3,616 chemical analyses of ground water selected from more than 15,000 analyses in WATSTORE. These analyses serve as the data base for interpreting the geochemistry of the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. Reported chemical data include common anions and cations, selected trace metals, and selected physical characteristics. (USGS)

  13. Opaline sediments of the southeastern coastal plain and horizon a: biogenic origin.

    PubMed

    Weaver, F M; Wise, S W

    1974-05-24

    Scanning electron microscope techniques show that Eocene opaline claystones (fuller's earth and buhrstone) of the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, deposits long considered volcanic in origin, are actually highly altered diatomites formed as transgressive facies in normal marine continental shelf environmnents. These findings are in agreement with a biogenic origin for time-equivalent horizon A and A deep-sea cherts of the North Atlantic and Caribbean.

  14. Hydrogeology of the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system in Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renken, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    The Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system consists of a thick sequence of unconsolidated to poorly consolidated Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks that extend from Mississippi to South Carolina. Four regional sand and gravel aquifers are separated by three regional confining units of clay, shale, and chalk that do not conform everywhere to stratigraphic boundaries. The change in geologic facies is the most important factor controlling the distribution of transmissivity within the aquifer system.

  15. Background determination of element and anthropogenic compounds in soils of the Maryland coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeth, G.R.; Romano, D.J.; Smegal, D.; Paul, J.

    1996-12-31

    Background concentrations of elements and anthropogenic compounds in soil were determined for the coastal plain region of the northern Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of a major military facility. Soils used to establish background are from off-site locations. Lead and octachlorodibenzodioxin were determined to be anthropogenic regional contaminants. The background concentrations of arsenic, beryllium, and manganese exceed Region III Environmental Protection Agency risk based criteria for residential soils.

  16. Geographic and stratigraphic distribution of coastal Quaternary aminozones across the Cape Fear Arch, U. S. Atlantic Geology Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Wehmiller, J.F.; York, L.L. ); Krantz, D.E. . Coll. of Marine Studies)

    1992-01-01

    The interpretation of the regional aminostratigraphy of Coastal Plain Quaternary units from North and South Carolina is potentially affected by sampling biases, variable preservation of coastal records, reoccupation of coastal environments by multiple transgressions, geochemical alteration of samples, variable thermal histories of specific samples, and intergeneric and interlaboratory differences in analytical results.Two primary models for the correlation of emergent Coastal Plain units diverge significantly in southeastern North Carolina. New data from fresh exposure (1990--1991) at emergent sites between Wilmington, NC and Charleston, SC, from previous onshore collections in this region, and from submergent samples between Cape Lookout, NC and Cape Romain, SC provide insight into the nature of these correlation issues. Although sampling of the area is not uniform, these results fill a major gap between regions of previous aminostratigraphy study. Inferred early-to-middle Pleistocene aminozones dominate the emergent coastal region between Cape Lookout and Romain, and late Pleistocene aminozones in this area are represented by subsurface samples beneath barrier islands or in shallow inner shelf cores, but have not been found onshore. A map view of the distribution of aminozones along the coast between northeastern NC and central SC mimics that of pre-Quaternary units that thin or disappear over the axis of the Cape Fear Arch, suggesting that the sampled Quaternary record reflects the combination of processes responsible for the preservation of the pre-Quaternary record. This perspective should provide a model for resolution of various geochronological controversies that have arisen because of limited stratigraphic or geochemical data.

  17. Retention of riverine sediment and nutrient loads by coastal plain floodplains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noe, G.B.; Hupp, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the frequent citation of wetlands as effective regulators of water quality, few quantitative estimates exist for their cumulative retention of the annual river loads of nutrients or sediments. Here we report measurements of sediment accretion and associated carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus accumulation as sedimentation over feldspar marker horizons placed on floodplains of the non-tidal, freshwater Coastal Plain reaches of seven rivers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, USA. We then scale these accumulation rates to the entire extent of non-tidal floodplain in the Coastal Plain of each river, defined as riparian area extending from the Fall Line to the upper limit of tidal influence, and compare them to annual river loads. Floodplains accumulated a very large amount of material compared to their annual river loads of sediment (median among rivers = 119%), nitrogen (24%), and phosphorus (59%). Systems with larger floodplain areas and longer floodplain inundation retained greater proportions of riverine loads of nitrogen and phosphorus, but systems with larger riverine loads retained a smaller proportion of that load on floodplains. Although the source and long-term fate of deposited sediment and associated nutrients are uncertain, these fluxes represent the interception of large amounts of material that otherwise could have been exported downstream. Coastal Plain floodplain ecosystems are important regulators of sediment, carbon, and nutrient transport in watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay.

  18. Estimating occurrence and detection probabilities for stream-breeding salamanders in the Gulf Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, Jennifer Y.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Qualls, Carl P.

    2017-01-01

    Large gaps exist in our knowledge of the ecology of stream-breeding plethodontid salamanders in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Data describing where these salamanders are likely to occur along environmental gradients, as well as their likelihood of detection, are important for the prevention and management of amphibian declines. We used presence/absence data from leaf litter bag surveys and a hierarchical Bayesian multispecies single-season occupancy model to estimate the occurrence of five species of plethodontids across reaches in headwater streams in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Average detection probabilities were high (range = 0.432–0.942) and unaffected by sampling covariates specific to the use of litter bags (i.e., bag submergence, sampling season, in-stream cover). Estimates of occurrence probabilities differed substantially between species (range = 0.092–0.703) and were influenced by the size of the upstream drainage area and by the maximum proportion of the reach that dried. The effects of these two factors were not equivalent across species. Our results demonstrate that hierarchical multispecies models successfully estimate occurrence parameters for both rare and common stream-breeding plethodontids. The resulting models clarify how species are distributed within stream networks, and they provide baseline values that will be useful in evaluating the conservation statuses of plethodontid species within lotic systems in the Gulf Coastal Plain.

  19. Distribution, abundance, and habitat affinities of the Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beadell, J.; Greenberg, R.; Droege, S.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2003-01-01

    We examined the distribution and abundance of the Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana nigrescens) at previously occupied sites and points within potential habitat. We found Swamp Sparrows throughout their formerly documented range except in southern Chesapeake Bay. Swamp Sparrows were most common in the Mullica River region of New Jersey where we detected individuals at 78% of systematically chosen points with a mean count of 4.1 birds/point. The percentages of points with positive detections in. the regions of Delaware River (39%), eastern Delaware Bay (23%), western Delaware Bay (34%), and Tuckahoe River (31%) were lower. The mean count of birds/point was between 0.4 and 0.6 in these regions. A higher resolution Poisson model of relative abundance suggested that the greatest concentrations of Swamp Sparrows occurred not only in the Mullica River area but also along northwestern Delaware Bay. Regression analysis of Swamp Sparrow counts and habitat features identified shrubs (Iva frutescens and Baccharis halimifolia) as a key habitat component. By applying density estimates generated by DISTANCE (Thomas et al. 1998) to the approximate area of potential shrub habitat along Delaware Bay, we estimated that the core population of Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrows was less than 28,000 pairs. We recommend that the Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrow be listed as a subspecies of concern by state and local governments because of its relatively small population size, restricted distribution in the mid-Atlantic region, and narrow habitat requirements.

  20. Coastal morphodynamics and Chenier-Plain evolution in southwestern Louisiana, USA: A geomorphic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Randolph A.; Taylor, Matthew J.; Byrnes, Mark R.

    2007-08-01

    Using 28 topographic profiles, air-photo interpretation, and historical shoreline-change data, coastal processes were evaluated along the Chenier Plain to explain the occurrence, distribution, and geomorphic hierarchy of primary landforms, and existing hypotheses regarding Chenier-Plain evolution were reconsidered. The Chenier Plain of SW Louisiana, classified as a low-profile, microtidal, storm-dominated coast, is located west and downdrift of the Mississippi River deltaic plain. This Late-Holocene, marginal-deltaic environment is 200 km long and up to 30 km wide, and is composed primarily of mud deposits capped by marsh interspersed with thin sand- and shell-rich ridges ("cheniers") that have elevations of up to 4 m. In this study, the term "ridge" is used as a morphologic term for a narrow, linear or curvilinear topographic high that consists of sand and shelly material accumulated by waves and other physical coastal processes. Thus, most ridges in the Chenier Plain represent relict open-Gulf shorelines. On the basis of past movement trends of individual shorelines, ridges may be further classified as transgressive, regressive, or laterally accreted. Geomorphic zones that contain two or more regressive, transgressive, or laterally accreted ridges are termed complexes. Consequently, we further refine the Chenier-Plain definition by Otvos and Price [Otvos, E.G. and Price, W.A., 1979. Problems of chenier genesis and terminology—an overview. Marine Geology, 31: 251-263] and define Chenier Plain as containing at least two or more chenier complexes. Based on these definitions, a geomorphic hierarchy of landforms was refined relative to dominant process for the Louisiana Chenier Plain. The Chenier Plain is defined as a first-order feature (5000 km 2) composed of three second-order features (30 to 300 km 2): chenier complex, beach-ridge complex, and spit complex. Individual ridges of each complex type were further separated into third-order features: chenier, beach

  1. S. 684: Arctic Coastal Plain Competitive Oil and Gas Leasing Act. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, March 29, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    S. 684 would authorize competitive oil and gas leasing and development to proceed on the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in a manner consistent with the protection of the environment, maintenance of fish and wildlife and their habitat, and the interests of the area's subsistence users; and to provide a new source of funding for: (1) the Land and Water Conservation Fund, (2) the preservation, protection, creation, enhancement, or restoration of wetlands, and (3) research, development, and commercialization of energy conservation and alternative sources.

  2. Using maximum entropy to predict suitable habitat for the endangered dwarf wedgemussel in the Maryland Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Cara; Hilderbrand, Robert H.

    2017-01-01

    Species distribution modelling can be useful for the conservation of rare and endangered species. Freshwater mussel declines have thinned species ranges producing spatially fragmented distributions across large areas. Spatial fragmentation in combination with a complex life history and heterogeneous environment makes predictive modelling difficult.A machine learning approach (maximum entropy) was used to model occurrences and suitable habitat for the federally endangered dwarf wedgemussel, Alasmidonta heterodon, in Maryland's Coastal Plain catchments. Landscape-scale predictors (e.g. land cover, land use, soil characteristics, geology, flow characteristics, and climate) were used to predict the suitability of individual stream segments for A. heterodon.The best model contained variables at three scales: minimum elevation (segment scale), percentage Tertiary deposits, low intensity development, and woody wetlands (sub-catchment), and percentage low intensity development, pasture/hay agriculture, and average depth to the water table (catchment). Despite a very small sample size owing to the rarity of A. heterodon, cross-validated prediction accuracy was 91%.Most predicted suitable segments occur in catchments not known to contain A. heterodon, which provides opportunities for new discoveries or population restoration. These model predictions can guide surveys toward the streams with the best chance of containing the species or, alternatively, away from those streams with little chance of containing A. heterodon.Developed reaches had low predicted suitability for A. heterodon in the Coastal Plain. Urban and exurban sprawl continues to modify stream ecosystems in the region, underscoring the need to preserve existing populations and to discover and protect new populations.

  3. Effects of sea level rise on deltaic coastal marshlands, Mississippi River deltaic plain

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, K.E.; Penland, S. ); Roberts, H.H.; Coleman, J.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Low-relief deltaic coastal plains commonly experience land loss because of the cumulative effects of natural and human-induced processes. Although it is difficult to separate the individual factors within the overall process, interplay between these factors can result in a rate of relative sea level rise greater than the natural rate of coastal-plain aggradation that causes land loss. Between 1956 and 1978, about 11,400 and 2,490 ha of marsh were lost in east Texas and Mississippi, respectively. Louisiana's loss was 18,755 ha. Relative sea level rise over the last 65 yr has averaged 0.23 cm/yr in the Gulf and as much as 1-1.5 cm/yr in the delta plain. The Environmental Protection Agency predicts the rate of sea level rise to increase over the next century. Rates of relative sea level rise for the Gulf of Mexico are expected to increase from 0.23-1.5 cm/yr to 0.6-3.7 cm/yr. The current rate of relative sea level rise and land loss in the subsiding Mississippi delta is a response that can be expected for many US coastal areas over the next century. With the predicted change, the Mississippi River delta complex will experience dramatically increased rates of land loss. Isles Dernieres will disappear by the year 2000, and Plaquemines and Terrebonne marshes will be gone between 2020 and 2080. Based on the lowest predicted sea level rise rate, by the year 2100, the delta plain could be reduced from 150.9 {times} 10{sup 3} ha to 29.8 x 10{sup 3} ha or to 4.9 {times} 10{sup 3} ha if calculations are based on the highest rate.

  4. Novel microsatellites for Calibrachoa heterophylla (Solanaceae) endemic to the South Atlantic Coastal Plain of South America1

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Arias, Gustavo Adolfo; Mäder, Geraldo; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Freitas, Loreta B.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Calibrachoa heterophylla (Solanaceae) is a petunia species restricted to the South Atlantic Coastal Plain of South America and presents a recent history of colonization from continental to coastal environments and diversification following the formation of the Coastal Plain during the Quaternary period. Methods and Results: This study reports a suite of 16 microsatellite loci for C. heterophylla. The applicability of these markers was assessed by genotyping 57 individuals from two natural populations. Of the 16 described loci, 12 were found to be polymorphic. Successful cross-amplification tests were obtained using 12 Calibrachoa species. Conclusions: The development of microsatellite markers will be useful to recover the contemporary history of the colonization of the Coastal Plain and to provide information for the conservation of this endemic species. PMID:26191462

  5. The Application of Ontological Methods toward Coastal Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, R.; Movva, S.; Hardin, D.

    2007-12-01

    At the fall 2006 AGU meeting the Information Technology and Systems Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville debuted a tool for ontology based search and resource aggregation called Noesis. Since that time Noesis, with a new ontology for seagrass habitats in the Gulf of Mexico, has been utilized to support evaluations of potential seagrass restoration sites. The seagrass ontology was generated from a standard stressor conceptual model description for five species of seagrass common to the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Coupling the seagrass ontology with the existing atmospheric science ontology allowed scientists to locate and retrieve substantial information about the seagrass habitat as well as stressors that impact the habitat induced by climate change and short term atmospheric phenomena. A domain specific catalog of seagrass resources was constructed and an application ontology developed that mapped the keywords of the catalog to the combined (atmospheric and seagrass) ontologies of Noesis. Noesis uses domain ontologies to help the user scope the search queries to ensure that the search results are both accurate and complete. The domain ontologies guide the user to refine their search query and thereby reduce the user's burden of experimenting with different search strings. Semantics are captured by refining the query terms to cover synonyms, specializations, generalizations and related concepts. As a resource aggregator Noesis categorizes search results from different online resources such as education materials, publications, datasets, web search engines that might be of interest to the user. This presentation will give an overview of Noesis and describe how it has been applied to coastal restoration investigations.

  6. Estimating Cleanup Times for Organic Contaminants in Shallow Coastal Plain Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapelle, F. H.; Widdowson, M. A.; Casey, C.

    2001-05-01

    Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) can be a cost-effective strategy for restoring contaminated aquifer systems either as a stand-alone technology or in combination with other engineered remedial actions. However, USEPA guidance specifically requires MNA to achieve site-specific cleanup objectives "within a reasonable time frame" (USEPA, 1999). Thus, it is necessary to provide estimates of cleanup times whenever MNA is proposed as part of a cleanup strategy. This problem can be approached in terms of a mass-balance in which rates of contaminant delivery to the environment (dissolution of NAPL, desorption etc.) are quantitatively compared to rates of contaminant destruction (principally biodegradation). Because of the complex interaction of contaminant sources and sinks, and because these factors operate within the context of dynamic ground-water systems, solutions to this problem generally requires the use of solute-transport models. This paper outlines a methodology for estimating cleanup times associated with MNA as a stand-alone remedial strategy and in conjunction with source-area removal using the numerical model Sequential Electron Acceptor Model for 3D transport (SEAM3D). The code incorporates physical transport, retardation and intrinsic biodegradation (aerobic and sequential anaerobic) within a three-dimensional flow field. SEAM3D also includes a module for simulating the dissolution of contaminants from a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL), such as gasoline or chlorinated solvents. With this capability, a mass-based approach is employed to simulate a contaminant source combined with attenuation of an aqueous-phase plume and to address time frames associated with MNA. This methodology is illustrated by considering the time of remediation in chlorinated ethene contaminated coastal-plain aquifers in Pensacola, Florida (trichloroethene, TCE) and in Kings Bay, Georgia (tetrachloroethene, PCE). At both sites, reductive dechlorination was a significant attenuation

  7. Landscape-level estimation of nitrogen removal in coastal Louisiana wetlands: potential sinks under different restoration scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Branoff, Benjamin; Meselhe, Ehab; McCorquodale, Alex; Dortch, Mark; Steyer, Gregory D.; Visser, Jenneke; Wang, Hongqing

    2013-01-01

    Coastal eutrophication in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is the primary anthropogenic contributor to the largest zone of hypoxic bottom waters in North America. Although biologically mediated processes such as denitrification (Dn) are known to act as sinks for inorganic nitrogen, it is unknown what contribution denitrification makes to landscape-scale nitrogen budgets along the coast. As the State of Louisiana plans the implementation of a 2012 Coastal Master Plan (MP) to help restore its wetlands and protect its coast, it is critical to understand what effect potential restoration projects may have in altering nutrient budgets. As part of the MP, a spatial statistical approach was developed to estimate nitrogen removal under varying scenarios of future conditions and coastal restoration project implementation. In every scenario of future conditions under which MP implementation was modeled, more nitrogen () was removed from coastal waters when compared with conditions under which no action is taken. Overall, the MP increased coast-wide average nitrogen removal capacity (NRC) rates by up to 0.55 g N m−2 y−1 compared with the “future without action” (FWOA) scenario, resulting in a conservative estimate of up to 25% removal of the annual + load of the Mississippi-Atchafalaya rivers (956,480 t y−1). These results are spatially correlated, with the lower Mississippi River and Chenier Plain exhibiting the greatest change in NRC. Since the implementation of the MP can maintain, and in some regions increase the NRC, our results show the need to preserve the functionality of wetland habitats and use this ecosystem service (i.e. Dn) to decrease eutrophication of the GOM.

  8. Coastal Habitat Restoration and Hydrodynamics in Panguil Bay, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roxas, P. G.; Gorospe, J. G.

    2007-03-01

    Hydrobiological studies indicate the deterioration of the coastal ecosystems in Panguil Bay, Philippines despite interventions that started more than a decade ago. Mangrove ecosystems that filter land run offs and act as pollutant sinks are converted to fishponds that discharge toxic materials into the bay. Monsoon winds continue to erode mangrove-dominated coastlines. Water movements, nutrient transport and influx of freshwater from rivers and saline waters from the sea are altered by proliferating fishing structures and boats that use sea lanes for navigation. The reduction of current velocities increased siltation rates that caused shallowing of the bay. Failure in interventions to restore ecosystems is partly attributed to use of methods that failed to consider the bay's hydrodynamics. But sustaining the bay is a must because it is a major source of fishery resources hence strategies to arrest its further deterioration and to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystems based on the bay's hydrodynamics are explored. Timing, selection of appropriate species, and use of encasements are considered relative to the water dynamics of the bay. Zoning and regulation of barrier structures are implemented in some parts of the bay. Bioremediating agricultural run offs and discharges from fishponds, boats, and factories that accumulate in the inner part of the bay remains a challenge.

  9. Estimating SGD flux in the Pingtung Plain coastal area by using Radon and Radium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li Chang, Yao; Chieh Su, Chih

    2015-04-01

    In the past two decades, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as an important pathway to transport material into coastal area. Our study area is located at Pingtung Plain which is the second largest plain in Taiwan with three major rivers, including Gaoping, Donggang and Linbian Rivers, flow through the plain. The Gaoping River, which has the largest drainage area, flows throughout the central part of the plain. The Pingtung Plain composed by four aquifers in different depths (0, 50, 100, and 200 m) and each layer extends to coastal area. Groundwater is an important water resource for local agriculture and aquaculture. However, the long-term over-pumping induced subsidence problem makes salinization at some coastal area. Some previous studies pointed out the SGD accounts for 80% or more of the mass of freshwater in Fangshan coast, depends on salinity and stable isotopes research. In this study, the radioactive tracers, Radon (222Rn, T1/2=3.8 d) and short-lived Ra isotopes (223Ra, T1/2=11.4 d & 224Ra, T1/2=3.6 d) are used in tracing SGD off the Pingtung Plain. During 2013 to 2014, the terrestrial water samples were collected from Gaoping, Donggang, Linbian Rivers and springs in different seasons. We also conducted two coastal waters cruises by using R/V Ocean Researcher 3 (OR3-1768 and 1799 cruises in May and September 2014). Continuous 222Rn was measured by RAD7 equipped with RAD-AQUA system and large volume (20 L) seawater samples were collected by CTD/Rosette water sampler with Niskin sterile bottles. Water samples were flow through Mn-fiber (flow rate < 1 LPM) to concentrate the Ra isotopes, and counted via RaDeCC system. In spatial variation, our result shows the excess 224Ra in the downstream of Gaoping River (2.39 dpm 100L-1) is higher than upstream (1.09 dpm 100L-1). It indicates the groundwater input may play an important role at the downstream of Gaoping River. For temporal variation, excess 224Ra in the Gaoping River are higher in wet

  10. Coastal Evolution of the Mississippi River Chenier Plain: A Geomorphic Process-Response Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, R. A.; Taylor, M. J.; Byrnes, M. R.

    2007-12-01

    Using 28 topographic profiles, air-photo interpretation, and historical shoreline-change data, coastal processes were evaluated along the Mississippi River Chenier Plain to explain the occurrence, distribution, and geomorphic hierarchy of primary landforms. The Louisiana Chenier Plain, classified as a low-profile, microtidal, storm- dominated coast, is located west and downdrift of the Mississippi River deltaic plain. This late-Holocene, marginal-deltaic environment is 200 km long, less than 30 km wide, and composed of mud deposits capped by marsh interspersed with thin sand- and shell-rich ridges ("cheniers") that are less than 4 m in elevation. Most Chenier-Plain ridges represent open-Gulf paleoshorelines. Past shoreline morphodynamics allow ridges to be classified as transgressive (cheniers), regressive (beach ridges), or laterally accreted (spits). Geomorphic zones that contain two or more regressive, transgressive, or laterally accreted ridges are termed complexes. Consequently, we further refine the Chenier-Plain definition by Otvos and Price (1979, Marine Geology) and define Chenier Plain as containing at least two or more chenier complexes. As such, a geomorphic hierarchy of landforms is devised relative to dominant coastal process. The Chenier Plain is defined as a first-order feature (5000 km2) composed of three second-order features (30 to 300 km2): chenier complex, beach ridge complex, and spit complex. Individual ridges of each complex type were further separated into third-order features: chenier, beach ridge, and spit. To understand long-term evolution of the Chenier Plain, modern tidal-inlet processes operating at Sabine, Calcasieu, and Mermentau river entrances were also examined relative to the inlet-stability ratio. Prior to human modification and stabilization efforts, the Mermentau River entrance is classified as wave-dominated, Sabine Pass as tide-dominated, and Calcasieu Pass as tide-dominated to mixed. Hoyt (1969, American Association of

  11. Geohydrology of the Englishtown Formation in the northern Coastal Plain of New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, W.D.

    1977-01-01

    The Englishtown Formation of the Matawan Group of Late Cretaceous age is exposed in the western part of the New Jeresy Coastal Plain along a northeast-southwest trending zone extending from Raritan Bay to Delaware Bay. In outcrop, in the northern part of the Coastal Plain, the Englishtown typically consists of a series of thin, cross-stratified, fine- to medium-grained lignitic quartz sand beds intercalated with thin beds of sandy silty clay and clayey silt, ranging in total thickness from about 140 feet (43 meters) near Raritan Bay to about 50 feet (15 meters) near Trenton. In the subsurface of the northern part of the Coastal Plain, the formation retains most of the lithologic characteristics displayed in outcrop. In northern and eastern Ocean County the Englishtown can be subdivided into three distinct lithologic units; upper and lower units of quartz sand with thin interbeds of dark sandy silt, separated by a thick sequence of sandy and clayey lignitic silt. The confined part of the aquifer in the Englishtown Formation is utilized as a source of water over an area of about 1,100 square miles (2,849 square kilometers) of the New Jersey Coastal Plain and is an important source of supply in Monmouth and northern Ocean Counties. The annual average rate of withdrawal from the aquifer in the two-county area increased from 5.5 million gallons per day (0.24 cubic meters per second) in 1959 to 9.5 million gallons per day (0.4 cubic meters per second) in 1970. Water levels in parts of this area were declining 8 to 12 feet (2.4 to 3.6 meters) per year as of 1970 and they declined as much as 140 feet (43 meters) between 1959 and 1970 near pumping centers. The aquifer transmissivity ranges from 2,400 square feet per day to 650 square feet per day (223 square meters per day to 60 square meters per day); the estimated hydraulic conductivity ranges from about 11 feet per day to 20 feet per day (3.3 meters per day to 6.1 meters per day); and the storage coefficient ranges from

  12. Winter Activity of Coastal Plain Populations of Bat Species Affected by White-Nose Syndrome and Wind Energy Facilities.

    PubMed

    Grider, John F; Larsen, Angela L; Homyack, Jessica A; Kalcounis-Rueppell, Matina C

    2016-01-01

    Across the entire distribution of a species, populations may have variable responses to environmental perturbations. Many bat species experience mortality in large portions of their range during hibernation and along migratory paths to and from wintering grounds, from White-nose syndrome (WNS) and wind energy development, respectively. In some areas, warm temperatures may allow bats to remain active through winter, thus decreasing their susceptibility to WNS and/or mortality associated with migration to wintering grounds. These areas could act as a refugia and be important for the persistence of local populations. To determine if warmer temperatures affect bat activity, we compared year-round activity of bat populations in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of North Carolina, USA, two regions that differ in winter temperature. We established six recording stations, four along a 295-kilometer north-south transect in the Coastal Plain, and two in the Piedmont of North Carolina. We recorded bat activity over two years. We supplemented our recordings with mist-net data. Although bat activity was lower during winter at all sites, the odds of recording a bat during winter were higher at Coastal Plain sites when compared with Piedmont sites. Further, bats in the Piedmont had a lower level of winter activity compared to summer activity than bats in the Coastal Plain that had more similar levels of activity in the winter and summer. We found high bat species richness on the Coastal Plain in winter, with winter-active species including those known to hibernate throughout most of their range and others known to be long distance migrants. In particular, two species impacted by WNS, the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) and tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus), were present year round in the Coastal Plain. The tricolored bat was also present year-round in the Piedmont. In the Coastal Plain, the long distance migratory hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) was active in the

  13. Winter Activity of Coastal Plain Populations of Bat Species Affected by White-Nose Syndrome and Wind Energy Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Angela L.; Homyack, Jessica A.; Kalcounis-Rueppell, Matina C.

    2016-01-01

    Across the entire distribution of a species, populations may have variable responses to environmental perturbations. Many bat species experience mortality in large portions of their range during hibernation and along migratory paths to and from wintering grounds, from White-nose syndrome (WNS) and wind energy development, respectively. In some areas, warm temperatures may allow bats to remain active through winter, thus decreasing their susceptibility to WNS and/or mortality associated with migration to wintering grounds. These areas could act as a refugia and be important for the persistence of local populations. To determine if warmer temperatures affect bat activity, we compared year-round activity of bat populations in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of North Carolina, USA, two regions that differ in winter temperature. We established six recording stations, four along a 295-kilometer north-south transect in the Coastal Plain, and two in the Piedmont of North Carolina. We recorded bat activity over two years. We supplemented our recordings with mist-net data. Although bat activity was lower during winter at all sites, the odds of recording a bat during winter were higher at Coastal Plain sites when compared with Piedmont sites. Further, bats in the Piedmont had a lower level of winter activity compared to summer activity than bats in the Coastal Plain that had more similar levels of activity in the winter and summer. We found high bat species richness on the Coastal Plain in winter, with winter-active species including those known to hibernate throughout most of their range and others known to be long distance migrants. In particular, two species impacted by WNS, the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) and tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus), were present year round in the Coastal Plain. The tricolored bat was also present year-round in the Piedmont. In the Coastal Plain, the long distance migratory hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) was active in the

  14. EPA Awards Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Grant to Central Michigan University to Monitor Coastal Wetlands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CHICAGO -- The U.S Environmental Protection Agency today announced that Central Michigan University in Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, has received a $10 million Great Lakes Restoration Initiative grant to monitor coastal wetlands around the Great Lakes basin over

  15. Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations and human evolution on the southern coastal plain of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compton, John S.

    2011-03-01

    Humans evolved in Africa, but where and how remain unclear. Here it is proposed that the southern coastal plain (SCP) of South Africa may have served as a geographical point of origin through periodic expansion and contraction (isolation) in response to glacial/interglacial changes in sea level and climate. During Pleistocene interglacial highstands when sea level was above -75 m human populations were isolated for periods of 360-3400 25-yr generations on the SCP by the rugged mountains of the Cape Fold Belt, climate and vegetation barriers. The SCP expands five-fold as sea level falls from -75 to -120 m during glacial maxima to form a continuous, unobstructed coastal plain accessible to the interior. An expanded and wet glacial SCP may have served as a refuge to humans and large migratory herds and resulted in the mixing of previously isolated groups. The expansive glacial SCP habitat abruptly contracts, by as much as one-third in 300 yr, during the rapid rise in sea level associated with glacial terminations. Rapid flooding may have increased population density and competition on the SCP to select for humans who expanded their diet to include marine resources or hunted large animals. Successful adaptations developed on an isolated SCP are predicted to widely disperse during glacial terminations when the SCP rapidly contracts or during the initial opening of the SCP in the transition to glacial maxima. The hypothesis that periodic expansion and contraction of the SCP, as well as the coastal plain of North Africa, contributed to the stepwise origin of our species over the last 800 thousand years (kyr) is evaluated by comparing the archeological, DNA and sea-level records. These records generally support the hypothesis, but more complete and well dated records are required to resolve the extent to which sea-level fluctuations influenced the complex history of human evolution.

  16. Late Middle Pleistocene deposits at Norton Farm on the West Sussex coastal plain, southern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Martin R.; Bates, C. Richard; Gibbard, Philip L.; MacPhail, Richard I.; Owen, Frederick J.; Parfitt, Simon A.; Preece, Richard C.; Roberts, Mark B.; Robinson, J. Eric; Whittaker, John E.; Wilkinson, Keith N.

    2000-01-01

    The coastal plain of West Sussex, southern England, is internationally important because of the sequence of discrete high-sea-level events preserved at various elevations across it. New evidence is presented from a site at Norton Farm, near Chichester, on the Lower Coastal Plain, where Pleistocene marine sands, fining upwards into silts, occur between 5.3 m and 9.1 m OD. The sequence reflects a regressive tendency at the transition from an interglacial to a cold stage. The marine sands have yielded foraminifera, ostracods and molluscs that indicate a declining marine influence through the sequence, culminating in a tidal mudflat, strongly weathered in places. Cool-climate foraminifera (including Elphidium clavatum, Cassidulina reniformis and Elphidium albiumbilicatum) and ostracods have been recovered from the marine sands. Some species with an apparent preference for warmer water conditions, however, are also present. Freshwater taxa washed into the terminal marine sediments include some cold climate indicators, such as Pisidium stewarti and P. obtusale lapponicum. Additional evidence for cool climatic conditions during the deposition of the upper part of the marine sequence is provided by the lack of tree taxa in the pollen record and by features of the micromorphology. The marine sediments probably began accumulating during OIS 7, a conclusion based on their elevation, on amino acid ratios from shells, but especially on vertebrate evidence, particularly the presence of a small form of horse, together with a large, distinctive, form of northern vole (Microtus oeconomus). The occurrence of cool climate indicators in these marine sediments may demonstrate a lag between the climatic deterioration and the expected glacio-eustatic fall in relative sea-level. This evidence appears to support the conclusions drawn from the study of coral terraces in Barbados. Such a scenario would provide the conditions necessary for the emplacement of the large erratic boulders

  17. ``Carolina Bays" on the Georgia (USA) Coastal Plain: Meteoritic Origin Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, E. F.

    2001-11-01

    In this investigation, forty-four elliptical depressions, with diameters > 1.0 km, have been mapped across the Georgia (USA) coastal plain. These curious features are often called pocosins (an Algonquin name for a bay-covered swamp); however, in the literature the depressions are the so-called ``Carolina Bays" [1]. Controversy has surrounded the origin of the Carolina Bays since they were first recognized in the late eighteenth century [e.g., 2]. Although terrestrial processes have been invoked to explain their origin, a meteoritic related mode of formation cannot be ruled out. Aerial imagery shows the bays on the Georgia coastal plain as dark ovals surrounded by white to light-gray rims. These rims are composed of sandy deposits that are typically less than two meters high and are better developed in the southeastern part of the oval. Magnetic anomalies occur outside of most bay depressions, approximately the distance of the short axis of the bay away from the southeastern rim. On a regional scale, bay trend is from NW to SE -- with the southern most occurring bays having a slight clockwise orientation relative to those found farther north. Arabia Bay, a 4.5 x 6.0 km feature, in Clinch County is the largest bay identified in Georgia. It is suggested that bays are late Pleistocene features produced by a series of ``Tunguska-like" atmospheric bursts associated with the fall of a massive chondritic or cometary bolide. Associated air-shock waves plowed into soft sediments, across the eastern North American coastal plain (from New Jersey to Georgia), forming a myriad of shallow depressions along its path. Further research, including laboratory modeling and field investigations, is ongoing. References: [1] Prouty, W.F., 1952, Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., 63, 167-224. [2] Savage, H., 1982, The Mysterious Carolina Bays, Univ. South Carolina Press, 121 p.

  18. The Maryland Coastal Plain Aquifer Information System: A GIS-based tool for assessing groundwater resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andreasen, David C.; Nardi, Mark R.; Staley, Andrew W.; Achmad, Grufron; Grace, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the source of drinking water for ∼1.4 million people in the Coastal Plain Province of Maryland (USA). In addition, groundwater is essential for commercial, industrial, and agricultural uses. Approximately 0.757 × 109 L d–1 (200 million gallons/d) were withdrawn in 2010. As a result of decades of withdrawals from the coastal plain confined aquifers, groundwater levels have declined by as much as 70 m (230 ft) from estimated prepumping levels. Other issues posing challenges to long-term groundwater sustainability include degraded water quality from both man-made and natural sources, reduced stream base flow, land subsidence, and changing recharge patterns (drought) caused by climate change. In Maryland, groundwater supply is managed primarily by the Maryland Department of the Environment, which seeks to balance reasonable use of the resource with long-term sustainability. The chief goal of groundwater management in Maryland is to ensure safe and adequate supplies for all current and future users through the implementation of appropriate usage, planning, and conservation policies. To assist in that effort, the geographic information system (GIS)–based Maryland Coastal Plain Aquifer Information System was developed as a tool to help water managers access and visualize groundwater data for use in the evaluation of groundwater allocation and use permits. The system, contained within an ESRI ArcMap desktop environment, includes both interpreted and basic data for 16 aquifers and 14 confining units. Data map layers include aquifer and ­confining unit layer surfaces, aquifer extents, borehole information, hydraulic properties, time-series groundwater-level data, well records, and geophysical and lithologic logs. The aquifer and confining unit layer surfaces were generated specifically for the GIS system. The system also contains select groundwater-quality data and map layers that quantify groundwater and surface-water withdrawals. The aquifer

  19. Groundwater quality in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system, eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, Bruce; Belitz, Kenneth

    2017-01-19

    Groundwater provides nearly 50 percent of the Nation’s drinking water. To help protect this vital resource, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project assesses groundwater quality in aquifers that are important sources of drinking water. The Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system constitutes one of the important areas being evaluated. One or more inorganic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at high concentrations in about 15 percent of the study area and at moderate concentrations in about 17 percent. Organic constituents were not detected at high concentrations in the study area.

  20. Selected borehole geophysical logs and drillers' logs, northern coastal plain of New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murashige, J.E.; Birkelo, B.A.; Pucci, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents lithologic data compiled during the initial phase of a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Water Resources to assess the hydrogeology of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system in the northern Coastal Plain of New Jersey. The report includes 109 geophysical logs and 328 drillers ' logs that were selected as representative of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system. A description of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system also is give. (USGS)

  1. Potential Oil Production from Coastal Plain of Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) received a letter (dated March 10, 2000) from Senator Frank H. Murkowski as Chairman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources requesting an EIA Service Report with plausible scenarios for the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) supply development consistent with the most recent U.S. Geological Survey resource assessments. This service report is prepared in response to the request of Senator Murkowski. It focuses on the ANWR coastal plain, a region currently restricted from exploration and development, and updates EIA's 1987 ANWR assessment.

  2. Impacts of sewage effluent on tree survival, water quality and nutrient removal in coastal plain swamps

    SciTech Connect

    Kuenzler, E.J.

    1987-09-01

    An investigation was conducted of the impacts of sprayed municipal sewage on swamp tree survival and the effects of the swamp system on nutrient concentrations below the outfalls on two streams on the coastal plain of North Carolina. Effluent was discharged to one swamp stream by aerial spraying and to the other stream by way of a small ditch. Ninety-eight percent of the trees struck directly by the spray were dead within 18 months of the date spraying began. Both swamp systems removed sufficient quantities of nitrogen and phosphorus within a few kilometers to account for virtually all of the sewage nutrient load to the swamps.

  3. 75 FR 5765 - NOAA Coastal and Marine Habitat Restoration Project Supplemental Funding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-ZC05 NOAA Coastal and Marine Habitat Restoration... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of supplemental funding for NOAA Coastal and... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Melanie Gange at (301) 713-0174, or by e-mail at...

  4. Influence of coarse woody debris on the soricid community in southeastern Coastal Plain pine stands.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Justin, C.; Castleberry, Steven, B.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2010-07-01

    Shrew abundance has been linked to the presence of coarse woody debris (CWD), especially downed logs, in many regions in the United States. We investigated the importance of CWD to shrew communities in managed upland pine stands in the southeastern United States Coastal Plain. Using a randomized complete block design, 1 of the following treatments was assigned to twelve 9.3-ha plots: removal (n 5 3; all downed CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed), downed (n 5 3; 5-fold increase in volume of downed CWD), snag (n 5 3; 10-fold increase in volume of standing dead CWD), and control (n 5 3; unmanipulated). Shrews (Blarina carolinensis, Sorex longirostris, and Cryptotis parva) were captured over 7 seasons from January 2007 to August 2008 using drift-fence pitfall trapping arrays within treatment plots. Topographic variables were measured and included as treatment covariates. More captures of B. carolinensis were made in the downed treatment compared to removal, and captures of S. longirostris were greater in downed and snag compared to removal. Captures of C. parva did not differ among treatments. Captures of S. longirostris were positively correlated with slope. Our results suggest that abundance of 2 of the 3 common shrew species of the southeastern Coastal Plain examined in our study is influenced by the presence of CWD.

  5. Geochronology of upper Paleocene and lower Eocene strata, eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Tew, B.H. Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL )

    1994-03-01

    Four samples of glauconitic sand from upper Paleocene and lower Eocene strata of the eastern Gulf Coastal Plain were analyzed for conventional potassium-argon (K-Ar) age determination. Results from these analyses are as follows: Coal Bluff Marl Member of the Naheola Formation of the Midway Group (58.2 [+-] 1.5 MA), Ostrea thirsae beds of the Nanafalia Formation of the Wilcox Group (56.3 [+-] 1.5 MA), upper Tuscahoma Sand of the Wilcox Group (54.5 [+-] 1.4 MA), and Bashi Marl Member of the Hatchetigbee Formation of the Wilcox Group (53.4 [+-] 1.4 MA). The Nanafalia Formation (Wilcox Group) disconformably overlies the Naheola Formation (Midway Group), and based on the data presented here, the age of this unconformity is bracketed between 59.7 and 54.8 MA. The Paleocene-Eocene Epoch boundary occurs in the Wilcox Group and coincides with the lithostratigraphic contact of the upper Paleocene Tuscahoma Sand with the lower eocene Hatchetigbee Formation. The age of this boundary, which is also an unconformity, can be placed between 55.9 and 52.0 MA. The K-Ar age dates for this boundary in the Gulf Coastal Plain compare favorably with the numerical limits placed on the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in the published literature. Generally, the Paleocene-Eocene Epoch boundary is reported as approximately 54 to 55 MA.

  6. Quaternary climates and sea levels of the u.s. Atlantic coastal plain.

    PubMed

    Cronin, T M; Szabo, B J; Ager, T A; Hazel, J E; Owens, J P

    1981-01-16

    Uranium-series dating of corals from marine deposits of the U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain coupled with paleoclimatic reconstructions based on ostracode (marine) and pollen (continent) data document at least five relatively warm intervals during the last 500,000 years. On the basis of multiple paleoenvironmental criteria, we determined relative sea level positions during the warm intervals, relative to present mean sea level, were 7 +/- 5 meters at 188,000 years ago, 7.5 +/- 1.5 meters at 120,000 years ago, 6.5 +/- 3.5 meters at 94,000 years ago, and 7 +/- 3 meters at 72,000 years ago. The composite sea level chronology for the Atlantic Coastal Plain is inconsistent with independent estimates of eustatic sea level positions during interglacial intervals of the last 200,000 years. Hydroisostatic adjustment from glacial-interglacial sea level fluctuations, lithospheric flexure, and isostatic uplift from sediment unloading due to erosion provide possible mechanisms to account for the discrepancies. Alternatively, current eustatic sea level estimates for the middle and late Quaternary may require revision.

  7. Immunology of macromolecules from Quaternary mercenaria samples from the Atlantic coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Muyzer, G.; Westbroek, P.; Wehmiller, J.

    1985-01-01

    Amino acid racemization is one of several diagnetic reactions that could serve as measures of the geologic age of fossilized macro-molecules in preserved skeletal remains. Immunological studies of fossil and modern mollusks provide an additional measure of diagenetic extent. Antibodies against the EDTA soluble portion of modern M. MERCENARIA have been used to evaluate the extent of diagenetic alteration of immunologically reactive antigens in MERCENARIA fossil samples from Quaternary localities in the coastal plain of Virginia and South Carolina. There is a clear trend of decreasing reactivity with increasing stratigraphic age for both regions, indicating that the specific immunological determinants with the modern MERCENARIA antibodies can react are degrading through time. The decreasing immunological response is linearly related to the increased extend of amino acid racemization. The immunologic reactions are specific for MERCENARIA, as both modern and fossil samples of ANADARA, CRASSOSTREA, AND BUSYCON do not react with the modern MERCENARIA antibodies. Because aminostratigraphic age estimates for physically well-preserved MERCENARIA valves are occasionally in conflict with independently derived age estimates (Wehmiller and Belknap, 1982), immunologic data can provide an independent measure of the extent of diagenesis. Immunologic data for a controversial site at Norris Bridge, Virginia, when compared with similar results from other coastal plain calibration localities, are difficult to reconcile with a U-Th coral data of about 200 ka.

  8. Estimating contributions of nitrate and herbicides from groundwater to headwater streams, northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, Scott; Denver, Judith M.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater transport often complicates understanding of surface-water contamination. We estimated the regional flux of nitrate and selected herbicides from groundwater to nontidal headwater streams of the Atlantic Coastal Plain (New Jersey through North Carolina) based on late-winter or spring base-flow samples from 174 streams. Sampled streams were selected randomly, and flux estimates are based on resulting population estimates rather than on empirical models, which have been used previously for similar estimates. Base-flow flux in the estimated 8,834 headwater streams of the study area are an estimated 21,200 kg/day of nitrate (as N) and 5.83, 0.565, and 20.7 kg/day of alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor (and selected degradates), respectively. Base-flow flux of alachlor and metolachlor is <3% of the total base-flow flux of those compounds plus degradates. Base-flow flux of nitrate and herbicides as a percentage of applications is typically highest in well-drained areas and lowest in areas with abundant poor drainage and anoxic conditions. In Coastal Plain watersheds of Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, <2% of applied nitrogen reaches headwater streams as base flow. On the Delmarva Peninsula part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, however, more than 10% of such applications are transported through groundwater to streams, and base-flow nitrate flux represents 70% of total nitrogen flux in headwater streams.

  9. Microbial acetogenesis as a source of organic acids in ancient Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Field and laboratory evidence shows that deeply buried (90-888 m) fine-grained sediments of the Atlantic Coastal Plain contain viable acetogenic microorganisms, and that these microorganisms actively produce organic acids. Concentrations of formate, acetate, and propionate in pore waters extracted from fine-grained sediments ranged from 50 ??M to 5 mM and were much higher than in adjacent pore waters associated with sandy sediments (<2 ??M). Laboratory studies showed that asceptically cored fine-grained sediments incubated under a H2 atmosphere produced formate and acetate, and that H14CO-3 was converted to 14C-acetate and 14C-formate over time. An enrichment culture of these acetogenic microorganisms was recovered from one long-term incubation that showed the presence of several morphologically distinct gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria. These microorganisms were capable of growth under autotrophic (H2 + CO2), heterotrophic (syringate), and mixotrophic (H2 + CO2 + syringate) conditions. These results suggest that microbial acetogenesis, rather than abiotic processes, is the most important organic acid-producing mechanism during low-temperature (???30 ??C) diagenesis of Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments.

  10. Supergroup stratigraphy of the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains (Middle? Jurassic through holocene, Eastern North America)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weems, R.E.; ,; Edwards, L.E.

    2004-01-01

    An inclusive supergroup stratigraphic framework for the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains is proposed herein. This framework consists of five supergroups that 1) are regionally inclusive and regionally applicable, 2) meaningfully reflect the overall stratigraphic and structural history of the Coastal Plains geologic province of the southeastern United States, and 3) create stratigraphic units that are readily mappable and useful at a regional level. Only the Marquesas Supergroup (Lower Cretaceous to lowest Upper Cretaceous) has been previously established. The Trent Supergroup (middle middle Eocene to basal lower Miocene) is an existing name here raised to supergroup rank. The Minden Supergroup (Middle? through Upper Jurassic), the Ancora Supergroup (Upper Cretaceous to lower middle Eocene), and the Nomini Supergroup (lower Miocene to Recent) are new stratigraphic concepts proposed herein. In order to bring existing groups and formations into accord with the supergroups described here, the following stratigraphic revisions are made. 1) The base of the Shark River Formation (Trent Supergroup) is moved upward. 2) The Old Church Formation is removed from the Chesapeake Group (Nomini Supergroup) and moved to the Trent Supergroup without group placement. 3) The Tiger Leap and Penney Farms formations are removed from the Hawthorn Group (Nomini Supergroup) and moved to the Trent Supergroup without group placement. 4) The Piney Point and Chickahominy formations are removed from the Pamunkey Group (Ancora Supergroup) and moved to the Trent Supergroup without group placement. 5) the Tallahatta Formation is removed from the Claiborne Group (Trent Supergroup) and placed within the Ancora Supergroup without group placement.

  11. Shorebird abundance and distribution on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, S.; Bart, J.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Johnson, J.A.; Kendall, S.; Payer, D.; Johnson, J.

    2007-01-01

    The coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge hosts seven species of migratory shorebirds listed as highly imperiled or high priority by the U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plan and five species listed as Birds of Conservation Concern by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. During the first comprehensive shorebird survey of the 674 000 ha "1002 Area" on the coastal plain, we recorded 14 species of breeding shorebirds at 197 rapidly surveyed plots during June 2002 and 2004. We also estimated detection ratios with a double counting technique, using data collected at 37 intensively studied plots located on the North Slope of Alaska and northern Canada. We stratified the study area by major habitat types, including wetlands, moist areas, uplands, and riparian areas, using previously classified Landsat imagery. We developed population estimates with confidence limits by species, and estimated the total number of shorebirds in the study area to be 230 000 (95% CI: 104 000-363 000), which exceeds the biological criterion for classification as both a Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network Site of International Importance (100 000 birds) and a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance (20 000 birds), even when conservatively estimated. Species richness and the density of many species were highest in wetland or riparian habitats, which are clustered along the coast. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2007.

  12. Paleolimnological reconstruction of Holocene environments in wetland ponds of the Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Gaiser, E.E.; Taylor, B.E.

    1995-06-01

    The paleohydrology and paleoecology of Carolina bays and upland wetland ponds on the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, South Carolina are being investigated to reconstruct environmental changes brought about by long-term variation in the climate of the Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain. Cores were taken in transacts through Flamingo Bay, a temporary pond on the SRS, to determine the vertical and horizontal sediment particle size and diatom, plant phytolith and sponge spicule microfossils. Stratigraphic data were used to construct a 3-dimensional map of the basin. In conjunction with archaeological data from the rim of the pond, physical stratigraphic data indicate a decrease in pond size and depth during the past 10,000 years. In order to infer past ecological settings from the fossil record, a survey to determine microhabitat requirements of regional diatom flora was undertaken in 43 temporary ponds throughout the coastal plain of South Carolina. The relationships between diatom assemblages and environmental variables were assessed using canonical correspondence analysis. Variables contributing significantly to the diatom-environment relationship included surface core location (near shore or pelagic), water depth, hydroperiod, microhabitat substrate, and sampling date, in order of decreasing influence. Strong relationships of diatom assemblages to drought frequency within and among basins provides a reliable basis for water level reconstruction in upland temporary ponds.

  13. A regional classification of the effectiveness of depressional wetlands at mitigating nitrogen transport to surface waters in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.; LaMotte, Andrew E.; Sekellick, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    . Depressional wetlands are common in three WLRs covering 32 percent of the area, and have a relatively high potential to mitigate nitrogen transport from nonpoint sources. Conversely, 37 percent of the study area includes rolling hills with relatively high slope and relief, and little likelihood of depressional wetlands. The remainder of the Coastal Plain includes relatively flat watersheds with moderate to low relative likelihood of nitrogen mitigation. The delineation of WLRs in this model should be useful for targeting wetland conservation or restoration efforts, and for estimating the effects of depressional wetlands on the regional nitrogen budget, but should be considered in light of limitations and assumptions inherent in the model.

  14. Oyster reef restoration in controlling coastal pollution around India: A viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Parthasarathi

    2017-02-15

    Coastal waters receive large amounts of nutrients and pollutants from different point and nonpoint sources through bays and estuaries. Excess supply of nutrients in coastal waters may have detrimental effects, leading to hypoxia and anoxia from eutrophication. Reduction in concentrations of excess nutrients/pollutants in bays/estuarine system is must for healthy coastal ecosystem functioning. Conservations of bays, estuaries and coastal zones are must for sustainable development in any maritime country. Excellent ability of oyster in removing and controlling the concentrations of nutrients, pollutants, suspended particulate matters from bays and estuarine waters stimulated me to provide a viewpoint on oyster reef restoration in controlling nutrient/heavy metals fluxes and marine coastal pollution around India. Oyster reefs restoration may decrease nutrient and heavy metals fluxes in coastal waters and reduce the intensity of oxygen depletion in the coastal Arabian Sea (seasonal) and Bay of Bengal. However, extensive research is recommended to understand the impact of oyster reef restoration in controlling coastal pollution which is essential for sustainable development around India.

  15. Groundwater freshening following coastal progradation and land reclamation of the Po Plain, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonellini, M.; Allen, D. M.; Mollema, P. N.; Capo, D.; Greggio, N.

    2015-08-01

    Many coastal areas historically were inundated by seawater, but have since undergone land reclamation to enable settlements and farming. This study focuses on the coastal unconfined aquifer in the Po Plain near Ravenna, Italy. Freshwater is present as isolated thin (1-5 m) lenses on top of brackish to saline water. Historical maps show large areas of sea inundation until approximately 150-200 years ago when coastal progradation and construction of the drainage canals began. Since then, the aquifer has been freshening from recharge. A three-dimensional SEAWAT model is used to simulate a 200-year freshening history, starting with a model domain that is saturated with seawater, and applying recharge across the top model layer. Calibration to the observed concentrations for discrete depths within many monitoring wells is remarkably good. The current distribution of freshwater is largely controlled by the drainage network. Within and adjacent to the drains, the groundwater has high salinity due to up-coning of salt water. Between drains, the surface layers of the aquifer are fresh due to the flushing action of recharge. The modeling results are consistent with cation exchange processes revealed in the groundwater chemistry and with freshwater lenses identified in electrical resistivity soundings.

  16. Socioeconomic factors, attitudes and practices associated with malaria prevention in the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mexico is in the malaria pre-elimination phase; therefore, continuous assessment and understanding of the social and behavioural risk factors related to exposure to malaria are necessary to achieve the overall goal. The aim of this research was to investigate socio-economic backgrounds, attitudes and practices related with malaria in rural locations from the coastal plain of Chiapas. Methods In January 2012, 542 interviews were conducted to householders from 20 villages across the coastal plain of Chiapas. Questions were about housing conditions, protection from mosquito bites and general information of householders. Chi2 analyses were performed to see whether there was a dependence of those reported having malaria with their house conditions and their malaria preventive practices. Results were discussed and also compared statistically against those obtained 17 years ago from the same area. Results Most households had 2–5 people (73.6%), 91.6% of houses had 1–3 bedrooms. The physical structure of the houses consisted of walls mainly made of block or brick 72.3%, the floor made of cement 90.0%, while the roof made of zinc sheet 43.9%, and straw or palm 42.2%. A 23.1% of the interviewed completed elementary school and 16.6% was illiterate. A 9.9% of the residents reported at least one family member having had malaria. A 98.1% of families used some method to prevent mosquito bites; those using bed nets were 94.3%. Almost 72% of families bought products for mosquito protection. A total of 537 out of 542 families agreed with the indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticide and a frequency of application as often as every two months was preferred. Conclusion Housing conditions and malaria preventive practices have improved in these rural areas in 17 years, which could be in favor of malaria elimination in this area. Information generated by this study could help in the decision making about whether to use insecticide as indoor residual spraying or to

  17. Experimental restoration of a salt marsh with some comments on ecological restoration of coastal vegetated ecosystems in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Bon Joo; Je, Jong Geel; Woo, Han Jun

    2011-03-01

    Since the 1980s, the coastal wetlands in Korea have been rapidly degraded and destroyed mainly due to reclamation and landfills for coastal development. In order to recover damaged coastal environments and to develop wetland restoration technologies, a 4-year study on ecological the restoration of coastal vegetated ecosystems was started in 1998. As one of a series of studies, a small-scale experiment on salt marsh restoration was carried out from April 2000 to August 2001. The experiment was designed to find effective means of ecological restoration through a comparison of the changes in environmental components and species structure between two different experimental plots created using sediment fences, one with and one without small canals. Temporal variation in surface elevation, sedimentary facies, and benthic species were measured seasonally in each plot and in the adjacent natural reference sites. Monthly exposure occurred from 330 cm to mean sea level, which represents the critical tidal level (CTL) at which salt marsh plants colonize. Vegetation, especially Suaeda japonica, colonized the site the following spring and recovered to a similar extent in the natural marshes 16 months later. The sedimentary results indicated that the sediment fences had effects on particle size and sediment accumulation, especially in the plot with small canals. This experiment also showed that tidal height, especially that exceeding the CTL, is an important factor in the recovery of the benthic fauna of salt marshes. From these results, we suggested that designs for the restoration of salt marsh ecosystems must consider the inclusion of a tidal height exceeding CTL, as this may allow reconstruction of the previous natural ecosystem without artificial transplanting.

  18. Ameliorating soil chemical properties of a hard setting subsoil layer in coastal plain USA with different designer biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Norfolk soils in the southeastern United States of America (USA) Coastal Plain region have meager soil fertility characteristics because of their sandy textures, acidic pH values, kaolinitic clays and with depleted organic carbon contents. Extensive clay mineral weathering and clay eluviation along ...

  19. 50 CFR Appendix I to Part 37 - Legal Description of the Coastal Plain, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Refuge approximately 57 miles along the line of extreme low water of the Arctic Ocean, including all..., Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska I Appendix I to Part 37 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA Pt....

  20. Tillage and slope position impact on field-scale hydrologic processes in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is widespread interest in increasing conservation-tillage use during row crop production. Hydrologic monitoring was conducted for 11 years on a 1.2 ha hillslope located in the Atlantic Coastal Plain region of south central Georgia. The site was equally divided between two tillage treatments,...

  1. DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF A STRATIFIED UNEQUAL-PROBABILITY STREAM SURVEY IN THE MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A stratified random sample with unequal probability selection within strata was used to design a multipurpose survey of headwater watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Objectives for data from the survey include unbiased estimates of regional headwater watershed condition...

  2. Response of competing vegetation to site preparation on west gulf coastal plain commercial forest land. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wolters, G.L.; Pearson, H.A.; Thill, R.E.; Baldwin, V.C.; Martin, A.

    1995-09-01

    This study was initiated to determine: (1) the response of saplings, shrubs, and herbaceous vegetation to various mechanical, chemical, and burning treatments on soils common throughout the West Gulf Coastal Plain of Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas and (2) how fertilization affects understory vegetation response to site preparation on these soils.

  3. The Estimated Likelihood of Nutrients and Pesticides in Nontidal Headwater Streams of the Maryland Coastal Plain During Base Flow

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality in nontidal headwater (first-order) streams of the Coastal Plain during base flow in the late winter and spring is related to land use, hydrogeology, and other natural or human influences in contributing watersheds. A random survey of 174 headwater streams of the Mi...

  4. Comparison of soil amendments to decrease high strength in SE USA Coastal Plain soils using fuzzy decision-making analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cemented subsurface layers restrict root growth in many southeastern USA Coastal Plain soils. Though cementation is usually reduced by tillage, soil amendments can offer a more permanent solution if they develop aggregation. To increase aggregation, we amended 450 g of a Norfolk soil blend of 90% E ...

  5. Efficacy of biochar in improving root growth and water holding capacity of hard setting subsoil layer in coastal plains USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Coastal Plains region of the United States, the Norfolk soil fertility is low. In this region, the Norfolk soils are under intensive crop production that further depletes nutrients and reduces organic carbon. Furthermore, the hard setting subsoil layer of Norfolk soils results in low water h...

  6. Estimation of Dust Emission from the Western Coastal Plains of Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, Anatolii; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2016-04-01

    This study is aimed at quantifying local-scale dust emission from the coastal areas of western Arabian Peninsula. The dust emitted from these areas is frequently deposited directly to the Red Sea, acting as an important component of the nutrient balance of marine ecosystems. Most chemicals including iron, phosphorus, and nitrogen are introduced to the Red Sea with airborne dust. This process is especially significant for the oligotrophic northern Red Sea, where nutrients from the Indian Ocean cannot reach and the nutrient supply from land river discharge is negligible. The dust deposition to the Red Sea associated with major dust storms was recently estimated to be about 6 Tg/yr, but this estimate does not account for local, small-scale dust outbreaks occurring during fair weather conditions or moderate winds. The seasonality and the magnitude of this nutrient supply are largely unknown. In the present study, we quantify dust emissions using the fine-scale off-line version-4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4) with the high-resolution datasets as input parameters. We examine the model sensitivity to the spatial resolution of input land cover and vegetation data, and compare the results with weather station observations and reanalysis to choose the best model configuration. The model results are shown to be in reasonable agreement with station visibility measurements and the frequency of dust event reports. To improve the spatial characteristics of dust emission, we apply two state-of-the-art dust source functions. We found that the source function based on measurements from SEVIRI satellite substantially improves the simulation results, being in good agreement with both reanalysis data and station measurements. We identify the major dust source hot-spot areas over the coastal plain and analyze the seasonal and diurnal variability of dust emissions. The annual dust generation from the 145000 km2 coastal area reaches 6 Tg/yr. Roughly half of emitted dust could be

  7. Water levels in major artesian aquifers of the New Jersey Coastal Plain, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckel, J.A.; Walker, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Water levels and changes in water levels in the major aquifers of the New Jersey Coastal Plain are documented. Water levels in 1,071 wells were measured in 1983, and are compared with 827 water level measurements made in the same wells in 1978. Increased groundwater withdrawals from the major artesian aquifers that underlie the New Jersey Coastal Plain have caused large cones of depression in the artesian heads. These cones are delineated on detailed potentiometric surface maps based on water level data collected in the fall of 1983. Hydrographs from observation wells show trends of water levels for the 6-year period of 1978 through 1983. The Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system is divided into the lower, middle, and upper aquifers. The potentiometric surfaces in these aquifers form large cones of depression centered in the Camden and Middlesex-Monmouth County areas. Measured water levels declined as much as 23 ft in these areas for the period of study. The lowest levels are 96 ft below sea level in Camden County and 91 ft below sea level in the Middlesex-Monmouth County area. Deep cones of depression in coastal Monmouth and Ocean counties in both the Englishtown aquifer system and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer are similar in location and shape. This is because of an effective hydraulic connection between these aquifers. Measured water levels declined as much as 29 ft in the Englishtown aquifer system and 21 ft in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer during the period of study. The lowest levels are 249 ft below sea level in the Englishtown aquifer system and 196 ft below sea level in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer. Water levels in the Piney Point aquifer are as low as 75 ft below sea level at Seaside Park, Ocean County and 35 ft below sea level in southern Cumberland County. Water levels in Cumberland County are affected by large withdrawals of groundwater in Kent County, Delaware. Water levels in the Atlantic City 800 ft sand of the Kirkwood Formation define an

  8. A Science Plan for a Comprehensive Regional Assessment of the Atlantic Coastal Plain Aquifer System in Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedlock, Robert J.; Bolton, David W.; Cleaves, Emery T.; Gerhart, James M.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    The Maryland Coastal Plain region is, at present, largely dependent upon ground water for its water supply. Decades of increasing pumpage have caused ground-water levels in parts of the Maryland Coastal Plain to decline by as much as 2 feet per year in some areas of southern Maryland. Continued declines at this rate could affect the long-term sustainability of ground-water resources in Maryland's heavily populated Coastal Plain communities and the agricultural industry of the Eastern Shore. In response to a recommendation in 2004 by the Advisory Committee on the Management and Protection of the State's Water Resources, the Maryland Geological Survey and the U.S. Geological Survey have developed a science plan for a comprehensive assessment that will provide new scientific information and new data management and analysis tools for the State to use in allocating ground water in the Coastal Plain. The comprehensive assessment has five goals aimed at improving the current information and tools used to understand the resource potential of the aquifer system: (1) document the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the aquifer system in the Maryland Coastal Plain and appropriate areas of adjacent states; (2) conduct detailed studies of the regional ground-water-flow system and water budget for the aquifer system; (3) improve documentation of patterns of water quality in all Coastal Plain aquifers, including the distribution of saltwater; (4) enhance ground-water-level, streamflow, and water-quality-monitoring networks in the Maryland Coastal Plain; and (5) develop science-based tools to facilitate sound management of the ground-water resources in the Maryland Coastal Plain. The assessment, as designed, will be conducted in three phases and if fully implemented, is expected to take 7 to 8 years to complete. Phase I, which was initiated in January 2006, is an effort to assemble all the information and investigation tools needed to do a more comprehensive assessment of

  9. Magmatic history of Red Sea rifting: perspective from the central Saudi Arabian coastal plain.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pallister, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    An early stage of magmatism related to Red Sea rifting is recorded by a Tertiary dyke complex and comagmatic volcanic rocks exposed on the central Saudi Arabian coastal plain. Field relations and new K/Ar dates indicate episodic magmatism from approx 30 m.y. to the present day and rift-related magmatism as early as 50 m.y. Localized volcanism and sheeted dyke injection ceased at approx 20 m.y. and were replaced by the intrusion of thick gabbro dykes, marking the onset of sea-floor spreading in the central Red Sea. Differences in the depths and dynamics of mantle-melt extraction and transport may account for the transition from mixed alkaline-subalkaline bimodal magmatism of the pre-20 m.y. rift basin to exclusively subalkaline (tholeiitic) magmatism of the Red Sea spreading axis and the alkali basalt volcanism inland.-L.C.H.

  10. The Chesapeake Bay bolide impact: a convulsive event in Atlantic Coastal Plain evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poag, C. Wylie

    1997-02-01

    Until recently, Cenozoic evolution of the Atlantic Coastal Plain has been viewed as a subcyclical continuum of deposition and erosion. Marine transgressions alternated with regressions on a slowly subsiding passive continental margin, their orderly succession modified mainly by isostatic adjustments, occasional Appalachian tectonism, and paleoclimatic change. This passive scenario was dramatically transformed in the late Eocene, however, by a bolide impact on the inner continental shelf. The resultant crater is now buried 400-500 m beneath lower Chesapeake Bay, its surrounding peninsulas, and the continental shelf east of Delmarva Peninsula. This convulsive event, and the giant tsunami it engendered, fundamentally changed the regional geological framework and depositional regime of the Virginia Coastal Plain, and produced the following principal consequences. (1) The impact excavated a roughly circular crater, twice the size of Rhode Island (˜6400 km 2) and nearly as deep as the Grand Canyon (˜1.3 km deep). (2) The excavation truncated all existing ground-water aquifers in the target area by gouging ˜4300 km 3 of rock from the upper lithosphere, including Proterozoic and Paleozoic crystalline basement rocks and Middle Jurassic to upper Eocene sedimentary rocks. (3) Synimpact depositional processes, including ejecta fallback, massive crater-wall failure, water-column collapse, and tsunami backwash, filled the crater with a porous breccia lens, 600-1200 m thick, at a phenomenal rate of ˜1200 m/hr. The breccia lens replaced the truncated ground-water aquifers with a single 4300 km 3 reservoir, characterized by ground water ˜1.5 times saltier than normal sea water (chlorinities as high as 25,700 mg/l). (4) A structural and topographic low, created by differential subsidence of the compacting breccia, persisted over the crater at least through the Pleistocene. In the depression are preserved postimpact marine lithofacies and biofacies (upper Eocene, lower Oligocene

  11. Salt-dome locations in the Gulf Coastal Plain, South-Central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beckman, J.D.; Williamson, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    Information on salt domes in Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain, south-central United States and the adjacent Continental Shelf were compiled from major published sources, 1973-84. The location of 624 salt domes is shown on a map at a scale of 1:1 ,500,000. A color-coding system was used to show that the occurrence, size, shape, and location of these domes varies among sources. Two tables of additional data accompany the map and include other available information such as: identifying sources, depth to salt and caprock, diameter, volume, name, and uppermost zone of surrounding sediment that is penetrated, as well as the number of matches between sources. The locations of salt domes that penetrate specific zones within the gulf coast regional aquifer system are shown on maps. (USGS)

  12. Biostratigraphic implications of the first Eocene land-mammal fauna from the North American coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westgate, James W.

    1988-11-01

    A newly discovered vertebrate fossil assemblage, the Casa Blanca local fauna, comes from the Laredo Formation, Claiborne Group, of Webb County, Texas, and is the first reported Eocene land-mammal fauna from the coastal plain of North America. The mammalian fauna is correlated with the Serendipity and Candelaria local faunas of west Texas, the Uinta C faunas of the Rocky Mountains, the Santiago Formation local fauna of southern California, and the Swift Current Creek local fauna of Saskatchewan. The vertebrate-bearing deposit lies about 32 m above a horizon containing the marine gastropod Turritella cortezi, which ranges from east Texas to northeast Mexico in the lower half of the Cook Mountain and Laredo Formations and is a guide fossil to the Hurricane Lentil in the Cook Mountain Formation. Nannoplankton found in these middle Eocene formations belong to the upper half of Nannoplankton Zone I6 and allow correlation with European beds of late Lutetian to early Bartonian age.

  13. Sorption equilibria of benzene and toluene on two New Jersey coastal plain ground water aquifer solids

    SciTech Connect

    Uchrin, C.G.; Mangels, G.

    1987-01-01

    Studies examining sorption equilibria of benzene and toluene to New Jersey coastal plain aquifer solids were performed. Adsorption to the Cohansey aquifer solids, a coarse to fine grade sand with a 2.6% organic carbon content, and to the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer solids, a sandy loam with a 1.3% organic carbon content, was found to be dependent on adsorber mass. Equilibrium adsorption could be characterized by either linear or Freundlich isotherms. Toluene exhibited a greater affinity to sorb than benzene. Greater adsorption was in general observed for both substances to the Cohansey material, which was attributed to its greater organic matter (carbon) content. Consecutive desorption experiments displayed an apparent hysteresis.

  14. Oil and gas developments in Atlantic Coastal Plain and outer continental shelf in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Giordano, A.C.; Amato, R.V.

    1985-10-01

    Exploratory drilling on the Atlantic outer continental shelf remained at about the same level as in 1983. Two wells were spudded in the Baltimore Canyon Trough. Three were completed and announced as dry holes, one in a world record water depth of 6,952 ft (2,119 m). Onshore in the Atlantic coastal plain, a dry hole was drilled in Colleton County, South Carolina, and another well, drilled in 1982 in Lee County, North Carolina, was plugged and abandoned as a dry hole. North Atlantic Lease Sale 82, which was to be held in 2 parts, was cancelled in late 1984. The International Court of Justice determined the United States-Canada boundary line in the North Atlantic. Seismic data acquisition decreased 41% below the 1983 level to 7,223 line-mi(11,625 line-km).

  15. Oil and gas developments in Atlantic coastal plain and outer continental shelf in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Giordano, A.C.; Amato, R.V.

    1985-10-01

    Exploratory drilling on the Atlantic outer continental shelf remained at about the same level as in 1983. Two wells were spudded in the Baltimore Canyon Trough. Three were completed and announced as dry holes, one in a world record water depth of 6952 ft (2119 m). Onshore in the Atlantic coastal plain, a dry hole was drilled in Colleton County, South Carolina, and another well, drilled in 1982 in Lee County, North Carolina, was plugged and abandoned as a dry hole. North Atlantic Lease Sale 82, which was to be held in 2 parts, was cancelled in late 1984. The International Court of Justice determined the US-Canada boundary line in the North Atlantic. Seismic data acquisition decreased 41% below the 1983 level to 7223 line-mi (11,625 line-km). 3 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Oil and gas developments in Atlantic coastal plain and outer continental shelf in 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Giordana, A.C.; Amato, R.V.

    1982-11-01

    Exploratory drilling in the Atlantic coastal plain region increased in 1981. Eight wells were drilled, 5 of which were completed for a total footage of 71,439 ft (21,780 m). Four of the wells were located in the Baltimore Canyon Trough area and 4 were located in the Georges Bank Basin. No exploratory wells were drilled in the Southeast Georgia Embayment or in the onshore portion of this region in 1981. The 5 completed wells were reported as dry holes. Two lease sales were held in 1981: OCS Lease Sale 56 drew bids on 47 tracts for a total of $342,766,174 in the S. Atlantic and OCS Lease Sale 59 drew bids on 50 tracts for a total of $321,981,000 in the mid-Atlantic. Geophysical activity provided a total of 24,470 line-miles of seismic data.

  17. Oil and gas developments in Atlantic coastal plain and outer Continental Shelf in 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Giordano, A.C.; Amato, R.V.

    1982-11-01

    Exploratory drilling in the Atlantic coastal plain region increased in 1981. Eight wells were drilled, 5 of which were completed for a total footage of 71,439 ft (21,780 m). Four of the wells were located in the Baltimore Canyon Trough area and 4 were located in the Georges Bank basin. No exploratory wells were drilled in the Southeast Georgia Embayment or in the onshore portion of this region in 1981. The 5 completed wells were reported as dry holes. Two lease sales were held in 1981: OCS Lease Sale 56 drew bids on 47 tracts for a total of $342,766,174 in the South Atlantic and OCS Lease Sale 59 drew bids on 50 tracts for a total of $321,981,000 in the Mid-Atlantic. Geophysical activity provided a total of 24,470 line-mi (39,380 line-km) of seismic data.

  18. Biostratigraphic implications of the first Eocene land-mammal fauna from the North American coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Westgate, J.W. )

    1988-11-01

    A newly discovered vertebrate fossil assemblage, the Casa Blanca local fauna, comes from the Laredo Formation, Claiborne Group, of Webb County, Texas, and is the first reported Eocene land-mammal fauna from the coastal plain of North America. The mammalian fauna is correlated with the Serendipity and Canderlaria local faunas of west Texas, the Uinta C faunas of the Rocky Mountains, the Santiago Formation local fauna of southern California, and the Swift Current Creek local fauna of Saskatchewan, The vertebrate-bearing deposit lies about 32 m above a horizon containing the marine gastropod Turritella cortezi, which ranges from east Texas to northeast Mexico in the lower half of the Cook Mountain and Laredo Formations and is a guide fossil to the Hurricane Lentil in the Cook Mountain Formation. Nannoplankton found in these middle Eocene formations belong to the upper half of Nannoplankton Zone 16 and allow correlation with European beds of late Lutetian to early Bartonian age.

  19. Intermittent Elevated Radium Concentrations in Coastal Plain Groundwater of South Carolina, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, Miles; Millings, Margaret; Noonkester, Jay

    2005-09-22

    To learn the cause of intermittent radium concentrations in groundwater of Coastal Plain aquifers, 31 groundwater wells in South Carolina, U.S.A. were sampled for radium and other geochemical parameters. Sediments cored from near the well screens were also sampled to examine any relationship between sediment properties and radium concentration in the groundwater. Elevated radium concentrations only occurred in groundwater with low electrical conductivity and pH values below 6.3. The adsorption edge for radium on hematite--a major surface active mineral in these aquifers--is at a pH value of about 6. Near this value, small changes in pH can result in significant adsorption or desorption of radium. In groundwater with initially low alkalinity, small intermittent decreases in partial pressure of carbon dioxide in groundwater cause decreases in pH and desorption of radium. The result is intermittent elevated radium concentrations.

  20. Past permafrost on the Mid-Atlantic coastal plain, eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, H.; Demitroff, M.; Newell, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    Sand-wedge casts, soil wedges and other non-diastrophic, post-depositional sedimentary structures suggest that Late-Pleistocene permafrost and deep seasonal frost on the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain extended at least as far south as southern Delaware, the Eastern Shore and southern Maryland. Heterogeneous cold-climate slope deposits mantle lower valley-side slopes in central Maryland. A widespread pre-existing fragipan is congruent with the inferred palaeo-permafrost table. The high bulk density of the fragipan was probably enhanced by either thaw consolidation when icy permafrost degraded at the active layer-permafrost interface or by liquefaction and compaction when deep seasonal frost thawed. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Simulation of Groundwater Flow in the Coastal Plain Aquifer System of Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heywood, Charles E.; Pope, Jason P.

    2009-01-01

    The groundwater model documented in this report simulates the transient evolution of water levels in the aquifers and confining units of the Virginia Coastal Plain and adjacent portions of Maryland and North Carolina since 1890. Groundwater withdrawals have lowered water levels in Virginia Coastal Plain aquifers and have resulted in drawdown in the Potomac aquifer exceeding 200 feet in some areas. The discovery of the Chesapeake Bay impact crater and a revised conceptualization of the Potomac aquifer are two major changes to the hydrogeologic framework that have been incorporated into the groundwater model. The spatial scale of the model was selected on the basis of the primary function of the model of assessing the regional water-level responses of the confined aquifers beneath the Coastal Plain. The local horizontal groundwater flow through the surficial aquifer is not intended to be accurately simulated. Representation of recharge, evapotranspiration, and interaction with surface-water features, such as major rivers, lakes, the Chesapeake Bay, and the Atlantic Ocean, enable simulation of shallow flow-system details that influence locations of recharge to and discharge from the deeper confined flow system. The increased density of groundwater associated with the transition from fresh to salty groundwater near the Atlantic Ocean affects regional groundwater flow and was simulated with the Variable Density Flow Process of SEAWAT (a U.S. Geological Survey program for simulation of three-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow and transport). The groundwater density distribution was generated by a separate 108,000-year simulation of Pleistocene freshwater flushing around the Chesapeake Bay impact crater during transient sea-level changes. Specified-flux boundaries simulate increasing groundwater underflow out of the model domain into Maryland and minor underflow from the Piedmont Province into the model domain. Reported withdrawals accounted for approximately

  2. Groundwater quality in the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system, southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, Jeannie; Lindsey, Bruce; Belitz, Kenneth

    2017-01-19

    Groundwater provides nearly 50 percent of the Nation’s drinking water. To help protect this vital resource, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project assesses groundwater quality in aquifers that are important sources of drinking water. The Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system constitutes one of the important areas being evaluated. One or more inorganic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at high concentrations in about 6 percent of the study area and at moderate concentrations in about 13 percent. One or more organic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at moderate concentrations in about 3 percent of the study area.

  3. Geothermal energy resources of Navy/Marine Corps installations on the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edsall, D. W.

    1980-03-01

    The search for alternative energy sources is of great importance to the U.S. Navy. Preliminary examination of data from the literature, bottom hole temperatures from existing deep wells, and heat flow measurements in wells drilled at selected sites as part of a current research program sponsored by the Department of Energy have demonstrated that low temperature waters (-212 F or 100 C) may be available at moderate depths in the major sedimentary basins along the Atlantic and east Gulf Coastal Plain. Although the possible geothermal energy resources present here are not sufficient for electrical power generation, they appear adequate for space heating and cooling. The Navy should take a leading role in planning and executing exploratory drilling and resource evaluation programs, especially at the following installations, all of which are major energy users: Norfolk, Portsmouth, and Virginia Beach, Virginia; Charleston, South Carolina; and Pensacola, Milton, and Panama City, Florida.

  4. The hydrogeologic framework for the southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renken, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Tertiary and Cretaceous age sand aquifers of the southeastern United States Coastal Plain constitute a distinct multistate hydrogeologic regime informally defined as the southeastern sand aquifer. Seven regional hydrogeologic units are defined; four regional aquifer units and three regional confining beds. Sand aquifers of this system consist of quartzose, feldspathic, and coarse to fine sand and sandstone and minor limestone; confining beds are composed of clay, shale, chalk, and marl. Three hydrogeologic units of Cretaceous to Holocene age overlie the sand system: the surficial aquifer, upper confining unit, and Floridan aquifer system. These three units are not part of the southeastern sand aquifer, but are an integral element of the total hydrogeologic system, and some act as a source of recharge to, or discharge from the underlying clastic sediments. Low-permeability strata of Paleozoic to early Mesozoic age form the base off the total system. (USGS)

  5. The Chesapeake Bay bolide impact: A convulsive event in Atlantic Coastal Plain evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Until recently, Cenozoic evolution of the Atlantic Coastal Plain has been viewed as a subcyclical continuum of deposition and erosion. Marine transgressions alternated with regressions on a slowly subsiding passive continental margin, their orderly succession modified mainly by isostatic adjustments, occasional Appalachian tectonism, and paleoclimatic change. This passive scenario was dramatically transformed in the late Eocene, however, by a bolide impact on the inner continental shelf. The resultant crater is now buried 400-500 m beneath lower Chesapeake Bay, its surrounding peninsulas, and the continental shelf east of Delmarva Peninsula. This convulsive event, and the giant tsunami it engendered, fundamentally changed the regional geological framework and depositional regime of the Virginia Coastal Plain, and produced the following principal consequences. (1) The impact excavated a roughly circular crater, twice the size of Rhode Island (???6400 km2) and nearly as deep as the Grand Canyon (???1.3 km deep). (2) The excavation truncated all existing ground-water aquifers in the target area by gouging ???4300 km3 of rock from the upper lithosphere, including Proterozoic and Paleozoic crystalline basement rocks and Middle Jurassic to upper Eocene sedimentary rocks. (3) Synimpact depositional processes, including ejecta fallback, massive crater-wall failure, water-column collapse, and tsunami backwash, filled the crater with a porous breccia lens, 600-1200 m thick, at a phenomenal rate of ???1200 m/hr. The breccia lens replaced the truncated ground-water aquifers with a single 4300 km3 reservoir, characterized by ground water ???1.5 times saltier than normal sea water (chlorinities as high as 25,700 mg/l). (4) A structural and topographic low, created by differential subsidence of the compacting breccia, persisted over the crater at least through the Pleistocene. In the depression are preserved postimpact marine lithofacies and biofacies (upper Eocene, lower

  6. ERTS surveys a 500 km squared locust breeding site in Saudi Arabia. [Red Sea coastal plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedgley, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    From September 1972 to January 1973, ERTS-1 precisely located a 500 sq km area on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia within which the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria, Forsk.) bred successfully and produced many small swarms. Growth of vegetation shown by satellite imagery was confirmed from ground surveys and raingauge data. The experiment demonstrates the feasibility of detecting potential locust breeding sites by satellite, and shows that an operational satellite would be a powerful tool for routine survey of the 3 x 10 to the 7th power sq km invasion area of the Desert Locust in Africa and Asia, as well as of other locust species in the arid and semi-arid tropics.

  7. Q for P waves in the sediments of the Virginia Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.C.; Beale, J.N.; Catchings, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    The seismic quality factor Q for P waves in Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments is estimated using data from the 2004 U.S. Geological Survey seismic survey in eastern Virginia. The estimates are based on spectral ratios derived from reflections and sediment-guided P waves in Late Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments within the annular trough of the Late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure. The estimates of Q for the frequency range of 10-150 Hz are from 75 to 100, with the best estimate of 80 based on multichannel stacking of spectral ratios from receivers in the offset range of 200-2000 m. This result is approximately a factor of 2 larger than the results previously reported for the Charleston, South Carolina, area, and it is approximately one-half of that recently reported for the Mississippi Embayment.

  8. [Seed flows of restoration succession series communities in alkaline meadow of Northeast China Songnen Plain].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xue-Fei; Yang, Yun-Fei

    2007-09-01

    After compared the source seed bank, soil seed bank, and seedling bank of the dominant species in four communities of restoration succession series in alkaline meadow of Songnen Plain, the model of seed flows was established. At early succession stage, the density of dominant source seed bank in Choris virgata community arrived its maximal value 446,182 +/- 180,455 seeds x m(-2) being 7.2 times of that in Puccinellia tenuiflora community at intermediate succession stage, 11.4 times of that in P. tenuiflora + Leymus chinensis community at later succession stage, and 164.8 times of that in L. chinensis community at climax succession stage. The densities of soil seed bank and seedling bank were all the maximal in C. virgata community, which were 63,650 +/- 14,541 seeds x m(-2) and 39,160 +/- 15,192 seedlings x m(-2), while the minimal in L. chinensis community, being 14,310 +/- 7,686 seeds x m(-2) and 790 +/- 745 seedlings x m(-2), respectively, representing a decreasing trend with the restoration. In the seedling banks of all communities in the restoration succession series, C. virgata was dominant, with its percentage ranged from 79.8% to 100%. In the seed flows, the input from dominant source seed banks to soil seed banks was only 10%-35%, while the output differed significantly at different succession stages, being the highest (62.3%) in C. virgata community and none in P. tenuiflora and L. chinensis communities.

  9. Characterizing mercury concentrations and fluxes in a Coastal Plain watershed: Insights from dynamic modeling and data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golden, H.E.; Knightes, C.D.; Conrads, P.A.; Davis, G.M.; Feaster, T.D.; Journey, C.A.; Benedict, S.T.; Brigham, M.E.; Bradley, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the leading water quality concerns in surface waters of the United States. Although watershed-scale Hg cycling research has increased in the past two decades, advances in modeling watershed Hg processes in diverse physiographic regions, spatial scales, and land cover types are needed. The goal of this study was to assess Hg cycling in a Coastal Plain system using concentrations and fluxes estimated by multiple watershed-scale models with distinct mathematical frameworks reflecting different system dynamics. We simulated total mercury (Hg T, the sum of filtered and particulate forms) concentrations and fluxes from a Coastal Plain watershed (McTier Creek) using three watershed Hg models and an empirical load model. Model output was compared with observed in-stream Hg T. We found that shallow subsurface flow is a potentially important transport mechanism of particulate Hg T during periods when connectivity between the uplands and surface waters is maximized. Other processes (e.g., stream bank erosion, sediment re-suspension) may increase particulate Hg T in the water column. Simulations and data suggest that variable source area (VSA) flow and lack of rainfall interactions with surface soil horizons result in increased dissolved Hg T concentrations unrelated to DOC mobilization following precipitation events. Although flushing of DOC-Hg T complexes from surface soils can also occur during this period, DOC-complexed Hg T becomes more important during base flow conditions. TOPLOAD simulations highlight saturated subsurface flow as a primary driver of daily Hg T loadings, but shallow subsurface flow is important for Hg T loads during high-flow events. Results suggest limited seasonal trends in Hg T dynamics. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Characterizing mercury concentrations and fluxes in a Coastal Plain watershed: Insights from dynamic modeling and data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golden, H.E.; Knightes, C.D.; Conrads, P.A.; Davis, G.M.; Feaster, T.D.; Journey, C.A.; Benedict, S.T.; Brigham, M.E.; Bradley, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the leading water quality concerns in surface waters of the United States. Although watershed-scale Hg cycling research has increased in the past two decades, advances in modeling watershed Hg processes in diverse physiographic regions, spatial scales, and land cover types are needed. The goal of this study was to assess Hg cycling in a Coastal Plain system using concentrations and fluxes estimated by multiple watershed-scale models with distinct mathematical frameworks reflecting different system dynamics. We simulated total mercury (HgT, the sum of filtered and particulate forms) concentrations and fluxes from a Coastal Plain watershed (McTier Creek) using three watershed Hg models and an empirical load model. Model output was compared with observed in-stream HgT. We found that shallow subsurface flow is a potentially important transport mechanism of particulate HgT during periods when connectivity between the uplands and surface waters is maximized. Other processes (e.g., stream bank erosion, sediment re-suspension) may increase particulate HgT in the water column. Simulations and data suggest that variable source area (VSA) flow and lack of rainfall interactions with surface soil horizons result in increased dissolved HgT concentrations unrelated to DOC mobilization following precipitation events. Although flushing of DOC-HgT complexes from surface soils can also occur during this period, DOC-complexed HgT becomes more important during base flow conditions. TOPLOAD simulations highlight saturated subsurface flow as a primary driver of daily HgT loadings, but shallow subsurface flow is important for HgT loads during high-flow events. Results suggest limited seasonal trends in HgT dynamics.

  11. Upper Maastrichtian ammonite biostratigraphy of the Gulf Coastal Plain (Mississippi Embayment, southern USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larina, Ekaterina; Garb, Matthew P.; Landman, Neil H.; Dastas, Natalie; Thibault, Nicolas; Edwards, Lucy E.; Phillips, George; Rovelli, Remy; Myers, Corinne; Naujokaityte, Jone

    2016-01-01

    The Cretaceous outcrop belt of the Mississippi Embayment in the Gulf Coastal Plain (GCP) spans the Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary. A detailed reconstruction of this time interval is critical for understanding the nature of biotic and environmental changes preceding the end-Cretaceous Mass Extinction event and for deciphering the likely extinction mechanism (i.e., bolide impact versus volcanism). Eight sections encompassing the K/Pg succession across the Mississippi Embayment were analyzed using biostratigraphic sampling of ammonites, dinoflagellates, and nannofossils. An upper Maastrichtian ammonite zonation is proposed as follows, from oldest to youngest:Discoscaphites conradi Zone, D. minardi Zone, and D. iris Zone. Our study documents that the ammonite zonation established in the Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP) extends to the GCP. This zonation is integrated with nannofossil and dinoflagellate biostratigraphy to provide a framework to more accurately determine the age relationships in this region. We demonstrate that ammonites and dinoflagellates are more reliable stratigraphic indicators in this area than nannofossils because age-diagnostic nannofossils are not consistently present within the upper Maastrichtian in the GCP. This biostratigraphic framework has the potential to become a useful tool for correlation of strata both within the GCP and between the GCP, Western Interior, and ACP. The presence of the uppermost Maastrichtian ammonite D. iris, calcareous nannofossil Micula prinsii, and dinoflagellates Palynodinium grallator and Disphaerogena carposphaeropsis suggests that the K/Pg succession in the GCP is nearly complete. Consequently, the GCP is an excellent setting for investigating fine scale temporal changes across the K/Pg boundary and ultimately elucidating the mechanisms causing extinction.

  12. Petroleum geology of the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, northeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Molenaar, C.M. ); Bird, K.J.; Magoon, L.B. )

    1990-05-01

    The coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in northeastern Alaska has the potential for major petroleum accumulations. This area has many anticlinal structures, good oil-prone source rocks, and oil seeps and other surface indications of oil. The thickness and extent of reservoirs, however, are problematic, which places a wide range on estimated petroleum resources. In this remote area, resources must be very large to be economic. Sedimentary rocks in the area range in age from Precambrian through Cenozoic and aggregate more than 20,000 ft in thickness. Post-Devonian strata generally are considered prospective for petroleum. In addition, underlying Precambrian to Devonian carbonate rocks, which are locally present in the Brooks Range to the south and in a few boreholes west of ANWR, are potential reservoirs in areas where they could be charged by overlying source rocks. The Mississippian through lowermost Cretaceous section consists of shelf carbonate rocks and shallow-marine and nonmarine sandstone and shale that were deposited along a slowly subsiding, south-facing continental margin bordering a northern (present-day orientation) land area. Known as the Ellesmerian sequence, these rocks are about 3,500 ft thick along the mountain front. The major reservoir rocks that are oil productive at Prudhoe Bay 75 mi to the west occur in this sequence. Early Cretaceous erosion related to Canada basin rifting, however, has removed much of this sequence in parts of the ANWR coastal plain. The overlying Brookian sequence, derived from an orogenic southern provenance, consists of at least 13,000 ft of Lower Cretaceous through Tertiary, northeasterly and northerly prograding basin, slope, and deltaic deposits. Excellent oil-prone source rocks occur at the base of this sequence, and overlying turbidites are potential reservoirs.

  13. Water Levels In Major Artesian Aquifers Of The New Jersey Coastal Plain, 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosman, Robert; Lacombe, Pierre J.; Storck, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    Water levels in 1,251 wells in the New Jersey Coastal Plain, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, and Kent and New Castle Counties, Delaware, were measured from October 1988 to February 1989 and compared with 1,071 water levels measured from September 1983 to May 1984. Water levels in 916 of the wells measured in the 1983 study were remeasured in the 1988 study. Alternate wells were selected to replace wells used in 1983 that were inaccessible at the time of the water-level measurements in 1988 or had been destroyed. New well sites were added in strategic locations to increase coverage where possible. Large cones of depression have formed or expanded in the nine major artesian aquifers that underlie the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Water levels are shown on nine potentiometric-surface maps. Hydrographs for observation wells typically show water-level declines for 1983, through 1989. In the confined Cohansey aquifer, the lowest water level, 20 feet below sea level, was measured in a well located at Cape May City Water Department, Cape May County. Water levels in the Atlantic City 800-foot sand declined as much as 21 feet at Ventnor, Atlantic County, over the 6-year period from the 1983 study to this study for 1988. Water levels in the Piney Point aquifer were as low as 56 feet below sea level at Seaside Park, Ocean County; 45 feet below sea level in southern Cumberland County; and 28 feet below sea level at Margate, Atlantic County. Water levels in the Vincentown aquifer did not change over the 6-year period. The lowest water levels in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer and the Englishtown aquifer system were 218 feet and 256 feet below sea level, respectively. Large cones of depression in the Potomac- Raritan-Magothy aquifer system are centered in the Camden County area and the Middlesex and Monmouth County area. Water levels declined as much as 46 feet in these areas over the 6-year period.

  14. Correlation of Miocene sequences and hydrogeologic units, New Jersey Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sugarman, P.J.; Miller, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a Miocene sequence stratigraphic framework using data from recently drilled boreholes in the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Sequences are shallowing upward, unconformity-bounded units; fine-grained shelf and prodelta sediments grade upward to delta front and shallow-marine sands, corresponding to confining bed-aquifer couplets. By dating Miocene sequences using Sr-isotope stratigraphy, and mapping with borehole data and geophysical logs, we can predict the continuity and effectiveness of the confining beds and aquifers. The following are illustrated on a 90-km basinward dip section: (1) the composite confining bed is comprised of the KwO and lower Kw1a (ca. 23.8-20.5 Ma) sequences downdip at Atlantic City, and the Kw1b, Kw1a and older sequences updip (ca. 69.3-20.6 Ma), and is continuous throughout most of the coastal plain; (2) the major confined aquifer, the Atlantic City 800-foot sand, is comprised of the upper Kw1a and Kw1b sequences (ca. 20.5-20.2 Ma) and is an areally continuous sand that is interconnected with the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system updip of Mays Landing; (3) the confining bed above the Atlantic City 800-foot sand is comprised of the Kw2a, Kw2b, and Kw3 sequences (18.1-13.3 Ma) and is an extensive confining bed that pinches out updip. These sequences and aquifer-confining bed couplets are linked to global sea-level changes evinced by the ??18O record. We conclude that sequence stratigraphy is a powerful tool when applied to regional hydrogeologic problems, although basinal tectonic differences and localized variations in sediment supply can affect aquifer thickness and permeability.

  15. Floristic Quality Index: An assessment tool for restoration projects and monitoring sites in coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cretini, K.F.; Steyer, G.D.

    2011-01-01

    The Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) program was established to assess the effectiveness of individual coastal restoration projects and the cumulative effects of multiple projects at regional and coastwide scales. In order to make these assessments, analytical teams have been assembled for each of the primary data types sampled under the CRMS program, including vegetation, hydrology, landscape, and soils. These teams consist of scientists and support staff from the U.S. Geological Survey and other Federal agencies, the Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration, and university academics. Each team is responsible for developing or identifying parameters, indices, or tools that can be used to assess coastal wetlands at various scales. The CRMS Vegetation Analytical Team has developed a Floristic Quality Index for coastal Louisiana to determine the quality of a wetland based on its plant species composition and abundance.

  16. Forecasting the effects of coastal protection and restoration projects on wetland morphology in coastal Louisiana under multiple environmental uncertainty scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Couvillion, Brady R.; Steyer, Gregory D.; Wang, Hongqing; Beck, Holly J.; Rybczyk, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Few landscape scale models have assessed the effects of coastal protection and restoration projects on wetland morphology while taking into account important uncertainties in environmental factors such as sea-level rise (SLR) and subsidence. In support of Louisiana's 2012 Coastal Master Plan, we developed a spatially explicit wetland morphology model and coupled it with other predictive models. The model is capable of predicting effects of protection and restoration projects on wetland area, landscape configuration, surface elevation, and soil organic carbon (SOC) storage under multiple environmental uncertainty scenarios. These uncertainty scenarios included variability in parameters such as eustatic SLR (ESLR), subsidence rate, and Mississippi River discharge. Models were run for a 2010–2060 simulation period. Model results suggest that under a “future-without-action” condition (FWOA), coastal Louisiana is at risk of losing between 2118 and 4677 km2 of land over the next 50 years, but with protection and restoration projects proposed in the Master Plan, between 40% and 75% of that loss could be mitigated. Moreover, model results indicate that under a FWOA condition, SOC storage (to a depth of 1 m) could decrease by between 108 and 250 million metric tons, a loss of 12% to 30% of the total coastwide SOC, but with the Master Plan implemented, between 35% and 74% of the SOC loss could be offset. Long-term maintenance of project effects was best attained in areas of low SLR and subsidence, with a sediment source to support marsh accretion. Our findings suggest that despite the efficacy of restoration projects in mitigating losses in certain areas, net loss of wetlands in coastal Louisiana is likely to continue. Model results suggest certain areas may eventually be lost regardless of proposed restoration investment, and, as such, other techniques and strategies of adaptation may have to be utilized in these areas.

  17. Geologic framework, evolution, and sediment resources for restoration of the Louisiana Coastal Zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulp, Mark; Penland, Shea; Williams, S. Jeffress; Jenkins, Chris; Flocks, Jim; Kindinger, Jack

    2005-01-01

    The Louisiana Coastal Zone along the north-central Gulf of Mexico represents one of America's most important coastal ecosystems in terms of natural resources, human infrastructure, and cultural heritage. This zone also has the highest rates of coastal erosion and wetland loss in the nation because of a complex combination of natural processes and anthropogenic activities during the past century. In response to the dramatic land loss, regional-scale restoration plans are being developed through a partnership of federal and state agencies. One objective is to maintain the barrier island and tidal inlet systems, thereby reducing the impact of storm surge and interior wetland loss. Proposed shore line restoration work relies primarily upon the use of large volumes of sand-rich sediment for shoreline stabilization and the implementation of the shoreline projects. Although sand-rich sediment is required for the Louisiana restoration projects, it is of limited availability within the generally clay to silt-rich, shallow strata of the Louisiana Coastal Zone. Locating volumetrically significant quantities of sand-rich sediment presents a challenge and requires detailed field investigations using direct sampling and geophysical sensing methods. Consequently, there is a fundamental need to thoroughly understand and map the distribution and textural character {e.g., sandiness) of sediment resources within the Coastal Zone for the most cost-effective design and completion of restoration projects.

  18. Seagrass Restoration Enhances “Blue Carbon” Sequestration in Coastal Waters

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Jill T.; McGlathery, Karen J.; Gunnell, John; McKee, Brent A.

    2013-01-01

    Seagrass meadows are highly productive habitats that provide important ecosystem services in the coastal zone, including carbon and nutrient sequestration. Organic carbon in seagrass sediment, known as “blue carbon,” accumulates from both in situ production and sedimentation of particulate carbon from the water column. Using a large-scale restoration (>1700 ha) in the Virginia coastal bays as a model system, we evaluated the role of seagrass, Zosteramarina, restoration in carbon storage in sediments of shallow coastal ecosystems. Sediments of replicate seagrass meadows representing different age treatments (as time since seeding: 0, 4, and 10 years), were analyzed for % carbon, % nitrogen, bulk density, organic matter content, and 210Pb for dating at 1-cm increments to a depth of 10 cm. Sediment nutrient and organic content, and carbon accumulation rates were higher in 10-year seagrass meadows relative to 4-year and bare sediment. These differences were consistent with higher shoot density in the older meadow. Carbon accumulation rates determined for the 10-year restored seagrass meadows were 36.68 g C m-2 yr-1. Within 12 years of seeding, the restored seagrass meadows are expected to accumulate carbon at a rate that is comparable to measured ranges in natural seagrass meadows. This the first study to provide evidence of the potential of seagrass habitat restoration to enhance carbon sequestration in the coastal zone. PMID:23967303

  19. Evaluation of water levels in major aquifers of the New Jersey coastal plain, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Increased withdrawals from the major artesian aquifers that underlie the New Jersey Coastal Plain have caused water-level declines and large regional cones of depression. These cones of depression are delineated on detailed potentiometric surface maps produced from water-level data collected in the field in 1978. Water levels for 1978 are compared with those from 1970 or 1973, and water-level changes are evaluated and compared with hydrographs from observation wells. The Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system is divided into regionally extensive lower and upper aquifers. These aquifers have large cones of depression centered in Camden, Middlesex, and Monmouth Counties. Water levels declined 5 to 20 feet in these areas between 1973 and 1978. Deep cones of depression in coastal Monmouth and Ocean Counties in the Englishtown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers are similar in location and shape, due to a good hydraulic connection between these aquifers. Water levels declined 2 to 31 feet in the Englishtown aquifer and 12 to 26 feet in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer between 1973 and 1978. Water levels in the Atlantic City 800-foot sand of the Kirkwood Formation define an extensive elongated cone of depression centered near Margate, Atlantic County. Head changes ranged from a decline of 4 feet to a recovery of 9 feet during 1970-78. The lowest heads in the Cohansey Sand were about 26 feet below sea level at Cape May, Cape May County, and less than 0.5 miles from salty ground water. (USGS)

  20. Jurassic sequence stratigraphy of the eastern Gulf Coastal Plain: Applications to hydrocarbon exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Tew, B.H.; Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Based on regional stratigraphic and sedimentologic data, three unconformity-bounded depositional sequences associated with cycles of relative sea-level change and coastal onlap are recognized for Jurassic strata in the eastern Gulf Coastal Plain area. These sequences are designated, in ascending order, the LZAGC (Lower Zuni A Gulf Coast)-3.1, the LZAGC-4.1, and the LZAGC-4.2 sequences and include Callovian through Kimmeridgian Stage strata. An understanding of the relationship of Jurassic reservoirs to sequence stratigraphy can serve as an aid to hydrocarbon exploration in the eastern gulf area. The most extensive and productive Jurassic hydrocarbon reservoirs in the study area occur within the progradational, regressive highstand deposits of the LZAGC-3.1 and LZAGC-4.1 depositional sequences. For example, the majority of Norphlet sandstone reservoirs in the onshore and offshore Alabama area are interpreted to have accumulated in eolian dune, interdune, and wadi (fluvial) depositional environments, which occurred in association with the highstand regressive system of the LZAGC-3.1 sequence. The most important Smackover reservoirs generally consist of partially to completely dolomitized ooid and peloid packstones and grainstones in the upper portion of the unit. These reservoirs occur in subtidal to supratidal, shoaling-upward carbonate mudstone to grainstone cycles in the highstand regressive system of the LZAGC-4.1 sequence. In addition, minor reservoirs that are discontinuous and not well developed are associated with the shelf margin and transgressive systems of the LZAGC-4.1.

  1. Aminostratigraphy of surface and subsurface Quaternary sediments, North Carolina coastal plain, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wehmiller, J. F.; Thieler, E.R.; Miller, D.; Pellerito, V.; Bakeman, Keeney V.; Riggs, S.R.; Culver, S.; Mallinson, D.; Farrell, K.M.; York, L.L.; Pierson, J.; Parham, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    The Quaternary stratigraphy and geochronology of the Albemarle Embayment of the North Carolina (NC) Coastal Plain is examined using amino acid racemization (AAR) in marine mollusks, in combination with geophysical, lithologic, and biostratigraphic analysis of 28 rotasonic cores drilled between 2002 and 2006. The Albemarle Embayment is bounded by structural highs to the north and south, and Quaternary strata thin westward toward the Suffolk paleoshoreline, frequently referred to as the Suffolk Scarp. The Quaternary section is up to ???90. m thick, consists of a variety of estuarine, shelf, back-barrier, and lagoonal deposits, and has been influenced by multiple sea-level cycles. The temporal resolution of the amino acid racemization method is tested statistically and with the stratigraphic control provided by this geologic framework, and it is then applied to the correlation and age estimation of subsurface units throughout the region. Over 500 specimens (primarily Mercenaria and Mulinia) from the subsurface section have been analyzed using either gas chromatographic (GC) or reverse-phase liquid chromatographic (RPLC) techniques. The subsurface stratigraphic data are compared with AAR results from numerous natural or excavated exposures from the surrounding region, as well as results from NC beach collections, to develop a comprehensive aminostratigraphic database for the entire Quaternary record within the NC coastal system. Age mixing, recognized in the beach collections, is also seen in subsurface sections, usually where major seismic reflections or core lithology indicate the presence of stratigraphic discontinuities. Kinetic models for racemization are tested within the regional stratigraphic framework, using either radiocarbon or U-series calibrations or comparison with regional biostratigraphy. Three major Pleistocene aminozones [AZ2, AZ3, and AZ4] are found throughout the region, all being found in superposition in several cores. Each can be subdivided

  2. Aminostratigraphy of surface and subsurface Quaternary sediments, North Carolina coastal plain, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wehmiller, John F.; Thieler, E. Robert; Miller, D.; Pellerito, V.; Bakeman, Keeney V.; Riggs, S.R.; Culver, S.; Mallinson, D.; Farrell, K.M.; York, L.L.; Pierson, J.; Parham, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    The Quaternary stratigraphy and geochronology of the Albemarle Embayment of the North Carolina (NC) Coastal Plain is examined using amino acid racemization (AAR) in marine mollusks, in combination with geophysical, lithologic, and biostratigraphic analysis of 28 rotasonic cores drilled between 2002 and 2006. The Albemarle Embayment is bounded by structural highs to the north and south, and Quaternary strata thin westward toward the Suffolk paleoshoreline, frequently referred to as the Suffolk Scarp. The Quaternary section is up to ∼90 m thick, consists of a variety of estuarine, shelf, back-barrier, and lagoonal deposits, and has been influenced by multiple sea-level cycles. The temporal resolution of the amino acid racemization method is tested statistically and with the stratigraphic control provided by this geologic framework, and it is then applied to the correlation and age estimation of subsurface units throughout the region. Over 500 specimens (primarily Mercenaria and Mulinia) from the subsurface section have been analyzed using either gas chromatographic (GC) or reverse-phase liquid chromatographic (RPLC) techniques. The subsurface stratigraphic data are compared with AAR results from numerous natural or excavated exposures from the surrounding region, as well as results from NC beach collections, to develop a comprehensive aminostratigraphic database for the entire Quaternary record within the NC coastal system. Age mixing, recognized in the beach collections, is also seen in subsurface sections, usually where major seismic reflections or core lithology indicate the presence of stratigraphic discontinuities. Kinetic models for racemization are tested within the regional stratigraphic framework, using either radiocarbon or U-series calibrations or comparison with regional biostratigraphy. Three major Pleistocene aminozones [AZ2, AZ3, and AZ4] are found throughout the region, all being found in superposition in several cores. Each can be subdivided

  3. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow in Dar es Salaam Coastal Plain (Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luciani, Giulia; Sappa, Giuseppe; Cella, Antonella

    2016-04-01

    They are presented the results of a groundwater modeling study on the Coastal Aquifer of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). Dar es Salaam is one of the fastest-growing coastal cities in Sub-Saharan Africa, with with more than 4 million of inhabitants and a population growth rate of about 8 per cent per year. The city faces periodic water shortages, due to the lack of an adequate water supply network. These two factors have determined, in the last ten years, an increasing demand of groundwater exploitation, carried on by quite a number of private wells, which have been drilled to satisfy human demand. A steady-state three dimensional groundwater model has been set up by the MODFLOW code, and calibrated with the UCODE code for inverse modeling. The aim of the model was to carry out a characterization of groundwater flow system in the Dar es Salaam Coastal Plain. The inputs applied to the model included net recharge rate, calculated from time series of precipitation data (1961-2012), estimations of average groundwater extraction, and estimations of groundwater recharge, coming from zones, outside the area under study. Parametrization of the hydraulic conductivities was realized referring to the main geological features of the study area, based on available literature data and information. Boundary conditions were assigned based on hydrogeological boundaries. The conceptual model was defined in subsequent steps, which added some hydrogeological features and excluded other ones. Calibration was performed with UCODE 2014, using 76 measures of hydraulic head, taken in 2012 referred to the same season. Data were weighted on the basis of the expected errors. Sensitivity analysis of data was performed during calibration, and permitted to identify which parameters were possible to be estimated, and which data could support parameters estimation. Calibration was evaluated based on statistical index, maps of error distribution and test of independence of residuals. Further model

  4. The distribution and composition of REE-bearing minerals in placers of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bern, Carleton; Shah, Anjana K.; Benzel, William M.; Lowers, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) resources are currently of great interest because of their importance as raw materials for high-technology manufacturing. The REE-phosphates monazite (light REE enriched) and xenotime (heavy REE enriched) resist weathering and can accumulate in placer deposits as part of the heavy mineral assemblage. The Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains of the southeastern United States are known to host heavy mineral deposits with economic concentrations of zircon, ilmenite and rutile. This study provides a perspective on the distribution and composition of REE phosphate minerals in the region. The elemental chemistry and mineralogy of sands and associated heavy-mineral assemblages from new and archived sediment samples across the coastal plains are examined, along with phase-specific compositions of monazite, xenotime and zircon. Both monazite and xenotime are present across the coastal plains. The phase-specific compositions allow monazite content to be estimated using La as a geochemical proxy. Similarly, both Y and Yb are geochemical proxies for xenotime, but their additional presence in zircon and monazite require a correction to prevent overestimation of xenotime content. Applying this correction, maps of monazite and xenotime content across the coastal plains were generated using sample coverage from the National Geochemical Database (NGS) and National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE). The NGS and NURE approach of sampling stream sediments in small watersheds links samples to nearby lithologies. The results show an approximately 40 km-wide band of primarily Cretaceous, marine sediments bordering the Piedmont province from North Carolina to Alabama in which monazite and xenotime content are relatively high (up to 4.4 wt. % in < 150 μm bulk sediment). Strong correlations between concentrations of the two phases were found, with estimated monazite:xenotime ratios ranging approximately 6:1 to 12:1 depending upon the dataset analyzed. From a resource

  5. Simulation of ground-water flow in the Coastal Plain aquifer system of North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giese, G.I.; Eimers, J.L.; Coble, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite-difference digital model was used to simulate ground-water flow in the 25,000-square-mile aquifer system of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. The model was developed from a hydrogeologic framework that is based on an alternating sequence of 10 aquifers and 9 confining units, which make up a seaward-thickening wedge of sediments that form the Coastal Plain aquifer system in the State of North Carolina. The model was calibrated by comparing observed and simulated water levels. The model calibration was achieved by adjusting model parameters, primarily leakance of confining units and transmissivity of aquifers, until differences between observed and simulated water levels were within acceptable limits, generally within 15 feet. The maximum transmissivity of an individual aquifer in the calibrated model is 200,000 feet squared per day in a part of the Castle Hayne aquifer, which consists predominantly of limestone. The maximum value for simulated vertical hydraulic conductivity in a confining unit was 2.5 feet per day, in a part of the confining unit overlying the upper Cape Fear aquifer. The minimum value was 4.1x10-6 feet per day, in part of the confining unit overlying the lower Cape Fear aquifer. Analysis indicated the model is highly sensitive to changes in transmissivity and leakance near pumping centers; away from pumping centers, the model is only slightly sensitive to changes in transmissivity but is moderately sensitive to changes in leakance. Recharge from precipitation to the surficial aquifer ranges from about 12 inches per year in areas having clay at the surface to about 20 inches per year in areas having sand at the surface. Most of this recharge moves laterally to streams, and only about 1 inch per year moves downward to the confined parts of the aquifer system. Under predevelopment conditions, the confined aquifers were generally recharged in updip interstream areas and discharged through streambeds and in downdip coastward

  6. COASTAL RESTORATION: WHERE HAVE WE BEEN, WHERE ARE WE NOW, AND WHERE SHOULD WE BE GOING?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction to Special Issue. Over a decade ago, the status of wetland and coastal habitat restoration was documented in two publications that have become landmark works in the field. In 1990, John Kusler of the Association of State Wetland Managers and Mary E. Kentula of the ...

  7. Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program; Evaluation of Barrier Island Restoration Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    SEDC AUTOC VBC BFOC STLC ICIC ICOC SAVMC OFF ON ON OFF ON UNIFORM ON OFF CONTROLS SUSFDC DEPFDC KEIMC SEDKIN OFF OFF P_ABS SSI DEAD SEA FLC...43  4.1  STWAVE grid bathymetry /topography ........................................................................ 44... Bathymetry /topography for the three Ship Island modeling scenarios: 1) Existing Pre-Katrina, 2) Restored, and 3) Degraded

  8. Use Of Radar-Rainfall Data for the Southwest Coastal Louisiana Feasibility Study: Regional Scale Hydrologic and Salinity Modeling and Management Scenario Analysis for Chenier Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meselhe, E. A.; Michot, B.; Chen, C.; Habib, E. H.

    2011-12-01

    The Chenier Plain, in Southwest Louisiana, extends from Vermilion Bay to Sabine Lake in southeast Texas. It has great economic, industrial, recreational, and ecological value. Over the years, human activities such as dredging ship channels and access canals, building roads, levees, and hydraulic structures have altered the hydrology of the Chenier Plain. These alterations have affected the fragile equilibrium of the marsh ecology. If no action is taken to restore the Chenier Plain, land loss through conversion of marsh to open water would continue. The Southwest Coastal Louisiana Feasibility Study aims at evaluating proposed protection and restoration measures and ultimately submitting a comprehensive plan to protect and preserve the Chenier Plain at the regional scale. The proposed alternatives include marsh creation, terracing, shoreline protection, and freshwater introduction and salinity control structures. A regional scale hydrodynamic and salinity transport model was developed to screen and assess the proposed restoration measures. A critical component of this modeling effort is local rainfall. The strong spatial variability and limited availability of ground-level precipitation measurements limited our ability to capture local rainfall. Thus, a radar-based rainfall product was used as a viable alternative to the rain gauges. These estimates are based on the National Weather Service from the Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) algorithm. Since the model was used to perform long-term (yearly) simulations, the 4x4 km2 MPE estimates were represented as daily accumulations. The use of the radar-rainfall product data improved the model performance especially on our ability to capture the spatial and temporal variations of salinity. Overall, the model is improving our understanding of the circulation patterns and salinity regimes of the region. The circulation model used here is the MIKE FLOOD software (Danish Hydraulic Institute, DHI 2008) which dynamically

  9. Comparison of episodic acidification of Mid-Atlantic Upland and Coastal Plain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Anne K.; Rice, Karen C.; Kennedy, Margaret M.; Bricker, Owen P.

    1993-09-01

    Episodic acidification was examined in five mid-Atlantic watersheds representing three physiographic provinces: Coastal Plain, Valley and Ridge, and Blue Ridge. Each of the watersheds receives a similar loading of atmospheric pollutants (SO42- and NO3-) and is underlain by different bedrock type. The purpose of this research was to quantify and compare the episodic variability in storm flow chemistry in Reedy Creek, Virginia (Coastal Plain), Mill Run and Shelter Run, Virginia (Valley and Ridge), and Fishing Creek Tributary and Hunting Creek, Maryland (Blue Ridge). Because episodic responses were similar from storm to storm in each of the watersheds, a representative storm from each watershed was discussed. Acidification, defined as the loss of acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC), was observed in all streams except Mill Run. Mill Run chemistry showed little episodic variability. During storms in the other streams, pH decreased while SO42-, NO3-, and K+ concentrations increased. Concentrations of Mg2+ and Ca2+ increased in Reedy Creek and Fishing Creek Tributary, but decreased in Shelter Run and Hunting Creek. Therefore the net effect of episodic changes on the acid-base status differed among the streams. In general, greater losses of ANC were observed during storms at Shelter Run and Hunting Creek, watersheds underlain by reactive bedrock (carbonate, metabasalt); comparatively smaller losses in ANC were observed at Reedy Creek and Fishing Creek Tributary, watersheds underlain by quartzites and unconsolidated quartz sands and cobbles. Increased SO42- concentrations were most important during storms at Reedy Creek and Fishing Creek Tributary, but organic anions (inferred by anion deficit) were also a factor in causing the loss of ANC. Dilution of base cations was the most important factor in the loss of ANC at Shelter Run. Both increased sulfate and dilution of base flow were important in causing the episodic acidification at Hunting Creek. The role of SO42- in

  10. Comparison of episodic acidification of mid-Atlantic upland and Coastal Plain streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Brien, Anne K.; Rice, Karen C.; Kennedy, Margaret M.; Bricker, Owen P.

    1993-01-01

    Episodic acidification was examined in five mid-Atlantic watersheds representing three physiographic provinces: Coastal Plain, Valley and Ridge, and Blue Ridge. Each of the watersheds receives a similar loading of atmospheric pollutants (SO42− and NO3−) and is underlain by different bedrock type. The purpose of this research was to quantify and compare the episodic variability in storm flow chemistry in Reedy Creek, Virginia (Coastal Plain), Mill Run and Shelter Run, Virginia (Valley and Ridge), and Fishing Creek Tributary and Hunting Creek, Maryland (Blue Ridge). Because episodic responses were similar from storm to storm in each of the watersheds, a representative storm from each watershed was discussed. Acidification, defined as the loss of acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC), was observed in all streams except Mill Run. Mill Run chemistry showed little episodic variability. During storms in the other streams, pH decreased while SO42−, NO3−, and K+ concentrations increased. Concentrations of Mg2+ and Ca2+ increased in Reedy Creek and Fishing Creek Tributary, but decreased in Shelter Run and Hunting Creek. Therefore the net effect of episodic changes on the acid-base status differed among the streams. In general, greater losses of ANC were observed during storms at Shelter Run and Hunting Creek, watersheds underlain by reactive bedrock (carbonate, metabasalt); comparatively smaller losses in ANC were observed at Reedy Creek and Fishing Creek Tributary, watersheds underlain by quartzites and unconsolidated quartz sands and cobbles. Increased SO42− concentrations were most important during storms at Reedy Creek and Fishing Creek Tributary, but organic anions (inferred by anion deficit) were also a factor in causing the loss of ANC. Dilution of base cations was the most important factor in the loss of ANC at Shelter Run. Both increased sulfate and dilution of base flow were important in causing the episodic acidification at Hunting Creek. The role of SO42

  11. Simulation of ground-water flow in the coastal plain aquifer system of North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giese, G.L.; Eimers, J.L.; Coble, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    A 3-D finite difference digital model was used to simulate groundwater flow in the 25,000 sq mi aquifer system of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. The model was developed from a geohydrologic framework that is based on an alternating sequence of 10 aquifers and 9 confining units, which comprise a seaward-thickening wedge of sediments that form the Coastal Plain aquifer system in North Carolina. The model was calibrated by comparing observed and simulated water levels. The maximum transmissivity of an individual aquifer in the calibrated model is 200,000 sq ft/d in a part of the Castle Hayne aquifer, which is composed predominately of limestone. The maximum simulated vertical hydraulic conductivity in a confining unit was 2.5 ft/d in a part of the confining unit overlying the upper Cape Fear aquifer. Analysis indicated the model is highly sensitive to changes in transmissivity and leakage near pumping centers; away from pumping centers, the model is only slightly sensitive to changes in transmissivity but is moderately sensitive to changes in leakance. Recharge from precipitation to the surficial aquifer ranges from about 12 in/yr in areas having clay at the surface, to about 20 in/yr in areas having sand at the surface. Most of this recharge moves laterally to streams, with only about 1 in/yr moving down to the confined parts of the aquifer system. Groundwater level declines, which are the result of water taken from storage, are extensive in some area and minimal in others. Water level declines exceeding 100 ft have occurred in the Beaufort County area because of withdrawals for a mining operation and water supplies for a chemical plant. Head declines have been less than 10 ft in the shallow surficial and Yorktown aquifers and in the updip parts of the major confined aquifers distant from areas of major withdrawals. A water-budget analysis using the model simulations indicates that much of the water removed from the groundwater system by pumping ultimately is made

  12. Gravity and Magnetic Modeling of Basement Rocks Beneath Alabama and the Gulf Coastal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, L. W.; Bajgain, S. K.; Steltenpohl, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    The southeastern United States has experienced two complete successions of Wilson cycles: (1) the assembly and break up of Rodinia and the opening of the Iapetus Ocean; and (2) the closing of Iapetus ocean, the assembly of the supercontinent Pangaea and its subsequent break up, and the opening of modern Atlantic Ocean. Evidence of these supercontinent cycles is recorded in the crust of Alabama and adjacent areas, but is covered by as much as 7 km of Coastal Plain sediments in the southern portion of the state. In this study, we use airborne gravity and magnetic data to develop crustal models along transects that cross major tectonic structures and the ancient North American (Laurentian) margin. Models derived from gravity and magnetic data are constrained by well-log information, geologic mapping, and nearby previous geophysical studies. Results show that a pronounced east-west trending gravity low observed in southern Alabama can be interpreted as the suture between relict Gondwanan crust and Peri-Gondwanan or Laurentian crust. The best-fit models suggest that the crust thickens from south to north, with a change in crustal thickness near the suture zone. Laurentian crust is characterized by northeast-southwest trending lineations in magnetic data that can be traced beneath the Coastal Plain until truncated by the tectonic suture with Gondwanan-affiliated crust. This truncation is marked by the Brunswick Magnetic Anomaly. The denser crystalline rocks of Piedmont and Valley and Ridge provinces in northern and central Alabama correspond to minor gravity highs. In southwestern Alabama, the crust of the Wiggins terrane appears to be a unique tectonic entity relative to other areas and shares similarities to the crust beneath the Mississippi Gulf coast. Sharp magnetic gradients and long-wavelength gravity gradients along faults such as the Towaliga fault, Alexander City fault, and Bartletts Ferry fault suggest these structures are major, crust-penetrating features. In

  13. Coastal Louisiana Wetlands Restoration Monitoring with Global Fiducials Program (GFP) Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, G.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal Louisiana has experienced dramatic landscape change over the past century due to human induced changes to the environment as well as an onslaught of major coastal storms. Coastal Louisiana loses on average 25-35 square miles of land per year. The USGS has partnered with the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) - National Marine Fisheries Service to provide cyclical remote sensing data for selected restoration sites along the coast of Louisiana. Three of these sites are actively maintained in the GFP archive - Atchafalaya River Delta, East Timbalier Island, and Pecan Island. These three sites coincide with NOAA restoration sites that have been monitored since early 2000. The GFP has provided a consistent set of remote sensing data that has greatly benefited the long-term monitoring of these restoration sites. Long-term monitoring of these sites includes both pre- and post-hurricane season data collection used to identify landscape change along the coast. The long-term monitoring also has helped to identify areas of success in the restoration projects, as well as areas that have continued to decline in spite of restoration efforts. These three sites are significant to the program because they provide a variety of coastal landscape types: an open water barrier island environment at East Timbalier Island; coastal wetlands at Pecan Island, which have experienced subsidence of the marsh and convergence to an open water environment; and a deltaic marsh environment at Atchafalaya River Delta. Long-term monitoring of these sites has provided a wealth of knowledge about the changes occurring, as well as a valuable tool for reliable shoreline measurements. Continued monitoring is necessary to accurately assess the condition of these areas as environmental conditions continue to shape the landscape.

  14. Modern Environmental Changes on Amapa Coastal Plain under Amazon River Influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, V. F.; Figueiredo, A. G.; Silveira, O. M.; Polidori, L.

    2007-05-01

    The Amazonian coastal environment is very dynamic compared to other coasts. It is situated at the edge of the Earth's largest forest, and is segmented by fluvial systems, with the biggest being the Amazon River. The rivers are particularly influenced by the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), which controls the water and particle discharge, and the flooding regime. Moderate and strong El Nino conditions correlate with low-precipitation periods, and La Nina events cause precipitation to increase. These variables and others related to the Amazon dispersal system create an interesting area for the study of global and regional environmental changes. The Araguari River floodplain on the Amapa coast is influenced by natural processes of global scale such as ENSO events and ITCZ, and by local processes such as Amazon River discharge, tides and tidal bore (pororoca). Anthropogenic processes such as extensive water-buffalo farming also promote environmental changes. Time- series analyses of remote sensing images and suspended sediment have shown that the maximum turbidity zone inside Araguari River is related to the pororoca phenomenon. The pororoca remobilizes sediment from the river bottom and margins, developing sediment suspension >15 g/l as it passes - creating fluid muds. The pororoca also introduces Amazon- and shelf-derived sediment into the Araguari estuary. Measurements during eight spring-tide cycles indicate erosion of 3 cm of consolidated mud and deposition of 1 cm. The pororoca also influences the remobilization and cycling of nutrients and consequently affects the distribution of benthic organisms, including benthonic foraminifera and thecamoebians. For more than a century, the coastal plain has had water-buffalo farming (>42,000 animals today), which modifies the drainage system and affects sedimentary processes. Areas with more buffalo trails have higher suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) during the dry season and lower SSC during the rainy season

  15. Stem cubic-foot volume tables for tree species in the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plain. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.; Souter, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    Steamwood cubic-foot volume inside bark tables are presented for 14 species and 9 species groups based on equations used to estimate timber sale volumes on national forests in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plain. Tables are based on form class measurement data for 2,728 trees sampled in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plain and taper data collected across the South. A series of tables is presented for each species based on diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) in combination with total height and height to a 4-inch diameter outside bark (d.o.b.) top. Volume tables are also presented based on d.b.h. in combination with height to a 7-inch d.o.b. top for softwoods and height to a 9-inch d.o.b. top for hardwoods.

  16. Stem cubic-foot volume tables for tree species in the upper coastal plain. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.; Souter, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    Steamwood cubic-foot volume inside bark tables are presented for 11 species and 8 species groups based on equations used to estimate timber sale volumes on national forests in the Upper Coastal Plain. Tables are based on form class measurement data for 521 trees sampled in the Upper Coastal Plain and taper data collected across the South. A series of tables is presented for each species based on diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) in combination with total height and height to a 4-inch diameter outside bark (d.o.b.) top. Volume tables are also presented based on d.b.h. in combination with height to a 7-inch d.o.b. top for softwoods and height to a 9-inch d.o.b. top for hardwoods.

  17. Summer Roost Tree Selection by Eastern Red, Seminole, and Evening Bats in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, M.A.; Carter, T.C.; Ford, W.M.; Chapman, B.R.; Ozier, J.

    2000-01-01

    Radiotraction of six eastern red bats, six seminole bats and twenty-four evening bats to 55, 61, and 65 day roosts during 1996 to 1997 in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. For each species, testing was done for differences between used roost trees and randomly located trees. Also tested for differences between habitat characteristics surrounding roost trees and randomly located trees. Eastern Red and Seminole bats generally roosted in canopies of hardwood and pine while clinging to foilage and small branches. Evening bats roosted in cavities or under exfoliating bark in pines and dead snags. Forest management strategies named within the study should be beneficial for providing roosts in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

  18. Predation of amphibians by carabid beetles of the genus Epomis found in the central coastal plain of Israel.

    PubMed

    Wizen, Gil; Gasith, Avital

    2011-01-01

    The genus Epomis is represented in Israel by two species: Epomis dejeani and Epomis circumscriptus. In the central coastal plain these species are sympatric but do not occur in the same sites. The objective of this study was to record and describe trophic interactions between the adult beetles and amphibian species occurring in the central coastal plain of Israel. Day and night surveys at three sites, as well as controlled laboratory experiments were conducted for studying beetle-amphibian trophic interaction. In the field we recorded three cases of Epomis dejeani preying upon amphibian metamorphs and also found that Epomis adults share shelters with amphibians. Laboratory experiments supported the observations that both Epomis species can prey on amphibians. Predation of the three anuran species (Bufo viridis, Hyla savignyi and Rana bedriagae) and two urodele species (Triturus vittatus and Salamandra salamandra infraimmaculata) is described. Only Epomis dejeani consumed Triturus vittatus. Therefore, we conclude that the two species display a partial overlap in food habit.

  19. Potential for coal-related groundwater contamination in the Atlantic coastal plain soils of maryland. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, A.A.; Kirkner, D.J.; Theis, T.L.

    1984-11-01

    Energy-related wastes such as coal-derived leachates are potential sources of groundwater contamination. These are often relatively high-strength solutions containing trace amounts of environmentally sensitive anions and cations. Recent research has indicated that when solutions of this type are released to soil systems, chemical interactions among solution components can lead to unexpected transport consequences. The research reported on here was designed to evaluate the potential for this type of multicomponent interaction in soils typical of Maryland's Atlantic coastal plain. To accomplish this research, samples from five soils typical of the coastal plain surface deposits, and one sample from the deep Aquia Greensand aquifer were acquired and analyzed. The results of these studies indicated that the surface soils have substantial capacities to attenuate the environmentally sensitive ions typical of coal-derived leachates.

  20. Effect of coarse woody debris manipulation on soricid and herpetofaunal communities in upland pine stands of the southeastern coastal plain.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Justin, Charles

    2009-04-01

    Abstract -The majority of studies investigating the importance of coarse woody debris (CWD) to forest- floor vertebrates have taken place in the Pacific Northwest and southern Appalachian Mountains, while comparative studies in the southeastern Coastal Plain are lacking. My study was a continuation of a long-term project investigating the importance of CWD as a habitat component for shrew and herpetofaunal communities within managed pine stands in the southeastern Coastal Plain. Results suggest that addition of CWD can increase abundance of southeastern and southern short-tailed shrews. However, downed wood does not appear to be a critical habitat component for amphibians and reptiles. Rising petroleum costs and advances in wood utilization technology have resulted in an emerging biofuels market with potential to decrease CWD volumes left in forests following timber harvests. Therefore, forest managers must understand the value of CWD as an ecosystem component to maintain economically productive forests while conserving biological diversity.

  1. Late Cenozoic fluvial development within the Sea of Azov and Black Sea coastal plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoshko, A.; Gozhik, P.; Semenenko, V.

    2009-09-01

    Late Cenozoic terrestrial deposits are widespread across the northern coastal regions of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov and represent diverse fluvial, estuarine and deltaic environments. The dating and correlation of these deposits rely on stratigraphically-associated marine index beds, mammalian and molluscan faunas and magnetostratigraphy. In detail the geometries of these sediment bodies are extremely complex, typically varying between localities and representing many cycles of incision and aggradation. However, the overall disposition of the sediments reflects the transition from the uplifting sediment source region to the north and the subsiding depocentre in the interior of the Black Sea to the south. Since the Middle Miocene the area of the Paratethys/Black Sea depocentre has decreased significantly, but since the Middle Pliocene the hinge zone between uplift and subsidence has been located close to the modern coastline. A combination of regional and local differential crustal movements has given rise to the great variety of fluvial sediment bodies, to the erosion-aggradation cycles, different phases and river activity and to the various fluvial landforms that have all been important in landscape development in this region during the past 12 Ma. The fluvial erosion-accumulation cycles (during the upper Serravillian-Messinian, the Zanclean-late Gelasian, and the Pleistocene) and corresponding cycles of relief dissection and planation are reconstructed against a background of local sea-level changes and climatic variations determined from palaeobotanical data. The maximum fluvial incision occurred in the early Zanclean time with alluvial coastal plains, unique in this area, developing in the Gelasian. Increased climatic aridity during the Pleistocene caused a reduction of fluvial activity in comparison with the Late Miocene and Pliocene. The sea-level oscillations and Pleistocene glaciations affected fluvial processes in different ways. The most remarkable

  2. Predicting breeding shorebird distributions on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saalfeld, Sarah T.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Brown, Stephen C.; Saalfeld, David T.; Johnson, James A.; Andres, Brad A.; Bart, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska is an important region for millions of migrating and nesting shorebirds. However, this region is threatened by climate change and increased human development (e.g., oil and gas production) that have the potential to greatly impact shorebird populations and breeding habitat in the near future. Because historic data on shorebird distributions in the ACP are very coarse and incomplete, we sought to develop detailed, contemporary distribution maps so that the potential impacts of climate-mediated changes and development could be ascertained. To do this, we developed and mapped habitat suitability indices for eight species of shorebirds (Black-bellied Plover [Pluvialis squatarola], American Golden-Plover [Pluvialis dominica], Semipalmated Sandpiper [Calidris pusilla], Pectoral Sandpiper [Calidris melanotos], Dunlin [Calidris alpina], Long-billed Dowitcher [Limnodromus scolopaceus], Red-necked Phalarope [Phalaropus lobatus], and Red Phalarope [Phalaropus fulicarius]) that commonly breed within the ACP of Alaska. These habitat suitability models were based on 767 plots surveyed during nine years between 1998 and 2008 (surveys were not conducted in 2003 and 2005), using single-visit rapid area searches during territory establishment and incubation (8 June, 1 July). Species specific habitat suitability indices were developed and mapped using presence-only modeling techniques (partitioned Mahalanobis distance) and landscape environmental variables. For most species, habitat suitability was greater at lower elevations (i.e., near the coast and river deltas) and lower within upland habitats. Accuracy of models was high for all species, ranging from 65 -98%. Our models predicted that the largest fraction of suitable habitat for the majority of species occurred within the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, with highly suitable habitat also occurring within coastal areas of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge west to Prudhoe Bay.

  3. Mesozoic (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) deep gas reservoir play, central and eastern Gulf coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mancini, E.A.; Li, P.; Goddard, D.A.; Ramirez, V.O.; Talukdar, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    The Mesozoic (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) deeply buried gas reservoir play in the central and eastern Gulf coastal plain of the United States has high potential for significant gas resources. Sequence-stratigraphic study, petroleum system analysis, and resource assessment were used to characterize this developing play and to identify areas in the North Louisiana and Mississippi Interior salt basins with potential for deeply buried gas reservoirs. These reservoir facies accumulated in Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Norphlet, Haynesville, Cotton Valley, and Hosston continental, coastal, and marine siliciclastic environments and Smackover and Sligo nearshore marine shelf, ramp, and reef carbonate environments. These Mesozoic strata are associated with transgressive and regressive systems tracts. In the North Louisiana salt basin, the estimate of secondary, nonassociated thermogenic gas generated from thermal cracking of oil to gas in the Upper Jurassic Smackover source rocks from depths below 3658 m (12,000 ft) is 4800 tcf of gas as determined using software applications. Assuming a gas expulsion, migration, and trapping efficiency of 2-3%, 96-144 tcf of gas is potentially available in this basin. With some 29 tcf of gas being produced from the North Louisiana salt basin, 67-115 tcf of in-place gas remains. Assuming a gas recovery factor of 65%, 44-75 tcf of gas is potentially recoverable. The expelled thermogenic gas migrated laterally and vertically from the southern part of this basin to the updip northern part into shallower reservoirs to depths of up to 610 m (2000 ft). Copyright ?? 2008. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  4. Jurassic petroleum trends in eastern Gulf Coastal Plain and central and eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.

    1986-05-01

    Three Jurassic petroleum trends can be delineated in Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, and in the central and eastern Gulf of Mexico. These trends are recognized by characteristic petroleum traps, reservoirs, and hydrocarbon types. The source for the Jurassic hydrocarbons is Smackover algal mudstones. The Jurassic oil trend includes the area north of the regional peripheral fault systems in the tri-state area, and extends into the area north of the Destin anticline. Traps are basement highs and salt anticlines, with Smackover grainstones and dolostones and Norphlet marine, eolian, and wadi sandstones as reservoirs. This trend has potential for Jurassic oil accumulations in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The Jurassic oil and gas-condensate trend includes the onshore area between the regional peripheral fault systems and Wiggins arch and extends into the area of the Destin anticline. Traps are basement highs, salt related anticlines, and extensional faults. Cotton Valley fluvial-deltaic sandstones, Haynesville carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones, Smackover grainstones, packstones, dolostones, and marine sandstones, and Norphlet marine, eolian, and wadi sandstones serve as reservoirs. This trend contains most of the Jurassic fields in the eastern Gulf coastal plain. The trend has high potential for significant petroleum accumulations in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The Jurassic deep natural gas trend includes the onshore area south of the Wiggins arch and extends into the Mississippi-Alabama shelf. Traps are faulted salt anticlines with basement highs as potential traps. Cotton Valley deltaic-strandplain sandstones and Norphlet eolian sandstones are the reservoirs. Several gas discoveries below 20,000 ft have been made in this trend in Mississippi and offshore Alabama. The trend has excellent potential for major gas accumulations in coastal Alabama and central Gulf of Mexico.

  5. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain Region (Version 2.0)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    and sweetgum. Areas that are semi-permanently inundated, including the fringes of oxbow lakes , often support swamp forests dominated by baldcypress...Gulf Coastal Plain Region include, but are not limited to, tidal flats and shorelines along the coast and in estuaries; lakes ; rivers; ponds; mud...to September. Fall and winter are drier. Topography is nearly level to gently rolling with many scattered lakes and wetlands. The northern portion

  6. Hydrogeochemical considerations about the origin of groundwater salinization in some coastal plains of Elba Island (Tuscany, Italy).

    PubMed

    Giménez-Forcada, Elena; Bencini, Alberto; Pranzini, Giovanni

    2010-06-01

    Several coastal plains of the Elba Island (Marina di Campo, Portoferraio, Schiopparello, Mola, Porto Azzurro and Barbarossa plains) in Tuscany (Italy) were studied to determine the causes of decline in groundwater quality, using major ion chemistry to establish the causes of groundwater salinization. The study demonstrates that salinization of coastal plain alluvial aquifers is not simply linked to seawater intrusion but is also intimately related to inflows from adjacent aquifers. Ionic ratios, correlation graphs and distribution value maps were employed as the means to understand the hydrochemistry of the study areas. The Mg/Cl ratio in particular can be considered a good tracer to distinguish the main salinization processes that control groundwater chemistry. Seawater intrusion only partly determines the chemistry of some groundwaters, which generally belong to a chloride facies where the salinity is derived principally from freshwater-seawater mixing and the participation of cation exchange. Proceeding inland groundwater quality seems to be principally determined by the inflow of Mg, Ca-HCO(3) or Ca, Na-HCO(3) waters formed from the weathering of silicate minerals in adjoining aquifers. Hydrolysis of these minerals is of prime importance in controlling groundwater chemistry in adjacent alluvial plains. The lateral recharge flows introduce water with a different chemical composition and this variable of freshwater recharge changes the hydrochemistry as a result of mixing between two or more waters types. This situation is further complicated when seawater and base exchange reactions participate, due to seawater intrusion.

  7. Assessment of shoreline vegetation in relation to use by molting black brant Branta bernicla nigricans on the Alaska Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weller, Milton W.; Jensen, K.C.; Taylor, Eric J.; Miller, Mark W.; Bollinger, Karen S.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Esler, Daniel N.; Markon, Carl J.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of large thaw lakes on the Alaska Coastal Plain for molting Pacific black brant Branta bernicla nigricans, distribution and life form of shoreline vegetation were assessed using several scales: satellite imagery, point-intercept transects, cover quadrats, and a parameter for water regime. Brant population and distribution estimates from aerial surveys were used to classify large lakes into high, moderate, and low use. Correlations between brant and abundance of their preferred feeding site - moss flats - were best demonstrated by satellite imagery. Intercepts and cover ratings were not correlated, presumably because these techniques were less efficient at assessing area. General observations suggested that the presence of islands, large ice floes, and possibly other physical attributes of the habitat, influenced brant distribution. This area is unique because of low-lying, drained-lake basins that have ideal combinations of moss flats and large water areas where brant seek protection disturbance is vital to the success of this declining species because alternate habitats may not be available elsewhere on the Coastal Plain. in water or on ice floes. Protection of the area from disturbance is vital to the success of this declining species because alternate habitats may not be available elsewhere on the Coastal Plain.

  8. Shifting balance of thermokarst lake ice regimes across the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Lu, Zong; Whitman, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    The balance of thermokarst lakes with bedfast- and floating-ice regimes across Arctic lowlands regulates heat storage, permafrost thaw, winter-water supply, and over-wintering aquatic habitat. Using a time-series of late-winter synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery to distinguish lake ice regimes in two regions of the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska from 2003–2011, we found that 18% of the lakes had intermittent ice regimes, varying between bedfast-ice and floating-ice conditions. Comparing this dataset with a radar-based lake classification from 1980 showed that 16% of the bedfast-ice lakes had shifted to floating-ice regimes. A simulated lake ice thinning trend of 1.5 cm/yr since 1978 is believed to be the primary factor driving this form of lake change. The most profound impacts of this regime shift in Arctic lakes may be an increase in the landscape-scale thermal offset created by additional lake heat storage and its role in talik development in otherwise continuous permafrost as well as increases in over-winter aquatic habitat and winter-water supply.

  9. What does the Southern Brazilian Coastal Plain tell about its diversity? Syrphidae (Diptera) as a model.

    PubMed

    Kirst, F D; Marinoni, L; Krüger, R F

    2017-02-10

    The natural areas of the Coastal Plain of Rio Grande do Sul (CPRS) have suffered fragmentation due to anthropic action. The faunal surveys offer a low-cost method to quickly evaluate environmental alterations, and Syrphidae flies are often used as models in this kind of study. We aimed to ascertain the diversity of Syrphidae in the South region of Brazil by estimating its species' richness, and to use this data to identify new areas for conservation. In this survey Malaise traps were installed for 8 days in the CPRS, which was divided into five regions. Each region was subdivided into seven collecting areas and each of those areas received four traps, totaling 140 traps. A total of 456 Syrphidae individuals from 18 genera and 49 species were collected. In Region 1, there were nine exclusive species; in Region 2, there were three; in Region 3, there were 13, ten of which came from Estação Ecológica do Taim (ESEC Taim). In the Individual-based rarefaction analysis, Region 1 possessed the largest number of expected species out of the regions in the CPRS; we found 97% of these species. This insect collection effort, as one of the first in the CPRS, has broadened the known geographic distributions of 11 species of Syrphidae, and also indicated areas to be conserved. Additionally, it gave support for expanding ESEC Taim and creating new areas of conservation in Region 1, in Arroio Pelotas and Arroio Corrientes.

  10. Human and Natural Impacts on Ancient Maya Wetland Formation, Northern Coastal Plain, Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, T. P.; Beach, S. L.

    2006-12-01

    We use extensive water, soils, and ecological evidence to understand human management and landscape formation of ancient Maya wetlands and wetland fields in the Northern Coastal Plain of Belize near Blue Creek. Stratigraphic, soils, and dating evidence show these were well drained agricultural fields up to about 2400 BP. After this, the water table rose creating the perennial wetlands that occupy the region today. Aggradation also buried these fields with 1-2 m of sediment by about 1500 BP. Several proximate and ultimate mechanisms caused this aggradation, including accelerated soil erosion, one mega flood at 2170 BP, possible climatic instability, and a rise in a water table saturated with calcium and sulfate ions. This latter mechanism is a rarer geomorphic process and a large scale environmental change that occurred across periods of intensive Maya land use. Evidence for how the ancient Maya adapted to this lies in the stratigraphy of six square km of canalized, wetland fields and ecological proxies like pollen and phytolith data. Canals appear to manage water quality and quantity for crop growth. Pollen evidence also shows evidence of several important cultivars, including Zea mays that amounts to 16 percent of all pollen in the Classic Period (1400-1100 BP). These fields persisted through the Classic Period and some through the abandonment associated with the Terminal Classic Maya Drought.

  11. Forest response and recovery following disturbance in upland forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Karina V. R.; Renninger, Heidi J.; Carlo, Nicholas J.; Vanderklein, Dirk W.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon and water cycling of forests contribute significantly to the Earth's overall biogeochemical cycling and may be affected by disturbance and climate change. As a larger body of research becomes available about leaf-level, ecosystem and regional scale effects of disturbances on forest ecosystems, a more mechanistic understanding is developing which can improve modeling efforts. Here, we summarize some of the major effects of physical and biogenic disturbances, such as drought, prescribed fire, and insect defoliation, on leaf and ecosystem-scale physiological responses as well as impacts on carbon and water cycling in an Atlantic Coastal Plain upland oak/pine and upland pine forest. During drought, stomatal conductance and canopy stomatal conductance were reduced, however, defoliation increased conductance on both leaf-level and canopy scale. Furthermore, after prescribed fire, leaf-level stomatal conductance was unchanged for pines but decreased for oaks, while canopy stomatal conductance decreased temporarily, but then rebounded the following growing season, thus exhibiting transient responses. This study suggests that forest response to disturbance varies from the leaf to ecosystem level as well as species level and thus, these differential responses interplay to determine the fate of forest structure and functioning post disturbance. PMID:25018759

  12. Forest statistics for the northern coastal plain of South Carolina, 1992. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.T.; Sheffield, R.M.

    1993-05-01

    Since 1986, the area of timberland in the Northern Coastal Plain of South Carolina increased by 3 percent to 4.7 million acres. Nonindustrial private forest landowners control 67 percent of the region's timberland. Area classified as a pine type remained stable at 1.9 million acres. More than 116,000 acres were harvested annually, while 177,000 acres were regenerated by artificial and natural means. The volume of softwood growing stock decreased 26 percent to 2.5 billion cubic feet. The volume of hardwood growing stock declined 13 percent to 3.1 billion cubic feet. Extremely high mortality drove net growth downward. Net annual growth of softwoods declined 84 percent to 28 million cubic feet. Hardwood growth dropped 77 percent to 23 million cubic feet. Annual removals of softwood growing stock increased 9 percent to 175 million cubic feet; hardwood removals jumped 18 percent to 87 million cubic feet. Annual mortality of softwood growing stock was up eight times the level recorded in 1986, whereas hardwood mortality was up four times the previous level.

  13. Bacteria in deep coastal plain sediments of Maryland: A possible source of CO2 to groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Zelibor, Joseph L., Jr.; Grimes, D. Jay; Knobel, Leroy L.

    1987-08-01

    Nineteen cores of unconsolidated Coastal Plain sediments obtained from depths of 14 to 182 m below land surface near Waldorf, Maryland, were collected and examined for metabolically active bacteria. The age of the sediments cored range from Miocene to Early Cretaceous. Acridine orange direct counts of total (viable and nonviable) bacteria in core subsamples ranged from 108 to 104 bacteria/g of dry sediment. Direct counts of viable bacteria ranged from 106 to 103 bacteria/g of dry sediment. Three cores contained viable methanogenic bacteria, and seven cores contained viable sulfate-reducing bacteria. The observed presence of bacteria in these sediments suggest that heterotrophic bacterial metabolism, with lignitic organic material as the primary substrate, is a plausible source of CO2 to groundwater. However, the possibility that abiotic processes also produce CO2 cannot be ruled out. Estimated rates of CO2 production in the noncalcareous Magothy/Upper Patapsco and Lower Patapsco aquifers based on mass balance of dissolved inorganic carbon, groundwater flow rates, and flow path segment lengths are in the range 10-3 to 10-5 mmol L-1 yr-1. Isotope balance calculations suggest that aquifer-generated CO2 is much heavier isotopically (˜—10 to + 5 per mil) than lignite (˜-24 per mil) present in these sediments. This may reflect isotopic fractionation during methanogenesis and possibly other bacterially mediated processes.

  14. Forest response and recovery following disturbance in upland forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Karina V R; Renninger, Heidi J; Carlo, Nicholas J; Vanderklein, Dirk W

    2014-01-01

    Carbon and water cycling of forests contribute significantly to the Earth's overall biogeochemical cycling and may be affected by disturbance and climate change. As a larger body of research becomes available about leaf-level, ecosystem and regional scale effects of disturbances on forest ecosystems, a more mechanistic understanding is developing which can improve modeling efforts. Here, we summarize some of the major effects of physical and biogenic disturbances, such as drought, prescribed fire, and insect defoliation, on leaf and ecosystem-scale physiological responses as well as impacts on carbon and water cycling in an Atlantic Coastal Plain upland oak/pine and upland pine forest. During drought, stomatal conductance and canopy stomatal conductance were reduced, however, defoliation increased conductance on both leaf-level and canopy scale. Furthermore, after prescribed fire, leaf-level stomatal conductance was unchanged for pines but decreased for oaks, while canopy stomatal conductance decreased temporarily, but then rebounded the following growing season, thus exhibiting transient responses. This study suggests that forest response to disturbance varies from the leaf to ecosystem level as well as species level and thus, these differential responses interplay to determine the fate of forest structure and functioning post disturbance.

  15. Factors influencing the abundance and metabolic capacities of microorganisms in Eastern Coastal Plain sediments.

    PubMed

    Phelps, T J; Pfiffner, S M; Sargent, K A; White, D C

    1994-01-01

    The abundance and metabolic capacities of microorganisms residing in 49 sediment samples from 4 boreholes in Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments were examined. Radiolabeled time-course experiments assessing in situ mirobial capacities were initiated within 30 min of core recovery. Acetate (1-(14)C- and(3)H-) incorporation into lipids, microbial colony forming units, and nutrient limitations were examined in aliquots of subsurface sediments. Water-saturated sands exhibited activity and numbers of viable microorganisms that were orders of magnitude greater than those of the low permeability dense clays. Increased radioisotope utilization rates were observed after 6-24-h incubation times when sediments were amended with additional water and/or nutrients. Supplements of water, phosphate, nitrate, sulfate, glucose, or minerals resulted in the stimulation of microbial activities, as evidenced by the rate of acetate incorporation into microbial lipids. Additions of water or phosphate resulted in the greatest stimulation of microbial activities. Regardless of depth, sediments that contained >20% clay particles exhibited lower activities and biomass densities, and greater stimulation with abundant water supplementation than did sediments containing >66% sands and hydraulic conductivities > 200 μm sec.(-1).

  16. Land subsidence and sea level rise on the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.H.

    1987-01-01

    Land subsidence due to decline in head in confined aquifers, related to municipal and industrial water pumpage, is widespread in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Although not a major engineering problem, subsidence greatly complicates adjustment of precise leveling and distorts prediction of future sea-level rise. When preconsolidation stress equivalent to about 20 m of head decline is exceeded compaction of fine-grained sediments of the aquifer system begins, and continuous until a new head equilibrium is attained between fine and coarse units. The ratio subsidence/head decline is quite consistent, ranging form 0.0064 in southeastern Virginia to 0.0018 at Dover, Delaware and Atlantic City, New Jersey. Higher values are related to the occurrence of montmorillonite as the predominant clay mineral present. Review of tide gauge records indicates that gauges not affected by land subsidence or other local secular effects have been sinking relative to sea level since 1940 at rates averaging about 2.5 mm/yr. of which 0.6 mm/yr is ascribed to glacio-isostatic adjustment to unloading of North America resulting from melting of late Pleistocene glaciers, and about 0.9 mm/yr is ascribed to steric sea-level rise related to ocean warming. The residual 1 mm/yr of relative sea-level rise is not well understood, but may be related to regional tectonic subsidence of the Atlantic coast.

  17. Distribution of total and fecal coliform organisms from septic effluent in selected coastal plain soils.

    PubMed

    Reneau, R B; Pettry, D E; Shanholtz, M I; Graham, S A; Weston, C W

    1977-01-01

    Distribution of total and fecal coliform bacteria in three Atlantic coastal plain soils in Virginia were monitored in situ over a 3-year period. The soils studied were Varina, Goldsboro, and Beltsville sandy loams. These and similar soils are found extensively along the populous Atlantic seaboard of the United States. They are considered only marginally suitable for septic tank installation because the restricting soil layers result in the subsequent development of seasonal perched water tables. To determine both horizontal and vertical movement of indicator organisms, samples were collected from piezometers placed at selected distances and depths from the drainfields in the direction of the ground water flow. Large reductions in total and fecal coliform bacteria were noted in the perched ground waters above the restricting layers as distance from the drainfield increased. These restricting soil layers appear to be effective barriers to the vertical movement of indicator organisms. The reduction in the density of the coliform bacteria above the restricting soil layers can probably be attributed to dilution, filtration, and dieoff as the bacteria move through the natural soil systems.

  18. Aquifers in Cretaceous rocks of the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winner, M.D.; Lyke, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    Aquifers in rocks of Cretaceous age are the major source of groundwater for public supplies in the central Coastal Plain. These aquifers consist of sand, gravel, and limestone beds of the Peedee, Black Creek, and the upper and lower Cape Fear aquifers, each separated by a confining unit composed of clay and silt beds. The aquifers and confining units (1) rest upon crystalline basement rocks; (2) dip and thicken to the east-southeast; and (3) are overlain by younger aquifers and confining units in deposits of Quaternary and Tertiary age. The top of the uppermost aquifer, the Peedee, ranges from 122 ft above to 595 ft below sea level. The maximum thickness of all aquifers and confining units in Cretaceous rocks is more than 1,600 ft. Aquifers and confining units were defined and correlated for this report using 125 geophysical logs and accompanying drillers ' logs, water level data, and water quality information regarding chloride concentrations in water. This analysis allowed the construction of seven hydrogeologic cross sections that depict the continuity of all the aquifers and confining units. These cross sections also show water levels and chloride concentrations in water from various test intervals and describe where chloride concentration in water exceeds 250 mg/L within each aquifer. Detailed maps of each Cretaceous aquifer show altitude of its top, thickness, areas of selected sand percentages, transition zones from fresh to saltwater, and the thickness of the confining unit.

  19. Floodplain geomorphic processes and environmental impacts of human alteration along coastal plain rivers, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, C.R.; Pierce, A.R.; Noe, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    Human alterations along stream channels and within catchments have affected fluvial geomorphic processes worldwide. Typically these alterations reduce the ecosystem services that functioning floodplains provide; in this paper we are concerned with the sediment and associated material trapping service. Similarly, these alterations may negatively impact the natural ecology of floodplains through reductions in suitable habitats, biodiversity, and nutrient cycling. Dams, stream channelization, and levee/canal construction are common human alterations along Coastal Plain fluvial systems. We use three case studies to illustrate these alterations and their impacts on floodplain geomorphic and ecological processes. They include: 1) dams along the lower Roanoke River, North Carolina, 2) stream channelization in west Tennessee, and 3) multiple impacts including canal and artificial levee construction in the central Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. Human alterations typically shift affected streams away from natural dynamic equilibrium where net sediment deposition is, approximately, in balance with net erosion. Identification and understanding of critical fluvial parameters (e.g., stream gradient, grain-size, and hydrography) and spatial and temporal sediment deposition/erosion process trajectories should facilitate management efforts to retain and/or regain important ecosystem services. ?? 2009, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  20. Assessing groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Monti, Jack; Nardi, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Groundwater Resources Program is conducting an assessment of groundwater availability throughout the United States to gain a better understanding of the status of the Nation's groundwater resources and how changes in land use, water use, and climate may affect those resources. The goal of this National assessment is to improve our ability to forecast water availability for future economic and environmental uses. Assessments will be completed for the Nation's principal aquifer systems to help characterize how much water is currently available, how water availability is changing, and how much water we can expect to have in the future (Reilly and others, 2008). The concept of groundwater availability is more than just how much water can be pumped from any given aquifer. Groundwater availability is a function of many factors, including the quantity and quality of water and the laws, regulations, economics, and environmental factors that control its use. The primary objective of the North Atlantic Coastal Plain groundwater-availability study is to identify spatial and temporal changes in the overall water budget by more fully determining the natural and human processes that control how water enters, moves through, and leaves the groundwater system. Development of tools such as numerical models can help hydrologists gain an understanding of this groundwater system, allowing forecasts to be made about the response of this system to natural and human stresses, and water quality and ecosystem health to be analyzed, throughout the region.

  1. Water from the Coastal Plain aquifers in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papadopulos, S.S.; Bennett, R.R.; Mack, F.K.; Trescott, P.C.

    1974-01-01

    A brief study of the Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers in the vicinity of the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area was made, using available data, to estimate the water-supply potential of these aquifers and to determine the possibility of developing an emergency water supply during droughts. Assuming that the data available are representative, the study indicates that the water-supply potential of these aquifers, within an assumed 30-mile radius of Washington, D.C., is about 170 million gallons per day. That is, these aquifers, which are now furnishing an estimated 60 million gallons per day, could be developed to supply an additional 110 million gallons per day on a continuous basis. This quantity might be even larger if a significant amount of water is derived from leakage through finer grained confining beds, but further studies would be necessary to determine the amount of leakage and the long-term effects of large-scale continuous use. Furthermore, under intermittent pumping conditions, an assumed emergency supply of 100 million gallons per day could probably be developed from well fields within a 30-mile radius of Washington. An exploration and testing program would be necessary to assess the reliability of these preliminary estimates.

  2. Application of a multipurpose unequal probability stream survey in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, S.W.; Olsen, A.R.; Pitchford, A.M.; Denver, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    A stratified, spatially balanced sample with unequal probability selection was used to design a multipurpose survey of headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Objectives for the survey include unbiased estimates of regional stream conditions, and adequate coverage of unusual but significant environmental settings to support empirical modeling of the factors affecting those conditions. The design and field application of the survey are discussed in light of these multiple objectives. A probability (random) sample of 175 first-order nontidal streams was selected for synoptic sampling of water chemistry and benthic and riparian ecology during late winter and spring 2000. Twenty-five streams were selected within each of seven hydrogeologic subregions (strata) that were delineated on the basis of physiography and surficial geology. In each subregion, unequal inclusion probabilities were used to provide an approximately even distribution of streams along a gradient of forested to developed (agricultural or urban) land in the contributing watershed. Alternate streams were also selected. Alternates were included in groups of five in each subregion when field reconnaissance demonstrated that primary streams were inaccessible or otherwise unusable. Despite the rejection and replacement of a considerable number of primary streams during reconnaissance (up to 40 percent in one subregion), the desired land use distribution was maintained within each hydrogeologic subregion without sacrificing the probabilistic design.

  3. The Sunny Point Formation: a new Upper Cretaceous subsurface unit in the Carolina Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balson, Audra E.; Self-Trail, Jean; Terry, Dennis O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper formally defines the Sunny Point Formation, a new Upper Cretaceous subsurface unit confined to the outer Atlantic Coastal Plain of North and South Carolina. Its type section is established in corehole NH-C-1-2001 (Kure Beach) from New Hanover County, North Carolina. The Sunny Point Formation consists of light-olive-gray to greenish-gray, fine to coarse micaceous sands and light-olive-brown and grayish-red silty, sandy clays. The clay-rich sections typically include ironstone, lignitized wood, root traces, hematite concretions, goethite, limonite, and sphaerosiderites. The Sunny Point Formation is also documented in cores from Bladen County, North Carolina, and from Dorchester and Horry Counties, South Carolina. Previously, strata of the Sunny Point Formation had been incorrectly assigned to the Cape Fear and Middendorf Formations. The Sunny Point occupies a stratigraphic position above the Cenomanian marine Clubhouse Formation and below an upper Turonian unnamed marine unit. Contacts between these units are sharp and unconformable. Calcareous nannofossil and palynomorph analyses indicate that the Sunny Point Formation is Turonian.

  4. Selective extinction and survival across the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary in the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, W.B. )

    1991-10-01

    The inner Atlantic Coastal Plain in New Jersey and the Delmarva Peninsula is underlain by an Upper Cretaceous-lower Tertiary sequence of marine and paralic sand, clay, and glauconitic beds. Campanian, Maastrichtian, Danian, and Thanetian deposits are especially fossiliferous and yield a succession of marine faunas that reveal a pattern of selective extinction and survival across the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary in this area. Cretaceous benthic invertebrate communities are dominated by oysters and other semi-infaunal and infaunal molluscs with planktotrophic larval stages. These are replaced in the Danian by brachiopod-dominated communities that are composed of epifaunal benthos with a variety of nonplanktotrophic reproductive strategies. A similar pattern is observable in the nektonic cephalopod populations in this sequence; the typical ammonites of the Cretaceous became extinct at the K/T boundary, whereas the nautilids survived. Ammonites are thought to have had a planktotrophic larval stage, whereas nautilids are known to lay large lecithotrophic eggs. This pattern of differential survival is attributed to the planktonic population crash at the K/T boundary which placed planktotrophically reproducing species at a disadvantage while favoring the varied groups that practiced alternative reproductive strategies.

  5. Wet early to middle Holocene conditions on the upper Coastal Plain of North Carolina, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goman, Michelle; Leigh, David S.

    2004-05-01

    A peat core from a cutoff paleochannel of Little River on the upper Coastal Plain of North Carolina provides a continuous pollen record of environmental change for the past 10,500 years and includes a sedimentary record of overbank floods. Palynological and sedimentary data indicate that the early to middle Holocene was wetter than previously suggested from lake sites in the southeastern United States. The period from 9000 to 6100 cal yr B.P. is characterized by high pollen percentages of Nyssa and Quercus, but low percentages of Pinus. Fifteen large overbank flood events are present within this period (5 floods/1000 yr). In contrast, only 6 large overbank flood events occurred since 6100 cal yr B.P. (1 flood/1000 yr). The increases in moisture and flood events probably were controlled by changes in atmospheric circulation related to shifts in the position of the Bermuda High, sea surface temperatures, and El Niño activity that together may have affected the frequency of large floods generated from tropical storms in the region.

  6. Groundwater-derived contaminant fluxes along a channelized Coastal Plain stream

    SciTech Connect

    LaSage, Danita m; Fryar, Alan E; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Sturchio, Neil C; Heraty, Linnea J

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies in various settings across eastern North America have examined the movement of volatile organic compound (VOC) plumes from groundwater to streams, but few studies have addressed focused discharge of such plumes in unlithified sediments. From 1999 through 2002, we monitored concentrations of trichloroethene (TCE) and the non-volatile co-contaminant technetium-99 along Little Bayou Creek, a first -order perennial stream in the Coastal Plain of western Kentucky. Spring flow contributed TCE and technetium-99 to the creek, and TCE concentrations tended to vary with technetium-99 in springs. Contaminant concentrations in stream water fluctuated seasonally, but not always synchronously with stream flow. However, contaminant influxes varied seasonally with stream flow and were dominated by a few springs. Concentrations of O2, NO3⁻, and SO2-4, values of δ37CL in groundwater, and the lack of less-chlorinated ethenes in groundwater and stream water indicated that aerobic biodegradation of TCE was unlikely. Losses of TCE along Little Bayou Creek resulted mainly from volatilization, in contrast to streams receiving diffuse contaminated discharge, where intrinsic bioremediation of VOCs appears to be prevalent.

  7. InSAR detects possible thaw settlement in the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rykhus, Russell P.; Lu, Zhong

    2008-01-01

    Satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has proven to be an effective tool for monitoring surface deformation from volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides, and groundwater withdrawal. This paper seeks to expand the list of applications of InSAR data to include monitoring subsidence possibly associated with thaw settlement over the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain. To test our hypothesis that InSAR data are sufficiently sensitive to detect subsidence associated with thaw settlement, we acquired all Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1) L-band data available for the summers of 1996, 1997, and 1998 over two sites on the Alaska North Slope. The least amount of subsidence for both study sites was detected in the interferograms covering the summer of 1996 (2-3 cm), interferograms from 1997 and 1998 revealed that about 3 cm of subsidence occurred at the northern Cache One Lake site, and about 5 cm of subsidence was detected at the southern Kaparuk River site. These preliminary results illustrate the capacity of the L-band (24 cm) wavelength JERS-1 radar data to penetrate the short Arctic vegetation to monitor subsidence possibly associated with thaw settlement of the active layer and (or) other hydrologic changes over relatively large areas.

  8. Hydrogeologic characterization of the cretaceous-tertiary Coastal Plain sequence at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Aadland, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Several hydrostratigraphic classification schemes have been devised to describe the hydrogeology at the Savannah River Site SRS. Central to these schemes is the one-to-one fixed relationship between the hydrostratigraphic units and the lithostratigraphic units currently favored for the Site. This fixed relationship has proven difficult to apply in studies of widely separated locations at the Site due to the various facies observed in the updip Coastal Plain sequence. A detailed analysis and synthesis of the geophysical, core, and hydrologic data available from more than 164 deep wells from 23 cluster locations both on the Site and in the surrounding region was conducted to provide the basis for a hydrostratigraphic classification scheme which could be applied to the entire SRS region. As a result, an interim hydrostratigraphic classification was developed that defines the regional hydrogeologic characteristics of the aquifers underlying the Site (Aadland et al., 1990). The hydrostratigraphic code accounts for and accommodates the rapid lateral variation in lithofacies observed in the region, and eliminates all formal'' connection between the hydrostratigraphic nomenclature and the lithostratigraphic nomenclature. The code is robust and can be made as detailed as is needed to characterize the aquifer units and aquifer zones described in Site-specific studies. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Hydrochemical processes regulating groundwater quality in the coastal plain of Al Musanaah, Sultanate of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askri, Brahim

    2015-06-01

    The Al Batinah coastal aquifer is the principal source of water in northwestern Oman. The rainfall in the Jabal Al Akhdar mountain region recharges the plain with freshwater that allowed agricultural and industrial activities to develop. The over-exploitation of this aquifer since the 1970s for municipal, agricultural and industrial purposes, excessive use of fertilizers in agriculture and leakage from septic tanks led to the deterioration of groundwater quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the hydrochemical processes regulating the groundwater quality in the southwestern section of Al Batinah. From available data collected during the spring of 2010 from 58 wells located in Al Musanaah wilayat, it was determined that the groundwater salinity increased in the direction from the south to the north following the regional flow direction. In addition to salinisation, the groundwater in the upstream and intermediate regions was contaminated with nitrate, while groundwater in the downstream region was affected by fluoride. Calculations of ionic ratios and seawater fraction indicated that seawater intrusion was not dominant in the study area. The primary factors controlling the groundwater chemistry in Al Musanaah appear to be halite dissolution, reverse ion exchange with clay material and anthropogenic pollutants.

  10. Innovative approach for restoring coastal wetlands using treated drill cuttings

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Hocking, E. K.

    1999-11-02

    The leading environmental problem facing coastal Louisiana regions is the loss of wetlands. Oil and gas exploration and production activities have contributed to wetland damage through erosion at numerous sites where canals have been cut through the marsh to access drilling sites. An independent oil and gas producer, working with Southeastern Louisiana University and two oil field service companies, developed a process to stabilize drill cuttings so that they could be used as a substrate to grow wetlands vegetation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded a project under which the process would be validated through laboratory studies and field demonstrations. The laboratory studies demonstrated that treated drill cuttings support the growth of wetlands vegetation. However, neither the Army Corps of Engineers (COE) nor the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) would grant regulatory approval for afield trial of the process. Argonne National Laboratory was asked to join the project team to try to find alternative mechanisms for gaining regulatory approval. Argonne worked with EPA's Office of Reinvention and learned that EPA's Project XL would be the only regulatory program under which the proposed field trial could be done. One of the main criteria for an acceptable Project XL proposal is to have a formal project sponsor assume the responsibility and liability for the project. Because the proposed project involved access to private land areas, the team felt that an oil and gas company with coastal Louisiana land holdings would need to serve as sponsor. Despite extensive communication with oil and gas companies and industry associations, the project team was unable to find any organization willing to serve as sponsor. In September 1999, the Project XL proposal was withdrawn and the project was canceled.

  11. Effects of 50-years unmanaged water resource in Southern Tuscany coastal plains (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, R.; Debolini, M.; Galli, M. A.; Bonari, E.

    2012-04-01

    Southern Tuscany coastal plains show favorable conditions from the agro-pedoclimatic point of view and are characterized by a relevant touristic flux, being one of the most popular seaside resort. In such conditions, water resource is one of the main assets: disregarded water management may then lead to severe consequences for the development and growth of the socio-economic system and agro-ecosystem maintenance. During the 1960 decade, ante-II World War projects for hydropower production (i.e. the Farma-Merse scheme) were rearranged in favor of irrigation and the enhancement of crop production. Storage of about 110 Mm3 was thought to provide water for about 35000 Ha. At the end of the 70's, mass tourism began to take place in coastal areas giving rise to water access conflicts between agriculture and the touristic infrastructure. Being none of these projects realized, the increasing demand for drinking water was satisfied by tapping the Mount Amiata aquifer for 70% of the annual demand, and the remaining 30% coming from local aquifers. Due to the absence of rainfall and then of surface water flow in streams at the end of the spring and during the summer period, irrigation requirements were also satisfied by means of groundwater withdrawals. As a consequence of overdraft, aquifer salinisation started in most of the coastal areas (Regione Toscana, 1995; Bianchi et al., 2011; Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, 2011). All this happened in the completely absence of controls on groundwater abstractions. In the early 90's, the Commissione Leon (Regione Toscana, 1991) re-analyzed the largest dam projects and presented as feasible a conjunctive use of surface water stored in artificial basins (to be built) and by planned and controlled local aquifers. Anyway, political issues and environmental concerns halted any kind of realization, so that today the largest basin in the area is private, it dates back to 1930, and it shows a reduced capacity of about 1.8 Mm3, instead than the

  12. Social and Economic Considerations for Coastal and Watershed Restoration in the Puget Sound, Washington: A Literature Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stinchfield, Holly M.; Koontz, Lynne; Sexton, Natalie R.

    2009-01-01

    This literature review summarizes and synthesizes the available information regarding the impacts of socioeconomic factors on coastal and watershed restoration in the Puget Sound, Wash. Major topic areas which are explored include: institutions and restoration; beliefs, behaviors, and knowledge about restoration and the environment; stakeholder involvement in restoration, communication of restoration issues, and economic issues in restoration. The review revealed that socioeconomic factors play an important role in determining the designation, process, and success of restoration projects. Socioeconomic factors can facilitate or obstruct restoration, but few large-scale restoration projects emphasize them in either prioritization or monitoring procedures. Additionally, there are substantial gaps in the literature regarding restoration in the Puget Sound across all of the topics addressed in this review. The lack of research makes it difficult to provide a holistic view of the social and economic dimensions of restoration in the Sound but provides opportunity for future research.

  13. Simulation of ground-water flow and movement of the freshwater-saltwater interface in the New Jersey coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Daryll A.; Gordon, Alison D.

    1999-01-01

    The confined aquifers of the New Jersey Coastal Plain are sands that range in thickness from 50 to 600 feet and are separated by confining units. The confining units are composed of silts and clays that range in thickness from 500 to 1,000 feet. The aquifers are recharged by precipitation on their outcrop areas. This water then flows laterally downdip and vertically to the deeper confined aquifers. The confined aquifers ultimately discharge to the Raritan and Delaware Bays and to the Atlantic Ocean. In 1988, ground-water withdrawals from confined and unconfined New Jersey Coastal Plain aquifers were approximately 345 million gallons per day, more than 75 percent of which was pumped from the confined aquifers. These withdrawals have created large cones of depression in several Coastal Plain aquifers near populated areas, particularly in Camden and Monmouth Counties. The continued decline of water levels in confined aquifers can cause saltwater intrusion, reduce stream discharge near the outcrop areas, and threaten the quality of the ground-water supply. SHARP, a quasi-three-dimensional finite-difference computer model that can simulate freshwater and saltwater flow, was used to simulate the ground-water flow system in the New Jersey Coastal Plain, including the location and movement of the freshwater-saltwater interface in nine aquifers and eight intervening confining units. The freshwater-saltwater interface is defined as the hypothetical line seaward of which the chloride concentration is equal to or greater than 10,000 milligrams per liter. Model simulations were used to estimate the location and movement of the freshwater-saltwater interface resulting from (1) eustatic sea-level changes over the past 84,000 years, (2) ground-water withdrawals from 1896 through 1988, (3) and future ground-water withdrawals from 1988 to 2040 from Coastal Plain aquifers. Simultion results showed that the location and movement of the freshwater-saltwater interface are more dependent

  14. Rates of intrastratal solution of heavy minerals in southeast Atlantic coastal plain and their potential for dating sedimentary events

    SciTech Connect

    Carver, R.E.

    1986-05-01

    The heavy mineral content of sedimentary deposits depends on provenance, the effect of chemical and mechanical weathering during transport, grain size of the host sediments, and postdepositional intrastratal solution that selectively removes, over time, the less table minerals. Giles and Pilkey pointed out that two types of sand-sized sediment arrive at the southeast Atlantic Coast: sediments originating in the Piedmont with immature heavy mineral assemblages, and sediments derived from older coastal plain sediments with mature heavy mineral assemblages. Most of the coastal sands are mixtures of these two types, and the heavy mineral suites of well-mixed coastal sands are reasonably predictable, as are the suites of Piedmont sands. For sands from similar sources and with similar transport histories, the mineralogy of fine-grained sand samples differs from that of coarse-grained samples. For example, fine-grained samples invariably have more zircon. Examination of a single size fraction of the samples eliminates the size effect. For well-mixed coastal sands, postdepositional intrastratal solution is the only variable producing significant differences in heavy mineral suites. Of the common heavy minerals in southeast Atlantic coastal and Piedmont suites, hornblende and epidote appear to be the most susceptible to intrastratal solution, hornblende more so than epidote. The rate of intrastratal solution is progressive, but because of variation in vertical and horizontal permeability and other factors, the rate is rarely, if ever, linear with time. However, under certain circumstances, heavy mineral suites indicate relative areas of coastal plain sand units and rough estimates of absolute ages.

  15. Sele coastal plain flood risk due to wave storm and river flow interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benassai, Guido; Aucelli, Pietro; Di Paola, Gianluigi; Della Morte, Renata; Cozzolino, Luca; Rizzo, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Wind waves, elevated water levels and river discharge can cause flooding in low-lying coastal areas, where the water level is the interaction between wave storm elevated water levels and river flow interaction. The factors driving the potential flood risk include weather conditions, river water stage and storm surge. These data are required to obtain inputs to run the hydrological model used to evaluate the water surface level during ordinary and extreme events regarding both the fluvial overflow and storm surge at the river mouth. In this paper we studied the interaction between the sea level variation and the river hydraulics in order to assess the location of the river floods in the Sele coastal plain. The wave data were acquired from the wave buoy of Ponza, while the water level data needed to assess the sea level variation were recorded by the tide gauge of Salerno. The water stages, river discharges and rating curves for Sele river were provided by Italian Hydrographic Service (Servizio Idrografico e Mareografico Nazionale, SIMN).We used the dataset of Albanella station (40°29'34.30"N, 15°00'44.30"E), located around 7 km from the river mouth. The extreme river discharges were evaluated through the Weibull equation, which were associated with their return period (TR). The steady state river water levels were evaluated through HEC-RAS 4.0 model, developed by Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) of the United States Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center (USACE,2006). It is a well-known 1D model that computes water surface elevation (WSE) and velocity at discrete cross-sections by solving continuity, energy and flow resistance (e.g., Manning) equation. Data requirements for HEC-RAS include topographic information in the form of a series of cross-sections, friction parameter in the form of Manning's n values across each cross-section, and flow data including flow rates, flow change locations, and boundary conditions. For a steady state sub

  16. A late Quaternary multiple paleovalley system from the Adriatic coastal plain (Biferno River, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorosi, Alessandro; Bracone, Vito; Campo, Bruno; D'Amico, Carmine; Rossi, Veronica; Rosskopf, Carmen M.

    2016-02-01

    A buried paleovalley system, up to 2 km wide and exceeding 50 m in relief, made up of multiple cross-cutting depressions incised into the Lower Pleistocene bedrock, is reported from the central Adriatic coastal plain at the mouth of Biferno River. Through a multi-proxy approach that included geomorphological, stratigraphic, sedimentological and paleontological (benthic foraminifers, ostracods and molluscs) investigations, the facies architecture of distinct, superposed valley fills is reconstructed and their relative chronology established along a transverse profile with extremely high data density (average borehole spacing 75 m). Regional tectonic uplift appears as the major controlling factor of initial (Middle Pleistocene) river down-cutting and paleovalley formation. In contrast, glacio-eustatic fluctuations drove fluvial-system response over the last 120 ky, when valley incision was primarily induced by the last glacial base-level lowering and climatic forcing. A fragmented record of coastal and shallow-marine deposits is available for the lower paleovalley fill, which is penetrated by a limited borehole dataset. Multiple erosion phases probably related to the post-MIS 5e sea-level fall are reconstructed from the upper paleovalley fill, where a buried fluvial terrace succession is identified a few tens of meters below the ground surface. The flat surfaces of two buried fluvial terraces suggest longer-term, stepped relative sea-level fall, and are correlated with fluvial incisions that took place possibly at the MIS 5/4 transition and at the MIS 3/2 transition, respectively. A laterally extensive gravel body developed on the valley floor during the Last Glacial Maximum. During the ensuing latest Pleistocene-early Holocene sea-level rise the Biferno paleovalley was transformed into an estuary. Upstream from the maximum shoreline ingression, the vertical succession of well-drained floodplain, poorly-drained floodplain, and swamp deposits evidences increasing

  17. Assessing landscape change and processes of recurrence, replacement, and recovery in the Southeastern Coastal Plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drummond, Mark A.; Stier, Michael P.; Auch, Roger F.; Taylor, Janis; Griffith, Glenn E.; Hester, David J.; Riegle, Jodi L.; Soulard, Christopher E.; McBeth, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    The processes of landscape change are complex, exhibiting spatial variability as well as linear, cyclical, and reversible characteristics. To better understand the various processes that cause transformation, a data aggregation, validation, and attribution approach was developed and applied to an analysis of the Southeastern Coastal Plains (SECP). The approach integrates information from available national land-use, natural disturbance, and land-cover data to efficiently assess spatially-specific changes and causes. Between 2001 and 2006, the processes of change affected 7.8 % of the SECP but varied across small-scale ecoregions. Processes were placed into a simple conceptual framework to explicitly identify the type and direction of change based on three general characteristics: replacement, recurrence, and recovery. Replacement processes, whereby a land use or cover is supplanted by a new land use, including urbanization and agricultural expansion, accounted for approximately 15 % of the extent of change. Recurrent processes that contribute to cyclical changes in land cover, including forest harvest/replanting and fire, accounted for 83 %. Most forest cover changes were recurrent, while the extents of recurrent silviculture and forest replacement processes such as urbanization far exceeded forest recovery processes. The total extent of landscape recovery, from prior land use to natural or semi-natural vegetation cover, accounted for less than 3 % of change. In a region of complex change, increases in transitory grassland and shrubland covers were caused by large-scale intensive plantation silviculture and small-scale activities including mining reclamation. Explicit identification of the process types and dynamics presented here may improve the understanding of land-cover change and landscape trajectory.

  18. Sedimentology of paleochannels on foreland coastal plain, Judith River Formation (upper Cretaceous), southeast Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, E.H.

    1984-04-01

    The upper 90 m (295 ft) of the sub-Bearpaw Judith River Formation, continuously exposed in the badlands along the Red Deer River 185 km (115 mi) east of Calgary, is famous for the unrivaled assemblage of dinosaur fossils. Dinosaur Provincial Park presents are a rare opportunity to view the architecture of a foreland coastal-plain sequence as well as to clarify the origin and distribution of subbituminous coal zones and gas reservoirs associated with this formation across southeast Alberta. The distal reaches of paleodrainage from the developing Cordillera to the Western Interior seaway are being examined by north-south traversed across the badlands. Sharp-based paleochannel units, enclosed by rooted, olive-gray mudstone sequences that are commonly 4-6 m (13-20 ft) thick, vary between 2 end members. The first contains laterally accreted sand-mud couplets with abundant macrofloral debris, and represents cyclical, low-energy growth of point bars, possible with an estuarine influence. The second, mainly comprising cosets of large trough cross-beds with mudstone intraclasts, was formed by episodic aggradation of high-energy systems. An intermediate composite type displays evidence for an energy increase as channel sinuosity decreased. This variation in paleochannel type is attributed to alternating alluviation/rejuvenation associated with an unstable base level. Coal zones and potential reservoirs appear to be associated with the transgressive and regressive phases, respectively, of the Bearpaw coast. Amalgamation of paleochannels - marked by laterally extensive horizons of bone fragments, lithic and intraclastic gravel - is more common seaward over the axial region of the Sweetgrass arch.

  19. Stream habitat characteristics at selected sites in the Georgia-Florida coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, L.J.; Turtora, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Habitat characterization is part of a multidisciplinary approach to water-quality assessment implemented by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Habitat data were collected in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit at 24 sites during 1993-95. Data were collected for habitat characteristics at three spatial scales: basin, segment, and reach. Basin data include physiography, land resource provinces, and land use, providing a description of the environmental setting at each site. Segment data include length, gradient, and sinuosity. A Kendall correlation analysis performed on segment characteristics and the log-of-basin area showed a correlation between segment gradient and the log-of-basin area and a correlation between sinuosity and segment length. Reach data consist of field-collected measurements of both instream and riparian habitats. Sand and detritus were the most common channel-bed substrates among the sampled sites. Measurements of channel width, water depth, and bank width and height were used to create cross-sectional profiles of each sampled area. Elevations of selected durations plotted on cross sections illustrated the percentage of time that the banks were inundated at each site. Sites were divided into two groups based on duration of bank inundation (less than or equal to 1 percent and greater than 1 percent). Bank woody vegetation was also sampled and a clustering algorithm known as Two-Way INdicator SPecies ANalysis (TWINSPAN) was used to analyze these data. TWINSPAN divided the sites into two groups based on their vegetation composition. A statistical comparison of the two types of site groups (duration of bank inundation and vegetation) was performed. The significant association between these groups was consistent with the hypothesis that inundation frequency affected riparian vegetation.

  20. Pre-Mesozoic terranes and the tectonic framework of the Gulf Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, W.A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Pre-Mesozoic rocks beneath the Gulf Coastal Plain reflect the late Precambrian (Pc)-Cambrian (Cb) rifted continental margin and the late Paleozoic Appalachian-Ouachita orogen (AOO). The AL promontory of Pc continental crust is bounded by a NW-striking transform margin (AL-OK transform) and a NE-striking rifted margin (southern Blue Ridge rift). Terrane accretion during the AOO differed markedly on the orthogonal adjacent sides of the AL promontory (ALp). Late Paleozoic compressional fabrics and terrane-boundary sutures, as well as extensional fabrics of the older rifted margin, influenced the geometry of Mesozoic extension and opening of the Gulf of Mexico. Along the SW side of the ALp, arc-continent collision resulted in accretion of an arc and subduction complex onto the margin of N American crust. The Ouachita allochthon includes off-shelf passive-margin rocks in an accretionary prism and synorogenic turbidites that represent a forearc basin and trench. Carbonate-shelf strata of the N American passive margin remained in place beneath the Ouachita allochthon. Along the southeast side of the ALp, passive-margin carbonate-shelf rocks are imbricated in the Appalachian thrust belt and bordered by an internal metamorphic belt of accreted terranes; both are underlain by relatively shallow Pc basement. The SE-dipping Suwannee-Wiggins suture terminates the shallow continental crust, truncates previously accreted terranes, and forms the boundary between N America and the Suwannee terrane. Mesozoic extensional structures include NE-and NW-striking fault systems. A NE-striking Triassic graben overlies the Suwannee-Wiggins suture, suggesting that Mesozoic extension used the Late Paleozoic compressional fabric of the suture. A NW-striking system of Triassic fault-bounded basins coincides with the trace of the Cb AL-OK transform fault, suggesting that the older crustal boundary controlled the location of a Mesozoic transform/transfer fault system.

  1. The occurrence and geochemistry of salty ground water in the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Meisler, H.

    1989-01-01

    Salty ground water underlies freshwater in the eastern part of the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain. The transition zone between freshwater and saltwater is represented in this report by a series of maps showing the depths to chloride concentrations of 250, 1,000, 5,000, 10,000, and 18,000 milligrams per liter. The maps are based on chloride data obtained from water-quality analyses supplemented by interpretation of borehole spontaneous-potential and resistivity logs. They indicate that the transition zone between 250 and 18,000 milligrams of chloride per liter ranges in thickness from 400 to 2,200 feet. The saltwater-freshwater transition zone is shallowest in North Carolina and deepens northward, attaining its greatest depth in Maryland and New Jersey. It deepens inland from the coast except locally in North Carolina and in New Jersey, where it is deepest along the coast. Depth to the saltwater-freshwater transition zone is partly controlled by the natural flow pattern of fresh ground water; areas where the transition zone is relatively shallow commonly coincide with areas of natural ground-water discharge. The broad saltwater-freshwater transition zone is attributed to the mixing of freshwater and saltwater caused by large-scale sea-level fluctuations, probably during the late Tertiary and Quaternary. Mixing of freshwater with seawater predominates in North Carolina, whereas mixing with brine is more significant from Virginia to New Jersey. The most likely origin of the brine is from the leaching of evaporitic strata beneath the Continental Shelf and the westward movement of the brines, initially during basinal compaction and subsequently during periods of sea-level rise.

  2. Preliminary delineation of salty ground water in the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meisler, Harold

    1980-01-01

    Salty ground water underlies freshwater in the eastern part of the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain. The transition zone between freshwater and saltwater is represented in this report by a series of maps showing the depths to chloride concentrations of 250, 1,000, 10,000, and 18,000 milligrams per liter. The maps are based on chloride concentrations obtained from self-potential logs as well as from water-quality analyses. Depths to the designated chloride concentrations generally increase inland from the coast except in New Jersey where they are greatest along the coast and in North Carolina where depths to the 10,000 and 18,000 milligrams per liter concentrations are greatest beneath Pamlico Sound. The transition zone between 250 and 18,000 milligrams per liter of chloride is generally 1,500 to 2,300 feet thick except in part of North Carolina, where it is less than 1,000 feet. Depths to 250 and 1,000 milligrams per liter of chloride are probably controlled by the natural flow pattern of fresh ground water. Areas where these concentrations are relatively shallow generally coincide with areas of natural ground-water discharge. Depths to 10,000 and 18,000 milligrams per liter of chloride, and the occurrence offshore of ground water that is fresher than seawater, is attributed to long-term hydrologic conditions during which sea level fluctuations of a few hundred feet recurred several times. The origin of ground water that is saltier than seawater is attributed to the leaching of evaporitic strata beneath the Continental Shelf and Slope followed by westward movement of the brines during periods of sea-level rise.

  3. The effect of sea level rise on coastal plain estuaries, with examples from Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Colman, S.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Estuaries are geologically transitory features whose evolution depends on a delicate balance among relative sea level basin geometry, shoreline erosion, fluvial sediment discharge, littoral drift, and tidal exchange. Models of modern estuarine development require specific sea level scenarios; almost all assume a continuation of the decelerating sea level rise of the last few thousand years. However, under constant external conditions, estuaries are ephemeral because they rapidly fill with fluvial and marine sediment. The rate of filling changes with time, but only a few thousand years are required to fill most estuaries. The persistence of estuaries, therefore, requires that relative sea level rises at a rate sufficient to compensate for the inherent tendency of estuaries to fill with sediment. Coastal plain estuaries, of which Chesapeake Bay is a prime example, are often referred to as drowned river valleys. Although this description is appropriate for the first-order morphology of Chesapeake Bay, the implied passivity can be misleading, especially in the high-tidal-energy area of the bay mouth where dramatic spit progradation and channel migration have occurred in the last few thousand years. Holocene sediment accumulation rates are more irregular along the length of the estuary than most models would predict; but in general, sediment accumulation has been greater at the mouth and at the head of the bay and less along the middle reaches. If relative sea level were to stabilize, the estuary would fill with sediment from both ends within a few thousand years. Evidence for two previous generations of the bay is preserved as the estuarine fill of major fluvial valleys, demonstrating that estuarine episodes have been closely tied to cyclic sea level changes.

  4. Prioritizing watersheds for conservation actions in the southeastern coastal plain ecoregion.

    PubMed

    Jang, Taeil; Vellidis, George; Kurkalova, Lyubov A; Boll, Jan; Hyman, Jeffrey B

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to apply and evaluate a recently developed prioritization model which uses the synoptic approach to geographically prioritize watersheds in which Best Management Practices (BMPs) can be implemented to reduce water quality problems resulting from erosion and sedimentation. The model uses a benefit-cost framework to rank candidate watersheds within an ecoregion or river basin so that BMP implementation within the highest ranked watersheds will result in the most water quality improvement per conservation dollar invested. The model was developed to prioritize BMP implementation efforts in ecoregions containing watersheds associated with the USDA-NRCS Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). We applied the model to HUC-8 watersheds within the southeastern Coastal Plain ecoregion (USA) because not only is it an important agricultural area but also because it contains a well-studied medium-sized CEAP watershed which is thought to be representative of the ecoregion. The results showed that the three HUC-8 watersheds with the highest rankings (most water quality improvement expected per conservation dollar invested) were located in the southern Alabama, northern Florida, and eastern Virginia. Within these watersheds, measures of community attitudes toward conservation practices were highly ranked, and these indicators seemed to push the watersheds to the top of the rankings above other similar watersheds. The results, visualized as maps, can be used to screen and reduce the number of watersheds that need further assessment by managers and decision-makers within the study area. We anticipate that this model will allow agencies like USDA-NRCS to geographically prioritize BMP implementation efforts.

  5. Microclimate and actual evapotranspiration in a humid coastal-plain environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennehy, K.F.; McMahon, P.B.

    1987-01-01

    Continuous hourly measurements of twelve meteorologic variables recorded during 1983 and 1984 were used to examine the microclimate and actual evapotranspiration at a low-level radioactive-waste burial site near Barnwell, South Carolina. The study area is in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of southwestern South Carolina. Monthly, daily, and hourly trends in net radiation, incoming and reflected short-wave radiation, incoming and emitted long-wave radiation, soil-heat flux, dry- and wet-bulb temperatures, soil temperatures, wind direction and speed, and precipitation were used to characterize the microclimate. Average daily air temperatures ranged from -9 to 32?? Celsius during the period of study. Net radiation varied from about -27 to 251 watts m-2 and was dominated by incoming short-wave radiation throughout the year. The peak net radiation during a summer day generally occurred 2-3h before the peak vapor pressure deficit. In the winter, these peaks occurred at about the same time of day. Monthly precipitation varied from 15 to 241 mm. The Bowen ratio method was used to estimate hourly evapotranspiration, which was summed to also give daily and monthly evapotranspiration. Actual evapotranspiration varied from 0.0 to 0.7 mm h-1, 0.8-5 mm d-1, and 20-140 mm month-1 during 1983 and 1984. The maximum rate of evapotranspiration generally occurred at the same time of day as maximum net radiation, suggesting net radiation was the main driving force for evapotranspiration. Precipitation exceeded evapotranspiration during 14 months of the 2yr study period. Late fall, winter, and early spring contained the majority of these months. The maximum excess precipitation was 115 mm in February 1983. ?? 1987.

  6. Mercury and methylmercury dynamics in a coastal plain watershed, New Jersey, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, J.L.; Riskin, M.L.; Szabo, Z.; Reilly, P.A.; Rosman, R.; Bonin, J.L.; Fischer, J.M.; Heckathorn, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    The upper Great Egg Harbor River watershed in New Jersey's Coastal Plain is urbanized but extensive freshwater wetlands are present downstream. In 2006-2007, studies to assess levels of total mercury (THg) found concentrations in unfiltered streamwater to range as high as 187 ng/L in urbanized areas. THg concentrations were <20 ng/L in streamwater in forested/wetlands areas where both THg and dissolved organic carbon concentrations tended to increase while pH and concentrations of dissolved oxygen and nitrate decreased with flushing of soils after rain. Most of the river's flow comes from groundwater seepage; unfiltered groundwater samples contained up to 177 ng/L of THg in urban areas where there is a history of well water with THg that exceeds the drinking water standard (2,000 ng/L). THg concentrations were lower (<25 ng/L) in unfiltered groundwater from downstream wetland areas. In addition to higher THg concentrations (mostly particulate), concentrations of chloride were higher in streamwater and groundwater from urban areas than in those from downstream wetland areas. Methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in unfiltered streamwater ranged from 0.17 ng/L at a forest/wetlands site to 2.94 ng/L at an urban site. The percentage of THg present as MeHg increased as the percentage of forest + wetlands increased, but also was high in some urban areas. MeHg was detected only in groundwater <1 m below the water/sediment interface. Atmospheric deposition is presumed to be the main source of Hg to the wetlands and also may be a source to groundwater, where wastewater inputs in urban areas are hypothesized to mobilize Hg deposited to soils. ?? 2010 US Government.

  7. Overview of investigations into mercury in ground water, soils, and septage, New Jersey coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, J.L.; Szabo, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, investigations by health departments of eight counties in southern New Jersey, by the NJ Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP), and subsequently by the US Geological Survey (USGS), have shown that Hg concentrations in water tapped by about 600 domestic wells exceed the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2 ??g/L. The wells are finished in the areally extensive unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system of New Jersey's Coastal Plain; background concentrations of Hg in water from this system are < 0.01 ??g/L. Evidence of contributions from point sources of Hg, such as landfills or commercial and industrial hazardous-waste sites, is lacking. During 1996-2003, the USGS collected water samples from 203 domestic, irrigation, observation, and production wells using ultraclean techniques; septage, leach-field effluent, soils, and aquifer sediments also were sampled. Elevated concentrations of NH4, B, Cl, NO3, and Na and presence of surfactants in domestic-well water indicate that septic-system effluent can affect water quality in unsewered residential areas, but neither septage nor effluent appears to be a major Hg source. Detections of hydrogen sulfide in ground water at a residential area indicate localized reducing conditions; undetectable SO4 concentrations in water from other residential areas indicate that reducing conditions, which could be conducive to Hg methylation, may be common locally. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), mostly chlorinated solvents, also are found in ground water at the affected areas, but statistically significant associations between presence of Hg and VOCs were absent for most areas evaluated. Hg concentrations are lower in some filtered water samples than in paired unfiltered samples, likely indicating that some Hg is associated with particles or colloids. The source of colloids may be soils, which, when undisturbed, contain higher concentrations of Hg than do disturbed soils and aquifer sediments. Soil

  8. Physiological diversity and distributions of heterotrophic bacteria in deep cretaceous sediments of the atlantic coastal plain.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, J K; Balkwill, D L; Zachara, J M; Li, S M; Brockman, F J; Simmons, M A

    1991-02-01

    A series of 23 intact core segments was obtained from two distinct deep subsurface geological formations, the Middendorf and the Cape Fear formations, underlying the southeastern coastal plain of South Carolina. The Middendorf formation in this region consists of permeable, saturated, sandy sediments; the Cape Fear formation consists mainly of less permeable sediments. The core segments were separated by vertical distances ranging from several centimeters to 48 m. Aerobic chemoheterotrophic bacteria were enumerated on a dilute medium, and populations ranged from 3.1 to 6.4 log CFU g of sediment in the Middendorf cores and from below detection to 4.3 log CFU g in the Cape Fear cores. A total of 198 morphologically distinct colony types were isolated, purified, and subjected to 108 different physiological measurements. The isolates from the two formations were distinct (i.e., they produced substantially different response patterns to the various physiological measurements), as were those in different core samples from the same formation. Cluster analysis revealed 21 different biotypes based on similarities of 75% or higher in response patterns to 21 physiological assays. One biotype contained 57 (29%) of the subsurface isolates, 10 biotypes contained 5 or more isolates, and the remainder had 4 or fewer. The organic compounds that were most commonly metabolized by the subsurface bacteria included Tween 40 (85%) and beta-hydroxybutyric acid (60%). Organic acids, in general, were also commonly metabolized by the subsurface bacteria. Isolates from the Cape Fear core segments were capable of metabolizing a higher percentage of the substrates than were bacteria isolated from the Middendorf formation. Although the heterogeneous distributions of bacteria in deep subsurface sediments may make it difficult to use aquifer microcosms to predict in situ biotransformation rates, the diversity of the physiological properties of these organisms offers promise for in situ remediation

  9. Trends and transformation of nutrients and pesticides in a coastal plain aquifer system, United States.

    PubMed

    Denver, Judith M; Tesoriero, Anthony J; Barbaro, Jeffrey R

    2010-01-01

    Four local-scale sites in areas with similar corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] agriculture were studied to determine the effects of different hydrogeologic settings of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP) on the transport of nutrients and pesticides in groundwater. Settings ranged from predominantly well-drained soils overlying thick, sandy surficial aquifers to predominantly poorly drained soils with complex aquifer stratigraphy and high organic matter content. Apparent age of groundwater, dissolved gases, N isotopes, major ions, selected pesticides and degradates, and geochemical environments in groundwater were studied. Agricultural chemicals were the source of most dissolved ions in groundwater. Specific conductance was strongly correlated with reconstructed nitrate (the sum of N in nitrate and N gas) (R(2) = 0.81, p < 0.0001), and is indicative of the relative degree of agricultural effects on groundwater. Trends in nitrate were primarily related to changes in manure and fertilizer use at the well-drained sites where aquifer conditions were consistently oxic. Nitrate was present in young groundwater but completely removed over time through denitrification at the poorly drained sites where there were variations in chemical input and in geochemical environment. Median concentrations of atrazine (6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), metolachlor (2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide), and some of their common degradates were higher at well-drained sites than at poorly drained sites, with concentrations of degradates generally higher than those of the parent compounds at all sites. An increase in the percentage of deethylatrazine to total atrazine over time at one well-drained site may be related to changes in manure application.

  10. Physiological diversity and distributions of heterotrophic bacteria in deep cretaceous sediments of the Atlantic coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, J.K.; Zachara, J.M.; Li, S.W.; Brockman, F.J.; Simmons, M.A. ); Balkwill, D.L. )

    1991-02-01

    A series of 23 intact core segments was obtained from two distinct deep subsurface geological formations, the Middendorf and the Cape Fear formations, underlying the southeastern coastal plain of South Carolina. Aerobic chemoheterotrophic bacteria were enumerated on a dilute medium, and populations ranged from 3.1 to 6.4 log CFU g of sediment[sup [minus]1] in the Middendorf cores and from below detection to 4.3 log CFU g[sup [minus]1] in the Cape Fear cores. A total of 198 morphologically distinct colony types were isolated, purified, and subjected to 108 different physiological measurements. The isolates from the two formations were distinct as were those in different core samples from the same formation. Cluster analysis revealed 21 different biotypes based on similarities of 75% or higher in response patterns to 21 physiological assays. One biotype contained 57 of the subsurface isolates, 10 biotypes contained 5 or more isolates, and the remainder had 4 or fewer. The organic compounds that were most commonly metabolized by the subsurface bacteria included Tween 40 and [beta]-hydroxybutyric acid. Organic acids, in general, were also commonly metabolized by the subsurface bacteria. Isolates from the Cape Fear core segments were capable of metabolizing a higher percentage of the substrates than were bacteria isolated from the Middendorf formation. Although the heterogeneous distributions of bacteria in deep subsurface sediments may make it difficult to use aquifer microcosms to predict in situ biotransformation rates, the diversity of the physiological properties of these organisms offers promise for in situ remediation of contaminants.

  11. Mollusk-isotope records of Plio-Pleistocene marine paleoclimate, U. S. Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Krantz, D.E. )

    1990-08-01

    Stable oxygen and carbon isotope profiles from fossil scallop shells provide detailed paleoenvironmental information for the Pliocene and early Pleistocene of the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain. Scallop specimens were collected from strata which represent at least five major marine transgressions. Minimum and maximum paleotemperatures were calculated from the {delta}{sup 18}O ranges recorded in each shell profile, after adjusting for changes in seawater {delta}{sup 18}O related to changes in global ice volume. Paleotemperature ranges from each stratigraphic unit were compared with modern conditions on the shelves of the Middle and South Atlantic Bight, and with paleotemperatures estimated by Hazel (1971b, 1988) from the ostracode faunas. The mollusk-isotope records indicate that the marine climate of the Atlantic Shelf was mild temperate during the deposition of the Sunken Meadow Member of the Yorktown Formation in the early Pliocene. The climate became warm temperate during the middle and late Pliocene transgressions which deposited the Rushmere, Morgarts Beach and Moore House Members of the Yorktown Formation and the Chowan River Formation. During the deposition of the James City Formation in the early Pleistocene, temperatures returned to a mild temperate climate similar to that of the modern Virginia Bight shelf. The character of the isotope profiles indicates that hydrographic conditions were generally stable and similar to those of the modern Middle Atlantic Bight. The {delta}{sup 13}C profiles of most of the shells show trends suggestive of spring phytoplankton blooms and summer water-column stratification. Anomalies in several profiles are interpreted as reduced salinity events, probably related to river discharge, which most commonly occur in the spring. There is no convincing evidence in the shell profiles for upwelling.

  12. Hydrogeochemical processes and facies in confining units of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Pucci, A.A. Jr.

    1998-07-01

    Pore water solutes and sediments in the New Jersey Coastal Plain were studied to assess processes that control pore water chemistry in confining units and interactions with aquifer water chemistry. Solute chemistry and variations with depth are reported for 19 samples collected from a continuously cored borehole in the lower Miocene Kirkwood Formation at Atlantic City, New Jersey. In 14 pore water samples collected from the Lower Confining Unit overlying the Atlantic City 800-foot sand, and from the silt interbeds in the Upper Part of the Atlantic City 800-foot sand, linear regressions showed especially high correlations (R{sup 2}>0.89) between concentrations of Mg and Ca; between concentrations of Na and the sum of Ca and Mg; between concentrations of SO{sub 4} and the sum of Ca and Mg; and between concentrations of Na and SO{sub 4}. There were three distinct water quality types: Ca-SO{sub 4}, Ca-Na-SO{sub 4}-Cl-HCO{sub 3}, and Na-SO{sub 4}-HCO{sub 3}Cl. Each water type generally is within distinct intervals (tens of meters), or hydrogeochemical facies, in the core. The first two facies were found only in the units overlying the Atlantic City 800-foot Sand; the third type was found only in samples from the underlying composite confining unit. Significant variation of pore water solute concentrations was indicated on a scale smaller than the sampling interval (about 3.5 m). Two principal components explained 82.5% of the total variation in pore water chemistry. The processes which control the variation in water quality include (1) chemical processes such as shell dissolution, incongruent carbonate dissolution, and clay transformations; (2) a hypothesized physical-chemical mechanism of differential migration of sulfate accompanied by divalent cations; and (3) fresh water flushing of, and mixing with, residual sea water at paleoflow rates. Cation-exchange reactions do not appear to be an important process in these sediments.

  13. Origin and geochemical evolution of porewater in clay aquitards in North Jiangsu coastal plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Qin; Liang, Xing; Li, Jing; Ma, Bin

    2015-04-01

    Decline of groundwater levels, resulting in water pressure decreasing, skeleton pressure increasing and porewater releasing from clay aquitards under these conditions, may cause the change of groundwater quality. This study provides insights into the origins and geochemical interactions of porewater in unoxidized and nonfractured aquitards under the influence of groundwater declining. Field investigations were conducted and a borehole was drilled with a depth of 250m in North Jiangsu coastal plain, China. 138 porewater samples were collected for isotope analysis, and 44 water samples were extracted from the clay for major ion analysis. Porewater, changing with the TDS tested, showed large variations with depth through the aquitards from 0.3g/l to 26.0g/l. The water type could be classified into fresh water (3.0g/l, Cl-Na; 3-35m). The changing trend of salt-porewater was mostly accordant with the mixing line between fresh porewater and seawater end-members. Nevertheless molar Br/Cl ratios (3.7-6.5*10-3) were larger than those of seawater (1.5*10-3), and δ2H and δ18O values showed depleted isotopic signatures (between -1.0o and -3.5o and -19.1o and -29.3o respectively) compared to modern seawater, indicating that salt-porewater evolved from paleo-seawater that was more saline and subsequently diluted with fresher water over the long-term. However, fresh and brackish porewater did not coincide with the mixing line; δ2H and δ18O values were much lower than salt-porewater and below the global meteoric water line. Also, molar Br/Cl ratios (0-7.3) and the trend of δ18O with chloride contents manifested evapotranspiration might be the dominate mechanism of brackish formation. The deltas values of Na+ (0), and molar Na/Cl ratios (

  14. Fluometuron and pendimethalin runoff from strip and conventionally tilled cotton in the southern atlantic coastal plain.

    PubMed

    Potter, Thomas L; Truman, Clint C; Bosch, David D; Bednarz, Craig

    2004-01-01

    In the Atlantic Coastal Plain region of southern Georgia (USA), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) acreage increased threefold in the past decade. To more effectively protect water quality in the region, best management practices are needed that reduce pesticide runoff from fields in cotton production. This study compared runoff of two herbicides, fluometuron [N,N-dimethyl-N'-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-phenyl]-urea] and pendimethalin [N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitro-benzenamine], from plots in strip-tillage (ST) and conventional-tillage (CT) management near Tifton, GA. Rainfall simulations were conducted one day after preemergence herbicide applications to 0.0006-ha plots and runoff from 0.15-ha plots due to natural rainfall following preemergence pendimethalin and fluometuron and postemergence fluometuron use was monitored. Pendimethalin runoff was greater under CT than ST due to strong pendimethalin soil sorption and higher erosion and runoff under CT. The highest losses, 1.3% of applied in CT and 0.22% of applied in ST, were observed during rainfall simulations conducted 1 DAT. Fluometuron runoff from natural rainfall was substantially lower from ST than from CT plots but the trend was reversed in rainfall simulations. In all studies, fluometuron runoff was also relatively low (<1% of applied), and on plots under natural rainfall, desmethylfluometuron (DMF) represented about 50% of total fluometuron runoff. Fluometuron's relatively low runoff rate appeared linked to its rapid leaching, and high DMF detection rates in runoff support DMF inclusion in fluometuron risk assessments. Results showed that ST has the potential to reduce runoff of both herbicides, but fluometuron leaching may be a ground water quality concern.

  15. Narrow endemics on coastal plains: Miocene divergence of the critically endangered genus Avellara (Compositae).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Mazuecos, M; Jiménez-Mejías, P; Martín-Bravo, S; Buide, M L; Álvarez, I; Vargas, P

    2016-07-01

    Critically endangered species representing ancient, evolutionarily isolated lineages must be given priority when allocating resources for conservation projects. Sound phylogenetic analyses and divergence time estimations are required to detect them, and studies on their population genetics, ecological requirements and breeding system are needed to understand their evolutionary history and to design efficient conservation strategies. Here we present the paradigmatic case of Avellara, a critically endangered monotypic genus of Compositae inhabiting a few swamps in the west-southwest Iberian coastal plains. Our phylogenetic and dating analyses based on nuclear (ITS) and plastid (matK) DNA sequences support a Miocene (>8.6 Ma) divergence between Avellara and closely related genera, resulting in marked morphological and ecological differentiation. We found alarmingly low levels of genetic diversity, based on AFLPs and plastid DNA sequences, and confirmed the prevalence of clonal reproduction. Species distribution modelling suggested a large macroclimatically suitable area for Avellara in the western Iberian Peninsula, but its apparently narrow microecological requirements restrict its distribution to peatlands with low-mineralised waters. Although five populations have been recorded from Spain and Portugal in the past, its current distribution may be reduced to only one population, recurrently found in the last decade but threatened by herbivory and habitat degradation. All this confirms the consideration of Avellara as a threatened species with high phylogenetic singularity, and makes it a flagship species for plant conservation in both Spain and Portugal that should be given priority in the design of in situ and ex situ conservation programmes.

  16. Digital computer simulation model of the Englishtown aquifer in the northern coastal plain of New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, W.D.

    1977-01-01

    Continued decline of water levels in the Englishtown aquifer, in New Jersey, has caused considerable concern regarding the ability of the aquifer to meet future yield demands. A detailed study of the capability of the aquifer to yield water entailed the use of a digital computer simulation model to evaluate aquifer and confining layer coefficients and to test alternative concepts of the hydrodynamics of the flow system. The modeled area includes about 750 square miles of the northern Coastal Plain of New Jersey and encompasses all the major centers of pumping from the Englishtown aquifer. The simulation model was calibrated by matching computed declines with historical water-level declines over the 12-year period, 1959-70. The volume of transient and steady leakage into the Englishtown aquifer from and through the adjacent confining layers equaled more than 90 percent of the total volume of water withdrawn from the aquifer between 1959 and 1970. The analytical estimate of transient leakage indicates that about 60 percent of the water withdrawn from the Englishtown between 1959 and 1970 was replaced by water released from storage in the adjacent confining beds. An additional 34 percent of the withdrawal over this time period was supported by steady leakage through the overlying confining bed from the Mount Laurel aquifer. Of the more than 30 billion gallons withdrawn from the aquifer over the 12-year period, about 2 billion gallons were obtained from storage in the aquifer. The values of aquifer and confining-layer coefficients used in the model are nearly the same as the average values obtained from field and laboratory data. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Paleoenvironmental analyses of an organic deposit from an erosional landscape remnant, Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Eisner, W R; Bockheim, J G; Hinkel, K M; Brown, T A; Nelson, F E; Peterson, K M; Jones, B M

    2005-01-02

    The dominant landscape process on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is the formation and drainage of thaw lakes. Lakes and drained thaw lake basins account for approximately 75% of the modern surface expression of the Barrow Peninsula. The thaw lake cycle usually obliterates lacustrine or peat sediments from previous cycles which could otherwise be used for paleoecological reconstruction of long-term landscape and vegetation changes. Several possible erosional remnants of a former topographic surface that predates the formation of the thaw lakes have been tentatively identified. These remnants are characterized by a higher elevation, a thick organic layer with very high ground ice content in the upper permafrost, and a plant community somewhat atypical of the region. Ten soil cores were collected from one site, and one core was intensively sampled for soil organic carbon content, pollen analysis, and {sup 14}C dating. The lowest level of the organic sediments represents the earliest phase of plant growth and dates to ca. 9000 cal BP. Palynological evidence indicates the presence of mesic shrub tundra (including sedge, birch, willow, and heath vegetation); and microfossil indicators point to wetter eutrophic conditions during this period. Carbon accumulation was rapid due to high net primary productivity in a relatively nutrient-rich environment. These results are interpreted as the local response to ameliorating climate during the early Holocene. The middle Holocene portion of the record contains an unconformity, indicating that between 8200 and 4200 cal BP sediments were eroded from the site, presumably in response to wind activity during a drier period centered around 4500 cal BP. The modern vegetation community of the erosional remnant was established after 4200 cal BP, and peat growth resumed. During the late Holocene, carbon accumulation rates were greatly reduced in response to the combined effects of declining productivity associated with climatic

  18. Management Effects on Soil Respiration in North Carolina Coastal Plain Loblolly Pine Plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, M.; McNulty, S.; Noormets, A.; Treasure, E.

    2012-12-01

    Loblolly pine is the most widely planted tree for plantation management in the southern US. In the southern coastal plain, where much of the original longleaf pine and bottomland hardwood forests have been converted to loblolly pine plantations, inland areas are commonly characterized by deep organic soils that can store up to 80 kg C m-2. Intensive management activities on these sites disturb the forest floor and soil and their impact on soil respiration rates and long term soil storage capabilities is unclear. We measured soil respiration rates in three loblolly pine plantations being managed with a combination of ditching, bedding, clearcutting, thinning and fertilization. Sites and management regimes represented a wide range of real world conditions found in managed southern US forestry plantations. Soil efflux rates along with soil temperature and moisture were measured throughout the year at four to six plots on each site and best fit relationships were developed. Annual soil respiration rates where modeled using 30-minute soil temperature and moisture measurements recorded at a centralized meteorological station on each site. Soil efflux rates were highly correlated with soil temperature and moisture, but interaction between the two effects was uncommon. Soil temperature was the primary driver of soil respiration rates, but rates were suppressed under high soil moisture content. Modeled annual soil efflux rates were higher the first two years following clearcut harvest and thinning operations, but lower two years following fertilization. Rates were lower in the gaps, where entire tree rows were removed, compared to thinned areas, especially on the unfertilized site. Results indicate that soil respiration rates can be strongly impacted by forest management practices; however, the period of increased soil CO2 efflux due to site disturbance may last only a few years.

  19. Trends and transformation of nutrients and pesticides in a Coastal Plain aquifer system, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denver, J.M.; Tesoriero, A.J.; Barbaro, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Four local-scale sites in areas with similar corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] agriculture were studied to determine the effects of different hydrogeologic settings of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP) on the transport of nutrients and pesticides in groundwater. Settings ranged from predominantly well-drained soils overlying thick, sandy surficial aquifers to predominantly poorly drained soils with complex aquifer stratigraphy and high organic matter content. Apparent age of groundwater, dissolved gases, N isotopes, major ions, selected pesticides and degradates, and geochemical environments in groundwater were studied. Agricultural chemicals were the source of most dissolved ions in groundwater. Specific conductance was strongly correlated with reconstructed nitrate (the sum of N in nitrate and N gas) (R2 = 0.81, p < 0.0001), and is indicative of the relative degree of agricultural effects on groundwater. Trends in nitrate were primarily related to changes in manure and fertilizer use at the well-drained sites where aquifer conditions were consistently oxic. Nitrate was present in young groundwater but completely removed over time through denitrification at the poorly drained sites where there were variations in chemical input and in geochemical environment. Median concentrations of atrazine (6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1- methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), metolachlor (2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6- methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide), and some of their common degradates were higher at well-drained sites than at poorly drained sites, with concentrations of degradates generally higher than those of the parent compounds at all sites. An increase in the percentage of deethylatrazine to total atrazine over time at one well-drained site may be related to changes in manure application. Copyright ?? 2010 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  20. Quaternary Sea-Level History from the US Atlantic Coastal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, R. K.; Cronin, T. M.; Katz, M. E.; Browning, J. V.; Miller, K. G.; Willard, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Analyses of emerged Quaternary paleo-shorelines and marine deposits aid in the reconstruction of environmental conditions and variability surrounding recent ice volume and sea-level histories derived from oxygen isotope records. We present preliminary results from a project designed to analyze the age, elevation, and paleoclimate history of Quaternary sediments deposited during sea level highstands along the United States Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP) from Maryland to Florida. Prior studies have shown that, depending on the region, ACP sediments correlate with past interglacial periods corresponding to Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5, 7, possibly 9, and 11. Stratigraphy, marine micropaleontology, and palynology indicate at least two major marine transgressive sequences on the Delmarva Peninsula in Virginia corresponding to MIS 5a and 11, the Nassawadox Formation and Accomack beds of the Omar Formation, respectively. These depositional sequences represent sea-level positions of approximately +10m and +15m, relative to today. Despite generally corresponding to glacio-eustatic sea levels of +5-9m for MIS 5a-e (Potter & Lambeck, 2003; Kopp et al., 2009), and of +6-13m for MIS 11 (Raymo & Mitrovica, 2012), the relative sea-level positions during both interglacial periods were likely affected by glacio-isostatic adjustment in the region. Corresponding marine units and paleo-shorelines, identified by pronounced inland scarps separated by intermittent terraces on the western side of the Chesapeake Bay, are likely from MIS 5, 7, and 11. Ostracode and foraminifera assemblages identify significant environmental variability within these transgressive interglacial deposits, likely driven by relatively minor, suborbital climatic and sea-level oscillations.

  1. Age and correlation of emerged pliocene and pleistocene deposits, U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Bybell, L.M.; Poore, R.Z.; Blackwelder, B. W.; Liddicoat, J.C.; Hazel, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Paleontologic and paleomagnetic investigations were conducted on several hundred Pliocene and Pleistocene marine samples from five regions of the emerged Atlantic Coastal Plain: (1) the Delmarva Peninsula, (2) eastern Virginia, (3) central and northern North Carolina, (4) southern North Carolina and northeastern South Carolina, and (5) the Charleston area, South Carolina. Molluscan and ostracode interval and assemblage zonations, which are the primary means of regional correlation, have been calibrated using planktic biochronologic, paleomagnetic, radiometric and amino-acid recemization data. These multiple dating criteria were used to determine the age and, where possible, the duration of marine transgressive/regressive sequences. A correlation chart illustrates the age relationships of 27 formations from five regions. One important conclusion is some of the Yorktown Formation of Virginia and North Carolina (including the "Duplin" Formation), and some of the Raysor of South Carolina are late Pliocene in age. The late Pliocene Chowan River Formation of North Carolina is older than the early Pleistocene Waccamaw Formation of South Carolina, which in turn may be older than the James City Formation of North Carolina. During the last 1.0 million years, multiple marine transgressions occurred in each region, but the age of these middle and late Pleistocene formations often may differ from one area to the next. A significant result of the study is the evidence for the lack of time equivalence of formations in the five different regions; that is, the sequence of marine transgressions in one region does not necessarily correspond to that in another. This appears to be the result of differing subsidence and uplift histories, the patchiness of the depositional record, and the limitations of the dating techniques in light of the rapidity and frequency of sea-level fluctuations. ?? 1984.

  2. Effects of flooding and drought on water quality in Gulf Coastal Plain streams in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Golladay, Stephen W; Battle, Juliann

    2002-01-01

    Since 1994, water-quality constituents have been measured monthly in three adjacent Coastal Plain watersheds in southwestern Georgia. During 1994, rainfall was 650 mm above annual average and the highest flows on record were observed. From November 1998 through November 2000, 19 months had below average rainfall. Lowest flows on record were observed during the summer of 2000. The watersheds are human-dominated with row-crop agriculture and managed forestlands being the major land uses. However, one watershed (Chickasawhatchee Creek) had 10 to 13% less agriculture and greater wetland area, especially along the stream. Suspended particles, dissolved organic carbon, NH4-N, and soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations were greater during wet and flood periods compared with dry and drought periods for each stream. Regional hydrologic conditions had little effect on NO3-N or dissolved inorganic carbon. Chickasawhatchee Creek had significantly lower suspended sediment and NO3-N concentrations and greater organic and inorganic carbon concentrations, reflecting greater wetland area and stronger connection to a regional aquifer system. Even though substantial human land use occurred within all watersheds, water quality was generally good and can be attributed to low stream drainage density and relatively intact floodplain forests. Low drainage density minimizes surface run-off into streams. Floodplain forests reduce nonpoint-source pollutants through biological and physical absorption. In addition to preserving water quality, floodplain forests provide important ecological functions through the export of nutrients and organic carbon to streams. Extreme low flows may be disruptive to aquatic life due to both the lack of water and to the scarcity of biologically important materials originating from floodplain forests.

  3. Paleoenvironmental analyses of an organic deposit from an erosional landscape remnant, Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisner, Wendy R.; Bockheim, James G.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Brown, Thomas A.; Nelson, Frederick E.; Peterson, Kim M.; Jones, Benjamin M.

    2005-01-01

    The dominant landscape process on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is the formation and drainage of thaw lakes. Lakes and drained thaw-lake basins account for approximately 75% of the modern surface expression of the Barrow Peninsula. The thaw-lake cycle usually obliterates lacustrine or peat sediments from previous cycles, which could otherwise be used for paleoecological reconstruction of long-term landscape and vegetation changes. Several possible erosional remnants of a former topographic surface that predates the formation of the thaw lakes have been tentatively identified. These remnants are characterized by a higher elevation, a thick organic layer with very high ground ice content in the upper permafrost and a plant community somewhat atypical of the region. Ten soil cores were collected from one site, and one core was intensively sampled for soil organic carbon content, pollen analysis and 14C dating. The lowest level of the organic sediments represents the earliest phase of plant growth and dates to ca. 9000 cal BP. Palynological evidence indicates the presence of mesic shrub tundra (including sedge, birch, willow and heath vegetation), and microfossil indicators point to wetter eutrophic conditions during this period. Carbon accumulation was rapid due to high net primary productivity in a relatively nutrient-rich environment. These results are interpreted as the local response to ameliorating climate during the early Holocene. The middle Holocene portion of the record contains an unconformity, indicating that between 8200 and 4200 cal BP sediments were eroded from the site, presumably in response to wind activity during a drier period centered around 4500 cal BP. The modern vegetation community of the erosional remnant was established after 4200 cal BP and peat growth resumed. During the late Holocene, carbon accumulation rates (CARs) were greatly reduced in response to the combined effects of declining productivity associated with climatic

  4. Reproductive phenology of coastal plain Atlantic forest vegetation: comparisons from seashore to foothills.

    PubMed

    Staggemeier, Vanessa Graziele; Morellato, Leonor Patrícia Cerdeira

    2011-11-01

    The diversity of tropical forest plant phenology has called the attention of researchers for a long time. We continue investigating the factors that drive phenological diversity on a wide scale, but we are unaware of the variation of plant reproductive phenology at a fine spatial scale despite the high spatial variation in species composition and abundance in tropical rainforests. We addressed fine scale variability by investigating the reproductive phenology of three contiguous vegetations across the Atlantic rainforest coastal plain in Southeastern Brazil. We asked whether the vegetations differed in composition and abundance of species, the microenvironmental conditions and the reproductive phenology, and how their phenology is related to regional and local microenvironmental factors. The study was conducted from September 2007 to August 2009 at three contiguous sites: (1) seashore dominated by scrub vegetation, (2) intermediary covered by restinga forest and (3) foothills covered by restinga pre-montane transitional forest. We conducted the microenvironmental, plant and phenological survey within 30 transects of 25 m × 4 m (10 per site). We detected significant differences in floristic, microenvironment and reproductive phenology among the three vegetations. The microenvironment determines the spatial diversity observed in the structure and composition of the flora, which in turn determines the distinctive flowering and fruiting peaks of each vegetation (phenological diversity). There was an exchange of species providing flowers and fruits across the vegetation complex. We conclude that plant reproductive patterns as described in most phenological studies (without concern about the microenvironmental variation) may conceal the fine scale temporal phenological diversity of highly diverse tropical vegetation. This phenological diversity should be taken into account when generating sensor-derived phenologies and when trying to understand tropical vegetation

  5. Distribution and Ecology of Campylobacters in Coastal Plain Streams (Georgia, United States of America)▿

    PubMed Central

    Vereen, Ethell; Lowrance, R. Richard; Cole, Dana J.; Lipp, Erin K.

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterium-associated diarrhea in the United States and most developed countries. While this disease is considered a food-borne disease, many clinical cases cannot be linked to a food source. In rural and agrarian areas environmental transmission may be an important factor contributing to case loads. Here we investigated the waterborne prevalence of campylobacters in a mixed-use rural watershed in the coastal plain of southern Georgia (United States). Six sites representing various degrees of agricultural and human influence were surveyed biweekly to monthly for 1 year for the presence of culturable thermophilic campylobacters and other measures of water quality. Campylobacters were frequently present in agriculture- and sewage-impacted stretches of streams. The mean campylobacter counts and overall prevalence were highest downstream from a wastewater treatment plant that handled both human and poultry slaughterhouse waste (≤595 CFU ml−1; 100% positive); the concentrations were significantly higher than those for the four upstream sites (P < 0.05). The counts were significantly correlated with the number of fecal coliform bacteria, conductivity, pH, and concentrations of nutrients (NO3−, PO43−, and NH3). Campylobacters were isolated more frequently and larger numbers were present during the summer months, similar to the occurrence of clinical cases of campylobacteriosis in this region. A multivariate model showed that the levels were significantly influenced by increasing precipitation, which also peaked in the summer. The results indicate that loading from both human and domestic animal waste may be high in the watershed studied during the summer months. Mixed-use watersheds supporting agriculture production, human populations, and wildlife may be at risk for contamination by campylobacters and may be an important route for human exposure. PMID:17172457

  6. Paleoenvironmental changes associated with the PETM, Millville (ODP Leg 174AX), New Jersey coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarova, M.; Miller, K. G.; Wright, J. D.; Rosenthal, Y.; Babila, T.; Browning, J. V.

    2013-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was an abrupt (<10 kyr) warming event, characterized by a global temperature increase of about 5°C. The PETM is recognized by the Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE), represented by a ~2.5-4 ‰ decrease in δ13C values in open ocean coreholes (Kennett and Stott, 1991; Zachos et al., 2003). The New Jersey coastal plain contains thick (~15 m) sections recording the PETM. Kopp et al. (2009) proposed an enhanced hydrologic cycle to explain the widespread clay deposition on the mid-Atlantic continental shelf during the PETM, suggesting an Appalachian Amazon analogy. An increased flux of fresh water to the shelf would have lowered the salinities substantially. We tested this hypothesis by measuring changes in salinity in the PETM section in the Millville, New Jersey corehole (ODP Leg 174AX). We used two paleothermometers to constrain temperature changes associated with planktonic foraminiferal δ18O variations, with the residual attributed to salinity changes. Using TEX86 and the Kim et al. (2010) calibration, we compute a 6°C warming across the CIE at Millville from 30 to 36°C; using TEX86 and the Taylor et al. (2013) calibration, we compute more of a warming (7.5°C), but cooler temperatures (22.5-30°C). Mg/Ca shows less of a warming. TEX86 shows a possible precursor warming at Wilson Lake, NJ (Sluijs et al., 2007); we compare TEX86 at Wilson Lake Hole A and Millville and conclude that the precursor warming may be spurious. Intermediate dwelling (Subbotina) planktonic foraminifera δ18O show a large decrease (~2.26 ‰) across the CIE. Use of the Kim et al. (2010) calibration yields unrealistic salinities. The Taylor et al. (2013) calibration yields realistic salinity estimates and a ~2 psu salinity decrease associated with the CIE.

  7. Physiological Diversity and Distributions of Heterotrophic Bacteria in Deep Cretaceous Sediments of the Atlantic Coastal Plain

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, James K.; Balkwill, David L.; Zachara, John M.; Li, Shu-Mei W.; Brockman, Fred J.; Simmons, Mary A.

    1991-01-01

    A series of 23 intact core segments was obtained from two distinct deep subsurface geological formations, the Middendorf and the Cape Fear formations, underlying the southeastern coastal plain of South Carolina. The Middendorf formation in this region consists of permeable, saturated, sandy sediments; the Cape Fear formation consists mainly of less permeable sediments. The core segments were separated by vertical distances ranging from several centimeters to 48 m. Aerobic chemoheterotrophic bacteria were enumerated on a dilute medium, and populations ranged from 3.1 to 6.4 log CFU g of sediment-1 in the Middendorf cores and from below detection to 4.3 log CFU g-1 in the Cape Fear cores. A total of 198 morphologically distinct colony types were isolated, purified, and subjected to 108 different physiological measurements. The isolates from the two formations were distinct (i.e., they produced substantially different response patterns to the various physiological measurements), as were those in different core samples from the same formation. Cluster analysis revealed 21 different biotypes based on similarities of 75% or higher in response patterns to 21 physiological assays. One biotype contained 57 (29%) of the subsurface isolates, 10 biotypes contained 5 or more isolates, and the remainder had 4 or fewer. The organic compounds that were most commonly metabolized by the subsurface bacteria included Tween 40 (85%) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (60%). Organic acids, in general, were also commonly metabolized by the subsurface bacteria. Isolates from the Cape Fear core segments were capable of metabolizing a higher percentage of the substrates than were bacteria isolated from the Middendorf formation. Although the heterogeneous distributions of bacteria in deep subsurface sediments may make it difficult to use aquifer microcosms to predict in situ biotransformation rates, the diversity of the physiological properties of these organisms offers promise for in situ

  8. Air emissions from organic soil burning on the coastal plain of North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geron, Chris; Hays, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Emissions of trace gases and particles ≤2.5 microns aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) from fires during 2008-2011 on the North Carolina coastal plain were collected and analyzed. Carbon mass balance techniques were used to quantify emission factors (EFs). PM2.5 EFs were at least a factor of 2 greater than those from forest burning of above-ground fuels because of extended smoldering combustion of organic soil layers and peat fuels. This is consistent with CO2 EFs at the low end of previously reported ranges for biomass fuels, indicating less efficient combustion and enhanced emissions of products of incomplete combustion (PICs). CO EFs are at the high end of the range of previously published EFs for smoldering fuels. The biomass burning tracer levoglucosan was found to compose 1-3 percent of PM2.5 from the organic soil fires, similar to fractions measured in smoke from above-ground fine fuels reported in previous studies. Organic soil fuel loads and consumption are very difficult to estimate, but are potentially as high as thousands of tonnes ha-1. Combined with higher emission factors, this can result in emission fluxes hundreds of times higher than from prescribed fires in above-ground fuels in the southeastern US. Organic soil fuel represents a source of particles and gases that is difficult to control and can persist for days to months, jeopardizing human health and incurring considerable costs to monitor and manage. Extended fires in organic soils can contribute substantially to PM2.5 on CO emission inventories and may not be adequately accounted for in current estimates.

  9. Developing New Coastal Forest Restoration Products Based on Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Graham, William; Smoot, James

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses an ongoing effort to develop new geospatial information products for aiding coastal forest restoration and conservation efforts in coastal Louisiana and Mississippi. This project employs Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data in conjunction with airborne elevation data to compute coastal forest cover type maps and change detection products. Improved forest mapping products are needed to aid coastal forest restoration and management efforts of State and Federal agencies in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) region. In particular, such products may aid coastal forest land acquisition and conservation easement procurements. This region's forests are often disturbed and subjected to multiple biotic and abiotic threats, including subsidence, salt water intrusion, hurricanes, sea-level rise, insect-induced defoliation and mortality, altered hydrology, wildfire, and conversion to non-forest land use. In some cases, such forest disturbance has led to forest loss or loss of regeneration capacity. In response, a case study was conducted to assess and demonstrate the potential of satellite remote sensing products for improving forest type maps and for assessing forest change over the last 25 years. Change detection products are needed for assessing risks for specific priority coastal forest types, such as live oak and baldcypress-dominated forest. Preliminary results indicate Landsat time series data are capable of generating the needed forest type and change detection products. Useful classifications were obtained using 2 strategies: 1) general forest classification based on use of 3 seasons of Landsat data from the same year; and 2) classification of specific forest types of concern using a single date of Landsat data in which a given targeted type is spectrally distinct compared to adjacent forested cover. When available, ASTER data was

  10. Partially-drained Thaw Lakes as Hotspots of Biological Activity on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J. C.; Fondell, T.; Schmutz, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Thaw lakes cover a large proportion of arctic coastal plains in the US, Canada, and Russia. These lakes are replenished by spring snowmelt and lose water to stream discharge and evapotranspiration during the short arctic summer. While some lakes display nearly static water levels throughout the summer, many fluctuate with some losing more than 50% of their water. We investigated the biogeochemical implications of these water level changes on nutrient fluxes and cycling by sampling several lakes over multiple years and using these data to build a simple lake nutrient cycling model. We find that lakes that lose greater than 20 % of their water display substantially higher nutrient concentrations than lakes with static water levels. The seasonal trend in nutrients, chlorophyll, and other basic water quality parameters suggests low, but positive rates of aquatic ecosystem productivity during the summer. Drained areas on lake margins remained moist for much of the summer and were used extensively by water birds. As lake water levels increased in the fall, a pulse of nutrients entered the lake, likely related to flushing and inundation of this terrestrial ecosystem. Chemical trends along a flowpath from the drained lake outlet into the drainage network suggests continued biogeochemical cycling and the potential importance of drained lake nutrients to downstream environments including river networks and coastal environments. Together, these findings indicate that drained lakes are relatively eutrophic and ecologically-productive, and thus need to be considered to understand nutrient cycling on the arctic coastal plain.

  11. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic response to Late Quaternary climate change and glacio-eustasy, Colorado River, Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, M.D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes results of investigations of the Colorado River, Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas, which provides a detailed record of fluvial response to late Quaternary climatic change and glacio-eustatic sea level rise. Four allostratigraphic units of late Pleistocene through modern age are differentiated in the bedrock-confined lower Colorado valley on the Inner Coastal Plain. Here up to 10 meters of late Pleistocene sediments underlie a terrace at 17--20 meters above the present-day channel. Two distinct allostratigraphic units underlie an extensive Holocene terrace at 12--14 meters above the present-day channel. Allostratigraphic units and bounding disconformities correlate with climatic changes that have been identified from paleobiological data, and represent stratigraphic response to changes in the relationship between discharge and sediment supply. In addition, changes in sedimentary facies through time represents a response to changes in climate coupled with a protracted degradation of upland soil mantles. This degradation of soils altered the rate at which precipitation inputs were transferred to stream channels as runoff, which led to increases in the peakedness of flood hydrographs and changes in the relative importance of channel versus floodplain depositional environments. Increased flood stages during the late Holocene promoted the increasing importance of floodplain construction by vertical accretion, and late Holocene to modern allostratigraphic units contain thick vertical accretion facies. These same allostratigraphic units and component facies persist downvalley to the Outer Coastal Plain, but stratigraphic architecture changes as a result of the last glacio-eustatic cycle. Here late Holocene and modern sediments onlap and bury late Pleistocene and early to middle Holocene stratigraphic units that were emplaced during the last sea level lowstand and the transgression that followed.

  12. Arsenic in New Jersey Coastal Plain streams, sediments, and shallow groundwater: effects from different geologic sources and anthropogenic inputs on biogeochemical and physical mobilization processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, Julia L.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Mumford, Adam C.; Benzel, William M.; Szabo, Zoltan; Shourds, Jennifer L.; Young, Lily Y.

    2013-01-01

    With a history of agriculture in the New Jersey Coastal Plain, anthropogenic inputs of As, such as residues from former pesticide applications in soils, can amplify any geogenic As in runoff. Such inputs contribute to an increased total As load to a stream at high stages of flow. As a result of yet another anthropogenic influence, microbes that reduce and mobilize As beneath the streambeds are stimulated by inputs of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Although DOC is naturally occurring, anthropogenic contributions from wastewater inputs may deliver increased levels of DOC to subsurface soils and ultimately groundwater. Arsenic concentrations may increase with the increases in pH of groundwater and stream water in developed areas receiving wastewater inputs, as As mobilization caused by pH-controlled sorption and desorption reactions are likely to occur in waters of neutral or alkaline pH (for example, Nimick and others, 1998; Barringer and others, 2007b). Because of the difference in As content of the geologic materials in the two sub-provinces of the Coastal Plain, the amount of As that is mobile in groundwater and stream water is, potentially, substantially greater in the Inner Coastal Plain than in the Outer Coastal Plain. In turn, streams within the Inner and Outer Coastal Plain can receive substantially more As in groundwater discharge from developed areas than from environments where DOC appears to be of natural origin.

  13. Survival, nesting success, and habitat selection in wild turkey populations in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, William F.

    2007-07-01

    ABSRACT. We compared survival rates between hunted and unhunted wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) gobblers in the upper coastal plain of South Carolina to assess the impact of spring gobbler-only hunts on populations. Gobblers were captured on the Savannah River Site (SRS), which contains long-established populations that have never been hunted, and on Crackerneck Wildlife Management Area and Ecological reserve (CWMA), which has held spring hunts since 1983. In January-March of 1998-2000, 46 gobblers were captured on SRS and 19 were captured no CWMA. Each turkey was fitted with a backpack radio transmitter and monitored 3 times per week.

  14. Accuracy assessment, using stratified plurality sampling, of portions of a LANDSAT classification of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Coastal Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, Don H.; Strong, Laurence L.

    1989-01-01

    An application of a classification accuracy assessment procedure is described for a vegetation and land cover map prepared by digital image processing of LANDSAT multispectral scanner data. A statistical sampling procedure called Stratified Plurality Sampling was used to assess the accuracy of portions of a map of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge coastal plain. Results are tabulated as percent correct classification overall as well as per category with associated confidence intervals. Although values of percent correct were disappointingly low for most categories, the study was useful in highlighting sources of classification error and demonstrating shortcomings of the plurality sampling method.

  15. Simulating Multi-Scale Mercury Fate and Transport in a Coastal Plain Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knightes, C. D.; Davis, G. M.; Golden, H. E.; Conrads, P. A.; Bradley, P. M.; Journey, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Mercury is the toxicant responsible for the largest number of fish advisories across the United States, with 1.1 million river miles under advisory. The processes governing fate, transport, and transformation of mercury in streams and rivers are not well understood, in large part, because these systems are intimately linked with their surrounding watersheds and are often highly spatially variable. In this study, we applied a linked watershed hydrology and biogeochemical cycling (N, C, and Hg) model (VELMA, Visualizing Ecosystems for Land Management Assessment) to simulate daily flow, fluxes, and soil and stream concentrations of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) at multiple spatial scales in McTier Creek, a Coastal Plain watershed within the Edisto River basin of South Carolina, USA. Our goals were to (1) calibrate and simulate Hg fate and transport processes at a focused reach scale (0.1 km2) and (2) assess how representative the reach-scale parameters and processes are when multi-scale watershed information is included in Hg cycling simulations. Thus, reach-scale parameterization was applied to multi-scaled watersheds, including two headwater sub-watersheds (28 km2 and 25 km2) nested within the McTier Creek watershed (79 km2), to evaluate model performance and how well reach-scale parameterization and processes characterize nested watersheds with increasing drainage areas. The current VELMA simulations suggest that stream water column THg concentration predictions perform reasonably well at different scales based on reach-scale calibrations, but the model simulations of MeHg reach, sub-watershed, and watershed stream concentrations are out-of-phase with observed MeHg concentrations. This result suggests that processes governing MeHg loading to the main channel may be under-represented in the current model structure and underscores the complexity of simulating MeHg dynamics in watershed models. This work supports the importance of hydrology in

  16. Sterol-inhibiting fungicide impacts on soil microbial ecology in Atlantic Coastal Plain soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, P. M.; Potter, T. L.; Strickland, T. C.

    2008-12-01

    Seventy-five percent of the peanuts (Arachus hypogaia) produced in the United States are grown in the Atlantic Coastal Plain region. Portions of this area, including Alabama and Georgia, exhibit a subtropical climate that promotes soil-borne plant fungal diseases. Most fields receive repeated fungicide applications during the growing season to suppress the disease causing organisms, such as Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, and Cylindrocladium parasiticum. Information regarding fungicide effects on the soil microbial community, with components principally responsible for transformation and fate of fungicides and other soil-applied pesticides, is limited. The objectives of the study were to assess soil microbial community response to (1) varying rates of the sterol-inhibiting fungicide tebuconazole (0, single application, season max, 2x season max), and (2) field rates of the sterol-inhibitors cyproconazole, prothioconazole, tebuconazole, and flutriafol, and thiol-competitor chlorothalonil. The sterol-inhibitors exhibited different half lives, as listed in the FOOTPRINT database, ranging from <1 day to >1300 d. Chlorothalonil was chosen because it is the most frequently applied fungicide to peanut. Shifts in the fungi, gram positive and gram negative bacteria, were monitored during the experiments using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles. Ergosterol levels and pesticide decay rates were also monitored to evaluate the effectiveness of the fungicide and soil residence time, respectively. In the rate study, the highest rate of tebuconazole reduced the fungal biomarker 18:2ω6,9c to 2.6 nmol g-1 dry soil at 17 d, as compared to the control (4.1 nmol g-1 dry soil). However, levels of the fungal PLFA biomarker were similar regardless of rate at 0 and 32 d. The gram negative bacterial PLFA mole percent was greater at 17 d for the two highest rates of tebuconazole, but was similar at 0 and 32 d. Gram positive and fungal mole percents were not affected at any time

  17. Upper Cretaceous sequences and sea-level history, New Jersey Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, K.G.; Sugarman, P.J.; Browning, J.V.; Kominz, M.A.; Olsson, R.K.; Feigenson, M.D.; Hernandez, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a Late Cretaceous sealevel estimate from Upper Cretaceous sequences at Bass River and Ancora, New Jersey (ODP [Ocean Drilling Program] Leg 174AX). We dated 11-14 sequences by integrating Sr isotope and biostratigraphy (age resolution ??0.5 m.y.) and then estimated paleoenvironmental changes within the sequences from lithofacies and biofacies analyses. Sequences generally shallow upsection from middle-neritic to inner-neritic paleodepths, as shown by the transition from thin basal glauconite shelf sands (transgressive systems tracts [TST]), to medial-prodelta silty clays (highstand systems tracts [HST]), and finally to upper-delta-front quartz sands (HST). Sea-level estimates obtained by backstripping (accounting for paleodepth variations, sediment loading, compaction, and basin subsidence) indicate that large (>25 m) and rapid (???1 m.y.) sea-level variations occurred during the Late Cretaceous greenhouse world. The fact that the timing of Upper Cretaceous sequence boundaries in New Jersey is similar to the sea-level lowering records of Exxon Production Research Company (EPR), northwest European sections, and Russian platform outcrops points to a global cause. Because backstripping, seismicity, seismic stratigraphic data, and sediment-distribution patterns all indicate minimal tectonic effects on the New Jersey Coastal Plain, we interpret that we have isolated a eustatic signature. The only known mechanism that can explain such global changes-glacio-eustasy-is consistent with foraminiferal ??18O data. Either continental ice sheets paced sea-level changes during the Late Cretaceous, or our understanding of causal mechanisms for global sea-level change is fundamentally flawed. Comparison of our eustatic history with published ice-sheet models and Milankovitch predictions suggests that small (5-10 ?? 106 km3), ephemeral, and areally restricted Antarctic ice sheets paced the Late Cretaceous global sea-level change. New Jersey and Russian eustatic estimates

  18. Influence of human development and predators on nest survival of tundra birds, Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Liebezeit, J R; Kendall, S J; Brown, S; Johnson, C B; Martin, P; McDonald, T L; Payer, D C; Rea, C L; Streever, B; Wildman, A M; Zack, S

    2009-09-01

    Nest predation may influence population dynamics of birds on the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska, USA. Anthropogenic development on the ACP is increasing, which may attract nest predators by providing artificial sources of food, perches, den sites, and nest sites. Enhanced populations or concentrations of human-subsidized predators may reduce nest survival for tundra-nesting birds. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that nest survival decreases in proximity to human infrastructure. We monitored 1257 nests of 13 shorebird species and 619 nests of four passerine species at seven sites on the ACP from 2002 to 2005. Study sites were chosen to represent a range of distances to infrastructure from 100 m to 80 km. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to evaluate the effects of background (i.e., natural) factors and infrastructure on nest survival. We documented high spatial and temporal variability in nest survival, and site and year were both included in the best background model. We did not detect an effect of human infrastructure on nest survival for shorebirds as a group. In contrast, we found evidence that risk of predation for passerine nests increased within 5 km of infrastructure. This finding provides quantitative evidence of a relationship between infrastructure and nest survival for breeding passerines on the ACP. A posteriori finer-scale analyses (within oil field sites and individual species) suggested that Red and Red-necked Phalaropes combined (Phalaropus fulicarius, P. lobatus) had lower productivity closer to infrastructure and in areas with higher abundance of subsidized predators. However, we did not detect such a relationship between infrastructure and nest survival for Semipalmated and Pectoral Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla, C. melanotos), the two most abundant shorebirds. High variability in environmental conditions, nest survival, and predator numbers between sites and years may have contributed to these inconsistent results

  19. Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus accumulation in floodplains of Atlantic Coastal Plain rivers, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noe, G.B.; Hupp, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    Net nutrient accumulation rates were measured in riverine floodplains of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware, USA. The floodplains were located in watersheds with different land use and included two sites on the Chickahominy River (urban), one site on the Mattaponi River (forested), and five sites on the Pocomoke River (agricultural). The Pocomoke River floodplains lie along reaches with natural hydrogeomorphology and on reaches with restricted flooding due to channelization and levees. A network of feldspar clay marker horizons was placed on the sediment surface of each floodplain site 3-6 years prior to sampling. Sediment cores were collected from the material deposited over the feldspar clay pads. This overlying sediment was separated from the clay layer and then dried, weighed, and analyzed for its total carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) content. Mean C accumulation rates ranged from 61 to 212 g??m-2??yr-1, N accumulation rates ranged from 3.5 to 13.4 g??m -2??yr-1, and P accumulation rates ranged from 0.2 to 4.1 g??m-2??yr-1 among the eight floodplains. Patterns of intersite variation in mineral sediment and P accumulation rates were similar to each other, as was variation in organic sediment and C and N accumulation rates. The greatest sediment and C, N, and P accumulation rates were observed on Chickahominy River floodplains downstream from the growing metropolitan area of Richmond, Virginia. Nutrient accumulation rates were lowest on Pocomoke River floodplains that have been hydraulically disconnected from the main channel by channelization and levees. Sediment P concentrations and P accumulation rates were much greater on the hydraulically connected floodplain immediately downstream of the limit of channelization and dense chicken agriculture of the upper Pocomoke River watershed. These findings indicate that (1) watershed land use has a large effect on sediment and nutrient retention in floodplains, and (2) limiting

  20. Microbial Responses to Forest Management in the Western Gulf Coastal Plain, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, J. A.; Boutton, T. W.; Scott, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    to the more severe harvest treatments; however, while TN was significantly impacted by harvest and varied over time, SOC varied only with time. Temporal variations in SMB-C and -N, TN, and SOC were correlated with temperature, precipitation, and volumetric soil moisture. Data suggest that forest harvest practices that minimize removal of above-ground biomass will favor soil N retention and the maintenance of the SMB pool. Since N limits tree growth in the sandy soils of the western Gulf Coastal Plain, and because SMB plays a key role in N mineralization, harvest practices that favor N retention and SMB will ensure the productivity of future rotations.

  1. Assessing coastal plain wetland composition using advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantaleoni, Eva

    Establishing wetland gains and losses, delineating wetland boundaries, and determining their vegetative composition are major challenges that can be improved through remote sensing studies. We used the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) to separate wetlands from uplands in a study of 870 locations on the Virginia Coastal Plain. We used the first five bands from each of two ASTER scenes (6 March 2005 and 16 October 2005), covering the visible to the short-wave infrared region (0.52-2.185mum). We included GIS data layers for soil survey, topography, and presence or absence of water in a logistic regression model that predicted the location of over 78% of the wetlands. While this was slightly less accurate (78% vs. 86%) than current National Wetland Inventory (NWI) aerial photo interpretation procedures of locating wetlands, satellite imagery analysis holds great promise for speeding wetland mapping, lowering costs, and improving update frequency. To estimate wetland vegetation composition classes, we generated a classification and regression tree (CART) model and a multinomial logistic regression (logit) model, and compared their accuracy in separating woody wetlands, emergent wetlands and open water. The overall accuracy of the CART model was 73.3%, while for the logit model was 76.7%. The CART producer's accuracy of the emergent wetlands was higher than the accuracy from the multinomial logit (57.1% vs. 40.7%). However, we obtained the opposite result for the woody wetland category (68.7% vs. 52.6%). A McNemar test between the two models and NWI maps showed that their accuracies were not statistically different. We conducted a subpixel analysis of the ASTER images to estimate canopy cover of forested wetlands. We used top-of-atmosphere reflectance from the visible and near infrared bands, Delta Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and a tasseled cap brightness, greenness, and wetness in linear regression model with canopy

  2. Methods to assess natural and anthropogenic thaw lake drainage on the western Arctic coastal plain of northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Eisner, Wendy R.; Cuomo, Chris J.; Beck, R.A.; Frohn, R.

    2007-01-01

    Thousands of lakes are found on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska and northwestern Canada. Developed atop continuous permafrost, these thaw lakes and associated drained thaw lake basins are the dominant landscape elements and together cover 46% of the 34,570 km2western Arctic Coastal Plain (WACP). Lakes drain by a variety of episodic processes, including coastal erosion, stream meandering, and headward erosion, bank overtopping, and lake coalescence. Comparison of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery from the mid-1970s to Landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper (ETM+) imagery from around 2000 shows that 50 lakes completely or partially drained over the approximately 25 year period, indicating landscape stability. The lake-specific drainage mechanism can be inferred in some cases and is partially dependant on geographic settings conducive to active erosion such as riparian and coastal zones. In many cases, however, the cause of drainage is unknown. The availability of high-resolution aerial photographs for the Barrow Peninsula extends the record back to circa 1950; mapping spatial time series illustrates the dynamic nature of lake expansion, coalescence, and drainage. Analysis of these historical images suggests that humans have intentionally or inadvertently triggered lake drainage near the village of Barrow. Efforts to understand landscape processes and identify events have been enhanced by interviewing Iñupiaq elders and others practicing traditional subsistence lifestyles. They can often identify the year and process by which individual lakes drained, thereby providing greater dating precision and accuracy in assessing the causal mechanism. Indigenous knowledge has provided insights into events, landforms, and processes not previously identified or considered.

  3. Toward Understanding Mechanisms Controlling Urea Delivery in a Coastal Plain Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzilkowski, S. S.; Buda, A. R.; Boyer, E. W.; Bryant, R. B.; May, E. B.

    2012-12-01

    Improved understanding of nutrient mobilization and delivery to surface waters is critical to protecting water quality in agricultural watersheds. Urea, a form of organic nitrogen, is a common nutrient found in fertilizers, manures, and human waste, and is gaining recognition as an important driver of coastal eutrophication, particularly through the development of harmful algal blooms. While several studies have documented elevated urea concentrations in tributaries draining to the Chesapeake Bay, little is known about the potential sources and flow pathways responsible for urea delivery from the landscape to surface waters, as well as how these sources and pathways might vary with changing seasons, antecedent conditions, and storm types. In this study, we investigated hydrologic controls on urea delivery in the Manokin River watershed through the analysis of urea concentration dynamics and hysteresis patterns during seven storm events that occurred in 2010 and 2011. The Manokin River is a Coastal Plain watershed (11.1 km2) on the Delmarva Peninsula that drains directly to the Chesapeake Bay and is characterized by extensive rural development coupled with intensive agriculture, particularly poultry production. Sampling was conducted through monthly grab sampling at baseflow conditions and by time-weighted, automated (Sigma) samplers during stormflow events. Monitored storms were chosen to represent a spectrum of antecedent conditions based on precipitation and groundwater levels in the area. Flushing from the landscape during events was found to be the predominant urea delivery mechanism, as urea concentrations increased 3-9 times above baseflow concentrations during storms. The timing and number of flushes, as well as the degree of increased concentrations were dependent on antecedent conditions and the characteristics of the storm event. For instance, during an intense (13.7 mm hr-1), short-duration (4 hrs) storm in August of 2010 when antecedent conditions were

  4. Geophysical detection of on-site wastewater plumes in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Matthew

    Nonpoint source pollution (NPS) continues to be the leading cause of water quality degradation in the United States. On-site wastewater systems (OWS) contribute to NPS; however, due to the range of system designs and complexity of the subsurface, OWS contributions to groundwater pollution are not well understood. As the population of coastal North Carolina continues to increase, better methods to locate and characterize wastewater impacted groundwater are needed. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of non-intrusive geophysical methods to provide high resolution information on various contaminants in different geologic settings. The goals of this study were to evaluate the utility of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and capacitively coupled resistivity (CCR) for detecting OWS components, delineating associated wastewater plumes, and monitoring temporal variations in groundwater quality. Cross-sectional and three dimensional (3D) geophysical surveys were conducted periodically over a one year period (February 2011--January 2012) at two schools utilizing OWS in the lower Neuse River Basin (NRB) in the North Carolina Coastal Plain (NCCP). Cores were collected at both study sites; as well as monthly groundwater depth, temperature, and specific conductivity measurements to better constrain the geophysical interpretations. Additionally, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and Cl concentrations were monitored bi-monthly to assess nutrient transport at the sites. The 3D GPR surveys effectively located the wastewater drainage trenches at both sites, in close agreement with locations described in as-built OWS blueprints. Regression analysis of resistivity versus groundwater specific conductivity revealed an inverse relationship, suggesting resistivity ≤ 250 ohm.m was indicative of wastewater impacted groundwater at both sites. The 3D resistivity models identified regions of low resistivity beneath the drainfields relative to background values. Regression analysis of

  5. Characterization of geomorphic units in the alluvial valleys and channels of Gulf Coastal Plain rivers in Texas, with examples from the Brazos, Sabine, and Trinity Rivers, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coffman, David K.; Malstaff, Greg; Heitmuller, Franklin T.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, described and characterized examples of geomorphic units within the channels and alluvial valleys of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers using a geomorphic unit classification scale that differentiates geomorphic units on the basis of their location either outside or inside the river channel. The geomorphic properties of a river system determine the distribution and type of potential habitat both within and adjacent to the channel. This report characterizes the geomorphic units contained in the river channels and alluvial valleys of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers in the context of the River Styles framework. This report is intended to help Texas Instream Flow Program practitioners, river managers, ecologists and biologists, and others interested in the geomorphology and the physical processes of the rivers of the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain (1) gain insights into how geomorphic units develop and adjust spatially and temporally, and (2) be able to recognize common geomorphic units from the examples cataloged in this report. Recent aerial imagery (high-resolution digital orthoimagery) collected in 2008 and 2009 were inspected by using geographic information system software to identify representative examples of the types of geomorphic units that occurred in the study area. Geomorphic units outside the channels of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers are called \\"valley geomorphic units\\" in this report. Valley geomorphic units for the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers described in this report are terraces, flood plains, crevasses and crevasse splays, flood-plain depressions, tie channels, tributaries, paleochannels, anabranches, distributaries, natural levees, neck cutoffs, oxbow lakes, and constructed channels. Channel geomorphic units occur in the river channel and are subject to frequent stresses associated with flowing water and sediment transport; they adjust (change) relatively quickly in

  6. Numerical modelling and hydrochemical characterisation of a fresh-water lens in the Belgian coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbohede, A.; Lebbe, L.

    2002-05-01

    The distribution of fresh and salt water in coastal aquifers is influenced by many processes. The influence of aquifer heterogeneity and human interference such as land reclamation is illustrated in the Belgian coastal plain where, around A.D. 1200, the reclamation of a tidally influenced environment was completed. The aquifer, which was filled with salt water, was thereafter freshened. The areal distribution of peat, clay, silt and sand influences the general flow and distribution of fresh and salt water along with the drainage pattern and results in the development of fresh-water lenses. The water quality in and around the fresh-water lenses below an inverted tidal channel ridge is surveyed. The hydrochemical evolution of the fresh water lens is reconstructed, pointing to cation exchange, solution of calcite and the oxidation of organic material as the major chemical reactions. The formation and evolution of the fresh water lens is modelled using a two-dimensional density-dependent solute transport model and the sensitivity of drainage and conductivities are studied. Drainage level mainly influences the depth of the fresh-water lens, whereas the time of formation is mainly influenced by conductivity. Résumé. La répartition de l'eau douce et de l'eau salée dans les aquifères littoraux est influencée par de nombreux mécanismes. L'influence de l'hétérogénéité de l'aquifère et des interférences anthropiques telles que la mise en valeur des terres est illustrée par la plaine côtière belge où, depuis l'an 1200, on a mis en valeur un environnement soumis aux marées. L'aquifère, qui contenait de l'eau salée, contient maintenant de l'eau douce. La distribution spatiale de tourbe, d'argile, de silt et de sable joue un rôle dans l'écoulement général et dans la répartition de l'eau douce et de l'eau salée le long du réseau de drainage et produit des lentilles d'eau douce. La qualité de l'eau dans et autour des lentilles d'eau douce sous une lev

  7. Distribution of chloride concentrations in the principal aquifers of the New Jersey coastal plain, 1977-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaefer, F.L.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey maintains a saltwater monitoring network in New Jersey to document and evaluate the movement of saline water into freshwater aquifers that serve as sources of water supply. Areas in the Coastal Plain with existing or potential saltwater intrusion are delineated. Data collected through 1981 indicate that freshwater aquifers in parts of seven Coastal-Plain counties are contaminated by saline water. Encroachment of saltwater into freshwater aquifers in the Sayreville area of Middlesex County and in the lower peninsula of Cape May County has been reported for about 40 years and is now more extensive. Several other areas are experiencing limited saltwater intrusion. These include the Keyport-Union Beach area in Monmouth County, areas along the Delaware estuary in Gloucester and Salem Counties, and at Point Pleasant Beach and Seaside Heights in Ocean County. The continuing updip movement of saline water in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system is also threatening existing freshwater supplies in the interior areas of Gloucester and Salem Counties. Saltwater intrusion has resulted from extensive ground-water withdrawals. The resultant freshwater head declines have caused reversals in the natural hydraulic gradients that permit inland movement of saline water from adjacent saltwater bodies. (USGS)

  8. Predation of amphibians by carabid beetles of the genus Epomis found in the central coastal plain of Israel

    PubMed Central

    Wizen, Gil; Gasith, Avital

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The genus Epomis is represented in Israel by two species: Epomis dejeani and Epomis circumscriptus. In the central coastal plain these species are sympatric but do not occur in the same sites. The objective of this study was to record and describe trophic interactions between the adult beetles and amphibian species occurring in the central coastal plain of Israel. Day and night surveys at three sites, as well as controlled laboratory experiments were conducted for studying beetle-amphibian trophic interaction. In the field we recorded three cases of Epomis dejeani preying upon amphibian metamorphs and also found that Epomis adults share shelters with amphibians. Laboratory experiments supported the observations that both Epomis species can prey on amphibians. Predation of the three anuran species (Bufo viridis, Hyla savignyi and Rana bedriagae) and two urodele species (Triturus vittatus and Salamandra salamandra infraimmaculata) is described. Only Epomis dejeani consumed Triturus vittatus. Therefore, we conclude that the two species display a partial overlap in food habit. PMID:21738411

  9. Tracing young faults in the Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments: Use of composite refraction-reflection stack sections

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, D.E. ); Coruh, C.; Costain, J.K.; Domoracki, W.J. )

    1994-03-01

    Study of the basement faults that penetrate upward into the Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments might constrain the timing of deformation in the form of folding and faulting. Composite refraction-reflection stack sections are produced by reprocessing available seismic data to investigate basement faults that penetrate upward into Atlantic coastal Plain sediments near Aiken, South Carolina. The purpose of the refraction stack was to recover events as shallow as possible while reprocessing of the reflected arrivals was designed to image reflections from depths as deep as the Moho. Seismic data processing for refracted head wave arrivals produced refraction stack sections that constrain the upward penetration depth of the faults image and interpreted in crystalline basement and Triassic sediments. The faulting, in general, is not limited to the Triassic Dunbarton basin, which is interpreted to be bounded by reverse (at the NW) faults. Other faults are also imaged in the sediments and extend upward. Displacement imaged along faults decreases rapidly upward from the basement. The composite refraction-reflection stack sections exhibit that the depth of upward penetration of the faults varies: most of them are associated with deformation at times as small as 50 ms two-way time (about 25 m), while two faults (the Atta and Steel Creek) penetrate to depths that include a shallow refracted horizon. Imbricated upper crustal structures, the buried Triassic Dunbarton basin, and reverse and normal faults suggest that the subsurface is overprinted by compression followed by extension and later by compression.

  10. High-resolution hydro- and geo-stratigraphy at Atlantic Coastal Plain drillhole CR-622 (Strat 8)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wrege, B.M.; Isely, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    We interpret borehole geophysical logs in conjunction with lithology developed from continuous core to produce high-resolution hydro- and geo-stratigraphic profiles for the drillhole CR-622 (Strat 8) in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North Carolina. The resulting hydrologic and stratigraphic columns show a generalized relation between hydrologic and geologic units. Fresh-water aquifers encountered are the surficial, Yorktown, Pungo River and Castle Hayne. Geologic units present are of the middle and upper Tertiary and Quaternary periods, these are the Castle Hayne (Eocene), Pungo River (Miocene), Yorktown (Pliocene), James City and Flanner Beach (Pleistocene), and the topsoil (Holocene). The River Bend Formation (Oligocene) is missing as a distinct unit between the Pungo River Formation and the Castle Hayne Formation. The confining unit underlying the Yorktown Aquifer corresponds to the Yorktown Geologic Unit. The remaining hydrologic units and geologic units are hydrologically transitional and non-coincident. The lower Pungo River Formation serves as the confining unit for the Castle Hayne Aquifer, rather than the River Bend Aquifer, and separates the Pungo River Aquifer from the upper Castle Hayne Aquifer. All geologic formations were bound by unconformities. All aquifers were confined by the anticipated hydrologic units. We conclude that CR-622 (Strat 8) represents a normal sequence in the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

  11. Seismic hazard in the South Carolina coastal plain: 2002 update of the USGS national seismic hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cramer, C.H.; Mays, T.W.; ,

    2005-01-01

    The damaging 1886 moment magnitude ???7 Charleston, South Carolina earthquake is indicative of the moderately likely earthquake activity along this portion of the Atlantic Coast. A recurrence of such an earthquake today would have serious consequences for the nation. The national seismic hazard maps produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provide a picture of the levels of seismic hazard across the nation based on the best and most current scientific information. The USGS national maps were updated in 2002 and will become part of the International Codes in 2006. In the past decade, improvements have occurred in the scientific understanding of the nature and character of earthquake activity and expected ground motions in the central and eastern U.S. The paper summarizes the new knowledge of expected earthquake locations, magnitudes, recurrence, and ground-motion decay with distance. New estimates of peak ground acceleration and 0.2 s and 1.0 s spectral acceleration are compared with those displayed in the 1996 national maps. The 2002 maps show increased seismic hazard in much of the coastal plain of South Carolina, but a decrease in long period (1 s and greater) hazard by up to 20% at distances of over 50 km from the Charleston earthquake zone. Although the national maps do not account for the effects of local or regional sediments, deep coastal-plain sediments can significally alter expected ground shaking, particularly at long period motions where it can be 100% higher than the national maps.

  12. Starting new populations of longleaf pine ground-layer plants in the Outer Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Glitzenstein, Jeff, S.; Streng, Donna, R.; Wade, Dale, D.; Brubaker, J

    2001-01-01

    Glitzenstein, J.S., Donna R. Streng, D.D. Wade, and J. Brubaker. 2001. Starting new populations of longleaf pine ground-layer plants in the Outer Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. Natural Areas J. 21:89-110. Abstract: Southeastern United States habitats dominated by longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Miller) and associated plant species have declined dangerously. Conservation of rare and common plants of longleaf pine habitats may be aided by starting new populations in the field. We review methods for initiating plant populations and integrate information from our studies of rare and common longleaf pine ground-layer plants of the outer South Carolina Coastal Plain. In our experience it is possible to start new populations of most longleaf pine ground-layer plants, including rare species if (1) seeds are collected from frequently burned sites with reasonably large populations of desired species; (2) appropriate media are used for seedling propagation; (3) outplanting of nursery grown seedlings or direct seeding is done during periods of sufficient soil moisture; and (4) introduction sites properly match habitat requirements (inferred from indicator plants) of desired species, and the sites can be managed with frequent prescribed fire.

  13. Private Domestic-Well Characteristics and the Distribution of Domestic Withdrawals among Aquifers in the Virginia Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Jason P.; McFarland, E. Randolph; Banks, R. Brent

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of private domestic wells and self-supplied domestic ground-water withdrawals in the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province of Virginia indicates that the magnitudes of these withdrawals and their effects on local and regional ground-water flow are larger and more important than previous reports have stated. Self-supplied ground-water withdrawals for domestic use in the Virginia Coastal Plain are estimated to be approximately 40 million gallons per day, or about 28 percent of all ground-water withdrawals in the area. Contrary to widely held assumptions, only 22 percent of domestic wells in the Virginia Coastal Plain are completed in the shallow, unconfined surficial aquifer to which the water is returned directly by home septic systems. Fifty-three percent of the wells are completed in six deeper confined aquifers, and the remaining 25 percent are completed in the Potomac aquifer and confining zone, the deepest units in the confined system. Assuming an equal rate of withdrawal per well, 78 percent of domestic ground-water withdrawal, or about 30 million gallons per day, is removed from the regional confined ground-water system. Domestic ground-water withdrawal from an estimated 200,000 private wells supplies more than 15 percent of the population of the area and provides almost the entire source of water in some rural counties. The geographic distribution of these withdrawals is dependent on the self-supplied population and is highly variable. Domestic-well characteristics vary spatially as well, primarily because of geographic differences in depths to particular aquifers, but also because of well-drilling practices that are influenced by geographic, regulatory, and socioeconomic factors. Domestic ground-water withdrawals in the Virginia Coastal Plain were characterized as part of a larger study to analyze the regional ground-water flow system. Characterizing the withdrawals required differentiation of the withdrawals among the aquifers in

  14. Corrosiveness of ground water in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system of the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, J.L.; Kish, G.R.; Velnich, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water from the unconfined part of the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in the New Jersey Coastal Plain typically is corrosive-- that is, it is acidic, soft, and has low concentrations of alkalinity. Corrosive ground water has the potential to leach trace elements and asbestos fibers from plumbing materials used in potable- water systems, thereby causing potentially harmful concentrations of these substances in drinking water. Corrosion indices were calculated from water-quality data for 370 wells in the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system. Values of the Langelier Saturation Index are predominantly negative, indicating that the water is undersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate, and, therefore, is potentially corrosive. Values of the Aggressive Index, a similar estimator of the corrosiveness of water, range from 3.9 (highly corrosive) to 11.9 (moderately corrosive). The median Aggressive Index value calculated for the 370 wells is 6.0, a value that indicates that the water is highly corrosive. Moderately corrosive ground water is found in some coastal areas. Isolated instances of moderately corrosive water are found in northern Ocean County, and in Burlington, Camden, and Salem Counties. In the vicinity of Ocean County corrosion-index values change little with depth, but in Atlantic, Burlington, and Salem Counties the corrosiveness of ground water generally appears to decrease with depth. Analyses of standing tap water from newly constructed homes in the Coastal Plain show concentrations of lead and other trace elements are significantly higher than those in ambient ground water. The elevated trace-element concentrations are attributed to the corrosion of plumbing materials by ground water. Results of the tap-water analyses substantiate the corrosiveness of Kirkwood-Cohansey ground water, as estimated by corrosion-index values.

  15. Groundwater-quality data and regional trends in the Virginia Coastal Plain, 1906-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFarland, E. Randolph

    2010-01-01

    A newly developed regional perspective of the hydrogeology of the Virginia Coastal Plain incorporates updated information on groundwater quality in the area. Local-scale groundwater-quality information is provided by a comprehensive dataset compiled from multiple Federal and State agency databases. Groundwater-sample chemical-constituent values and related data are presented in tables, summaries, location maps, and discussions of data quality and limitations. Spatial trends in groundwater quality and related processes at the regional scale are determined from interpretive analyses of the sample data. Major ions that dominate the chemical composition of groundwater in the deep Piney Point, Aquia, and Potomac aquifers evolve eastward and with depth from (1) 'hard' water, dominated by calcium and magnesium cations and bicarbonate and carbonate anions, to (2) 'soft' water, dominated by sodium and potassium cations and bicarbonate and carbonate anions, and lastly to (3) 'salty' water, dominated by sodium and potassium cations and chloride anions. Chemical weathering of subsurface sediments is followed by ion exchange by clay and glauconite, and subsequently by mixing with seawater along the saltwater-transition zone. The chemical composition of groundwater in the shallower surficial and Yorktown-Eastover aquifers, and in basement bedrock along the Fall Zone, is more variable as a result of short flow paths between closely located recharge and discharge areas and possibly some solutes originating from human sources. The saltwater-transition zone is generally broad and landward-dipping, based on groundwater chloride concentrations that increase eastward and with depth. The configuration is convoluted across the Chesapeake Bay impact crater, however, where it is warped and mounded along zones having vertically inverted chloride concentrations that decrease with depth. Fresh groundwater has flushed seawater from subsurface sediments preferentially around the impact crater

  16. Surface faults in the gulf coastal plain between Victoria and Beaumont, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verbeek, E.R.

    1979-01-01

    Displacement of the land surface by faulting is widespread in the Houston-Galveston region, an area which has undergone moderate to severe land subsidence associated with fluid withdrawal (principally water, and to a lesser extent, oil and gas). A causative link between subsidence and fluid extraction has been convincingly reported in the published literature. However, the degree to which fluid withdrawal affects fault movement in the Texas Gulf Coast, and the mechanism(s) by which this occurs are as yet unclear. Faults that offset the ground surface are not confined to the large (>6000-km2) subsidence "bowl" centered on Houston, but rather are common and characteristic features of Gulf Coast geology. Current observations and conclusions concerning surface faults mapped in a 35,000-km2 area between Victoria and Beaumont, Texas (which area includes the Houston subsidence bowl) may be summarized as follows: 1. (1) Hundreds of faults cutting the Pleistocene and Holocene sediments exposed in the coastal plain have been mapped. Many faults lie well outside the Houston-Galveston region; of these, more than 10% are active, as shown by such features as displaced, fractured, and patched road surfaces, structural failure of buildings astride faults, and deformed railroad tracks. 2. (2) Complex patterns of surface faults are common above salt domes. Both radial patterns (for example, in High Island, Blue Ridge, Clam Lake, and Clinton domes) and crestal grabens (for example, in the South Houston and Friendswood-Webster domes) have been recognized. Elongate grabens connecting several known and suspected salt domes, such as the fault zone connecting Mykawa, Friendswood-Webster, and Clear Lake domes, suggest fault development above rising salt ridges. 3. (3) Surface faults associated with salt domes tend to be short (10 km), occur singly or in simple grabens, have gently sinuous traces, and tend to lie roughly parallel to the ENE-NE "coastwise" trend common to regional growth

  17. Planning report for the Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubb, Hayes F.

    1984-01-01

    Large quantities of water for municipal, industrial and agriculture use are supplied from the aquifers in Tertiary and younger sediments over an area of about 225,000 square miles in the Coastal Plain of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, and Texas. Three regional aquifer systems, the Mississippi Embayment aquifer system, the Coastal Lowlands aquifer system, and the Texas Coastal Uplands aquifer system have been developed to varying degrees throughout the area. A variety of problems has resulted from development such as movement of the saline-freshwater interface into parts of aquifers that were previously fresh, lowering of the potentiometric surface with resulting increases in pumping lift, and land-surface subsidence due to the compaction of clays within the aquifer. Increased demand for ground water is anticipated to meet the needs of urban growth, expanded energy development, and growth of irrigated agriculture. The U. S. Geological Survey initiated an eightyear study in 1981 to define the geohydrologic framework, describe the chemistry of the ground water, and to analyze the regional ground-water flow patterns. The objectives, plan, and organization of the study are described in this report and the major tasks to be undertaken are outlined.

  18. In situ burning restores the ecological function and structure of an oil-impacted coastal marsh.

    PubMed

    Baustian, Joseph; Mendelssohn, Irving; Lin, Qianxin; Rapp, John

    2010-11-01

    As the use of in situ burning for oil spill remediation in coastal wetlands accelerates, the capacity of this procedure to restore the ecological structure and function of oil-impacted wetlands becomes increasingly important. Thus, our research focused on evaluating the functional and structural recovery of a coastal marsh in South Louisiana to an in situ burn following a Hurricane Katrina-induced oil spill. Permanent sampling plots were set up to monitor marsh recovery in the oiled and burned areas as well as non-oiled and non-burned (reference) marshes. Plots were monitored for species composition, stem density, above- and belowground productivity, marsh resiliency, soil chemistry, soil residual oil, and organic matter decomposition. The burn removed the majority of the oil from the marsh, and structurally the marsh recovered rapidly. Plant biomass and species composition returned to control levels within 9 months; however, species richness remained somewhat lower in the oiled and burned areas compared to the reference areas. Recovery of ecological function was also rapid following the in situ burn. Aboveground and belowground plant productivity recovered within one growing season, and although decomposition rates were initially higher in the oiled areas, over time they became equivalent to those in reference sites. Also, marsh resiliency, i.e., the rate of recovery from our applied disturbances, was not affected by the in situ burn. We conclude that in situ burning is an effective way to remove oil and allow ecosystem recovery in coastal marshes.

  19. In Situ Burning Restores the Ecological Function and Structure of an Oil-Impacted Coastal Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baustian, Joseph; Mendelssohn, Irving; Lin, Qianxin; Rapp, John

    2010-11-01

    As the use of in situ burning for oil spill remediation in coastal wetlands accelerates, the capacity of this procedure to restore the ecological structure and function of oil-impacted wetlands becomes increasingly important. Thus, our research focused on evaluating the functional and structural recovery of a coastal marsh in South Louisiana to an in situ burn following a Hurricane Katrina-induced oil spill. Permanent sampling plots were set up to monitor marsh recovery in the oiled and burned areas as well as non-oiled and non-burned (reference) marshes. Plots were monitored for species composition, stem density, above- and belowground productivity, marsh resiliency, soil chemistry, soil residual oil, and organic matter decomposition. The burn removed the majority of the oil from the marsh, and structurally the marsh recovered rapidly. Plant biomass and species composition returned to control levels within 9 months; however, species richness remained somewhat lower in the oiled and burned areas compared to the reference areas. Recovery of ecological function was also rapid following the in situ burn. Aboveground and belowground plant productivity recovered within one growing season, and although decomposition rates were initially higher in the oiled areas, over time they became equivalent to those in reference sites. Also, marsh resiliency, i.e., the rate of recovery from our applied disturbances, was not affected by the in situ burn. We conclude that in situ burning is an effective way to remove oil and allow ecosystem recovery in coastal marshes.

  20. Factors limiting regeneration of Quercus alba and Cornus florida in formerly cultivated coastal plain sites, South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Joseph, M., Jr.; Jones, Robert, H.

    2003-01-01

    Riley, J.M. Jr., and R.H.Jones. 2003. Factors limiting regeneration of Quercus alba and Cornus florida in formerly cultivated coastal plain sites, South Carolina. For. Ecol., and Mgt. 177:571-586. To determine the extent that resources, conditions, and herbivoryy limit regeneration of Quercus alba L. and Cornus florida L. in formerly cultivated coastal plain uplands, we planted seedlings of the two species in two pine and one pine-hardwood forest understory and three adjacent clearcuts. Soil carbon and moisture, available nitrogen and phosphorous, and gap light index (GLI) were measured next to each seedling. Over two growing seasons, stem and leaf herbivory were estimated and survival was recorded. At the end of 2 years, all surviving stems were harvested to determine total leaf area and 2-year biomass growth. Survival to the end of the study was not significantly different between clearcuts and understories. However, clearcuts led to significantly greater biomass growth and leaf area for both Q. alba and C. florida. Soil moisture and available nutrients were also greater in the clearcuts. Using separate multiple linear (growth) or logistic (survival) regressions for each combination of three sites, two cutting treatments and two species, we found that soil moisture significantly affected survival in 12.5% and biomass growth in 8.3% of the regressions. Light availability significantly impacted biomass growth in 16.7% of the regressions. Stem and leaf herbivory had very little impact on survival (8.3%), but when combined, these two factors significantly impacted leaf area or biomass growth in 33.3% of the regressions. Seedling responses were highly variable, and no regression model accounted for more that 70.0% of this variation. In our study, stand-scalevariation in seedling responses (especially the difference between clearcut and understory) was much greater than within-stand variation. Of the within stand factors measured, herbivory was clearly the most

  1. Soil microbial community structure and functionality during grassland restoration in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil microbial communities are an indispensable part of restoration programs due to their significant role in ecosystem functioning and sensitivity to disturbance. We evaluated soil microbial community structure using ester-linked fatty acid (EL-FAME) profiling and metabolic functioning, by measurin...

  2. Environmental setting and factors that affect water quality in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berndt, M.P.; Oaksford, E.T.; Darst, M.R.; Marella, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit covers an area of nearly 62,000 square miles in the southeastern United States, mostly in the Coastal Plain physiographic province. Land resource provinces have been designated based on generalized soil classifications. Land resource provinces in the study area include: the Coastal Flatwoods, the Southern Coastal Plain, the Central Florida Ridge, the Sand Hills, and the Southern Piedmont. The study area includes all or parts of seven hydrologic subregions: the Ogeechee-Savannah, the Altamaha- St.Marys, the Suwannee, the Ochlockonee, the St. Johns, the Peace-Tampa Bay, and the Southern Florida. The primary source of water for public supply in the study area is ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. In 1990, more than 90 percent of the 2,888 million gallons per day of ground water used came from this aquifer. The population of the study area was 9.3 million in 1990. The cities of Jacksonville, Orlando, St. Petersburg, Tallahassee, and Tampa, Florida, and parts of Atlanta and Savannah, Georgia, are located in the study area. Forest and agricultural areas are the most common land uses in the study area, accounting for 48 percent and 25 percent of the study area, respectively. Climatic conditions range from temperate in Atlanta, Georgia, where mean annual temperature is about 61.3 degrees Fahrenheit, to subtropical in Tampa, Florida, where mean annual temperature is about 72.4 degrees Fahrenheit. Long-term average precipitation (1961-90) ranges from 43.9 inches per year in Tampa, Florida, and 44.6 in Macon, Georgia, to 65.7 inches per year in Tallahassee, Florida. Floods in the study area result from frontal systems, hurricanes, tropical storms, or severe thunderstorms. Droughts are not common in the study area,especially in the Florida part of the study area due to extensive maritime exposure. The primary physical and cultural characteristics in the study area include physiography, soils and land resource provinces

  3. Classifications for Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act site-specific projects: 2008 and 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, William R.; Garber, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    The Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) funds over 100 wetland restoration projects across Louisiana. Integral to the success of CWPPRA is its long-term monitoring program, which enables State and Federal agencies to determine the effectiveness of each restoration effort. One component of this monitoring program is the analysis of high-resolution, color-infrared aerial photography at the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana. Color-infrared aerial photography (9- by 9-inch) is obtained before project construction and several times after construction. Each frame is scanned on a photogrametric scanner that produces a high-resolution image in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF). By using image-processing software, these TIFF files are then orthorectified and mosaicked to produce a seamless image of a project area and its associated reference area (a control site near the project that has common environmental features, such as marsh type, soil types, and water salinities.) The project and reference areas are then classified according to pixel value into two distinct classes, land and water. After initial land and water ratios have been established by using photography obtained before and after project construction, subsequent comparisons can be made over time to determine land-water change. Several challenges are associated with the land-water interpretation process. Primarily, land-water classifications are often complicated by the presence of floating aquatic vegetation that occurs throughout the freshwater systems of coastal Louisiana and that is sometimes difficult to differentiate from emergent marsh. Other challenges include tidal fluctuations and water movement from strong winds, which may result in flooding and inundation of emergent marsh during certain conditions. Compensating for these events is difficult but possible by using other sources of imagery to verify marsh conditions for other

  4. Inundation and salinity impacts to above- and belowground productivity in Spartina patens and Spartina alterniflora in the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain: implications for using river diversions as restoration tools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snedden, Gregg A.; Cretini, Kari Foster; Patton, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Inundation and salinity directly affect plant productivity and processes that regulate vertical accretion in coastal wetlands, and are expected to increase as sea level continues to rise. In the Mississippi River deltaic plain, river diversions, which are being implemented as ecosystem restoration tools, can also strongly increase inundation in coastal wetlands. We used an in situ mesocosm approach to examine how varying salinity (two levels) and inundation rates (six levels) influenced end-of-season above- and belowground biomass of Spartina patens and Spartina alterniflora during the growing season (March–October) in 2011. Above- and belowground biomass was highest in both species at higher elevations when inundation was minimal, and decreased exponentially with decreased elevation and increased flood duration. This negative biomass response to flooding was more pronounced in S. patens than in S. alterniflora, and S. patens also showed stronger biomass reductions at higher salinities. This salinity effect was absent for belowground biomass in S. alterniflora. These findings suggest that even subtle increases in sea level may lead to substantial reductions in productivity and organic accretion, and also illustrate the importance of considering the inundation tolerance of co-dominant species in receiving areas when utilizing river diversions for delta restoration.

  5. Comparative riverscape genetics reveals reservoirs of genetic diversity for conservation and restoration of Great Plains fishes.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Megan J; Perkin, Joshuah S; Gido, Keith B; Turner, Thomas F

    2014-12-01

    We used comparative landscape genetics to examine the relative roles of historical events, intrinsic traits and landscape factors in determining the distribution of genetic diversity of river fishes across the North American Great Plains. Spatial patterns of diversity were overlaid on a patch-based graphical model and then compared within and among three species that co-occurred across five Great Plains watersheds. Species differing in reproductive strategy (benthic vs. pelagic-spawning) were hypothesized to have different patterns of genetic diversity, but the overriding factor shaping contemporary patterns of diversity was the signature of past climates and geological history. Allelic diversity was significantly higher at southern latitudes for Cyprinella lutrensis and Hybognathus placitus, consistent with northward expansion from southern Pleistocene refugia. Within the historical context, all species exhibited lowered occupancy and abundance in heavily fragmented and drier upstream reaches, particularly H. placitus; a pelagic-spawning species, suggesting rates of extirpation have outpaced losses of genetic diversity in this species. Within most tributary basins, genetically diverse populations of each species persisted. Hence, reconnecting genetically diverse populations with those characterized by reduced diversity (regardless of their position within the riverine network) would provide populations with greater genetic and demographic resilience. We discuss cases where cross-basin transfer may be appropriate to enhance genetic diversity and mitigate negative effects of climate change. Overall, striking similarities in genetic patterns and in response to fragmentation and dewatering suggest a common strategy for genetic resource management in this unique riverine fish assemblage.

  6. Comparative riverscape genetics reveals reservoirs of genetic diversity for conservation and restoration of Great Plains fishes

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Megan J; Perkin, Joshuah S.; Gido, Keith B.; Turner, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    We used comparative landscape genetics to examine the relative roles of historical events, intrinsic traits, and landscape factors in determining the distribution of genetic diversity of river fishes across the North American Great Plains. Spatial patterns of diversity were overlaid on a patch-based graphical model, and then compared within and among three species that co-occurred across five Great Plains watersheds. Species differing in reproductive strategy (benthic vs. pelagic spawning) were hypothesized to have different patterns of genetic diversity, but the overriding factor shaping contemporary patterns of diversity was the signature of past climates and geological history. Allelic diversity was significantly higher at southern latitudes for Cyprinella lutrensis and Hybognathus placitus, consistent with northward expansion from southern Pleistocene refugia. Within the historical context, all species exhibited lowered occupancy and abundance in heavily fragmented and drier upstream reaches, particularly H. placitus; a pelagic-spawning species, suggesting rates of extirpation have outpaced losses of genetic diversity in this species. Within most basins, genetically diverse populations of each species persisted. Hence, reconnecting genetically diverse populations with those characterized by reduced diversity (regardless of their position within the riverine network) would provide populations with greater genetic and demographic resilience. We discuss cases where cross-basin transfer may be appropriate to enhance genetic diversity and mitigate negative effects of climate change. Overall, striking similarities in genetic patterns and response to fragmentation and dewatering suggest a common strategy for genetic resource management in this unique riverine fish assemblage. PMID:25327780

  7. Effect of conservation practices on soil carbon and nitrogen accretion and crop yield in a corn production system in the southeastern coastal plain, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We implemented conservation farming practices (winter cover cropping plus strip tillage) for a non-irrigated corn production system in the southern coastal plain of Georgia, USA that had been previously been managed under a plow and harrow tillage regime. Total soil carbon and nitrogen were measure...

  8. Comparative assessment of herbicide and fungicide runoff risk: a case study for peanut production in the Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain (USA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is produced intensively in the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain of the eastern USA. To effectively protect the region’s water quality data are needed which quantify runoff of pesticides used to protect these crops. Fungicides are used intensively yet there is little publishe...

  9. PREDICTING THE OCCURRENCE OF NUTRIENTS AND PESTICIDES DURING BASE FLOW IN NONTIDAL HEADWATER STREAMS OF THE MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality in nontidal headwater (first-order) streams of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (MACP) during base flow in the late winter and spring is related to land use, hydrogeology, and other natural or human influences in contributing watersheds.

  10. ESTIMATING THE LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE OF SELECTED PESTICIDES AND NUTRIENTS EXCEEDING SPECIFIC CONCENTRATIONS IN COASTAL PLAIN STREAMS BASED ON LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of selected pesticides and nutrient compounds in nontidal headwater streams of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (North Carolina through New Jersey) during winter and spring base flow is related to land use, soils, and other geographic variables that reflect sources a...

  11. Wheat straw yield, nutrient uptake and soil chemical changes in two coastal plains ultisols amended with uncharred and pyrolyzed sorghum residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current concerns about rising global population growth combined with global food security necessitate major optimization in agricultural management. The fertility of highly weathered Ultisols in the southeastern Coastal Plains region of United States is considerably low. In this region, intensive cr...

  12. Dusky salamanders (Desmognathus, Plethodontidae) from the Coastal Plain: multiple independent lineages and their bearing on the molecular phylogeny of the genus.

    PubMed

    Beamer, David A; Lamb, Trip

    2008-04-01

    Recent phylogenetic reassessment of the lungless salamanders (Plethodontidae) confirmed a major life-history reversal-from direct development to an aquatic larval stage-in the dusky salamanders (Desmognathus) of eastern North America. This reversal initiated high rates of lineage accumulation, reputedly generating the species richness and ecological breath that now characterize Desmognathus. Certain important aspects of the radiation, e.g., ecomorphological evolution, have been identified through intense sampling effort of Appalachian Highland lineages. However, the research preoccupation on montane species has left overlooked a significant component of dusky salamander distribution-the Coastal Plain. We present the first molecular phylogeny for Desmognathus to incorporate extensive coverage from the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains. We examined 38 Coastal Plain populations in conjunction with 45 additional populations, representing 16 of the 19 nominal species. Bayesian analysis of 88 mitochondrial cox1 haplotypes diagnosed eight independent population lineages within the Coastal Plain, a number at odds with the region's three currently recognized species. Desmognathus has apparently experienced a complex biogeographic history in this physiographic region, one involving multiple invasions and several ecological transitions from lotic to lentic habitats.

  13. Estimating Pesticide Retention Efficacy for Edge of Field Buffers Using the Riparian Ecosystem Management Model (REMM) in Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain Landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain croplands are vulnerable to runoff; thus agricultural pesticide use may adversely impact surface water quality. Our research group has collected data over the past 5 years indicating that this is not the case in Little River Experimental Watershed (LREW) located in co...

  14. Fatty acid signature data of potential yellow-billed loon prey in the Arctic coastal plain of Alaska, 2009-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynes, T B; Schmutz, Joel A.; Bromaghin, Jeffrey; Iverson, S.J.; Padula, V. M.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.

    2016-01-01

    This dataset contains fatty acid data expressed as mass percent of total fatty acids for several species potentially preyed upon by yellow-billed loons. These data were utilized in a quantitative fatty acid signature analysis to estimate the diet of yellow-billed loons nesting on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska (Haynes et al. 2015).

  15. Evaluation of amendments to decrease high strength in southeastern USA Coastal Plain soils using fuzzy multi-attributive comparison of alternatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Productivity of many southeastern USA Coastal Plain soils is reduced by cemented subsurface layers that restrict root growth. Though tillage is the usual way to reduce cementation, if soil amendments can develop aggregation, they offer a more permanent solution. To improve soil physical properties a...

  16. PREDICTING THE OCCURRENCE OF NUTRIENTS AND PESTICIDES DURING BASE FLOW IN STREAMS: STATUS OF MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN AND MIDWEST CORN BELT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Random surveys of 174 headwater streams of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (MACP) and 110 third-order streams in the Midwest Corn Belt (MCB) were conducted in 2000 and 2004, respectively in two cooperative research studies by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Geolo...

  17. Grenville age of basement rocks in Cape May NJ well: New evidence for Laurentian crust in U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain basement Chesapeake terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheridan, R.E.; Maguire, T.J.; Feigenson, M.D.; Patino, L.C.; Volkert, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Chesapeake terrane of the U.S. mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain basement is bounded on the northwest by the Salisbury positive gravity and magnetic anomaly and extends to the southeast as far as the Atlantic coast. It underlies the Coastal Plain of Virginia, Maryland, Delaware and southern New Jersey. Rubidium/Strontium dating of the Chesapeake terrane basement yields an age of 1.025 ?? 0.036 Ga. This age is typical of Grenville province rocks of the Middle to Late Proterozoic Laurentian continent. The basement lithologies are similar to some exposed Grenville-age rocks of the Appalachians. The TiO2 and Zr/P2O5 composition of the metagabbro from the Chesapeake terrane basement is overlapped by those of the Proterozoic mafic dikes in the New Jersey Highlands. These new findings support the interpretation that Laurentian basement extends southeast as far as the continental shelf in the U.S. mid-Atlantic region. The subcrop of Laurentian crust under the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain implies unroofing by erosion of the younger Carolina (Avalon) supracrustal terrane. Dextral-transpression fault duplexes may have caused excessive uplift in the Salisbury Embayment area during the Alleghanian orogeny. This extra uplift in the Salisbury area may have caused the subsequent greater subsidence of the Coastal Plain basement in the embayment.

  18. MEASURING BASE-FLOW CHEMISTRY AS AN INDICATOR OF REGIONAL GROUND-WATER QUALITY IN THE MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality in headwater (first-order) streams of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain during base flow in the winter and spring is related to land use, hydrogeology, and other natural and human influences. A random survey of water quality in 174 headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic...

  19. Application of remote sensing data to land use and land cover assessment in the Tubarao River coastal plain, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    By means of aerial photography and MSS-LANDSAT data a land use/land cover classification was applied to the Tubarao River coastal plain. The following classes were identified: coal related areas, permanently flooded wetlands, periodically flooded wetlands, agricultural lands, bare soils, water bodies, urban areas, forestlands.

  20. Restoration of marine coastal ecosystem health as a new goal for integrated catchment management in Tolo Harbor, Hong Kong, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fu-Liu; Hao, Jun-Yi; Tao, Shu; Dawson, Richard W; Lam, K C; Chen, Yongqin David

    2006-04-01

    This article demonstrates why it is necessary to have the restoration of marine coastal ecosystem health as a new goal for integrated catchment management in the coastal area of Tolo Harbor. The present goal of integrated catchment management (ICM) in the Tolo Harbor is based on water quality objectives. The performance of the ICM plan, the Tolo Harbor Action Plan (THAP), was evaluated using marine coastal ecosystem health indicators including both stress and response indicators. Since the implementation of THAP in 1988, some significant reductions in pollution loading have been observed: reduction of 83% of biological oxygen demand load and 82% of total nitrogen between 1988 and 1999. There has also been an improvement in the health of Tolo Harbor's marine coastal ecosystem as evidenced by trends in physical, chemical, and biological indicators, although reverse fluctuations in some periods exist. However, such improvement can only be considered as the first sign of complete ecosystem health restoration, because ecosystem health covers not only physical, chemical, and biological aspects of an ecosystem, but also ecosystem service functions. The findings support the need to take the restoration and protection of marine coastal ecosystem health as a new goal rather than using water quality objectives. Steps necessary to further improve Tolo Harbor's marine coastal ecosystem health are also discussed.

  1. RIGED-RA project - Restoration and management of Coastal Dunes in the Northern Adriatic Coast, Ravenna Area - Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giambastiani, Beatrice M. S.; Greggio, Nicolas; Sistilli, Flavia; Fabbri, Stefano; Scarelli, Frederico; Candiago, Sebastian; Anfossi, Giulia; Lipparini, Carlo A.; Cantelli, Luigi; Antonellini, Marco; Gabbianelli, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    Coastal dunes play an important role in protecting the coastline. Unfortunately, in the last decades dunes have been removed or damaged by human activities. In the Emilia- Romagna region significant residual dune systems are found only along Ravenna and Ferrara coasts. In this context, the RIGED-RA project “Restoration and management of coastal dunes along the Ravenna coast” (2013-2016) has been launched with the aims to identify dynamics, erosion and vulnerability of Northern Adriatic coast and associated residual dunes, and to define intervention strategies for dune protection and restoration. The methodology is based on a multidisciplinary approach that integrates the expertise of several researchers and investigates all aspects (biotic and abiotic), which drive the dune-beach system. All datasets were integrated to identify test sites for applying dune restoration. The intervention finished in April 2016; evolution and restoration efficiency will be assessed.

  2. Classifications for Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) site-specific projects: 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, William R.; Garber, Adrienne

    2013-01-01

    The Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) funds over 100 wetland restoration projects across Louisiana. Integral to the success of CWPPRA is its long-term monitoring program, which enables State and Federal agencies to determine the effectiveness of each restoration effort. One component of this monitoring program is the classification of high-resolution, color-infrared aerial photography at the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana. Color-infrared aerial photography (9- by 9-inch) is obtained before project construction and several times after construction. Each frame is scanned on a photogrametric scanner that produces a high-resolution image in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF). By using image-processing software, these TIFF files are then orthorectified and mosaicked to produce a seamless image of a project area and its associated reference area (a control site near the project that has common environmental features, such as marsh type, soil types, and water salinities.) The project and reference areas are then classified according to pixel value into two distinct classes, land and water. After initial land and water ratios have been established by using photography obtained before and after project construction, subsequent comparisons can be made over time to determine land-water change.

  3. National water quality assessment of the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit; water withdrawals and treated wastewater discharges, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, R.L.; Fanning, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit covers nearly 62,600 square miles along the southeastern United States coast in Georgia and Florida. In 1990, the estimated population of the study unit was 9.3 million, and included all or part of the cities of Atlanta, Jacksonville, Orlando, Tampa, and St. Petersburg. Estimated freshwater withdrawn in the study unit in 1990 was nearly 5,075 million gallons per day. Ground-water accounted for more than 57 percent of the water withdrawn during 1990 and the Floridan aquifer system provided nearly 91 percent of the total ground-water withdrawn. Surface-water accounted for nearly 43 percent of the water withdrawn in the study unit in 1990 with large amounts of withdrawals from the Altamaha River, Hillsborough River, the Ocmulgee River, the Oconee River, the St. Johns River, and the Suwannee River. Water withdrawn for public supply in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit in 1990 totaled 1,139 million gallons per day, of which 83 percent was ground water and 17 percent was surface water. Self-supplied domestic withdrawals in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit in 1990 totaled nearly 230 million gallons per day. Ground water supplied over 80 percent of the study units population for drining water purposes; nearly 5.8 million people were served by public supply and 1.8 million people were served by self-supplied systems. Water withdrawn for self-supplied domestic use in Georgia and Florida is derived almost exclusively from ground water, primarily because this source can provide the quantity and quality of water needed for drinking purposes. Nearly 1.7 million people served by public supply utilized surface water for their drinking water needs. Water withdrawn for self-supplied commercial-industrial uses in the study unit in 1990 totaled 862 million gallons per day, of which 93 percent was ground water and 7 percent was surface water. Water withdrawn for agriculture purposes in the study unit in 1990 totaled 1

  4. Regional chloride distribution in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charles, Emmanuel G.

    2016-08-31

    Although additional offshore chloride data are available compared to 27 years ago (1989), the offshore information remains sparse, resulting in less confidence in the offshore interpretations than in the onshore interpretations. Regionally, the 250- and 10,000-mg/L isochlors tend to map progressively eastward from the deepest to the shallowest aquifers across the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system but with some exceptions. The additional data, conceptual understanding, and interpretations in the vicinity of the buried Chesapeake Bay impact structure in eastern Virginia resulted in substantial refinement of isochlors in that area. Overall, the interpretations in this study are updates of the previous regional study from 1989 but do not comprise major differences in interpretation and do not indicate regional movement of the freshwater-saltwater interface since then.

  5. New ground water tracers: Development and application to Maryland`s major coastal plain aquifers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mignerey, A.C.; Helz, G.R.; Purdy, C.B.; Bond, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    The project has used isotopic tracers to study the waters of two of the three major aquifers in the Coastal Plain of Maryland, the Aquia and the Magothy. Estimates of the time water has been in the ground, as a function of flow distance from the outcrop, have been made based on the effect of sea level on the isotopic concentrations and ratios. An age of about 18,000 y is obtained for Aquia water 40 km from the outcrop. Assuming a constant flow rate throughout the aquifer puts the oldest water at approximately 40,000 y old. Although information on the Magothy aquifer is less complete, flow rates appear to be similar to those in the Aquia.

  6. High eustatic sea level during the middle Pliocene: Evidence from the southeastern U. S. Atlantic Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Dowsett, H.J.; Cronin, T.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The middle Pliocene, {approximately}3.5-2.5 Ma, was a period of global warmth preceding the growth of major Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. The authors report on eustatic sea level for the middle Pliocene based on microspaleontologic study of marine deposits of the Duplin Formation of South Carolina and North Carolina. The Duplin was deposited during a middle Pliocene marine transgression that formed the Orangeburg scarp, a prominent wave-cut geomorphic paleoshoreline of the southeastern U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain. They concluded that (1) the scarp in South Carolina was formed mostly during the middle Pliocene (3.5-3.0 Ma), (2) eustatic sea level was about 35 {plus minus} 18 m higher than modern sea level (the scarp has been uplifted about 50-65 m since the middle Pliocene), and (3) ocean-water temperatures along eastern North America were warmer when the scarp was formed that they are at present.

  7. Land-cover change in the Gulf Coastal Plains and Ozarks Landscape Conservation Cooperative, 1973 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drummond, Mark A.; Stier, Michael P.; Coffin, Alisa W.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes baseline land-cover change information for four time intervals from between 1973 and 2000 for the Gulf Coastal Plains and Ozarks Landscape Conservation Cooperative (LCC). The study used sample data from the USGS Land Cover Trends dataset to develop estimates of change for 10 land-cover classes in the LCC. The results show that an estimated 17.7 percent of the LCC land cover had a change during the 27-year period. Cyclic forest dynamics—of timber harvest and regrowth—are the most extensive types of land conversion. Agricultural land had an estimated net decline of 3.5 percent as cropland and pasture were urbanized and developed and converted to forest use. Urban and other developed land covers expanded from 2.0 percent of the LCC in 1973 to 3.1 percent in 2000. The report also highlights causes and challenges of land-cover change.

  8. Starting new populations of longleaf pine ground-layer plants in the Outer Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA.

    SciTech Connect

    Glitzenstein, J.S.; Streng, Donna R.; Wade, D.D.; Brubaker, J.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Southeastern United States habitats dominated by longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Miller) and associated plant species have declined dangerously. Conservation of rare and common plants of longleaf pine habitats may be aided by starting new populations in the field. We review methods for initiating plant populations and integrate information from our studies of rare and common longleaf pine ground-layer plants of the outer South Carolina Coastal Plain. In our experience it is possible to start new populations of most longleaf pine ground-layer plants, including rare species if (1) seeds are collected from frequently burned sites with reasonably large populations of desired species; (2) appropriate media are used for seedling propagation; (3) outplanting of nursery grown seedlings or direct seeding is done during periods of sufficient soil moisture; and (4) introduction sites properly match habitat requirements (inferred from indicator plants) of desired species, and the sites can be managed with frequent prescribed fire.

  9. Addressing global warming and biodiversity through forest restoration and coastal wetlands creation

    PubMed

    Williams

    1999-10-18

    -trimming program as a compost material that will be mixed with low nutrient dredge material to create new coastal wetlands. Taken together, Entergy's initiatives will be able to address global warming through carbon sequestration, restore fragmented forest habitats, reduce coastal erosion and improve the quality of a vital coastal aquatic nursery habitat. Efforts will be made to manage the created habitats for biodiversity. Pulling all these ideas together creates an effect in which the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. In such a synergy of ideas, there are no losers and the winners are both industry participants and the environment.

  10. Soil Microbial Communities across a Chronosequence of Drained Lake Basins in the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao-Kniffin, J.; Bockheim, J.; Mueller, C. W.; Hinkel, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain landscape is comprised of approximately 25% drained lake basins spanning a continuum of geologic succession that provides the basis for an analysis of biologic change in soil on a millennial temporal scale. We examined patterns in soil carbon and microbial community composition across a 5,000-yr succession of these lake basins near Barrow, Alaska. Soil properties such as depth, pH, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, C:N ratio, and bulk density, were related to microbial community composition and abundance. Non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that soil microbial community composition was distinguishable between basins at the two extremes of the chronosequence (youngest and most ancient). In the youngest basins, organic carbon levels were positively correlated with abundance of gram-positive bacteria and saprotrophic fungi, whereas in the oldest basins carbon levels were associated only with gram-positive bacteria. In contrast, soil pH was negatively correlated with abundance of gram-positive bacteria and saprotrophic fungi. Surprisingly, the proportions of bacteria and fungi remained constant across the basin successional gradient with soil depth (up to 117 cm) and between the active layer and permafrost, although the total microbial biomass was 1.6-fold higher in the active layer. Cryoturbation in permafrost landscapes could be maintaining local homogeneity of the microbial community across the horizons sampled through mixing of materials across soil horizons. The results of this study indicate that the developmental time of drained lake basins impacts the community structure of major microbial groups, while soil depth influences microbial biomass. Examining the biomass distribution of active microorganisms across the chronosequence and at soil depth could help us better understand how different microbial groups respond to warming temperatures in the Arctic Coastal Plain.

  11. Natural and Human Influences on Water Quality in a Shallow Regional Unconsolidated Aquifer, Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    Data collected from more than 400 wells in the surficial unconfined aquifer in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (New York through North Carolina) were compiled and analyzed to improve understanding of multiple natural and human influences on water quality in such shallow regional aquifers. Geochemical patterns were identified and described through principal components analysis on major ions, and correlation and logistic regression were used to relate observed concentrations of nitrate and selected pesticide compounds (atrazine, metolachlor, simazine, and deethylatrazine, an atrazine degradate) and volatile organic compounds (chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, tetrachlorethene, and methyl tert-butyl ether) to likely influences, such as observed geochemical patterns, land use, hydrogeology, and soils. Variability in major-ion concentrations is primarily related to ionic strength and redox condition. Concentrations of nitrate, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds are related to natural conditions, as well as the distribution of likely sources reflected in land use. Nitrate is most common in aerobic ground water and in relatively well-drained areas, for example; concentrations greater than 0.4 milligrams per liter may result from a variety of human activities, although concentrations greater than 3 milligrams per liter are more likely in agricultural areas. Atrazine, deethylatrazine, and metolachlor also are related to geochemical patterns, likely because ground-water geochemistry reflects hydrogeologic and soil conditions affecting pesticide transport to the water table. Results demonstrate the value of geochemical information along with the distribution of sources and other influences to understanding the regional occurrence of selected compounds in ground water. Such influences are not unique to the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, and thus observations and interpretations are relevant to broader areas.

  12. End-Pleistocene Soil Constituents from Selected Sites on the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecompte, M. A.; Rock, B. N.; Demitroff, M.; Reid, M.; Lucas, L.; Hughes, D.; Hayden, L. B.

    2008-12-01

    Stratigraphic analyses of soil samples taken from dated and undated sites located along the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain have yielded evidence of increased contemporary biomass burning, compared to under and overlying strata. Host strata ages are known or projected to bracket the onset of the Younger Dryas cooling episode at 12.9 cal ka. This ongoing investigation includes samples from: 1) a late-Pleistocene aged periglacial feature located within the Pine Barrens of southern New Jersey; 2) an artifact dated stratum (~ 12.9 ka) in an embankment on the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland; and 3) an as yet undated (C14 test results pending) embankment of the Perquimans River in northeastern North Carolina projected to be age-appropriate. Sample analysis of scanning electron (SEM) micrographs from the Chesapeake Bay site revealed charred fragments of late-Wisconsinan Krummholz birch (Betula) and species of spruce (Picea) and fir (Abies), which are not extant on the modern-day, temperate Coastal Plain. In addition, organic faunal material is found in association with ancient charred boreal wood, including hollow hair and skin fragments that are as yet unidentified, perhaps from cold climate adapted animals as inferred from host sediment age. Charred wood fragments are found to be attracted to a neodymium magnet. Some aggregates of organic matter appear to contain magnetic spherule-like grains whose composition is awaiting geochemical analysis. Photomicrographs of all specimens and a stratigraphic breakdown in the relative amount of burned carbon associated with each site and strata will be presented, along with the results of various analyses that are currently underway.

  13. Pathways for arsenic from sediments to groundwater to streams: Biogeochemical processes in the Inner Coastal Plain, New Jersey, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, Julia L.; Mumford, Adam; Young, Lily Y.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Bonin, Jennifer L.; Rosman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments that underlie the Inner Coastal Plain of New Jersey contain the arsenic-rich mineral glauconite. Streambed sediments in two Inner Coastal Plain streams (Crosswicks and Raccoon Creeks) that traverse these glauconitic deposits are enriched in arsenic (15–25 mg/kg), and groundwater discharging to the streams contains elevated levels of arsenic (>80 μg/L at a site on Crosswicks Creek) with arsenite generally the dominant species. Low dissolved oxygen, low or undetectable levels of nitrate and sulfate, detectable sulfide concentrations, and high concentrations of iron and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the groundwater indicate that reducing environments are present beneath the streambeds and that microbial activity, fueled by the DOC, is involved in releasing arsenic and iron from the geologic materials. In groundwater with the highest arsenic concentrations at Crosswicks Creek, arsenic respiratory reductase gene (arrA) indicated the presence of arsenic-reducing microbes. From extracted DNA, 16s rRNA gene sequences indicate the microbial community may include arsenic-reducing bacteria that have not yet been described. Once in the stream, iron is oxidized and precipitates as hydroxide coatings on the sediments. Arsenite also is oxidized and co-precipitates with or is sorbed to the iron hydroxides. Consequently, dissolved arsenic concentrations are lower in streamwater than in the groundwater, but the arsenic contributed by groundwater becomes part of the arsenic load in the stream when sediments are suspended during high flow. A strong positive relation between concentrations of arsenic and DOC in the groundwater samples indicates that any process—natural or anthropogenic—that increases the organic carbon concentration in the groundwater could stimulate microbial activity and thus increase the amount of arsenic that is released from the geologic materials.

  14. Sediment facies and Holocene deposition rate of near-coastal fluvial systems: An example from the Nobi Plain, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Kazuaki; Usami, Shogo; Ueda, Hiroki

    2011-05-01

    Floodplains are a major component of present near-coastal fluvial systems that have evolved in response to postglacial changes in climate and sea level. Knowledge of sedimentary facies and deposition rates on a centennial to millennial time scale is required for considering floodplain evolution. Two cores, AP1 and AP2, were acquired from an abandoned channel of the Ibi River and its natural levee on the Nobi Plain, central Japan. Sediment facies analysis, electrical conductivity, and radiocarbon dating of borehole samples showed that in both cores organic-rich dark gray floodbasin mud overlies deltaic deposits dating to after approximately 3200 years calibrated radiocarbon age (cal BP) in relation to delta progradation. The accumulation of floodbasin mud continued at the both sites until about 400 cal BP. Around 400 cal BP, the mud was eroded by the overlying channel sand and gravel at AP1 and was covered by fine-grained natural levee deposits at AP2 with an abrupt contact. This timing is concordant with the historical record of avulsion of the Ibi River during the Keicho Era (AD 1596-1615). Averaged aggradation rates at the AP1 and AP2 sites were approximately 2.2 and 3.2 mm/yr, respectively. Faulting-related subsidence along the western edge of the plain has influenced these rates by creating accommodation. Averaged deposition rates differed greatly between the floodbasin and the levee, suggesting that rapid aggradation of the natural levee also occurred on a centennial to millennial scale. These empirical data may be useful for testing models of the architecture and evolution of near-coastal fluvial systems.

  15. Late Pleistocene to Holocene environmental changes as recorded in the sulfur geochemistry of coastal plain sediments, southwestern Taiwan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Y.-G.; Liu, J.C.-L.; Shieh, Y.-N.; Liu, T.-K.

    2004-01-01

    A core, drilled at San-liao-wan in the southwestern coastal plain of Taiwan, has been analyzed for total sulfur contents, isotopic values, as well as ratios of pyritic sulfur to organic carbon. Our results demonstrate a close relationship between late Pleistocene sea-level change and the proxies generated in this study. The inorganic sulfur contents indicate that at our study site, the Holocene transgression started at ???11 ka and remained under seawater for thousands of years until the late Holocene, corresponding to a depth of 20 m in the study core. The uppermost 20 m of core shows relatively high total organic carbon (TOC) and ??34S of inorganic sulfur, suggesting a transitional environment such as muddy lagoon or marsh, before the site turned into a modern coastal plain. In the lower part of the core, at depths of 110-145 m (corresponding ages of ???12-30 ka), low sulfur contents are recorded, probably indicating fluvial sediments deposited during the oceanic isotope stage (OIS) 2, a sea-level lowstand. The lower part of the core, roughly within OIS 3, records at least two transgressions, although the transgressional signals may be somewhat obscured by subsequent weathering. The reworked origin of organic matter reported in previous studies is confirmed by our organic sulfur data; however, the marine organic source was periodically dominant. The modern high sulfate concentrations in pore water have no correlation to the other sulfur species in the sediments, probably indicating that the sulfate migrated into the site subsequent to early diagenesis. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Collins Creek and Pleasant Creek Formations: Two new upper cretaceous subsurface units in the Carolina/Georgia Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Prowell, D.C.; Christopher, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper formally defines two new Upper Cretaceous subsurface units in the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain of North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia: the Collins Creek Formation and the Pleasant Creek Formation. These units are confined to the subsurface of the outer Coastal Plain, and their type sections are established in corehole CHN-820 from Charleston County, S.C. The Collins Creek Formation consists of greenish-gray lignitic sand and dark-greenish-gray sandy clay and is documented in cores from Allendale, Beaufort, Berkeley, Dorchester, Jasper and Marion Counties, South Carolina, and from Screven County, Georgia. Previously, Collins Creek strata had been incorrectly assigned to the Middendorf Formation. These sediments occupy a stratigraphic position between the Turonian/Coniacian Cape Fear Formation (?) below and the proposed upper Coniacian to middle Santonian Pleasant Creek Formation above. The Collins Creek Formation is middle and late Coniacian in age on the basis of calcareous nannofossil and palynomorph analyses. The Pleasant Creek Formation consists of olive-gray sand and dark-greenish-gray silty to sandy clay and is documented in cores from New Hanover County, North Carolina, and Berkeley, Charleston, Dorchester, Horry and Marion Counties, South Carolina. The strata of this unit previously were assigned incorrectly to the Middendorf Formation and (or) the Cape Fear Formation. These sediments occupy a stratigraphic position between the proposed Collins Creek Formation below and the Shepherd Grove Formation above. The Pleasant Creek Formation is late Coniacian and middle Santonian in age, on the basis of its calcareous nannofossil and palynomorph assemblages.

  17. Aerosol extinction properties over coastal West Bengal Gangetic plain under inter-seasonal and sea breeze influenced transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, S.; Priyadharshini, B.; Pani, S. K.; Bharath Kumar, D.; Faruqi, A. R.; Bhanja, S. N.; Mandal, M.

    2016-01-01

    We analysed the atmospheric aerosol extinction properties under an influence of inter-seasonal and sea breeze (SB) transport processes over coastal West Bengal (WB) Gangetic plain (WBGP). The predominant frequency of airmass back trajectory path was through the Arabian Sea (AS) during southwest monsoon (SWmon) and that through the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) during transition to winter (Twin) season and the Bay of Bengal during transition to summer (Tsumm) season. Aerosol surface concentration (Sconc) and aerosol extinction exhibited heterogeneity in the seasonal variability over coastal WBGP with their highest seasonal mean being during winter and summer seasons respectively. Seasonal mean extinction was respectively 17% and 30% higher during winter and summer seasons than that during SWmon. While angstrom exponent (AE) was less than one during SWmon, Tsumm, and summer seasons, it was near to one during Twin and winter monsoon (Wmon), and was more than one during winter season. Relative contribution (%) of upper (at altitude above 1 km) aerosol layer (UAL) to aerosol extinction during summer was four times of that during winter. Seasonally distinct vertical distribution of aerosol extinction associated with meteorological and SB influenced transport and that due to influence of high rise open burning emissions was inferred. Possible aerosol subtypes extracted during days in Tsumm were inferred to be mostly constituted of dust and polluted dust during daytime, in addition to polluted continental and smoke in UAL during nighttime. In contrast to that at nearby urban location (Kolkata, KOL), intensity of updraft of airmass evaluated during evening/SB activity hour (1730 local time, (LT)) at study site (Kharagpur, KGP) was as high as 3.5 times the intensity during near to noon hour (1130 LT); this intensity was the highest along coast of westBengal-Orissa. Enhanced Sconc and relative contribution of UAL to aerosol extinction (58% compared to 36% only at nearby urban

  18. Characterizing Storm Event Dynamics of a Forested Watershed in the Lower Atlantic Coastal Plain, South Carolina USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latorre Torres, I. B.; Amatya, D. M.; Callahan, T. J.; Levine, N. S.

    2007-12-01

    Hydrology research in the Southeast U.S. has primarily focused on upland mountainous areas; however, much less is known about hydrological processes in Lower Coastal Plain (LCP) watersheds. Such watersheds are difficult to characterize due to shallow water table conditions, low topographic gradient, complex surface- subsurface water interaction, and lack of detailed soil information. Although opportunities to conduct long term monitoring in relatively undeveloped watersheds are often limited, stream flow and rainfall in the Turkey Creek watershed (third-order watershed, about 7200 ha in the Francis Marion National Forest near Charleston, SC) have been monitored since 1964. In this study, event runoff-rainfall ratios have been determined for 51 storm events using historical data from 1964-1973. One of our objectives was to characterize relationships between seasonal event rainfall and storm outflow in this watershed. To this end, observed storm event data were compared with values predicted by established hydrological methods such as the Soil Conservation Service runoff curve number (SCS-CN) and the rational method integrated within a Geographical Information System (GIS), to estimate total event runoff and peak discharge, respectively. Available 1:15000 scale aerial images were digitized to obtain land uses, which were used with the SCS soil hydrologic groups to obtain the runoff coefficients (C) for the rational method and the CN values for the SCS-CN method. These methods are being tested with historical storm event responses in the Turkey Creek watershed scale, and then will be used to predict event runoff in Quinby Creek, an ungauged third-order watershed (8700 ha) adjacent to Turkey Creek. Successful testing with refinement of parameters in the rational method and SCS-CN method, both designed for small urban and agricultural dominated watersheds, may allow widespread application of these methods for studying the event rainfall-runoff dynamics for similar

  19. Enhancing mud supply from the Lower Missouri River to the Mississippi River Delta USA: Dam bypassing and coastal restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, G. Paul; Day, John W.; Rogers, J. David; Giosan, Liviu; Peyronnin, Natalie

    2016-12-01

    Sand transport to the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) remains sufficient to build wetlands in shallow, sheltered coastal bays fed by engineered diversions on the Mississippi River (MR) and its Atchafalaya River (AR) distributary. But suspended mud (silt & clay) flux to the coast has dropped from a mean of 390 Mt y-1 in the early 1950s, to 100 Mt y-1 since 1970. This fine-grained sediment travels deeper into receiving estuarine basins and plays a critical role in sustaining existing marshes. Virtually all of the 300 Mt y-1 of missing mud once flowed from the Missouri River (MOR) Basin before nearly 100 dams were built as part of the Pick-Sloan water development project. About 100 Mt y-1 is now intercepted by main-stem Upper MOR dams closed in 1953. But the remaining 200 Mt y-1 is trapped by impoundments built on tributaries to the Lower MOR in the 1950s and 1960s. Sediment flux during the post-dam high MOR discharge years of 1973, 1993 and 2011 approached pre-dam levels when tributaries to the Lower MOR, including the Platte and Kansas Rivers, contributed to flood flows. West bank tributaries drain a vast, arid part of the Great Plains, while those entering from the east bank traverse the lowlands of the MOR floodplain. Both provinces are dominated by highly erodible loess soils. Staunching the continued decline in MR fine-grained sediment flux has assumed greater importance now that engineered diversions are being built to reconnect the Lowermost MR to the MRD. Tributary dam bypassing in the Lower MOR basin could increase mud supply to the MRD by 100-200 Mt y-1 within 1-2 decades. Such emergency measures to save the MRD are compatible with objectives of the Missouri River Restoration and Platte River Recovery Programs to restore MOR riparian habitat for endangered species. Rapid mobilization to shunt fine-grained sediments past as many as 50 Lower MOR tributary dams in several U.S. states will undoubtedly require as much regional coordination and funding in the 21st

  20. Water-Level Conditions in Selected Confined Aquifers of the New Jersey and Delaware Coastal Plain, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    dePaul, Vincent T.; Rosman, Robert; Lacombe, Pierre J.

    2009-01-01

    The Coastal Plain aquifers of New Jersey provide an important source of water for more than 2 million people. Steadily increasing withdrawals from the late 1800s to the early 1990s resulted in declining water levels and the formation of regional cones of depression. In addition to decreasing water supplies, declining water levels in the confined aquifers have led to reversals in natural hydraulic gradients that have, in some areas, induced the flow of saline water from surface-water bodies and adjacent aquifers to freshwater aquifers. In 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began mapping the potentiometric surfaces of the major confined aquifers of New Jersey every 5 years in order to provide a regional assessment of ground-water conditions in multiple Coastal Plain aquifers concurrently. In 1988, mapping of selected potentiometric surfaces was extended into Delaware. During the fall of 2003, water levels measured in 967 wells in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, northeastern Delaware, and northwestern Maryland were used estimate the potentiometric surface of the principal confined aquifers in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey and five equivalent aquifers in Delaware. Potentiometric-surface maps and hydrogeologic sections were prepared for the confined Cohansey aquifer of Cape May County, the Rio Grande water-bearing zone, the Atlantic City 800-foot sand, the Vincentown aquifer, and the Englishtown aquifer system in New Jersey, as well as for the Piney Point aquifer, the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer, and the Upper Potomac-Raritan-Magothy, the Middle and undifferentiated Potomac-Raritan-Magothy, and the Lower Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifers in New Jersey and their equivalents in Delaware. From 1998 to 2003, water levels in many Coastal Plain aquifers in New Jersey remained stable or had recovered, but in some areas, water levels continued to decline as a result of pumping. In the Cohansey aquifer in Cape May County, water levels near the center of the cone of depression

  1. Surface waves in the western Taiwan coastal plain from an aftershock of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, G.-Q.; Tang, G.-Q.; Boore, D.M.; Van Ness, Burbach; Jackson, C.R.; Zhou, X.-Y.; Lin, Q.-L.

    2006-01-01

    Significant surface waves were recorded in the western coastal plain (WCP) of Taiwan during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake and its series of aftershocks. We study in detail the surface waves produced by one aftershock (20 September 1999, 18hr 03m 41.16sec, M 6.2) in this paper. We take the Chelungpu-Chukou fault to be the eastern edge of the WCP because it marks a distinct lateral contrast in seismic wave velocities in the upper few kilometers of the surface. For many records from stations within the WCP, body waves and surface waves separate well in both the time domain and the period domain. Long-period (e.g., >2 sec) ground motions in the plain are dominated by surface waves. Significant prograde Rayleigh wave particle motions were observed in the WCP. The observed peak ground velocities are about 3-5 times larger than standard predictions in the central and western part of the plain. Observed response spectra at 3 sec, 4 sec, and 5 sec at the center of the plain can be 15 times larger than standard predictions and 10 times larger than the predictions of Joyner (2000) based on surface wave data from the Los Angeles basin. The strong surface waves were probably generated at the boundary of the WCP and then propagated toward the west, largely along radial directions relative to the epicenter. The geometry of the boundary may have had a slight effect on propagation directions of surface waves. Group velocities of fundamental mode Rayleigh and Love waves are estimated using the multiple filter analysis (MFA) technique and are refined with phase matched filtering (PMF). Group velocities of fundamental mode surface waves range from about 0.7 km/sec to 1.5 km/sec for the phases at periods from 3 sec to 10 sec. One important observation from this study is that the strongest surface waves were recorded in the center of the plain. The specific location of the strongest motions depends largely on the period of surface waves rather than on specific site conditions or

  2. Guidelines, processes and tools for coastal ecosystem restoration, with examples from the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Adkins, Jeffery E.; Judd, Chaeli; Anderson, Michael G.; Buenau, Kate E.; Borde, Amy B.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach to coastal restoration projects in five phases: planning, implementation, performance assessment, adaptive management, and dissemination of results. Twenty features of the iterative planning process are synthesized. The planning process starts with a vision, a description of the ecosystem and landscape, and goals. A conceptual model and planning objectives are developed, a site is selected using prioritization techniques, and numerical models contribute to preliminary designs as needed. Performance criteria and reference sites are selected and the monitoring program is designed. The monitoring program is emphasized as a tool to assess project performance and identify problems affecting progression toward project goals, in an adaptive management framework. Key approaches to aspects of the monitoring program are reviewed and detailed with project examples. Within the planning process, cost analysis involves budgeting, scheduling, and financing. Finally, documentation is peer reviewed prior to making construction plans and final costing.

  3. Pesticide runoff risk during peanut production in the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts are produced on approximately 200000 ha in the Atlantic Coastal Region of Georgia. The humid subtropical climate promotes high yields; however pest pressures are high. Crops are treated frequently with a variety of active ingredients for weed, insect and disease control. In this presentation...

  4. Persistence of urea in a coastal plain soil: an incubation study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urea-based nitrogen sources can possibly lead to nutrient pollution of various water bodies due to leaching and runoff, and also trigger the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. to produce shellfish poisoning. This causes economic and human health concerns in the Chesapeake Bay and other coastal regions. Ur...

  5. Fate and surface transport of urea in a coastal plain soil: a rainfall simulation study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface transport of urea has rarely been studied since it is assumed to undergo rapid hydrolysis to ammonia. However, studies have shown urea to exist in estuarine and coastal waters. Urea in small amounts can trigger the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. to produce the toxin domoic acid, which is o...

  6. Nitrogen Bsalance for a Plantation Forest Drainage Canal on the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human alteration of the nitrogen cycle has led to increased riverine nitrogen loads, contributing to the eutrophication of lakes, streams, estuaries, and near-coastal oceans. These riverine nitrogen loads are usually less than the total nitrogen inputs to the system, indicating nitrogen removal duri...

  7. Characterization of labile organic carbon in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain: relationships to carbon functionalities.

    PubMed

    Dodla, Syam K; Wang, Jim J; Delaune, Ronald D

    2012-10-01

    Adequate characterization of labile organic carbon (LOC) is essential to the understanding of C cycling in soil. There has been very little evaluation about the nature of LOC characterizations in coastal wetlands, where soils are constantly influenced by different redox fluctuations and salt water intrusions. In this study, we characterized and compared LOC fractions in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain using four different methods including 1) aerobically mineralizable C (AMC), 2) cold water extractable C (CWEC), 3) hot water extractable C (HWEC), and 4) salt extractable C (SEC), as well as acid hydrolysable C (AHC) which includes both labile and slowly degradable organic C. Molecular organic C functional groups of these wetland soils were characterized by (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The LOC and AHC increased with soil organic C (SOC) regardless of wetland soil type. The LOC estimates by four different methods were positively and significantly linearly related to each other (R(2)=0.62-0.84) and with AHC (R(2)=0.47-0.71). The various LOC fractions accounted for ≤4.3% of SOC whereas AHC fraction represented 16-49% of SOC. AMC was influenced positively by O/N-alkyl and carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C, whereas CWEC and SEC fractions were influenced only positively by carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C in SOC. On the other hand, HWEC fraction was found to be only influenced positively by carbonyl C, and AHC positively by O/N-alkyl and alkyl C but negatively by aromatic C groups in SOC. Overall these relations suggested different contributions of various molecular organic C moieties to LOC in these wetlands from those often found for upland soils. The presence of more than 50% non-acid hydrolysable C suggested the dominance of relatively stable SOC pool that would be sequestered in these Mississippi River deltaic plain coastal wetland soils. The results have important implications to the understanding of the

  8. Assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system From Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Monti, Jr., Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.

    2016-08-31

    Executive SummaryThe U.S. Geological Survey began a multiyear regional assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP) aquifer system in 2010 as part of its ongoing regional assessments of groundwater availability of the principal aquifers of the Nation. The goals of this national assessment are to document effects of human activities on water levels and groundwater storage, explore climate variability effects on the regional water budget, and provide consistent and integrated information that is useful to those who use and manage the groundwater resource. As part of this nationwide assessment, the USGS evaluated available groundwater resources within the NACP aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina.The northern Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province depends heavily on groundwater to meet agricultural, industrial, and municipal needs. The groundwater assessment of the NACP aquifer system included an evaluation of how water use has changed over time; this evaluation primarily used groundwater budgets and development of a numerical modeling tool to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate trends.This assessment focused on multiple spatial and temporal scales to examine changes in groundwater pumping, storage, and water levels. The regional scale provides a broad view of the sources and demands on the system with time. The sub-regional scale provides an evaluation of the differing response of the aquifer system across geographic areas allowing for closer examination of the interaction between different aquifers and confining units and the changes in these interactions under pumping and recharge conditions in 2013 and hydrologic stresses as much as 45 years in the future. By focusing on multiple scales, water-resource managers may utilize this study to understand system response to changes as they affect the system as a whole.The NACP aquifer system extends from

  9. An individual-based growth and competition model for coastal redwood forest restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Das, Adrian J.

    2014-01-01

    Thinning treatments to accelerate coastal redwood forest stand development are in wide application, but managers have yet to identify prescriptions that might best promote Sequoia sempervirens (Lamb. ex D. Don) Endl. (redwood) growth. The creation of successful thinning prescriptions would be aided by identifying the underlying mechanisms governing how individual tree growth responds to competitive environments in coastal redwood forests. We created a spatially explicit individual-based model of tree competition and growth parameterized using surveys of upland redwood forests at Redwood National Park, California. We modeled competition for overstory trees (stems ≥ 20 cm stem diameter at breast height, 1.37 m (dbh)) as growth reductions arising from sizes, distances, and species identity of competitor trees. Our model explained up to half of the variation in individual tree growth, suggesting that neighborhood crowding is an important determinant of growth in this forest type. We used our model to simulate the effects of novel thinning prescriptions (e.g., 40% stand basal area removal) for redwood forest restoration, concluding that these treatments could lead to substantial growth releases, particularly for S. sempervirens. The results of this study, along with continued improvements to our model, will help to determine spacing and species composition that best encourage growth.

  10. Biotic and abiotic controls on sediment aggregation and consolidation: implications for geochemical fluxes and coastal restoration.

    PubMed

    Land, Lauren E; Kolker, Alexander S; Gambrell, Robert P

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the influence of particle size and organic matter on aggregation and compaction of 3 hydraulically dredged sediments from coastal Louisiana (clay, silt loam, sandy loam) saturated under a range of salinity regimes (1 and 5 PSU, 5 and 10 PSU, and 15 and 25 PSU) for 4 time periods (1, 8, 16, and 26 weeks). Particle sizes were determined using a laser diffraction particle size analyzer, which allowed us to develop high-resolution results indicating changes in aggregate size across a spectrum of experimental conditions. The sediments with greater organic matter content exhibited approximately 60% aggregation, as indicated by fewer aggregates in the clay size fraction, and subsequently more aggregates in the sand size fraction, when organic matter remained in the sediment. Additionally, the sandy sediment compacted more than the organic sediments in the first 16 weeks. These findings suggest that sediments with greater clay and organic matter content behave as larger particles and may undergo particle rearrangement and compaction over longer time scales than sandy sediments with low organic matter. For coastal wetland restoration, models should include the effect of organic matter on particle aggregation to understand sediment dynamics over geologic time.

  11. Proposed oil and gas exploration within the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    The draft environmental impact statement describes the procedures and probable effects of aerial and geological surveying for oil and gas in the coastal area of Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The procedures provide for the protection of caribou caving areas and the avoidance of duplication in the survey activities. Temporary disturbances from seismic surveys would interfere with wildlife breeding and migration due to changes in the habitat. The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 provides the legal mandate for environmental assessment.

  12. Coastal deformation between the Versilia and the Garigliano plains (Italy) since the last interglacial stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisi, Marco F.; Antonioli, Fabrizio; Pra, Giuseppe Dai; Leoni, Gabriele; Silenzi, Sergio

    2003-12-01

    The opening of the north-central Tyrrhenian Sea is the result of the Cretaceous-Paleogene alpine collision, which triggered a series of regional uplift, subsidence and transcurrent tectonic mechanisms along the coastal Tyrrhenian sectors of peninsular Italy. These tectonic processes, in conjunction with the effects of glacio- and hydro-isostasy during the Quaternary, produced substantial crustal responses that, in some cases, reached metres in extent. In the study of coastal neotectonics, geomorphological markers of the last interglacial maximum, corresponding to marine isotope stage 5.5, are generally used to quantify the magnitude of the vertical crustal displacements that have occurred since 125 kyr. Through altimetrical, palaeoenvironmental and chronological reinterpretation of the most significant works published since 1913, combined with an additional set of data reported here, a detailed reconstruction of the shoreline displacements evident along 500 km of coast between northern Tuscany and southern Latium is presented. The reconstruction was carried out by quantifying the vertical movement since the last interglacial period and by identifying the tectonic behaviour of different coastal sectors. This has been done by carefully choosing the eustatic marker, among those available at each study site, in order to minimize the margin of error associated with the measurements. Copyright

  13. Using environmental variables and soil processes to forecast denitrification potential and nitrous oxide fluxes in coastal plain wetlands across different land uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Jennifer L.; Ardón, Marcelo; Bernhardt, Emily S.

    2012-06-01

    We examined relationships between denitrification (DNF) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes and potentially important chemical and physical predictors to build a predictive understanding of gaseous N losses from coastal plain wetlands. We collected soil, gas, and pore water samples from 48 sampling locations across a large (440 ha) restored wetland, an adjacent drained agricultural field, and nearby forested wetlands every two months over two years. In summer and fall 2007, we measured soil DNF potential (21.6-3560 mg N m-3 d-1) and N2O efflux (-4.36-8.81 mg N m-2 d-1), along with 17 predictor variables. We developed statistical models for the most comprehensive subset of the data set (fall 2007) and used another subset (summer 2007) for cross-validation. Soil pH and total soil nitrogen were the best predictors of DNF potential (Radj2 = 0.68). A regression using carbon dioxide flux and soil temperature together with soil extractable NH4+ and DNF potential explained 85% of the variation in fall N2O fluxes. The model for DNF performed reasonably well when cross-validated with summer data (R2 = 0.40), while the N2O model did not predict summer N2O fluxes (R2 < 0.1). Poor model performance was likely due to nonlinear responses to high temperatures and/or higher and more variable root respiration by plants during the growing season, leading to overprediction of N2O flux. Our results suggest that soil DNF potential may be modeled fairly effectively from a small number of soil parameters, that DNF potential is uncorrelated with N2O effluxes, and that successful estimation of wetland N2O effluxes will require finer-scale models that incorporate seasonal dynamics.

  14. Geophysical modeling of the northern Appalachian Brompton-Cameron, Central Maine, and Avalon terranes under the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maguire, T.J.; Sheridan, R.E.; Volkert, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    A regional terrane map of the New Jersey Coastal Plain basement was constructed using seismic, drilling, gravity and magnetic data. The Brompton-Cameron and Central Maine terranes were coalesced as one volcanic island arc terrane before obducting onto Laurentian, Grenville age, continental crust in the Taconian orogeny [Rankin, D.W., 1994. Continental margin of the eastern United States: past and present. In: Speed, R.C., (Ed.), Phanerozoic Evolution of North American Continent-Ocean Transitions. DNAG Continent-Ocean Transect Volume. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, pp. 129-218]. Volcanic island-arc rocks of the Avalon terrane are in contact with Central Maine terrane rocks in southern Connecticut where the latter are overthrust onto the Brompton-Cameron terrane, which is thrust over Laurentian basement. Similarities of these allochthonous island arc terranes (Brompton-Cameron, Central Maine, Avalon) in lithology, fauna and age suggest that they are faulted segments of the margin of one major late Precambrian to early Paleozoic, high latitude peri-Gondwana island arc designated as "Avalonia", which collided with Laurentia in the early to middle Paleozoic. The Brompton Cameron, Central Maine, and Avalon terranes are projected as the basement under the eastern New Jersey Coastal Plain based on drill core samples of metamorphic rocks of active margin/magmatic arc origin. A seismic reflection profile across the New York Bight traces the gentle dipping (approximately 20 degrees) Cameron's Line Taconian suture southeast beneath allochthonous Avalon and other terranes to a 4 sec TWTT depth (approximately 9 km) where the Avalonian rocks are over Laurentian crust. Gentle up-plunge (approximately 5 degrees) projections to the southwest bring the Laurentian Grenville age basement and the drift-stage early Paleozoic cover rocks to windows in Burlington Co. at approximately 1 km depth and Cape May Co. at approximately 2 km depths. The antiformal Shellburne

  15. Cenozoic global sea level, sequences, and the New Jersey transect: Results from coastal plain and continental slope drilling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, K.G.; Mountain, Gregory S.; Browning, J.V.; Kominz, M.; Sugarman, P.J.; Christie-Blick, N.; Katz, M.E.; Wright, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The New Jersey Sea Level Transect was designed to evaluate the relationships among global sea level (eustatic) change, unconformity-bounded sequences, and variations in subsidence, sediment supply, and climate on a passive continental margin. By sampling and dating Cenozoic strata from coastal plain and continental slope locations, we show that sequence boundaries correlate (within ??0.5 myr) regionally (onshore-offshore) and interregionally (New Jersey-Alabama-Bahamas), implicating a global cause. Sequence boundaries correlate with ??18O increases for at least the past 42 myr, consistent with an ice volume (glacioeustatic) control, although a causal relationship is not required because of uncertainties in ages and correlations. Evidence for a causal connection is provided by preliminary Miocene data from slope Site 904 that directly link ??18O increases with sequence boundaries. We conclude that variation in the size of ice sheets has been a primary control on the formation of sequence boundaries since ~42 Ma. We speculate that prior to this, the growth and decay of small ice sheets caused small-amplitude sea level changes (<20 m) in this supposedly ice-free world because Eocene sequence boundaries also appear to correlate with minor ??18O increases. Subsidence estimates (backstripping) indicate amplitudes of short-term (million-year scale) lowerings that are consistent with estimates derived from ??18O studies (25-50 m in the Oligocene-middle Miocene and 10-20 m in the Eocene) and a long-term lowering of 150-200 m over the past 65 myr, consistent with estimates derived from volume changes on mid-ocean ridges. Although our results are consistent with the general number and timing of Paleocene to middle Miocene sequences published by workers at Exxon Production Research Company, our estimates of sea level amplitudes are substantially lower than theirs. Lithofacies patterns within sequences follow repetitive, predictable patterns: (1) coastal plain sequences consist

  16. Genetic and grade and tonnage models for sandstone-hosted roll-type uranium deposits, Texas Coastal Plain, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Susan M.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Tureck, Kathleen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hannon, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The coincidence of a number of geologic and climatic factors combined to create conditions favorable for the development of mineable concentrations of uranium hosted by Eocene through Pliocene sandstones in the Texas Coastal Plain. Here 254 uranium occurrences, including 169 deposits, 73 prospects, 6 showings and 4 anomalies, have been identified. About 80 million pounds of U3O8 have been produced and about 60 million pounds of identified producible U3O8 remain in place. The development of economic roll-type uranium deposits requires a source, large-scale transport of uranium in groundwater, and deposition in reducing zones within a sedimentary sequence. The weight of the evidence supports a source from thick sequences of volcanic ash and volcaniclastic sediment derived mostly from the Trans-Pecos volcanic field and Sierra Madre Occidental that lie west of the region. The thickest accumulations of source material were deposited and preserved south and west of the San Marcos arch in the Catahoula Formation. By the early Oligocene, a formerly uniformly subtropical climate along the Gulf Coast transitioned to a zoned climate in which the southwestern portion of Texas Coastal Plain was dry, and the eastern portion humid. The more arid climate in the southwestern area supported weathering of volcanic ash source rocks during pedogenesis and early diagenesis, concentration of uranium in groundwater and movement through host sediments. During the middle Tertiary Era, abundant clastic sediments were deposited in thick sequences by bed-load dominated fluvial systems in long-lived channel complexes that provided transmissive conduits favoring transport of uranium-rich groundwater. Groundwater transported uranium through permeable sandstones that were hydrologically connected with source rocks, commonly across formation boundaries driven by isostatic loading and eustatic sea level changes. Uranium roll fronts formed as a result of the interaction of uranium-rich groundwater

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Hydrologic Response to Climate Change in Developed and Undeveloped Watersheds on the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daraio, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is projected to have an impact on precipitation patterns across the Mid-Atlantic with the likelihood of an increase in the frequency and magnitude of extreme precipitation events. A greater proportion of total annual precipitation could fall in larger events with the potential to impact flooding, storm water infrastructure, and water supply. The watersheds of the coastal plain of New Jersey draining to the Atlantic and Delaware Bay have mild slopes are underlain by very sandy soils. These areas serve as sources of recharge to the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer, which is an important water supply for the region. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) was used to simulate the potential impacts of climate change on stream flow and groundwater recharge in two watersheds located within the New Jersey coastal plain. The Batsto River watershed includes parts of the Pinelands Reserve with relatively little development in some its headwater areas, primarily small towns and agricultural land use. The Maurice River watershed includes several urbanized areas along with some agricultural land, but population is expecting to increase within the next 10-20 years. The Maurice River basin is outside the Pinelands Reserve but has significant area that contains Pine Barrens. Models were calibrated using observed stream flow from USGS gages and gridded meteorological data from 1995-2002 and validated with observed data from 2002-2005. The calibrated models were forced using an ensemble of three bias-corrected downscaled climate projections (CMIP5, NOAA NCEP, and ECHAM) to assess and compare the potential response of these two watersheds. All meteorological data were obtained online from the GeoData Portal. Preliminary results indicate that climate change is likely to have a greater impact on stream flow in the developed Maurice River basin than in the undeveloped Batsto River basin. More detailed analyses of stream flow and the potential impacts on groundwater

  18. Biogeochemical and Hydrological Controls on Mercury and Methylmercury in First Order Coastal Plain Watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyes, A.; Gilmour, C. C.; Bell, J. T.; Butera, D.; McBurney, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 7 years we made use of the long-term research site at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC) in central Maryland to study the fluxes of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in three small first-order mid-Atlantic coastal plain watersheds. One watershed is entirely forested, one watershed is primarily agriculture with a forested stream buffer, and one watershed is mixed land use but contains a beaver produced wetland pond. Our initial goals were to assess watershed Hg yields in the mid-Atlantic and to establish a baseline prior to implementation of Hg emissions controls. All three studied watersheds produced relatively high yields of Hg, with the greatest yield coming from the forested watershed. Our initial evaluation of three watersheds showed that MeHg production and flux could also be high, but varied dramatically among watersheds and across years and seasons. During each year we observed episodic MeHg production in the spring and sometimes during prolonged high-flow storm events in the fall. The observed spring maxima of MeHg release coincided with development of anoxia in riparian groundwater. MeHg accumulation in riparian groundwater began once nitrate was depleted and either iron accumulation or sulfate depletion of groundwater began. We propose the presence of nitrate was modulating MeHg production through the suppression of sulfate and iron reducers and perhaps methanogens. As sulfate is not limiting in any of the watersheds owing to the sediments marine origin, we hypothesize the depletion of nitrate allows sulfate reducing bacteria to now utilize available carbon. Although wetlands are generally thought of as the primary zones of MeHg production in watersheds, shallow riparian groundwaters very close to the stream appear to play that role in SERC Coastal Plain watersheds. We hypothesize that the balance between nitrate, sulfate and other microbial electron acceptors in watersheds is a major control on MeHg production. Land

  19. Simulated effects of development on regional ground-water/surface-water interactions in the northern Coastal Plain of New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, Amleto A.; Pope, Daryll A.

    1995-05-01

    Stream flow in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey is primarily controlled by ground-water discharge. Ground-water flow in a 400 square mile area (1035 km 2) of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system (PRMA) in the northern Coastal Plain of New Jersey was simulated to examine development effects on water resources. Simulations showed that historical development caused significant capture of regional ground-water discharge to streams and wetlands. The Cretaceous PRMA primarily is composed of fine to coarse sand, clays and silts which form the Upper and Middle aquifers and their confining units. The aquifer outcrops are the principal areas of recharge and discharge for the regional flow system and have many traversing streams and surface-water bodies. A quasi-three-dimensional numerical model that incorporated ground-water/surface-water interactions and boundary flows from a larger regional model was used to represent the PRMA. To evaluate the influence of ground-water development on interactions in different areas, hydrogeologically similar and contiguous model stream cells were aggregated as 'stream zones'. The model representation of surface-water and ground-water interaction was limited in the areas of confining unit outcrops and because of this, simulated ground-water discharge could not be directly compared with base flow. Significant differences in simulated ground-water and surface-water interactions between the predevelopment and developed system, include; (1) redistribution of recharge and discharge areas; (2) reduced ground-water discharge to streams. In predevelopment, the primary discharge for the Upper and Middle aquifers is to low-lying streams and wetlands; in the developed system, the primary discharge is to ground-water withdrawals. Development reduces simulated ground-water discharge to streams in the Upper Aquifer from 61.4 to 10% of the Upper Aquifer hydrologic budget (28.9%, if impounded stream flow is included). Ground-water discharge to streams

  20. Analysis of nutrients in the surface waters of the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit, 1970-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ham, L.K.; Hatzell, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    Aucilla River basin had the lowest. Median concentrations of nitrate and ammonia among all major basins were below USEPA guidelines. The median total-phosphorus concentrations for the following river basins exceeded the USEPA guideline-Hillsborough, St. Johns, Suwannee, Ochlockonee, Satilla, Altamaha, and Ogeechee. Although nutrient concentrations within the study unit were low, long-term increasing trends were found in all four nutrients. All 18 study-unit wide nitrate trends had increasing slopes ranging from less than 0.01 to 0.07 (mg/L)/yr. The range in slope for the 13 ammonia trends was -0.03 to 0.01 (mg/L)/yr with 6 increasing trends in the northern part of the study unit. Of the 17 total-phosphorus trends found in the study unit, 10 were found at sites where the median concentration exceeded the USEPA guideline. At these 10 sites, 4 sites had increasing trends with slopes ranging from less than 0.01 to 0.07 (mg/L)/yr, 5 sites had decreasing trends with slopes ranging from -0.01 to -0.24 (mg/L)/yr, and one site showed a seasonal concentration trend. Median nutrient concentrations were significantly different among the four land resource provinces-Southern Piedmont, Southern Coastal Plain, Coastal Flatwoods, and Central Florida Ridge. As a result, nutrient concentrations among basins with similar nutrient inputs but located within different land resource provinces are not expected to be the same due to differences in the combination of factors such as soil permeability, runoff rates, and stream channel slopes. This concept is an important consideration in designing a surface-water quality network within the study area. For the most part, the Coastal Flatwoods showed the lowest median nutrient concentrations and the Southern Coastal Plain had the highest median nutrient concentrations. Lower median nitrate concentrations in surface-water basins were associated with the forest/wetland land-use category and higher median concentrations of nitrate and ammonia with

  1. Erosional history of the Appalachians as recordeed in detrital zircon fission-track ages and lithic detritus in Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naeser, C.W.; Naeser, N.D.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Weems, Robert E.; Southworth, C. Scott; Newell, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of fission-track (FT) ages of detrital zircons recovered from Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments to FT ages of zircons from bedrock in source terranes in the Appalachians provides a key to understanding the provenance of the sediments and, in turn, the erosional and depositional history of the Atlantic passive margin.In Appalachian source terranes, the oldest zircon fission-track (ZFT) ages from bedrock in the western Appalachians (defined for this paper as the Appalachian Plateau, Valley and Ridge, and far western Blue Ridge) are notably older than the oldest ages from bedrock in the eastern Appalachians (Piedmont and main part of the Blue Ridge). The age difference is seen both in ZFT sample ages and in individual zircon grain ages and reflects differences in the thermotectonic history of the rocks. In the east, ZFT data indicate that the rocks cooled from temperatures high enough to partially or totally reset ZFT ages during the Paleozoic and (or) Mesozoic. The majority of the rocks are interpreted to have cooled through the ZFT closure temperature (∼235 °C) at various times during the late Paleozoic Alleghanian orogeny. In contrast, most of the rocks sampled in the western Appalachians have never been heated to temperatures high enough to totally reset their ZFT ages. Reflecting their contrasting thermotectonic histories, nearly 80 percent of the sampled western rocks yield one or more zircon grains with very old FT ages, in excess of 800 Ma; zircon grains yielding FT ages this old have not been found in rocks in the Piedmont and main part of the Blue Ridge. The ZFT data suggest that the asymmetry of zircon ages of exposed bedrock in the eastern and western Appalachians was in evidence by no later than the Early Cretaceous and probably by the Late Triassic.Detrital zircon suites from sands collected in the Atlantic Coastal Plain provide a record of detritus eroded from source terranes in the Appalachians during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. In Virginia

  2. Arctic Coastal Plain Competitive Oil and Gas Leasing Act. Introduced in the Senate, One Hundredth Congress, Second Congress, Calendar No. 599

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, having considered the same, reports favorably an original bill, to authorize competitive oil and gas leasing and development on the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in a manner consistent with protection of the environment, and for other purposes, and recommends that the bill do pass. The Congress declares that it is the purpose and policy of this Act: (a) to authorize competitive oil and gas leasing and development to proceed on the Coastal Plain in a manner consistent with protection of the environment, maintenance of fish and wildlife and their habitat, and the interests of the area's subsistence users; and (b) to provide a new source of funding for acquisition of critical wildlife habitat, for the Land and Water Conservation Fund, and for other purposes.

  3. Regional stratigraphy and subsurface geology of Cenozoic deposits, Gulf Coastal Plain, south-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hosman, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Although Cenozoic deposits are not uniformly differentiated, interstate correlations of major Paleocene and Eocene units are generally established throughout the area. Younger deposits are not as well differentiated. Some stratigraphic designations made at surface exposures cannot be extended into the sub-surface, and the scarcity of distinct geologic horizons has hampered differentiation on a regional scale. The complexities of facies development in Oligocene and younger coastal deposits preclude the development of extensive recognizable horizons needed for stratigraphic applications. Coastal deposits are a heterogeneous assemblage of deltaic, lagoonal, lacustrine, palustrine, eolian, and fluvial clastic facies and local calcareous reef facies. Even major time boundaries, as between geologic series, are not fully resolved. Surficial Quaternary deposits overlie the truncated subcrops of Tertiary strata and generally are distinguishable, although some contacts between Pleistocene and underlying Pliocene deposits have been a ?lstoncal source of controversy. Glacially related terraces are characteristic of the Pleistocene Epoch, and alluvium of aggrading streams typifies the Holocene. 

  4. Hydrogeochemical features of groundwater of semi-confined coastal aquifer in Amol-Ghaemshahr plain, Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Khairy, Houshang; Janardhana, M R

    2013-11-01

    Hydrogeochemical data of groundwater from the semi-confined aquifer of a coastal two-tier aquifer in Amol-Ghaemshahr plain, Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran reveal salinization of the fresh groundwater (FGW). The saline groundwater zone is oriented at an angle to both Caspian Sea coastline and groundwater flow direction and extends inland from the coastline for more than 40 km. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient matrices, factor analysis data, and values of C ratio, chloro-alkaline indices, and Na(+)/Cl(-) molar ratio indicate that the ionic load in the FGW is derived essentially from carbonic acid-aided weathering of carbonates and aluminosilicate minerals, relict connate saline water, and ion exchange reactions. Saline groundwater samples (SGWS) (n = 20) can be classified into two groups. SGWS of group 1 (n = 17) represent the saline groundwater zone below the Caspian Sea level, and salinization is attributed essentially to (1) lateral intrusion of Caspian seawater as a consequence of (a) excessive withdrawal of groundwater from closely spaced bore wells located in the eastern part of the coastal zone and (b) imbalance between recharge and discharge of the two-tier aquifer and (2) upconing of paleobrine (interfaced with FGW) along deep wells. SGWS of this group contain, on average, 7.9% of saltwater, the composition of which is similar to that of Caspian seawater. SGWS of group 2 (n = 3) belong to the saline groundwater zone encountered above the Caspian Sea level, and salinization of the groundwater representing these samples is attributed to irrigation return flow (n = 2) and inflow of saline river water (n = 1).

  5. Validation of Satellite Precipitation (trmm 3B43) in Ecuadorian Coastal Plains, Andean Highlands and Amazonian Rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballari, D.; Castro, E.; Campozano, L.

    2016-06-01

    Precipitation monitoring is of utmost importance for water resource management. However, in regions of complex terrain such as Ecuador, the high spatio-temporal precipitation variability and the scarcity of rain gauges, make difficult to obtain accurate estimations of precipitation. Remotely sensed estimated precipitation, such as the Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis TRMM, can cope with this problem after a validation process, which must be representative in space and time. In this work we validate monthly estimates from TRMM 3B43 satellite precipitation (0.25° x 0.25° resolution), by using ground data from 14 rain gauges in Ecuador. The stations are located in the 3 most differentiated regions of the country: the Pacific coastal plains, the Andean highlands, and the Amazon rainforest. Time series, between 1998 - 2010, of imagery and rain gauges were compared using statistical error metrics such as bias, root mean square error, and Pearson correlation; and with detection indexes such as probability of detection, equitable threat score, false alarm rate and frequency bias index. The results showed that precipitation seasonality is well represented and TRMM 3B43 acceptably estimates the monthly precipitation in the three regions of the country. According to both, statistical error metrics and detection indexes, the coastal and Amazon regions are better estimated quantitatively than the Andean highlands. Additionally, it was found that there are better estimations for light precipitation rates. The present validation of TRMM 3B43 provides important results to support further studies on calibration and bias correction of precipitation in ungagged watershed basins.

  6. Digital elevations and extents of regional hydrogeologic units in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Jason P.; Andreasen, David C.; Mcfarland, E. Randolph; Watt, Martha K.

    2016-08-31

    Digital geospatial datasets of the extents and top elevations of the regional hydrogeologic units of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina were developed to provide an updated hydrogeologic framework to support analysis of groundwater resources. The 19 regional hydrogeologic units were delineated by elevation grids and extent polygons for 20 layers: the land and bathymetric surface at the top of the unconfined surficial aquifer, the upper surfaces of 9 confined aquifers and 9 confining units, and the bedrock surface that defines the base of all Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments. The delineation of the regional hydrogeologic units relied on the interpretive work from source reports for New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina rather than from re-analysis of fundamental hydrogeologic data. This model of regional hydrogeologic unit geometries represents interpolation, extrapolation, and generalization of the earlier interpretive work. Regional units were constructed from available digital data layers from the source studies in order to extend units consistently across political boundaries and approximate units in offshore areas.Though many of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain hydrogeologic units may extend eastward as far as the edge of the Atlantic Continental Shelf, the modeled boundaries of all regional hydrogeologic units in this study were clipped to an area approximately defined by the furthest offshore extent of fresh to brackish water in any part of the aquifer system, as indicated by chloride concentrations of 10,000 milligrams per liter. Elevations and extents of units that do not exist onshore in Long Island, New York, were not included north of New Jersey. Hydrogeologic units in North Carolina were included primarily to provide continuity across the Virginia-North Carolina State boundary, which was important for defining the southern edge of

  7. Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing the Functions of Headwater Slope Wetlands on the South Carolina Coastal Plain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    downed woody material . General Technical Report INT-16, USDA Forest ...ERDC/EL TR-11-11 19 Vegetation Throughout the Coastal Plain of the United States , Headwater Slope wetlands may be dominated by a number of forest ...component of forests . Woody debris is defined as down and dead woody stems that are greater than 0.25 in. in diameter that are no longer attached to

  8. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Forested Wetlands in Alluvial Valleys of the Coastal Plain of the Southeastern United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    down woody materials indicator of the FIA program. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-22. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...approach to assessing wetland functions of forested wetlands in alluvial valleys of the Coastal Plain of the Southeastern United States . ERDC/EL TR...281-89. Day, R. H., T. M. Williams, and C. M. Swarsenski. 2007. Hydrology of tidal freshwater forested wetlands of the Southeast United States

  9. Spatio-temporal analysis of gyres in oriented lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska based on remotely sensed images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhan, Shengan; Beck, Richard A.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Liu, Hongxing; Jones, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of oriented thermokarst lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska has been the subject of debate for more than half a century. The striking elongation of the lakes perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction has led to the development of a preferred wind-generated gyre hypothesis, while other hypotheses include a combination of sun angle, topographic aspect, and/or antecedent conditions. A spatio-temporal analysis of oriented thermokarst lake gyres with recent (Landsat 8) and historical (Landsat 4, 5, 7 and ASTER) satellite imagery of the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska indicates that wind-generated gyres are both frequent and regionally extensive. Gyres are most common in lakes located near the Arctic coast after several days of sustained winds from a single direction, typically the northeast, and decrease in number landward with decreasing wind energy. This analysis indicates that the conditions necessary for the Carson and Hussey (1962) wind-generated gyre for oriented thermokarst lake formation are common temporally and regionally and correspond spatially with the geographic distribution of oriented lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain. Given an increase in the ice-free season for lakes as well as strengthening of the wind regime, the frequency and distribution of lake gyres may increase. This increase has implications for changes in northern high latitude aquatic ecosystems, particularly if wind-generated gyres promote permafrost degradation and thermokarst lake expansion.

  10. Regional ground-water discharge to large streams in the upper coastal plain of South Carolina and parts of North Carolina and Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aucott, W.R.; Meadows, R.S.; Patterson, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    Base flow was computed to estimate discharge from regional aquifers for six large streams in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina and parts of North Carolina and Georgia. Aquifers that sustain the base flow of both large and small streams are stratified into shallow and deep flow systems. Base-flow during dry conditions on main stems of large streams was assumed to be the discharge from the deep groundwater flow system. Six streams were analyzed: the Savannah, South and North Fork Edisto, Lynches, Pee Dee, and the Luber Rivers. Stream reaches in the Upper Coastal Plain were studied because of the relatively large aquifer discharge in these areas in comparison to the lower Coastal Plain. Estimates of discharge from the deep groundwater flow system to the six large streams averaged 1.8 cu ft/sec/mi of stream and 0.11 cu ft/sec/sq mi of surface drainage area. The estimates were made by subtracting all tributary inflows from the discharge gain between two gaging stations on a large stream during an extreme low-flow period. These estimates pertain only to flow in the deep groundwater flow system. Shallow flow systems and total base flow are > flow in the deep system. (USGS)

  11. Comparison of Historical and Recent Shoreline Change Rates to Shoreface and Lower Coastal Plain Geomorphology: Geologic Framework Influences on Shoreline Evolution in South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, M. S.; Wright, E. E.; Dufrene, T. A.; Gayes, P. T.; Katuna, M. P.; Putney, T. R.; Bush, D. M.; Schwab, W. C.

    2002-12-01

    The lower Coastal Plain and inner Continental Shelf of the United States East Coast vary coherently in both pre-Holocene and modern morphology, in long-term trends of coastal change, and in respect to critical areas of beach erosion. As a portion of the USGS-SC Sea Grant Consortium coastal erosion program, this study presents a comparison of historical to recent shoreline change rates with the geomorphology of the lower Coastal Plain and inner portions of the Continental Shelf of South Carolina. Shoreline change trends of re-digitized historical data of Anders et al. (1990) and recent aerial photographs were analyzed using ARC/INFO, ArcGIS and scripts modified from the original DSAS program (Thieler and Danforth, 1994) and the currently active National Shoreline Change Program (US Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL). Lower Coastal Plain and coastal geomorphology data come from digital USGS topographic data, Horry County department of engineering (approximately 0.4 m vertical resolution), and NOAA LIDAR data for the immediate coastline. NOAA and USGS processed bathymetry were merged with these data for South Carolina to produce a seamless hypsographic data layer for these physiographic regions. Sidescan sonar surveys over the past eight years in South Carolina provide additional shoreface data for the Charleston and Grand Strand (Myrtle Beach) areas of South Carolina. As expected, the highest and most consistent variances in shoreline change trends are associated with inlets, small swashes, washover barriers, and beach renourishment projects. However, critical trends in coastal change in regions outside those typically associated with hot spots of erosion point to other, non-hydrodynamic influences on the coastal system. These influences may include truncation of modern dune ridges, of low-elevation Pleistocene terraces and beach faces, of highly-varied stratigraphic units, and of indurated near-surface strata, which all have direct influence on long-term average

  12. Estimating net drawdown resulting from episodic withdrawals at six well fields in the coastal plain physiographic province of Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Focazio, M.J.; Speiran, G.K.

    1993-01-01

    The groundwater-flow system of the Virginia Coastal Plain consists of areally extensive and interconnected aquifers. Large, regionally coalescing cones of depression that are caused by large withdrawals of water are found in these aquifers. Local groundwater systems are affected by regional pumping, because of the interactions within the system of aquifers. Accordingly, these local systems are affected by regional groundwater flow and by spatial and temporal differences in withdrawals by various users. A geographic- information system was used to refine a regional groundwater-flow model around selected withdrawal centers. A method was developed in which drawdown maps that were simulated by the regional groundwater-flow model and the principle of superposition could be used to estimate drawdown at local sites. The method was applied to create drawdown maps in the Brightseat/Upper Potomac Aquifer for periods of 3, 6, 9, and 12 months for Chesapeake, Newport News, Norfolk, Portsmouth, Suffolk, and Virginia Beach, Virginia. Withdrawal rates were supplied by the individual localities and remained constant for each simulation period. This provides an efficient method by which the individual local groundwater users can determine the amount of drawdown produced by their wells in a groundwater system that is a water source for multiple users and that is affected by regional-flow systems.

  13. Ground water flow analysis of a mid-Atlantic outer coastal plain watershed, Virginia, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael A; Reay, William G

    2002-01-01

    Models for ground water flow (MODFLOW) and particle tracking (MODPATH) were used to determine ground water flow patterns, principal ground water discharge and recharge zones, and estimates of ground water travel times in an unconfined ground water system of an outer coastal plain watershed on the Delmarva Peninsula, Virginia. By coupling recharge and discharge zones within the watershed, flowpath analysis can provide a method to locate and implement specific management strategies within a watershed to reduce ground water nitrogen loading to surface water. A monitoring well network was installed in Eyreville Creek watershed, a first-order creek, to determine hydraulic conductivities and spatial and temporal variations in hydraulic heads for use in model calibration. Ground water flow patterns indicated the convergence of flow along the four surface water features of the watershed; primary discharge areas were in the nontidal portions of the watershed. Ground water recharge zones corresponded to the surface water features with minimal development of a regional ground water system. Predicted ground water velocities varied between < 0.01 to 0.24 m/day, with elevated values associated with discharge areas and areas of convergence along surface water features. Some ground water residence times exceeded 100 years, although average residence times ranged between 16 and 21 years; approximately 95% of the ground water resource would reflect land use activities within the last 50 years.

  14. The genus Krithe (Ostracoda) from the Campanian and Maastrichtian (Upper Cretaceous) of the northern US Gulf Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puckett, T.M.

    1997-01-01

    The ostracode genus Krithe is one of the most common genera in the Upper Cretaceous (late Santonian to Maastrichtian) deposits of the northern Gulf Coastal Plain of North America. Although it is never abundant, the genus occurs in sediments that were deposited under a wide range of palaeoenvironments, including nearshore sandy marls to offshore, nearly pure, chalk. The taxonomy of this taxon has been problematical, and what is herein considered to be a single species, K. cushmani, has been referred to in the literature under five different names. Two morphotypes were observed: relatively large individuals with 'mushroom'-shaped vestibules collected from chalk, and smaller individuals with pocket-shaped vestibules collected from nearshore deposits. Species of Krithe have been hypothesized to be useful in estimating dissolved oxygen concentration in ancient ocean floors, based on details of their morphology. Whereas the relationship between size and environment corroborates with previous predictions (larger individuals live in deeper water), the morphology of the vestibules contradicts predictions (the larger vestibules occur in the nearshore deposits and the smaller, more constricted vestibules occur in the chalk). A causal relationship between environment and morphology is discussed.

  15. Influence of gravel mining and other factors on detection probabilities of Coastal Plain fishes in the Mobile River Basin, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayer, C.-A.; Irwin, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    We used an information-theoretic approach to examine the variation in detection probabilities for 87 Piedmont and Coastal Plain fishes in relation to instream gravel mining in four Alabama streams of the Mobile River drainage. Biotic and abiotic variables were also included in candidate models. Detection probabilities were heterogeneous across species and varied with habitat type, stream, season, and water quality. Instream gravel mining influenced the variation in detection probabilities for 38% of the species collected, probably because it led to habitat loss and increased sedimentation. Higher detection probabilities were apparent at unmined sites than at mined sites for 78% of the species for which gravel mining was shown to influence detection probabilities, indicating potential negative impacts to these species. Physical and chemical attributes also explained the variation in detection probabilities for many species. These results indicate that anthropogenic impacts can affect detection probabilities for fishes, and such variation should be considered when developing monitoring programs or routine sampling protocols. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  16. Bacteria in deep coastal plain sediments of Maryland: a possible source of CO/sub 2/ to ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Chapelle, F.H.; Zelibor, J.L. Jr.; Grimes, D.J.; Knobel, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Nineteen cores of unconsolidated Coastal Plain sediments obtained from depths of 14 to 182 m below land surface near Waldorf, Maryland, were collected and examined for metabolically active bacteria. The age of the sediments cored range from Miocene to Early Cretaceous. Acridine orange direct counts of total (viable and nonviable) bacteria in core subsamples ranged from 10/sup 8/ to 10/sup 4/ bacteria/g of dry sediment. Direct counts of viable bacteria ranged from 10/sup 6/ to 10/sup 3/ bacteria/g of dry sediment. Three cores contained viable methanogenic bacteria, and seven cores contained viable sulfate-reducing bacteria. The observed presence of bacteria in these sediments suggest that hetrotrophic bacterial metabolism, with lignitic organic material as the primary substrate, is a plausible source of CO/sub 2/ to ground water. However, the possibility that abiotic processes also produce CO/sub 2/ cannot be rules out. Estimated rates of CO/sub 2/ production in the noncalcareous Magothy/Upper Patapsco and Lower Patapsco aquifers based on mass balance of dissolved inorganic carbon, ground water flow rates, and flow path segment lengths are in the range 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -5/ mmol L/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/. Isotope balance calculations suggest that aquifer-generated CO/sub 2/ is much heavier isotopically ( approx. - 10 to + 5 per mil) than lignite ( approx. - 24 per mil) present in these sediments. This may reflect isotopic fractionation during methanogenesis and possibly other bacterially mediated processes.

  17. Evidence for range stasis during the latter Pleistocene for the Atlantic Coastal Plain endemic genus, Pyxidanthera Michaux.

    PubMed

    Wall, Wade A; Douglas, Norman A; Xiang, Qiu-Yun Jenny; Hoffmann, William A; Wentworth, Thomas R; Hohmann, Matthew G

    2010-10-01

    The general phylogeographical paradigm for eastern North America (ENA) is that many plant and animal species retreated into southern refugia during the last glacial period, then expanded northward after the last glacial maximum (LGM). However, some taxa of the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plain (GACP) demonstrate complex yet recurrent distributional patterns that cannot be explained by this model. For example, eight co-occurring endemic plant taxa with ranges from New York to South Carolina exhibit a large disjunction separating northern and southern populations by >300 km. Pyxidanthera (Diapensiaceae), a plant genus that exhibits this pattern, consists of two taxa recognized as either species or varieties. We investigated the taxonomy and phylogeography of Pyxidanthera using morphological data, cpDNA sequences, and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Morphological characters thought to be important in distinguishing Pyxidanthera barbulata and P. brevifolia demonstrate substantial overlap with no clear discontinuities. Genetic differentiation is minimal and diversity estimates for northern and southern populations of Pxyidanthera are similar, with no decrease in rare alleles in northern populations. In addition, the northern populations harbour several unique cpDNA haplotypes. Pyxidanthera appears to consist of one morphologically variable species that persisted in or near its present range at least through the latter Pleistocene, while the vicariance of the northern and southern populations may be comparatively recent. This work demonstrates that the refugial paradigm is not always appropriate and GACP endemic plants, in particular, may exhibit phylogeographical patterns qualitatively different from those of other ENA plant species.

  18. Mineral biofouling: Textural recognition of exopolysaccharides in deeply buried subsurface sands of the Atlantic coastal plain, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Gullett, C.D.; Ehrlich, R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    It is becoming increasing apparent that microbes are ubiquitous in sedimentary rocks located well below the water table. In addition to affecting the nature and course of diagenesis, many bacteria are capable of producing exopolysaccharides, biofilms'', at depths reaching 200m. These inert carbohydrates are necessary to bacterial survival; they anchor microbial colonies, enhance nutrient availability, and provide protection from predators, etc. The existence of biofilms in sedimentary rocks can be expected, based on the results of in vitro experiments and chemical extractions of organic exudates. Scanning electron microscope observations of L. Cretaceous sands of the South Carolina coastal plain, reveal the presence of a deep microbiological fauna and the associated exopolysaccharides. Recognition of biofilms in naturally occurring porous media is most often obscured by the simultaneous occurrence of clays and amorphous diagenetic products. SEM analysis reveals the variable forms and extent of mineral biofouling within the textural context of the host sediment; a weakly consolidated quartz arenite. This arenite is characterized by extensive pore occlusion and grain coating by amorphous biofilm matrix (indirect evidence of living cells), the presence of which strongly affects the mobility of immiscible fluids. Accurate identification of mineral biofouling is critical to the assessment of fluid flow potential in porous media. Core plugging of injection wells reveals that biofilms are respectable permeability inhibitors; these restraint exopolysaccharides survive biocides and untrasonication treatments.

  19. Evidence of climatic changes in the Venetian Coastal Plain (Northern Italy) during the last 40,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnici, Sandra; Serandrei-Barbero, Rossana; Canali, Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    Borehole ARS-S1 sampled sediments down to 40 m under the coastal city of Venice with the aim of reconstructing climatic variations during the last 40,000 years. Seven sedimentary facies belonging to continental and littoral depositional systems have been identified and dated. An age-depth model gives a mean sedimentation rate of 1.6 mm yr- 1 between 40 and 22.5 cal ka BP. A general change in sedimentation rate occurred around 29 cal ka BP, indicating an increased accumulation during the Last Glacial Maximum. The main climatic changes during the last 40,000 years have been identified through pollen analyses. From the deepest core depth to - 5 m the pollen sequence indicates a long glacial period characterized by open steppe vegetation with pine and low concentrations of arboreal pollen grains. Fluctuations of mountain elements and the occurrence of Quercetum elements indicate the presence of the main interstadials and interglacial phases of the Middle Weichselian-Holocene interval. This framework results from comparison with European palyno-chronostratigraphic records and Atlantic stadial and interstadial chronologies, and confirms the evolution of the Venetian Plain under global climatic pulses.

  20. Surface-water quality in agricultural watersheds of the North Carolina Coastal Plain associated with concentrated animal feeding operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    A classification tree model was developed to examine relations of watershed environmental attributes among the study sites with and without CAFO manure effects. Model results indicated that variations in swine barn density, percentage of wetlands, and total acres available for applying swine-waste manures had an important influence on those watersheds where CAFO effects on water quality were either evident or mitigated. Measurable effects of CAFO waste manures on stream water quality were most evident in those SW and SP watersheds having lower percentages of wetlands combined with higher swine barn densities and (or) higher total acres available for applying waste manure at the swine CAFOs. Stream water quality was similar to background agricultural conditions in SW and SP watersheds with lower swine barn densities coupled with higher percentages of wetlands or lower acres available for swine manure applications. The model provides a useful tool for exploring and identifying similar, unmonitored watersheds in the North Carolina Coastal Plain with potential CAFO manure influences on water quality that might warrant further examination.

  1. Climate driven changes in hydrology, nutrient cycling, and food web dynamics in surface waters of the Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J. C.; Wipfli, M.; Schmutz, J.; Gurney, K.

    2011-12-01

    Arctic ecosystems are changing rapidly as a result of a warming climate. While many areas of the arctic are expected to dry as a result of warming, the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska, which extends from the Brooks Range north to the Beaufort Sea will likely become wetter, because subsurface hydrologic fluxes are constrained by thick, continuous permafrost. This landscape is characterized by large, oriented lakes and many smaller ponds that form in the low centers and troughs/edges of frost polygons. This region provides important breeding habitat for many migratory birds including loons, arctic terns, eiders, shorebirds, and white-fronted geese, among others. Increased hydrologic fluxes may provide a bottom-up control on the success of these species by altering the availability of food resources including invertebrates and fish. This work aimed to 1) characterize surface water fluxes and nutrient availability in the small streams and lake types of two study regions in the ACP, 2) predict how increased hydrological fluxes will affect the lakes, streams, and water chemistry, and 3) use nutrient additions to simulate likely changes in lake chemistry and invertebrate availability. Initial observations suggest that increasing wetland areas and availability of nutrients will result in increased invertebrate abundance, while the potential for drainage and terrestrialization of larger lakes may reduce fish abundance and overwintering habitat. These changes will likely have positive implications for insectivores and negative implications for piscivorous waterfowl.

  2. Hydrogeomorphic processes of thermokarst lakes with grounded-ice and floating-ice regimes on the Arctic coastal plain, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arp, C.D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Urban, F.E.; Grosse, G.

    2011-01-01

    Thermokarst lakes cover > 20% of the landscape throughout much of the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) with shallow lakes freezing solid (grounded ice) and deeper lakes maintaining perennial liquid water (floating ice). Thus, lake depth relative to maximum ice thickness (1·5–2·0 m) represents an important threshold that impacts permafrost, aquatic habitat, and potentially geomorphic and hydrologic behaviour. We studied coupled hydrogeomorphic processes of 13 lakes representing a depth gradient across this threshold of maximum ice thickness by analysing remotely sensed, water quality, and climatic data over a 35-year period. Shoreline erosion rates due to permafrost degradation ranged from L) with periods of full and nearly dry basins. Shorter-term (2004–2008) specific conductance data indicated a drying pattern across lakes of all depths consistent with the long-term record for only shallow lakes. Our analysis suggests that grounded-ice lakes are ice-free on average 37 days longer than floating-ice lakes resulting in a longer period of evaporative loss and more frequent negative P − EL. These results suggest divergent hydrogeomorphic responses to a changing Arctic climate depending on the threshold created by water depth relative to maximum ice thickness in ACP lakes.

  3. The effect of global warming scenarios on soybean and peanut yields in the Coastal Plain region of Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Laitta, M.T.; Huebner, N.J.

    1996-09-01

    This study is an evaluation of peanut and soybean yield in the Coastal Plain of Georgia as a function of seasonal water deficit scenarios. An analytical model of the Thornthwaite water balance model, based on historical temperature and precipitation data, is used to evaluate the probable response of crop productivity to climate changes in selected counties in South Georgia. The input of temperature and precipitation values for each site is based on the results of three general circulation models (GCM), which were regionally tailored to the Southeastern United States. A regression analysis was preformed to establish a numerical relationship between historical yield and moisture deficits. This model, in association with projected GCM model deficits, was used to predict future crop yields. Our results showed that given all GCM models evaluated, deficit periods for the selected sites will increase both the intensity and duration droughts in the southeastern U.S. Of the two crops analyzed, it was found that soybeans showed a higher sensitivity to moisture deficits than did peanuts.

  4. A field test of the centrifugal community organization model using psammophilic gerbils in Israel's southern coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wasserberg, G.; Kotler, B.P.; Morris, D.W.; Abramsky, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Background: An optimal habitat selection model called centrifugal community organization (CCO) predicts that species, although they have the same primary habitat, may co-exist owing to their ability to use different secondary habitats. Goal: Test the predictions of CCO with field experiments. Species: The Egyptian sand gerbil (40 g), Gerbillus pyramidum, and Allenby's gerbil (25 g), G. andersoni allenbyi. Site: Ashdod sand dunes in the southern coastal plain of Israel. Three sandy habitats are present: shifting, semi-stabilized, and stabilized sand. Gerbils occupied all three habitats. Methods: We surveyed rodent abundance, activity levels, and foraging behaviour while experimentally removing G. pyramidum. Results: Three predictions of the CCO model were supported. Both species did best in the semi-stabilized habitat. However, they differed in their secondary habitats. Gerbillus pyramidum preferred the shifting sand habitat, whereas G. a. allenbyi preferred the stabilized habitat. Habitat selection by both species depended on density. However, in contrast to CCO, G. pyramidum dominated the core habitat and excluded G. a. allenbyi. We term this variant of CCO, 'asymmetric CCO'. Conclusions: The fundamental feature of CCO appears valid: co-existence may result not because of what each competing species does best, but because of what they do as a back-up. But in contrast to the prediction of the original CCO model, all dynamic traces of interaction can vanish if the system includes interference competition. ?? 2007 Gideon Wasserberg.

  5. Cold-climate slope deposits and landscape modifications of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, Eastern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newell, W.L.; Dejong, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Pleistocene cold-climate geomorphology are distributed across the weathered and eroded Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain uplands from the Wisconsinan terminal moraine south to Tidewater Virginia. Cold-climate deposits and landscape modifications are superimposed on antecedent landscapes of old, weathered Neogene upland gravels and Pleistocene marine terraces that had been built during warm periods and sea-level highstands. In New Jersey, sequences of surficial deposits define a long history of repeating climate change events. To the south across the Delmarva Peninsula and southern Maryland, most antecedent topography has been obscured by Late Pleistocene surficial deposits. These are spatially variable and are collectively described as a cold-climate alloformation. The cold-climate alloformation includes time-transgressive details of climate deterioration from at least marine isotope stage (MIS) 4 through the end of MIS 2. Some deposits and landforms within the alloformation may be as young as the Younger Dryas. Southwards along the trend of the Potomac River, these deposits and their climatic affinities become diffused. In Virginia, a continuum of erosion and surficial deposits appears to be the product of ‘normal’ temperate, climate-forced processes. The cold-climate alloformation and more temperate deposits in Virginia are being partly covered by Holocene alluvium and bay mud.

  6. Late Cretaceous to Miocene sea-level estimates from the New Jersey and Delaware coastal plain coreholes: An error analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kominz, M.A.; Browning, J.V.; Miller, K.G.; Sugarman, P.J.; Mizintseva, S.; Scotese, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Sea level has been estimated for the last 108 million years through backstripping of corehole data from the New Jersey and Delaware Coastal Plains. Inherent errors due to this method of calculating sea level are discussed, including uncertainties in ages, depth of deposition and the model used for tectonic subsidence. Problems arising from the two-dimensional aspects of subsidence and response to sediment loads are also addressed. The rates and magnitudes of sea-level change are consistent with at least ephemeral ice sheets throughout the studied interval. Million-year sea-level cycles are, for the most part, consistent within the study area suggesting that they may be eustatic in origin. This conclusion is corroborated by correlation between sequence boundaries and unconformities in New Zealand. The resulting long-term curve suggests that sea level ranged from about 75-110 m in the Late Cretaceous, reached a maximum of about 150 m in the Early Eocene and fell to zero in the Miocene. The Late Cretaceous long-term (107 years) magnitude is about 100-150 m less than sea level predicted from ocean volume. This discrepancy can be reconciled by assuming that dynamic topography in New Jersey was driven by North America overriding the subducted Farallon plate. However, geodynamic models of this effect do not resolve the problem in that they require Eocene sea level to be significantly higher in the New Jersey region than the global average. ?? 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing.

  7. Quaternary sea level high-stand deposits of the southeast U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain: Age, distribution, and implications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, R. K.; Cronin, T. M.; Ghaleb, B.; Portell, R.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Wehmiller, J. F.; Thompson, W. G.; Oches, E. A.; Willard, D. A.; Katz, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Emerged Quaternary paleo-shorelines and marine deposits provide a more direct way to reconstruct and analyze sea-level variability than methods using oxygen isotope analyses of deep ocean benthic foraminifera. New Uranium-series dates on fossil corals (primarily Astrangia spp. and Septastrea spp.) combined with previously published dates have allowed us to constrain the age, elevation, and geographical distribution of marine sediments deposited in the United States Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP) from Virginia to Florida during periods of past high relative sea level (SL). We present new dates from deposits (VA/NC: Tabb/Norfolk, Nassawadox, & Omar Formations; SC: Wando, Socastee, & Canepatch Formations; FL: Anastasia, Ft. Thompson, & Bermont Formations) representing interglacial high-stands during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5, 7, 9, and 11. In addition, we incorporate stratigraphic, marine micropaleontologic, and palynologic records with our SL chronology to reconstruct a more complete history of middle-to-late Pleistocene interglacial climates of the ACP. Ultimately, these results will test modeled sea-level fingerprint studies based on various melting scenarios of the Greenland and/or Antarctic ice sheets.

  8. Effect of eustatic sea-level changes on saltwater-freshwater relations in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meisler, Harold; Leahy, P. Patrick; Knobel, LeRoy L.

    1984-01-01

    A finite-difference computer model was used to analyze the effect of eustatic sea-level changes on the development of the transition zone between fresh ground water and underlying saltwater in the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain. The model simulates, in cross section, the sedimentary wedge from the Delaware River estuary in New Jersey to the Continental Slope. Simulated steady-state freshwater flow is separated from static saltwater by a sharp interface. The model was used to test the sensitivity of the simulated interface position to anisotropy as well as to sea-level elevation. Increasing anisotropy causes the interface to be shallower and extend farther offshore. Lowering sea level causes the interface to be deeper and to extend farther offshore. Simulations using hydraulic conductivities based on available data suggest that the transition zone is not in equilibrium with present sea level. The position of the transition zone probably reflects a long-term average sea level of between 50 and 100 ft below present sea level. The cyclic movement of salty ground water in response to sea-level fluctuations during the Quaternary and Late Tertiary caused the saltwater to mix with freshwater, thus producing a broad transition zone. The freshwater is predominantly sodium bicarbonate in character. The saltwater, from New Jersey to Virginia, probably is a sodium calcium chloride brine. In North Carolina, it is primarily seawater.

  9. The role of geology in Wellhead Protection Programs: Case studies from the coastal plain of eastern Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.C.

    1996-09-01

    Programs that protect ground-water aquifers and which identify and define alternate sources of ground water are known as Wellhead Protection Programs. An important requirement in developing a viable program is a thorough understanding of an area`s geology. Since the coastal plain of eastern Alabama is structurally uncomplicated, the occurrence of ground water, its direction and rate of flow, its production potential, and to some extent its quality, is primarily controlled by the stratigraphy and lithologic properties of the sediments. Geological assessments conducted for wellhead protection programs in eastern Alabama have led to some unsuspected results. In some areas, high topographic relief results in the nearby surface exposure of otherwise moderately to deeply buried aquifers. The high susceptibility of these aquifers to nearby surface contamination is critical in developing effective wellhead protection programs. Of even greater concern is disorder in the shallow subsurface stratigraphy resulting from inadequate drillers descriptions of penetrated lithologies, the nonrecognition of facies change along strike and dip, and the lack of regional paleoenvironmental interpretations. This has led to the misidentification of aquifer and confining units resulting in confusion in the definition, delineation, and correlation of hydrologic and geologic data. Case examples from southeastern Alabama demonstrate how detailed sedimentological analysis and local and regional interpretation of stratigraphy is essential in the preparation of effective wellhead protection programs and in the identification of alternate sources of ground water.

  10. Predicting the distribution of Upper Cretaceous aquifers using sea-level analysis and regional paleogeography, Alabama coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.T. Jr.; Skotnicki, M.C. )

    1991-03-01

    In the inner coastal plain of Alabama, Upper Cretaceous (i.e., Santonian-Maastrichtian) stratigraphic units containing key aquifers dip south at 7m/km; the aquifers consist mainly of porous and permeable barrier-island facies (including upper-shoreface and tidal-pass sands), barrier-related sand facies (including tidal deltas and lagoonal and marine tempestite beds), and shallow-marine sand facies (including offshore bars and conglomerate sandy turbidite tongues). Confining aquitard and aquiclude facies include lagoonal silty clays, shallow-marine glauconitic clays, clayey marls, and marine chalky marls. The gross geometry, thickness, and lateral and vertical distribution of aquifer sands in both the shallow-subsurface and outcrop (i.e., recharge) area is predictable based on regional paleogeographic reconstructions and the regional Late Cretaceous relative sea-level curve. At a local scale, facies maps and shallow-subsurface correlations provide essential data for aquifer exploration and recharge-area protection. For example, in the Eutaw Formation, barrier-island and barrier-related facies developed along a curved east-west striking shoreline; aquifers include shoreline facies, tempestite beds, and turbidite sands. In the younger, northwest-striking Blufftown-Cusseta and Ripley-Providence systems, aquifers are barrier-island and barrier-related (especially tidal-delta) facies.

  11. Palynological evidence for late miocene, pliocene and early pleistocene climate changes in the middle U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groot, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    Palynomorph assemblages from eight geologic formations in the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain, ranging in age from latest Miocene to Early Pleistocene, have been interpreted in terms of terrestrial paleoclimates. The data suggest that a warm-temperate to subtropical climate, warmer than at present, prevailed at the close of the Miocene and the beginning of the Pliocene. At that time, there was little or no temperature gradient within the study area (36??30??? to 39??N). This warm period was followed by a warm-temperate interval in Virginia and North Carolina, with temperatures probably not very different from those of today, although a slight warming trend probably occurred during the deposition of the Colerain Beach Member of the Chowan River Formation. A definite cool interval is indicated by the presence of spruce pollen in the Bacons Castle Formation of Virginia. This interval is interpreted to have begun about 2.3-2.4 Ma, or possibly slightly later, simultaneous with the cooling that has been recorded in deep-sea cores of the North Atlantic Ocean, and in the pre-Tiglian of western Europe. This was followed by a warmer-than-present period that may be correlated with the Tiglian of the latest Pliocene. Finally, palynological data from the Cape May Formation of New Jersey suggest that a warm-temperate (warmer than at present) climate prevailed during the Early Pleistocene. ?? 1991.

  12. Sedimentation patterns across a Coastal Plain floodplain: The importance of hydrogeomorphic influences and cross-floodplain connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaase, Christopher T.; Kupfer, John A.

    2016-09-01

    The floodplains of large Coastal Plain rivers in the southeastern U.S. are important long-term storage sites for alluvial sediment and nutrients. Yet considerable uncertainty surrounds sediment dynamics on many large river floodplains and, in particular, the local scale factors that affect the flux of sediment and nutrients from rivers onto their floodplains and their subsequent deposition. This research quantifies short-term rates of sediment deposition from 2012 to 2014 on floodplain sites at Congaree National Park using feldspar pads. Sediment deposition rates ranged from 0.1 to 15.6 cm (median = 1.46 cm) and were closely associated with inundation frequency and geomorphic position. Cross-floodplain distributary channels served as particularly important conduits for moving sediment onto the floodplain. Physical and chemical analyses of soil samples demonstrated that the most flood-exposed sites had higher major nutrient and micronutrient levels (especially of phosphorus) and more diverse nutrient compositions. This research advances current understandings of lateral floodplain connectivity by demonstrating the complex effects of regional hydrology and local floodplain environmental characteristics on the supply of sediment and nutrients.

  13. Contrasting NYC Coastal Restoration and Storm Surge Barrier Impacts on Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, P. M.; Georgas, N.; Blumberg, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    A detailed and well-validated hydrodynamic model is used to examine the potential effects of storm surge barriers and Jamaica Bay restoration on coastal flooding in New York City (NYC). The most recent flooding episode, the August 2011 tropical cyclone Irene, is utilized as a test case. Two experiments are run: (a) adding three storm surge barriers, and (b) reducing the depths of channels in Jamaica Bay towards their historical levels before extensive dredging took place. Results show that the surge barriers are an effective method for protecting the city center, but have a negative result of raising flood elevations outside the barriers. The rise is ~5% in the Jamaica Bay watershed, where most of NYC's low-lying vulnerable population is located. Shallowing Jamaica Bay reduces Irene's peak storm tide elevation by ~12% in the Bay, reduces normal high tide elevations, but also raises low tides and overall mean water levels. The reduction in storm tide flood elevations is enough to offset decades of anticipated sea level rise. In recent decades, tidal marsh islands in the Bay have been rapidly eroding. Further research should examine how the marshes would adapt to a managed long-term shallowing plan, as well as how their re-growth could provide additional flood protection.

  14. Impacts of prescribed fire on Pinus rigida Mill. in upland forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

    PubMed

    Carlo, Nicholas J; Renninger, Heidi J; Clark, Kenneth L; Schäfer, Karina V R

    2016-08-01

    A comparative analysis of the impacts of prescribed fire on three upland forest stands in the Northeastern Atlantic Plain, NJ, USA, was conducted. Effects of prescribed fire on water use and gas exchange of overstory pines were estimated via sap-flux rates and photosynthetic measurements on Pinus rigida Mill. Each study site had two sap-flux plots, one experiencing prescribed fire and one control (unburned) plot for comparison before and after the fire. We found that photosynthetic capacity in terms of Rubisco-limited carboxylation rate and intrinsic water-use efficiency was unaffected, while light compensation point and dark respiration rate were significantly lower in the burned vs control plots post-fire. Furthermore, quantum yield in pines in the pine-dominated stands was less affected than pines in the mixed oak/pine stand, as there was an increase in quantum yield in the oak/pine stand post-fire compared with the control (unburned) plot. We attribute this to an effect of forest type but not fire per se. Average daily sap-flux rates of the pine trees increased compared with control (unburned) plots in pine-dominated stands and decreased in the oak/pine stand compared with control (unburned) plots, potentially due to differences in fuel consumption and pre-fire sap-flux rates. Finally, when reference canopy stomatal conductance was analyzed, pines in the pine-dominated stands were more sensitive to changes in vapor pressure deficit (VPD), while stomatal responses of pines in the oak/pine stand were less affected by VPD. Therefore, prescribed fire affects physiological functioning and water use of pines, but the effects may be modulated by forest stand type and fuel consumption pattern, which suggests that these factors may need to be taken into account for forest management in fire-dominated systems.

  15. Defining restoration targets for water depth and salinity in wind-dominated Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. coastal marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nyman, J.A.; La Peyre, M.K.; Caldwell, A.; Piazza, S.; Thom, C.; Winslow, C.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetlands provide valued ecosystem functions but the sustainability of those functions often is threatened by artificial hydrologic conditions. It is widely recognized that increased flooding and salinity can stress emergent plants, but there are few measurements to guide restoration, management, and mitigation. Marsh flooding can be estimated over large areas with few data where winds have little effect on water levels, but quantifying flooding requires hourly measurements over long time periods where tides are wind-dominated such as the northern Gulf of Mexico. Estimating salinity of flood water requires direct daily measurements because coastal marshes are characterized by dynamic salinity gradients. We analyzed 399,772 hourly observations of water depth and 521,561 hourly observations of water salinity from 14 sites in Louisiana coastal marshes dominated by Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. Unlike predicted water levels, observed water levels varied monthly and annually. We attributed those observed variations to variations in river runoff and winds. In stable marshes with slow wetland loss rates, we found that marsh elevation averaged 1 cm above mean high water, 15 cm above mean water, and 32 cm above mean low water levels. Water salinity averaged 3.7 ppt during April, May, and June, and 5.4 ppt during July, August, and September. The daily, seasonal, and annual variation in water levels and salinity that were evident would support the contention that such variation be retained when designing and operating coastal wetland management and restoration projects. Our findings might be of interest to scientists, engineers, and managers involved in restoration, management, and restoration in other regions where S. patens or similar species are common but local data are unavailable. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Defining restoration targets for water depth and salinity in wind-dominated Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. coastal marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nyman, J.A.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Thom, C.; Winslow, C.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetlands provide valued ecosystem functions but the sustainability of those functions often is threatened by artificial hydrologic conditions. It is widely recognized that increased flooding and salinity can stress emergent plants, but there are few measurements to guide restoration, management, and mitigation. Marsh flooding can be estimated over large areas with few data where winds have little effect on water levels, but quantifying flooding requires hourly measurements over long time periods where tides are wind-dominated such as the northern Gulf of Mexico. Estimating salinity of flood water requires direct daily measurements because coastal marshes are characterized by dynamic salinity gradients. We analyzed 399,772 hourly observations of water depth and 521,561 hourly observations of water salinity from 14 sites in Louisiana coastal marshes dominated by Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. Unlike predicted water levels, observed water levels varied monthly and annually. We attributed those observed variations to variations in river runoff and winds. In stable marshes with slow wetland loss rates, we found that marsh elevation averaged 1 cm above mean high water, 15 cm above mean water, and 32 cm above mean low water levels. Water salinity averaged 3.7 ppt during April, May, and June, and 5.4 ppt during July, August, and September. The daily, seasonal, and annual variation in water levels and salinity that were evident would support the contention that such variation be retained when designing and operating coastal wetland management and restoration projects. Our findings might be of interest to scientists, engineers, and managers involved in restoration, management, and restoration in other regions where S. patens or similar species are common but local data are unavailable.

  17. Contrasting landscape influences on sediment supply and stream restoration priorities in northern Fennoscandia (Sweden and Finland) and coastal British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Jordan; Hogan, Daniel; Palm, Daniel; Lundquist, Hans; Nilsson, Christer; Beechie, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Sediment size and supply exert a dominant control on channel structure. We review the role of sediment supply in channel structure, and how regional differences in sediment supply and land use affect stream restoration priorities. We show how stream restoration goals are best understood within a common fluvial geomorphology framework defined by sediment supply, storage, and transport. Land-use impacts in geologically young landscapes with high sediment yields (e.g., coastal British Columbia) typically result in loss of in-stream wood and accelerated sediment inputs from bank erosion, logging roads, hillslopes and gullies. In contrast, northern Sweden and Finland are landscapes with naturally low sediment yields caused by low relief, resistant bedrock, and abundant mainstem lakes that act as sediment traps. Land-use impacts involved extensive channel narrowing, removal of obstructions, and bank armouring with boulders to facilitate timber floating, thereby reducing sediment supply from bank erosion while increasing export through higher channel velocities. These contrasting land-use impacts have pushed stream channels in opposite directions (aggradation versus degradation) within a phase-space defined by sediment transport and supply. Restoration in coastal British Columbia has focused on reducing sediment supply (through bank and hillslope stabilization) and restoring wood inputs. In contrast, restoration in northern Fennoscandia (Sweden and Finland) has focused on channel widening and removal of bank-armouring boulders to increase sediment supply and retention. These contrasting restoration priorities illustrate the consequences of divergent regional land-use impacts on sediment supply, and the utility of planning restoration activities within a mechanistic sediment supply-transport framework.

  18. Effects of salinity on freshwater fishes in coastal plain drainages in the southeastern U.S.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Mark S.; Meador, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    This review focuses on the influence of salinity on freshwater fishes in coastal rivers and estuaries of the southeastern U.S. Influences of salinity on freshwater fish species can be explained partly through responses evidenced by behavior, physiology, growth, reproduction, and food habits during all aspects of life history. Factors influencing the rate of salinity change affect the community structure and dynamics of freshwater fishes in brackish environments. Our understanding of the relation between salinity and the life history of freshwater fishes is limited because little ecological research has been conducted in low-salinity habitats that we consider an “interface” between freshwater streams and the estuary proper. Much of the available data are descriptive in nature and describe best general patterns, but more specific studies are required to better determine the influence of salinity on freshwater fishes. Improved understanding of the influence of human-induced changes on the productivity and viability of these important systems will require a new research focus.

  19. Atlantic Flyway Review: Piedmont?Coastal Plain, Region IV, Fall 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dawson, D.K.

    2002-01-01

    Ten banding stations, six inland, four coastal, monitored the fall songbird migration from Maryland to Florida. Comparing the eight stations that were operated in both 2000 and 2001, net-hours of effort declined 5.3% from 60,649 to 57,405, but birds per 100 net-hours increased from 40.1 to 46.6. Myrtle Warblers were especially abundant this year, while numbers of catbirds declined. At my Laurel station, I compared my fall catch for the first five years (1973-77) with that for the past five years (1997-2001) and found the totals nearly identical (2175 and 2169), but it took nearly three times the number of net-hours to achieve the same total in the current period. A migrating Gray-cheeked Thrush, in spite of being captured 10 times in 17 days, increased its weight from 31.0 g to a record 51.7 g in 13 days.

  20. Response of wetlands to rising sea level in the lower coastal plain of North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Moorhead, K.K.; Brinson, M.M.

    1995-02-01

    Most of the coastal wetlands of the South Atlantic region of the United States are expected to diminish in size in response to increasing human population growth and accelerating rates of rising sea level. after examination of the distribution of wetlands, elevation contours, estimates of surface slope, soil types, and peat deposits on the peninsula, current models were considered unsuited for wetlands of the Albemarle-Pamlico peninsula of North Carolina. Some unusual features of this peninsula are low elevation (56% of total area <1.5 m), extensive coverage by wetlands (53%) and hydric soils (90%), negligible slopes of the land surface, virtual absence of tides, and lack of abundant sources of sediment. In the process of reconstructing how past rises in sea level most likely led to present conditions, it became apparent that vertical accretion of peat in situ is largely responsible for landscape features in areas where elevations are lowest. Were it not for these deposits, the land surface area of the peninsula would be decreasing relative to sea level. This situation contrasts sharply with areas in the eastern United States fringed by tidal marshes, which are undergoing overland migration at a rate dictated by landward slope and the rate of rising sea level. If the rate of sea level rise accelerates, it is doubtful if vertical accretion rates of peat can prevent submergence of extensive areas of wetlands in the Albemarle-Pamlico peninsula. Land use and drainage in the lowest elevations of the peninsula are currently being affected by sea level. Future land management of the peninsula will be constrained by potential landscape changes as a result of rising sea level. 28 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Pleistocene glacial refugia across the Appalachian Mountains and coastal plain in the millipede genus Narceus: Evidence from population genetic, phylogeographic, and paleoclimatic data

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Matt J; Stockman, Amy K; Marek, Paul E; Bond, Jason E

    2009-01-01

    Background Species that are widespread throughout historically glaciated and currently non-glaciated areas provide excellent opportunities to investigate the role of Pleistocene climatic change on the distribution of North American biodiversity. Many studies indicate that northern animal populations exhibit low levels of genetic diversity over geographically widespread areas whereas southern populations exhibit relatively high levels. Recently, paleoclimatic data have been combined with niche-based distribution modeling to locate possible refugia during the Last Glacial Maximum. Using phylogeographic, population, and paleoclimatic data, we show that the distribution and mitochondrial data for the millipede genus Narceus are consistent with classical examples of Pleistocene refugia and subsequent post-glacial population expansion seen in other organismal groups. Results The phylogeographic structure of Narceus reveals a complex evolutionary history with signatures of multiple refugia in southeastern North America followed by two major northern expansions. Evidence for refugial populations were found in the southern Appalachian Mountains and in the coastal plain. The northern expansions appear to have radiated from two separate refugia, one from the Gulf Coastal Plain area and the other from the mid-Atlantic coastal region. Distributional models of Narceus during the Last Glacial Maximum show a dramatic reduction from the current distribution, with suitable ecological zones concentrated along the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plain. We found a strong correlation between these zones of ecological suitability inferred from our paleo-model with levels of genetic diversity derived from phylogenetic and population estimates of genetic structuring. Conclusion The signature of climatic change, during and after the Pleistocene, on the distribution of the millipede genus Narceus is evident in the genetic data presented. Niche-based historical distribution modeling strengthens the

  2. Modern Landform Distribution of the Gilbert River Distributive Fluvial System (DFS) and Predictions Regarding Ancient Coastal Plain Progradational Successions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, K. C.; Weissmann, G. S.; Scuderi, L. A.; Owen, A.; Nichols, G. J.; Hartley, A. J.

    2011-12-01

    cross-stratification, brackish fossils, inclined heterolithic stratification) that cut into underlying foreshore strata and laterally equivalent fine-grained strata, overlain by 2) medial deposits of coarsening-upward packages due to avulsion and well-developed, laterally extensive mature paleosols, topped by 3) proximal deposits consisting of amalgamated sandstone bodies separated by regionally discontinuous erosional surfaces and relatively rare, well-drained, immature paleosols. Thus, progradational successions should exhibit an upsection increase in grain size, sand:mud ratios, and channel downcutting. Coastal plain fluvial and marginal marine progradational successions have proven to be important hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide sequestration reservoirs, coal accumulations, and aquifers. However, existing fluvial facies models used to predict sandbody distribution and connectivity are typically based on aggradational valley fill successions at the outcrop- and borehole-scale.

  3. Preliminary assessment of recent deposition related to a crevasse splay on the Mississippi River delta: Implications for coastal restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferina, N.F.; Flocks, J.G.; Kingdinger, Jack L.; Miner, M.D.; Motti, J. P.; Chadwick, Paul C.; Johnston, James B.

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the Mississippi River has replenished sediment across the lower deltaic plain, abating land loss. However, flood-control structures along the river now restrict this natural process and divert sediment from the modern delta offshore to the shelf break, thereby removing it from the coastal system. Localized crevasse splays, however, can deposit significant amounts of sediment in a short span of time.Satellite imagery and field investigations, including eight sediment vibracores, have identified a recent crevasse splay originating from Brant Bayou within the Delta National Wildlife Refuge on the lower Mississippi River delta. The splay deposits are estimated to be as much as 3 m thick and are located stratigraphically above shallow interdistributary-bay deposits. In addition, the deposits exhibit physical characteristics similar to those of large scale prograded deltas. The Bayou Brant crevasse splay began forming in 1978 and has built approximately 3.7 km2 of land. Coastal planners hope to utilize on this natural process of sediment dispersion to create new land within the deltaic plain.

  4. Simulation of proposed increases in ground-water withdrawals on the Atlantic City 800-foot sand, New Jersey coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Daryll A.

    2006-01-01

    The confined Atlantic City 800-foot sand and the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system (surficial aquifer) are major sources of water for southeastern New Jersey. Because of recent concerns about streamflow depletion resulting from ground-water withdrawals and the potential ecological effects on stream habitat in the area, the focus on future withdrawals has been shifted away from the surficial aquifer to the confined Atlantic City 800-foot sand until the effects of increased withdrawals from the surficial aquifer can be investigated. A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of seven proposed increases in ground-water withdrawals from the Atlantic City 800-foot sand and the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system on the Atlantic City 800-foot sand. The proposed withdrawals are increases above the 2004 allocated rates (full allocation). The effects of full-allocation ground-water withdrawals and the cumulative effect of withdrawals for each of seven proposed increases in withdrawals were simulated using three previously published ground-water flow models: the New Jersey Coastal Plain Regional Aquifer System Analysis model, the Coastal Plain Optimization model, and a model of the Atlantic City 800-foot sand in Atlantic County, New Jersey. These models were used to simulate changes in water levels, the source supplying the increased ground-water flow, and the effects on saltwater movement towards production wells in Cape May County as a result of the proposed increased withdrawals at proposed or existing wells. The results of the simulations represent the effects of the proposed increase from full-allocation withdrawals to an additional 1,825 Mgal/yr (million gallons per year) from the Atlantic City 800-foot sand and an additional 1,045 Mgal/yr from the deep part of the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system near the updip limit of the Atlantic City 800-foot sand. Most of the simulated decline in water levels in Atlantic County occurred as the result of the proposed

  5. Structural and stratigraphic framework and spatial distribution of permeability of the Atlantic coastal plain, North Carolina to New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Philip Monroe; Miller, James A.; Swain, Frederick Morrill

    1972-01-01

    This report describes and interprets the results of a detailed subsurface mapping program undertaken in that part of the Atlantic Coastal Plain which extends from the South Carolina and North Carolina border through Long Island, N.Y. Data obtained from more than 2,200 wells are analyzed. Seventeen chronostratigraphic units are mapped in the subsurface. They range in age from Jurassic(?) to post-Miocene. The purpose of the mapping program was to determine the external and internal geometry of mappable chronostratigraphic units and to derive and construct a permeability-distribution network for each unit based upon contrasts in the textures and compositions of its contained sediments. The report contains a structure map and a combined isopach, lithofacies, and permeability-distribution map for each of the chronostratigraphic units delineated in the subsurface. In addition, it contains a map of the top of the basement surface. These maps, together with 36 stratigraphic cross sections, present a three-dimensional view of the regional subsurface hydrogeology. They provide focal points of reference for a discussion of regional tectonics, structure, stratigraphy, and permeability distribution. Taken together and in chronologic sequence, the maps constitute a detailed sedimentary model, the first such model to be constructed for the middle Atlantic Coastal Plain. The chronostratigraphic units mapped record a structural history dominated by lateral and vertical movement along a system of intersecting hinge zones. Taphrogeny, related to transcurrent faulting, is the dominant type of deformation that controlled the geometry of the sedimentary model. Twelve of the seventeen chronostratigraphic units mapped have depositional alinements and thickening trends that are independent of the present-day configuration of the underlying basement surface. These 12 units, classified as genetically unrooted units, are assigned to a first-order tectonic stage. A structural model is proposed

  6. Sensor-based soil water monitoring to more effectively manage agricultural water resources in coastal plain soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellamy, Christopher A.

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is widely grown in the United States with 5.7 million ha grown nationally and 1.2 million ha grown in the humid southeastern states in 2005. From 1969 to 2003, agricultural irrigated farmland acreage and total water applied increased by over 40% and 11% respectively to include a total of 55.3 million acres in 2002. Combined with recent and more frequent drought periods and legal water conflicts between states, there has been an increased interest in more effective southeastern water management, thus making the need to develop improved irrigation scheduling methods and enhanced water use efficiency of cotton cultivars. Several irrigation scheduling methods (soil moisture monitoring, pan evaporation, and climate based) tested at Clemson and elsewhere have shown that sensor-based irrigation significantly increased cotton yields and provided a monetary savings compared to other methods. There is however limited information on capacitance based soil moisture analysis techniques in the southeastern coastal plain soils and also limited locally developed crop coefficients used in scheduling the ET based treatments. The first objective of this study was to determine and improve the feasibility of utilizing sensor-based soil water monitoring techniques in Southeastern Coastal Plain soils to more effectively manage irrigation and increase water use efficiency of several cotton cultivars. The second objective was to develop two weighing lysimeters equipped with wireless data acquisition system to determine a crop coefficient for cotton under southeastern humid conditions. Two multi-sensor capacitance probes, AquaSpy(TM) and Sentek EnviroSCAN RTM, were calibrated in this study. It was found that positive linear calibrations can be used to describe the relationship between the soil volumetric moisture content (VMC) and sensor readings found for both probes and that multi-sensor capacitance probes can be used to accurately measure volumetric soil

  7. Developing effective ground and space-based soil moisture sensing techniques for irrigating cotton in coastal plain soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Xin

    Irrigation scheduling based on soil moisture sensor readings has gained popularity in the past few decades since it can enhance crop yield while saving water. Such method is limited since the representativeness of an individual soil moisture sensor measurement is questionable in a large field with variable soil type and texture. The optimum location of soil moisture sensors needs to be determined within such a production field for effective sensor-based irrigation scheduling. Therefore, the first object of this study was to investigate the optimum sensor location and the number of moisture sensors required for irrigating cotton in coastal plain soils. Replicated tests were conducted during 2012, 2013, and 2014 growing seasons in a cotton field located at the Edisto Research and Education Center of Clemson University, on a typical coastal plain soil. The test field was divided into different management zones based on soil electrical conductivity (EC) measurements. Soil moisture sensors including AquaSpy, Sentek EasyAg-50, Decagon EC-5, Watermark 200SS, and 503 DR Hydroprobe neutron probe access tubes were installed side by side in plots of each management zone. Irrigation treatments were based on sensor readings from various management zones. Results showed that irrigation based on sensor readings from higher electrical conductivity zones, can stabilize or even enhance yield while increasing water use efficiency (WUE) significantly. The second objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of soil moisture sensors mentioned above to determine the most accurate and affordable sensor technology for irrigation scheduling. Season long soil moisture readings of AquaSpy, Sentek EasyAg-50, Decagon EC-5, and Watermark 200SS sensors were collected and compared to neutron probe readings. The results showed that Sentek EasyAg-50 sensor performed the best among tested sensors compared to neutron probe readings with coefficient of determination, R2 = 0.847 and root mean

  8. Drainage network structure and hydrologic behavior of three lake-rich watersheds on the Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arp, C.D.; Whitman, M.S.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Kemnitz, R.; Grosse, G.; Urban, F.E.

    2012-01-01

    Watersheds draining the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska are dominated by permafrost and snowmelt runoff that create abundant surface storage in the form of lakes, wetlands, and beaded streams. These surface water elements compose complex drainage networks that affect aquatic ecosystem connectivity and hydrologic behavior. The 4676 km2 Fish Creek drainage basin is composed of three watersheds that represent a gradient of the ACP landscape with varying extents of eolian, lacustrine, and fluvial landforms. In each watershed, we analyzed 2.5-m-resolution aerial photography, a 5-m digital elevation model, and river gauging and climate records to better understand ACP watershed structure and processes. We show that connected lakes accounted for 19 to 26% of drainage density among watersheds and most all channels initiate from lake basins in the form of beaded streams. Of the > 2500 lakes in these watersheds, 33% have perennial streamflow connectivity, and these represent 66% of total lake area extent. Deeper lakes with over-wintering habitat were more abundant in the watershed with eolian sand deposits, while the watershed with marine silt deposits contained a greater extent of beaded streams and shallow thermokarst lakes that provide essential summer feeding habitat. Comparison of flow regimes among watersheds showed that higher lake extent and lower drained lake-basin extent corresponded with lower snowmelt and higher baseflow runoff. Variation in baseflow runoff among watersheds was most pronounced during drought conditions in 2007 with corresponding reduction in snowmelt peak flows the following year. Comparison with other Arctic watersheds indicates that lake area extent corresponds to slower recession of both snowmelt and baseflow runoff. These analyses help refine our understanding of how Arctic watersheds are structured and function hydrologically, emphasizing the important role of lake basins and suggesting how future lake change may impact hydrologic

  9. Digital-simulation and projection of head changes in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system, coastal plain, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luzier, James E.

    1980-01-01

    (1) no increase in ground-water extractions; (2) continued growth in ground-water extractions at the rate of 1.7 and 3 percent annually; and (3) continued growth in ground-water extractions at the rate of 3 percent annually, in conjunction with the activitation of a freshwater head barrier in the fresh-salty transition zone. Under the first set of conditions, further head reduction would cease over very large regions within two years. Under the second set of conditions involving a 3 percent growth rate similar to that experienced during the simulation period, the broad cone of depression already encompassing most of the New Jersey Coastal Plain would broaden and deepen. Heads would range from 60 to 160 feet below National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929. The reduction of head after 1973 would approach 90 feet in some areas. The resultant steeper hydraullic gradients would accelerate the rate of movement of salty ground water toward the pumping centers. A freshwater head barrier could be established in the transition zone to prevent migration of salty ground water across a 35-mile stretch in Gloucester, Camden, and Burlington Counties. A line of injection wells would be required, with total rates of injection to the head barrier ranging from about 56 cubic feet per second in 1984 to about 95 cubic feet per second in 2000. Barrier recharge rates would be equivalent to about 20 percent of the ground water pumped in the fine-grid area in any particular year for a 3 percent increase in extractions.

  10. Ultramafic inclusions and host alkali olivine basalts of the southern coastal plain of the Red Sea, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ghent, Edward D.; Coleman, Robert Griffin; Hadley, Donald G.

    1979-01-01

    A variety of mafic and ultramafic inclusions occur within the pyroclastic components of the Al Birk basalt, erupted on the southern Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia from Pleistocene time to the present. Depleted harzburgites are the only inclusions contained within the basalts that were erupted through Miocene oceanic crust (15 km thick) in the vicinity of Jizan, whereas to the north in the vicinity of Al Birk, alkali basalts that were erupted through a thicker Precambrian crust (48 km thick) contain mixtures of harzburgites, cumulate gabbro, and websterite inclusions accompanied by large (> 2 cm) megacrysts of glassy alumina-rich clinopyroxene, plagioclase, and spinel. Microprobe analyses of individual minerals from the harzburgites, websterites, and cumulate gabbros reveal variations in composition that can be related to a complex mantle history during the evolution of the alkali basalts. Clinopyroxene and plagioclase megacrysts may represent early phases that crystallized from the alkali olivine basalt magma at depths less than 35 km. Layered websterites and gabbros with cumulate plagioclase and clinopyroxene may represent continuing crystallization of the alkali olivine basalt magma in the lower crust when basaltic magma was not rapidly ascending. It is significant that the megacrysts and cumulate inclusions apparently form only where the magmas have traversed the Precambrian crust, whereas the harzburgite-bearing basalts that penetrated a much thinner Miocene oceanic crust reveal no evidence of mantle fractionation. These alkali olivine basalts and their contained inclusions are related in time to present-day rifting in the Red Sea axial trough. The onshore, deep-seated, undersaturated magmas are separated from the shallow Red Sea rift subalkaline basalts by only 170 km. The contemporaneity of alkaline olivine and subalkaline basalts requires that they must relate directly to the separation of the Arabian plate from the African plate.

  11. Reconnaissance of Organic Wastewater Compounds at a Concentrated Swine Feeding Operation in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.

    2009-01-01

    Water-quality and hydrologic data were collected during 2008 to examine the occurrence of organic wastewater compounds at a concentrated swine feeding operation located in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Continuous groundwater level and stream-stage data were collected at one monitoring well and one stream site, respectively, throughout 2008. One round of environmental and quality-control samples was collected in September 2008 following a period of below-normal precipitation and when swine waste was not being applied to the spray fields. Samples were collected at one lagoon site, seven shallow groundwater sites, and one surface-water site for analysis of 111 organic wastewater compounds, including household, industrial, and agricultural-use compounds, sterols, pharmaceutical compounds, hormones, and antibiotics. Analytical data for environmental samples collected during the study provide preliminary information on the occurrence of organic wastewater compounds in the lagoon-waste source material, groundwater beneath fields that receive spray applications of the lagoon wastes, and surface water in the tributary adjacent to the site. Overall, 28 organic wastewater compounds were detected in the collected samples, including 11 household, industrial, and agricultural-use compounds; 3 sterols; 2 pharmaceutical compounds; 5 hormones; and 7 antibiotics. The lagoon sample had the greatest number (20) and highest concentrations of compounds compared to groundwater and surface-water samples. The antibiotic lincomycin had the maximum detected concentration (393 micrograms per liter) in the lagoon sample. Of the 11 compounds identified in the groundwater and surface-water samples, all with reported concentrations less than 1 microgram per liter, only lincomycin identified in groundwater at 1 well and 3-methyl-1H-indole and indole identified in surface water at 1 site also were identified in the lagoon waste material.

  12. Zinc, cadmium and manganese uptake by soybean from two zinc- and cadmium-amended Coastal Plain soils

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.C.; Chaney, R.L.

    1980-03-01

    Two Coastal Plain soils were used to evaluate the effects of organic matter and Fe and Mn hydrous oxides on Zn phytotoxicity, and on Zn, Cd, and Mn uptake by soybean seedlings. Fertilized Pocomoke sl and Sassafras sl were limed to pH 5.5 and 6.3 with CaCO/sub 3/ when adding Zn (six levens between 1.3 and 196 mg/kg at pH 5.5; seven levels between 1.3 and 524 mg/kg at pH 6.3). Cadmium was added at 1% of the added Zn. Beeson soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) was grown 4 weeks, and the trifoliolate leaves evaluated for dry weight yield and for their Zn, Cd, and Mn concentrations. The higher organic matter Pocomoke soil was more effective than the Sassafras soil in reducing metal uptake, and Zn phytoxicity. Foliar Zn levels associated with yield reduction of soybean grown on Pocomoke differed with soil pH. Cadmium uptake was significantly lower on the Pocomoke soil. Foliar Mn increased to reported phytotoxic levels (> 500 mg/kg) with increased added Zn only on the Sassafras soil at pH 6.3. DTPA-extractable Zn and Cd were linear functions of added Zn and Cd for both soils; 0.01M CaCl/sub 2/-extractable Zn and Cd were curvilinear (increasing slope) functions for the Sassafras and linear for the Pocomoke soil. Thus, soil type can strongly influence Zn, Cd, and Mn uptake as well as Zn phytotoxicity to soybean. Soil organic matter appears to be more important than hydrous oxides of Fe and Mn in moderating the effects of excessive soil Zn and limiting Zn and Cd uptake. Induced metal toxicities (Mn) may depend on many factors, and should be considered an integral part of any characterization of specific metal phytotoxicities (e.g. Zn).

  13. Mid-Pliocene shorelines of the US Atlantic Coastal Plain: an improved elevation database with constraints from Earth model predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, Alessio; Hearty, Paul; Austermann, Jacqueline; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Gale, Jonathan; Moucha, Robert; Forte, Alessandro; Raymo, Maureen E.

    2015-04-01

    For more than half a century, the Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP) of the southeast United States has been the focus of studies investigating Pliocene and Pleistocene shorelines where the mapping of paleo-shorelines was carried out mainly by using elevation contours on topographic maps. Here we review published geologic maps and compare them to paleoshoreline traces obtained through geomorphometric classification and satellite data. We further present the results of an extensive field campaign that measured the mid-Pliocene (~3.3 - 2.9 Ma) shorelines of the ACP using high-accuracy GPS and Digital Elevation Models. We compare our new dataset to positions and elevations extracted from published maps and find that the extracted site information from previously published maps results in large uncertainties, not only in the location, but also more critically, in the elevation of the paleoshorelines. Lastly, we investigate the causes and rates of post-depositional displacement of the shoreline from Georgia to Virginia. To do this we correct the elevation of our shoreline for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and then compare the corrected elevation to predictions of mantle flow-induced dynamic topography (DT). We find a discrepancy between the GIA-corrected shoreline and the predictions of DT models, which suggests that either (i) the DT and GIA models presented here do not capture the full range of uncertainty in the input parameters and /or (ii) other influences, such as sediment loading and unloading, may have caused additional post-depositional deformation of the mid-Pliocene shoreline that are not captured in the models. In this context, our field measurements represent an important observational dataset with which to compare future generations of geodynamic models. Improvements in models for DT, GIA and other relevant processes will ultimately be the key to obtaining more accurate estimates of eustatic sea level not only for the mid-Pliocene but across the broader

  14. Uranium-series coral ages from the US Atlantic Coastal Plain-the "80 ka problem" revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wehmiller, J. F.; Simmons, K.R.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Martin-McNaughton, J.; York, L.L.; Krantz, D.E.; Shen, C.-C.

    2004-01-01

    Uranium series coral ages for emergent units from the passive continental margin US Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP) suggest sea level above present levels at the end of marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 5, contradicting age-elevation relations based on marine isotopic or coral reef models of ice equivalent sea level. We have reexamined this problem by obtaining high precision 230Th/238U and 231Pa/235U thermal ionization mass spectrometric ages for recently collected and carefully cleaned ACP corals, many in situ. We recognize samples that show no evidence for diagenesis on the basis of uranium isotopic composition and age concordance. Combining new and earlier data, among those ages close to or within the age range of MIS 5, over 85% cluster between 65 and 85 ka BP. Of the corals that we have analyzed, those that show the least evidence for diagenesis on the basis of uranium isotopic composition and age concordance have ages between 80 and 85 ka BP, consistent with a MIS 5a correlation. The units from which these samples have been collected are all emergent and have elevations within ???3-5m of those few units where early stage 5 (???125,000 ka BP) coral ages have been obtained. The ACP appears to record an unusual history of relative sea level throughout MIS 5, a history that is also apparent in the dated coral record for Bermuda. We speculate that this history is related to the regional (near-to intermediate-field) effects of ancestral Laurentide Ice sheets on last interglacial shorelines of the western North Atlantic. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.

  15. Impacts of shore expansion and catchment characteristics on lacustrine thermokarst records in permafrost lowlands, Alaska Arctic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lenz, Josefine; Jones, Benjamin M.; Wetterich, Sebastian; Tjallingii, Rik; Fritz, Michael; Arp, Christopher D.; Rudaya, Natalia; Grosse, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Arctic lowland landscapes have been modified by thermokarst lake processes throughout the Holocene. Thermokarst lakes form as a result of ice-rich permafrost degradation, and they may expand over time through thermal and mechanical shoreline erosion. We studied proximal and distal sedimentary records from a thermokarst lake located on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska to reconstruct the impact of catchment dynamics and morphology on the lacustrine depositional environment and to quantify carbon accumulation in thermokarst lake sediments. Short cores were collected for analysis of pollen, sedimentological, and geochemical proxies. Radiocarbon and 210Pb/137Cs dating, as well as extrapolation of measured historic lake expansion rates, were applied to estimate a minimum lake age of ~1400 calendar years BP. The pollen record is in agreement with the young lake age as it does not include evidence of the “alder high” that occurred in the region ~4000 cal yr BP. The lake most likely initiated from a remnant pond in a drained thermokarst lake basin (DTLB) and deepened rapidly as evidenced by accumulation of laminated sediments. Increasing oxygenation of the water column as shown by higher Fe/Ti and Fe/S ratios in the sediment indicate shifts in ice regime with increasing water depth. More recently, the sediment source changed as the thermokarst lake expanded through lateral permafrost degradation, alternating from redeposited DTLB sediments, to increased amounts of sediment from eroding, older upland deposits, followed by a more balanced combination of both DTLB and upland sources. The characterizing shifts in sediment sources and depositional regimes in expanding thermokarst lakes were, therefore, archived in the thermokarst lake sedimentary record. This study also highlights the potential for Arctic lakes to recycle old carbon from thawing permafrost and thermokarst processes.

  16. Modeling Storm Water Runoff and Soil Interflow in a Managed Forest, Upper Coastal Plain of the Southeast US.

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, T.J.; Cook, J.D.; Coleman, Mark D.; Amatya, Devendra M.; Trettin, Carl C.

    2004-08-01

    The Forest Service-Savannah River is conducting a hectare-scale monitoring and modeling study on forest productivity in a Short Rotation Woody Crop plantation at the Savannah River Site, which is on Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Detailed surveys, i.e., topography, soils, vegetation, and dainage network, of small (2-5 ha) plots have been completed in a 2 square-km watershed draining to Fourmile Creek, a tributary of the Savannah River. We wish to experimentally determine the relative importance of interflow on water yield and water quality at this site. Interflow (shallow subsurface lateral flow) can short-circuit rainfall infiltration, preventing deep seepage and resulting in water and chemical residence times in the watershed much shorter than that if deep seepage were the sole component of infiltration. The soil series at the site (Wagram, Dothan, Fuquay, Ogeechee, and Vaucluse) each have a clay-rich B horizon of decimeter-scale thickness at depths of 1-2 m below surface. As interflow is affected by rainfall intensity and duration and soil properties such as porosity, permeability, and antecedent soil moisture, our calculations made using the Green and Ampt equation show that the intensity and duration of a storm event must be greater than about 3 cm per hour and 2 hours, respectively, in order to initiate interflow for the least permeable soils series (Vaucluse). Tabulated values of soil properties were used in these preliminary calculations. Simulations of the largest rainfall events from 1972-2002 data using the Green and Ampt equation provide an interflow: rainfall ratio of 0 for the permeable Wagram soil series (no interflow) compared to 0.46 for the less permeable Vaucluse soil series. These initial predictions will be compared to storm water hydrographs of interflow collected at the outflow point of each plot and refined using more detailed soil property measurements.

  17. Nitrogen transport and transformations in a coastal plain watershed: Influence of geomorphology on flow paths and residence times

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tesoriero, A.J.; Spruill, T.B.; Mew, H.E.; Farrell, K.M.; Harden, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    Nitrogen transport and groundwater-surface water interactions were examined in a coastal plain watershed in the southeastern United States. Groundwater age dates, calculated using chlorofluorocarbon and tritium concentrations, along with concentrations of nitrogen species and other redox-active constituents, were used to evaluate the fate and transport of nitrate. Nitrate is stable only in recently recharged (<10 years) water found in the upper few meters of saturated thickness in the upland portion of a surficial aquifer. Groundwater with a residence time between 10 and 30 years typically has low nitrate and elevated excess N2 concentrations, indications that denitrification has reduced nitrate concentrations. Groundwater older than 30 years also has low nitrate concentrations but contains little or no excess N2, suggesting that this water did not contain elevated concentrations of nitrate along its flow path. Nitrate transport to streams varies between first- and third-order streams. Hydrologic, lithologic, and chemical data suggest that the surficial aquifer is the dominant source of flow and nitrate to a first-order stream. Iron-reducing conditions occur in groundwater samples from the bed and banks of the first-order stream, suggesting that direct groundwater discharge is denitrified prior to entering the stream. However, nitrogen from the surficial aquifer is transported directly to the stream via a tile drain that bypasses these reduced zones. In the alluvial valley of a third-order stream the erosion of a confining layer creates a much thicker unconfined alluvial aquifer with larger zones of nitrate stability. Age dating and chemical information (SiO 2, Na/K ratios) suggest that water in the alluvial aquifer is derived from short flow paths through the riparian zone and/or from adjacent streams during high-discharge periods. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Seasonal and multiannual roost use by Rafinesque's Big-eared Bats in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Loeb, Susan, C.; Zarnoch, Stanley, J.

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about factors affecting year-round use of roosts by Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) or the long-term fidelity of this species to anthropogenic or natural roosts. The objectives of this study were to test whether seasonal use of roosts by Rafinesque's big-eared bats varied with roost type and environmental conditions within and among seasons and to document multiannual use of natural and anthropogenic structures by this species. We inspected 4 bridges, 1 building, and 59 tree roosts possessing basal cavity openings; roosts were inspected at least once per week from May through October in every year from 2005 through 2008 and once a month from November through April in every year from 2005 through 2009. We found that use of anthropogenic roosts was significantly greater than the use of tree roosts in summer but that the use of structure types did not differ in other seasons. There was significant seasonal variation in use of anthropogenic and tree roosts. Anthropogenic roost use was higher in summer than in all other seasons. There was no significant difference in tree use among spring, summer, and fall, but use in winter was significantly lower in 2 years of the study. Overall use of anthropogenic and tree roosts was positively related to minimum temperature, but the relationship between use of roosts and minimum temperature varied among seasons. Bats showed multiannual fidelity ({ge} 4 years) to all anthropogenic roosts and to some tree roosts, but fidelity of bats to anthropogenic roosts was greater and more consistent than to tree roosts. Our data indicate that Rafinesque's big-eared bats responded differently to environmental conditions among seasons; thus, a variety of structure types and characteristics are necessary for conservation of these bats. We suggest long-term protection of roost structures of all types is necessary for conservation of Rafinesque's big-eared bats in the southeast Coastal Plain.

  19. Impact of switchgrass biochars with supplemental nitrogen on carbon-nitrogen mineralization in highly weathered Coastal Plain Ultisols.

    PubMed

    Sigua, G C; Novak, J M; Watts, D W; Szögi, A A; Shumaker, P D

    2016-02-01

    Although an increase in soil fertility is the most frequently reported benefit linked to adding biochar to soils, there is still a need to pursue additional research that will improve our understanding on the impact of soil fertility enhancement because the effect could vary greatly between switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, L) residues (USG) and switchgrass biochars (SG). We hypothesized that SG with supplemental nitrogen (N) would deliver more positive effects on carbon (C) and N mineralization than USG. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of USG and SG, with or without supplemental inorganic N fertilizer on C and N mineralization in highly weathered Coastal Plain Ultisols. The application rate for SG and USG based on a corn yield goal of 112 kg ha(-1) was 40 Mg ha(-1). Inorganic N was added at the rate of 100 kg N ha(-1), also based on a corn yield of 7.03 tons ha(-1). Experimental treatments were: control (CONT) soil; control with N (CONT + N); switchgrass residues (USG); USG with N (USG + N); switchgrass biochars at 250 °C (250SG); SG at 250 °C with N (250SG + N); SG at 500 °C (500SG); and SG at 500 °C with N (500SG + N). Cumulative and net CO2-C evolution was increased by the additions of SG and USG especially when supplemented with N. Soils treated with 250SG (8.6 mg kg(-1)) had the least concentration of total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) while the greatest amount of TIN was observed from the CONT + N (19.0 mg kg(-1)). Our results suggest that application of SG in the short term may cause N immobilization resulting in the reduction of TIN.

  20. The use of mineralogic techniques as relative age indicators for weathering profiles on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soller, D.R.; Owens, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Textural, geochemical, and mineralogic study of soils and weathering profiles has led to the practice of applying varioys weathering parameters as relative age indicators. In our studies examined the entire thickness of weathered sediment (i.e., the weathering profile) for evidence of weathering-induced changes in both sand- and clay-sized mineralogy, and used two techniques for relative age determinations. These techniques were developed as tools to support geologic mapping. One of our techniques for determining relative ages is based on the depth of weathering as recorded by progressive loss of denrital sand-sized minerals upward in the weathering profile. This is our preferred tool, especially in areas where weathering profiles have been truncated. We have found a gradual trend of increasing loss of labile sand-sized minerals (e.g., hornblendes, feldspars) and increasing depth of weathering with increasing age of the deposit. Of significance to many research programs, this technique does not require expensive instruments such as an X-ray diffractometer. Our other technique depends on accumulation of stable, secondary clay-sized minerals in the upper part of the weathering profile. In our study area on the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States, the stable assemblage consists of vermiculite, kaolinite, gibbsite, and iron oxides and hydroxides. This technique can be effective for relative age determinations where profiles have not been truncated, and can provide useful information on depositional and erosional history. However, in areas of widespread erosion and profile truncation, such as the Carolinas, the utility of this technique for relative age determinations is limited. There, soils were partially or completely removed in many localities in relatively recent times. ?? 1991.

  1. The Lilesville Gravels: A Neogene Strath Terrace Deposit from the Piedmont/Coastal Plain Boundary of North Carolina, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diemer, J. A.; McLean, R.; Bobyarchick, A. R.; Xanthos, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Lilesville "gravels" are discontinuous Neogene cobble, sand and silt deposits exposed in gravel quarries in an area covering ~100 km2 where the Pee Dee River crosses the Fall Line of North Carolina. These deposits unconformably overlie the western edge of the Inner Coastal Plain, and parts of the saprolitized Paleozoic Lilesville pluton, and are interpreted as strath terrace deposits. In the Bonsal quarry, the Lilesville "gravels" comprise channel fills, channel bars, pebble lags, trough cross bedding, mud clasts, and mud drapes. These features define several facies including: 1) an imbricated clast-supported conglomerate with a medium- to coarse-grained lithic arenite matrix; 2) a lenticular silt- to medium-grained lithic arenite partly interbedded with the conglomerate; 3) a pebbly cross-bedded medium- to coarse-grained lithic arenite; and 4) a mottled medium- to coarse-grained lithic arenite. Paleoflow indicators suggest southerly transport, parallel to the modern Pee Dee River. GPR profiles and 3D models document facies boundaries on the quarry face and behind the high-wall. The tops of the Lilesville "gravels" are commonly marked by a pebble lag (deflation) horizon disconformably overlain by a medium- to coarse-grained, well-sorted quartz arenite interpreted as an aeolian deposit (Pinehurst Fm?). C14 dates from charcoal in the aeolian sand are 1638 +/- 46 calendar years BP (or 312 AD +/- 46). The age of the Lilesville "gravels" remains uncertain. However, by using regional curves for ages of terrace deposits relative to their heights above river level (Mills 2000), it is suggested here that the Lilesville gravels are 7 to 12 Ma (Upper Miocene). It is likely that the Lilesville "gravels" were deposited by the ancestral Pee Dee River when it was a braided stream flowing in a southerly direction. This suggests that a combination of regional uplift and a wetter paleoclimate in the Late Miocene may have been responsible for a larger discharge and coarser

  2. Impacts of Enhanced-Efficiency Nitrogen Fertilizers on Greenhouse Gas Emissions in a Coastal Plain Soil under Cotton.

    PubMed

    Watts, Dexter B; Runion, G Brett; Smith Nannenga, Katy W; Torbert, H Allen

    2015-11-01

    Enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers (EENFs) have the potential to increase crop yield while decreasing soil N loss. However, the effect of EENFs on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from different agricultural systems is not well understood. Thus, studies from a variety of locations and cropping systems are needed to evaluate their impact. An experiment was initiated on a Coastal Plain soil under cotton ( L.) production for comparing EENFs to traditional sources. Nitrogen sources included urea, ammonia sulfate (AS), urea-ammonia sulfate (UAS), controlled-release, polymer-coated urea (Environmental Smart Nitrogen [ESN]), stabilized granular urea (SuperU), poultry litter (PL), poultry litter plus AgrotainPlus (PLA), and an unfertilized control. Carbon dioxide (CO), nitrous oxide (NO), and methane (CH) fluxes were monitored regularly after fertilization through harvest from 2009